• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use the soil survey...
 Table of Contents
 General soil map
 How soils are mapped and class...
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of soils
 Formation and classification of...
 General nature of the county
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map








Soil survey, Washington County, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025706/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey, Washington County, Florida
Series Title: United States. Soil Conservation Service. Soil survey, ser. 1962
Physical Description: i 119 p. : illus., maps (part fold. col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Huckle, Horace F., 1924-
Weeks, Herbert H., 1929- ( joint author )
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Washington County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.F. Huckle and H.H. Weeks.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002584730
notis - AMV1180
oclc - 03672934
lccn - agr65000320
System ID: UF00025706:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use the soil survey report
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    General soil map
        Page 1
        Lakeland-Eustis association
            Page 1
        Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro association
            Page 2
        Tifton-Faceville-Marlboro association
            Page 2
        Lakeland-Cuthbert-Shubuta association
            Page 3
        Blanton-Klej-Plummer association
            Page 3
        Goldsboro-Lynchburg-Rains association
            Page 4
        Alluvial land-Swamp association
            Page 4
        Uses of general soil map
            Page 4
            Agriculture
                Page 5
            Homesites
                Page 5
            Industry and transportation
                Page 5
            Recreation
                Page 6
    How soils are mapped and classified
        Page 6
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Alluvial land
            Page 9
        Angie series
            Page 9
        Bayboro series
            Page 10
        Bladen series
            Page 11
        Blanton series
            Page 11
        Borrow pits
            Page 12
        Bowie series
            Page 12
        Carnegie series
            Page 13
        Cuthbert series
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Dunbar series
            Page 16
        Esto series
            Page 16
        Eulonia series
            Page 17
        Eustis series
            Page 18
        Faceville series
            Page 19
        Goldsboro series
            Page 20
        Grady series
            Page 21
        Gullied series
            Page 22
        Klej series
            Page 22
        Lakeland series
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Leon series
            Page 26
        Local alluvial land
            Page 26
        Lynchburg series
            Page 27
        Marlboro series
            Page 28
        Norfolk series
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Oktibbeha series
            Page 30
        Plummer series
            Page 31
        Pocomoke series
            Page 31
        Rains series
            Page 32
        Ruston series
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Rutlege series
            Page 34
        Scranton series
            Page 34
        Shubuta series
            Page 35
        Swamp
            Page 36
        Tifton series
            Page 36
    Use and management of soils
        Page 37
        Use of soils for agriculture
            Page 37
            General practices of soil management
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
            Capability groups of soils
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
            Management by capability units
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
            Estimated yields
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
        Use of soils as woodland
            Page 58
            General woodland management
                Page 58
            Soil properties affecting tree production
                Page 58
            Woodland suitability groups
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
        Use of soils and wildlife
            Page 65
            Food and cover suitable for wildlife
                Page 65
            Wildlife suitability of the soil associations
                Page 66
        Use of soils for engineering works
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Soil test data
                Page 72
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 72
            Soil properties significant to engineering
                Page 73
            Suitability of soils for engineering uses
                Page 73
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 73
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 73
            Climate
                Page 73
            Parent material
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
                Page 82
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
                Page 89
                Page 90
                Page 91
            Relief
                Page 92
            Living organisms
                Page 93
            Time
                Page 93
        Classification of soils
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Red-yellow podzolic soils
                Page 95
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
                Page 103
            Ground-water podzols
                Page 104
            Humic gley soils
                Page 104
            Low-humic gley soils
                Page 105
                Page 106
            Regosols
                Page 107
                Page 108
    General nature of the county
        Page 109
        Climate
            Page 109
            Page 110
        Geology
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
        History
            Page 115
        Agriculture
            Page 115
        Industries
            Page 116
        Transportation and markets
            Page 117
        Farm, home, and community facilities
            Page 117
        Recreational facilities
            Page 117
        Schools
            Page 117
    Glossary
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 120
    General soil map
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Index to map sheets
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
Full Text

Series 1962, No. 2 Issued May 1965

S Ul L S U RE



Washington County

Florida




e OUR SOIL OUR STRENGTH







UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS













HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT

THIS SOIL SURVEY of Washington where each is described. It also lists,
County, Fla., will serve several groups for each soil and land type, the capability
of readers. It will help farmers in plan- unit and woodland suitability group, and
ning the kind of management that will the pages where each of these is described.
protect their soils and provide good yields; Fiorsli,s and others interested in wood-
assist engineers in selecting sites for land can refer to the subsection "Use of
roads, buildings, ponds, and other struc- Soils as Woodland." In that subsection
tures; aid foresters in managing woodland; the soils in the county are grouped accord-
and add to our knowledge of soil science. ing to their suitability for trees, and
factors affecting the management of wood-
Locating Soils land are explained.
Engineers will want to refer to the
Use the index to map sheets at the back subsection "Use of Soils for Engineering
of this report to locate areas on the large Works." Tables in that subsection show
map. The index is a small map of the characteristics of the soils that affect
county on which numbered rectangles engineering.
have been drawn to show where each Scientists and others who are interested
sheet of the large map is located. When will find information about how the soils
the correct sheet of the large map has were formed and how they were classified
been found, it will be seen that. boundaries in the section "Formation and Classifica-
of the soils are outlined, and that there tion of Soils."
is a symbol for each kind of soil. All Students, teachers, and other users will
areas marked with the same symbol are find information about soils and their
the same kind of soil, wherever they occur management in various parts of the
on the map. The symbol is inside the report, depending on their particular
area if there is enough room; otherwise, interest.
it is outside the area and a pointer shows Newcomers in Washington Coanty will
where the symbol belongs, be especially interested in the section
"General Soil Map," where broad patterns
Finding Information of soils are described. They may also be
interested in the section "General Nature
This report. contains sections that will of the County" which gives additional
interest different groups of readers, as information about the county.
well as some sections that may be of
interest to all. *
Farmers and those who work with farmers Fieldwork for this survey was con-
can learn about the soils in the section pleted in 1962. Unless otherwise indi-
"Descriptions of the Soils" and then cated, all statements in the report refer
turn to the section "Use and Manage- to conditions in the county at the time
meut of Soils," In this way, they first the survey was in progress. This survey
identity the soils on their farm and then was made cooperatively by the United
learn how these soils can be managed and States Department of Agriculture and
what yields can be expected. The "Guide the University of Florida Agricultural
to Mapping Units" at the back of the Experiment Stations. It is a part of the
report will simplify use of the map and technical assistance furnished by the
report. This guide lists each soil and land Soil Conservation Service to the Orange
type mapped in the county, and the page Hill Soil Conservation District.







U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICIlIt5s

For sale by the Superintendent of Doouments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C., 20M













Contents
Page Page
General soil map ---------------------------_ 1 Description of the soils-Continued
1. Lakeland-Eustis association---_------------ 1 Swamp--------------------------------- 36
2. Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro association------ 2 Tifton series ----------------------------- 36
3. Tifton-Faceville-Marlboro association ------- 2 Use and management of soils ----------------- 37
4. Lakeland-Cuthbert-Shubuta association ---- 3 Use of soils for agriculture ----------------- 37
5. Blanton-Klej-Plummer association ------- 3 General practices of soil management-------- 37
6.- Goldsboro-Lynchburg-Rains association --- 4 Capability groups of soils----..._____-_ 40
S7. 'Alluvial land-Swamp association ----------- 4 Management by capability unit --__----_-- 43
U-TSe- of (hl general soil map -_--------------- 4 Estimated yields -_----------------------_ 54
Agri-iilti.re_----------------------------- 5 Use of soils as woodland --------------------- 58
Homesites ------------------------------ 5 General woodland management ------------- 58
Industry and transportation -_------------- 5 Soil properties affecting tree production ------ 58
Recreation------------------------------ 6 Woodland suitability groups---------------- 59
How soils are mapped and classified ------------ 6 Use of soils for wildlife---------------------- 65
Descriptions of the soils ----------------------- 7 Food and cover suitable for wildlife --------- 65
, Alluvial land -----------------_--------- 9 Wildlife suitability of the soil associations-.. 66 J
Angie series_--------------- 9 Use of soils for engineering works _------------ 67
Bayboro seriesl--- ----__-------------- 10 Soil test data .----..-------------------.--_ 72
Bladen series -------------------------- 11 Engineering classification systems ----------- 72
Blanton series ------------------------- 11 Soil properties significant to engineering ------ 73
Borrow pits ----- ------------------ 12 Suitability of soils for engineering uses------- 73
Bowie series ----------------------------- 12 Formation and classification of soils ------------- 73
Carnegie series ---------------------------- 13 Factors of soil formation -------------------- 73
Cuthbert series --------------------------- 14 Climate ------------------------------- 73
Dunbar series ---------------------------- 16 Parent material ------------------------- 73
Esto series ------------------------------ 16 Relief-------- ---- --_-------------- 92
Eulonia series --------------------------- 17 Living organisms_-------_------------- 93
Eustis series .------_------------------ -- 18 Time ---------------------------------- 93
Faceville series --------------------------- 19 Classification of soils --------------------- 93
Goldsboro series -------------------------- 20 Red-Yellow Podzolic soils------------------ 95
Grady series ----------------------------- 21 Ground-Water Podzols-------------- 104
Gullied land ---------------------------- 22 Humic Gley soils-----------_---------- -- 104
Klej series ------------------------------- 22 Low-Humic Gley soils-------------------- 105
Lakeland series_ ---_--_----_----------- 23 Regosols_ ----_--------------_----------- 107
Leon series ----------------------------- 26 General nature of the county -----___________ 109
Local alluvial land ----------------------- 26 Climate ------------------------------ 109
Lynchburg series-------------------------- 27 Geology ----- ----_-------------111
IMarllb:oro series--------------------------- 28 History ------------------------------ 115
Norfolk series -------------------------- 28 Agriculture------- -----------__-------- 115
Oktibbeha series- .---_-------------- --- 30 Industries -------------------- 116
PIumInmerI series --------------------------- 31 Transportation and markets--------------- 117
Poc.nirke series ---------------------------- 31 Farm, home, and community facilities------- 117
Rains series ------------------------------ 32 Recreational facilities------------------- 117
R~Eston series ----------------------------- 32 Schools ------------------------------- 117
R'Ktler series---------------------------- 34 Glossary_ --------------------------------- 117
Scranton series ---------------------------- 34 Guide to mapping units ---------------- Follows 119
Shnliihnt series-- -----------------------_ 35






Series 1962, No. 2 Issued May 1965
I













SOIL SURVEY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY H. F. HUCKLE, IN CHARGE, AND H. H. WEEKS, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

W ASHINGTON COUNTY is in the northwestern part of the streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in
of Florida and is bounded on the west by the kinds of wild plants; and in the kind of agriculture.
Choctawhatchee River. Chipley, the county seat, is With these more obvious differences are others less easily
on U.S. Highway No. 90 near the geographical center of noticed in the patterns of soils. The soils differ along
the State's panhandle. Distances by air from Chipley to with the other parts of the environment.
the principal cities in the State are shown in figure 1. By drawing lines around the different patterns of soils
Tl-e county has a land area of 382,080 acres, or 597 on a small map, one may obtain a general map of the
square miles. A humid, temperate climate prevails, and soils. Each kind of pattern is called a soil association.
the, abundant rainfall is generally well distributed. The The pattern, of course, is not strictly uniform in each
county is a general farming area. The principal crops association, but the same soils are present in somewhat
are corn, cotton, peanuts, small grain, and watermelons, the same proportion and arrangement. Such a map is,
Watermelons are the main cash crop. useful to those who want a general idea of the soil, who
want to compare different parts of the county, or who
want to locate large areas suitable for some particular
Kind of farming or other broad use. It does not show
TALLAHASSEE accurately the kinds of soils on a single farm or a small
SJACkSONVILLE, tract.
The colored general soil map at the back of this report
SL Y shows the soil associations in Washington County. The
associations are named for the major soil series in them,
but soils of other series may occur. Also, the major soil
Series of one area may occur in another soil association.
The Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro soil- association in the
northern part of the county and the Tifton-Faceville-
A Marlboro association in the northeastern part are the
most important agricultural areas in the county. The soil
differences in the other associations are important to the
farms within them.
1. Lakeland-Eustis association: Well-drained to excessively
drained, deep, undulating sands or coarse sands of the uplands
This soil association is made up mostly of long, gentle
slopes and broad, nearly level ridgetops. In the south-
MIMI ern part of the county, there are numerous sinks or pot-
S holes that range from saucerlike depressions to sinks that
have steep sides and small, nearly circular lakes at the
bottom. In the south-central part of the county, lakes
s..A......E...............o and shallow intermittent ponds of various size are nu-
S.merous. Drainage in this area is mostly underground,
Figure .-Location of Washington County in Florida. but a few poorly defined drainageways occur. The water
level of the lakes and intermittent ponds fluctuates con-
General Soil Map siderably according to the amount of rainfall and the
seepage from the surrounding deep, sandy soils. Sloping
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly to steep hillsides border most of the lakes and intermit-
easy to see differences in the landscape from place to tent ponds. In other parts of the county, this associa-
place. Some of the differences are in the shape, steep- tion is dissected by a well-established pattern of creeks,
ness, and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed branches, and draws that have narrow, wet bottoms along
SOthers participating in the survey were E. M. DUFFEE, A. L. FUTMAN, M. L. HARRELL, M. W. HAZEN, JR., K. J. LAFLAMME,
B. W. McEwEN, and B. P. THOMAS, Soil Conservation Service.
1













SOIL SURVEY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY H. F. HUCKLE, IN CHARGE, AND H. H. WEEKS, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

W ASHINGTON COUNTY is in the northwestern part of the streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in
of Florida and is bounded on the west by the kinds of wild plants; and in the kind of agriculture.
Choctawhatchee River. Chipley, the county seat, is With these more obvious differences are others less easily
on U.S. Highway No. 90 near the geographical center of noticed in the patterns of soils. The soils differ along
the State's panhandle. Distances by air from Chipley to with the other parts of the environment.
the principal cities in the State are shown in figure 1. By drawing lines around the different patterns of soils
Tl-e county has a land area of 382,080 acres, or 597 on a small map, one may obtain a general map of the
square miles. A humid, temperate climate prevails, and soils. Each kind of pattern is called a soil association.
the, abundant rainfall is generally well distributed. The The pattern, of course, is not strictly uniform in each
county is a general farming area. The principal crops association, but the same soils are present in somewhat
are corn, cotton, peanuts, small grain, and watermelons, the same proportion and arrangement. Such a map is,
Watermelons are the main cash crop. useful to those who want a general idea of the soil, who
want to compare different parts of the county, or who
want to locate large areas suitable for some particular
Kind of farming or other broad use. It does not show
TALLAHASSEE accurately the kinds of soils on a single farm or a small
SJACkSONVILLE, tract.
The colored general soil map at the back of this report
SL Y shows the soil associations in Washington County. The
associations are named for the major soil series in them,
but soils of other series may occur. Also, the major soil
Series of one area may occur in another soil association.
The Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro soil- association in the
northern part of the county and the Tifton-Faceville-
A Marlboro association in the northeastern part are the
most important agricultural areas in the county. The soil
differences in the other associations are important to the
farms within them.
1. Lakeland-Eustis association: Well-drained to excessively
drained, deep, undulating sands or coarse sands of the uplands
This soil association is made up mostly of long, gentle
slopes and broad, nearly level ridgetops. In the south-
MIMI ern part of the county, there are numerous sinks or pot-
S holes that range from saucerlike depressions to sinks that
have steep sides and small, nearly circular lakes at the
bottom. In the south-central part of the county, lakes
s..A......E...............o and shallow intermittent ponds of various size are nu-
S.merous. Drainage in this area is mostly underground,
Figure .-Location of Washington County in Florida. but a few poorly defined drainageways occur. The water
level of the lakes and intermittent ponds fluctuates con-
General Soil Map siderably according to the amount of rainfall and the
seepage from the surrounding deep, sandy soils. Sloping
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly to steep hillsides border most of the lakes and intermit-
easy to see differences in the landscape from place to tent ponds. In other parts of the county, this associa-
place. Some of the differences are in the shape, steep- tion is dissected by a well-established pattern of creeks,
ness, and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed branches, and draws that have narrow, wet bottoms along
SOthers participating in the survey were E. M. DUFFEE, A. L. FUTMAN, M. L. HARRELL, M. W. HAZEN, JR., K. J. LAFLAMME,
B. W. McEwEN, and B. P. THOMAS, Soil Conservation Service.
1







2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

them. Most of the streams are bordered by moderately Dominant in the association are the Norfolk and Rus-
steep to steep hillsides. ton soils in the higher areas and the Goldsboro soils in
This soil association occupies about 42 percent of the the lower. The Norfolk, Ruston, and Goldsboro soils
county and occurs predominantly in the southern half, occupy about 55 percent of the association. They have
but there are smaller areas in the northwestern, north- a dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand surface layer
central, and east-central parts. that is underlain by lighter colored loamy sand layers to
The Lakeland and Eustis soils are dominant. These a depth of 30 inches or less. Their subsoil ranges from
soils have a dark-gray to grayish-brown coarse sand to sandy loam to sandy clay loam and from red to yellow.
sand surface layer that is 4 to 6 inches thick. It is un- About 20 percent of this association is small, scattered
derlain by brownish-yellow to yellowish-red very coarse areas of the Lakeland, Eustis, Faceville, Tifton, Carne-
sand to sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches or more. gie, Bowie, and Marlboro soils. The remaining 25 per-
In the southern half of the county are large, fairly cent consists of the somewhat poorly drained Lynch-
uniform areas of deep, drought coarse sands. About burg soils, the poorly drained Pocomoke and Rains soils,
86 percent of these areas consists of Lakeland and Eustis Swamp, and wet bottom lands.
soils, and 10 percent of Blanton, Plummer, and Klej soils, The original vegetation on the well-drained soils was
Swamp, and wet bottom lands. The numerous lakes in longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses,':
this area occupy the remaining 4 percent. That part of and on the poorly drained soils it was longleaf pine and
the association in the northern part of the county gen- various wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, gum, and other
rally consists of soils better suited to agricultural crops. wetland hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the
Dominant are finer sands or shallow phases of Lakeland wet bottom lands. The original pines and the commer-
and Eustis soils. Scattered in a considerable acreage are cially valuable hardwoods have been harvested, and most
Goldsboro, Ruston, Klej, Norfolk, and similar soils. In of the woodland now is covered by second-growth long-
the northern part of the county, the Lakeland and Eustis leaf pine and slash pine and various kinds of low shrubs.
Ssoils'occupy about 55 percent of the area; Goldsboro, Rus- About 38 percent of this association is made up of
ton, Klej, Norfolk, and similar soils, about 30 percent; gently sloping ridges that are well suited to farming
and Swamp and wet bottom lands, about 15 percent, and are farmed fairly extensively. About 27 percent is
On the deep sands the original vegetation was longleaf on steeper slopes that are suited to cultivated crops and
pine and wiregrass, and in the swampy areas it was cy- pasture, but to prevent erosion, these slopes require more
press, bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods. Water intensive management than the gently sloping ridges.
grasses and pond cedar are the main plants in the lakes Much of this steeper area is farmed. About 10 per-
and shallow intermittent ponds. The original pines and cent of the association is so steep or erodible that it can-
the commercially valuable hardwoods have been har- not be cultivated, but it is well suited to trees. The
vested, and most of the woodland now is second growth. remaining 25 percent consists of swampy areas and wet
Scrub oaks and scattered pines grow on most areas of bottom lands that are still in woods.
the well-drained sands that are not farmed. About 5 Many general farms in the county are in this soil
percent of the acreage in well-drained soils is now in association. Many farms are well managed, and crops
cultivated crops or forage crops. The wet areas have respond well to good management. Much of the asso-
not been cleared or drained and remain in native trees ciation that is suitable for cultivation is woodland.
or grasses.
In the southern part of the county large areas dominated 3. Tifton-Faceville-Marlboro association: Well-drained, andlat-
ing soils of the uplands that have a loamy sand surface soil and
by deep coarse sands are poorly suited for cultivation and a fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay subsoil
have not been farmed. These remain mostly in scrub oak This soil association is made up of ridgetops that are
and scattered pines. On smaller areas in the northern part Thls soil association is made up of dgetops that are
of the county, where about 35 percent of the association is y g sping utthat broaden a few pl
oi into fairly large, nearly level areas. The area is dis-
soils are farmed. Another 35 percent of these areas is seated by a well-established pattern of creeks, branches,
suitable for limited cultivation or improved pasture but and draws tha have narrow, wet bottoms along the em.
mostly wooded. The remaining 30 percent is too steep Sloping to moderately sloping hills rise from the edge
is mostly wooded. The remaining 30 percent is too steep of some of these streams. Adjacent to the streams i
or too wet for farming and is wooded. many places are gently sloping to nearly level, moder-
2. Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro association: Well drained to mod- ately well drained to poorly drained soils. This soil
erately well drained soils of the uplands that have a loamy sand association occupies about 1 percent of the county and
surface soil and a sandy clay loam subsoil occurs in fairly small areas in the northeastern part.
This soil association is made up of well drained, long, The Tifton, Faceville, and Marlboro soils make -up
gently sloping ridgetops; moderately sloping hillsides; about 60 percent of the association. They have a very
and lower, moderately well drained areas that are gen- dark grayish-brown loamy sand surface soil that is under-
erally narrow but broaden into fairly large, nearly level lain by lighter colored loamy sand layers to a depth of 18
flats in some places. The association is dissected by a inches or less. The subsoil ranges from fine sandy clay
well-established pattern of creeks, branches, and draws loam to fine sandy clay, and from brownish yellow
that have narrow, wet bottoms along them. Sloping to to red. Widely distributed are small areas of Norfolk,
moderately steep hillsides rise from the edge of many Ruston, Carnegie, and other well-drained soils These
streams. This association occupies about 16 percent of small, well-drained areas make up about 13 percent of
the county and occurs in scattered areas throughout the the association. The moderately well drained Goldsboro
ilotha11 half. and the somewhat poorly drained Lynchburg soils make







2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

them. Most of the streams are bordered by moderately Dominant in the association are the Norfolk and Rus-
steep to steep hillsides. ton soils in the higher areas and the Goldsboro soils in
This soil association occupies about 42 percent of the the lower. The Norfolk, Ruston, and Goldsboro soils
county and occurs predominantly in the southern half, occupy about 55 percent of the association. They have
but there are smaller areas in the northwestern, north- a dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand surface layer
central, and east-central parts. that is underlain by lighter colored loamy sand layers to
The Lakeland and Eustis soils are dominant. These a depth of 30 inches or less. Their subsoil ranges from
soils have a dark-gray to grayish-brown coarse sand to sandy loam to sandy clay loam and from red to yellow.
sand surface layer that is 4 to 6 inches thick. It is un- About 20 percent of this association is small, scattered
derlain by brownish-yellow to yellowish-red very coarse areas of the Lakeland, Eustis, Faceville, Tifton, Carne-
sand to sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches or more. gie, Bowie, and Marlboro soils. The remaining 25 per-
In the southern half of the county are large, fairly cent consists of the somewhat poorly drained Lynch-
uniform areas of deep, drought coarse sands. About burg soils, the poorly drained Pocomoke and Rains soils,
86 percent of these areas consists of Lakeland and Eustis Swamp, and wet bottom lands.
soils, and 10 percent of Blanton, Plummer, and Klej soils, The original vegetation on the well-drained soils was
Swamp, and wet bottom lands. The numerous lakes in longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses,':
this area occupy the remaining 4 percent. That part of and on the poorly drained soils it was longleaf pine and
the association in the northern part of the county gen- various wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, gum, and other
rally consists of soils better suited to agricultural crops. wetland hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the
Dominant are finer sands or shallow phases of Lakeland wet bottom lands. The original pines and the commer-
and Eustis soils. Scattered in a considerable acreage are cially valuable hardwoods have been harvested, and most
Goldsboro, Ruston, Klej, Norfolk, and similar soils. In of the woodland now is covered by second-growth long-
the northern part of the county, the Lakeland and Eustis leaf pine and slash pine and various kinds of low shrubs.
Ssoils'occupy about 55 percent of the area; Goldsboro, Rus- About 38 percent of this association is made up of
ton, Klej, Norfolk, and similar soils, about 30 percent; gently sloping ridges that are well suited to farming
and Swamp and wet bottom lands, about 15 percent, and are farmed fairly extensively. About 27 percent is
On the deep sands the original vegetation was longleaf on steeper slopes that are suited to cultivated crops and
pine and wiregrass, and in the swampy areas it was cy- pasture, but to prevent erosion, these slopes require more
press, bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods. Water intensive management than the gently sloping ridges.
grasses and pond cedar are the main plants in the lakes Much of this steeper area is farmed. About 10 per-
and shallow intermittent ponds. The original pines and cent of the association is so steep or erodible that it can-
the commercially valuable hardwoods have been har- not be cultivated, but it is well suited to trees. The
vested, and most of the woodland now is second growth. remaining 25 percent consists of swampy areas and wet
Scrub oaks and scattered pines grow on most areas of bottom lands that are still in woods.
the well-drained sands that are not farmed. About 5 Many general farms in the county are in this soil
percent of the acreage in well-drained soils is now in association. Many farms are well managed, and crops
cultivated crops or forage crops. The wet areas have respond well to good management. Much of the asso-
not been cleared or drained and remain in native trees ciation that is suitable for cultivation is woodland.
or grasses.
In the southern part of the county large areas dominated 3. Tifton-Faceville-Marlboro association: Well-drained, andlat-
ing soils of the uplands that have a loamy sand surface soil and
by deep coarse sands are poorly suited for cultivation and a fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay subsoil
have not been farmed. These remain mostly in scrub oak This soil association is made up of ridgetops that are
and scattered pines. On smaller areas in the northern part Thls soil association is made up of dgetops that are
of the county, where about 35 percent of the association is y g sping utthat broaden a few pl
oi into fairly large, nearly level areas. The area is dis-
soils are farmed. Another 35 percent of these areas is seated by a well-established pattern of creeks, branches,
suitable for limited cultivation or improved pasture but and draws tha have narrow, wet bottoms along the em.
mostly wooded. The remaining 30 percent is too steep Sloping to moderately sloping hills rise from the edge
is mostly wooded. The remaining 30 percent is too steep of some of these streams. Adjacent to the streams i
or too wet for farming and is wooded. many places are gently sloping to nearly level, moder-
2. Norfolk-Ruston-Goldsboro association: Well drained to mod- ately well drained to poorly drained soils. This soil
erately well drained soils of the uplands that have a loamy sand association occupies about 1 percent of the county and
surface soil and a sandy clay loam subsoil occurs in fairly small areas in the northeastern part.
This soil association is made up of well drained, long, The Tifton, Faceville, and Marlboro soils make -up
gently sloping ridgetops; moderately sloping hillsides; about 60 percent of the association. They have a very
and lower, moderately well drained areas that are gen- dark grayish-brown loamy sand surface soil that is under-
erally narrow but broaden into fairly large, nearly level lain by lighter colored loamy sand layers to a depth of 18
flats in some places. The association is dissected by a inches or less. The subsoil ranges from fine sandy clay
well-established pattern of creeks, branches, and draws loam to fine sandy clay, and from brownish yellow
that have narrow, wet bottoms along them. Sloping to to red. Widely distributed are small areas of Norfolk,
moderately steep hillsides rise from the edge of many Ruston, Carnegie, and other well-drained soils These
streams. This association occupies about 16 percent of small, well-drained areas make up about 13 percent of
the county and occurs in scattered areas throughout the the association. The moderately well drained Goldsboro
ilotha11 half. and the somewhat poorly drained Lynchburg soils make







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

up 20 percent. The remaining 7 percent consists of drained Rutlege, Pocomoke, Rains, and Plummer soils;
poorly drained Pocomoke and Rains soils, Swamp, and Swamp; and wet bottom lands.
wet bottom lands. The original vegetation on the better drained soils was
The original vegetation on the well-drained soils was longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses.
longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses. It was cypress, bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods
On the more poorly drained soils the vegetation was in the swampy areas and on the wet bottom lands. The
longleaf pine and various wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, original pines and the commercially valuable hardwoods
gum, and other wetland hardwoods grew in the swampy have been harvested. Most of the woodland now is cov-
areas and on wet bottom lands. The original pines and ered by second-growth longleaf pine, slash pine, scrub
the commercially valuable hardwoods have been har- oaks, and various other hardwoods, and there is a thick
vested, and most of the woodland now is covered by growth of low shrubs and bushes.
e,',.iind- irowth longleaf pine and slash pine and various The soils of this association generally are highly sus-
low shrubs and bushes. ceptible to erosion, but a few slopes can be cultivated to
About 65 percent of this association is made up of shallow-rooted crops. Only about 15 percent of the asso-
gently sloping and nearly level ridges that are well ciation is suited to row crops. About 10 percent can be
suited to farming and are farmed extensively. About cultivated occasionally if erosion control is intensive, but
15 percent of the association is on steeper slopes that are the areas suitable for cultivation are generally too small
suited to cultivation and are largely cultivated, but to for a practical field layout. About 60 percent is too
prevent erosion more intensive management is needed on steep or too erodible to be suited to farming. The re-
these steeper slopes than on the less steep areas. Ap- maining 15 percent is in swampy areas and wet bottom
proximately 13 percent of the association is too wet for lands that are unsuitable for agriculture and are still in
cultivation most of the time but is well suited to pasture native vegetation. Most of this soil association has not
or trees. Poorly drained soils and wet bottom lands been cleared.
make up the remaining 7 percent, and these are wooded. Only a small part of this association is farmed. A few
Many general farms are in this association. Most of small areas are used for pasture or crops, but generally
these are managed \v-ll. and the crops respond well to the association is best suited as woodland.
good management. Mr-i areas that are suitable for cul-
tivation have been cleared and are cultivated. 5. Blanton-Klej-Plummer association: Moderately well drained
or poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping, deep sandy
4. Lakeland-Cuthbert-Shubuta association: Excessively drained soils of the uplands
to moderately well drained, sloping to very steep coarse sands, Nearly level or gently sloping, broad areas make up
loamy sands, and sandy clay loams of the uplands that have a most of this association, but short, narrow slopes occur
Sc t c at the base of the more sloping hillsides. In the south-
The soils in this association occur in an intricate pat- central part of the county, this soil association contains
tern on long hillsides that generally slope toward the several lakes and many shallow, intermittent ponds of
north. The ridgetops are long and narrow in most various sizes. Drainage in this area is mostly under-
places. They slope gently along their length but break ground, but a few poorly defined drainageways occur.
abruptly on either side. The association is highly dis- The water level of the lakes and intermittent ponds
sected by large streams, creeks, and branches. The bot- fluctuates considerably according to the amount of rain-
tom lands along the streams are narrow and poorly fall and the seepage from the surrounding deep sandy
drained. This association occupies about 7 percent of soils. Other areas of this association are dissected by a
the county. Part of it is on the north of the highly dis- well-established patterii of creeks, branches, and draws
sected, irregular, north-facing escarpment that crosses that are in many places bordered by moderately wide,
the central part of the county approximately in an east- wet bottoms. Nearly level to gently sloping wet soils
west direction. Other small areas are widely scattered are adjacent to these wet bottoms in many places. This
in the northern half of the county, and there are fairly soil association occupies about 8 percent of the county
large areas on Orange Hill, Oak Hill, and Falling Water and occurs predominantly in the southern half.
Hill. .The Blanton, Klej, and Plummer soils occupy about
The Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils are domi- 51 percent of the association. They have a surface layer
nant in this association. The Lakeland soils are most of gray to very dark gray fine sand to coarse sand that
extensive in the eastern part of the county, and the is 3 to 8 inches thick. The surface layer is underlain
Cuthbert soils in the western part. The Lakeland, by mottled, white or light-gray and yellow fine sand to
('iil Ilhrlt, and Shubuta soils have a surface layer of dark- coarse sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches or more.
gray to grayish-brown very coarse sand to fine sandy The Lakeland, Rutlege, Scranton, Leon, and similar soils
loam. In the Lakeland soils, sand extends from the sur- make up about 28 percent of the association. Swamp
face to a depth of more than 30 inches. The subsoil of and wet bottom lands make up about 14 percent, and
the Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils ranges from permanent lakes, the remaining 7 percent.
very coarse sand to compact clay in texture and from In the south-central part of the county, the original
yellow to red in color. Widely scattered in small areas vegetation on this soil association was live oak, water
on uplands are the Bowie, Klej, Blanton, Lynchburg, oak, scattered longleaf pine, and native wetland grasses.
Norfolk, Goldsboro, Ruston, and other soils. These In other parts of the association, the original vegetation
ui.l-.ly scattered soils and the Lakeland, Cuthbert, and was longleaf pine and several native grasses. Cypress,
Sh!IIl.ii :, soils make up about 85 percent of the associa- bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods grow in swampy
tion. The remaining 15 percent consists of poorly areas. The original pines and the commercially valuable







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

up 20 percent. The remaining 7 percent consists of drained Rutlege, Pocomoke, Rains, and Plummer soils;
poorly drained Pocomoke and Rains soils, Swamp, and Swamp; and wet bottom lands.
wet bottom lands. The original vegetation on the better drained soils was
The original vegetation on the well-drained soils was longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses.
longleaf pine, scattered hardwoods, and native grasses. It was cypress, bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods
On the more poorly drained soils the vegetation was in the swampy areas and on the wet bottom lands. The
longleaf pine and various wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, original pines and the commercially valuable hardwoods
gum, and other wetland hardwoods grew in the swampy have been harvested. Most of the woodland now is cov-
areas and on wet bottom lands. The original pines and ered by second-growth longleaf pine, slash pine, scrub
the commercially valuable hardwoods have been har- oaks, and various other hardwoods, and there is a thick
vested, and most of the woodland now is covered by growth of low shrubs and bushes.
e,',.iind- irowth longleaf pine and slash pine and various The soils of this association generally are highly sus-
low shrubs and bushes. ceptible to erosion, but a few slopes can be cultivated to
About 65 percent of this association is made up of shallow-rooted crops. Only about 15 percent of the asso-
gently sloping and nearly level ridges that are well ciation is suited to row crops. About 10 percent can be
suited to farming and are farmed extensively. About cultivated occasionally if erosion control is intensive, but
15 percent of the association is on steeper slopes that are the areas suitable for cultivation are generally too small
suited to cultivation and are largely cultivated, but to for a practical field layout. About 60 percent is too
prevent erosion more intensive management is needed on steep or too erodible to be suited to farming. The re-
these steeper slopes than on the less steep areas. Ap- maining 15 percent is in swampy areas and wet bottom
proximately 13 percent of the association is too wet for lands that are unsuitable for agriculture and are still in
cultivation most of the time but is well suited to pasture native vegetation. Most of this soil association has not
or trees. Poorly drained soils and wet bottom lands been cleared.
make up the remaining 7 percent, and these are wooded. Only a small part of this association is farmed. A few
Many general farms are in this association. Most of small areas are used for pasture or crops, but generally
these are managed \v-ll. and the crops respond well to the association is best suited as woodland.
good management. Mr-i areas that are suitable for cul-
tivation have been cleared and are cultivated. 5. Blanton-Klej-Plummer association: Moderately well drained
or poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping, deep sandy
4. Lakeland-Cuthbert-Shubuta association: Excessively drained soils of the uplands
to moderately well drained, sloping to very steep coarse sands, Nearly level or gently sloping, broad areas make up
loamy sands, and sandy clay loams of the uplands that have a most of this association, but short, narrow slopes occur
Sc t c at the base of the more sloping hillsides. In the south-
The soils in this association occur in an intricate pat- central part of the county, this soil association contains
tern on long hillsides that generally slope toward the several lakes and many shallow, intermittent ponds of
north. The ridgetops are long and narrow in most various sizes. Drainage in this area is mostly under-
places. They slope gently along their length but break ground, but a few poorly defined drainageways occur.
abruptly on either side. The association is highly dis- The water level of the lakes and intermittent ponds
sected by large streams, creeks, and branches. The bot- fluctuates considerably according to the amount of rain-
tom lands along the streams are narrow and poorly fall and the seepage from the surrounding deep sandy
drained. This association occupies about 7 percent of soils. Other areas of this association are dissected by a
the county. Part of it is on the north of the highly dis- well-established patterii of creeks, branches, and draws
sected, irregular, north-facing escarpment that crosses that are in many places bordered by moderately wide,
the central part of the county approximately in an east- wet bottoms. Nearly level to gently sloping wet soils
west direction. Other small areas are widely scattered are adjacent to these wet bottoms in many places. This
in the northern half of the county, and there are fairly soil association occupies about 8 percent of the county
large areas on Orange Hill, Oak Hill, and Falling Water and occurs predominantly in the southern half.
Hill. .The Blanton, Klej, and Plummer soils occupy about
The Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils are domi- 51 percent of the association. They have a surface layer
nant in this association. The Lakeland soils are most of gray to very dark gray fine sand to coarse sand that
extensive in the eastern part of the county, and the is 3 to 8 inches thick. The surface layer is underlain
Cuthbert soils in the western part. The Lakeland, by mottled, white or light-gray and yellow fine sand to
('iil Ilhrlt, and Shubuta soils have a surface layer of dark- coarse sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches or more.
gray to grayish-brown very coarse sand to fine sandy The Lakeland, Rutlege, Scranton, Leon, and similar soils
loam. In the Lakeland soils, sand extends from the sur- make up about 28 percent of the association. Swamp
face to a depth of more than 30 inches. The subsoil of and wet bottom lands make up about 14 percent, and
the Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils ranges from permanent lakes, the remaining 7 percent.
very coarse sand to compact clay in texture and from In the south-central part of the county, the original
yellow to red in color. Widely scattered in small areas vegetation on this soil association was live oak, water
on uplands are the Bowie, Klej, Blanton, Lynchburg, oak, scattered longleaf pine, and native wetland grasses.
Norfolk, Goldsboro, Ruston, and other soils. These In other parts of the association, the original vegetation
ui.l-.ly scattered soils and the Lakeland, Cuthbert, and was longleaf pine and several native grasses. Cypress,
Sh!IIl.ii :, soils make up about 85 percent of the associa- bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods grow in swampy
tion. The remaining 15 percent consists of poorly areas. The original pines and the commercially valuable








4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

hardwoods have been harvested, and most of the wood- drained part is well suited to improved pasture. The
land now is second growth. remaining 35 percent consists of very poorly drained
In the south-central part of the county, the present soils in swampy areas and wet bottom lands. These
native vegetation is principally wiregrass and other wet- soils are still wooded and are best suited to that use
land grasses, but water grasses and pond cedar grow in unless extensive practices of reclamation are followed.
the lakes and intermittent ponds. Cypress is dominant
in swampy areas. In other parts of the county, the 7. Alluvial land-Swamp association: Wetland and land subject to
vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash pine, native flooding
grasses, and various shrubs. This association is made up of Alluvial land, Swamp,
Although all of this association is still in native vege- and very poorly drained soils that are adjacent to the
station, about 35 percent is moderately well suited to major rivers and streams. It is covered with a dense
cultivation. Approximately 15 percent is suitable for growth of hardwoods, scattered pines, and water-toler-
occasional cultivation, but it would require intensive ant plants. The total area of this soil association
management to offset adverse soil characteristics. The amounts to about 8 percent of the county.
remaining 50 percent consists of lakes and other water, The soils in this association are very poorly drained
Swamp, poorly drained soils, and wet bottom lands, and are frequently flooded. Alluvial land occupies about
78 percent of the association and occurs principally
6. Goldsboro-Lynchburg-Rains association: Moderately well along the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek. It
drained to poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping soils co s p y of a l m l tt v s
of the uplands that have a loamy fine sand to loamy coarse consists primarily of alluvial material that vares within
sand surface soil and a sandy loam to sandy clay loam subsoil a short distance in texture, color, and thickness of layers.
This association is made up mainly of broad flats and Swamp occupies about 15 percent of this area. It occurs
undulating areas, but a few small areas are on steeper principally in the southern half of the county, but small
slopes. Narrow, wet bottom lands border branches and areas are scattered in other parts. About 2 percent of
,draws that generally are of slight gradient and in some the association consists of the Blanton, Klej, Rutlege,
places are poorly defined. There are many small or Plummer, Leon, Rains, Pocomoke, Bayboro, and other
medium-sized swampy areas. This soil association occu- nearly level or gently sloping soils. Open ponds and
pies about 18 percent of the county and is mostly in the lakes occupy the remaining 5 percent.
northeastern quarter and west-central part, but it also This soil association has little or no agricultural value
occurs throughout the northern half. and has remained in forest. The native vegetation is
The Goldsboro, Lynchburg, and Rains soils are domi- cypress, bay, gum, a few pines, wax myrtle, and small
nant and make up about 70 percent of the association. native bushes and water-tolerant plants.
These soils have a surface layer of gray to very dark
gray loamy sand to loamy coarse sand that is underlain
by a lighter colored loamy sand to loamy coarse sand to a Uses of the General Soil Map
depth of 30 inches. Their subsoil is sandy loam to sandy S s p u f
clay loam. It ranges from yellowish brown, slightly Soil surveys provide useful information for farmers
mottled in the lower part, to dominantly gray, dark and also for area planners, engineers, contractors, home-
gray, or white. Also in this association are the Norfolk, owners, and others. Information for land planning and
Tifton, Faceville, Ruston, Carnegie, and other well- for preliminary work in locating roads, airports, and the
drained soils. These soils are scattered in higher posi- like can be obtained from the small-scale general soil map.
tions than the major soils and occupy about 10 percent This map makes it possible to view the county's soil
of the association. The remaining 20 percent consists of resources as a whole and to see contrasts among the
poorly drained Grady and Bayboro soils, Swamp, and different soil associations. The map and the descriptions
wet bottom lands. of soil associations emphasize general soil patterns that
The original vegetation on the better drained soils was affect several possible uses of the soils. Some of the kinds
longleaf pine and grass, and on the poorly drained soils of uses are discussed briefly in this subsection. For
it was scattered longleaf pine, thick wiregrass, and other more specific planning of structures or other works, the
wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, gum, and other wetland detailed soil map and descriptions of the soils should be
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet consulted.
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet cThe soil associations in Washington County have been
bottom lands. The original pines and the commercially rated in a general way according to how favorable they
valuable hardwoods have been harvested, and most of are for agriculture, for homesites, for industry and
the woodland now is in second-growth longleaf pine and transportation, and for recreation. The ratings used are
slash pine and in wiregrass and low shrubs, most favorable, very favorable, favorable, somewhat unfavor-
About 50 percent of this soil association consists of able, and unfavorable. Somewhat unfavorable means
moderately well drained soils and is well suited to gen- that the soil association is severely limited for the use
eral farming, but management that provides water con- rated and that suitability for that use is questionable.
trol is needed. These moderately well drained soils are Unfavorable means that the soil association is extremely
very well suited to improved pasture. About 15 percent limited for the use rated, that extreme measures are
of the soil association is somewhat poorly drained. The needed to overcome the limitations, and that the soil
somewhat poorly drained soils are more restricted in use association generally is not suitable for the use rated.
for cultivated crops than the better drained soils and 2DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretations, Soil Con-
require more intensive water control. This poorly servation Service, helped write this subsection.








4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

hardwoods have been harvested, and most of the wood- drained part is well suited to improved pasture. The
land now is second growth. remaining 35 percent consists of very poorly drained
In the south-central part of the county, the present soils in swampy areas and wet bottom lands. These
native vegetation is principally wiregrass and other wet- soils are still wooded and are best suited to that use
land grasses, but water grasses and pond cedar grow in unless extensive practices of reclamation are followed.
the lakes and intermittent ponds. Cypress is dominant
in swampy areas. In other parts of the county, the 7. Alluvial land-Swamp association: Wetland and land subject to
vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash pine, native flooding
grasses, and various shrubs. This association is made up of Alluvial land, Swamp,
Although all of this association is still in native vege- and very poorly drained soils that are adjacent to the
station, about 35 percent is moderately well suited to major rivers and streams. It is covered with a dense
cultivation. Approximately 15 percent is suitable for growth of hardwoods, scattered pines, and water-toler-
occasional cultivation, but it would require intensive ant plants. The total area of this soil association
management to offset adverse soil characteristics. The amounts to about 8 percent of the county.
remaining 50 percent consists of lakes and other water, The soils in this association are very poorly drained
Swamp, poorly drained soils, and wet bottom lands, and are frequently flooded. Alluvial land occupies about
78 percent of the association and occurs principally
6. Goldsboro-Lynchburg-Rains association: Moderately well along the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek. It
drained to poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping soils co s p y of a l m l tt v s
of the uplands that have a loamy fine sand to loamy coarse consists primarily of alluvial material that vares within
sand surface soil and a sandy loam to sandy clay loam subsoil a short distance in texture, color, and thickness of layers.
This association is made up mainly of broad flats and Swamp occupies about 15 percent of this area. It occurs
undulating areas, but a few small areas are on steeper principally in the southern half of the county, but small
slopes. Narrow, wet bottom lands border branches and areas are scattered in other parts. About 2 percent of
,draws that generally are of slight gradient and in some the association consists of the Blanton, Klej, Rutlege,
places are poorly defined. There are many small or Plummer, Leon, Rains, Pocomoke, Bayboro, and other
medium-sized swampy areas. This soil association occu- nearly level or gently sloping soils. Open ponds and
pies about 18 percent of the county and is mostly in the lakes occupy the remaining 5 percent.
northeastern quarter and west-central part, but it also This soil association has little or no agricultural value
occurs throughout the northern half. and has remained in forest. The native vegetation is
The Goldsboro, Lynchburg, and Rains soils are domi- cypress, bay, gum, a few pines, wax myrtle, and small
nant and make up about 70 percent of the association. native bushes and water-tolerant plants.
These soils have a surface layer of gray to very dark
gray loamy sand to loamy coarse sand that is underlain
by a lighter colored loamy sand to loamy coarse sand to a Uses of the General Soil Map
depth of 30 inches. Their subsoil is sandy loam to sandy S s p u f
clay loam. It ranges from yellowish brown, slightly Soil surveys provide useful information for farmers
mottled in the lower part, to dominantly gray, dark and also for area planners, engineers, contractors, home-
gray, or white. Also in this association are the Norfolk, owners, and others. Information for land planning and
Tifton, Faceville, Ruston, Carnegie, and other well- for preliminary work in locating roads, airports, and the
drained soils. These soils are scattered in higher posi- like can be obtained from the small-scale general soil map.
tions than the major soils and occupy about 10 percent This map makes it possible to view the county's soil
of the association. The remaining 20 percent consists of resources as a whole and to see contrasts among the
poorly drained Grady and Bayboro soils, Swamp, and different soil associations. The map and the descriptions
wet bottom lands. of soil associations emphasize general soil patterns that
The original vegetation on the better drained soils was affect several possible uses of the soils. Some of the kinds
longleaf pine and grass, and on the poorly drained soils of uses are discussed briefly in this subsection. For
it was scattered longleaf pine, thick wiregrass, and other more specific planning of structures or other works, the
wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, gum, and other wetland detailed soil map and descriptions of the soils should be
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet consulted.
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet cThe soil associations in Washington County have been
bottom lands. The original pines and the commercially rated in a general way according to how favorable they
valuable hardwoods have been harvested, and most of are for agriculture, for homesites, for industry and
the woodland now is in second-growth longleaf pine and transportation, and for recreation. The ratings used are
slash pine and in wiregrass and low shrubs, most favorable, very favorable, favorable, somewhat unfavor-
About 50 percent of this soil association consists of able, and unfavorable. Somewhat unfavorable means
moderately well drained soils and is well suited to gen- that the soil association is severely limited for the use
eral farming, but management that provides water con- rated and that suitability for that use is questionable.
trol is needed. These moderately well drained soils are Unfavorable means that the soil association is extremely
very well suited to improved pasture. About 15 percent limited for the use rated, that extreme measures are
of the soil association is somewhat poorly drained. The needed to overcome the limitations, and that the soil
somewhat poorly drained soils are more restricted in use association generally is not suitable for the use rated.
for cultivated crops than the better drained soils and 2DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretations, Soil Con-
require more intensive water control. This poorly servation Service, helped write this subsection.








4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

hardwoods have been harvested, and most of the wood- drained part is well suited to improved pasture. The
land now is second growth. remaining 35 percent consists of very poorly drained
In the south-central part of the county, the present soils in swampy areas and wet bottom lands. These
native vegetation is principally wiregrass and other wet- soils are still wooded and are best suited to that use
land grasses, but water grasses and pond cedar grow in unless extensive practices of reclamation are followed.
the lakes and intermittent ponds. Cypress is dominant
in swampy areas. In other parts of the county, the 7. Alluvial land-Swamp association: Wetland and land subject to
vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash pine, native flooding
grasses, and various shrubs. This association is made up of Alluvial land, Swamp,
Although all of this association is still in native vege- and very poorly drained soils that are adjacent to the
station, about 35 percent is moderately well suited to major rivers and streams. It is covered with a dense
cultivation. Approximately 15 percent is suitable for growth of hardwoods, scattered pines, and water-toler-
occasional cultivation, but it would require intensive ant plants. The total area of this soil association
management to offset adverse soil characteristics. The amounts to about 8 percent of the county.
remaining 50 percent consists of lakes and other water, The soils in this association are very poorly drained
Swamp, poorly drained soils, and wet bottom lands, and are frequently flooded. Alluvial land occupies about
78 percent of the association and occurs principally
6. Goldsboro-Lynchburg-Rains association: Moderately well along the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek. It
drained to poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping soils co s p y of a l m l tt v s
of the uplands that have a loamy fine sand to loamy coarse consists primarily of alluvial material that vares within
sand surface soil and a sandy loam to sandy clay loam subsoil a short distance in texture, color, and thickness of layers.
This association is made up mainly of broad flats and Swamp occupies about 15 percent of this area. It occurs
undulating areas, but a few small areas are on steeper principally in the southern half of the county, but small
slopes. Narrow, wet bottom lands border branches and areas are scattered in other parts. About 2 percent of
,draws that generally are of slight gradient and in some the association consists of the Blanton, Klej, Rutlege,
places are poorly defined. There are many small or Plummer, Leon, Rains, Pocomoke, Bayboro, and other
medium-sized swampy areas. This soil association occu- nearly level or gently sloping soils. Open ponds and
pies about 18 percent of the county and is mostly in the lakes occupy the remaining 5 percent.
northeastern quarter and west-central part, but it also This soil association has little or no agricultural value
occurs throughout the northern half. and has remained in forest. The native vegetation is
The Goldsboro, Lynchburg, and Rains soils are domi- cypress, bay, gum, a few pines, wax myrtle, and small
nant and make up about 70 percent of the association. native bushes and water-tolerant plants.
These soils have a surface layer of gray to very dark
gray loamy sand to loamy coarse sand that is underlain
by a lighter colored loamy sand to loamy coarse sand to a Uses of the General Soil Map
depth of 30 inches. Their subsoil is sandy loam to sandy S s p u f
clay loam. It ranges from yellowish brown, slightly Soil surveys provide useful information for farmers
mottled in the lower part, to dominantly gray, dark and also for area planners, engineers, contractors, home-
gray, or white. Also in this association are the Norfolk, owners, and others. Information for land planning and
Tifton, Faceville, Ruston, Carnegie, and other well- for preliminary work in locating roads, airports, and the
drained soils. These soils are scattered in higher posi- like can be obtained from the small-scale general soil map.
tions than the major soils and occupy about 10 percent This map makes it possible to view the county's soil
of the association. The remaining 20 percent consists of resources as a whole and to see contrasts among the
poorly drained Grady and Bayboro soils, Swamp, and different soil associations. The map and the descriptions
wet bottom lands. of soil associations emphasize general soil patterns that
The original vegetation on the better drained soils was affect several possible uses of the soils. Some of the kinds
longleaf pine and grass, and on the poorly drained soils of uses are discussed briefly in this subsection. For
it was scattered longleaf pine, thick wiregrass, and other more specific planning of structures or other works, the
wetland grasses. Cypress, bay, gum, and other wetland detailed soil map and descriptions of the soils should be
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet consulted.
hardwoods grew in the swampy areas and on the wet cThe soil associations in Washington County have been
bottom lands. The original pines and the commercially rated in a general way according to how favorable they
valuable hardwoods have been harvested, and most of are for agriculture, for homesites, for industry and
the woodland now is in second-growth longleaf pine and transportation, and for recreation. The ratings used are
slash pine and in wiregrass and low shrubs, most favorable, very favorable, favorable, somewhat unfavor-
About 50 percent of this soil association consists of able, and unfavorable. Somewhat unfavorable means
moderately well drained soils and is well suited to gen- that the soil association is severely limited for the use
eral farming, but management that provides water con- rated and that suitability for that use is questionable.
trol is needed. These moderately well drained soils are Unfavorable means that the soil association is extremely
very well suited to improved pasture. About 15 percent limited for the use rated, that extreme measures are
of the soil association is somewhat poorly drained. The needed to overcome the limitations, and that the soil
somewhat poorly drained soils are more restricted in use association generally is not suitable for the use rated.
for cultivated crops than the better drained soils and 2DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretations, Soil Con-
require more intensive water control. This poorly servation Service, helped write this subsection.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Agriculture SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Most favorable. Most
sRin f aic w b o t sitii oils of this association have few limitations for homesites.
Ratings for agriculture were based on the suitability They are well drained and have good hearing capacity
of soils for production of general or special crops,of They are well drained. Most areas have moderate permeability
livestock, and of trees. Considered in this rating were for foundations. Most areas have moderate permeability
ain e, suscepti ty of soil to d t, suitbility or and have few restrictions to use as septic-tank drainage
drainage, susceptibility of soil to drought, suitability for fields. The soils can grow lawns, large trees, and a wide
crops, susceptibility to erosion, and potential productivity. field The soils can grow awns large trees and a wide
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Somewhat unfavorable. The deep variety of ornamental plants. The gently sloping land-
sands that dominate in this association are drought scape of this association is also desirable.
and respond poorly to fertilizer. Suitable crops are few, SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Favorable. By careful selection,
and yields are normally low. Under good management, many very desirable sites for rural homes can be found
these soils produce moderate to good grass pasture, but on this soil association, but many other sites have severe
they are not suited to clover. The site index for pines is limitations. Although the soils in mst areas provide
moderately low to low. good foundations, many soils are too slowly permeable for
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Very favorable. The septic-tank drainage fields. Sloping to steep hillsides limit
dominant soils of these associations can produce moderate the general desirability for homesites. Most areas have
to high yields of many kinds of crops. Slopes are gentle, attractive wooded landscapes and are suitable for growing
and erosion is a moderate hazard that can be controlled lawns and ornamental plants.
in cultivated fields. These soils produce high-quality SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Somewhat favorable. Most areas
pasture and have a high site index for pines. are low and have a water table at a depth of only 3 or 4
SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Somewhat unfavorable. This feet. Only a few local sites on the highest points have
association has many steep soils that are poorly suited to adequate drainage for septic-tank drainage fields. Because
cultivation, but some small areas can be cultivated. On the association is generally low and flat, many areas are
the steep slopes erosion is a serious hazard, and a protective excessively wet in rainy periods and provide poor house
cover is difficult to maintain. Many areas are suited to foundations. Lawns and ornamental plants grow well
improved pasture, and many have a moderate to high on most areas.
site index for pines. SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Favorable. The dominant soils~
SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Favorable. The dominant soils in this association present few problems if used for house
in this association can produce moderate yields of a few foundations. Because the water table is high, most areas
crops. The erosion hazard is slight, but the sandy soils are too wet for septic-tank drainage fields. The soils are
do not retain plant nutrients well. They are moderately low and nearly level, and the view of the landscape is
well suited to improved pasture. The site index for pines restricted. Trees, lawns, and ornamental plants grow
is moderate. well.
SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Very favorable. The soils in this SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. In this association
association can produce moderate to high yields of many the low, wet bottom lands along rivers and streams are
kinds of crops. Most slopes are nearly level, and the subject to flooding and most of the time are so wet that
erosion hazard is slight. The excess water can be removed septic tanks cannot function. The suitability for founda-
by using simple practices of water control. These soils tons is seriously limited by the variable physical proper-
are well suited to improved pasture. The site index for ties of the soils and by the pockets of organic soils.
pines is high to moderately high. Industry and transportation
SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. This association r
has little land suitable for cultivation without major The ratings o the soil associations for industrial and
reclamation. It includes river swamps, bottom lands transportation use were based on the requirements for
along small streams, and other wet areas. t is wet and light industrial and manufacturing plants, airports, high-
bj, to frequent flooding by streams. Many areas s ad ways, railroads, and similar facilities. Considered in the
are well suited to improved pasture. The association rating were topography, drainage, depth to the bedrock
generally is not well suited to pines, though local areas and the water table, and suitability of the soils and sub-
have a high site index for pines. Many swamp hard- strata for foundations and as sources of sand and gravel.
woods grow well. SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Most favorable. The soils in this
association are well drained and stable; they provide a
Homesites good foundation for light buildings, highways, and other
structures. Slopes are gentle and moderately sloping, and
Considered in rating the soil associations for homesites only a moderate amount of cut and fill is needed. The
were suitability of the soils for private septic tanks; the sandy soils are easily moved by ordinary earth-moving
drainage, the bearing strength, and the stability of the equipment, and ditches and the shoulders of roads are
soils; the depth to bedrock; and the esthetic values, such easily stabilized.
as rolling topography and presence of trees. SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Mostfavorable. The soils
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Very favorable. Most soils of of these associations are well drained and stable; they
this association have few limitations for homesites. The provide a good foundation for light buildings, highways,
soils are well drained and have good bearing capacity and other structures. Slopes generally are gentle and
for foundations. They are porous and have few limita- moderate, and only a moderate amount of cut and fill is
tions for septic-tank drainage fields. In many places de- needed. The deep sandy loam to clay loam is easily
sirability for homesites is lessened by lack of trees and moved, but ditches and the shoulders of roads require
by droughtiness that limits the growth of lawns and moderately intensive management if serious erosion is to
ornamental plants. be prevented.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Agriculture SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Most favorable. Most
sRin f aic w b o t sitii oils of this association have few limitations for homesites.
Ratings for agriculture were based on the suitability They are well drained and have good hearing capacity
of soils for production of general or special crops,of They are well drained. Most areas have moderate permeability
livestock, and of trees. Considered in this rating were for foundations. Most areas have moderate permeability
ain e, suscepti ty of soil to d t, suitbility or and have few restrictions to use as septic-tank drainage
drainage, susceptibility of soil to drought, suitability for fields. The soils can grow lawns, large trees, and a wide
crops, susceptibility to erosion, and potential productivity. field The soils can grow awns large trees and a wide
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Somewhat unfavorable. The deep variety of ornamental plants. The gently sloping land-
sands that dominate in this association are drought scape of this association is also desirable.
and respond poorly to fertilizer. Suitable crops are few, SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Favorable. By careful selection,
and yields are normally low. Under good management, many very desirable sites for rural homes can be found
these soils produce moderate to good grass pasture, but on this soil association, but many other sites have severe
they are not suited to clover. The site index for pines is limitations. Although the soils in mst areas provide
moderately low to low. good foundations, many soils are too slowly permeable for
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Very favorable. The septic-tank drainage fields. Sloping to steep hillsides limit
dominant soils of these associations can produce moderate the general desirability for homesites. Most areas have
to high yields of many kinds of crops. Slopes are gentle, attractive wooded landscapes and are suitable for growing
and erosion is a moderate hazard that can be controlled lawns and ornamental plants.
in cultivated fields. These soils produce high-quality SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Somewhat favorable. Most areas
pasture and have a high site index for pines. are low and have a water table at a depth of only 3 or 4
SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Somewhat unfavorable. This feet. Only a few local sites on the highest points have
association has many steep soils that are poorly suited to adequate drainage for septic-tank drainage fields. Because
cultivation, but some small areas can be cultivated. On the association is generally low and flat, many areas are
the steep slopes erosion is a serious hazard, and a protective excessively wet in rainy periods and provide poor house
cover is difficult to maintain. Many areas are suited to foundations. Lawns and ornamental plants grow well
improved pasture, and many have a moderate to high on most areas.
site index for pines. SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Favorable. The dominant soils~
SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Favorable. The dominant soils in this association present few problems if used for house
in this association can produce moderate yields of a few foundations. Because the water table is high, most areas
crops. The erosion hazard is slight, but the sandy soils are too wet for septic-tank drainage fields. The soils are
do not retain plant nutrients well. They are moderately low and nearly level, and the view of the landscape is
well suited to improved pasture. The site index for pines restricted. Trees, lawns, and ornamental plants grow
is moderate. well.
SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Very favorable. The soils in this SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. In this association
association can produce moderate to high yields of many the low, wet bottom lands along rivers and streams are
kinds of crops. Most slopes are nearly level, and the subject to flooding and most of the time are so wet that
erosion hazard is slight. The excess water can be removed septic tanks cannot function. The suitability for founda-
by using simple practices of water control. These soils tons is seriously limited by the variable physical proper-
are well suited to improved pasture. The site index for ties of the soils and by the pockets of organic soils.
pines is high to moderately high. Industry and transportation
SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. This association r
has little land suitable for cultivation without major The ratings o the soil associations for industrial and
reclamation. It includes river swamps, bottom lands transportation use were based on the requirements for
along small streams, and other wet areas. t is wet and light industrial and manufacturing plants, airports, high-
bj, to frequent flooding by streams. Many areas s ad ways, railroads, and similar facilities. Considered in the
are well suited to improved pasture. The association rating were topography, drainage, depth to the bedrock
generally is not well suited to pines, though local areas and the water table, and suitability of the soils and sub-
have a high site index for pines. Many swamp hard- strata for foundations and as sources of sand and gravel.
woods grow well. SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Most favorable. The soils in this
association are well drained and stable; they provide a
Homesites good foundation for light buildings, highways, and other
structures. Slopes are gentle and moderately sloping, and
Considered in rating the soil associations for homesites only a moderate amount of cut and fill is needed. The
were suitability of the soils for private septic tanks; the sandy soils are easily moved by ordinary earth-moving
drainage, the bearing strength, and the stability of the equipment, and ditches and the shoulders of roads are
soils; the depth to bedrock; and the esthetic values, such easily stabilized.
as rolling topography and presence of trees. SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Mostfavorable. The soils
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Very favorable. Most soils of of these associations are well drained and stable; they
this association have few limitations for homesites. The provide a good foundation for light buildings, highways,
soils are well drained and have good bearing capacity and other structures. Slopes generally are gentle and
for foundations. They are porous and have few limita- moderate, and only a moderate amount of cut and fill is
tions for septic-tank drainage fields. In many places de- needed. The deep sandy loam to clay loam is easily
sirability for homesites is lessened by lack of trees and moved, but ditches and the shoulders of roads require
by droughtiness that limits the growth of lawns and moderately intensive management if serious erosion is to
ornamental plants. be prevented.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Agriculture SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Most favorable. Most
sRin f aic w b o t sitii oils of this association have few limitations for homesites.
Ratings for agriculture were based on the suitability They are well drained and have good hearing capacity
of soils for production of general or special crops,of They are well drained. Most areas have moderate permeability
livestock, and of trees. Considered in this rating were for foundations. Most areas have moderate permeability
ain e, suscepti ty of soil to d t, suitbility or and have few restrictions to use as septic-tank drainage
drainage, susceptibility of soil to drought, suitability for fields. The soils can grow lawns, large trees, and a wide
crops, susceptibility to erosion, and potential productivity. field The soils can grow awns large trees and a wide
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Somewhat unfavorable. The deep variety of ornamental plants. The gently sloping land-
sands that dominate in this association are drought scape of this association is also desirable.
and respond poorly to fertilizer. Suitable crops are few, SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Favorable. By careful selection,
and yields are normally low. Under good management, many very desirable sites for rural homes can be found
these soils produce moderate to good grass pasture, but on this soil association, but many other sites have severe
they are not suited to clover. The site index for pines is limitations. Although the soils in mst areas provide
moderately low to low. good foundations, many soils are too slowly permeable for
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Very favorable. The septic-tank drainage fields. Sloping to steep hillsides limit
dominant soils of these associations can produce moderate the general desirability for homesites. Most areas have
to high yields of many kinds of crops. Slopes are gentle, attractive wooded landscapes and are suitable for growing
and erosion is a moderate hazard that can be controlled lawns and ornamental plants.
in cultivated fields. These soils produce high-quality SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Somewhat favorable. Most areas
pasture and have a high site index for pines. are low and have a water table at a depth of only 3 or 4
SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Somewhat unfavorable. This feet. Only a few local sites on the highest points have
association has many steep soils that are poorly suited to adequate drainage for septic-tank drainage fields. Because
cultivation, but some small areas can be cultivated. On the association is generally low and flat, many areas are
the steep slopes erosion is a serious hazard, and a protective excessively wet in rainy periods and provide poor house
cover is difficult to maintain. Many areas are suited to foundations. Lawns and ornamental plants grow well
improved pasture, and many have a moderate to high on most areas.
site index for pines. SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Favorable. The dominant soils~
SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Favorable. The dominant soils in this association present few problems if used for house
in this association can produce moderate yields of a few foundations. Because the water table is high, most areas
crops. The erosion hazard is slight, but the sandy soils are too wet for septic-tank drainage fields. The soils are
do not retain plant nutrients well. They are moderately low and nearly level, and the view of the landscape is
well suited to improved pasture. The site index for pines restricted. Trees, lawns, and ornamental plants grow
is moderate. well.
SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Very favorable. The soils in this SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. In this association
association can produce moderate to high yields of many the low, wet bottom lands along rivers and streams are
kinds of crops. Most slopes are nearly level, and the subject to flooding and most of the time are so wet that
erosion hazard is slight. The excess water can be removed septic tanks cannot function. The suitability for founda-
by using simple practices of water control. These soils tons is seriously limited by the variable physical proper-
are well suited to improved pasture. The site index for ties of the soils and by the pockets of organic soils.
pines is high to moderately high. Industry and transportation
SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. This association r
has little land suitable for cultivation without major The ratings o the soil associations for industrial and
reclamation. It includes river swamps, bottom lands transportation use were based on the requirements for
along small streams, and other wet areas. t is wet and light industrial and manufacturing plants, airports, high-
bj, to frequent flooding by streams. Many areas s ad ways, railroads, and similar facilities. Considered in the
are well suited to improved pasture. The association rating were topography, drainage, depth to the bedrock
generally is not well suited to pines, though local areas and the water table, and suitability of the soils and sub-
have a high site index for pines. Many swamp hard- strata for foundations and as sources of sand and gravel.
woods grow well. SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Most favorable. The soils in this
association are well drained and stable; they provide a
Homesites good foundation for light buildings, highways, and other
structures. Slopes are gentle and moderately sloping, and
Considered in rating the soil associations for homesites only a moderate amount of cut and fill is needed. The
were suitability of the soils for private septic tanks; the sandy soils are easily moved by ordinary earth-moving
drainage, the bearing strength, and the stability of the equipment, and ditches and the shoulders of roads are
soils; the depth to bedrock; and the esthetic values, such easily stabilized.
as rolling topography and presence of trees. SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Mostfavorable. The soils
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Very favorable. Most soils of of these associations are well drained and stable; they
this association have few limitations for homesites. The provide a good foundation for light buildings, highways,
soils are well drained and have good bearing capacity and other structures. Slopes generally are gentle and
for foundations. They are porous and have few limita- moderate, and only a moderate amount of cut and fill is
tions for septic-tank drainage fields. In many places de- needed. The deep sandy loam to clay loam is easily
sirability for homesites is lessened by lack of trees and moved, but ditches and the shoulders of roads require
by droughtiness that limits the growth of lawns and moderately intensive management if serious erosion is to
ornamental plants. be prevented.







6 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Favorable. Most soils of this Most of the association is wooded and provides fair to
association provide a stable foundation for light buildings, good hunting. A few small streams provide sites for
highways, and other structures. Slopes are generally small ponds. A few areas are especially suitable for
sloping to steep, and a considerable amount of cut and camp or picnic sites, and many sites are suitable for golf
fill is needed. The soils can be moved by ordinary earth- courses and playgrounds. Many nongame birds and
moving machinery. Ditches and the shoulders of roads animals live in this association and are available to
require intensive management if severe erosion is to be people studying nature.
prevented. SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Very favorable. Most soils of
SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Favorable. The dominant soils this association are closely associated with the soils in
of this association are moderately well drained to some- soil association 1 and have been used little for agriculture.
what poorly drained. Many areas require some drainage, They occupy low, nearly level areas around lakes and in
but the sandy areas make stable foundations for light flatwoods. These areas are well suited to hunting and
buildings, highways, and other structures. Little cut and fishing, but most areas are too low and too wet for camp
fill is required on the nearly level terrain, and the soils or picnic sites.
are easily moved by ordinary earth-moving equipment. SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Very favorable. The soils in
Erosion of ditches and the shoulders of roads is not a this association are well suited to plants that make good
serious problem, food and cover for many species of wildlife. They pro-
SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Favorable. The dominant soils vide good hunting grounds that can be improved by good
of this association have a sandy clay loam subsoil that is game management. Only a few sites are suitable for
often saturated to within 2 feet of the surface. If ade- building ponds or lakes for fishing, and most areas are too
quately drained, these soils have a good bearing capacity, low and too wet for good camp and picnic sites. The
Because the dominant soils are very gently sloping, little association is only moderately well suited for golf courses
cut and fill is needed. Ordinary earth-moving equipment or playgrounds.
moves these soils easily. SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Favorable. In this association
":'SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. This association the wooded flood plains of rivers provide good wildlife
consists of very poorly drained, mixed alluvial soils, many sanctuaries or good hunting. The hoctawhatchee
of which have high organic-matter content and poor River, olmes Creek, and Pine Log Creek provide good
bearing capacity. Many areas are subject to frequent fishing. A few sites are favorable 6amp and picnic
flooding, grounds, but most areas are subject to flooding. This
soil association is not suitable for golf courses, play-
Recreation grounds, and similar recreational facilities.
The soil associations were rated according to the capa-
bility of the soils to provide hunting grounds and wildlife How Soils Are Mapped and Classifed
sanctuaries. Considered in the rating were topography, O S A app an las
natural drainage, and the capability of the soils to produce Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
wildlife food and cover.
wildlife food and cover. Soil are in Washington County, where they are.lo-
Ratings were also based on restrictions of the soils if of soils are in Washington County, where they arelo-
used for camp and picnic sites, playgrounds, golf courses, eTted, and how the county knowing they likely wouldused.
and constructed ponds and lakes. Considered in rating They went into the county knowing they likely would
and constructed ponds and lakes. Considered in rating find many soils they had already seen, and perhaps some
the soils were topography, drainage, wetness, erosion they had not. As they traveled over the county, they
hazard, trafficability, and restrictions to service facilities they had steepness, lengthy traveled shapover the county, they and
observed steepness, length, and shape of slopes; size and
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Very favorable. Deep sandy flow of streams; kinds of native plants or crops; kinds
soils are extensive in this soil association. Because these of rock; and many facts about the soils. They dug many
soils are somewhat unfavorable for agriculture, many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence
large areas are still woodland. In these areas the numer- of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from
ous lakes and streams are well spaced, and the areas are the surface down into the parent material that has not
well suited to hunting and fishing. They have many been changed much by leaching or by roots of plants.
desirable camp and picnic sites. The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Most favorable. In these files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
associations are many farms and urban fringe areas. those in counties nearby and in places more distant.
Quail, dove, and other birds that live around farms and They classified and named the soils according to nation-
provide good hunting are common and can be increased Tiey uniform procedures. To use this report efficiently
by good management. Numerous small streams and wide, uniform procedures. To use this report efciently,
draws provide sites for farm ponds and good fishing. it is necessary to know the kinds of groupings most used
Because the soils are rolling and can grow good sod and in a local soil classification.
trees, these soil associations have few limitations to Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
constructing golf courses, playgrounds, wildlife sanc- series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
tuaries, and other recreational facilities commonly asso- all the soils of one series have major horizons that are
cited with urban fringe areas. similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Very favorable. The soils of this characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or
association are somewhat unfavorable for agriculture, other geographic feature near the place where a soil of







6 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Favorable. Most soils of this Most of the association is wooded and provides fair to
association provide a stable foundation for light buildings, good hunting. A few small streams provide sites for
highways, and other structures. Slopes are generally small ponds. A few areas are especially suitable for
sloping to steep, and a considerable amount of cut and camp or picnic sites, and many sites are suitable for golf
fill is needed. The soils can be moved by ordinary earth- courses and playgrounds. Many nongame birds and
moving machinery. Ditches and the shoulders of roads animals live in this association and are available to
require intensive management if severe erosion is to be people studying nature.
prevented. SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Very favorable. Most soils of
SOIL ASSOCIATION 5: Favorable. The dominant soils this association are closely associated with the soils in
of this association are moderately well drained to some- soil association 1 and have been used little for agriculture.
what poorly drained. Many areas require some drainage, They occupy low, nearly level areas around lakes and in
but the sandy areas make stable foundations for light flatwoods. These areas are well suited to hunting and
buildings, highways, and other structures. Little cut and fishing, but most areas are too low and too wet for camp
fill is required on the nearly level terrain, and the soils or picnic sites.
are easily moved by ordinary earth-moving equipment. SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Very favorable. The soils in
Erosion of ditches and the shoulders of roads is not a this association are well suited to plants that make good
serious problem, food and cover for many species of wildlife. They pro-
SOIL ASSOCIATION 6: Favorable. The dominant soils vide good hunting grounds that can be improved by good
of this association have a sandy clay loam subsoil that is game management. Only a few sites are suitable for
often saturated to within 2 feet of the surface. If ade- building ponds or lakes for fishing, and most areas are too
quately drained, these soils have a good bearing capacity, low and too wet for good camp and picnic sites. The
Because the dominant soils are very gently sloping, little association is only moderately well suited for golf courses
cut and fill is needed. Ordinary earth-moving equipment or playgrounds.
moves these soils easily. SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Favorable. In this association
":'SOIL ASSOCIATION 7: Unfavorable. This association the wooded flood plains of rivers provide good wildlife
consists of very poorly drained, mixed alluvial soils, many sanctuaries or good hunting. The hoctawhatchee
of which have high organic-matter content and poor River, olmes Creek, and Pine Log Creek provide good
bearing capacity. Many areas are subject to frequent fishing. A few sites are favorable 6amp and picnic
flooding, grounds, but most areas are subject to flooding. This
soil association is not suitable for golf courses, play-
Recreation grounds, and similar recreational facilities.
The soil associations were rated according to the capa-
bility of the soils to provide hunting grounds and wildlife How Soils Are Mapped and Classifed
sanctuaries. Considered in the rating were topography, O S A app an las
natural drainage, and the capability of the soils to produce Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
wildlife food and cover.
wildlife food and cover. Soil are in Washington County, where they are.lo-
Ratings were also based on restrictions of the soils if of soils are in Washington County, where they arelo-
used for camp and picnic sites, playgrounds, golf courses, eTted, and how the county knowing they likely wouldused.
and constructed ponds and lakes. Considered in rating They went into the county knowing they likely would
and constructed ponds and lakes. Considered in rating find many soils they had already seen, and perhaps some
the soils were topography, drainage, wetness, erosion they had not. As they traveled over the county, they
hazard, trafficability, and restrictions to service facilities they had steepness, lengthy traveled shapover the county, they and
observed steepness, length, and shape of slopes; size and
SOIL ASSOCIATION 1: Very favorable. Deep sandy flow of streams; kinds of native plants or crops; kinds
soils are extensive in this soil association. Because these of rock; and many facts about the soils. They dug many
soils are somewhat unfavorable for agriculture, many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence
large areas are still woodland. In these areas the numer- of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from
ous lakes and streams are well spaced, and the areas are the surface down into the parent material that has not
well suited to hunting and fishing. They have many been changed much by leaching or by roots of plants.
desirable camp and picnic sites. The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 2 AND 3: Most favorable. In these files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
associations are many farms and urban fringe areas. those in counties nearby and in places more distant.
Quail, dove, and other birds that live around farms and They classified and named the soils according to nation-
provide good hunting are common and can be increased Tiey uniform procedures. To use this report efficiently
by good management. Numerous small streams and wide, uniform procedures. To use this report efciently,
draws provide sites for farm ponds and good fishing. it is necessary to know the kinds of groupings most used
Because the soils are rolling and can grow good sod and in a local soil classification.
trees, these soil associations have few limitations to Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
constructing golf courses, playgrounds, wildlife sanc- series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
tuaries, and other recreational facilities commonly asso- all the soils of one series have major horizons that are
cited with urban fringe areas. similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
SOIL ASSOCIATION 4: Very favorable. The soils of this characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or
association are somewhat unfavorable for agriculture, other geographic feature near the place where a soil of









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

that series was first observed and mapped. Norfolk and engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds
Lakeland, for example, are the names of two soil series, of soils in other places are assembled. Data on yields of
All the soils in the United States having the same series crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
name are essentially alike in those characteristics that records and from field or plot experiments on the same
go with their behavior in the natural, untouched land- kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are
scape. Soils of one series can differ somewhat in tex- estimated for all the soils.
ture of the surface soil and in slope, stoniness, or some But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
other characteristic that affects use of the soils by man. have been named, described, and delineated on the map,
Many soil series contain soils that differ in texture of and the laboratory data and yield data have been assem-
their surface layer. According to such differences in bled. The mass of detailed information then needs to
texture, separations called soil types are made. Within be organized in a way that it is readily useful to different
a series, all the soils having a surface layer of the same groups of readers, among them farmers, managers of
texture belong to one soil type. Norfolk loamy sand and woodland, and engineers. Grouping soils that are simi-
Norfolk sand are two soil types in the Norfolk series, lar in suitability for each specified use is the method of
The difference in texture of their surface layer is ap- organization commonly used in the soil survey reports.
parent from their names. Based on the yield and practice tables and other data,
Some soil types vary so much in slope, degree of ero- the soil scientists set up trial groups, and test them by
sion, number and size of stones, or some other feature further study and by consultation with farmers, agrono-
affecting their use, that practical suggestions about their mists, engineers, and others. Then, the scientists adjust
management could not be made if they wee shown on the groups according to the results of their studies and
the soil map as one unit. Such soil types are divided consultation. Thus the groups that are finally evolved
into phases. The name of a soil phase indicates a feature consultation. Thus, the groups that are finally evolved
that affects management. For example, Norfolk loamy reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils and their be-
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is one of several phases of havor under present methods of use and management
Norfolk loamy sand, a soil type that ranges from nearly
level to sloping. Descrtions of the Soils
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had Descritions of the Soils
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries This section describes, in nontechnical language, the
of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These soil series (groups of soils) and single soils (mapping
photographs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, units) of Washington County. The approximate acre-
trees, and other details that greatly help in drawing age and proportionate extent of each mapping unit are
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this given in table 1.
report was prepared from the aerial photographs. The procedure in this section is first to describe the
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping soil series, and then the mapping units in that series.
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in Thus, to get full information on any one mapping unit,
planning management of farms and fields, a mapping it is necessary to read the description of that unit and
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil type or a phase of a also the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
soil type. It is not exactly equivalent, because it is not As mentioned in the section "How Soils Are Mapped
practical to show on such a map all the small, scattered and Classified," not all mapping units are members of
bits of soil of some other kind that have been seen within a soil series. Borrow pits and Swamp are miscellaneous
an area that is dominantly of a recognized soil type or land types and do not belong to a soil series but, never-
soil phase. theless, are listed in alphabetic order along with the soil
In preparing some detailed maps, it may be better to series.
show two or more related soils as one mapping unit. Following the name of each mapping unit, there is a
Such groups are called undifferentiated soil groups. For symbol in parentheses. This symbol identifies the map-
example, in some soil surveys the difference between the ping unit on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end
steep phases of different series may not be significant, of each description of a mapping unit are the capability
because slope is so important in its effect on management unit and the woodland suitability group in which the
that it outweighs the other soil characteristics. In this mapping unit has been placed. The page on which each
county Lakeland,. Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 capability unit is described can be found readily by re-
percent slopes, is an undifferentiated soil group. Also, ferring to the "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of
on most soil maps, areas are shown that are so rocky, so the report.
shallow, or so frequently worked by wind and water Soil scientists, engineers, students, and others who
that they scarcely can be called soils. These areas are want more technical descriptions of soil series should
shown on a soil map like other mapping units, but they turn to the section "Formation and Classification of
are given descriptive names, such as Alluvial land or Soils." In that section a profile representative of each
Gullied land, and are called land types rather than soils. series is described in detail. Many terms used in the
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are soil descriptions and other sections of the report are
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for defined in the Glossary.

726-719-65--2











8 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils mapped 1

Map Soil Area Extent Map Soil Area Extent
symbol symbol

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Al Alluvial land----- ------- ----_ 39, 427 10.3 FaB Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
AnA Angie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------_--- ---------- 242 0.1
slopes ------------------------- 55 (2) FaB2 Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
AnB Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 748 .2
slopes-------------------------- 531 .1 FaC2 Faceville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
AnC Angie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 205 .1
slopes ------------------------- 120 (2) GcA Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface,
Ba Bayboro soils--------------------- 1, 189 .3 0 to 2 percent slopes -------------1,053 .3
Bd Bladen soils ----------------------1, 360 .4 GcB Goldsboro coarse sand, thick sur-
BfB Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent face, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------- 5, 981 1. 6
slopes --------------------------1, 584 .4 GcC Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface,
BnB Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes__ 6, 850 1.8 5 to 8 percent slopes------------ 305 .1
BnC Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-_ 1, 501 .4 GdA Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2
Bp Borrow pits ---------------------- 262 1 percent slopes ------------------ 5,770 1.5
BoA Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent GdB Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 2 to 5
slopes------------------------_ 196 (2) percent slopes.. ------------------ 21, 993 5.8
BoB Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent GdC Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 5 to 8
slopes -------------------------3, 141 .8 percent slopes ------- -------- 447 .1
BoB2 Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent Gr Grady loam----------- ------- 175 .()
slopes, eroded .------------------ 365 1 Gu Gullied land----- --------------- 34 (2)
BoC Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent KaB Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--_ 1, 839 .5
slopes------------------------ 614 .2 KgB Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----- 15, 711 4. 1
BoC2 Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent KgC Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes---- 1, 566 .4
slopes, eroded---- ---_---_ 322 .1 KsB Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent
BwB Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 2 slopes------------------------- 2,022 .5
to 5 percent slopes-------------- 670 .2 KsC Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent
BwC Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 5 slopes------------------------- 174 (2)
to 8 percent slopes_ -------_ 146 (2) LaB Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent
CaB Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------- 73, 549 19. 2
slopes ------------------------- 120 (2) LaC Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent
CaB2 Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------- 19, 293 5.0
slopes, eroded ----------------- 270 .1 LaD Lakeland coarse sand, 8 to 12 per-
CaC2 Carnegie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent cent slopes----- ----------7 7, 367 1. 9
slopes, eroded -------------- 82 (2) LaF Lakeland coarse sand, 12 to 45 per-
CtB3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 cent slopes--------------------- 4,111 1. 1
percent slopes, severely eroded .- 250 .1 LdB Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.. 6,499 1. 7
CtC3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 5 to 8 LdC Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-- 1,570 .4
percent slopes, severely eroded -. 232 .1 LkB Lakeland sand, shallow, 0 to 5 per-
CuB Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes- 232 .1 cent slopes --------------------- 4,062 1. 1
CuB2 Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent-slopes, LkC Lakeland sand, shallow, 5 to 8 per-
eroded -------------------------2, 060 .5 cent slopes -------------------- 1, 185 .3
CuC Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 476 .1 LnD Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta
CuC2 Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------ 11, 303 3. 0
eroded------------------------- 1,456 .4 LnF Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta
CwD3 Cuthbert, Shubuta, and Lakeland soils, 12 to 45 percent slopes ----- 3, 838 1. 0
soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes, se- Lo Leon coarse sand_-- ------------ 703 .2
verely eroded------------------- 609 .2 Lu Local alluvial land--------------- 516 .1
DuB Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent LyA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2
slopes ------------------------- 1,363 .4 percent slopes----------------- 11, 672 3.1
EaB Esto loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent LyB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
slopes ------------------------- 83 (2) percent slopes_ ---------- ---- 1, 311 .3
EfA Eulonia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 per- LzA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick
cent slopes --------------------- 880 .2 surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---- 1, 472 .4
EfB Eulonia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 per- LzB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick
cent slopes --------------------- 832 .2 surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----- 370 .1
EnA Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick sur- MaB Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
face, 0 to 2 percent slopes-------- 174 (2) slopes------------------------ 640 .2
EnB Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick sur- MaB2 Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
face, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------- 133 (2) slopes, eroded ------------------ 399 .1
EsB Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent NoA Norfolk loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
slopes -------------------------15, 252 4. 0 slopes ------------------------ 395 .1
EsC Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent NoB Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes ------------------------- 2, 908 .8 slopes ------------------ 10,670 2 8
EsD Eustis coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent NoB2 Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes -------------------------1,358 .4 slopes, eroded..--------------- 1, 574 .4
EsE Eustis coarse sand, 12 to 35 percent NoC Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ------------------------- 383 1 slopes ------------------------ 801 .2
EtB Eustis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes__ 849 .2 NoC2 Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
EtC Eustis sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 703 .2 slopes, eroded_ ----------------- 634 .2
EuB Eustis sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent NrA Norfolk sand, thick surface, 0 to 2
slopes ------------------------- 299 .1 percent slopes ----------------- 198 (2)
EuC Eustis sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent NrB Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
slopes ------------------------- 216 1 percent slopes_--------------- 6,670 1.7
See footnotes at end of table.









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils mapped '-Continued

Map Soil Area Extent Map Soil Area Extent
symbol symbol

Acres Percent Acres Percent
NrC Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 RsC2 Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
percent slopes ----------------- 1, 270 0.3 slopes, eroded------------------ 369 0. 1
OkB Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes_ 220 .1 Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand------------4, 147 1. 1
OkC Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 196 (2) Sc Scranton fine sand ---------------- 157 (2)
Pm Plummer soils ------------------- 5,992 1.6 Sf Scranton fine sand, shallow--------- 966 .3
Pr Pocomoke and Rains soils---------- 1,460 .4 ShB Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
Pt Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick slopes ----------------------2, 032 .5
surface ------------------------- 705 .2 ShB2 Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
Ra Rains loamy sand----------------- 5,541 1.4 slopes, eroded --_------------ 1,601 .4
RcB Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent ShC Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes..------------------------ 531 1 slopes------------------------ 669 .2
RdB Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, ShC2 Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
2 to 5 percent slopes------------- 964 .3 slopes, eroded ------------------ 650 .2
RdC Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, Sw Swamp -------------------------
5 to 8 percent slopes------------- 490 .1 TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 29, 961 7. 8
RsB Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------- 709 .2
slopes ------------------__-- 1,853 .5 TfB2 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
RsB2 Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 1,510 .4
slopes, eroded ------------------ 711 .2 TfC2 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
RsC Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 234 1
slopes------------ ------ ---- 522 1
Total-------------------382, 080 100. 0,

I Includes areas of water less than 40 acres in size. 2 Less than 0.1 percent.

Alluvial Land better drained areas, and the grayish soil materials are
in the more poorly drained areas.
Alluvial material on first bottoms along streams makes The native vegetation consists chiefly of oak, bay,
up this land type, which is frequently flooded and has gum, hickory, and pine. Only a small part of this land
variable drainage. type has been cleared. The cultivated areas consist of
Alluvial land (Al).-This land type consists of alluvial only a few small patches that are especially suited to
soil material on first bottoms along streams. It is garden crops and a few areas that adjoin cultivated
frequently flooded and varies greatly in drainage. The areas of other soils. Because it is frequently flooded and
sediments of the alluvial material were washed from many has variable drainage, and because it is rough and dis-
different soils and vary widely in texture and color, sected, this land is not suited to cultivation in most
Variable amounts and kinds of sediments are deposited places. Cleared, well-managed areas, however, produce
in each overflow. The wide bottom lands, except in favorable yields of improved grasses, except in the most
the narrow strips along their drainage channels, generally poorly drained areas or in the areas that are flooded for
receive much finer textured sediments than the narrow long periods. (Capability unit VIIws-1; woodland suit-
1,.lr in lands. Along these narrow strips the material ability group 12)
consists dominantly of sand and loamy sand. The
finer textured sediments are deposited in areas farther
from the stream channels than are the coarser textured Angie Series
materials. Water backs up in these areas, and surface In the Angie series are deep, somewhat poorly drained,
drainage is slow. The texture of the soil material is strongly acid soils that developed from thinly bedded
extremely variable because the location of stream channels clay and sandy clay on nearly level to sloping uplands.
has changed from time to time and sediments with varied These soils have a very dark gray to grayish-brown
texture have built up. loamy sand surface layer that is underlain by light yel-
The drainage of this land varies extremely in the lowish-brown, yellowish-brown, or grayish-brown loamy
narrow bottom lands. The better drained areas occur sand. The entire surface layer is less than 18 inches
along the stream channels where the streams have enough thick. Between the surface layer and the subsoil, the
gradient to form a deep channel. They are also in the boundary is abrupt. The subsoil is yellow to strong-
higher areas along old meandering drainage channels brown, very firm sandy clay to clay that is mottled with
where the surface is hammocky or uneven. Some of the yellow, red, and gray in the lower part. At a depth of
narrow bottom lands are well drained, and the soil mate- 16 to 44 inches, the subsoil grades into distinctly mot-
rial is brown or yellowish brown. In many of these tled, stratified sandy loam to clay parent material.
narrow strips, however, drainage is slow and the soil The Angie soils occur mostly on small knolls and hill-
material is gray. Here the stream gradient is slight, sides and are next to the Bowie, Shubuta, Cuthbert, and
and water seeps from adjacent uplands. The soil mate- Goldsboro soils. The Angle soils are similar to the Bowie
rials on the large bottom lands range from brown, yel- and Goldsboro soils in color and texture of the surface
lowish brown, and pale brown to gray and light gray. layer, but they have a thinner and finer textured subsoil
The brownish and yellowish soil materials are in the than those soils and are less well drained. Angle soils









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils mapped '-Continued

Map Soil Area Extent Map Soil Area Extent
symbol symbol

Acres Percent Acres Percent
NrC Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 RsC2 Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
percent slopes ----------------- 1, 270 0.3 slopes, eroded------------------ 369 0. 1
OkB Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes_ 220 .1 Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand------------4, 147 1. 1
OkC Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 196 (2) Sc Scranton fine sand ---------------- 157 (2)
Pm Plummer soils ------------------- 5,992 1.6 Sf Scranton fine sand, shallow--------- 966 .3
Pr Pocomoke and Rains soils---------- 1,460 .4 ShB Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
Pt Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick slopes ----------------------2, 032 .5
surface ------------------------- 705 .2 ShB2 Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
Ra Rains loamy sand----------------- 5,541 1.4 slopes, eroded --_------------ 1,601 .4
RcB Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent ShC Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes..------------------------ 531 1 slopes------------------------ 669 .2
RdB Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, ShC2 Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
2 to 5 percent slopes------------- 964 .3 slopes, eroded ------------------ 650 .2
RdC Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, Sw Swamp -------------------------
5 to 8 percent slopes------------- 490 .1 TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 29, 961 7. 8
RsB Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------- 709 .2
slopes ------------------__-- 1,853 .5 TfB2 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
RsB2 Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 1,510 .4
slopes, eroded ------------------ 711 .2 TfC2 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
RsC Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded------------------ 234 1
slopes------------ ------ ---- 522 1
Total-------------------382, 080 100. 0,

I Includes areas of water less than 40 acres in size. 2 Less than 0.1 percent.

Alluvial Land better drained areas, and the grayish soil materials are
in the more poorly drained areas.
Alluvial material on first bottoms along streams makes The native vegetation consists chiefly of oak, bay,
up this land type, which is frequently flooded and has gum, hickory, and pine. Only a small part of this land
variable drainage. type has been cleared. The cultivated areas consist of
Alluvial land (Al).-This land type consists of alluvial only a few small patches that are especially suited to
soil material on first bottoms along streams. It is garden crops and a few areas that adjoin cultivated
frequently flooded and varies greatly in drainage. The areas of other soils. Because it is frequently flooded and
sediments of the alluvial material were washed from many has variable drainage, and because it is rough and dis-
different soils and vary widely in texture and color, sected, this land is not suited to cultivation in most
Variable amounts and kinds of sediments are deposited places. Cleared, well-managed areas, however, produce
in each overflow. The wide bottom lands, except in favorable yields of improved grasses, except in the most
the narrow strips along their drainage channels, generally poorly drained areas or in the areas that are flooded for
receive much finer textured sediments than the narrow long periods. (Capability unit VIIws-1; woodland suit-
1,.lr in lands. Along these narrow strips the material ability group 12)
consists dominantly of sand and loamy sand. The
finer textured sediments are deposited in areas farther
from the stream channels than are the coarser textured Angie Series
materials. Water backs up in these areas, and surface In the Angie series are deep, somewhat poorly drained,
drainage is slow. The texture of the soil material is strongly acid soils that developed from thinly bedded
extremely variable because the location of stream channels clay and sandy clay on nearly level to sloping uplands.
has changed from time to time and sediments with varied These soils have a very dark gray to grayish-brown
texture have built up. loamy sand surface layer that is underlain by light yel-
The drainage of this land varies extremely in the lowish-brown, yellowish-brown, or grayish-brown loamy
narrow bottom lands. The better drained areas occur sand. The entire surface layer is less than 18 inches
along the stream channels where the streams have enough thick. Between the surface layer and the subsoil, the
gradient to form a deep channel. They are also in the boundary is abrupt. The subsoil is yellow to strong-
higher areas along old meandering drainage channels brown, very firm sandy clay to clay that is mottled with
where the surface is hammocky or uneven. Some of the yellow, red, and gray in the lower part. At a depth of
narrow bottom lands are well drained, and the soil mate- 16 to 44 inches, the subsoil grades into distinctly mot-
rial is brown or yellowish brown. In many of these tled, stratified sandy loam to clay parent material.
narrow strips, however, drainage is slow and the soil The Angie soils occur mostly on small knolls and hill-
material is gray. Here the stream gradient is slight, sides and are next to the Bowie, Shubuta, Cuthbert, and
and water seeps from adjacent uplands. The soil mate- Goldsboro soils. The Angle soils are similar to the Bowie
rials on the large bottom lands range from brown, yel- and Goldsboro soils in color and texture of the surface
lowish brown, and pale brown to gray and light gray. layer, but they have a thinner and finer textured subsoil
The brownish and yellowish soil materials are in the than those soils and are less well drained. Angle soils









10 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2
are also less well drained than the Shubuta soils and Because of unfavorable characteristics, this soil has
have a yellow instead of a red subsoil. The subsoil of limited suitability for crops. It should be cultivated only
the Angle soils is thicker, more friable, and less compact occasionally. Low fertility and low available moisture
than the red subsoil of the Cuthbert soils. capacity limit yields of crops and make the control of
The Angie soils occur in small, widely scattered areas erosion difficult. This soil is best suited to pasture grasses,
in the northern half of the county. They are most cor- to trees, and for wildlife habitats. (Capability unit
mon in the north-central and west-central parts. The VIes-1; woodland suitability group 5)
native vegetation consists principally of longleaf pine,
slash pine, various hardwoods, low shrubs, and native Bayboro Series
grasses. Although these soils are not extensive and are
only moderately well suited to crops, many areas are In the Bayboro series are deep, very poorly drained,
cultivated along with more extensive soils. strongly acid soils that developed from thick beds of
Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (AnB).-This acid sandy clay and clay. These soils occur in nearly
somewhat poorly drained soil is on uplands and has a level, depressional or ponded areas in low positions on
very firm, yellow or yellowish-brown sandy clay or clay the uplands and have accumulated a large amount of
subsoil. organic matter. They have a black to very dark gray
Representative profile in a wooded area: loamy sand to clay loam surface layer that is high in
0 to 5 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy sand. organic-matter content and is 8 to 18 inches thick. The
5 to 15 inches, very friable, grayish-brown loamy sand. subsoil is dark-gray to light-gray, firm fine sandy clay
15 to 24 inches, very firm, yellow sandy clay. loam in the upper part and is extremely firm, plastic
24 to 60 inches +, very firm, mottled red, yellow, brown, and sandy clay to clay in the lower part. It is mottled in the
light-gray sandy clay. lower part with yellow, brownish yellow, and red, and
The plow layer normally ranges from very dark gray it grades to parent material of mottled light-gray and
,to grayish brown and is generally loamy sand but is gray sandy clay loam to clay.
loamy fine sand in a few small areas. The subsoil is 10 Bayboro soils generally occur in depressions as do
to 30 inches thick, is yellow to strong brown, and has Bladen, Pocomoke, Rains, and Dunbar soils. Bayboro
sandy clay to clay texture. The lower 6 to 20 inches of soils have a thicker, more highly organic surface layer
the subsoil is mottled with various hues of yellow, brown, than Bladen soils. They have a thicker, darker surface
red, and gray. The underlying material is highly mot- layer than Rains soils, and a finer textured, more plastic
tled, stratified sandy loam to clay. and sticky subsoil. The surface layer of Bayboro soils
This soil is strongly acid, is low in natural fertility, is similar to that of Pocomoke soils in color, thickness,
and contains little organic matter. The highly permeable and organic-matter content, but the subsoil is finer tex-
surface soil has low available moisture capacity. The tured and more plastic and sticky. Bayboro soils are
root zone is restricted by the dense, sticky, poorly aerated, more poorly drained than Dunbar soils and have a thick,
slowly permeable subsoil. Periodic wetness also restricts highly organic surface layer and a gray or light-gray
normal growth of roots, but forage crops and other subsoil instead of a brownish one.
shallow-rooted crops do well on this soil.
Under good management, this soil is moderately well Bayboro soils occur in small to moderately large, very
suited to cultivation It s moderately well suited to poorly drained areas, dominantly in the east-central and
improved pasture and is well suited to pines. (Capabil- west-central parts of the county. The native vegetation
ity unit IVes-2; woodland suitability group 5) consists mainly of cypress, blackgum, bay, and pond
Ange loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ( .-This grasses. These soils are not suitable for cultivation un-
Angie loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (AnA).-This der natural conditions. They are not extensive, and they
soil is less sloping than Angle loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent remain in native vegetation.
slopes. Surface runoff is slower, and consequently, this remain in native vegetation.
soil remains wet longer after rains. Surface drainage Bayboro soils (Ba).--In this mapping unit are very
may be necessary in some areas for best growth of crops, poorly drained soils on uplands. These soils have a thick
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops surface layer, which contains a large amount of organic
but is suited only to those crops that tolerate slight matter, and an extremely firm and plastic sandy clay or
wetness. It is best suited to corn. If management is clay subsoil.
good, this soil is moderately well suited to improved Representative profile in a nearly level wooded area:
pasture consisting of bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It 0 to 15 inches, friable, black very fine sandy loam.
is well suited as woodland and for wildlife habitats. 15 to 18 inches, firm, dark-gray fine sandy clay loam.
(Capability unit IVes-2; woodland suitability group 5) 18 to 44 inches, extremely firm and plastic, gray clay that has
common, dark-gray and few, yellowish-brown mottles.
Angle loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (AnC).-This 44 to 54 inches +, extremely firm and very plastic, mottled
soil occurs in only a few small areas. It is steeper than light-gray and gray heavy sandy clay.
Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is shallower The surface layer ranges from loamy sand to clay, is
and generally more variable. 8 to 18 inches thick, and is black to very dark gray. In
This soil is highly susceptible to erosion. Because 8 to 18 inches thick, anderlain black to very dark gray. ish-brown
slopes are strong and the subsoil is slowly permeable, many places it is underain by a gray to grayish-brown
runoff is rapid and erosion is severe on unprotected areas. layer that is 2 to 6 inches thick in some places. Sandy
The dense, poorly aerated subsoil is not favorable for the clay to clay occurs within 18 inches of the surface and
growth of roots. is slightly mottled light gray to dark gray. It is under-
Included with this soil are a few small spots that have lain by light-gray and gray sandy clay loam to clay
been damaged by moderate sheet erosion, parent material at a depth greater than 36 inches.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

These soils are strongly acid, are moderate in natural layer and is very slow in the subsoil. Because these soils
fertility, and have a moderate to high content of or- are wet and are slowly drained internally, they have a
g;aii.: matter. Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid very poorly aerated subsoil. Consequently, the root zone
in the surface layer, and available moisture capacity is and the suitability for cultivated crops are limited.
inh.rtilely high. These soils have a moderately deep If these soils are adequately drained and well man-
root zone. Roots develop poorly because the subsoil is aged, they are suited to shallow-rooted crops. If they
very dense, very poorly aerated, and subject to water- are intensively managed, they are well suited to im-
l,:,ggi iL during wet periods. proved pasture. (Capability unit IIIws-2; woodland
If these soils are ;ile'in:idly drained, they are suited suitability group 9)
to improved pasture, Ibut '.':..l1 oil management is needed
for high yields. Tl.y are well suited as woodland and Blanton Series
as wil1llife habitats. (Capability unit Vws-1; woodland
-ii'i-,l.ilitvy ._,tI.ip 9) In the Blanton series are deep, moderately well
drained, strongly acid soils that developed from thick
Bladen Series beds of acid sand on nearly level to sloping uplands.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to very dark gray
In the Bladen series are deep, poorly h i:,ii. l, strongly sand or fine sand 2 to 4 inches thick. It is underlain by
acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid clay layers that range from fine sand to coarse sand and
ai dl sandy clay in low, nearly level or depressional areas extend to a depth greater than 42 inches. These layers
in uplands. These soils have a dark to very dark gray are mottled or splotched with various hues of yellow,
k:11:~11y -: ld. to clay loam surface layer. Within 14 inches brown, gray, or white.
of the surface is a dark-gray to grayish-brown subsoil The Blanton soils occur mainly with the Lakeland,
Ith:I is mottled with various shades of yellow, brown, Klej, Leon, and Plummer soils. All of these soils have
gray, and red. The upper 1 to 3 inches of the subsoil developed from similar material. Blanton soils are,
is light sandy clay loam to, sandy clay loam, and the paler than Lakeland soils and have a higher water table,
lower part is very firm, plastic sandy clay to clay. The which is commonly within 60 inches of the surface.
parent il, :I,:id is highly mottled sandy clay to clay. They are similar to the Klej soils but, are dominantly
Bladen soils generally occur with the Rains, Bowie, gray instead of yellow. Blanton soils are better drained
Eil,.i.i, Goldsboro, Dunbar, and Lynchburg soils. They than Plummer and Leon soils and lack the organic pan
are finer textured than all those soils except the Dunbar. that is characteristic of Leon soils.
The B1l:.i soils are similar to the Rains soils in color Blanton soils occur throughout the county but are more
and drainage. They are more poorly drained than common in the southern half. The native vegetation
r' i-o, Eulonia, and Goldsboro soils and are dominantly generally consists of thin stands of longleaf and slash
gray rather than yellow. Bladen soils are more poorly pines, turkey oak, post oak, low shrubs, and native
drained and are grayer than Dunbar and Lynchburg grasses. However, in the south-central part of the county
soils. where these soils are adjacent to the many lakes the
The Bladen soils occur in scattered areas in the north- native vegetation is very sparse and consists chiefly of
east-central and west-central parts of the county. The low shrubs. Some areas of these soils have been cleared
in.tiv. vegetation consists principally of scattered slash and are used for cultivated crops.
and l-ii,1v.-if pines, various water-tolerant hardwoods, Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BnB).-This
and native grasses. The total acreage in this county is moderately well drained soil of the uplands consists of

small. A moderate part has been cleared and is used rapidly permeable, deep sand throughout the profile.
for improved pasture. Representative profile in a native pasture:
Bladen soils (Bd).-These poorly drained soils of the 0 to 4 inches, loose, very dark gray sand.
uplands have an extremely firm, plastic sandy clay or 4 to 38 inches, loose, light-gray sand mottled with brownish
clay subsoil. yellow.
l-cl'e-rl;,l ive profile in a nearly level improved 38 to 76 inches +, loose, white sand mottled with very pale
pasture: brown and yellowish brown.
pasture:
0 to 7 inches, friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand. The plow layer ranges from very dark gray to gray
7 to 15 inches, very firm or plastic, grayish-brown clay that has sand that is underlain by very pale brown to white sand
a few, light olive-brown mottles. with a variable amount of mottling. Included with this
15 to 52 inches +, very firm or plastic, mottled gray clay, soil are a few areas of fine sand and a few small areas
The plow layer ranges from gray or very dark gray that are higher and more drought than is normal for
l.:..imin sand to clay loam but is loamy fine sand in most this soil.
places. The subsoil is gray to grayish-brown, plastic This soil is strongly acid, is low in natural fertility,
sandy clay to clay that is mottled with various shades and contains little organic matter. Permeability and
of 1.ro v, brown, yellow, and red. It is underlain by leaching of plant nutrients are rapid. These soils have
highly mottled sandy clay or clay at a depth of 36 low available moisture capacity and are drought during
to more than 48 inches. Included with these soils are a periods of low rainfall.
few small areas with slopes of 2 to 8 percent. Under good management that includes large additions
These soils are strongly acid, have a medium content of fertilizer, corn, small grain, and pasture plants gen-
of organic matter, are moderate in natural fertility, and erally produce moderate yields. This soil is well suited
have a moderately high available moisture capacity. as woodland, and it makes good habitats for wildlife.
Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid in the surface (C~1-i1:ili(y unit IIIse-2; woodland suitability group 7)








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

These soils are strongly acid, are moderate in natural layer and is very slow in the subsoil. Because these soils
fertility, and have a moderate to high content of or- are wet and are slowly drained internally, they have a
g;aii.: matter. Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid very poorly aerated subsoil. Consequently, the root zone
in the surface layer, and available moisture capacity is and the suitability for cultivated crops are limited.
inh.rtilely high. These soils have a moderately deep If these soils are adequately drained and well man-
root zone. Roots develop poorly because the subsoil is aged, they are suited to shallow-rooted crops. If they
very dense, very poorly aerated, and subject to water- are intensively managed, they are well suited to im-
l,:,ggi iL during wet periods. proved pasture. (Capability unit IIIws-2; woodland
If these soils are ;ile'in:idly drained, they are suited suitability group 9)
to improved pasture, Ibut '.':..l1 oil management is needed
for high yields. Tl.y are well suited as woodland and Blanton Series
as wil1llife habitats. (Capability unit Vws-1; woodland
-ii'i-,l.ilitvy ._,tI.ip 9) In the Blanton series are deep, moderately well
drained, strongly acid soils that developed from thick
Bladen Series beds of acid sand on nearly level to sloping uplands.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to very dark gray
In the Bladen series are deep, poorly h i:,ii. l, strongly sand or fine sand 2 to 4 inches thick. It is underlain by
acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid clay layers that range from fine sand to coarse sand and
ai dl sandy clay in low, nearly level or depressional areas extend to a depth greater than 42 inches. These layers
in uplands. These soils have a dark to very dark gray are mottled or splotched with various hues of yellow,
k:11:~11y -: ld. to clay loam surface layer. Within 14 inches brown, gray, or white.
of the surface is a dark-gray to grayish-brown subsoil The Blanton soils occur mainly with the Lakeland,
Ith:I is mottled with various shades of yellow, brown, Klej, Leon, and Plummer soils. All of these soils have
gray, and red. The upper 1 to 3 inches of the subsoil developed from similar material. Blanton soils are,
is light sandy clay loam to, sandy clay loam, and the paler than Lakeland soils and have a higher water table,
lower part is very firm, plastic sandy clay to clay. The which is commonly within 60 inches of the surface.
parent il, :I,:id is highly mottled sandy clay to clay. They are similar to the Klej soils but, are dominantly
Bladen soils generally occur with the Rains, Bowie, gray instead of yellow. Blanton soils are better drained
Eil,.i.i, Goldsboro, Dunbar, and Lynchburg soils. They than Plummer and Leon soils and lack the organic pan
are finer textured than all those soils except the Dunbar. that is characteristic of Leon soils.
The B1l:.i soils are similar to the Rains soils in color Blanton soils occur throughout the county but are more
and drainage. They are more poorly drained than common in the southern half. The native vegetation
r' i-o, Eulonia, and Goldsboro soils and are dominantly generally consists of thin stands of longleaf and slash
gray rather than yellow. Bladen soils are more poorly pines, turkey oak, post oak, low shrubs, and native
drained and are grayer than Dunbar and Lynchburg grasses. However, in the south-central part of the county
soils. where these soils are adjacent to the many lakes the
The Bladen soils occur in scattered areas in the north- native vegetation is very sparse and consists chiefly of
east-central and west-central parts of the county. The low shrubs. Some areas of these soils have been cleared
in.tiv. vegetation consists principally of scattered slash and are used for cultivated crops.
and l-ii,1v.-if pines, various water-tolerant hardwoods, Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BnB).-This
and native grasses. The total acreage in this county is moderately well drained soil of the uplands consists of

small. A moderate part has been cleared and is used rapidly permeable, deep sand throughout the profile.
for improved pasture. Representative profile in a native pasture:
Bladen soils (Bd).-These poorly drained soils of the 0 to 4 inches, loose, very dark gray sand.
uplands have an extremely firm, plastic sandy clay or 4 to 38 inches, loose, light-gray sand mottled with brownish
clay subsoil. yellow.
l-cl'e-rl;,l ive profile in a nearly level improved 38 to 76 inches +, loose, white sand mottled with very pale
pasture: brown and yellowish brown.
pasture:
0 to 7 inches, friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand. The plow layer ranges from very dark gray to gray
7 to 15 inches, very firm or plastic, grayish-brown clay that has sand that is underlain by very pale brown to white sand
a few, light olive-brown mottles. with a variable amount of mottling. Included with this
15 to 52 inches +, very firm or plastic, mottled gray clay, soil are a few areas of fine sand and a few small areas
The plow layer ranges from gray or very dark gray that are higher and more drought than is normal for
l.:..imin sand to clay loam but is loamy fine sand in most this soil.
places. The subsoil is gray to grayish-brown, plastic This soil is strongly acid, is low in natural fertility,
sandy clay to clay that is mottled with various shades and contains little organic matter. Permeability and
of 1.ro v, brown, yellow, and red. It is underlain by leaching of plant nutrients are rapid. These soils have
highly mottled sandy clay or clay at a depth of 36 low available moisture capacity and are drought during
to more than 48 inches. Included with these soils are a periods of low rainfall.
few small areas with slopes of 2 to 8 percent. Under good management that includes large additions
These soils are strongly acid, have a medium content of fertilizer, corn, small grain, and pasture plants gen-
of organic matter, are moderate in natural fertility, and erally produce moderate yields. This soil is well suited
have a moderately high available moisture capacity. as woodland, and it makes good habitats for wildlife.
Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid in the surface (C~1-i1:ili(y unit IIIse-2; woodland suitability group 7)








12 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BnC).-This soil textured in the subsoil as the Angie soils but are better
has stronger slopes and better surface drainage than drained and more friable. Bowie soils are better drained
Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and normally has a than the Shubuta and Cuthbert soils and have a coarser
lower water table. Included in mapped areas are a few textured and yellower subsoil.
small areas with slopes of 8 to 12 percent and a few small Bowie soils occupy a moderately large total acreage
areas of fine sand. that is scattered through all the county except in most of
This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Blanton the southern half. The largest areas occur in the north-
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and requires more intensive eastern part of the county. The native vegetation con-
management if cultivated. It is best suited to improved sists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash pine, hickory, oak,
pasture and trees. (Capability unit IVse-1; woodland various shrubs, native grasses, and in places a scattering
suitability group 7) of gallberry. These soils are well suited to many kinds
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BfB).-This of cultivated crops and to improved pasture. They have
soil is finer textured than Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent been extensively cleared and cultivated.
slopes, and consequently, has a slightly higher available Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (BoB). -This
moisture capacity and is more productive of cultivated well-drained soil on the uplands has a loamy surface layer
crops. Under good management, the soil is moderately and a clayey subsoil.
well u.ilr.l to corn, small grain, and improved pasture. Representative profile in an idle field:
It is well suited as woodland, and it makes good habitats
for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland suit- 0 to inches, very friable, brown loamy sand.
ability group 7) 6 to 14 inches, very friable, yellowish-brown loamy sand.
14 to 27 inches, friable, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam.
27 to 36 inches, firm, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay with
Brrw Pits prominent, red mottles.
Borrow Pits 36 to 52 inches +, firm, mottled sandy clay; few thin lenses of
fine sandy clay loam below 41 inches.
The open excavations and uneven piles of waste mate-
rial that make up this land type have little or no agri- The plow layer ranges from brown to dark-gray loamy
cultural value, sand and is underlain by a very pale brown to yellowish-
Borrow pits (Bp).-The excavations in this land type brown layer. Sandy loam to sandy clay loam extends
were made when the soil material was removed to be used from a depth of about 18 inches to a depth of 25 to 30
in road construction and repair. Some waste material inches. Below this depth, the subsoil is heavy sandy
that cannot be used on roads remains at the sides of the clay loam to sandy clay. Below the very pale brown to
pits. The pits vary in size but are generally less than yellowish-brown layer., the subsoil ranges from yellow
3 acres. Areas that are too small to be delineated are to yellowish brown and is normally mottled at a depth
shown on the map by the symbol for gravel pits. Areas of about 28 inches. Depth to mottling, however, ranges
of Borrow pits occur throughout the county but have a from 20 inches to as much as 34 inches. The underlying
small total acreage. They have little or no agricultural material is sandy clay loam to clay and occurs at a depth
value in their present condition. Some areas may be of 36 to 42 inches.
valuable for wildlife if they are reforested by natural This soil is strongly acid and has moderately low natu-
li or pLI ng. (Capability unit VIIse-2; woodland ral fertility and organic-matter content. It is sufficiently
-i lalit v ,:,OI.I| 12) loamy to have good tilth and moderately high available
moisture capacity. Permeability is rapid to moderately
Bowie Series rapid in the surface layer and is moderately rapid in the
subsoil. Surface drainage is good, and internal drainage
In the Bowie series are deep, well-drained, strongly is medium. This soil retains plant nutrients well, has
acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy moderate cation-exchange capacity, and responds well to
clay material on nearly level to sloping uplands. These fertilizer. It has a deep, moderately well aerated root
soils have a dark-gray to yellowish-brown loamy sand to zone, but deep-rooted crops may be damaged during wet
sandy loam surface layer that is underlain by yellow to periods because drainage is restricted in the lower part
yellowish-brown sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. of the subsoil. The available moisture capacity is low
Generally, at a depth of about 28 inches, the subsoil is in the surface layer and high in the subsoil.
heavy fine sandy clay loam to sandy clay mottled with This soil is well suited to many kinds of locally grown
strong brown to red. The depth to mottling, however, crops. It is also well suited to improved pasture or to
:i-,.. from 20 inches to as much as 34 inches. The sub- trees and as a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit
soil is underlain by distinctly mottled sandy clay loam IIe-2; woodland suitability group 4)
or sandy clay parent material.
Bowie soils generally occur with the Norfolk, Golds- Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (BoA).-This
boro, Angle, Shubuta, and Cuthbert soils. They are nearly level soil has slower surface runoff than Bowie
slightly finer textured and slightly more compact than loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. In a few areas the
the Norfolk soils, which do not have strong-brown to red surface layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches. This soil
ottles in the lower rt of the stbs o e owe is well suited to most locally grown crops, to improved
mottles in the lower part of the subsoil The Bwie pasture, and to trees. It makes good habitats for wild-
soils resemble the Goldsboro soils in color but are better life. (Capability unit I-1; woodland suitability group 4)
drained and li:v, Iv .mIinient, -I riiii-brown to red mottles Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
in the subsoil inolr:.l of 1p:il4-I:,.:\\n and gray ones. In (BoB2).-This moderately eroded soil has a thinner
the lower part of the subsoil, the Bowie soils are finer surface layer than Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
textured than the Goldsboro soils. They are not so fine slopes. The surface layer is about 8 inches thick in most








12 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BnC).-This soil textured in the subsoil as the Angie soils but are better
has stronger slopes and better surface drainage than drained and more friable. Bowie soils are better drained
Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and normally has a than the Shubuta and Cuthbert soils and have a coarser
lower water table. Included in mapped areas are a few textured and yellower subsoil.
small areas with slopes of 8 to 12 percent and a few small Bowie soils occupy a moderately large total acreage
areas of fine sand. that is scattered through all the county except in most of
This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Blanton the southern half. The largest areas occur in the north-
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and requires more intensive eastern part of the county. The native vegetation con-
management if cultivated. It is best suited to improved sists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash pine, hickory, oak,
pasture and trees. (Capability unit IVse-1; woodland various shrubs, native grasses, and in places a scattering
suitability group 7) of gallberry. These soils are well suited to many kinds
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BfB).-This of cultivated crops and to improved pasture. They have
soil is finer textured than Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent been extensively cleared and cultivated.
slopes, and consequently, has a slightly higher available Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (BoB). -This
moisture capacity and is more productive of cultivated well-drained soil on the uplands has a loamy surface layer
crops. Under good management, the soil is moderately and a clayey subsoil.
well u.ilr.l to corn, small grain, and improved pasture. Representative profile in an idle field:
It is well suited as woodland, and it makes good habitats
for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland suit- 0 to inches, very friable, brown loamy sand.
ability group 7) 6 to 14 inches, very friable, yellowish-brown loamy sand.
14 to 27 inches, friable, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam.
27 to 36 inches, firm, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay with
Brrw Pits prominent, red mottles.
Borrow Pits 36 to 52 inches +, firm, mottled sandy clay; few thin lenses of
fine sandy clay loam below 41 inches.
The open excavations and uneven piles of waste mate-
rial that make up this land type have little or no agri- The plow layer ranges from brown to dark-gray loamy
cultural value, sand and is underlain by a very pale brown to yellowish-
Borrow pits (Bp).-The excavations in this land type brown layer. Sandy loam to sandy clay loam extends
were made when the soil material was removed to be used from a depth of about 18 inches to a depth of 25 to 30
in road construction and repair. Some waste material inches. Below this depth, the subsoil is heavy sandy
that cannot be used on roads remains at the sides of the clay loam to sandy clay. Below the very pale brown to
pits. The pits vary in size but are generally less than yellowish-brown layer., the subsoil ranges from yellow
3 acres. Areas that are too small to be delineated are to yellowish brown and is normally mottled at a depth
shown on the map by the symbol for gravel pits. Areas of about 28 inches. Depth to mottling, however, ranges
of Borrow pits occur throughout the county but have a from 20 inches to as much as 34 inches. The underlying
small total acreage. They have little or no agricultural material is sandy clay loam to clay and occurs at a depth
value in their present condition. Some areas may be of 36 to 42 inches.
valuable for wildlife if they are reforested by natural This soil is strongly acid and has moderately low natu-
li or pLI ng. (Capability unit VIIse-2; woodland ral fertility and organic-matter content. It is sufficiently
-i lalit v ,:,OI.I| 12) loamy to have good tilth and moderately high available
moisture capacity. Permeability is rapid to moderately
Bowie Series rapid in the surface layer and is moderately rapid in the
subsoil. Surface drainage is good, and internal drainage
In the Bowie series are deep, well-drained, strongly is medium. This soil retains plant nutrients well, has
acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy moderate cation-exchange capacity, and responds well to
clay material on nearly level to sloping uplands. These fertilizer. It has a deep, moderately well aerated root
soils have a dark-gray to yellowish-brown loamy sand to zone, but deep-rooted crops may be damaged during wet
sandy loam surface layer that is underlain by yellow to periods because drainage is restricted in the lower part
yellowish-brown sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. of the subsoil. The available moisture capacity is low
Generally, at a depth of about 28 inches, the subsoil is in the surface layer and high in the subsoil.
heavy fine sandy clay loam to sandy clay mottled with This soil is well suited to many kinds of locally grown
strong brown to red. The depth to mottling, however, crops. It is also well suited to improved pasture or to
:i-,.. from 20 inches to as much as 34 inches. The sub- trees and as a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit
soil is underlain by distinctly mottled sandy clay loam IIe-2; woodland suitability group 4)
or sandy clay parent material.
Bowie soils generally occur with the Norfolk, Golds- Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (BoA).-This
boro, Angle, Shubuta, and Cuthbert soils. They are nearly level soil has slower surface runoff than Bowie
slightly finer textured and slightly more compact than loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. In a few areas the
the Norfolk soils, which do not have strong-brown to red surface layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches. This soil
ottles in the lower rt of the stbs o e owe is well suited to most locally grown crops, to improved
mottles in the lower part of the subsoil The Bwie pasture, and to trees. It makes good habitats for wild-
soils resemble the Goldsboro soils in color but are better life. (Capability unit I-1; woodland suitability group 4)
drained and li:v, Iv .mIinient, -I riiii-brown to red mottles Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
in the subsoil inolr:.l of 1p:il4-I:,.:\\n and gray ones. In (BoB2).-This moderately eroded soil has a thinner
the lower part of the subsoil, the Bowie soils are finer surface layer than Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
textured than the Goldsboro soils. They are not so fine slopes. The surface layer is about 8 inches thick in most








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

places but ranges from 4 to 13 inches in thickness. Most layer is slightly less than 18 inches thick or is slightly
erosion is sheet erosion, and there are only a few shallow more than 30 inches.
Villies-. Included with this soil, however, are a few small Th1i- soil is strongly acid and is low in natural fer-
spots that are severely eroded. ,To produce high yields, utility and in organic-matter content. Permeability is
in,'..'i: intensive use of cover crops and green-manure rapid in the surface 1-iv.-i and moderate in the subsoil.
crops is required on this soil than on Bowie loamy sand, Surface drainage is good, and internal drainage is me-
2 to 5 percent slopes. dium. The soil retains plant nutrients well, has a mod-
Under good management that includes practices to rate cation-exchange capacity, and responds well to
control erosion, this soil is well suited to many kinds of fertilizer. Because of restricted drainage in the lower
cultivated crops. It is also well suited to improved subsoil, deep-rooted crops are sometimes damaged during
pasture and trees, and it makes good habitats for wiid1- periods of very high rainfall. The available moisture
life. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodland suitability capacity is low in the surface layer and high in the
group 4) subsoil.
Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BoC).-This This soil is well suited to most locally grown crops.
sloping soil has more i;ipild runoff than Bowie loamy It is also well suited to improved pasture and trees and
sand, 2 to 5 percent -.pti--, and is more susceptible to as a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIse-1; wood-
erosion. It generally has a slightly thinner surface land suitability group 4)
layer. The surface layer is 13 to 16 inches thick in most Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes
places but in some areas is as much as 18 inches thick. (BwC).-This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than
The mottling is generally nearer the surface, or at a Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
depth of 20 to 28 inches. Included with this soil are a and is more susceptible to erosion. In some areas
few, small, moderately eroded areas and a few areas on mottling in the subsoil is slightly nearer the surface.
slopes of 8 to 12 percent. For high yields, this soil requires more control of
Thi- soil is well suited to most cultivated crops grown erosion and other management than Bowie loamy sand,
in ih,- county, but because of the erosion hazard, it is thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. It is suited to
-il,-.l to only moderately intensive use. However, moderately intensive cultivation. Under good manage-
under good management that provides intensive practices ment that includes intensive practices of erosion control,
to control erosion, good yields may be produced. The good yields may be produced. The soil is well suited to
-I.. is well suited to improved pasture and trees, and it improved pasture of bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to
makes good wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IIIe-2; trees, and for wildlife-habitats. (Capability unit IIIes-2;
w ,dlnl -nii :i1,ilii y group 4) woodland suitability group 4)
Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
(BoC2).-This sloping, eroded soil generally has a thinner Camegie Series
surface layer than Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 13 inches in In the Carnegie series are deep, well-drained, and
thickness but is generally about 6 inches thick. The strongly acid soils that developed from stratified, acid
parent material is -r. really nearer the surface in this sandy clay loam and sandy clay on nearly level to
soil. Because this -..il i- steeper than Bowie loamy strongly sloping uplands. These soils have a very dark
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it is more susceptible to gray to dark-brown loamy sand to fine sandy loam sur-
erosion. Most erosion is sheet erosion, and there are face layer that is underlain by strong-brown to red sandy
only a f\\- shallow or deep gullies. Included with this clay loam to fine sandy clay at a depth of about 14
soil are a few small spots on slopes of 8 to 12 percent that inches. The subsoil is moderately friable and porous
are severely eroded. Intensive management is needed and is underlain by distinctly mottled fine sandy clay
to get high yields on these severely eroded areas. loam to fine sandy clay parent material. These soils
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops if erosion contain many iron pebbles throughout.
control practices are used. It is well suited to improved Carnegie soils generally occur with the Tifton, Ruston,
pasture and trees and as a habitat for wildlife. (Capa- and Faceville soils. Their subsoil is redder than that of
ability unit IIIe-2; woodland suitability group 4) the Tifton soils but is about the same color as the sub-
Bowie loamy sand, thick surface. 2 to 5 percent slopes soil of the Ruston and Faceville soils. Carnegie soils
(BwB).-This well-drained soil of the uplands has a have a finer textured and less friable subsoil than the
sandy surface layer that is 18 to 30 inches thick. The Ruston soils. The concentration of iron pebbles is much
uppl-r part of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy loam greater throughout the Carnegie soils than throughout
to sandy clay loam. The lower part is mottled and the Ruston and tFaceville soils.
finer textured.
Representative profile in a wooded area: Carnegie soils occur throughout the northern half of
the county but are most common in the northeastern
Sto 5 inches, very friable, dark-gray loamy sand. Their total acreage is small. The native vegeta-
5 to 21 inches, very friable, yellowish-brown loamy sand. part. Their total acreage is small. The native vegeta-
21 to 28 inches, friable, yellowish-brown sandy clay loam. tion consists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash pine, hickory,
28 to 43 inches, friable, yellowish-brown heavy sandy c ay various oaks, low shrubs, and native grasses. A consid-
loam mottled with strong brown and red.
43 to 70 inches +, friable, mottled yellowish-brown, strong- erable acreage has been cleared and is used for most
brown, red, light-gray, and very pale brown sandy clay cultivated crops and improved pasture grasses grown in
loam. the county.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have a Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (CaB).-
loamy fine sand surface layer. In a few areas the sandy This well-drained, deep soil of the uplands has a well-








14 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

developed, clayey subsoil. Iron pebbles are abundant at a depth of 38 to 48 inches. Most areas have been
throughout the soil. uniformly sheet eroded, and some areas have a few deep
Representative profile in a bahiagrass pasture: or shallow gullies. The surface layer ranges from 4 to
0 to 8 inches, very friable, dark-brown loamy sand. 10 inches in thickness but is generally about 6 inches
8 to 18 inches, friable, yellowish-red light fine sandy clay loam. thick. Mottling normally occurs 28 to 42 inches below
18 to 50 inches, friable, yellowish-red heavy fine sandy clay the surface.
loam. A few included areas are slightly eroded, and a few
50 to ,1. inches +, firm, mottled strong-brown fine sandy
clay loam. +, firm, mottled strong-brown fine sandy are severely sheet eroded. In the slightly eroded areas
the surface layer is 10 to 14 inches thick. Also included
The loamy sand plow layer ranges from very dark with this soil are a few small areas that have slopes of
gray to dark brown. The subsoil is mainly yellowish 8 to 12 percent
red to red, but in some areas it is strong brown. It is For high yields of cultivated crops, this soil requires
dominantly heavy fine sandy clay loam but is coarser in more intensive management than Carnegie loamy sand,
some places. The subsoil is generally mottled below 42 2 to 5 percent slopes. Under good management that
inches, but in some areas brown and red mottles occur includes control of erosion, this soil is well suited to most
only 36 inches from the surface. The underlying parent locally grown crops. It is well suited as woodland, and
material generally occurs at a depth of 52 to 74 inches, it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
but it is as shallow as 45 to 50 inches in some areas. IIIe-1; woodland suitability group 4)
Included with this soil are a few small areas with a
sandy loam surface soil. Also included are a few small C e Serie
areasthat have slopes of 0 to 2 percent and some small Cthbert Series
areas that are moderately sheet eroded. In the Cuthbert series are deep, moderately well
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural drained, strongly acid soils on gently sloping to steep
fertility and organic-matter content. It is sufficiently areas of the uplands. These soils developed in thick
l9amy to have good tilth and good available water ca- beds of acid sandy clay and clay in which thin lenses
pacity. The available moisture capacity is moderate in of a coarse-textured material are intermixed. The sur-
the surface layer and is high in the subsoil. Perme- face layer of these soils is dark grayish-brown to dark-
ability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and is gray coarse sand to sandy clay loam that grades abruptly
moderately slow in the subsoil. The soil retains plant to a yellowish-red, firm sandy clay or clay subsoil. The
nutrients well and responds well to fertilizer. It has lower part of the subsoil is dominantly red mottled with
good surface and internal drainage and a moderately various shades of red, yellow, and brown. The subsoil is
high cation-exchange capacity. The root zone is deep underlain by very slowly permeable, highly mottled,
and well aerated and extends to the underlying mottled compact sandy clay parent material that is stratified
material, with sandy loam or sandy clay in most areas.
This soil is well suited to all locally grown crops, pas- Cuthbert soils generally occur with the Shubuta, An-
ture grasses, and clovers. It is well suited as woodland, gie, and Lakeland soils. They have a thinner and more
and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability compact subsoil than the Shubuta soils. The Cuthbert
unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) soils are better drained and less friable than the Angie
soils and have a thinner, more compact subsoil. The
Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded subsoil is dominantly red in the Cuthbert soils but is
(CaEl2).--This moderately eroded soil generally has a yellowish brown in the Angie soils. The subsoil is thin,
thinner surface layer than Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 yellowish red to red, compact, and fine textured in the
percent slopes. Most of this soil is sheet eroded, but Cuthbert soils but is thick, yellowish brown to yellow,
there are a few deep or shallow gullies in some areas. loose, and coarse textured in the Lakeland soils.
The surface layer ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thick- Cuthbert soils have a moderate total acreage. They
ness but is generally about 7 inches thick. The subsoil occur mainly in the central part of the county but are
normally is mottled at a depth of 30 to 42 inches, but in widely distributed in all parts except in the southeastern
a few areas mottling begins at 28 inches. The parent and south central. The native vegetation consists mainly
material generally occurs at a depth of 42 to 54 inches, of longleaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, various oaks, dog-
but in a few areas it is at 38 to 42 inches. Included are a woo and wiregrass. Most of the acreage still
few, small, severely eroded aieas that have a fine sandy remains in native vegetation. Mowevert a few small
loam surface layer. remains in native vegetation. However, a few small
loam surface layer. areas have been cleared and are used for corn, small
This soil is well suited to all cultivated crops and im- grain, and other cultivated crops and for improved
proved pasture plants that are generally grown in the pasture. Many areas that were cultivated have been
county. For high yields of cultivated crops, it requires abandoned and now are in broomsedge and scattered
more intensive use of soil-improving crops than Carnegie abandoned and now are broomsedge and scattered
loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and more intensive es
practices for control of erosion. It is well suited as Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes (CuC).-These
woodland and makes good habitats for wildlife. (Ca- are moderately well drained soils of the uplands that
ability unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) have a dense, compact, clayey subsoil.
Carnegie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded Representative profile in a wooded area:
(CaC2).-This 4-l'piiih', eroded soil generally has a thinner 0 to 9 inches, very friable, dark grayish-brown loamy sand.
surface layer than Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 9 to 13 inches, very firm, yellowish-red sandy clay.
slopes. As a result of erosion and les soil development, 13 to 21 inches, very firm, yellowish-red sandy clay mottled
o the parent material is generally nearer the surface, with brownish yellow and red.
the parent material is generally nearer the surface, or 21 to 42 inches +, firm, mottled sandy clay loam to sandy clay.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

The plow layer ranges from very dark grayish-brown the surface layer is uniformly sheet eroded, but there are
to dark-brown loamy sand to coarse sand. The subsoil some shallow gullies and a few deep ones. The surface
is sandy clay to clay, 4 to 8 inches thick, that is not layer is generally 5 inches thick, but the range is from 3
mottled in most areas but is mottled in some. The color to 7 inches. Included with these soils are a few scattered
of the subsoil is usually yellowish red but ranges to red. areas that are severely eroded.
Underlying the subsoil in most places is highly mottled These soils are not suitable for cultivation. Under good
sandy clay loam to clay material. This material occurs management that provides intensive practices of erosion
at a depth of 11 to 24 inches and in most areas contains control, moderately good improved pasture can be grown.
thin layers of sandy loam and sandy clay loam. In a These soils are best suited to pines, and they make good
few small areas the subsoil is underlain by very highly habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland
mottled, plastic clay. suitability group 5)
Included with these soils are a few scattered areas Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
that are moderately sheet eroded and have many shallow severely eroded (CtB3).-Although this soil is less sloping
gullies or a few deep ones. Also included are small areas than Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, it is much more
on slopes of 8 to 12 percent. eroded and has a much thinner surface layer. Nearly all
These soils are strongly acid and low in natural fer- of the surface soil has been removed by erosion, and only
utility and organic-matter content. Surface runoff is 1 to 3 inches remain in most areas. Consequently, sub-
medium to rapid, and internal drainage is slow to me- soil material has been mixed with the remaining surface
dium. Permeability is rapid to moderately slow in the layer, and the plow layer is yellowish-brown to strong-
surface layer and is slow to very slow in the subsoil. brown sandy clay loam. In many areas small spots of the
Because the subsoil is dense and poorly aerated, it is subsoil are exposed, and there are many shallow gullies
not favorable for development of roots. A low avail- and a few deep ones.
able moisture capacity causes the soils to be drought. Most areas of this soil are no longer cultivated and have
These soils erode easily, returned to native vegetation. This soil is not suited to
Under good management and intensive control of ero- cultivated crops or improved pasture. It is best suited
sion, improved pasture is moderately good. These soils as woodland and for wildlife habitats. (Capability unit
are best suited to pines, and they make good habitats VIIes-1; woodland suitability group 5)
for wildlife. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland suit- Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely
ability group 5) eroded (CtC3).-This severely eroded soil has a much
Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes (CuB).-These thinner surface soil than Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent
gently sloping soils are less susceptible to erosion than slopes. Only 1 to 3 inches of the original surface soil
Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, remains in most areas. It has been mixed with material
Included with these soils are a few scattered areas that from the subsoil, and the plow layer is yellowish-brown
are moderately sheet eroded and have a few shallow gullies, to strong-brown sandy clay loam. In many areas small
The surface layer is thinner in these eroded areas and spots of the subsoil material are exposed, and there are
ranges from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. Also included many shallow gullies and a few deep ones.
with these soils are a few areas on slopes of 0 to 2 percent Most areas of this soil are no longer cultivated and have
and some coarser textured areas that have numerous returned to native vegetation. This soil is not suited to
quartz pebbles throughout. cultivated crops or improved pasture. It is best suited
Cultivation on these soils is severely limited, but if as woodland and for wildlife habitats. (Capability unit
cultivated the soils are best suited to shallow-rooted, VIIes-1; woodland suitability group 5)
close-growing crops. They are moderately well suited Cuthbert, Shubuta, and Lakeland soils, 5 to 12 percent
to improved pasture of bermudagrass and bahiagrass slopes, severely eroded (CwD3).-One or more of these
and are well suited as woodland and for wildlife habitats. soils make up at least 75 percent of the mapped areas,
(Capability unit IVes-2; woodland suitability group 5) but the proportion of each soil varies considerably from
Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded (Cu B2).- place to place. Most areas mapped contain lesser amounts
Although these soils are less sloping and more eroded than of the Faceville, Norfolk, Ruston, Eustis, and Bowie soils,
Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, they are slightly less but the extent of these minor soils is highly variable.
susceptible to further erosion. In most areas the surface The Blanton, Klej, Lynchburg, Plummer, Rains, and
layer is uniformly sheet eroded. The surface layer ranges Goldsboro soils also occur along drainageways within
from 3 to 7 inches in thickness but is generally about 5 mapped areas of these soils. The dominant soils are on
inches thick. A few deep gullies occur in some areas, highly variable slopes and are in such intricate patterns.
Included with these soils are a few, small, scattered areas that it is impractical to map them separately.
that are only slightly eroded and a few that are severely Because the soils differ greatly in texture and perme-
eroded. ability, they vary somewhat in degree of erosion. Gen-
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops rally, the Lakeland and other deep sandy soils are less
and, if cultivated, require intensive management that severely eroded than the Cuthbert, Shubuta, and other
includes control of erosion. They can grow moderately fine-textured soils. In the deep sandy soils, practically
good improved pasture, and they are well suited as wood- the only evidence of erosion is a few shallow or deep
land and for wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IVes-2; gullies. However, the fine-textured soils have had all or
woodland suitability group 5) nearly all of the surface layer removed by sheet erosion.
,Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded (CuC2).- In these eroded areas the subsoil is exposed or has been
These eroded soils generally have a thinner surface layer mixed with the remaining surface layer. In some areas
than Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes. In most areas of the fine-textured soils much of the surface layer remains,








16 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

but many shallow and a few deep gullies occur. All these Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (Du B).-This
soils are susceptible to further erosion. Many hillsides on somewhat poorly drained soil of the uplands has a plastic,
which these soils occur slope toward ,1i ;iii:i .i.y- clayey subsoil.
A representative profile of each soil in this unit is Representative profile:
described in its respective series description. 0 to 6 inches, very friable, dark-gray loamy sand.
The native vegetation consists principally of longleaf 6 to 13 inches, very friable, pale-brown loamy sand.
pine, slash pine, various oaks, low shrubs, and native 13 to 20 inches, friable, light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam.
grasses. Most areas that were cleared are no longer cul- 20 to 52 inches +, very firm or plastic, mottled clay.
tivated and are now almost entirely in trees. The top layer ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness
These soils occur primarily in the west-central part of and is dark-gray to very dark grayish-brown loamy sand
the county. Most areas are on or somewhat north of the that is underlain by pale-brown to light yellowish-brown
highly dissected, generally north-facing escarpment that loamy sand to sandy loam. Sandy clay loam is within
extends ini an east-west direction between the higher, 18 inches of the surface and is underlain by clay. Mot-
deep sandy soils to the south and the dominantly finer tling normally occurs at a depth of 18 to 20 inches, but
textured soils to the north. However, small areas occur the depth to mottling ranges from 12 to 26 inches. The
in the eastern part of the county, principally on Orange, parent material is highly mottled sandy clay to clay that
High, Oak, R,. k. ;i.l Falling Water Hills. contains lenses of sandy clay loam in many places. It
Surface drainage ranges from medium to rapid, and occurs at a depth ranging from 26 to more than 50
internal drainage from very rapid to slow. Both surface inches.
drainage and internal drainage vary according to the Included with this soil are a few, small, scattered areas
various soils, that have slopes of 0 to 2 percent and a few areas that
Included with these soils are small areas on slopes of have a loamy fine sand surface layer.
2 to 5 percent and small, scattered areas on slopes of 12 This soil is strongly acid, is medium to low in organic-
to 35 percent. matter content and natural fertility, and is moderately
Because these soils are steep and severely eroded, they high in available moisture capacity. External drainage
are not suited to cultivated crops or to pasture. The best is medium, and internal drainage is slow. Permeability
uses are woodland and wildlife habitats. (Capability is rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil.
unit VIIes-1; woodland suitability group 5) This soil retains plant nutrients well and responds well
to fertilizer.
Dunbar Series Under good management, corn and small grain produce
good yields. This soil is well suited to improved pasture
In the Dunbar series are deep, somewhat poorly drained, and to trees, and it makes good wildlife habitats. (Capa-
strongly acid soils that developed from thick beds of ability unit IIIws-1; woodland suitability group 6)
acid sandy clay material on nearly level to gently sloping
uplands. These soils have a dark-gray to very dark Esto Series
grayish-brown loamy sand surface layer that, at a depth
of less than 18 inches, is underlain by friable sandy clay In the Esto series are deep, moderately well drained
loam. The sandy clay loam, in turn, is underlain by very to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid soils that
firm clay to sandy clay. Under the surface layer, the developed from clay and sandy clay on nearly level to
material is light yellowish brown to olive brown mottled sloping uplands. These soils have a grayish-brown to
with various shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray. pale-brown sand to loamy sand surface layer 5 to 18
Mottling normally occurs at about 18 inches but is as inches thick. Within 18 inches of the surface is a layer
shallow as 12 inches in some places, or as deep as 26 of pale-brown to light yellowish-brown, friable to firm
inches. The parent material is highly mottled sandy sandy loam to sandy clay loam that is coarser textured
clay to clay that is stratified in some places with sandy in the upper part. This layer extends to a depth as
clay loam. great as 30 inches. The parent material is clay to sandy
The Dunbar soils generally occur with the Goldsboro, clay that is stratified with lenses of sandy clay loam in
Lynchburg, Bowie, Bladen, and Eulonia soils. They are most places. It is highly mottled with various shades
more poorly drained than the Goldsboro, Bowie, and of yellow, brown, red, and gray.
Eulonia soils but are better drained than the Bladen The Esto soils occur mainly with the Cuthbert, Nor-
soils. The subsoil of the Dunbar soils is finer textured folk, Bowie, Angle, and Lynchburg soils. The subsoil
and more slowly permeable than that of the Goldsboro of the Esto soils is less compact, more friable, and less
and Lynchburg soils and is paler and more mottled than red than that of the Cuthbert soils. The Esto soils are
the subsoil of the Eulonia and Bowie soils. The Dun- less well drained and have a much thinner solum than
the suoil o the Eulonia tand Blaie soils. hethe Norfolk and Bowie soils. They have a slightly
bar soils are less gray than the Bladen soils coarser textured subsoil than the Angle soils, and the
Dunbar soils have a small total acreage in this county. transition from the surface layer to the subsoil is more
They are widely scattered in moderately large areas in gradual. The Esto soils have a much thinner solum and
the eastern and west-central parts of the county. The finer texture than the Lynchburg soils and are not so
native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf pine, slash gray in the lower subsoil.
pine, a few scattered hardwoods, gallberry, low shrubs, Esto soils have a very small total acreage in this
and native grasses. Some areas have been cleared and county. They are in small, scattered areas throughout
are used for cultivated crops and improved pasture. the northern half of the county and in a very small area
This soil is well suited to improved pasture and to trees, in the southwestern part. The native vegetation consists








16 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

but many shallow and a few deep gullies occur. All these Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (Du B).-This
soils are susceptible to further erosion. Many hillsides on somewhat poorly drained soil of the uplands has a plastic,
which these soils occur slope toward ,1i ;iii:i .i.y- clayey subsoil.
A representative profile of each soil in this unit is Representative profile:
described in its respective series description. 0 to 6 inches, very friable, dark-gray loamy sand.
The native vegetation consists principally of longleaf 6 to 13 inches, very friable, pale-brown loamy sand.
pine, slash pine, various oaks, low shrubs, and native 13 to 20 inches, friable, light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam.
grasses. Most areas that were cleared are no longer cul- 20 to 52 inches +, very firm or plastic, mottled clay.
tivated and are now almost entirely in trees. The top layer ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness
These soils occur primarily in the west-central part of and is dark-gray to very dark grayish-brown loamy sand
the county. Most areas are on or somewhat north of the that is underlain by pale-brown to light yellowish-brown
highly dissected, generally north-facing escarpment that loamy sand to sandy loam. Sandy clay loam is within
extends ini an east-west direction between the higher, 18 inches of the surface and is underlain by clay. Mot-
deep sandy soils to the south and the dominantly finer tling normally occurs at a depth of 18 to 20 inches, but
textured soils to the north. However, small areas occur the depth to mottling ranges from 12 to 26 inches. The
in the eastern part of the county, principally on Orange, parent material is highly mottled sandy clay to clay that
High, Oak, R,. k. ;i.l Falling Water Hills. contains lenses of sandy clay loam in many places. It
Surface drainage ranges from medium to rapid, and occurs at a depth ranging from 26 to more than 50
internal drainage from very rapid to slow. Both surface inches.
drainage and internal drainage vary according to the Included with this soil are a few, small, scattered areas
various soils, that have slopes of 0 to 2 percent and a few areas that
Included with these soils are small areas on slopes of have a loamy fine sand surface layer.
2 to 5 percent and small, scattered areas on slopes of 12 This soil is strongly acid, is medium to low in organic-
to 35 percent. matter content and natural fertility, and is moderately
Because these soils are steep and severely eroded, they high in available moisture capacity. External drainage
are not suited to cultivated crops or to pasture. The best is medium, and internal drainage is slow. Permeability
uses are woodland and wildlife habitats. (Capability is rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil.
unit VIIes-1; woodland suitability group 5) This soil retains plant nutrients well and responds well
to fertilizer.
Dunbar Series Under good management, corn and small grain produce
good yields. This soil is well suited to improved pasture
In the Dunbar series are deep, somewhat poorly drained, and to trees, and it makes good wildlife habitats. (Capa-
strongly acid soils that developed from thick beds of ability unit IIIws-1; woodland suitability group 6)
acid sandy clay material on nearly level to gently sloping
uplands. These soils have a dark-gray to very dark Esto Series
grayish-brown loamy sand surface layer that, at a depth
of less than 18 inches, is underlain by friable sandy clay In the Esto series are deep, moderately well drained
loam. The sandy clay loam, in turn, is underlain by very to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid soils that
firm clay to sandy clay. Under the surface layer, the developed from clay and sandy clay on nearly level to
material is light yellowish brown to olive brown mottled sloping uplands. These soils have a grayish-brown to
with various shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray. pale-brown sand to loamy sand surface layer 5 to 18
Mottling normally occurs at about 18 inches but is as inches thick. Within 18 inches of the surface is a layer
shallow as 12 inches in some places, or as deep as 26 of pale-brown to light yellowish-brown, friable to firm
inches. The parent material is highly mottled sandy sandy loam to sandy clay loam that is coarser textured
clay to clay that is stratified in some places with sandy in the upper part. This layer extends to a depth as
clay loam. great as 30 inches. The parent material is clay to sandy
The Dunbar soils generally occur with the Goldsboro, clay that is stratified with lenses of sandy clay loam in
Lynchburg, Bowie, Bladen, and Eulonia soils. They are most places. It is highly mottled with various shades
more poorly drained than the Goldsboro, Bowie, and of yellow, brown, red, and gray.
Eulonia soils but are better drained than the Bladen The Esto soils occur mainly with the Cuthbert, Nor-
soils. The subsoil of the Dunbar soils is finer textured folk, Bowie, Angle, and Lynchburg soils. The subsoil
and more slowly permeable than that of the Goldsboro of the Esto soils is less compact, more friable, and less
and Lynchburg soils and is paler and more mottled than red than that of the Cuthbert soils. The Esto soils are
the subsoil of the Eulonia and Bowie soils. The Dun- less well drained and have a much thinner solum than
the suoil o the Eulonia tand Blaie soils. hethe Norfolk and Bowie soils. They have a slightly
bar soils are less gray than the Bladen soils coarser textured subsoil than the Angle soils, and the
Dunbar soils have a small total acreage in this county. transition from the surface layer to the subsoil is more
They are widely scattered in moderately large areas in gradual. The Esto soils have a much thinner solum and
the eastern and west-central parts of the county. The finer texture than the Lynchburg soils and are not so
native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf pine, slash gray in the lower subsoil.
pine, a few scattered hardwoods, gallberry, low shrubs, Esto soils have a very small total acreage in this
and native grasses. Some areas have been cleared and county. They are in small, scattered areas throughout
are used for cultivated crops and improved pasture. the northern half of the county and in a very small area
This soil is well suited to improved pasture and to trees, in the southwestern part. The native vegetation consists








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

chiefly of longleaf pine, slash pine, various hardwoods, than the Bladen and Rains soils and are yellowish brown
low shrubs, and native grasses. A few small areas are instead of gray.
used for cultivated crops and improved pasture. Eulonia soils have a small total acreage in this county.
Esto loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (EaB).-This They are in small to moderately large areas along and
moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained soil near Holmes Creek and the Choctawhatchee River. The
of the uplands has a sandy surface layer and a clayey native vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash
subsoil. pine, various oaks, gallberry, low shrubs, and native
Representative profile in a wooded area: grasses. A considerable part of the acreage has been
St 7 h, g l s cleared and is mostly used for improved pasture, but a
7 to 15 inches, loose, pale-brown sand. few areas are used for corn, small grain, and other culti-
15 to 26 inches, friable, light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam. vated crops.
26 to 36 inches, firm, pale-brown sandy clay that is mottled. Eulonia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (EfA).-
36 to 52 inches +, very firm, mottled clay that has lenses of This moderately well drained soil of the uplands has a
sandy clay and sandy clay loam.
Sp l r f g is t li compact, slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
The plow layer ranges from grayish-brown to light Representative profile in a moist wooded area:
grayish-brown sand to loamy sand. It is light grayish
brown in most places and is underlain by pale-brown to 0 to 6 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand.
6 to 15 inches, very friable, light olive-brown loamy fine sand.
light yellowish-brown sandy loam to fine sandy clay 15 to 33 inches, friable, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam
loam. At a depth that ranges from 12 to 30 inches, that is mottled below 25 inches.
there is mottled clay to sandy clay that, in most places, 33 to 65 inches +, very firm, mottled silty clay.
is stratified with lenses of sand to sandy clay loam. In- The plow layer ranges from black or very dark gray
eluded with this soil are a few areas with slopes of to dark grayish brown and from loamy fine sand to
5 to 8 percent. loamy sand. It is underlain by grayish-brown to light
This soil is strongly acid and is low in natural fertility olive-brown loamy fine sand to loamy sand that extends
and organic-matter content. It has slow to medium sur- to a depth of more than 18 inches in only a few places.
face drainage and slow internal drainage. Permeability Next in the profile is 10 to 30 inches of light yellowish-
is moderate in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. brown to brownish-yellow sandy loam to sandy clay loam
Because the subsoil is moderately dense and poorly aer- underlain by compact sandy clay to clay that is highly
ated, it is not favorable for the development of roots. mottled with gray, red, brown, and yellow. The parent
The available moisture capacity is low in the surface material is also highly mottled and variable in texture.
layer and moderate in the subsoil. This soil does not Included with this soil are small areas that have a fine
retain plant nutrients well. Crops are damaged by ex- sandy loam surface soil.
cess water during periods of heavy rain and by drought This soil is strongly acid, is low in natural fertility,
during dry periods. The erosion hazard is serious be- and has a medium organic-matter content. The avail-
cause the soil is quickly saturated and runoff is rapid. able moisture capacity is moderate in the surface layer
This soil is poorly suited to most general farm crops, and moderately high in the subsoil. Permeability is
but moderately good improved pasture can be grown. moderately rapid in the surface layer and slow in the
It is well suited to pines and as a habitat for wildlife, subsoil. Surface drainage and internal drainage are
(Capability unit IVes-2; woodland suitability group 5) medium to slow. During periods of high rainfall, deep-
rooted crops may be damaged by excess water. The
Eulonia Series compact lower subsoil causes slow internal drainage and
limits the effective root zone. Consequently, the kinds
In the Eulonia series are deep, moderately well drained, of crops that can be grown are somewhat limited.
strongly acid soils that developed from a thin deposit If properly managed, this soil is moderately well suited
of sandy loam over clay to sandy clay. These soils are to corn and small grain. It is well suited to improved
on nearly level to gently sloping uplands. The surface pasture and to trees, and it makes good habitats for
soil is black to dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand and wildlife. (Capability unit IIws-3; woodland suitability
is underlain by grayish-brown to light olive-brown loamy group 6)
fine sand. Within 30 inches of the surface is light yel- u
lowish-brown to brownish-yellow, friable sandy loam to Eulonia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (EfB).-
sandy clay loam. At a depth ranging from 18 to 38 This gently sloping soil has slightly faster runoff than
inches is reticulately mottled yellowish-brown, gray, and Eulona loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, and gen-
red clay to sandy clay. The parent material is mottled rally a lower water table. The steeper slopes make it
red, yellow, and gray. slightly susceptible to erosion.
The Eulonia soils occur mainly with the Dunbar, Included with this soil are small, scattered areas with a
Goldsboro, Bowie, Lynchburg, Bladen, and Rains soils. surface layer of fine sandy loam, loamy sand, or coarse
They are better drained than the Dunbar and Lynchburg sand.
soils, have a yellower subsoil, and are deeper to mottling, choice of crops is limited toby a restricted rops, but the and
The Lynchburg soils do not have a fine-textured lower slight wetness. Erosion is a hazard in unprotected areas.
subsoil. Eulonia soils are similar to Goldsboro soils in This soil is well suited to pasture and to trees. (Capability
the upper part of the profile but are finer textured and unit IIIew-1; woodland suitability group 6)
mottled with red in the lower part. They are less well Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
drained than the Bowie soils and are more highly mottled slopes (EnA).-This moderately well drained soil of the
in the lower subsoil. Eulonia soils are also better drained uplands has a thick surface layer and a compact, clayey








18 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

subsoil that is mottled and slowly permeable. The surface Eustis soils have a large total acreage in this county.
layer is generally 18 to 30 inches thick, but it is less than They occur throughout the county but are mainly in the
18 inches in some small areas and is slightly more than 30 southern half. Areas with finer textured underlying
inches thick in others, material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches are most common
Representative profile in a moist wooded site: in the central and northwestern parts of the county. The
0 to 7 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand. native vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf pine, turkey
7 to 20 inches, very friable, grayish-brown fine sand. oak, bluejack oak, a few water oaks, and sparse native
20 to.36 inches, friable, brownish-yellow light fine sandy clay grasses. Most areas, especially those of coarse sand, re-
loam that is mottled.t main in native vegetation. A fairly large acreage of the
36 to 63 inches +, firm, mottled silty clay that is stratified medium sand has been cleared and is cultivated.
with fine sandy clay loam below 45 inches. medium sand has been cleared and is cultivated.
This soil is strongly acid, is low in natural fertility, Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (EsB).-This
and has a medium organic-matter content. Available well-drained to excessively drained soil of the uplands is
moisture capacity is moderate in the plow layer, low in deep and rapidly permeable.
the underlying layers, and moderately high in the sub- Representative profile in a wooded area:
soil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface 0 to 5 inches, loose, very dark grayish-brown coarse sand
layer and slow in the subsoil. Surface drainage and in- 5 to 15 inches, loose, brown to dark-brown coarse sand.
ternal drainage are medium to slow. Because this soil 15 to 96 inches loose, yellowish-red coarse sand.
remains slightly wet during periods of high rainfall, The plow layer ranges from dark-gray to very dark
deep-rooted crops may be damaged, grayish-brown coarse sand. It is underlain by brown to
Most locally grown crops can be grown on this soil, dark-brown coarse sand, and that, in turn, by strong-
but it is best suited to corn and small grain. Because of brown to yellowish-red coarse sand. Mottles normally
periodic wetness, crop yields are sometimes low. The soil occur below a depth of 60 inches, but in some areas they
is well suited to improved pasture and trees, and it makes are as shallow as 48 inches. The finer textured material
gbod wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IIws-3; wood- is generally at a depth of slightly more than 72 inches,
land suitability group 6) but in some areas it is at 60 inches. It is normally yel-
Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent lowish red to red.
slopes (En B).-This gently sloping soil has more rapid run- Included with this soil are a few small areas of sand
off than Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 per- and very coarse sand. In a few places water and wind
cent slopes, and generally a lower water table. It is more have removed some of the surface soil.
susceptible to erosion. This soil is doughty and very rapidly permeable. It
If properly managed, this soil is moderately well suited is very low in content of organic matter, natural fertility,
to some cultivated crops, but the choice of crops is limited cation-exchange capacity, and available moisture capac-
by a shallow root zone and slight wetness. Periodic wet- ity. It does not hold plant nutrients well. Because of
ness causes low crop yields. This soil is well suited to poor soil qualities, this soil has severe limitations in
improved pasture and trees and makes good habitats for producing general farm crops.
wildlife. (Capability unit IIIew-1; woodland suitability Except for watermelons and a few other special crops,
group 6) this soil is not suitable for cultivated crops. It is only
moderately well suited to improved pasture. Most areas
i are best suited to trees. (Capability unit VIse-1; wood-
Eustis Series land suitability group 1)
In the Eustis series are deep, well-drained to exces- Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (EsC).-This
sively drained, strongly acid soils on nearly level to steep sloping soil is more susceptible to erosion than Eustis
uplands. These soils developed from moderately thick coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. It has slightly lower
beds of acid sand and loamy sand that are underlain by available moisture capacity, organic-matter content, and
finer textured material at a depth of more than 30 inches. natural fertility. A few scattered areas with shallow or
The surface layer of these soils is dark-gray to very dark deep gullies occur.
grayish-brown coarse sand or sand. It is underlain by a This soil is too drought and too low in fertility for cul-
layer of brown to dark-brown coarse sand or sand, and tivated crops. Fair to good yields of bahiagrass and other
that, in turn, by strong-brown to yellowish-red coarse drought-resistant grasses can be obtained under good
sand or sand. In the Eustis soils the coarse sand or sand management. Although natural reproduction of pines
generally extends from the surface to a depth of 60 is poor on this soil, most areas are best suited to trees.
inches or more. Some areas, however, have finer tex- (Capability unit VIse-l; woodland suitability group 1)
tured material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. This mate- Eustis coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (EsD).--This
rial is normally strong-brown to red sandy loam to sandy soil occurs on moderately long, narrow slopes adjacent
clay loam. to sinks and dramageways. It is steeper than Eustis
Eustis soils occur mainly with the Lakeland, Ruston, coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and more susceptible
Eustisand Norfolk soils occur mainlThey are similar toth the Lakeland usto erosion. A few areas have a few shallow or deep
and Norfolk soils. They are similar to the Lakeland gullies. The depth to finer textured material normally
soils in texture and consistence and to the Ruston soils ranges from 60 to 72 inches.
in color. Eustis soils are strong brown to yellowish red This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, but under
instead of yellow to brownish yellow, as are the Lakeland good management, fair yields of bahiagrass can be ob-
and Norfolk soils. The coarse-textured layers extend to tained. The soil is moderately well suited to pines, and
a greater depth in the Eustis soils than in the Norfolk most of it remains in trees. (Capability unit Vise-1;
and Ruston soils. woodland suitability group 1)









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

Eustis coarse sand, 12 to 35 percent slopes (EsE).- This soil is strongly acid and is low in organic-matter
This soil occurs on moderately steep to steep slopes that content. It has a deep root zone, but water moves rapidly
are generally adjacent to sinks and drainageways. It is through the soil and causes rapid leaching of plant nu-
much steeper than Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent trients. The available moisture capacity and natural
slopes, and is much more susceptible to erosion, fertility are low. Permeability is rapid above the finer
Included with this soil are small areas that have slopes textured underlying materials, but it is generally mod-
of 8 to 12 percent and of 35 to 50.percent. Also included erately rapid through them.
are a few moderately eroded areas that have many TIlii- soil is only moderately well suited to most locally
shallow gullies, a few deep ones, or both. grown crops and is best suited to corn, small grain, and
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and pasture; watermelons. It is well suited to deep-rooted pasture
it is best suited as woodland and for wildlife habitats. grasses and as woodland, and it makes good habitats for
(Capability unit VIIse-1; woodland suitability group 1) wildlife. (Capability unit IIIse-1; woodland suitability
Eustis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (EtB).-This soil group 3)
has a higher available moisture capacity and a higher Eustis sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes (EuC).-
cation-exchange capacity than Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Eustis sand,
percent slopes. Also, it is not so coarse textured as the shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and is slightly susceptible
coarse sand, and sandy loam to sandy clay is at a depth to erosion. Some small areas are moderately eroded and
of 42 to 60 inches. Included with this soil are a few have scattered, shallow or deep gullies.
small areas of coarse sand and a few small areas of fine Under good management that includes intensive prac-
sand. tices to control erosion, this soil may be used occasionally
The use of this soil is limited to corn, watermelons, and for corn, small grain, watermelons, and a few other crops.
a few other crops. It is moderately well suited to bahia- It is moderately well suited to trees and to bahiagrass
grass pasture, but most areas are best suited as wood- and other deep-rooted, drought-resistant pasture plants.
land. (Capability unit IVse-2; woodland suitability It makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
group 2) IVse-2; woodland suitability group 3)
Eustis sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (EtC).-Because
this soil has stronger slopes than Eustis sand, 0 to 5 Faceville Series
percent slopes, it is more susceptible to erosion.
Included are a few scattered areas that are moderately In the Faceville series are deep, well-drained, strongly
eroded and have a few scattered, shallow gullies. Also acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy
eroded and have a few scattered, shallow gullies. Also loam and sandy clay on nearly level to sloping up-
included are a few areas of fine sand and of coarse sand lay load m ah s and have on arayish-brown to brown
and a few scattered areas with slopes of 8 to 12 percent. ay s srae ayer ithin a deh o
In some of these strongly sloping areas, fine-textured loamy sand surface layer. laithin a str ong-brown to yel-
material is at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. the surface layer is underlain by a strong-brown to yel-
material is at a depth of 30 to 42 inches, lowish-red, moderately friable to firm layer. In most
Under good management that includes intensive prac- areas the upper few inches of this layer is light sandy
tices to control erosion, this soil may be used occasionally clay loam, but most of it is heavy fine sandy clay loam
for corn, small grain, watermelons, and other crops, to fine sandy clay. The parent material is clay loam to
It is moderately well suited to trees and to bahiagrass sandy clay loam that is highly variable in color but is
and other deep-rooted, drought-resistant pasture plants generally yellowish brown to red mottled with gray or
It makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit ieell yel
IVse-2; woodland suitability group 2) Faceville soils occur mainly with the Carnegie, Tifton,
Eustis sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes (EuB).- Marlboro, Ruston, and Norfolk soils. They lack the large
This deep, well-drained soil of the uplands has a sand number of iron pebbles that characterize the Carnegie
surface layer and either sandy loam or sandy clay loam and Tifton soils. The subsoil of the Faceville soils is
material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. redder than that of the Marlboro, Norfolk, and Tifton
Representative profile in an idle field: soils. The Faceville soils are similar to the Ruston soils
0 to 7 inches, loose, dark grayish-brown sand. in color but have a less friable and finer textured sub-
7 to 24 inches, loose, strong-brown sand. soil than the Ruston and the Norfolk soils. The tran-
24 to 33 inches, very friable, strong-brown loamy sand.
33 to 65 inches, ryfriable, strong-brown, mottled sandy loam sition from the surface layer to the subsoil is generally
or sandy clay loam. more abrupt in the Faceville soils than in the Ruston.
The plow layer ranges from gray to dark grayish Faceville soils have a small total acreage in this
brown and is underlain by a layer of strong brown to county. They are most common in the northeastern part
brown and is underla by a layer of strong brown to near Chipley, but small areas are scattered in the north-
yellowish red In most areas sand extends from thrn part. The native vegetation is mainly longleaf pine,
face to a depth of 30 to 42 inches and is underlain by slash pine, various oaks, hickory, dogwood, and native
finer textured material. In a few areas the finer tex- grasses. The soils are well suited to many kinds of
tured material is slightly less than 30 inches from the cultivated crops, to improved pasture, and to trees. Much
surface, and in others it is a little more than 42 inches. of the acreage has been cleared and is planted to corn,
In some areas many medium-sized and small iron peb- cotton, peanuts, and small grain.
bles occur throughout the soil. Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
Included with this soil are a few areas that have a few (FaB2).-This soil of the uplands is deep and well drained.
shallow or deep gullies. Also included are areas of fine It has a yellowish-red, firm, moderately fine textured
sand and areas of coarse sand. subsoil.









20 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Representative profile in a gently sloping pasture of eroded. Also included are a few small areas on slopes of
bahiagrass: 8 to 12 percent.
0 to 8 inches, very friable, dark grayish-brown loamy sand. This soil requires good management that includes more
8 to 16 inches, friable, strong-brown light sandy clay loam. intensive practices to control erosion than those required
16 to 38 inches, firm or sticky, yellowish-red heavy fine sandy on Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
clay loam. It has been eroded enough to lower crop yields, and it is
38 to 46 inches, firm or very sticky, yellowish-red heavy fine only moderately well suited to cultivated crops. It is
sandy clay loam that has few, dark-red and common, dwell suited to pasture d to tree. p t unit
brownish-yellow mottles. well suited to pasture and to trees. (Capability unit
46 to 63 inches +, very firm or sticky, highly mottled heavy IIIe-1; woodland suitability group 4)
fine sandy clay loam.
The plow layer ranges from brown to dark grayish- Goldsboro Series
brown loamy sand. The upper few inches of the subsoil
is heavy sandy clay loam. The lower part is strong- In the Goldsboro series are deep, moderately well
brown to yellowish-red light sandy clay loam to fine drained, strongly acid soils that developed from thick
sandy clay. Strong-brown and red mottles generally beds of acid sandy loam and sandy clay loam on nearly
occur at a depth of 32 to 40 inches, but in some places level to sloping uplands. The surface layer is loamy
they are at a depth of 28 inches. The underlying mate- coarse sand to coarse sand that is very dark gray to dark
rial is generally at a depth of 42 to 50 inches, but the grayish brown in the upper part and is grayish brown
range in depth is 32 to 62 inches. It is highly mottled to light olive brown in the lower. Within 30 inches of
sandy clay loam to sandy clay. the surface is yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loam to
Included with this soil are a very few small areas that fine sandy clay loam. Faint mottles of pale brown, pale
have a surface layer of loamy fine sand. Also included yellow, and strong brown normally occur about 21 inches
are a very few small spots that are severely sheet below the surface. These mottles increase in intensity
eroded. In these severely eroded areas the surface layer with depth, and gray mottles occur below 30 inches. The
is fine sandy loam and is redder than normal because parent material is distinctly mottled sandy clay loam.
material from the subsoil has been mixed with it. The Goldsboro soils occur mainly with soils of the Norfolk,
subsoil is red in a few small areas. Klej, Bowie, Lynchburg, Marlboro, Tifton, and Ruston
ssoil is s rnl aid, is mderael aral series. They are not so well drained as the Norfolk,
This soil is strongly acid, is moderately high in natural Marlboro, Tifton, and Ruston soils but are better drained
fertility, and responds well to fertilizer. The available than the Lynchburg soils. The subsoil is yellow in the
moisture capacity is moderate in the surface layer and Goldsboro soils instead of strong brown to red, as it is
high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the Ruston soils. The yellow in the upper subsoil is
in the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil. similar to the yellow in the upper subsoil of the Nor-
The root zone is deep, well aerated, and sufficiently folk, Bowie, Tifton, and Marlboro soils. The lower part
loamy to have good tilth. of the subsoil is faintly mottled like the upper part of
This soil is well suited to most crops grown in the the subsoil in the Lynchburg soils. Goldsboro soils are
county, but practices to control erosion and other good finer textured than Klej soils.
management are needed for high yields. This soil is also Goldsboro soils have a moderately large total acreage
well suited to improved pasture and trees. It makes in the county and are widely distributed except in the
good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIe-1; southern half. Some areas in the northeastern part are
woodland suitability group 4) large. The native vegetation consists chiefly of long-
an ailtl y 2 to 5 pe sope leaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, various oaks, gallberry
Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (Fa).- bushes, and native grasses. Only a moderately small
This soil is less eroded than Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 p s i c but he
percent slopes, eroded, and has a thicker surface layer. part of these soils is used for cultivated crops, but the
The surface layer is 10 to 14 inches thick. Mottling soils are well suited to crops that tolerate slight wetness.
generally occurs at a depth of 36 to 48 inches, but in some A considerable acreage is used for improved pasture.
areas it is as shallow as 30 to 36 inches. Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
Included with this soil are a few small areas with slopes (GdA).-This moderately well drained soil of the uplands
of 0 to 2 percent and a very few small spots that are has a friable, moderately fine textured subsoil.
moderately eroded. Representative profile in a wooded area:
This soil requires less intensive management for high 0 to 6 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy coarse sand.
yields than Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 6 to 11 inches, very friable, light olive-brown loamy coarse sand.
eroded. It is well suited to all general crops grown in the 11 to 34 inches, friable, brownish-yellow sandy clay loam
county and to improved pasture. (Capability unit mottled with yellowish brown and very pale brown below 26
county and to improved pasture. (Capability unit inches.
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) 34 to 64 inches +-, friable, mottled sandy clay loam.
Faceville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to dark
(FaC2).--Most areas of this soil are uniformly sheet grayish brown and is underlain by light olive-brown to
eroded, but there are a few shallow gullies in some places. grayishbrown and is derlain by light olive-brown to
The surface layer ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thickness grayish-brown material. Sandy loam to sandy clay loam
but is generally about 5 inches thick. Mottles normally occurs within 18 inches of the surface. The subsoil is
are at a depth of 30 to 42 inches, and the mottled parent yellow to yellowish brown mottled with pale brown, pale
material generally is at 38 to 48 inches. yellow, and strong brown. Mottling normally begins at
Included with this soil are a few small spots that are a depth of 24 to 30 inches, but in some areas it is as shal-
severely sheet eroded and a few areas that are only slightly low as 20 inches or as deep as 36 inches. The mottles









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

increase with increasing depth. The underlying material moisture capacity is moderately high. Permeability is
is highly mottled sandy clay loam. Many small iron rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
concretions occur throughout the subsoil in a few areas, Runoff is slow to medium, and internal drainage is me-
especially where this soil is associated with the Tifton dium. Plant nutrients leach rapidly from the thick sur-
soils. face layer, but the response to fertilizer is good.
Included with this soil are a few small areas that have Most locally grown crops are suited to this soil, but
a loamy sand surface layer. In a few areas the layer corn and small grain are best suited. Because this soil
is slightly thicker than 18 inches. is wet periodically, crop yields are sometimes low. Im-
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural proved pasture, trees, and wildlife habitats are good uses.
fertility and medium organic-matter content. It is suffi- (Capability unit IIws-2; woodland suitability group 6)
ciently loamy to have good tilth, and the available mois- Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
ture capacity is good. Permeability is rapid to moder- slopes (Gc B).-This gently sloping soil has more rapidrunoff
ately rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the than Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
subsoil. Runoff is slow to medium, and internal drain- slopes, and generally a lower water table. In a few
subis medium. Thi slow to mediu, ant ntrent el drain- small areas the sandy surface layer is slightly thinner
age is medium. The soil retains plant nutrients well and than 18 inches or slightly thicker than 30 inches.
responds well to fertilizer. If properly managed, this soil is well suited to most
This soil has a deep root zone and is well suited to most locally grown crops, but yields of some crops are low
locally grown crops. Suitable crops are limited to those because drainage is restricted. The soil is best suited
that tolerate periodic wetness. Improved pasture and to corn and small grain, but it is also well suited to
pines grow well. (Capability unit IIws-2; woodland improved pasture and trees. It makes good habitats
suitability group 6) for wildlife. (Capability unit IIws-2; woodland suitability
Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes group 6)
(Gd B).-This gently sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, and slopes (GcC).-This sloping soil has more rapid runoff
generally has a lower water table. In a few scattered areas than Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
the surface layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches. slopes, and normally a lower water table. Erosion is
If properly managed, this soil is well suited to most likely if the soil is cultivated. Under good management
locally grown crops, but yields of some crops are low this soil may be used occasionally for corn, small grain,
because drainage is restricted. The soil is best suited to and other crops. The soil is well suited to most locally
corn and small grain, but it is well suited to improved grown pasture grasses and to trees. It makes good
pasture and trees and makes good habitats for wildlife, habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IVew-1; woodland
(Capability unit IIws-2; woodland suitability group 6) suitability group 6)
Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(GdC).-This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Grady Series
Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, and a
lower water table. It is susceptible to erosion. In a few In the Grady series are deep, poorly drained or very
scattered areas the surface layer is slightly thicker than poorly drained, strongly acid soils that developed from
18 inches. thick beds of acid sandy clay and clay. These soils oc-
Under good management that includes intensive control cur on uplands in low, nearly level depressions that have
of erosion, this soil may be used occasionally for corn, poor natural outlets for drainage. The surface layer is
small grain, and other crops. It is well suited to trees and black to dark-gray fine sandy loam to loam that is 3 to
to improved pasture. Most of the locally grown pasture 6 inches thick and is underlain in some areas by a thin
grasses and legumes are suitable on this soil. This soil layer of dark-gray to gray fine sandy loam to fine sandy
makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit clay loam. Normally this thin layer is abruptly under-
IVew-1; woodland suitability group 6) lain, at a depth of about 6 to 8 inches, by dark-gray to
Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent light-gray, tough, plastic fine sandy clay to clay that is
slopes (GcA).-This moderately well drained soil of the mottled with yellowish brown and yellowish red. The
uplands has a surface layer that is generally 18 to 30 parent material is highly mottled fine sandy clay to clay.
inches thick. It has a friable, moderately fine textured Grady soils generally occur with soils of the Rains,
subsoil. Lynchburg, Goldsboro, Tifton, Norfolk, and Marlboro
Representative profile in a wooded area: series. They have a finer textured subsoil than the Rains
0 to 8 inches, very friable, very dark gray coarse sand. soils but are similar in most other respects. Grady soils
8 to 20 inches, very friable, light olive-brown loamy sand.
20 to 36 inches, friable, light yellowish-brown light sandy clay are more poorly drained than Lynchburg and Goldsboro
loam mottled below 24 inches with yellowish brown and soils and are much grayer and finer textured in the sub-
very pale brown.
36 to 55 inches +, firm, mottled light yellowish-brown, soil. They are much more poorly drained than Tifton,
yellowish-brown, strong-brown, and light brownish-gray Norfolk, and Marlboro soils, and they have a much
sandy clay loam. lighter colored, more plastic, and finer textured subsoil.
In a few areas the depth to sandy clay loam is slightly Grady soils occur in small, widely scattered areas
less than 18 inches. In other areas it is slightly more than throughout most of the county except the southern half.
30 inches. The total acreage is very small. These soils are most
This soil is strongly acid, and it has moderate natural common in the northeastern part of the county. The
fertility and medium organic-matter content. Available native vegetation consists principally of blackgum, cy-







22 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

press, sweetgum, and various pond grasses. Most areas
of these soils are still in native vegetation. A few small
areas have been cleared but are now idle. These soils
are not suitable for cultivation.
Grady loam (Gr).-This poorly drained soil of the
uplands has a thin, loamy surface soil and a plastic,
clayey subsoil.
Representative profile in a wet, wooded area:
0 to 6 inches, friable, black loam.
6 to 17 inches, very firm or sticky, dark-gray fine sandy clay.
17 to 49 inches, extremely firm or very plastic clay that is
dark gray and gray mottled with yellowish brown in the .
upper part and is light gray mottled with yellowish brown ..
and yellowish red in the lower part.
yellowish-red, strong-brown, yellowish-brown, very pale
brown, and light-gray clay. .
The surface layer is loam that ranges from black to dark .C
gray in most places, but a few small spots of fine sandy
loam are included. Normally the surface layer grades .
abruptly to tough, plastic fine sandy clay to clay. The p-
subsoil is dark gray to gray in the upper part and is .r. _V a
light gray in the lower part. A few mottles of yellow- -v dar
ish brown and yellowish red normally occur throughout :
the subsoil. The subsoil is underlain by distinctly mot-
tied fine sandy clay to clay. Figure 2.-Gullied land. This land has been destroyed for
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural fer- agricultural use by erosion.
utility and high organic-matter content. Surface drain-
age is poor, and permeability is very slow in the Klej Series
subsoil. Aeration is very poor, and the root zone In the Klej series are deep, moderately well drained,
is shallow. Drainage from the small depressions is un- strongly acid soils that occur on uplands in nearly level
derground. Artificial drainage is difficult because this to sloping areas. These soils developed from thick beds
soil generally does not have suitable outlets. Flooding of acid sand and loamy sand that are underlain by sandy
is likely, and most areas are covered with water much clay loam and sandy clay. Sand or fine sand ex-
of the time. Tilth is generally poor. tends from the surface to a depth of more than 42 inches
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It produces in most places, but in some places finer textured material
fair pasture if it is adequately drained and intensively occurs at a depth of 30 inches. The surface layer is gray
managed. Pines grow well in drained areas, but un- or very dark gray to yellowish brown or yellow. Mottles
drained areas are suitable only for water-tolerant hard- of va drious shades of yellow and brown norma areas occur
woods and wildlife habitats. (Capability unit Iws- at a depth of 16 to 30 inches, but in some areas mottling
woodland iaidli ity g t Vws is as shallow as 14 inches or as deep as 36 inches. As
woodland suitability group 9) depth increases, the soil is more distinctly mottled with
various shades of yellow, brown, white, and gray.
Gullied Land Klej soils most commonly occur with the Lakeland,
Blanton, Goldsboro, Plummer, and Scranton soils. They
This land type consists of soils that have been gullied are not so well drained as the Lakeland soils and are
to such an extent that they cannot be cultivated. mottled much nearer the surface. The surface layer of
Gullied land (G u).-The soils of this land type have an the Klej soils is similar to that of the Blanton soils, but
intricate network of many, recently formed, deep and the underlying layer is dominantly yellow instead of
shallow gullies. Except in small patches or in small gray. Coarse-textured material extends to a much greater
narrow strips between the gullies, all the surface soil has depth in the Klej soils than in Goldsboro soils. The
been removed (fig. 2). Slopes range from 5 to more than Klej soils are much better drained than Plummer soils.
12 percent and generally are more than 12 percent. The They are better drained than the Scranton soils, which
gullies have cut into soils that range from sandy to have a thick, black or very dark gray, highly organic
clayey. They are more than 5 feet deep and have steep surface layer.
sides. In most areas erosion is still active, but a few of In this county Klej soils have a fairly large, widely
the gullied areas are stabilized. distributed total acreage. Although most areas are rela-
Gullied land occurs with many kinds of soils and is distributed total acreage. Although most areas are reha-
principally in the central part of the county. The total tively small, some large areas occur in the southern half
acreage in the county is very small. The main vegetation of the county. The native vegetation consists chiefly of
is a few slash pines and various oaks. None of this land longleaf pine, slash pine, myrtle, gallberry bushes, vari-
is tilled, and in its present condition it has little or no ous oaks, and wiregrass. Most areas, especially the more
value for grazing. It can be used as wildlife habitats. sandy ones, remain in native vegetation. Some areas,
(Capability unit VIIse-2; woodland suitability group 12) however, have been cleared and are used for corn, small







22 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

press, sweetgum, and various pond grasses. Most areas
of these soils are still in native vegetation. A few small
areas have been cleared but are now idle. These soils
are not suitable for cultivation.
Grady loam (Gr).-This poorly drained soil of the
uplands has a thin, loamy surface soil and a plastic,
clayey subsoil.
Representative profile in a wet, wooded area:
0 to 6 inches, friable, black loam.
6 to 17 inches, very firm or sticky, dark-gray fine sandy clay.
17 to 49 inches, extremely firm or very plastic clay that is
dark gray and gray mottled with yellowish brown in the .
upper part and is light gray mottled with yellowish brown ..
and yellowish red in the lower part.
yellowish-red, strong-brown, yellowish-brown, very pale
brown, and light-gray clay. .
The surface layer is loam that ranges from black to dark .C
gray in most places, but a few small spots of fine sandy
loam are included. Normally the surface layer grades .
abruptly to tough, plastic fine sandy clay to clay. The p-
subsoil is dark gray to gray in the upper part and is .r. _V a
light gray in the lower part. A few mottles of yellow- -v dar
ish brown and yellowish red normally occur throughout :
the subsoil. The subsoil is underlain by distinctly mot-
tied fine sandy clay to clay. Figure 2.-Gullied land. This land has been destroyed for
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural fer- agricultural use by erosion.
utility and high organic-matter content. Surface drain-
age is poor, and permeability is very slow in the Klej Series
subsoil. Aeration is very poor, and the root zone In the Klej series are deep, moderately well drained,
is shallow. Drainage from the small depressions is un- strongly acid soils that occur on uplands in nearly level
derground. Artificial drainage is difficult because this to sloping areas. These soils developed from thick beds
soil generally does not have suitable outlets. Flooding of acid sand and loamy sand that are underlain by sandy
is likely, and most areas are covered with water much clay loam and sandy clay. Sand or fine sand ex-
of the time. Tilth is generally poor. tends from the surface to a depth of more than 42 inches
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It produces in most places, but in some places finer textured material
fair pasture if it is adequately drained and intensively occurs at a depth of 30 inches. The surface layer is gray
managed. Pines grow well in drained areas, but un- or very dark gray to yellowish brown or yellow. Mottles
drained areas are suitable only for water-tolerant hard- of va drious shades of yellow and brown norma areas occur
woods and wildlife habitats. (Capability unit Iws- at a depth of 16 to 30 inches, but in some areas mottling
woodland iaidli ity g t Vws is as shallow as 14 inches or as deep as 36 inches. As
woodland suitability group 9) depth increases, the soil is more distinctly mottled with
various shades of yellow, brown, white, and gray.
Gullied Land Klej soils most commonly occur with the Lakeland,
Blanton, Goldsboro, Plummer, and Scranton soils. They
This land type consists of soils that have been gullied are not so well drained as the Lakeland soils and are
to such an extent that they cannot be cultivated. mottled much nearer the surface. The surface layer of
Gullied land (G u).-The soils of this land type have an the Klej soils is similar to that of the Blanton soils, but
intricate network of many, recently formed, deep and the underlying layer is dominantly yellow instead of
shallow gullies. Except in small patches or in small gray. Coarse-textured material extends to a much greater
narrow strips between the gullies, all the surface soil has depth in the Klej soils than in Goldsboro soils. The
been removed (fig. 2). Slopes range from 5 to more than Klej soils are much better drained than Plummer soils.
12 percent and generally are more than 12 percent. The They are better drained than the Scranton soils, which
gullies have cut into soils that range from sandy to have a thick, black or very dark gray, highly organic
clayey. They are more than 5 feet deep and have steep surface layer.
sides. In most areas erosion is still active, but a few of In this county Klej soils have a fairly large, widely
the gullied areas are stabilized. distributed total acreage. Although most areas are rela-
Gullied land occurs with many kinds of soils and is distributed total acreage. Although most areas are reha-
principally in the central part of the county. The total tively small, some large areas occur in the southern half
acreage in the county is very small. The main vegetation of the county. The native vegetation consists chiefly of
is a few slash pines and various oaks. None of this land longleaf pine, slash pine, myrtle, gallberry bushes, vari-
is tilled, and in its present condition it has little or no ous oaks, and wiregrass. Most areas, especially the more
value for grazing. It can be used as wildlife habitats. sandy ones, remain in native vegetation. Some areas,
(Capability unit VIIse-2; woodland suitability group 12) however, have been cleared and are used for corn, small







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

grain, and other crops. A moderate acreage is used for and other crops. Pasture grasses make good growth if
improved pasture. well managed. The soil is well suited to trees and makes
Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KgB).-This is a good wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IIIse-2; wood-
moderately well drained, deep sandy soil of the uplands, land suitability group 7)
Representative profile in a wooded area: Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KsB).-This
0 to 6 inches, loose, very dark gray sand. deep, moderately well drained soil of the uplands has
6 to 16 inches, loose, light yellowish-brown sand., sandy loam or sandy clay loam at a depth of 30 to 42
16 to 32 inches, loose, brownish-yellow sand with strong- inches.
brown mottles and streaks of light gray. Representative profile in a carpetgrass pasture:
32 to 90 inches +, loose, mottled brownish-yellow, light-gray,
and strong-brown sand. 0 to 8 inches, very friable, dark-gray sand.
Sp l r f 8 to 35 inches, loose, yellow sand mottled with brownish
The plow layer ranges- from very dark gray to dark yellow and strong brown below 17 inches.
gray. To a depth of about 30 inches it is underlain by 35 to 53 inches +, firm, highly mottled brownish-yellow
layers that range from yellowish brown to yellow. Mot- sandy clay loam.
tles of pale brown to strong brown normally occur at a The sand plow layer ranges from gray to dark gray
depth of 14 to 30 inches, and there are a few streaks of in color and is underlain by layers of sand that range
gray in many places. Below 30 inches the number of from yellowish brown to yellow and extend to a depth
mottles is variable, but the gray mottles normally in- of about 30 to 36 inches. Pale-brown to strong-brown
crease with increasing depth, mottles normally occur at a depth of 14 to 30 inches,
Included with this soil are a few areas of fine sand but in a few small areas they are as deep as 36 inches.
and of coarse sand. In a few small areas the finer tex- A few streaks of gray occur in the soil in many areas.
turned underlying material is slightly less than 42 inches A sandy loam to sandy clay loam begins 30 to 42 inches
from the surface. A few small spots are somewhat below the surface. This finer textured material varies
poorly drained. considerably in color, but normally is yellow to pale
This soil is strongly acid, has low natural fertility brown and is highly mottled.
and organic-matter content, and does not retain plant Included with this soil are a few areas of fine sand.
nutrients well. Surface runoff is slow, and a shallow In a few small areas the finer textured material is
water table restricts internal drainage. However, only slightly above 30 inches or is slightly below 42 inches.
a little moisture is available above the water table. A few small spots are somewhat poorly drained.
Water moves rapidly through the root zone and rapidly This soil is strongly acid and is low in organic-matter
leaches plant nutrients. The permeability is very rapid, content, natural fertility, and available moisture capac-
and the cation-exchange capacity is very low. Because ity. Water moves rapidly through the root zone and
of these poor soil qualities, this soil is limited in its rapidly leaches plant nutrients. However, the available
suitability for cultivated crops, moisture capacity is somewhat higher than in Klej sand,
Under good management, this soil produces moderate 0 to 5 percent slopes, because the finer textured material
yields of corn and small grain. Bahiagrass and other is nearer the surface. Permeability is very rapid in the
drought-resistant, deep-rooted pasture grasses do well. sand but is only moderately rapid in the finer textured
This soil is well suited to trees, and it makes good habi- material. Poor soil qualities restrict the use of this soil
tats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland for cultivated crops.
suitability group 7) Under good management this soil produces moderate
Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (KgC).-This sloping yields of corn and small grain. It is better suited to
soil has better surface drainage than Klej sand, 0 to 5 pasture grasses and to trees than to crops, and it makes
percent slopes, and normally a lower water table. g wilif i (Capability unit IIIse-2; wood-
Included with this soil are a few small areas of fine good wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IIIse-2; wood-
sand or coarse sand, and a few areas with scattered, land suitability group 7)
shallow gullies and rills. In a few small, scattered areas Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes (KsC).-This
the finer textured underlying material is slightly less stronger sloping soil has better surface drainage than
than 42 inches from the surface. Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and normally a
This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Klej sand, lower water table.
0 to 5 percent slopes, and requires more intensive man- Included with this soil are a few small areas of fine sand
agement if cultivated. It is better suited to improved and a few areas with scattered gullies and rills.
pasture and trees than to crops, and it makes good wild- This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Klej sand,
life habitats. (Capability unit IVse-1; woodland suit- shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and requires more intensive
ability group 7) management if cultivated. Improved pasture, trees, and
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KaB).-This wildlife habitats are better on this soil than cultivated
finer textured soil has a slightly higher available moisture crops. (Capability unit IVse-1; woodland suitability
capacity than Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and plant group 7)
nutrients do not leach quite so rapidly. It is better
suited to cultivated crops and pasture grasses than the Lakeland Series
coarse sand.
Included with this soil are small, scattered areas that In the Lakeland series are deep, well-drained to ex-
have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and scattered areas where cessively drained, strongly acid sandy soils on nearly
finer textured material is at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. level to steep uplands. These soils developed from thick
Almost all of this soil is near the Choctawhatchee beds of acid sand and loamy sand that are underlain by
River. It is moderately well suited to corn, small grain, finer textured material at a depth of more than 30 inches.







24 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

In the Lakeland soils coarse sand to fine sand extends
from the surface to a depth that ranges from about 30
inches to more than 72 inches and is more than 72 inches
in most places. The surface layer, about 7 inches thick,
is gray or dark gray to dark grayish brown and is under-
lain by 4 to 8 inches of light yellowish-brown material.
Next in the soil profile is a thick layer that is yellow to
yellowish brown. Below a depth of 42 inches in some
areas, the sandy layers are pale brown mottled with yel-
lowish brown, brownish yellow, light gray, or white.
The fine-textured underlying material ranges from sandy
loam to sandy clay. It varies in color and is highly mot-
tled in most places.
Lakeland soils occur mainly with the Eustis, Blanton,
Norfolk, and Klej soils. The deep sandy layer in the
Lakeland soils is yellow to yellowish brown instead of
strong brown to yellowish red as it is in the Eustis soils.
To a, depth of more than 30 inches the Lakeland soils
are coarser textured than the Norfolk soils, but they are
similar to the Norfolk soils in color. Lakeland soils are
better drained than the Klej soils and are not mottled
with so many colors. They are generally better drained
than the Blanton soils and are yellow instead of light
gray and very pale brown.
I The Lakeland soils occur throughout the county in a
large total acreage. Most of the acreage is in the south-
ern half of the county and has a coarse sand surface Figure .-akeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In som
Lakeland soils, sand is abruptly underlain by a sandy clay sub-
layer. The areas of coarse sand are more drought than stratum 42 to 60 inches below the surface.
areas of medium sand that occur elsewhere in the county.
Most of the areas of medium sand are in the northern Included with this soil are small, scattered areas of
part of the county, but a moderately large acreage is sand or very coarse sand.
near Ebro. This soil is drought and very rapidly permeable
The native vegetation consists chiefly of turkey oak, throughout. It is very low in organi-matter content,
blackjack oak, scattered longleaf pine, a few water oaks, natural fertility cation-exchange capacity, and available
and wiregrass. In the southwestern part of the county moisture capacity. It does not retain plant nutrients
the stands of longleaf and slash pines are larger than in well. Because of these poor qualities, this soil is severely
other parts, and they are almost pure stands with only limited in its production of general farm crops.
a few scattered scrub oaks. A few areas have vegetation Except for watermelons and a few other special crops,
typical of hammocks. In the southern part of the the soil is not suitable for cultivation. It is only moder-
county, most of these soils remain in forest. However, ately well suited to improved pasture. Most areas are
a considerable acreage of Lakeland soils has been cleared best suited to trees. (Capability unit VIse-l; woodland
and is in cultivated crops and improved pasture. Culti- suitability group 1)
vated areas occur particularly in the northern part of Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (LaC).-
the county, where these soils occur with better soils. This soil is steeper than Lkeld coarse sand, to 5 eet opes (L
Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LaB).- percent slopes, and is more susceptible to erosion. It has
This well-drained to excessively drained soil of the uplands slightly lower available moisture capacity, organic-matter
is deep and very rapidly permeable. content, and natural fertility. A few shallow or deep
Representative profile in a wooded area: gullies occur in a few scattered areas.
0 to 5 inches, loose, dark-gray coarse sand. This soil is too drought and too low in fertility for
14 to 43 inches, loose, lh yellow coarse sand. cultivation. Fair to good yields of bahiagrass and other
43 to 100 inches +, loose, very pale brown coarse sand mottled drought-resistant grasses can be obtained under good
with brownish yellow and yellowish brown. management. Although natural reproduction of pines is
Coarse sand extends from the surface to a depth that poor on this soil, the best use for most areas is trees.
ranges from 60 inches to many feet. The plow layer is (Capability unit VIse-l; woodland suitability group 1)
gray or dark gray to grayish brown and is underlain by Lakeland coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (LaD).-
layers of light yellowish brown or yellow to brownish This soil occurs on moderately long, narrow slopes ad-
yellow. Generally, the light yellowish brown occurs in jacent to sinks and drainageways. Because it is steeper
only the upper few inches. Mottles normally occur below than Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, it is more
a depth of 42 inches, but in the southwestern and northern susceptible to erosion. A few shallow or deep gullies
parts of the county, splotches of pale brown, very pale occur in a few areas. The depth to finer textured material
brown, or yellowish brown are at a depth of 30 inches in normally ranges from 60 to 72 inches.
some places. Fine-textured material is generally at a This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, but under
depth of many feet but is as shallow as 60 inches in some good management, fair yields of bahiagrass can be ob-
places (fig. 3). tained. The soil is moderately well suited to pines, and








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

most areas remain in trees. (Capability unit VIse-1; This soil is strongly acid and low in organic-matter
woodland suitability group 1) content. It has a deep root zone, through which water
Lakeland coarse sand, 12 to 45 percent slopes (LaF).- moves rapidly and rapidly leaches plant nutrients. The
This steep soil generally is adjacent to sinks and drainage- available moisture capacity and natural fertility are low.
ways. Because it is much steeper than Lakeland coarse Permeability is rapid above the finer textured underlying
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, it is much more susceptible material but is generally moderately rapid through them.
to erosion. Corn, small grain, and watermelons are the best suited
Included with this soil are small areas that have slopes crops. Most locally grown crops are only moderately well
of 8 to 12 percent and of 45 to 65 percent. Also included suited. Deep-rooted pasture grasses and trees grow well,
are a few moderately eroded areas that have many shallow and the soil makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capabil-
gullies, a few deep ones, or both. ity unit IIIse-1; woodland suitability group 3)
This soil is not suited to c(ili\-;l l crops or pasture. Lakeland sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes (LkC).-
It is best suited as woodland and for wildlife. (Capa- This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Lakeland
ability unit VIIse-1; woodland suitability group 1) sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and is more suscep-
Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LdB).-This tible to erosion. Included with this soil are small mod-
soil has a higher available moisture capacity and cation- erately eroded areas that have scattered shallow or deep
exchange capacity than Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 gullies.
p1.r<.:-il -lJe.. Its sandy loam to sandy clay.underlying Under good management that includes intensive control
niiti-iiil i ;,I a depth of 42 to 60 inches and is nearer of erosion, this soil may be used occasionally for corn,
the surfl.,.: than that in the coarse sand. Included with small grain, and watermelons. It is moderately well
this soil are a few small areas of coarse sand and a few suited to trees and to bahiagrass and other deep-rooted,
small areas of fine sand. drought-resistant pasture grasses. It makes good habi-
This is a poor soil for most cultivated crops, but corn, tats for wildlife. (Capability unit IVse-2; woodland
watermelons, and a few other crops can be grown. The suitability gpi.ip 3)
soil is moderately well suited to improved bahiagrass Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 5 to 12 percent
pasture, but most areas are best suited to trees. (Capa- slopes (LnD).-One or more of these soils make up at
ability unit IVse-2; woodland suitability --1.i11,p 2) least 75 percent of mapped areas, but the proportion of
Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 1LdC).-This each soil varies considerably from place to place. Most
sloping soil is more susceptible to "erosion than Lakeland areas mapped contain lesser, highly variable amounts of
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. It has slightly lower avail- the Eustis, Bowie, Ruston, Norfolk, and Faceville soils.
able moisture c.p,,ily, organic-matter content, and There are also scattered, small areas of the Blanton, Klej,
natural fertility. .\ fT\- shallow or deep gullies occur in a Lvi:-b1.>i.--'. Plummer, Rains, Rutlege, and Goldsboro
few scattered areas. soils, most of which are more poorly drained than the
Because this soil is drought and low in fertility, it is Lakeland, Cuthbert, or Shubuta soils. These more
not suited to most cultivated crops. Fair to good yields poorly drained soils generally occur on the crests of slopes,
of hjlii;jri.iss and other drought-resistant grasses can be on toe slopes, along small drainageways, and in seepage
obtained under good ]I.iaI,-~.,!!!rii Although pine trees spots on long slopes that have slowly permeable material
do not reproduce well in.1tir.lly, woodland is the best near the surface. In many places these soils slope to
use for most areas. (Capability unit IVse-2; woodland drainageways. The dominant soils are in such intricate
suitability group 2) patterns that it is impractical to map them separately.
Lakeland sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LkB).- A representative profile of each soil in this unit is
This is a well-drained to excessively drained soil on broad described with its respective series.
ridges of the uplands. The sand is underlain by fine- The native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf pine,
textured material, generally below a depth of 30 to 42 slash pine, various oaks, low shrubs, and native grasses.
inches. Most areas that have been cleared are no longer culti-
Representative profile in a moist wooded site: vated and are almost entirely in trees.
0 to 5 inches, loose, gray sand. These soils occur mainly in the northern half of the
5 to 36 inches, loose, yellow fine sand with a few pockets of county. They are mainly on and somewhat north of the
yellowish-brown loamy fine sand.
36 to 44 inches, friable, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam highly dissected north-facing escarpment that extends
mottled with yellow, strong brown, and red. in an east-west direction between the higher, deep sandy
44 to 50 inches +, firm, mottled light sandy clay. soils to the south and the dominantly finer textured soils
The plow layer is sand that ranges from gray to dark to the north. However, small, scattered areas occur in
gray. It is underlain by yellow to yellowish-brown the southern part of the county.
layers that range from sand to loamy sand but are sand Surface drainage is medium or rapid, and internal
in most places. Yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loam iae ranges from very rapid to slow. Both surface
to sandy clay occurs at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. Mot- drainage ranges from very rapid to slow.
tling is generally below a depth of 42 inches. In some drainage and internal drainage vary according to the
areas many small and medium-sized pebbles of quartz various soils.
occur on the surface and throughout the profile. These soils generally are not suitable for cultivation,
Included with this soil are areas that have a few shal- but scattered areas on gentle slopes can be cultivated
low or deep gullies, and some areas of coarse sand, fine occasionally. Use for pasture is limited. Because slopes
sand, or loamy sand. In small, scattered areas the finer are highly irregular, good pasture management is diffi-
textured material is slightly below 42 inches or is slightly cult, but the less sloping areas are moderately well suited
above 30 inches, to improved pasture. The best uses are for woodland








26 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

and wildlife habitats. (Capability unit VIes-1; wood- brown and dark reddish brown to black. It is underlain
land suitability group 5) by dark grayish-brown to light-gray coarse sand.
Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 percent Included with this soil are a few areas of sand and a
slopes (LnF).-Included in mapped areas of these steep few areas that are better drained than normal. In these
soils are slopes as steep as 55 percent. Also included are better drained areas the organic pan is 30 to 42 inches
moderately sheet eroded areas, areas that have shallow from the surface. Also included are a few areas that
and deep gullies, and a very few severely eroded areas, have slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
These highly dissected, steep soils are not suited to This soil is low in natural fertility and in organic-
cultivated crops, but if erosion is controlled, some areas matter content. Surface runoff and internal drainage
may be suited to pasture. The best uses are for woodland are slow. The water table normally fluctuates in the
or wildlife habitats. (Capability unit VIIes-1; woodland upper part of the soil. The surface layer is rapidly per-
suitability group 5) meable. Because this soil is coarse textured, it does not
retain plant nutrients well and its available moisture
Leon Series capacity is low.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, but it is
In the Leon series are deep, somewhat poorly drained, suited to bahiagrass pasture. Unless the soil is inten-
strongly acid soils that developed from moderately thick sively managed, yields are low. This soil is moderately
beds of acid sand under conditions favorable to the ac- well suited to trees, and it is well suited for wildlife
cumulation of an organic pan. These soils occur on habitats. (Capability unit Vsw-1; woodland suitability
nearly level uplands. The surface layer is gray or dark- group 8)
gray coarse sand that is underlain by gray or light-gray
coarse sand. The coarse sand is underlain abruptly by Local Alluvial Land
a very dark brown, dark reddish-brown, or black or-
ganic pan at a depth of 14 to 30 inches. This pan nor- This land type consists of alluvial and colluvial mate-
mally is weakly cemented. It is underlain by dark rials that washed or rolled from higher lying areas.
grayish-brown, yellowish-brown, or light-gray coarse Local alluvial land (Lu).-This land consists of
sand that extends to a depth of 42 inches or more. moderately well drained, acid sand and loamy sand and
Leon soils occur mainly with the Plummer, Rutlege, generally is in depressions on the uplands. In some areas
and Blanton soils. They are better drained than the it is at the base of long, normally gentle slopes. This
Plummer and Rutlege soils but are more poorly drained land formed from material that washed or rolled from
than the Blanton soils. Leon soils do not have a thick adjacent, higher lying, red and yellow soils that are
black surface layer like that in the Rutlege soils. The coarse and medium textured and well drained or mod-
dark-brown organic pan in the Leon soils is missing in erately well drained. Areas of Local alluvial land
the Blanton, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. generally do not have natural drainage outlets. They are
The total acreage of Leon soils in the county is small. drained underground, and they may stay wet for short
Almost all of it is in small areas that are widely scat- periods after heavy rains. However, they rarely become
tered in the southern part of the county, but a few small saturated near the surface except in the very lowest
areas are in the central part. In many areas these soils positions.
occur in narrow strips adjacent to swamps or drainage- This land generally consists of a heterogeneous mixture
ways. The native vegetation consists mainly of turkey of coarse-textured material. In many places the surface
oak, runner oak, longleaf pine, sparse slash pine, saw- layer is slightly finer textured than the underlying ma-
palmetto, and native grasses. These soils are not suited trial. The depth of the colluvial material varies consid-
to cultivated crops, and they remain entirely in native erably. The surface layer is 6 to 10 inches thick in most
vegetation, places. It is dark-gray or brownish-gray sandy material
, Leon coarse sand (Lo).-This somewhat poorly drained, that is underlain by stratified coarse and loamy materials
nearly level, sandy soil of the uplands has a strongly that are brown, yellowish brown, pale brown, or light gray.
cemented organic pan at a depth of 14 to 30 inches. The color and texture of the soil material vary considerably
Representative profile in a wooded area: because this land formed from deposits washed from many
St n e, d kinds of soils. In some places the lower layers are the
to 2 inches, loose, gray coarse sand with a few light-gray upper part of a soil that has been buried with alluvial or
splotches. colluvial deposits.
23 to 31 inches, weakly cemented, very dark brown coarse sand In a few areas, particularly near the north-facing
that is friable when wet and very hard when dry. escarpment that crosses the central part of the county,
31 to 39 inches, loose, very dark grayish-brown coarse sand.
39 to 53 inches +, loose, yellowish-brown coarse sand. this land recently received deposits from eroded, higher
The coarse sand plow laye ranges from gray to dark lying soils. In many places these recent deposits consist
e coarse sand plow layer ranges. fm ray to dark of 3 to 8 inches of yellow to red fine sandy clay loam.
gray but is dark gray in most places. It is underlain occurs closely with the Norfolk, Ruston,
by a light-gray or gray layer that is 6 to 18 inches thick The land, ocEus s aimilr soils, but it differs fro
and is underlain, in turn, by an organic pan. The or- Lakeland, Eustis, and similar soils, but it divers from
ganic pan normally is weakly cemented, but the degree those soils in texture and color. Also, it is more poorly
of cementation, density, or compaction of this layer drained. Individual areas and the total acreage of this
varies greatly within short distances. In some places, land are small. The areas are widely scattered through-
especially where this soil grades to another soil, there out the county but are more common in the central part.
is a strongly stained layer instead of the pan. The or- Many areas are cultivated with adjacent soils. Some
ganic pan is coarse sand and ranges from very dark areas are used for improved pasture. The available mois-








26 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

and wildlife habitats. (Capability unit VIes-1; wood- brown and dark reddish brown to black. It is underlain
land suitability group 5) by dark grayish-brown to light-gray coarse sand.
Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 percent Included with this soil are a few areas of sand and a
slopes (LnF).-Included in mapped areas of these steep few areas that are better drained than normal. In these
soils are slopes as steep as 55 percent. Also included are better drained areas the organic pan is 30 to 42 inches
moderately sheet eroded areas, areas that have shallow from the surface. Also included are a few areas that
and deep gullies, and a very few severely eroded areas, have slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
These highly dissected, steep soils are not suited to This soil is low in natural fertility and in organic-
cultivated crops, but if erosion is controlled, some areas matter content. Surface runoff and internal drainage
may be suited to pasture. The best uses are for woodland are slow. The water table normally fluctuates in the
or wildlife habitats. (Capability unit VIIes-1; woodland upper part of the soil. The surface layer is rapidly per-
suitability group 5) meable. Because this soil is coarse textured, it does not
retain plant nutrients well and its available moisture
Leon Series capacity is low.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, but it is
In the Leon series are deep, somewhat poorly drained, suited to bahiagrass pasture. Unless the soil is inten-
strongly acid soils that developed from moderately thick sively managed, yields are low. This soil is moderately
beds of acid sand under conditions favorable to the ac- well suited to trees, and it is well suited for wildlife
cumulation of an organic pan. These soils occur on habitats. (Capability unit Vsw-1; woodland suitability
nearly level uplands. The surface layer is gray or dark- group 8)
gray coarse sand that is underlain by gray or light-gray
coarse sand. The coarse sand is underlain abruptly by Local Alluvial Land
a very dark brown, dark reddish-brown, or black or-
ganic pan at a depth of 14 to 30 inches. This pan nor- This land type consists of alluvial and colluvial mate-
mally is weakly cemented. It is underlain by dark rials that washed or rolled from higher lying areas.
grayish-brown, yellowish-brown, or light-gray coarse Local alluvial land (Lu).-This land consists of
sand that extends to a depth of 42 inches or more. moderately well drained, acid sand and loamy sand and
Leon soils occur mainly with the Plummer, Rutlege, generally is in depressions on the uplands. In some areas
and Blanton soils. They are better drained than the it is at the base of long, normally gentle slopes. This
Plummer and Rutlege soils but are more poorly drained land formed from material that washed or rolled from
than the Blanton soils. Leon soils do not have a thick adjacent, higher lying, red and yellow soils that are
black surface layer like that in the Rutlege soils. The coarse and medium textured and well drained or mod-
dark-brown organic pan in the Leon soils is missing in erately well drained. Areas of Local alluvial land
the Blanton, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. generally do not have natural drainage outlets. They are
The total acreage of Leon soils in the county is small. drained underground, and they may stay wet for short
Almost all of it is in small areas that are widely scat- periods after heavy rains. However, they rarely become
tered in the southern part of the county, but a few small saturated near the surface except in the very lowest
areas are in the central part. In many areas these soils positions.
occur in narrow strips adjacent to swamps or drainage- This land generally consists of a heterogeneous mixture
ways. The native vegetation consists mainly of turkey of coarse-textured material. In many places the surface
oak, runner oak, longleaf pine, sparse slash pine, saw- layer is slightly finer textured than the underlying ma-
palmetto, and native grasses. These soils are not suited trial. The depth of the colluvial material varies consid-
to cultivated crops, and they remain entirely in native erably. The surface layer is 6 to 10 inches thick in most
vegetation, places. It is dark-gray or brownish-gray sandy material
, Leon coarse sand (Lo).-This somewhat poorly drained, that is underlain by stratified coarse and loamy materials
nearly level, sandy soil of the uplands has a strongly that are brown, yellowish brown, pale brown, or light gray.
cemented organic pan at a depth of 14 to 30 inches. The color and texture of the soil material vary considerably
Representative profile in a wooded area: because this land formed from deposits washed from many
St n e, d kinds of soils. In some places the lower layers are the
to 2 inches, loose, gray coarse sand with a few light-gray upper part of a soil that has been buried with alluvial or
splotches. colluvial deposits.
23 to 31 inches, weakly cemented, very dark brown coarse sand In a few areas, particularly near the north-facing
that is friable when wet and very hard when dry. escarpment that crosses the central part of the county,
31 to 39 inches, loose, very dark grayish-brown coarse sand.
39 to 53 inches +, loose, yellowish-brown coarse sand. this land recently received deposits from eroded, higher
The coarse sand plow laye ranges from gray to dark lying soils. In many places these recent deposits consist
e coarse sand plow layer ranges. fm ray to dark of 3 to 8 inches of yellow to red fine sandy clay loam.
gray but is dark gray in most places. It is underlain occurs closely with the Norfolk, Ruston,
by a light-gray or gray layer that is 6 to 18 inches thick The land, ocEus s aimilr soils, but it differs fro
and is underlain, in turn, by an organic pan. The or- Lakeland, Eustis, and similar soils, but it divers from
ganic pan normally is weakly cemented, but the degree those soils in texture and color. Also, it is more poorly
of cementation, density, or compaction of this layer drained. Individual areas and the total acreage of this
varies greatly within short distances. In some places, land are small. The areas are widely scattered through-
especially where this soil grades to another soil, there out the county but are more common in the central part.
is a strongly stained layer instead of the pan. The or- Many areas are cultivated with adjacent soils. Some
ganic pan is coarse sand and ranges from very dark areas are used for improved pasture. The available mois-








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

ture capacity is variable but is generally moderate, and brown to olive brown and is mottled with yellow, brown,
natural fertility is moderately high in most iplac.-. The and gray. The subsoil is highly mottled in most places
organic-matter content of recent deposits is generally at a depth below 30 inches. Some areas of this soil along
low, but that of older deposits is moderate. Holmes Creek are underlain by very pale brown to gray
Except where this land is used with other soils, only sand at a depth of more than 48 inches. These areas
a small part is cleared. Much of the land that was once are occasionally flooded after heavy rains. In other areas
cleared is slowly returning to native vegetation, particu- near Holmes Creek, the underlying material is sandy
larly in the central part of the county where farming has clay that is 30 to 42 inches below the surface in most
decreased. The native vegetation consists mainly of oak, places but is as shallow as 24 inches in a few small areas.
pine, and native weeds and grasses. (Cip-ailily unit This soil is more poorly drained than normal in a few
IIsw-1; woodland capability group 11) areas and somewhat resembles the Rains soils.
This soil is strongly acid, is moderate in natural fer-
Lynchburg Series utility, and has medium organic-matter content. Surface
runoff and internal drainage are slow. Permeability is
Ir the Lynchburg series are deep, somewhat poorly moderately rapid to rapid in the surface layer and mod-
drained, strongly acid soils that developed from thick rate to slow in the subsoil. The available moisture
beds of sandy loam and sandy clay loam on nearly level capacity is moderate. Soil aeration is poor because the
to sloping uplands. These soils have a black to gray water table is normally high and in some wet periods
loamy fine sand surface layer. Within 30 inches of the rises very close to the surface.
surface is light olive-brown to light yellowish-brown Much of this soil is in small areas or in long narrow
sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam that is mottled with bands that are adjacent to poorly drained soils along
various shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red. This drainageways. These areas are poorly located for culti-
layer is less than 36 inches thick and is underlain by ovation. The larger areas that can be drained and other-
parent material of highly mottled fine sandy clay loam wise well managed are suited to most general crops. This
to sandy clay that is somewhat stratified in some places. soil is well suited to trees and to improved pasture of
Lynchburg soils occur mainly with the Goldsboro, locally grown grasses and clovers, including white clover.
Norfolk, Marlboro, and Rains soils. They are not so It makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
well drained as the Norfolk and Marlboro soils, which IIIws-1; woodland suitability group 6)
have a uniformly yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
subsoil instead of one mottled with yellow, brown, gray, (Ly B) --This gently sloping soil has more rapid runoff than
and red. The Lynchburg soils are more poorly drained Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, and a
than the Goldsboro soils and are paler and more mottled slightly thicker, less strong mottled subsoil. The water
in the subsoil. They are better drained than Rains soils table is at a slightly greater depth.
and are more yellow and less gray in the subsoil. This soil is in narrow bands around small depressions
Lynchburg soils occur throughout the northern half or is in long, narrow areas adjacent to poorly drained
of the county but are most extensive in the Chipley area. soils along streams. Not manyareas are located in
The total acreage is moderately large. The native vege- g y
The total acreage is moderately large The native vege- positions favorable for cultivation. Included with this
station consists principally of longleaf pine, slash pine, soil are a few small areas on slopes of 5 to 8 percent.
gallberry, and low shrubs; native grasses with scattered Crops that tolerate wetness are best suited to this soil,
hickory; and various oaks and sweetgum. Most of these but most general crops can be grown if the soil is ade-
soils are still in forest, though some have been cleared qutely drne. Improved pasture of bahiagrass and
and are used for improved pasture and for corn, small quately drained. Improved pasture of bahiagrass and
and are used for improved pasture and for corn, small clover is well suited, and the soil makes good habitats
grain, and other cultivated crops. These soils are suited for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIws-l; woodland suita-
to cultivated crops but are limited to those that tolerate ability group 6)
slight wetness. They are suited to most improved pas- Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
ture grasses, are well suited to trees, and make good slopes (LzA).-This somewhat poorly drained soil of the
habitats for wildlife, uplands has a surface layer that is 18 to 30 inches thick
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes in most places. The subsoil is mottled sandy loam to
(LyA).-This somewhat poorly drained, deep, nearly sandy clay loam. In some areas near Holmes Creek,
level soil on uplands has a friable, moderately fine tex- this soil is underlain by very pale brown to gray sand at
tured subsoil. a depth of about 48 inches or more. These areas are
Representative profile in a carpetgrass pasture: generally near the first bottoms and are occasionally
0 to 5 inches, very friable, black loamy fine sand. flooded.
5 to 10 inches, very friable, dark grayish-brown loamy fine Representative profile in a wooded site:
sand. 0 to 6 inches, very friable, black loamy fine sand.
10 to 30 inches, friable to firm, light olive-brown fine sandy clay 6 to 17 inches, loose, grayish-brown loamy sand.
loam that has common, yellowish-brown, gray, strong- 17 to 24 inches, very friable, light brownish-gray loamy sand
brown, and light brownish-gray mottles. with common, yellowish-brown mottles.
30 to 42 inches, firm, mottled fine sandy clay loam. 24 to 45 inches, firm, mottled gray, yellowish-brown, and red
42 to 72 inches +, very firm, mottled clay that contains thin sandy clay loam.
lenses of fine sandy clay. 45 to 55 inches +, very firm, mottled fine sandy clay that con-
The loamy fine sand plow layer ranges from black to tains lenses of fine sandy clay loam.
grayish brown. Generally within a depth of 18 inches, Included with this soil are small spots in which the
but slightly deeper in a, ew small areas, is sandy loam surface layer is a little more than 30 inches thick or a
to fine sandy clay loam that ranges from light yellowish little less than 18 inches thick.









28 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

This soil is strongly acid, is moderate in natural fer- Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (MaB).-
tility, and has medium organic-matter content. Surface This gently sloping, well-drained, deep soil of the uplands
runoff and internal drainage are slow. Permeability is has a clayey subsoil.
moderately rapid to rapid in the surface layer and mod- Representative profile in a moist cultivated field:
rate to slow in the subsoil. The available moisture ca- 0 to 7 inches, very friable, very dark grayish-brown loamy sand.
pacity is moderate, to low. Soil aeration is poor because 7 to 14 inches, friable, dark yellowish-brown sandy loam.
the water table is normally high and in wet periods rises 14 to 34 inches, friable, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy clay
close to the surface. loam.
~close~34 to the surface. 63 inches, friable, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy clay
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops if it is inten- loam mottled with strong brown, pale brown, and red.
sively managed and excess water is removed. Improved 63 to 73 inches +, firm, highly mottled fine sandy clay loam.
pasture plants and trees grow well, and wildlife habitats The loamy sand plow layer ranges from gray to very
are well suited. (Capability unit IIIws-1; woodland dark grayish brown and is 4 to 7 inches thick. The plow
suitability group 6) layer is underlain by grayish-brown to dark yellowish-
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent brown sandy loam. In most places the upper 2 to 4
slopes (Lz B).-In this gently sloping soil, the water table is inches of the subsoil is fine sandy loam to light fine
generally lower than that in Lynchburg loamy fine sand, sandy clay loam, and the rest is generally heavy fine
thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes. A few areas with sandy clay loam to sandy clay. The color of the
slopes of 5 to 8 percent are included with this soil. In subsoil is generally brownish yellow to yellowish brown
some places the surface layer of these steeper areas is but in some areas it is yellow. The subsoil is nor-
slightly thicker than 30 inches or is slightly thinner than mally mottled with red and strong brown below 30
18 inches, inches, but mottling is as shallow as 24 inches in a few
This soil generally is in small, narrow areas adjacent to areas. The underlying material is highly mottled sandy
streams. It is best suited to crops that tolerate wetness, clay to sandy clay loam and is below a depth of 42
but it is fairly well suited to other cultivated crops if inches.
adequately drained and otherwise well managed. It is Included with this soil are a few small areas of sandy
moderately well suited to improved pasture and trees loam and a few small spots that are moderately eroded.
and as a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIws-1; Also included are a few small areas with slopes of 5 to 8
woodland suitability group 6) percent.
This soil is strongly acid, has moderately high natural
Marlboro Series fertility, and responds well to fertilizer. The available
Moisture capacity is moderate in the surface layer and
In the Marlboro series are deep, well-drained, strongly high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid
acid soils that developed from thick beds of sandy clay in the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil.
loam and sandy clay on nearly level to sloping uplands. This soil has a deep, well-aerated root zone and is sufli-
The surface layer of these soils is gray to very dark ciently loamy to have good tilth.
grayish-brown loamy sand to sandy loam that is under- This soil is well suited to improved pasture, to trees,
lain by dark grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown and to most crops grown in the county. It makes good
sandy loam. Within a depth of 14 inches the subsoil is habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit He-1; woodland
heavy fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay that is suitability group 4)
friable, slightly sticky, and yellow to brownish yellow Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
or yellowish brown. The upper few inches of the sub- (MaB2).--Because this soil is more eroded than Marlboro
soil is light fine sandy clay loam in most places. The loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it has a thinner surface
lower part normally is faintly mottled with strong brown, layer. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 9 inches in
red, and yellow. Mottles increase with depth. The sub- thickness, but it generally is about 6 inches thick. This
soil grades gradually to parent material of highly mottled soil is dominantly sheet eroded, but there are a few areas
sandy clay to sandy clay loam. with a few shallow gullies. For high yields of crops, this
M1 r ill .,. soils occur mainly with the Norfolk, Tifton, soil requires more intensive use of cover crops and green-
and Faceville soils. They have a finer textured, more manure crops than Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
brownish-yellow, stickier subsoil than the Norfolk soils, slopes.
Marlboro soils lack the high concentration of iron con- Under good management that includes control of ero-
cretions that is conspicuous in the Tifton soils. The sub- sion, this soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated
soil of the Marlboro soils is slightly more sticky than crops. It is also well suited to improved pasture and to
that of the Tifton soils, It is brownish ellow to yel- trees, and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capa-
that of the Tifton soils It is brownish yellow to yel- ability unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4)
lowish brown instead of yellowish red as in the subsoil
of the Faceville soils. Norfolk Series
Marlboro soils occur in the northern part of the county,
mainly in the northeastern part. The native vegetation In the Norfolk series are deep, well-drained, strongly
is chiefly longleaf pine, hickory, various oaks, dogwood, acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy
sweetgum, low shrubs, and native grasses. These soils clay loam on nearly level to strongly sloping uplands.
are well suited to many kinds of cultivated crops and These soils have a dark grayish-brown to light brownish-
to pasture and trees. Most of the acreage has been cleared gray loamy sand or sand surface layer that grades grad-
and is planted to corn, cotton, peanuts, and small grain, ually to yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loam to sandy









28 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

This soil is strongly acid, is moderate in natural fer- Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (MaB).-
tility, and has medium organic-matter content. Surface This gently sloping, well-drained, deep soil of the uplands
runoff and internal drainage are slow. Permeability is has a clayey subsoil.
moderately rapid to rapid in the surface layer and mod- Representative profile in a moist cultivated field:
rate to slow in the subsoil. The available moisture ca- 0 to 7 inches, very friable, very dark grayish-brown loamy sand.
pacity is moderate, to low. Soil aeration is poor because 7 to 14 inches, friable, dark yellowish-brown sandy loam.
the water table is normally high and in wet periods rises 14 to 34 inches, friable, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy clay
close to the surface. loam.
~close~34 to the surface. 63 inches, friable, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy clay
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops if it is inten- loam mottled with strong brown, pale brown, and red.
sively managed and excess water is removed. Improved 63 to 73 inches +, firm, highly mottled fine sandy clay loam.
pasture plants and trees grow well, and wildlife habitats The loamy sand plow layer ranges from gray to very
are well suited. (Capability unit IIIws-1; woodland dark grayish brown and is 4 to 7 inches thick. The plow
suitability group 6) layer is underlain by grayish-brown to dark yellowish-
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent brown sandy loam. In most places the upper 2 to 4
slopes (Lz B).-In this gently sloping soil, the water table is inches of the subsoil is fine sandy loam to light fine
generally lower than that in Lynchburg loamy fine sand, sandy clay loam, and the rest is generally heavy fine
thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes. A few areas with sandy clay loam to sandy clay. The color of the
slopes of 5 to 8 percent are included with this soil. In subsoil is generally brownish yellow to yellowish brown
some places the surface layer of these steeper areas is but in some areas it is yellow. The subsoil is nor-
slightly thicker than 30 inches or is slightly thinner than mally mottled with red and strong brown below 30
18 inches, inches, but mottling is as shallow as 24 inches in a few
This soil generally is in small, narrow areas adjacent to areas. The underlying material is highly mottled sandy
streams. It is best suited to crops that tolerate wetness, clay to sandy clay loam and is below a depth of 42
but it is fairly well suited to other cultivated crops if inches.
adequately drained and otherwise well managed. It is Included with this soil are a few small areas of sandy
moderately well suited to improved pasture and trees loam and a few small spots that are moderately eroded.
and as a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIws-1; Also included are a few small areas with slopes of 5 to 8
woodland suitability group 6) percent.
This soil is strongly acid, has moderately high natural
Marlboro Series fertility, and responds well to fertilizer. The available
Moisture capacity is moderate in the surface layer and
In the Marlboro series are deep, well-drained, strongly high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid
acid soils that developed from thick beds of sandy clay in the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil.
loam and sandy clay on nearly level to sloping uplands. This soil has a deep, well-aerated root zone and is sufli-
The surface layer of these soils is gray to very dark ciently loamy to have good tilth.
grayish-brown loamy sand to sandy loam that is under- This soil is well suited to improved pasture, to trees,
lain by dark grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown and to most crops grown in the county. It makes good
sandy loam. Within a depth of 14 inches the subsoil is habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit He-1; woodland
heavy fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay that is suitability group 4)
friable, slightly sticky, and yellow to brownish yellow Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
or yellowish brown. The upper few inches of the sub- (MaB2).--Because this soil is more eroded than Marlboro
soil is light fine sandy clay loam in most places. The loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it has a thinner surface
lower part normally is faintly mottled with strong brown, layer. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 9 inches in
red, and yellow. Mottles increase with depth. The sub- thickness, but it generally is about 6 inches thick. This
soil grades gradually to parent material of highly mottled soil is dominantly sheet eroded, but there are a few areas
sandy clay to sandy clay loam. with a few shallow gullies. For high yields of crops, this
M1 r ill .,. soils occur mainly with the Norfolk, Tifton, soil requires more intensive use of cover crops and green-
and Faceville soils. They have a finer textured, more manure crops than Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
brownish-yellow, stickier subsoil than the Norfolk soils, slopes.
Marlboro soils lack the high concentration of iron con- Under good management that includes control of ero-
cretions that is conspicuous in the Tifton soils. The sub- sion, this soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated
soil of the Marlboro soils is slightly more sticky than crops. It is also well suited to improved pasture and to
that of the Tifton soils, It is brownish ellow to yel- trees, and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capa-
that of the Tifton soils It is brownish yellow to yel- ability unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4)
lowish brown instead of yellowish red as in the subsoil
of the Faceville soils. Norfolk Series
Marlboro soils occur in the northern part of the county,
mainly in the northeastern part. The native vegetation In the Norfolk series are deep, well-drained, strongly
is chiefly longleaf pine, hickory, various oaks, dogwood, acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy
sweetgum, low shrubs, and native grasses. These soils clay loam on nearly level to strongly sloping uplands.
are well suited to many kinds of cultivated crops and These soils have a dark grayish-brown to light brownish-
to pasture and trees. Most of the acreage has been cleared gray loamy sand or sand surface layer that grades grad-
and is planted to corn, cotton, peanuts, and small grain, ually to yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loam to sandy









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

clay loam at a depth of less than 30 inches. The subsoil This soil is well suited to cultivated crops and to most
is underlain by distinctly mottled sandy clay loam. pasture grasses, but white clover may be damaged during
SNorfolk soils occur mainly with Ruston, Bowie, Golds- dry periods. Trees grow well on this soil. (Capability
boro, Tifton, Marlboro, and Lakeland soils. The subsoil unit I-1; woodland suitability group 4)
of the Norfolk soils is yellow or brownish yellow, in Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
contrast to the strong-brown to yellowish-red subsoil of (NoB2).-Because this soil is more eroded than Norfolk
the Ruston soils. Norfolk soils are better drained and loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it has a thinner surface
have a greater depth to mottling than the Goldsboro layer. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 13 inches in
soils. They lack the finer textured, mottled lower sub- thickness but is generally about 8 inches thick. This soil
soil of the Bowie soils, but their subsoil is better devel- is sheet eroded and has shallow gullies in a few areas.
oped and finer textured than that in the Lakeland soils. The content of organic matter is lower than in Norfolk
Although similar to the Tifton and Marlboro soils in loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Included with this
color, the Norfolk soils have a coarser textured, less soil are a few small spots that are severely sheet eroded.
sticky subsoil. They generally do not contain so many Under good management that includes control of ero-
iron concretions as the Tifton soils, but the amount of sion, this soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated
concretions is moderate in places where the Norfolk and crops, to improved pasture, and to trees. It makes good
Tifton soils are closely associated. habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodlan
The Norfolk soils have a moderately large total acreage suitability group 4)
in the county and occur mainly in the northeastern part. Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (NoC).-
The native vegetation is chiefly longleaf pine, hickory, This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Norfolk
oak, shrubs, and native grasses. These soils are well loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is more susceptible
suited to many kinds of cultivated crops, and in large to erosion. In some areas this soil does not extend as
part they have been cleared and planted to corn, cotton, deep as normal, and the underlying mottled parent ma-
peanuts, small grain, and pasture grasses. They are well trial is only 42 to 56 inches from the surface. Included
suited to trees. with this soil are a few small areas that are moderately
Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (NoB).- eroded and a few small areas on slopes of 8 to 12 percent
This well-drained soil of the uplands has a friable, yellow- This soil is suited to most cultivated crops grown in the
ish-brown sandy loam to sandy clay loam subsoil, county, but because it is susceptible to erosion, it is suited
Representative profile in a moist pasture: to only moderately intensive use. However, under good
0 to 5 inches, very friable, dark grayish-brown loamy sand. management that includes intensive control of erosion,
5 to 17 inches, very friable, brown to yellowish-brown loamy good yields may be obtained. The soil is well suited to
sand. improved pasture and to trees, and it makes good wildlife
17 to 53 inches, friable, yellowish-brown sandy loam and sandy improd pasture and to trees, nd it m es gooan d uitbilift
clay loam with few strong-brown mottles below 44 inches. habitats. (Capability unit IIIe-2; woodland suitability
53 to 65 inches +, friable to firm, brownish-yellow heavy sandy group 4)
clay loam mottled with yellowish red, red, and gray. Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
The loamy sand plow layer ranges from 4 to 8 inches (NoC2).-Because this sloping soil is more eroded than
in thickness and from dark grayish brown to light brown- Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it generally
ish gray in color. Within 18 inches of the surface is has a thinner surface layer. The underlying material is
yellow to yellowish-brown sandy loam to sandy clay nearer the surface. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 1
loam. In most places the subsoil is mottled with brown inches in thickness but is about 7 inches thick in most
to yellowish red at a depth of about 42 inches, but in places. Sheet erosion is dominant, and only a few areas
some places mottling begins at 36 inches. Mottled un- are gullied. The surface layer in eroded areas is slightly
derlying material normally occurs at a depth of 48 to browner than that in uneroded areas. Included with this
65 inches. soil are a few small, severely eroded areas that have a
Included with this soil are spots that are moderately sandy loam surface layer.
sheet eroded. In a few areas the surface layer is slightly This soil is only moderately well suited to cultivated
thicker than 18 inches. crops, and it requires intensive management. It is well
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural, suited to most pasture grasses, but white clover may be
fertility and organic-matter content. Available moisture damaged in dry periods. It is well suited as woodland.
capacity is moderate, and permeability is moderately (Capability unit IIIe-2; woodland suitability group 4)
rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes
The soil is well aerated, retains plant nutrients well, and (N rB).-This well-drained soil of the uplands has a surface
responds well to fertilizer, layer 18 to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish-
This soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated brown sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
crops, to improved pasture, and to trees. It makes good Representative profile in a moist cultivated field:
habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodland 0 to 5 inches, loose, dark grayish-brown sand.
suitability group 4) 5 to 24 inches, very friable, yellowish-brown sand or loamy sand.
Norfolk loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (NoA).- 24 to 52 inches, friable, yellowish-brown sandy loam to sandy
Because this soil is less sloping than Norfolk loamy sand, clay loam mottled with yellowish red below 44 inches.
2 to 5 percent slopes, it has little surface runoff. Erosion 52 to 65 inches +, friable, brownish-yellow sandy clay loam
generally is not a problem. In a few small areas the sur- mottled with yellowish red, red, and gray.
face layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches. It is slightly Included with this soil are areas that have a few shallow
finer textured than normal in a few areas near the Choc- or deep gullies. In some areas the surface layer is slightly
tawhatchee River. thinner than 18 inches or slightly thicker than 30 inches.








30 -SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

This soil is strongly acid and low in fertility and organic- Oktibbeha soils is more plastic than that of the Cuthbert
matter content. Available moisture capacity is low, and and Shubuta soils. Oktibbeha soils are neutral to mod-
permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in erately alkaline in the lower part of the subsoil, but
the subsoil. The soil is well aerated, retains plant Cuthbert and Shubuta soils are strongly acid through-
nutrients well, and responds well to fertilizer, out.
Most crops common in the county are grown on this Oktibbeha soils occur in the northeastern part of the
soil, but yields are low unless intensive practices are used county, south of Chipley in areas near Falling Water
to improve the soil. Only moderate practices are needed Hill and Piney Grove Church. They are almost entirely
to protect the soil from erosion. Most pasture plants do in small areas near limestone sinks. Most of the acreage
well, but legumes are difficult to establish and maintain, is still in native vegetation, mainly various oaks, sweet-
Trees grow well on this soil. (Capability unit IIse-1; gum, cedar, and scattered longleaf pine. However, a few
woodland suitability group 4) scattered areas are used for cultivated crops and forage
Norfolk sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes crops. These soils are moderately well suited to many
(N rA).-This soil is similar to Norfolk sand, thick surface, kinds of shallow-rooted crops and are generally cultivated
2 to 5 percent slopes. Erosion generally is not a problem with more extensive soils.
and can be controlled by ordinary management. In Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes (OkB).-These
small areas the surface layer is slightly thicker than 30 moderately well drained soils of the uplands have a plastic,
inches or slightly thinner than 18 inches. clayey subsoil that is underlain by soft limestone.
Most crops common in the county are grown on this Representative profile in a moist wooded site:
soil, but yields are low unless intensive practices are used in r ri ,
to improve the soil. Most pasture grasses do well, but 0 to 0 inches, friae, da ish-bro lomy sand.
legumes are difficult to establish and maintain. Trees 20 to 44 inches, very firm, plastic, dark-red clay; pale-brown
make good growth. (Capability unit IIse-1; woodland fragments of soft limestone below 34 inches.
suitability group 4) 44 to 50 inches +, very pale brown and white, moderately soft
Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes limestone.
(N rC).-Because this soil has steeper slopes than Norfolk The plow layer ranges from very dark gray to dark
sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it has more brown in color and from loamy sand to clay loam in
rapid runoff and is more likely to erode. In some areas texture. The subsoil is reddish-brown to red clay loam
the underlying material is slightly nearer the surface, to plastic clay. Very pale brown, yellow, and gray mot-
Although the surface layer ranges from 18 to 30 inches in tles normally occur in the subsoil at a depth of 24 to 36
thickness, it is normally 18 to 24 inches thick. inches. The lower part of the subsoil contains many
Included with this soil are small areas with slopes of 8 fragments of limestone and at a depth of 24 to 48 inches
to 12 percent. In a few small areas the subsoil is slightly is underlain by moderately soft limestone. In many
below a depth of 30 inches or is slightly above 18 inches. places limestone is near the surface or crops out in small
To maintain high yields, this soil requires management areas and there is no subsoil development.
that includes more intensive control of erosion than that Included with these soils are a few small spots that are
needed on Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent moderately eroded. Also included are a few small spots
slopes. Cultivation, however, can be moderately inten- in which highly mottled clay is just beneath the surface
sive. If erosion is controlled, yields are good. This soil layer. The soil in these spots has not developed from
is well suited to improved pasture, to trees, and as a limestone and has not been influenced by it.
habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIes-2; woodland These soils are moderately acid, are moderately high in
suitability group 4) natural fertility, and contain a small amount of organic
matter. Surface drainage is slow to rapid, and internal
Oktibbeha Series drainage is medium to slow. The available moisture
capacity is high. The permeability of the surface layer
In the Oktibbeha series are deep, moderately well depends on texture and ranges from rapid to moderate.
drained, moderately acid soils that developed from beds The subsoil is slowly permeable.
of medium acid clay underlain by limestone. These These soils are moderately well suited to some cultivated
soils occur on gently sloping to steep uplands, generally crops, but the choice of crops is limited by the shallow
near limestone sinks. They have been influenced by root zone and the poorly aerated subsoil. Improved pas-
limestone and in some areas have formed from a mixture ture is the best use. Unprotected areas of these soils are
of clay and underlying limestone residuum. highly erodible. (Capability unit HIes-l; woodland
The surface layer is very dark gray to dark-brown suitability roup
loamy sand to clay loam that ranges from 3 to 10 inches suitability group 5)
in thickness. It is rather abruptly underlain by a sub- Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes (OkC).-Because
soil of reddish-brown to red clay loam to clay. The these sloping soils have faster surface runoff than Oktib-
lower part of the subsoil is mottled with various shades beha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, they are more likely
to erode. Limestone is generally nearer the surface and
of red, gray, and brown. Below the subsoil is mottled to oo s rally nearer the surface and
is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches.
very pale brown and white, moderately soft limestone. Included with these soils are a few small areas that are
These soils are neutral to moderately alkaline at a depth moderately eroded. Also included, on sides of limestone
of 32 to 36 inches, sinks, are small areas that have slopes of as much as 35
Oktibbeha soils occur with the Cuthbert and Shubuta percent.
soils and are somewhat similar to them but differ because Because they erode easily and have a shallow root zone,
of the influence of the limestone. The subsoil of the these soils are not well suited to cultivated crops. Only a








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

few crops can be grown, and the best use is improved of 30 to 42 inches, by fine-textured material that ranges
pasture. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland suitability from sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam and is highly
group 5) mottled with various hues of gray, brown, yellow, and
red.
Plummer Series These soils are strongly acid, are low in natural fertility,
and contain little organic matter. Permeability is rapid,
In the Plummer series are deep, poorly drained, strongly and the available moisture capacity is low. The root
acid to very strongly acid soils. These soils occur on zone is restricted by the very shallow water table.
broad flats, in depressions along drainageways, in shal- These soils are not well suited to cultivated crops, but
low intermittent ponds, and to some extent, in seeps on under good management that includes adequate drain-
nearly level to sloping uplands. These soils developed age, high yields of pasture grasses can be produced. These
from moderately thick to thick beds of acid sand that soils are suited to trees and for wildlife habitats. (Capa-
is underlain by sandy loam to sandy clay at a depth ability unit Vws-2; woodland suitability group 10)
generally greater than 42 inches. The surface layer is
sand to fine sand and ranges from gray to black. Where Pocomoke Series
it is black, this layer is less than 6 inches thick. Under-
lying the surface are deep sandy layers. These range In the Pocomoke series are deep, very poorly drained,
from dark gray to white and are mottled with various very strongly acid soils that developed from thick beds
hues of gray, brown, and yellow where they are deepest, of acid sandy loam and sandy clay loam. These soils
Plummer soils occur with soils of the Rutlege, Leon, occur on nearly level, low, flat or depressed areas of the
Klej, Blanton, Lynchburg, Rains, and Lakeland series, uplands and along poorly defined drainageways. The
Plummer soils do not have a thick, black surface layer surface layer is black or very dark gray mucky loamy fine
like that in Rutlege soils. They are more poorly drained sand to loamy fine sand that is 8 to 14 inches thick and
than Leon soils and do not have a brown to black or- has a high organic-matter content. It is 'underlain by a
ganic pan. Plummer soils are much more poorly drained dark-gray to gray layer in most places. Within 30 inches
than Blanton, Klej, and Lakeland soils. They are more of the surface is dark-gray to light-gray sandy loam to
poorly drained than Lynchburg soils and do not have a light sandy clay loam. The subsoil is mottled with pale
well-developed subsoil. The Plummer soils are similar to brown, yellowish brown, and strong brown in most places.
the Rains soils in drainage and in color, but the Rains soils It is underlain by mottled sandy clay to sandy clay loam.
have a finer textured, more developed subsoil. Pocomoke soils occur mainly with the Rains soils and
Plummer soils have a moderate total acreage in the to a lesser extent with the Lynchburg and Rutlege soils.
county. They occur throughout but are most extensive They have a thicker surface layer than the Rains soils
in the southern part, particularly on broad flats in the and a coarser textured, less well developed subsoil. The
Deadening Lakes area. The native vegetation is mainly Pocomoke soils are similar to the Rains soils in color.
longleaf pine, low shrubs; pitcher plants, and wiregrass, They are more poorly drained than the Lynchburg soils,
but in the beds of intermittent lakes, it is dominantly have a much thicker surface layer, and are more gray and
pond cedar. These soils are poorly suited for cultivation, less yellow in the subsoil. The Pocomoke soils are similar
Most of the acreage is still in native vegetation, but some to the Rutlege soils in color but are finer textured through-
areas are used for pasture, out the profile.
Plummer soils (Pm).-These deep, poorly drained soils Pocomoke soils have a small acreage in the county and
of the uplands have a very shallow water table and consist occur in the northern half. They are so closely intermin-
of sand to fine sand throughout, gled with the Rains soils that they have been mapped
Representative profile in a nearly level wooded area: with those soils in an undifferentiated unit. The native
0 to 5 inches, very friable, black sand. vegetation consists mainly of water-tolerant hardwoods
5 to 16 inches, loose, dark-gray sand.
16 to 46 inches, loose, light-gray sand mottled with grayish and native wetland grasses. These soils are suited to a
brown. few cultivated crops or to improved pasture if excess
46 to 60 inches +, loose sand mottled with pale yellow, light water is removed. Drainage outlets, however, are scarce
brownish gray, and gray. in many areas. Drainage is needed for best growth of
The plow layer ranges from black to gray but is mostly trees
very dark gray. It ranges from coarse sand to fine sand Pocomoke and Rains soils (Pr).-This undifferentiated
but is medium sand in most places. The underlying unit consists of poorly drained and very poorly drained
layers range from white to dark gray, but light gray soi, min Pocomoke and Rains. One or both of these
dominates. These layers range from coarse sand to fine soils make up at least 75 percent of the mapped areas,
sand but are mostly medium sand. In places the deep but the proportion of each soil varies considerably from
underlying layers are mottled with gray, brown, and place to pace. The Grady, Bayboro, Rutlege, Plummer,
yellow. and Lynchburg soils also generally occur, but to a lesser,
In a few small areas a thin layer stained with grayish highly variable extent.
brown occurs in these soils. A few areas that are slightly Pocomoke and Rains soils are in low, nearly level,
higher than normal have a water table that generally depressional or ponded areas of the uplands. These
fluctuates between 24 and 48 inches. In the southeastern soils are wet or have water on the surface for long periods.
part of the county some areas are in beds of intermittent They occur in such an intricate pattern that it is not
lakes and are flooded much of the time. A few other feasible to map them separately. The Pocomoke soils
areas, mostly in Holmes Valley, are underlain, at a depth usually occur in the lowest and wettest part of the mapped
726-719-65--3








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

few crops can be grown, and the best use is improved of 30 to 42 inches, by fine-textured material that ranges
pasture. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland suitability from sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam and is highly
group 5) mottled with various hues of gray, brown, yellow, and
red.
Plummer Series These soils are strongly acid, are low in natural fertility,
and contain little organic matter. Permeability is rapid,
In the Plummer series are deep, poorly drained, strongly and the available moisture capacity is low. The root
acid to very strongly acid soils. These soils occur on zone is restricted by the very shallow water table.
broad flats, in depressions along drainageways, in shal- These soils are not well suited to cultivated crops, but
low intermittent ponds, and to some extent, in seeps on under good management that includes adequate drain-
nearly level to sloping uplands. These soils developed age, high yields of pasture grasses can be produced. These
from moderately thick to thick beds of acid sand that soils are suited to trees and for wildlife habitats. (Capa-
is underlain by sandy loam to sandy clay at a depth ability unit Vws-2; woodland suitability group 10)
generally greater than 42 inches. The surface layer is
sand to fine sand and ranges from gray to black. Where Pocomoke Series
it is black, this layer is less than 6 inches thick. Under-
lying the surface are deep sandy layers. These range In the Pocomoke series are deep, very poorly drained,
from dark gray to white and are mottled with various very strongly acid soils that developed from thick beds
hues of gray, brown, and yellow where they are deepest, of acid sandy loam and sandy clay loam. These soils
Plummer soils occur with soils of the Rutlege, Leon, occur on nearly level, low, flat or depressed areas of the
Klej, Blanton, Lynchburg, Rains, and Lakeland series, uplands and along poorly defined drainageways. The
Plummer soils do not have a thick, black surface layer surface layer is black or very dark gray mucky loamy fine
like that in Rutlege soils. They are more poorly drained sand to loamy fine sand that is 8 to 14 inches thick and
than Leon soils and do not have a brown to black or- has a high organic-matter content. It is 'underlain by a
ganic pan. Plummer soils are much more poorly drained dark-gray to gray layer in most places. Within 30 inches
than Blanton, Klej, and Lakeland soils. They are more of the surface is dark-gray to light-gray sandy loam to
poorly drained than Lynchburg soils and do not have a light sandy clay loam. The subsoil is mottled with pale
well-developed subsoil. The Plummer soils are similar to brown, yellowish brown, and strong brown in most places.
the Rains soils in drainage and in color, but the Rains soils It is underlain by mottled sandy clay to sandy clay loam.
have a finer textured, more developed subsoil. Pocomoke soils occur mainly with the Rains soils and
Plummer soils have a moderate total acreage in the to a lesser extent with the Lynchburg and Rutlege soils.
county. They occur throughout but are most extensive They have a thicker surface layer than the Rains soils
in the southern part, particularly on broad flats in the and a coarser textured, less well developed subsoil. The
Deadening Lakes area. The native vegetation is mainly Pocomoke soils are similar to the Rains soils in color.
longleaf pine, low shrubs; pitcher plants, and wiregrass, They are more poorly drained than the Lynchburg soils,
but in the beds of intermittent lakes, it is dominantly have a much thicker surface layer, and are more gray and
pond cedar. These soils are poorly suited for cultivation, less yellow in the subsoil. The Pocomoke soils are similar
Most of the acreage is still in native vegetation, but some to the Rutlege soils in color but are finer textured through-
areas are used for pasture, out the profile.
Plummer soils (Pm).-These deep, poorly drained soils Pocomoke soils have a small acreage in the county and
of the uplands have a very shallow water table and consist occur in the northern half. They are so closely intermin-
of sand to fine sand throughout, gled with the Rains soils that they have been mapped
Representative profile in a nearly level wooded area: with those soils in an undifferentiated unit. The native
0 to 5 inches, very friable, black sand. vegetation consists mainly of water-tolerant hardwoods
5 to 16 inches, loose, dark-gray sand.
16 to 46 inches, loose, light-gray sand mottled with grayish and native wetland grasses. These soils are suited to a
brown. few cultivated crops or to improved pasture if excess
46 to 60 inches +, loose sand mottled with pale yellow, light water is removed. Drainage outlets, however, are scarce
brownish gray, and gray. in many areas. Drainage is needed for best growth of
The plow layer ranges from black to gray but is mostly trees
very dark gray. It ranges from coarse sand to fine sand Pocomoke and Rains soils (Pr).-This undifferentiated
but is medium sand in most places. The underlying unit consists of poorly drained and very poorly drained
layers range from white to dark gray, but light gray soi, min Pocomoke and Rains. One or both of these
dominates. These layers range from coarse sand to fine soils make up at least 75 percent of the mapped areas,
sand but are mostly medium sand. In places the deep but the proportion of each soil varies considerably from
underlying layers are mottled with gray, brown, and place to pace. The Grady, Bayboro, Rutlege, Plummer,
yellow. and Lynchburg soils also generally occur, but to a lesser,
In a few small areas a thin layer stained with grayish highly variable extent.
brown occurs in these soils. A few areas that are slightly Pocomoke and Rains soils are in low, nearly level,
higher than normal have a water table that generally depressional or ponded areas of the uplands. These
fluctuates between 24 and 48 inches. In the southeastern soils are wet or have water on the surface for long periods.
part of the county some areas are in beds of intermittent They occur in such an intricate pattern that it is not
lakes and are flooded much of the time. A few other feasible to map them separately. The Pocomoke soils
areas, mostly in Holmes Valley, are underlain, at a depth usually occur in the lowest and wettest part of the mapped
726-719-65--3









32 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

areas. They are generally surrounded by Rains soils, mottled gray, strong-brown, and brownish-yellow sandy
which are on narrow rims that grade to better drained clay loam to clay.
soils. Rains soils occur with the Pocomoke, Rutlege, Plum-
Elsewhere in this section is a description of the Rains mer, and Lynchburg soils. The surface layer of the Rains
series that includes a representative profile, soils is not so thick or so highly organic as that of the
Representative profile for a nearly level Pocomoke soil Pocomoke and Rutlege soils, but the subsoil is finer tex-
in a wooded area: tured and better developed. The Rains soils are more
0 to 8 inches, friable, black, mucky loamy fine sand. poorly drained than the Lynchburg and do not have a
8 to 16 inches, friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand. yellow subsoil.
16 to 31 inches, friable, gray sandy loam. The Rains soils have a moderate total acreage in the
31 to 55 inches, firm, gray and dark-gray light sandy clay loam county and occur mainly throughout the northern half,
mottled with yellowish brown. county an occur mainly throughout te nort a,
but a few small areas are in the southwestern part near
The surface layer of this soil ranges from mucky loamy Ebro. The native vegetation is mainly water-tolerant
fine sand to loamy sand. Pocomoke and Rains soils differ hardwoods, scattered longleaf and slash pines, low shrubs,
mainly in thickness of the surface layer. The surface layer and native grasses. These soils have limited use for culti-
of the Pocomoke soils is 8 inches or more thick and is dark vated crops. Some small areas are used for improved
colored and highly organic. The surface layer of the pasture. During wet periods, a simple drainage system
Rains soils is generally about 4 inches thick. The Rains is needed to remove excess water. Most of the acreage is
soils are slightly finer textured in the subsoil than the still in trees.
Pocomoke soils. Rains loamy sand (Ra).-This poorly drained soil
These soils have a small total acreage in the county and of the uplands occurs in low areas and generally has a
are scattered throughout the northern half. The native clayey subsoil.
vegetation consists mainly of water-tolerant hardwoods, Representative profile in a wet, wooded area:
scattered longleaf and slash pines, low shrubs, and native
0 to 6 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy sand.
grasses. 6 to 14 inches, friable, gray to light-gray sandy loam.
The soils in this unit are strongly acid or very strongly 14 to 34 inches, friable, gray to light-gray light sandy clay
acid, are low in natural fertility, and have high to medium loam mottled with pale yellow and strong brown below
rganic-matter content. Their available moisture capacity 20 inches.
organic-matter content. Their available moisture capacity 34 51 inches +, firm, gray fine sandy clay loam mottled
is moderate to low. Drainage is very slow. The root zone with strong brown and yellowish red above 42 inches;
is restricted because the water table is near the surface mottles increase below 42 inches.
much of the time. The plow layer ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thickness
If excess water is removed, these soils are moderately and is generally black but ranges from black to gray. It
well suited to pasture and a few kinds of crops. Outlets is underlain by dark-gray to light-gray loamy sand. The
for drainage, however, are scarce in most places. Drain- subsoil ranges from gray to light gray in color and from
age is also needed for best growth of trees. (Capability sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam in texture. The lower
unit IVws-1; woodland suitability group 9) part of the subsoil is generally mottled with pale yellow,
Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick surface (Pt).- strong brown, and yellowish red. The underlying mate-
These soils have a thicker surface layer than Pocomoke rial is highly mottled sandy clay loam to clay that is
and Rains soils and underlying layers that are considerably stratified in some places.
thicker. The surface layer is 18 to 30 inches thick in Included with this soil are a few areas that have a
most places, but it is thinner than 18 inches or thicker loamy fine sand surface layer. In a few areas the surface
than 30 inches in a few places. Because the thicker layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches, and in some small
surface layer is rapidly permeable, the available moisture areas it is thick and black. Small spots have a sandy
capacity is lower and plant nutrients are leached more clay subsoil.
rapidly. This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
These soils require slightly better management than medium in organic-matter content. The available mois-
Pocomoke and Rains soils but are similar to those soils ture capacity is moderate to low, and drainage is slow.
in use and capability. (Capability unit IVws-1; wood- The root zone is restricted by a water table that is near
land suitability group 9) or at the surface much of the time.
If excess water is removed, these soils are moderately
Rains Series well suited to pasture and to a few kinds of cultivated
crops. Drainage is also needed for best growth of trees.
In the Rains series are deep, poorly drained, strongly (Capability unit IVws-1; woodland suitability group 9)
acid soils that developed from thick beds of sandy clay
loam and sandy loam. These soils occur on nearly level, Ruston Series
low, flat or depressed areas of the uplands and along
poorly defined drainageways. They have a very dark In the Ruston series are deep, well-drained, strongly
gray or gray loamy sand surface layer that is underlain acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy
gray or gray loamy sand surface layer that is underlain clay loam on nearly level to strongly sloping uplands.
by gray loamy sand. Within 30 inches of the surface is These soils have a dark-gray to very dark grayish-brown
gray or light-gray sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. loamy sand to coarse sand surface layer. Within a depth
The lower part of the subsoil is mottled with various of 30 inches is sandy loam to sandy clay loam that ranges
shades of pale brown, pale yellow, strong brown, yellow- from strong brown to red but is dominantly yellowish red.
ish brown, and yellowish red. The parent material is The parent material is distinctly mottled sandy clay loam.









32 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

areas. They are generally surrounded by Rains soils, mottled gray, strong-brown, and brownish-yellow sandy
which are on narrow rims that grade to better drained clay loam to clay.
soils. Rains soils occur with the Pocomoke, Rutlege, Plum-
Elsewhere in this section is a description of the Rains mer, and Lynchburg soils. The surface layer of the Rains
series that includes a representative profile, soils is not so thick or so highly organic as that of the
Representative profile for a nearly level Pocomoke soil Pocomoke and Rutlege soils, but the subsoil is finer tex-
in a wooded area: tured and better developed. The Rains soils are more
0 to 8 inches, friable, black, mucky loamy fine sand. poorly drained than the Lynchburg and do not have a
8 to 16 inches, friable, very dark gray loamy fine sand. yellow subsoil.
16 to 31 inches, friable, gray sandy loam. The Rains soils have a moderate total acreage in the
31 to 55 inches, firm, gray and dark-gray light sandy clay loam county and occur mainly throughout the northern half,
mottled with yellowish brown. county an occur mainly throughout te nort a,
but a few small areas are in the southwestern part near
The surface layer of this soil ranges from mucky loamy Ebro. The native vegetation is mainly water-tolerant
fine sand to loamy sand. Pocomoke and Rains soils differ hardwoods, scattered longleaf and slash pines, low shrubs,
mainly in thickness of the surface layer. The surface layer and native grasses. These soils have limited use for culti-
of the Pocomoke soils is 8 inches or more thick and is dark vated crops. Some small areas are used for improved
colored and highly organic. The surface layer of the pasture. During wet periods, a simple drainage system
Rains soils is generally about 4 inches thick. The Rains is needed to remove excess water. Most of the acreage is
soils are slightly finer textured in the subsoil than the still in trees.
Pocomoke soils. Rains loamy sand (Ra).-This poorly drained soil
These soils have a small total acreage in the county and of the uplands occurs in low areas and generally has a
are scattered throughout the northern half. The native clayey subsoil.
vegetation consists mainly of water-tolerant hardwoods, Representative profile in a wet, wooded area:
scattered longleaf and slash pines, low shrubs, and native
0 to 6 inches, very friable, very dark gray loamy sand.
grasses. 6 to 14 inches, friable, gray to light-gray sandy loam.
The soils in this unit are strongly acid or very strongly 14 to 34 inches, friable, gray to light-gray light sandy clay
acid, are low in natural fertility, and have high to medium loam mottled with pale yellow and strong brown below
rganic-matter content. Their available moisture capacity 20 inches.
organic-matter content. Their available moisture capacity 34 51 inches +, firm, gray fine sandy clay loam mottled
is moderate to low. Drainage is very slow. The root zone with strong brown and yellowish red above 42 inches;
is restricted because the water table is near the surface mottles increase below 42 inches.
much of the time. The plow layer ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thickness
If excess water is removed, these soils are moderately and is generally black but ranges from black to gray. It
well suited to pasture and a few kinds of crops. Outlets is underlain by dark-gray to light-gray loamy sand. The
for drainage, however, are scarce in most places. Drain- subsoil ranges from gray to light gray in color and from
age is also needed for best growth of trees. (Capability sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam in texture. The lower
unit IVws-1; woodland suitability group 9) part of the subsoil is generally mottled with pale yellow,
Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick surface (Pt).- strong brown, and yellowish red. The underlying mate-
These soils have a thicker surface layer than Pocomoke rial is highly mottled sandy clay loam to clay that is
and Rains soils and underlying layers that are considerably stratified in some places.
thicker. The surface layer is 18 to 30 inches thick in Included with this soil are a few areas that have a
most places, but it is thinner than 18 inches or thicker loamy fine sand surface layer. In a few areas the surface
than 30 inches in a few places. Because the thicker layer is slightly thicker than 18 inches, and in some small
surface layer is rapidly permeable, the available moisture areas it is thick and black. Small spots have a sandy
capacity is lower and plant nutrients are leached more clay subsoil.
rapidly. This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
These soils require slightly better management than medium in organic-matter content. The available mois-
Pocomoke and Rains soils but are similar to those soils ture capacity is moderate to low, and drainage is slow.
in use and capability. (Capability unit IVws-1; wood- The root zone is restricted by a water table that is near
land suitability group 9) or at the surface much of the time.
If excess water is removed, these soils are moderately
Rains Series well suited to pasture and to a few kinds of cultivated
crops. Drainage is also needed for best growth of trees.
In the Rains series are deep, poorly drained, strongly (Capability unit IVws-1; woodland suitability group 9)
acid soils that developed from thick beds of sandy clay
loam and sandy loam. These soils occur on nearly level, Ruston Series
low, flat or depressed areas of the uplands and along
poorly defined drainageways. They have a very dark In the Ruston series are deep, well-drained, strongly
gray or gray loamy sand surface layer that is underlain acid soils that developed from thick beds of acid sandy
gray or gray loamy sand surface layer that is underlain clay loam on nearly level to strongly sloping uplands.
by gray loamy sand. Within 30 inches of the surface is These soils have a dark-gray to very dark grayish-brown
gray or light-gray sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. loamy sand to coarse sand surface layer. Within a depth
The lower part of the subsoil is mottled with various of 30 inches is sandy loam to sandy clay loam that ranges
shades of pale brown, pale yellow, strong brown, yellow- from strong brown to red but is dominantly yellowish red.
ish brown, and yellowish red. The parent material is The parent material is distinctly mottled sandy clay loam.







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

The Ruston soils occur with the Norfolk, Shubuta, Face- Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
ville, and Eustis soils. The subsoil in the Ruston soils is (RsB2).-Because this soil is more eroded than Ruston
generally yellowish red instead of yellowish brown, as it loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, it has a thinner surface
is in the Norfolk soils. It is more friable and coarser tex- layer. The surface layer ranges from 4 to 13 inches in
tured than the subsoil of the Shubuta soils and is devel- thickness but is generally about 8 inches thick. The
oped to a greater depth. It is coarser textured and more erosion is mainly sheet erosion, but a few areas have a few
friable than the subsoil of the Faceville soils. Ruston shallow gullies. To maintain high crop yields on this
soils are similar to Eustis soils in color but have a well- soil, more intensive use of cover crops and green-manure
developed, fine-textured subsoil. crops is required than on Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5
Ruston soils have a small total acreage in the county percent slopes. Included in mapped areas are a few small
and occur in moderately small areas throughout the north- spots that are severely sheet eroded.
ern and central parts. These soils occur in intricate pat- Under good management that includes control of
terns with other soils. The native vegetation consists erosion, this soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated
mainly of longleaf pine, slash pine, red oak, live oak, crops and to improved pasture and trees. It makes
hickory, wiregrass, and many shrubs. These soils are good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIe-2;
well suited to many kinds of field crops and to improved woodland suitability group 4)
pasture. Much of the acreage has been cleared and is Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (RsC).-
used for forage crops and for corn, cotton, peanuts, and This sloping soil has more rapid runoff than Ruston
other cultivated crops. The soils are well suited to trees. loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is more susceptible
Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (RsB).- to erosion. In some areas it is not so deep as the more
This deep, well-drained soil of the uplands has a friable, nearly level soil and the underlying mottled material is
strong-brown to yellowish-red sandy loam to sandy clay nearer the surface. In these less deep areas mottling
loam subsoil. normally occurs at a depth of less than 38 inches.
Representative profile in a moist pasture: Included with this soil are a few moderately eroded
areas that have a surface layer ranging from 4 to 13
0 to 5 inches, very friable, dark-gray loamy said. inches in thickness. A few small areas on slopes of 8 to
5 to 10 inches, very friable, brown loamy sand.
10 to 18 inches, friable, yellowish-red light sandy clay loam. 12 percent have a surface layer slightly thicker than 18
18 to 38 inches, friable, yellowish-red sandy clay loam. inches.
38 to 65 inches +, friable, strong-brown sandy clay loam This soil is suited to most cultivated crops grown in the
mottled with yellowish red, brownish red, and dark red. county, but the erosion hazard limits it to only moder-
The loamy sand plow layer ranges from 4 to 6 inches ately intensive use. However, yields are good under
in thickness and from gray to very dark grayish brown management that includes control of erosion. The soil
in color. It is underlain by brown to yellowish-brown is well suited to improved pasture and to trees, and it
loamy sand to sandy loam that is 7 to 12 inches thick, makes good wildlife habitats. (Capability unit IIIe-2;
The surface layer grades gradually to the subsoil. The woodland suitability group 4)
subsoil ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam in Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
texture and from strong brown to red in color but is gen- (RsC2).-This sloping, moderately eroded soil generally
rally yellowish red. In most places the subsoil, below has a thinner surface layer than Ruston loamy sand,
a depth of 36 inches, is mottled with various shades of 2 to 5 percent slopes. The surface layer ranges from
yellow, red, and brown. The underlying material is 4 to 13 inches in thickness but is generally about 7 inches
highly mottled with yellow, brown, and red. It varies thick. The parent material is nearer the surface, or at
in texture but is generally sandy clay loam that is strati- a depth of 38 to 46 inches. This soil is mostly sheet
fled with sandy loam or loamy sand in some places. In eroded, but a few shallow or deep gullies occur in a
some areas many iron concretions and quartz pebbles oc- few areas. Partly because this soil is sheet eroded, the
cur throughout the soil, particularly in areas where it is surface layer is slightly browner than that in uneroded
closely associated with the Carnegie soils. areas of Ruston soils.
Included in mapped areas of this soil are small, moder- Included with this soil are a few small areas that are
ately eroded spots and a few areas with slopes of 0 to 2 severely eroded and have a sandy loam surface soil.
percent. In a few areas the surface layer is slightly more The surface layer in these areas is browner than that in
than 18 inches thick. Although mottling generally occurs uneroded areas. In some places the subsoil is red.
below a depth of 36 inches, in some small areas it is at This soil is only moderately well suited to cultivated
24 inches. crops. Under intensive management, it is well suited
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural fer- to most improved pasture plants, but white clover may
utility and organic-matter content. It is sufficiently loamy be damaged in dry weather. It is also well suited to trees,
to have good tilth, and the available moisture capacity is and it makes good wildlife habitats. (Capability unit
high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface IIIe-2; woodland suitability group 4)
layer and moderate in the subsoil. Surface drainage and Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (RcB).-
internal drainage are good, and the soil is well aerated This soil has a coarser textured surface layer and subsoil
internal drainage aregood, and the soil is well aerated than Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. In
throughout. It retains plant nutrients well and responds most places the surface layer is underlain by coarse
well to fertilizer. sandy clay loam at a depth of less than 18 inches. This
This soil is well suited to many kinds of cultivated soil is similar to Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
crops, to improved pasture, and to trees. It makes good in thickness and color, but it has lower available moisture
habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodland capacity in the surface layer and subsoil. In most
suitability group 4) places many quartz pebbles occur on the surface and









34 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

throughout the soil. Permeability is very rapid in the Rutlege soils occur mainly with the Plummer, Klej, and
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Natural Blanton soils and developed from parent material similar
fertility is low, but response to fertilizer is good. This to that of those soils. Rutlege soils, however, have a
soil is well suited to cultivated crops, to improved pasture, thicker, darker surface layer that is higher in organic-
and to trees. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodland suitability matter content. They are similar to the Plummer soils
group 4) in drainage but are more poorly drained than the Klej
Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes and Blanton soils.
(RdB).-This well-drained soil of the uplands has a Rutlege soils are widely scattered in all parts of the
surface layer 18 to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is county except the extreme southeastern. They are most
yellowish-red sandy loam to sandy clay loam. extensive in the southern part. The native vegetation
Representative profile in a moist wooded site: consists mainly of cypress, blackgum, sweetgum, myrtle,
0 to 6 inches, loose, very dark grayish-brown coarse sand. bay, scattered longleaf and slash pines, and various water-
6 to 25 inches, loose, strong-brown coarse sand. tolerant grasses. Most of this soil is still in native vege-
25 to 36 inches, friable, yellowish-red coarse sandy loam. station, but some areas are used as rangeland.
36 to 42 inches, friable, yellowish-red light sandy clay loam l f s (
mottled with strong brown and red. Rutlege loamy fine sand (Ru).-This poorly drained to
42 to 56 inches +, friable sandy clay loam mottled with very poorly drained soil of the uplands has a loose, dark-
yellowish red, red, strong brown, and yellowish brown. gray and black coarse sand surface layer and subsoil.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have slopes Representative profile:
of 0 to 2 percent. In some small areas the subsoil is 0 to 9 inches, loose, black loamy fine sand.
slightly below a depth of 30 inches or is slightly above 9 to 17 inches, loose, very dark gray or dark-gray sand.
18 inches. 17 to 54 inches +, loose, gray coarse sand.
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate to low fer- The surface layer ranges from 8 to 18 inches in thick-
tility and low organic-matter content. The available ness and from black to very dark gray in color. Some
moisture capacity is low, and permeability is rapid in the areas have a dark, highly organic surface layer that is as
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The soil is well much as 24 inches thick. The underlying layers ra
aerated, retains plant nutrients well, and responds well from dark gray to white but are mainly dark gray to light
to fertilizer. gray. In some areas the underlying layers are loamy fine
This soil is suited to most locally grown crops, but yields sand mottled with yellow and yellowish brown. In a few
are low unless intensive practices are used. If moderate areas sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam occurs at a depth
practices are used to control erosion, the soil can be culti- of 30 to 42 inches.
vated safely. Most plants used in improved pastures do This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural fer-
well, but legumes are difficult to establish and maintain, utility and high organic-matter content. Permeability is
The growth of trees is good. (Capability unit IIse-1; rapid. Because the water table is very shallow, aeration
woodland suitability group 4) is poor and the root zone is shallow.
Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent This soil is not well suited to cultivated crops. Under
slopes (RdC).-This sloping soil has more rapid runoff good management that includes adequate drainage, high
than Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent yields of improved pasture grasses can be produced. The
slopes, and is more likely to erode. The parent material soil is suited as woodland and for wildlife habitats. (Ca-
is nearer the surface in some areas. ability unit Vws-2; woodland suitability group 10)
Included with this soil are some small areas with slopes
of 8 to 12 percent. In a few small areas the subsoil is Scranton Series
slightly below a depth of 30 inches or slightly above
18 inches. In the Scranton series are deep, somewhat poorly
If high yields are to be maintained, this soil requires drained, strongly acid soils. They developed from thick
more intensive control of erosion and other good manage- beds of acid sand and loamy sand that overlie sandy clay
ment than Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 loam and sandy clay. These soils occur on low, nearly
percent slopes. Cultivation can be moderately intensive level to gently sloping uplands. The surface layer is
under good management that includes control of erosion. black or very dark gray fine sand that is high in content
The soil is suited to improved pasture and trees and as of organic matter. It is underlain by fine sand that is
a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIes-2; woodland grayish brown or dark grayish brown in the upper part
suitability group 4) and is grayish brown to light yellowish brown or very
pale brown in the lower part. The lower part is mottled
Rutlege Series with yellow, brown, and gray. In some areas fine-textured
material occurs at a depth of 30 to 42 inches.
In the Rutlege series are deep, poorly drained to very Scranton soils occur with the Klej, Blanton, Rutlege,
poorly drained, strongly acid soils that developed from Plummer, and Lnchburg soils. They are more poorly
thick beds of sand and loamy sand. These soils normally drained than the lej and Blanton soils. Scranton soils
occur on the uplands in low, nearly level areas, but in the drained than the K le and Blanton soils. Scranton soils
central part of the county, a few small areas are on steeper are better drained than the Rutlege and Plummer soils.
slopes that receive seepage from the hillsides. The sur- Scranton soils, however, lack a well-developed, fine-tex-
face layer is highly organic, black or very dark gray fine tured subsoil like that in the Lynchburg soils.
sand to loamy fine sand that is underlain by dark-gray In this county Scranton soils have a small total acreage
or white coarse sand to loamy sand. Some areas have and are generally in small areas. They are widely scat-
finer textured material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. tered throughout the county but are mainly in the central









34 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

throughout the soil. Permeability is very rapid in the Rutlege soils occur mainly with the Plummer, Klej, and
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Natural Blanton soils and developed from parent material similar
fertility is low, but response to fertilizer is good. This to that of those soils. Rutlege soils, however, have a
soil is well suited to cultivated crops, to improved pasture, thicker, darker surface layer that is higher in organic-
and to trees. (Capability unit IIe-2; woodland suitability matter content. They are similar to the Plummer soils
group 4) in drainage but are more poorly drained than the Klej
Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes and Blanton soils.
(RdB).-This well-drained soil of the uplands has a Rutlege soils are widely scattered in all parts of the
surface layer 18 to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is county except the extreme southeastern. They are most
yellowish-red sandy loam to sandy clay loam. extensive in the southern part. The native vegetation
Representative profile in a moist wooded site: consists mainly of cypress, blackgum, sweetgum, myrtle,
0 to 6 inches, loose, very dark grayish-brown coarse sand. bay, scattered longleaf and slash pines, and various water-
6 to 25 inches, loose, strong-brown coarse sand. tolerant grasses. Most of this soil is still in native vege-
25 to 36 inches, friable, yellowish-red coarse sandy loam. station, but some areas are used as rangeland.
36 to 42 inches, friable, yellowish-red light sandy clay loam l f s (
mottled with strong brown and red. Rutlege loamy fine sand (Ru).-This poorly drained to
42 to 56 inches +, friable sandy clay loam mottled with very poorly drained soil of the uplands has a loose, dark-
yellowish red, red, strong brown, and yellowish brown. gray and black coarse sand surface layer and subsoil.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have slopes Representative profile:
of 0 to 2 percent. In some small areas the subsoil is 0 to 9 inches, loose, black loamy fine sand.
slightly below a depth of 30 inches or is slightly above 9 to 17 inches, loose, very dark gray or dark-gray sand.
18 inches. 17 to 54 inches +, loose, gray coarse sand.
This soil is strongly acid and has moderate to low fer- The surface layer ranges from 8 to 18 inches in thick-
tility and low organic-matter content. The available ness and from black to very dark gray in color. Some
moisture capacity is low, and permeability is rapid in the areas have a dark, highly organic surface layer that is as
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The soil is well much as 24 inches thick. The underlying layers ra
aerated, retains plant nutrients well, and responds well from dark gray to white but are mainly dark gray to light
to fertilizer. gray. In some areas the underlying layers are loamy fine
This soil is suited to most locally grown crops, but yields sand mottled with yellow and yellowish brown. In a few
are low unless intensive practices are used. If moderate areas sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam occurs at a depth
practices are used to control erosion, the soil can be culti- of 30 to 42 inches.
vated safely. Most plants used in improved pastures do This soil is strongly acid and has moderate natural fer-
well, but legumes are difficult to establish and maintain, utility and high organic-matter content. Permeability is
The growth of trees is good. (Capability unit IIse-1; rapid. Because the water table is very shallow, aeration
woodland suitability group 4) is poor and the root zone is shallow.
Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent This soil is not well suited to cultivated crops. Under
slopes (RdC).-This sloping soil has more rapid runoff good management that includes adequate drainage, high
than Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent yields of improved pasture grasses can be produced. The
slopes, and is more likely to erode. The parent material soil is suited as woodland and for wildlife habitats. (Ca-
is nearer the surface in some areas. ability unit Vws-2; woodland suitability group 10)
Included with this soil are some small areas with slopes
of 8 to 12 percent. In a few small areas the subsoil is Scranton Series
slightly below a depth of 30 inches or slightly above
18 inches. In the Scranton series are deep, somewhat poorly
If high yields are to be maintained, this soil requires drained, strongly acid soils. They developed from thick
more intensive control of erosion and other good manage- beds of acid sand and loamy sand that overlie sandy clay
ment than Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 loam and sandy clay. These soils occur on low, nearly
percent slopes. Cultivation can be moderately intensive level to gently sloping uplands. The surface layer is
under good management that includes control of erosion. black or very dark gray fine sand that is high in content
The soil is suited to improved pasture and trees and as of organic matter. It is underlain by fine sand that is
a habitat for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIes-2; woodland grayish brown or dark grayish brown in the upper part
suitability group 4) and is grayish brown to light yellowish brown or very
pale brown in the lower part. The lower part is mottled
Rutlege Series with yellow, brown, and gray. In some areas fine-textured
material occurs at a depth of 30 to 42 inches.
In the Rutlege series are deep, poorly drained to very Scranton soils occur with the Klej, Blanton, Rutlege,
poorly drained, strongly acid soils that developed from Plummer, and Lnchburg soils. They are more poorly
thick beds of sand and loamy sand. These soils normally drained than the lej and Blanton soils. Scranton soils
occur on the uplands in low, nearly level areas, but in the drained than the K le and Blanton soils. Scranton soils
central part of the county, a few small areas are on steeper are better drained than the Rutlege and Plummer soils.
slopes that receive seepage from the hillsides. The sur- Scranton soils, however, lack a well-developed, fine-tex-
face layer is highly organic, black or very dark gray fine tured subsoil like that in the Lynchburg soils.
sand to loamy fine sand that is underlain by dark-gray In this county Scranton soils have a small total acreage
or white coarse sand to loamy sand. Some areas have and are generally in small areas. They are widely scat-
finer textured material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. tered throughout the county but are mainly in the central








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

part. The native vegetation consists principally of long- practices of drainage may be needed. In wet periods the
leaf pine, slash pine, myrtle, gallberry, native grasses, water table rises to within a few inches of the surface.
and a few scattered palmettos. Only a few scattered These soils are well suited to cultivated crops that are
areas have been cleared and are used for improved pasture. tolerant of slight wetness. They are excellent for im-
Scranton fine sand (Sc).-This somewhat poorly proved pasture and are good for trees. (Capability unit
drained, deep sandy soil of the uplands has a thick surface IIws-1; woodland suitability group 7)
layer that is high in organic-matter content.
Representative profile in a moist wooded site: Shubuta Series
0 to 8 inches, very friable, black fine sand.
8 to 15 inches, loose, grayish-brown fine sand mottled with Soils of the Shubuta series are deep, moderately well
olive gray and light yellowish brown, drained to well drained, and strongly acid. They de-
15 to 45 inches, loose, light yellowish-brown fine sand mot- veloped from thick beds of acid sandy clay and clay on
tied with brownish yellow and very pale brown.
45 to 52 inches +, loose, mottled light yellowish-brown and nearly level to steep uplands. The surface layer is very
very pale brown fine sand. dark grayish-brown loamy sand and is underlain by a
Fine sand extends from the surface to a depth of more layer of dark-brown to light yellowish-brown loamy sand
than 52 inches. The surface layer ranges from 8 to 14 to fine sandy loam. The transition from the surface
inches in thickness and is black to very dark gray. It is layer to the subsoil is rather abrupt. The subsoil is yel-
underlain by grayish-brown to dark grayish-brown fine lowish-red to dark-red fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy
sand. The underlying layers range from light yellowish clay in the upper part and is fine sandy clay mottled
brown to very pale brown, and the yellow, brown, and with yellowish brown, red, and very pale brown in the
gray mottles vary in number. lower part. At a depth of 20 to 30 inches is mottled fine
Included with this soil are a few areas on slopes of 2 to sandy clay to fine sandy clay loam.
5 percent. In small spots finer textured material occurs and Ruston soils occur. The subsoil of the Shubuta soils is more
at a d epth of 30 to2incand Ruston soils. The subsoil of the Shubuta soils is more
at a depth of 30 to 42 inches, uniform, less compact, and thicker than that of the Cuth-
This soil is strongly acid. It is moderately low in natu- bert soils, but it is thinner, finer textured, and less friable
ral fertility and contains a large amount of organic mat- than that of the Faceville and Ruston soils.
ter in the surface layer. Because permeability is very Shubuta soils have a moderately large total acreage in
rapid, plant nutrients leach rapidly. The available mois- the county. They occur mainly in the central part, on
ture capacity is low. For best crop growth, simple prac- and somewhat north of the north-facing escarpment that
tices of drainage may be needed. In wet seasons the water extends in an east-west direction between the higher,
table rises to within a few inches of the surface. deeper, sandy soils to the south and the dominantly finer
These soils are well suited to cultivated crops that are textured soils to the north. In the northern half of the
tolerant of slight wetness. They are excellent for im- county small areas of Shubuta soils occur with other soils
proved pasture, and they are good for trees. (Capability in intricate patterns. A few small areas are around Ebro
unit IIws-1; woodland suitability group 7) in the southwestern part of the county.
Scranton fine sand, shallow (Sf).-This deep, somewhat The native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf pine,
poorly drained sandy soil of the uplands has a thick slash pine, loblolly pine, various hardwoods, low shrubs,
surface layer that is high in organic-matter content. and native grasses. Most of the acreage is still in forest,
Finer textured material is at a d,'plh, of 30 to 42 inches. but a few scattered areas are used for improved pasture
Representative profile in a wet, wooded area: and cultivated crops. These soils are moderately well
0 to 10 inches, very friable, black fine sand. suited to many kinds of shallow-rooted crops. In most
10 to 23 inches, loose, brownish-yellow fine sand with few places they are cultivated with more extensive soils.
yellowish-brown mottles. Shnbuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (ShB)
23 to 32 inches, very friable, very pale brown loamy fine sand ta l sand 2 to 5 recent ( -
mottled with yellowish red and yellowish brown. This deep, well-drained soil of the uplands has a firm,
32 to 53 inches +, friable sandy clay loam that is mottled yellowish-red, clayey upper subsoil and a slowly per-
strong brown, light gray, yellowish red, and yellowish brown meable, mottled lower subsoil.
in the upper part and is grayer below 42 inches. Representative profile in a moist wooded site:
The fine sand surface layer ranges from 8 to 14 inches 0 to 7 inches, very friable, very dark grayish-brown loamy
in thickness and is black to very dark gray. It is under- sand.
lain by a layer of grayish-brown to dark grayish-brown 7 to 11 inches, friable, dark yellowish-brown fine sandy loam.
fine sand, and that, in turn, by fine sand or loamy fine 11 to 35 inches, very firm, yellowish-red fine sandy clay with
sand that ranges from brownish yellow to very pale brown. few yellowish-brown and red mottles below 21 inches.
sand that ranges from75 inches +, very firm, mottled dark-red, brownish-
The finer textured substratum is at a depth of 30 to 42 yellow, and light-gray fine sandy clay that grades to fine
inches and is mottled strong brown, light gray, yellowish sandy clay loam below 52 inches.
red, yellowish brown, and gray. Gray increases with The loamy sand plow layer ranges from 5 to 6 inches
depth. The substratum ranges from fine sandy loam to in thickness. It is very dark grayish brown and is under-
fine sandy clay loam but is sandy clay loam in most lain by dark-brown to light yellowish-brown loamy fine
places. sand or fine sandy loam. Within 14 inches of the surface
This soil is strongly acid and is moderately low in is sandy clay to clay that ranges from yellowish red to
natural fertility. It contains a large amount of organic red and is mottled at a depth of 23 to 35 inches. The un-
matter in the surface layer. Because permeability is derlying material occurs at a depth of 32 to 42 inches and
very rapid, plant nutrients leach rapidly. The available is generally highly mottled with red, yellow, brown, and
moisture capacity is low. For best crop growth, simple gray. It varies in texture but is stratified sandy clay loam








36 ,SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

to clay in most places. In a few areas near the Choctaw- This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but some
hatchee River, the underlying material is fine sandy loam shallow-rooted crops can be grown occasionally. Its
to fine sand. best use is for improved pasture, woodland, and wild-
Included with this soil are a few small areas that have life habitats. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland suit-
a loamy fine sand and sand surface soil. Also included ability group 5)
are a few scattered areas with slopes of 0 to 2 percent and
of 5 to 8 percent and a few areas that are moderately Swamp
eroded. This land type consists of very poorly drained areas
This soil is strongly acid and is low in natural fertility not commonly used for agriculture.
and in organic-matter content. It is sufficiently loamy to Swamp (Sw).-Swamp is covered with water except
have good tilth, and the available moisture capacity is during periods of extreme drought. It occurs along
moderate. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer streams, at the head of bays, and in depressions that
and slow in the subsoil. Surface runoff is rapid, and in- have no outlets. General alluvium is deposited in the
ternal drainage is medium. A moderately deep to shal- areas along streams. Small amounts of material are
low root zone somewhat limits the kinds of crops that washed from adjacent uplands into the areas at the head
can be grown on this easily eroded soil. of bays and in depressions. The few places that do not
This soil is moderately well suited to some shallow- receive deposits are mostly along the edge of Swamp.
rooted crops, and moderately good improved pasture can Swamp is generally inaccessible because of the water
be grown. It is well suited as woodland and for wildlife and the dense vegetation. The soil material varies
habitats. (Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland suitability and is in intricate patterns. It is strongly acid. The
soil is mainly mineral, but it contains a large amount of
group 5) organic matter. Small areas of organic soils are included.
Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded The native vegetation consists mainly of a mixture of
(Sh B2).-This moderately eroded soil has faster runoff sweetgum, blackgum, cypress, scattered slash pine, various
than Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and oks, bay, low shrubs, and vines. Because drainage is
requires more intensive control of erosion, including the y oo a loo is ie, euse f this lan is
use of more cover crops. It is mainly sheet eroded, but very poor and flooding is likely, the use of this land is
use of more cover crops. It is mainly sheet eroded, but limited to forest. (Woodland suitability group 12)
some areas have scattered shallow and deep gullies.
Although the surface layer ranges from 3 to 8 inches in
thickness, it is about 6 inches thick in most places. Tifton Series
Included with this soil are small, severely eroded spots. In the Tifton series are deep, well-drained, strongly
These spots are generally browner than the uneroded acid soils that developed from thick beds of reticulately
soil and have a sandy loam surface layer. mottled acid sandy clay and sandy clay loam on nearly
This soil is moderately well suited to some shallow- level to sloping uplands. These soils have a very dark
rooted crops, and moderately good improved pasture can grayish-brown loamy sand surface er that
be grown. It is well suited as woodland and for wildlife ry ain by yegrayish-brown loamy sand surface la-er that
habitats. (Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland suitability is underlain by yellowish-brown loamy fine sand. Within
group 5) 14 inches of the surface is yellowish-brown to brownish-
Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ShC).- yellow fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay. The upper few
This sloping soil has faster runoff than Shubuta loamy inches of the subsoil is fine sandy loam. Mottles of strong
Ths slopg soil has faster runoff than Shubuta loamy brown and yellow normally occur below 32 inches and
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and, therefore, is more suscep- increase in number as depth increases. The parent mate-
tible to erosion. It requires more intensive erosion con- rial is mottled fine sandy clay loam and fine sandy clay.
trol, including the use of more cover crops. It is shallower Tifton soils occur with soils of the Norfolk. Marlboro.
Tifton soils occur with soils of the Norfolk. Ma7rlboro,
to the parent material which is at a depth of 24 to 3 Goldsboo, Faceville, and Carnegie ries. The sbsoil
inmoderately eroIncluded areawith this soil are small, scattered, of the Tifton soils is yellower than that of the Carnegie,
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but some Goldsboro, and Faceville soils and is finer textured than
This soil is poorly suited hat of the Goldsboro and Norfolk soils. It is more sticky
shallow-rooted crops can be grown occasionally. It is the sbso Norfolk soil and is slightly les
best suited to pasture grasses and trees and as a habitat stick and more friable than the soisoil of the Marlboro
for wildlife. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland sticky and more friable than the subsoil of the Marlboro
for wildlife. (Capability t IVes-; woodland soils. The Tifton soils are better drained than the Golds-
suitability group 5) boro soils. They have more iron concretions than the
Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded boro soils. They have more iron concreions tan the
(ShC2).-This sloping, moderately eroded soil has faster Marlboro, Norfolk. Faceville, and Goldsboro soils.
(ShC2). This sloping moderately eroded soil has faster The Tifton soils have a small total acreage in the county.
runoff than Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, They are widely distributed throughout the northern half
and, therefore, is more susceptible to erosion. Cultivated They are widely distributed throughout the northern half
areas require more intensive erosion control, including but are mainly in the northeastern part near Chiplev. The
the use of more cover crops. Erosion is mainly sheet native vegetation consists principally of longleaf pine,
erosion, but some areas have shallow and deep gullies. slash pine, various oaks, dogwood, native grasses, and a
The surface layer ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness few low shrubs. Much of the acreage is used for culti-
but is about 6 inches thick in most places. The parent vated crops and improved pasture. These soils are well
material is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches. suited to cultivated crops, to improved pasture, and to
Included with this soil are small, severely eroded trees.
areas. In most places these areas are browner than the Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (TfB).-This
uneroded soil and have a sandy loam surface layer. well-drained, deep soil of the uplands has a well-developed,








36 ,SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

to clay in most places. In a few areas near the Choctaw- This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but some
hatchee River, the underlying material is fine sandy loam shallow-rooted crops can be grown occasionally. Its
to fine sand. best use is for improved pasture, woodland, and wild-
Included with this soil are a few small areas that have life habitats. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland suit-
a loamy fine sand and sand surface soil. Also included ability group 5)
are a few scattered areas with slopes of 0 to 2 percent and
of 5 to 8 percent and a few areas that are moderately Swamp
eroded. This land type consists of very poorly drained areas
This soil is strongly acid and is low in natural fertility not commonly used for agriculture.
and in organic-matter content. It is sufficiently loamy to Swamp (Sw).-Swamp is covered with water except
have good tilth, and the available moisture capacity is during periods of extreme drought. It occurs along
moderate. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer streams, at the head of bays, and in depressions that
and slow in the subsoil. Surface runoff is rapid, and in- have no outlets. General alluvium is deposited in the
ternal drainage is medium. A moderately deep to shal- areas along streams. Small amounts of material are
low root zone somewhat limits the kinds of crops that washed from adjacent uplands into the areas at the head
can be grown on this easily eroded soil. of bays and in depressions. The few places that do not
This soil is moderately well suited to some shallow- receive deposits are mostly along the edge of Swamp.
rooted crops, and moderately good improved pasture can Swamp is generally inaccessible because of the water
be grown. It is well suited as woodland and for wildlife and the dense vegetation. The soil material varies
habitats. (Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland suitability and is in intricate patterns. It is strongly acid. The
soil is mainly mineral, but it contains a large amount of
group 5) organic matter. Small areas of organic soils are included.
Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded The native vegetation consists mainly of a mixture of
(Sh B2).-This moderately eroded soil has faster runoff sweetgum, blackgum, cypress, scattered slash pine, various
than Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and oks, bay, low shrubs, and vines. Because drainage is
requires more intensive control of erosion, including the y oo a loo is ie, euse f this lan is
use of more cover crops. It is mainly sheet eroded, but very poor and flooding is likely, the use of this land is
use of more cover crops. It is mainly sheet eroded, but limited to forest. (Woodland suitability group 12)
some areas have scattered shallow and deep gullies.
Although the surface layer ranges from 3 to 8 inches in
thickness, it is about 6 inches thick in most places. Tifton Series
Included with this soil are small, severely eroded spots. In the Tifton series are deep, well-drained, strongly
These spots are generally browner than the uneroded acid soils that developed from thick beds of reticulately
soil and have a sandy loam surface layer. mottled acid sandy clay and sandy clay loam on nearly
This soil is moderately well suited to some shallow- level to sloping uplands. These soils have a very dark
rooted crops, and moderately good improved pasture can grayish-brown loamy sand surface er that
be grown. It is well suited as woodland and for wildlife ry ain by yegrayish-brown loamy sand surface la-er that
habitats. (Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland suitability is underlain by yellowish-brown loamy fine sand. Within
group 5) 14 inches of the surface is yellowish-brown to brownish-
Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ShC).- yellow fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay. The upper few
This sloping soil has faster runoff than Shubuta loamy inches of the subsoil is fine sandy loam. Mottles of strong
Ths slopg soil has faster runoff than Shubuta loamy brown and yellow normally occur below 32 inches and
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and, therefore, is more suscep- increase in number as depth increases. The parent mate-
tible to erosion. It requires more intensive erosion con- rial is mottled fine sandy clay loam and fine sandy clay.
trol, including the use of more cover crops. It is shallower Tifton soils occur with soils of the Norfolk. Marlboro.
Tifton soils occur with soils of the Norfolk. Ma7rlboro,
to the parent material which is at a depth of 24 to 3 Goldsboo, Faceville, and Carnegie ries. The sbsoil
inmoderately eroIncluded areawith this soil are small, scattered, of the Tifton soils is yellower than that of the Carnegie,
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but some Goldsboro, and Faceville soils and is finer textured than
This soil is poorly suited hat of the Goldsboro and Norfolk soils. It is more sticky
shallow-rooted crops can be grown occasionally. It is the sbso Norfolk soil and is slightly les
best suited to pasture grasses and trees and as a habitat stick and more friable than the soisoil of the Marlboro
for wildlife. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland sticky and more friable than the subsoil of the Marlboro
for wildlife. (Capability t IVes-; woodland soils. The Tifton soils are better drained than the Golds-
suitability group 5) boro soils. They have more iron concretions than the
Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded boro soils. They have more iron concreions tan the
(ShC2).-This sloping, moderately eroded soil has faster Marlboro, Norfolk. Faceville, and Goldsboro soils.
(ShC2). This sloping moderately eroded soil has faster The Tifton soils have a small total acreage in the county.
runoff than Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, They are widely distributed throughout the northern half
and, therefore, is more susceptible to erosion. Cultivated They are widely distributed throughout the northern half
areas require more intensive erosion control, including but are mainly in the northeastern part near Chiplev. The
the use of more cover crops. Erosion is mainly sheet native vegetation consists principally of longleaf pine,
erosion, but some areas have shallow and deep gullies. slash pine, various oaks, dogwood, native grasses, and a
The surface layer ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness few low shrubs. Much of the acreage is used for culti-
but is about 6 inches thick in most places. The parent vated crops and improved pasture. These soils are well
material is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches. suited to cultivated crops, to improved pasture, and to
Included with this soil are small, severely eroded trees.
areas. In most places these areas are browner than the Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (TfB).-This
uneroded soil and have a sandy loam surface layer. well-drained, deep soil of the uplands has a well-developed,








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

clayey subsoil. Iron pebbles are abundant throughout material is g>.ierllly nearer the surface and occurs at
the profile. a depth of 38 to 50 inches. Most areas have been uni-
Representative profile in a wooded area: fi.i nlv sheet eroded, but some areas have a few deep or
0 to 6 inches, very fril.1.. :lirk .-.:.i.:-,.I.,. i, loamy sand. ghul:w- _ullies The surface layer ranges from 4 to 10
6 to 14 inches, very friIII., y -l... i.--..r...' i.. I.my fine sand. in.lices ill rlii!.kn.-'- but is generally about 6 inches thick.
14 to 33 inches, friable,,.. -. -Ii.i.,i ,, i :, y r.lne sandy clay [,l.lii.' normally occurs at a depth of 30 to 38 inches.
loam to clay loam. Included with this soil are a few areas that are slightly
33 to 61 inches +, friable to firm, brownish-yellow heavy
fine sandy clay loam mottled with strong brown above eroded or are severely sheet eroded. In the slightly
46 inches and i. ii, i !.,:.I. 1.1..- i., red, and yellowish brown eroded areas, the surface layer i'i,,n-tJ f':rom, 10 to 14
below 46 inches. inches in thickness. Also included are a few small
The loamy sand plow 1-iv. ranges from 5 to 7 inches areas on slopes of 8 to 12 percent.
in thickness and from dark gray t:, 1Il:.ik grayish brown For high yields of cultivated crops, more intensive
in color. It is underlain by a yellowish-brown to brown- management is required on this soil than on Tifton
ish-yellow layer. The subsoil is V-.ll1..,w 1.lil1wn to loamy alnd, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Under good man-
I.rI\\mii.l-\- 11.i\\ heavy sandy ,l:iv 1 :y ,1m to fine sandy clay agement that includes control of erosion, this soil is
but is heavy fine sandy clay loam in most places. M. tl. suited for most locally grown crops. It is well suited
of -i I .,n brown and yellow normally occur in the subsoil to improved pasture and to trees, and it makes good
at a depth of 32 to 44 inches, but they are as near the sur- habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland
face as 30 inches in some areas. The underlying material suitability group 4)
is highly mottled with r.-,v 1t. yellow, and red, and it oc-
curs at a i.1iih of 44 to 64 iin.-li.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have a fine Use rand Mlanagement of Soils
sandy loam surface layer. Also included are small areas
that are n..l..-i-.itr v sheet eroded and have a -m f... l :.v.i: This section discusses the use and management of soils
4 to 10 inches thick. A few areas are on sloi.-. ,,f I 1;,. for crops and pasture, as woodland, for wildlife, and in
percent. ,., in, .lk .
This soil is strongly acid and ,li-- ii ld- rl yv high natu-
ral fertility and (i .iii.,i-nri,.-r content. It is sufficiently Use of Soils for Agriculture
loamy to have good tilth, and the available moisture ca- This subsection contains four main parts. In the first
pacity is high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the practices of soil management are discussed,
.I'I.I..I.i Ih,., :1,,l moderately slow in the subsoil. Surface l.:iit, general practices of soil management are discussed,
-1i,.:-.. 1 internal moderately slow the subsoil Surface and in the second part, capability grouping is explained.
i:iinn:..l:ii-I internal drainage are good. If it is not pro- In rci. third I .. t, f,,- soils of the county are placed in
tected, this soil is moderately -u-.,:,.lfIii- to erosion. It third i .,t and the use and management of these
retains plant iwtr i,.nt, well and responds well to fertil- c: 11.,! 1- units and the use and management of these
izer. The root zone is ,,.1 and well aerated. e:l .1l 'i i units are discussed. The fourth part contains
izer. The root zone is deptable that lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
This soil is well suited to all locally grown crops, pas- a table tat lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
ture grasses, and clovers. It is well suited as woodland, Getneral practices of soil management 3
and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) When soils are cultivated or planted to pasture plants,
Tifon loamy sand, 2 to5 percent slopes, eroded good management practices are necessary if the produc-
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded tivity of the soils is to 1l,->-,.,il-:t:,inril. This subiection
(TfB2).-T'li- moderately eroded soil generally has a discusses somevity of the ..soils is to 1- T.h iscultivton.
thinner surface !:LIr than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 for culti"It.
percent slopes. It is ,r.i~ll- i ..i.t ,...,llc1. but there are crops and for pasture.
a few deep or shallow ,illliv- in -.inii pl'.ii.-. The surface CULTIVATED CROPS
layer ranges from 4 to II, il. lit- iI li, IIeI kss but is gen- T!" I;l1.i ,1. i; ivY of most soils in Washington County
erally about 7 inches thick. M[..t.lin, in the subsoil is li1,,,11-, Iy I,i1 low organic-matter content, (2) defi-
normally occurs at a depth of 32 to 40 inches, but in a ciency in plant nutrients, (3) susceptibility to erosion,
few areas it occur- :1r ii .;4 inches. The parent material (4) excess water in the root zone, or (5) insufficient mois-
is generally at a depth of 40 to 60 inches but in a few ture. Pi,.-i ..-- are needed that reduce the effects of these
areas is at 38 to 42 inches. adverse characteristics.
Included with this soil are a few, small, severely eroded ,.,,., ,,,.... matter.-A continuous supply of
areas that have a fine sandy loam -ini.,,.,- layer. l .. i. soil is needed t maintain the
I This soil is well i i i iv1 to all crops grown in the county i -!, i,-- .I,,, ,:l .,1 l nt... ii!,,- soil is needed to maintain the
This soil is well ue. to all crops grown in the county content of organic matter. The organic material can be
,1 to improved pasture. To maintain high yields of .'.; by returning all crop residue to the soil, by
cultivated crops, more intensive use. of -.,l-imil..oiving i i ,,,. and ti 1ning aid.r cover crops, and by using the
crops is required on this soil than on Tifton loamy sand, f.- -Iu.,. pt tf the time and for cultivated crops
2 to 5 percent ,,p-.., and more intensive practices for pa f the time. A hig content of organic matter in-
control of erosion ,.,. r. .... :.v Ii is well suited as part of the time. A high content f ertilizer and lime,r in-
i. d it ,i-. .... ,, h. ,r- for wildlife. (Ca- creases the ,.ff-.-t.-. of aplll,.,i fertilizer and lime,
i, ,1, ldite-.; wooda. nI .:d suitaility group 4)wi ii. ..,.--.. the available moisture capacity, and releases
p':llirty ,1 ,It. IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) plant food I*- Ii- organic matter .1,..1-.
Tifon loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded antood organic matter
(TfC2).--This sloping, moderately eroded "*.i e.:!il\. H. E. VANARSI .. ':... '. it agronomist, and E. D. HOL-
has a thinner surface layer than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to COMBE, woodland t.i,-..:r..:...ir -.il Conservation Service, as-
5 percent slopes. As a result of erosion, the parent sisted in preparing 11 ...-.-.r.,l








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

clayey subsoil. Iron pebbles are abundant throughout material is g>.ierllly nearer the surface and occurs at
the profile. a depth of 38 to 50 inches. Most areas have been uni-
Representative profile in a wooded area: fi.i nlv sheet eroded, but some areas have a few deep or
0 to 6 inches, very fril.1.. :lirk .-.:.i.:-,.I.,. i, loamy sand. ghul:w- _ullies The surface layer ranges from 4 to 10
6 to 14 inches, very friIII., y -l... i.--..r...' i.. I.my fine sand. in.lices ill rlii!.kn.-'- but is generally about 6 inches thick.
14 to 33 inches, friable,,.. -. -Ii.i.,i ,, i :, y r.lne sandy clay [,l.lii.' normally occurs at a depth of 30 to 38 inches.
loam to clay loam. Included with this soil are a few areas that are slightly
33 to 61 inches +, friable to firm, brownish-yellow heavy
fine sandy clay loam mottled with strong brown above eroded or are severely sheet eroded. In the slightly
46 inches and i. ii, i !.,:.I. 1.1..- i., red, and yellowish brown eroded areas, the surface layer i'i,,n-tJ f':rom, 10 to 14
below 46 inches. inches in thickness. Also included are a few small
The loamy sand plow 1-iv. ranges from 5 to 7 inches areas on slopes of 8 to 12 percent.
in thickness and from dark gray t:, 1Il:.ik grayish brown For high yields of cultivated crops, more intensive
in color. It is underlain by a yellowish-brown to brown- management is required on this soil than on Tifton
ish-yellow layer. The subsoil is V-.ll1..,w 1.lil1wn to loamy alnd, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Under good man-
I.rI\\mii.l-\- 11.i\\ heavy sandy ,l:iv 1 :y ,1m to fine sandy clay agement that includes control of erosion, this soil is
but is heavy fine sandy clay loam in most places. M. tl. suited for most locally grown crops. It is well suited
of -i I .,n brown and yellow normally occur in the subsoil to improved pasture and to trees, and it makes good
at a depth of 32 to 44 inches, but they are as near the sur- habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland
face as 30 inches in some areas. The underlying material suitability group 4)
is highly mottled with r.-,v 1t. yellow, and red, and it oc-
curs at a i.1iih of 44 to 64 iin.-li.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have a fine Use rand Mlanagement of Soils
sandy loam surface layer. Also included are small areas
that are n..l..-i-.itr v sheet eroded and have a -m f... l :.v.i: This section discusses the use and management of soils
4 to 10 inches thick. A few areas are on sloi.-. ,,f I 1;,. for crops and pasture, as woodland, for wildlife, and in
percent. ,., in, .lk .
This soil is strongly acid and ,li-- ii ld- rl yv high natu-
ral fertility and (i .iii.,i-nri,.-r content. It is sufficiently Use of Soils for Agriculture
loamy to have good tilth, and the available moisture ca- This subsection contains four main parts. In the first
pacity is high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the practices of soil management are discussed,
.I'I.I..I.i Ih,., :1,,l moderately slow in the subsoil. Surface l.:iit, general practices of soil management are discussed,
-1i,.:-.. 1 internal moderately slow the subsoil Surface and in the second part, capability grouping is explained.
i:iinn:..l:ii-I internal drainage are good. If it is not pro- In rci. third I .. t, f,,- soils of the county are placed in
tected, this soil is moderately -u-.,:,.lfIii- to erosion. It third i .,t and the use and management of these
retains plant iwtr i,.nt, well and responds well to fertil- c: 11.,! 1- units and the use and management of these
izer. The root zone is ,,.1 and well aerated. e:l .1l 'i i units are discussed. The fourth part contains
izer. The root zone is deptable that lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
This soil is well suited to all locally grown crops, pas- a table tat lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
ture grasses, and clovers. It is well suited as woodland, Getneral practices of soil management 3
and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) When soils are cultivated or planted to pasture plants,
Tifon loamy sand, 2 to5 percent slopes, eroded good management practices are necessary if the produc-
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded tivity of the soils is to 1l,->-,.,il-:t:,inril. This subiection
(TfB2).-T'li- moderately eroded soil generally has a discusses somevity of the ..soils is to 1- T.h iscultivton.
thinner surface !:LIr than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 for culti"It.
percent slopes. It is ,r.i~ll- i ..i.t ,...,llc1. but there are crops and for pasture.
a few deep or shallow ,illliv- in -.inii pl'.ii.-. The surface CULTIVATED CROPS
layer ranges from 4 to II, il. lit- iI li, IIeI kss but is gen- T!" I;l1.i ,1. i; ivY of most soils in Washington County
erally about 7 inches thick. M[..t.lin, in the subsoil is li1,,,11-, Iy I,i1 low organic-matter content, (2) defi-
normally occurs at a depth of 32 to 40 inches, but in a ciency in plant nutrients, (3) susceptibility to erosion,
few areas it occur- :1r ii .;4 inches. The parent material (4) excess water in the root zone, or (5) insufficient mois-
is generally at a depth of 40 to 60 inches but in a few ture. Pi,.-i ..-- are needed that reduce the effects of these
areas is at 38 to 42 inches. adverse characteristics.
Included with this soil are a few, small, severely eroded ,.,,., ,,,.... matter.-A continuous supply of
areas that have a fine sandy loam -ini.,,.,- layer. l .. i. soil is needed t maintain the
I This soil is well i i i iv1 to all crops grown in the county i -!, i,-- .I,,, ,:l .,1 l nt... ii!,,- soil is needed to maintain the
This soil is well ue. to all crops grown in the county content of organic matter. The organic material can be
,1 to improved pasture. To maintain high yields of .'.; by returning all crop residue to the soil, by
cultivated crops, more intensive use. of -.,l-imil..oiving i i ,,,. and ti 1ning aid.r cover crops, and by using the
crops is required on this soil than on Tifton loamy sand, f.- -Iu.,. pt tf the time and for cultivated crops
2 to 5 percent ,,p-.., and more intensive practices for pa f the time. A hig content of organic matter in-
control of erosion ,.,. r. .... :.v Ii is well suited as part of the time. A high content f ertilizer and lime,r in-
i. d it ,i-. .... ,, h. ,r- for wildlife. (Ca- creases the ,.ff-.-t.-. of aplll,.,i fertilizer and lime,
i, ,1, ldite-.; wooda. nI .:d suitaility group 4)wi ii. ..,.--.. the available moisture capacity, and releases
p':llirty ,1 ,It. IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) plant food I*- Ii- organic matter .1,..1-.
Tifon loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded antood organic matter
(TfC2).--This sloping, moderately eroded "*.i e.:!il\. H. E. VANARSI .. ':... '. it agronomist, and E. D. HOL-
has a thinner surface layer than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to COMBE, woodland t.i,-..:r..:...ir -.il Conservation Service, as-
5 percent slopes. As a result of erosion, the parent sisted in preparing 11 ...-.-.r.,l








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

clayey subsoil. Iron pebbles are abundant throughout material is g>.ierllly nearer the surface and occurs at
the profile. a depth of 38 to 50 inches. Most areas have been uni-
Representative profile in a wooded area: fi.i nlv sheet eroded, but some areas have a few deep or
0 to 6 inches, very fril.1.. :lirk .-.:.i.:-,.I.,. i, loamy sand. ghul:w- _ullies The surface layer ranges from 4 to 10
6 to 14 inches, very friIII., y -l... i.--..r...' i.. I.my fine sand. in.lices ill rlii!.kn.-'- but is generally about 6 inches thick.
14 to 33 inches, friable,,.. -. -Ii.i.,i ,, i :, y r.lne sandy clay [,l.lii.' normally occurs at a depth of 30 to 38 inches.
loam to clay loam. Included with this soil are a few areas that are slightly
33 to 61 inches +, friable to firm, brownish-yellow heavy
fine sandy clay loam mottled with strong brown above eroded or are severely sheet eroded. In the slightly
46 inches and i. ii, i !.,:.I. 1.1..- i., red, and yellowish brown eroded areas, the surface layer i'i,,n-tJ f':rom, 10 to 14
below 46 inches. inches in thickness. Also included are a few small
The loamy sand plow 1-iv. ranges from 5 to 7 inches areas on slopes of 8 to 12 percent.
in thickness and from dark gray t:, 1Il:.ik grayish brown For high yields of cultivated crops, more intensive
in color. It is underlain by a yellowish-brown to brown- management is required on this soil than on Tifton
ish-yellow layer. The subsoil is V-.ll1..,w 1.lil1wn to loamy alnd, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Under good man-
I.rI\\mii.l-\- 11.i\\ heavy sandy ,l:iv 1 :y ,1m to fine sandy clay agement that includes control of erosion, this soil is
but is heavy fine sandy clay loam in most places. M. tl. suited for most locally grown crops. It is well suited
of -i I .,n brown and yellow normally occur in the subsoil to improved pasture and to trees, and it makes good
at a depth of 32 to 44 inches, but they are as near the sur- habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland
face as 30 inches in some areas. The underlying material suitability group 4)
is highly mottled with r.-,v 1t. yellow, and red, and it oc-
curs at a i.1iih of 44 to 64 iin.-li.
Included with this soil are a few areas that have a fine Use rand Mlanagement of Soils
sandy loam surface layer. Also included are small areas
that are n..l..-i-.itr v sheet eroded and have a -m f... l :.v.i: This section discusses the use and management of soils
4 to 10 inches thick. A few areas are on sloi.-. ,,f I 1;,. for crops and pasture, as woodland, for wildlife, and in
percent. ,., in, .lk .
This soil is strongly acid and ,li-- ii ld- rl yv high natu-
ral fertility and (i .iii.,i-nri,.-r content. It is sufficiently Use of Soils for Agriculture
loamy to have good tilth, and the available moisture ca- This subsection contains four main parts. In the first
pacity is high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the practices of soil management are discussed,
.I'I.I..I.i Ih,., :1,,l moderately slow in the subsoil. Surface l.:iit, general practices of soil management are discussed,
-1i,.:-.. 1 internal moderately slow the subsoil Surface and in the second part, capability grouping is explained.
i:iinn:..l:ii-I internal drainage are good. If it is not pro- In rci. third I .. t, f,,- soils of the county are placed in
tected, this soil is moderately -u-.,:,.lfIii- to erosion. It third i .,t and the use and management of these
retains plant iwtr i,.nt, well and responds well to fertil- c: 11.,! 1- units and the use and management of these
izer. The root zone is ,,.1 and well aerated. e:l .1l 'i i units are discussed. The fourth part contains
izer. The root zone is deptable that lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
This soil is well suited to all locally grown crops, pas- a table tat lists estimated yields of crops and pasture.
ture grasses, and clovers. It is well suited as woodland, Getneral practices of soil management 3
and it makes good habitats for wildlife. (Capability unit
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) When soils are cultivated or planted to pasture plants,
Tifon loamy sand, 2 to5 percent slopes, eroded good management practices are necessary if the produc-
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded tivity of the soils is to 1l,->-,.,il-:t:,inril. This subiection
(TfB2).-T'li- moderately eroded soil generally has a discusses somevity of the ..soils is to 1- T.h iscultivton.
thinner surface !:LIr than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 for culti"It.
percent slopes. It is ,r.i~ll- i ..i.t ,...,llc1. but there are crops and for pasture.
a few deep or shallow ,illliv- in -.inii pl'.ii.-. The surface CULTIVATED CROPS
layer ranges from 4 to II, il. lit- iI li, IIeI kss but is gen- T!" I;l1.i ,1. i; ivY of most soils in Washington County
erally about 7 inches thick. M[..t.lin, in the subsoil is li1,,,11-, Iy I,i1 low organic-matter content, (2) defi-
normally occurs at a depth of 32 to 40 inches, but in a ciency in plant nutrients, (3) susceptibility to erosion,
few areas it occur- :1r ii .;4 inches. The parent material (4) excess water in the root zone, or (5) insufficient mois-
is generally at a depth of 40 to 60 inches but in a few ture. Pi,.-i ..-- are needed that reduce the effects of these
areas is at 38 to 42 inches. adverse characteristics.
Included with this soil are a few, small, severely eroded ,.,,., ,,,.... matter.-A continuous supply of
areas that have a fine sandy loam -ini.,,.,- layer. l .. i. soil is needed t maintain the
I This soil is well i i i iv1 to all crops grown in the county i -!, i,-- .I,,, ,:l .,1 l nt... ii!,,- soil is needed to maintain the
This soil is well ue. to all crops grown in the county content of organic matter. The organic material can be
,1 to improved pasture. To maintain high yields of .'.; by returning all crop residue to the soil, by
cultivated crops, more intensive use. of -.,l-imil..oiving i i ,,,. and ti 1ning aid.r cover crops, and by using the
crops is required on this soil than on Tifton loamy sand, f.- -Iu.,. pt tf the time and for cultivated crops
2 to 5 percent ,,p-.., and more intensive practices for pa f the time. A hig content of organic matter in-
control of erosion ,.,. r. .... :.v Ii is well suited as part of the time. A high content f ertilizer and lime,r in-
i. d it ,i-. .... ,, h. ,r- for wildlife. (Ca- creases the ,.ff-.-t.-. of aplll,.,i fertilizer and lime,
i, ,1, ldite-.; wooda. nI .:d suitaility group 4)wi ii. ..,.--.. the available moisture capacity, and releases
p':llirty ,1 ,It. IIe-1; woodland suitability group 4) plant food I*- Ii- organic matter .1,..1-.
Tifon loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded antood organic matter
(TfC2).--This sloping, moderately eroded "*.i e.:!il\. H. E. VANARSI .. ':... '. it agronomist, and E. D. HOL-
has a thinner surface layer than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to COMBE, woodland t.i,-..:r..:...ir -.il Conservation Service, as-
5 percent slopes. As a result of erosion, the parent sisted in preparing 11 ...-.-.r.,l







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Returning crop residue to the soil, rather than burning
or otherwise removing it, is a simple practice that helps
maintain organic matter. The effectiveness of this prac-
tice depends on the kind of crops grown and the amount
of residue produced.
Cover crops provide organic material and protect the
soil from erosion. The crops may be legumes or non-
legumes, but legumes provide more residue and release
more nitrogen as they decay. Legumes suitable for most
soils in the county are lupine, vetch, indigo, and southern
peas. Lupine and vetch are cool-season plants and can
be grown after most of the summer crops are harvested.
Indigo and southern peas are summer legumes. Small
grain is the principal nonlegume grown as a cover crop
(fig. 4). The small grains generally do not produce as
much residue as legumes and are, therefore, less effective
in maintaining organic matter. The common practice of
grazing livestock on small grain reduces the amount of
residue returned to the soil.
Organic matter is also maintained by using the soils
for pasture for a few years and then cultivating them for
a short time. Pasture sod produces large amounts of or-
ganic material.
The available moisture capacity of soils is affected by
the content of organic matter. The thick-surface phases figure 5.--Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. A
cover of vegetation, terraces, and contour tillage would have
of the Bowie, Norfolk, and Ruston soils and the Lakeland protected this soil.
and Eustis soils are drought. Crops on these soils are
damaged more often by drought than are crops on the Fertilization and liming.-The soils in Washington
loamy sands that have a thinner surface layer. The effects County are acid. Lime is needed to reduce this acidity
of drought can be reduced by frequently returning crop and to provide the calcium and magnesium that crops
residue to these soils and by planting drought-resistant need. Nonlegumes also need applications of fertilizer that
crops. contains the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphate,
and potash. Legumes need applications of phosphate and
potash, but they supply their own nitrogen and generally
do not need this nutrient.
The county agriculture agent, by interpreting soil tests,
can supply information on amounts of fertilizer and lime
needed by specified crops.
Erosion control.-Surface runoff from bare soils must
be controlled so that it does not wash away the soil. Fig-
ure 5 shows a severely eroded, unprotected field. If run-
off is slowed, the hazard of erosion is reduced and water
has more time to soak into the soil. Terraces, contour
cultivation, and wide strips of close-growing plants can
be used to control runoff and erosion.
Channel-type terraces are suited to most of the better
soils in the county that have uniform slopes of not more
than 8 percent. This kind of terrace is made by digging
a broad, shallow channel and by using the spoil to form
a broad-base ridge on the lower side. These terraces
should be nearly level and constructed across the slope on
a predetermined grade. They intercept the water moving
down the slope and conduct it from the field slowly.
Terraces are generally 50 to 110 feet apart, but the space
between them varies according to the kind of soil and
the slope. The water from the terraces should be dis-
charged into well-stabilized waterways or into areas with
dense vegetation. Figure 6 shows a step in the construc-
tion of a channel-type terrace.
Natural draws make the best waterways. If draws are
Figure 4.-Oats planted in the fall make a good cover crop during not available, dig wide, shallow channels and protect them
the winter and are plowed under in the spring as green manure. with sod crops or with other close-growing plants. These









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 39



















Figure 6.-Checking the construction of a channel-type terrace on
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Figure 8.-Peanuts planted on the contour on Ruston loamy sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes. (Capability unit Ile-2)
channels should be stabilized before water is discharged
into them. To prevent channel cutting, the characteris- The soils in the county are not so susceptible to wind
tics of the soil and the amount of water to be dischargedsusceptible to wind
tics of the soil and the amount of water to be discharged erosion as they are to water erosion, but some soils planted
should be known so that the channel velocity and the to clean-tilled crops are damaged by the wind during
capacity of the waterway can be determined. Figure 7 spring. Generally, enough protection from wind is pro-
shows a well-protected waterway. vided in spring by returning crop residue to the soil and
In contour cultivation the soils are plowed across the by keeping the residue on or near the surface.
slope in the same direction that the terraces extend. The Artificial drainage.-Many naturally wet soils are
furrows act as small terraces by slowing the water as it highly productive if water is controlled (fig. 9). In drain-
moves down the slope. On the gently sloping, more po- ing low-lying areas, the main problem is locating or con-
rous sandy soils, contour cultivation is generally sufficient structing outlet ditches and finding areas into which the
to control runoff water. On other soils, terraces are needed water can be drained safely. Although erosion is gener-
to supplement contour cultivation. On the field shown in ally not a problem, cover crops and sod should be used to
figure 8, the contour furrows are plowed across the slope, supply organic matter. The soils also need applications
parallel to terraces. of fertilizer and lime. Figure 10 shows a low area that
Water is also intercepted and spread by wide strips of has been drained.
close-growing plants at intervals across the slope. These
strips supplement terraces and contour cultivation. When
they alternate with strips of row crops, they improve the
soil.


















Figure 7.-This grassed waterway has a wide, shallow channel and Figure 9.-This excess water on Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to
is well protected by a good sod of bahiagrass. 2 percent slopes, can be removed by simple practices of drainage.
726-719-65--4








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2
PASTURE
Pasture usually provides the least expensive feed for
livestock and at the same time adds organic matter to the
soil and protects it from erosion.
Several kinds of pasture plants are suitable on most
soils in the county. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass can be
.. grown on many kinds of soils. White clover and crimson
-"'' clover, the principal legumes grown in the county, are
S ',. suited to soils that have a high available moisture capacity
and to soils that have a high water table. Either of these
S' clovers grows well in a mixture with bahiagrass or ber-
mudagrass, but a stand of clover is more difficult to main-
S' tain with bahiagrass than with bermudagrass. Clipping
pasture early in fall and removing the clippings help to
obtain a good growth of clover.
S' Additions of phosphate and potash help the growth of
-. ..* "clover, and nitrogen added in summer increases the growth
of grasses. Nitrogen, phosphate, and potash should be
added to drought soils that are not suited to clover but
are suited to grasses. The capacity for grazing depends
'.. i .'' ';- '" :: .to a large extent on the amount of fertilizer applied. Ad-
ditions of lime are needed to obtain satisfactory growth
Figure 10.-Surface drainage has removed excess water from this of pasture plants. A pasture in clover generally requires
pasture on a depressed area of Rains loamy sand. Water control
is essential on soils in capability unit IVws-1. more lime than one in grasses. Soil tests indicate how
much and how often lime and fertilizer should be applied.
Irrigation.-Although there is usually enough rainfall Grazing should be regulated so that pasture plants have
to supply the moisture needs of most general crops, the time to recover after they are grazed. Then the plants
use of sprinklers to irrigate crops of high value is n- produce more forage and provide better protection for
creasing. Irrigation is profitable only at a high level of the soil. Figure 12 shows a well-managed pasture.
management that provides for adding large amounts of
fertilizer, for returning crop residue to the soil, and for Capability groups of soils
planting cover crops. The capability classification is a grouping of soils that
Water for irrigation can be stored in small farm ponds, h
that are constructed in natural drains having small water- shows, in a general way, how suitable the soils are for
sheds. The pond site should be carefully studied before most kinds of farming. It is a practical grouping based
a site is selected because it is necessary to know the suit- on limitations of the soils, the risk of damage when they
ability of the foundation material, the amount of water are used, and the way they respond to treatment.
available, and the storage capacity of the proposed pond. In this system all the kinds of soils are grouped at three
Dams and spillways should be carefully designed and con- levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. Eight
structed. Figure 11 shows a pond in Washington County. capability classes are in the broadest grouping and are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. In
class I are the soils that have few limitations, the widest
range of use, and the least risk of damage when they are
used. The soils in the other classes have progressively
greater natural limitations. In class VIII are soils and
landforms so rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that
". ,, they do not produce worthwhile yields of crops, pasture,
or wood products. Washington County has no class VIII
soils.
The subclasses indicate major kinds of limitations
within the classes. Within most of the classes there can
e as many as four subclasses. The subclass is indicated
by adding a small letter, e, wv, s. or c, to the class numeral,
for example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main limita-
tion is risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover is
S.... .maintained; vw means that water in or on the soil will
;.. .. .. :.'' ::. .' interfere with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
..:. ; ::: the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drainage);
^.: 8ii",i:.'.i" g fiis s slows that the soil is limited mainly because it is shal-
Sii? .i; low, drought, or stony; and c, used in only some parts of
Figure 11.-This farm pond stores water for irrigation, helps to the country and not in Washington County, indicates that
control floods downstream, and is excellent for fishing, the chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry.







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

Class II.-Soils that have some limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or require moderate conservation
practices.
Subclass IIe: Soils subject to moderate erosion if
they are not protected.
Unit IIe-1: Gently sloping, deep, well-drained
soils that are acid, are not more than mod-
erately eroded, and have a loamy sand surface
layer and a moderately slowly permeable,
clayey subsoil.
Unit IIe-2: Gently sloping, deep, well-drained
soils that are acid, are no more than mod-
erately eroded, and have a loamy sand or
sandy surface layer and a moderately per-
meable, clayey subsoil.
Subclass IIws: Soils that have moderate limitations
because of excess water and poor soil qualities.
Unit IIws-l: Nearly level, somewhat poorly
Figure 12.-Well-managed pasture on Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to drained, sandy soils that are deep, are strongly
5 percent slopes, eroded, in foreground, and Cuthbert soils, 5 to acid, and have a high organic-matter content.
8 percent slopes, eroded, in background. Soils in classes IIIit : Nearly level gently sloping,
and VI. Unit IIws-2: Nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately well drained, deep soils that are
Most soils of Washington County have two kinds of acid and have a loamy coarse sand or thick
limitations that affect use and management about equally. sandy surface layer and a moderately per-
Excessively drained soils on slopes generally are both meable to slowly permeable subsoil.
drought and subject to erosion; many soils that have poor Unit IIws-3: Nearly level, moderatelyTwell
soil qualities also have seasonal problems of excess water; drained soils that have a moderately thick
and many wet soils have serious limitations even if prop- loamy fine sand surface layer and a very com-
erly drained. These soils with two kinds of limitations pact, slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
are placed in units that have two small letters designat- Subclass Ise: Soils that have moderate limitations
ing the subclass. The first letter stands for the more severe because of poor soil qualities and a moderate
limitation, erosion hazard if not protected.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of Unit IIse-1: Nearly level and gently sloping,
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can contain, well-drained, uneroded soils that are deep, are
at the most, only subclasses w, s, and c, because the soils in strongly acid, and have a thick sandy surface
it are susceptible to little or no erosion but have other layer and a friable, moderately permeable
limitations that limit their use largely to pasture, range, subsoil.
woodland, or wildlife. Subclass IIsw: Soils that have moderate limitations
Within the subclasses are the capability units, which are because of low available moisture capacity, poor
groups of soils enough alike to be suited to the same crops tilth, or excess water.
and pasture plants, to require similar management, and Unit IIsw-l: Nearly level, slightly wet soils
to have similar productivity and other responses to man- that are in depressions and consist of material
agement. Thus, the capability unit is a convenient group- moved from adjacent areas.
ing for making many statements about management of Class III.-Soils that have severe limitations that reduce
sClas. C ailit uani htatre gener d entie rthe choice of plants, require special conservation
soils. Capability units are generally identified by num- practices, or both.
bers assigned locally, for example, IIe-1 or IIIe-2. Subclass IIIe: Soils subject to severe erosion if they
Soils are placed in capability classes, subclasses, and are cultivated and not protected.
units in accordance with the degree and kind of their per- Unit IIIe-1: Sloping, moderately eroded, well-
manent limitations; but without consideration of major drained soils that are deep, are acid, and have a
and generally expensive landforming that would change loamy sand surface layer and a moderately
the slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soil; and permeable to slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.


The eight classes in the capability system, and the sub- eroded, and have a moderately permeable,
classes and units in this county, are described in the list friable subsoil.
that follows. Subclass IIIew: Soils that have severe limitations
Class I.-Soils that have few limitations that restrict because of risk of erosion and excess water.
their use. (No subclasses.) Unit IIIew-l: Gently sloping, moderately well
Unit I-1: Nearly level, well-drained, deep soils drained, no more than slightly eroded soils
that are on uplands and have a loamy sand that have a moderately deep, acid loamy fine
surface layer and a moderately permeable sand surface layer and a very compact, slowly
subsoil. permeable, clayey subsoil.







42 :SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Subclass IIIes: Soils that have severe limitations Unit IVse-2: Sloping, well-drained to ex-
because of risk of erosion, low available moisture cessively drained, very rapidly permeable
capacity, and low fertility, sand that is medium acid to strongly acid and
Unit IIIes-1: Gently sloping, well-drained, acid 30 inches or more thick.
soils that are no more than moderately eroded Class V.-Soils not likely to erode that have other limita-
and have a loamy surface layer and a clayey tions, impractical to remove without major reclamation.
subsoil. that limit their use largely to pasture or range, wood-
Unit IIIes-2: Sloping, well-drained, deep soils land, or wildlife food and cover.
that are no more than slightly eroded and have Subclass Vws: Soils generally unsuitable for culti-
a thick, sandy surface layer and a friable ovation because of excess water and low fertility.
subsoil. Unit Vws-1: Nearly level, strongly acid. wet
Subclass IIIws: Soils that have severe limitations soils that have a thin, loamy surface layer
because of excess water, low available moisture anda plastic, very slowly permeable clay subsoil.
capacity, or low fertility. Unit Tws-2: Nearly level, strongly acid sands
Unit IIIws-1: Nearly level and gently sloping, that are deep and very wet.
strongly acid, somewhat poorly drained soils Subclass Vsw: Soils generally unsuitable for culti-
that have a loamy surface layer and a slowly ovation because of low available moisture capacity.
or moderately permeable, clayey subsoil, low fertility, or excess water.
Unit IIIws-2: Nearly level, strongly acid, wet Unit Vsw-l: Nearly level, somewhat poorly
soils that have a loamy surface layer and a drained, strongly acid, sandy soils that are un-
very slowly permeable, plastic, clayey subsoil. derlain by a pan stained with organic matter.
Subclass IIIse: Soils that have severe limitations Class VI.-Soils that have severe limitations that make
because of low available moisture capacity, low them generally unsuitable for cultivation and that
fertility, or risk of erosion, limit their use largely to pasture or range. woodland.
Unit IIIse-1: Nearly level to gently sloping, or wildlife food and cover.
very rapidly permeable, deep sands. Subclass Vies: Soils that have severe limitations
Unit IIIse-2: Nearly level to gently sloping, because of risk of erosion, low available moisture
moderately well drained sands that are strong- capacity, and poor soil qualities.
ly acid, rapidly permeable, and moderately Unit Vies-1: Sloping to strongly sloping.
deep to deep. slightly eroded, deep sands that are well
Class IV.-Soils that have very severe limitations that drained to excessively drained and strongly
restrict the choice of plants, require very careful acid; and moderately well drained, slightly
management, or both. eroded soils that have a sandy or loamy sur-
Subclass IVew: Soils that have very severe limita- face layer and a thin to moderately thick.
tions because of risk of erosion and excess water. dense clav subsoil.
Unit IVew-1: Sloping, moderately well drained Subclass Vise: Soils that have severe limitations
and somewhat poorly drained, acid soils that because of low available moisture capacity. low
are moderately deep to deep, are no more fertility, or severe risk of erosion.
than slightly eroded, and have a thick, loamy Unit Vise-1: Nearly level to strongly sloping.
or sandy surface layer and a well-developed, well-drained to excessively drained. very
clayey subsoil. deep coarse sands that are strongly acid and
Subclass IVes: Soils that have very severe limita- no more than slightly eroded.
tions because of risk of erosion, low available Class VII.-Soils that have very severe limitations that
moisture capacity, or low fertility. make them unsuitable for cultivation without major
Unit IVes-1: Sloping, no more than moderately reclamation and that restrict their use largely to grazing.
eroded, well-drained soils that have a loamy woodland, or wildlife.
sand surface layer and a dense clay subsoil. S cla: Soils tt he vv er i -
Unit IVes-2: Nearly level to gently sloping, Subclass VIbes: Soils that have very severe liita-
shallow, moderately well drained and some- tons because of risk of eroson ver low fertility.
what poorly drained soils that are no more or very low available moisture capacity.
than moderately eroded and have a sandy or Unt VIIes--1: Gently sloping to strongly slop-
loamy surface layer and a slowly permeable, ing, severely eroded soils and very steep.
clayey subsoil. excessively drained to moderately well drained
Subclass IVws: Soils that have very severe limita- soils that are no more than moderately eroded
tions because of excess water, moderate available and have a sandy to clayey surface layer and
moisture capacity, or low fertility, a deep sand to dense clay subsoil.
Unit IVws-l: Nearly level, wet soils that have Subclass VIIws: Soils that have very severe limita-
a loamy sand surface layer and a slowly tions because of excess water and poor soil qualities.
permeable subsoil. Unit VIIws-1: -Moderately well drained to
Subclass IVse: Soils that have very severe limita- very poorly drained soils that lie adjacent to
tions because of low available moisture capacity, streams and are subject to frequent over-
low fertility, or risk of erosion, flow.
Unit IVse-1: Sloping, slightly wet, deep sands Subclass VIIse: Soils that have severe limitations
that are strongly acid, rapidly permeable, and because of steep slopes, low natural fertility, low
30 inches or more thick. available moisture capacity, or risk of erosion.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

Unit VIIse-1: Mod.i:,elt: l steep or -teep, well- tilizer and lime are added, hay is produced in large quan-
drained to excessively drained, very deep titles and grazing is good.
coarse sands. These soils are not extensive. Most areas have been
Unit VIIse-2: Mi-; :llri.iie-us land types that cleared and are cultivated or are in pasture. Originally,
have very little agricultural value, these soils supported excellent stands of mixed pines and
('l-- VIII.-Soils and landforms that have limitations oaks.
that .i't.'.-1ll. their use, w i;.il.. major reclamation, for CAPABILITY UNIT He-1
commercial production of plants; and that restrict their In this capability unit are deep, acid, well-drained soils
use to recreation, wildlife, water supply, or esthetic that have a loamy sand surface layer 4 to 14 inches thick.
purposes. (No class VIII soils in this .o)iinty.) All these soils are gently -l.pii-., and some of them are
moderately eroded. The loamy sand surface layer grades
Management by capability units to a friable heavy sandy clay loam to sandy clay subsoil
In this subsection, the soils of the .:iiiuilt are listed in that is 30 to 48 inches thick. Underlying the subsoil is
capability units and the use and uii:lrii.l-i.ieiIt of these moderately friable to firm sandy clay loam and sandy clay.
units are dli-.. iu--.1. A capability unit is a group of soils These -.il, have a deep, well-aerated root zone and a
tih'l. are suitable for the same uses and that respond to surface soil that contains a moderate amount of organic
ii:iiT:l.r.ieiilil in il.,:,oi time same way. matter and is generally in good tilth. They have a high
available moisture c(:,p ,:ii,-ity ;iJ good ability to hold plant
CAPABILITY UNIT I-1 nutrients in available form. Permeability is moderately
In this capability unit are nearly level, well-drained, i.,pid to moderately slow. The soils are-
deep soils that have a loamy sand surface layer 13 to 18 CaB Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
inches thick. The subsoil is friable -Jiidy loam to sandy CaB2 C.,i.-; 1..,;.in sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
clay loam 30 to 48 inches thick. It is underlain by FaB I.:.., ill.- 1..ini, sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
moderately friable to firm, mottled sandy clay loam. FaB2 Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
MaB Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
These soils have a deep, wll-rei.i d root zone, low to MaB2 Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
moderate organic-matter content in the surface layer, and TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
good tilth that is easy to maintain. They have moderate TfB2 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
to high available mii...i-trl' capacity and good ability to These soils have few permanent limitations to cultiva-
hold plant nutrients in available form. They are strongly tion. They are well suited to crops, pasture, trees, and
acid throughout. Perli,:abilii y is moderate to rapid i wildlife but are moderately ,susceptible to erosion. They
the surface layer aird ii.l.dlir: t- i the -uil.-.il. The soils can be cultivated safely, however, if they receive ordinary
are- I".,irin' l that provides moderate practices of erosion
BoA Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. (,..iii iiI, gI:lI tillage, and additions of organic matter and
NoA Norfolk loamy sand, 0 t.. 2 ...r...:t -t..p. ft'l ilizt-r. These soils are well suited to many kinds of
These soils have few permanent lirnit:iti.-,ns when culti- crops because available moisture capacity is high, the in-
vated. They are eI-,Id'd only slightly or not at all, and ternal movement of air and water is favorable, the root
they.can be .ultilva Li:t.II l'ly by using i.rliiriiy methods zone is deep, and plant nutrients are retained well.
of 1.'-,,d fariiiii... These methods include good tillage and These soils are well suited to all cultivated crops grown
adding organic in;iater and fertilizer. Althliuglh erosion is in the county and are :iI'.-i.g the most productive soils.
not likely, diveiling \\wateit from higher soils o.ic;,i-inilly Nevertheless, they erode readily when cultivated, unless
may be needed. These soils are well suited to many kinds practices of erosion control are used. To control erosion,
of cultivated .,..p'- le ~-nuuc the available moisture capac- use a cropping system that provides cover crops at least
ity is moderate to high, the internal movement of air and half thie time and maintain a water-disposal system that
water is favorable, the root zone is deep, and plant has terraces and stabilized outlets. Keep the content of
nutrients are retained well. organic iiattllh high by planting green-manure crops and
These soils are among the most pi:odti.i\t. in the by conserving all crop residue. To obtain high yields,
county. They are well suited to all crops grown in the alternate cultivated crops and pasture. Keep pasture on
area. They can be In.ile highly lio-li.l.-Li\t- by managing these soils for at least 2 successive years and cultivated
crop residue well; 1y 1. l:lit!ii -'iil-iiiipl..vinI perennials, crops for not more than 2 successive years. Because these
annual cover crops, or green-ma ,,li ,i : .: 111 and by add- soils retain a large amount of moisture, crops can be grown
ing, lime and fertilizer. Partly 1..e..ai-e o.lf lhe high avail- wiihi.,ut irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation, however, is prac-
able moisture capacity, good yields of most crops can tical for maintaining the uniform moisture needed for
normally be expected without -:1rilai,-'li. Irrigation, optimum growth of some crops of high value.
however, is practical in iiutiniiui,.n' the uniform mois- These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and
ture needed to insure optimum growth of truck crops and legumes grown in the county. If fertilizer and lime are
other crops of high value. in the cou If fertilizer and lime are
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and added, both cool-season and warm-season plants grow well.
legumes grown in the county. If fertilizer and lime are Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, sweetclover,
added, bth cool-season and warm-season plants grow well. white clover, and crimson clover. The white clover may
Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, sweetelover, be injured by drought more often than other cool-season
white clover, and crimson clover. The white clover may plants. Warm-season plants that grow well are bahia-
be injured by drought more often than the other cool- 'grass and improved bermudagrass. If enough fertilizer
season plants. Warm-season plants that grow well are and lime are added, hay is produced in large quantities
bahiagrass and ipriolved L .-il l iiiil.igiaI-. If enough fer- and '_rrzzing is good.








44 ,SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

These soils are not extensive. Most areas have been areas that were cultivated have returned to native vege-
cleared and are cultivated or are in pasture. station or have been planted to pines.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-2 CAPABILITY UNIT Iws--
In this capability unit are deep, acid, well-drained soils In this capability unit are nearly level, somewhat
that have a loamy sand or sandy surface layer about 18 poorly drained, deep soils in which fine sand extends from
inches thick. All these soils are gently sloping, and some the surface to a depth of more than 30 inches. Surface
are moderately eroded. The sandy surface layer grades runoff is slow, but the soils are very permeable and permit
to a friable sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam subsoil rapid internal movement of water. In wet periods the
that is 30 to 48 inches thick. Underlying this subsoil is water table rises to within a few inches of the surface, but
moderately friable to firm sandy loam to sandy clay loam. in dry periods it may recede below 60 inches. The surface
These soils have a deep, well-aerated root zone and a layer of these soils is black to very dark gray fine sand that
surface soil that is generally moderate to low in organic- is high in organic-matter content. It is 8 to 15 inches
matter content and is generally in good tilth that can be thick and is underlain by a porous fine sand. In some
easily maintained. Although water moves freely through areas fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam is 30 to 42
these soils, they have a medium to high available moisture inches below the surface. These soils are strongly acid
capacity. They can retain fertilizer in a form available throughout. They are-
to plants. Permeability is moderate to rapid in the Sc Scranton fine sand.
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The soils are- Sf Scranton fine sand, shallow.
,BoB Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. These soils have few permanent limitations and, under
BoB2 Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. only moderate management, can be used safely to produce
NoB Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
NoB2 Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. good yields of many kinds of crops. A deep sandy surface
RsB Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, layer, rapid permeability, and rapid leaching place minor
RsB2 Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, restrictions on their use. Imperfect drainage causes
RcB Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, periodic wetness and restricts the variety of crops that
These soils have few permanent limitations. They are can be grown, or makes special drainage practices
well suited to cultivated crops, pasture, trees, and wild- necessary.
life, but they are moderately susceptible to erosion. They These are good soils for cultivated crops, but only crops
can be cultivated safely, however, if they receive ordinary tolerant of slight wetness are suited. Among these are
management that provides moderate practices of erosion truck crops, small grain, and corn. These soils are mod-
control, good tillage, and additions of organic matter and erately low in natural fertility, and good management is
fertilizer. These soils are well suited to many kinds of required to obtain high yields. They can be made highly
crops because the available moisture capacity is moder- productive by management that includes using crop resi-
ate to high, the internal movement of air and water is due well, planting green-manure crops, and adding lime
favorable, the root zone is deep, and the plant nutrients and fertilizer. Damage by excess water generally can be
are retained well. prevented for most crops by surface drainage, by tile
These soils are among the most productive ones in the drainage, or by bedding. Cropping systems should pro-
county, and they are well suited to all crops grown there. vide a soil-improving crop at least half of the time. Good
Nevertheless, cultivated fields erode readily unless erosion yields of cultivated crops are obtained if improved pas-
control practices are used. To control erosion, use a crop- ture of a high-quality sod is used at least 2 years out of
ping system that provides a cover crop for at least half every 4.
of the time and a water-disposal system that has terraces These soils produce excellent improved pasture. After
and stabilized outlets. Keep the content of organic mat- heavy rains, simple drainage is required to remove excess
ter 1i. 1, .y planting green-manure crops and by conserv- surface water. If fertilizer and lime are applied, both
ing :11i r'1' T residue. Alternate pasture and crops to ob- cool-season and warm-season plants grow well. Suitable
tain high yields. The soils should be in pasture for at cool-season sweet-
least 2 successive years and in cultivated crops for not cool-season plants are tall fescue, white clover, sweet-
more than 2 successive years. Because these soils retain clover, and crimson clover. Warm-season plants that
a large amount of moisture, crops can be grown without grow well are bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass.
irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation, however, is practical for If enough fertilizer and lime are added, large quantities
maintaining the uniform moisture needed for optimum of hay are produced and grazing is good.
growth of some crops of high value. These soils are not extensive, and most areas are in trees
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and or pasture.
legumes .i1,w i in the county. If fertilizer and lime are CAPABILITY UNIT HII-2
added, both cool-season and warm-season plants grow In this capability unit are moderately well drained,
well. Suit i1le cool-season plants are tall fescue, white acid soils that are nearly level to gently sloping. These
clover, sweetclover, and crimson clover. White clover soils have a loamy coarse sand or coarse sand surface
may be injured by drought more often than the other layer 10 to 30 inches thick. The surface layer grades to a
cool-season plants. Warm-season plants that grow well friable sandy loam or sandy clay loam that is 18 to 30
are bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. If enough inches thick. In most places the subsoil is underlain by
fertilizer and lime are added, hay is produced in large moderately permeable to slowly permeable sandy clay
quantities and grazing is good. loam, but in a few places the underlying material is sandy
These soils are moderately extensive. Many areas have clay. The root zone generally is deep. In some of these
been cleared and are cultivated or are in pasture. Some soils drainage is restricted by the slowly permeable sub-








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

soil, and in others by a high water table that lies above If these soils are fertilized and otherwise well managed,
impervious layers in the substratum. These soils have they are suited to crops that tolerate slight wetness. They
moderate iiiL-.ilil moisture (.up.I. ity and low natural are best suited to corn and small grain. Ordinary prac-
fertility. They are- tices of surface drainage are generally enough to prevent
GdA Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. '1 1''-" to most crops. Management of these soils should
GdB Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, provide planting green-manure crops, using crop residue
GcA Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent well, and adding fertilizer and lime. The cropping sys-
slopes. tem keep a cover crop on the soil at least half of
GcB, Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent tem -i,,1 keep a cover crop on the soil at least half of
slopes. the time or should alternate pasture with tilled crops.
These soils have.few permanent liiitatii,-, and they A good practice is to keep the soils in full sod 2 years in
can be cultivated safely under moderate management. every 4.
The limited root zone, slow permeability, low natural These soils are suited to cultivated crops and to pasture
fertility, and other characteristics slightly limit the or hay. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, crim-
II a1:.lily ,,f these -,,il-. I,.:-r;,.it,.l drainage limits the son clover, sweetclover, and white clover. Suitable warm-
kindi.- .,1, .,,I' that can be grown or makes special drainage season plants are bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass.
practice necessary. The more sloping areas are likely to For high yields of pasture, large applications of fertilizer
erl.i I tIn:y are not protected, are needed, as well as other good management.
r i I are not protected. These soils are not extensive, and most areas are still in
If these soils are fertilized and otherwise well managed, trees.
they are well suited to crops that tolerate slight wetness. CAPABILITY UNIT IIse-i
They are best suited to corn, small grain, and truck crops. In this c.,pl,,ilil unit are deep, well-drained, nearly
Surface drainage or tile drainage generally is enough to level and gently -.1i.i,- soils on uplands. The surface
prevent damage to most crops. Management should in- layer of these soils is loamy sand, sand, or coarse sand 18
elude planting green-manure crops, using crop residue to 30 inches thick. It is underlain by friable, porous,
well, and adding fertilizer and lime. Some of the large well-aerated sandy loam or sandy clay loam that is 30 to
steeper areas need terraces that have stabilized outlets. 60 inches thick and is normally underlain by sandy clay
The cropping system should provide a cover crop on the loam. Pernieability is rapid in the surface layer and
soils at least half of the time or should alternate pasture moderate in the subsoil. The available moisture capacity
with tilled crops. A good practice is to keep a full sod on is low in the surface layer and moderately high in the
these soils 2 years in every 4. Before a tilled crop is subsoil. These soils are strongly acid and generally low
planted, the sod crop -1i-.i1l be plowed under. Grow cover 'i, .r._..,ni-r-matter content. They are low in natural
crops between successive clean-tilled crops. I lt -ili' v lo, respond well to fertilizer. These soils are
These soils are well suited to most pasture plants grown similar to those in capability unit IIe-2, but they have a
Sl1i.-I.-r surface layer, are more drought, and are more
in the county. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, rapidly leached of plant nutrients. The soils are-
sweetclover, crimson clover, and white clover. Suitable
warm-season plants are bahiagrass and improved bermu- N BB Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
NrA Norfolk sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
dagrass. If yields are to be his-1.. pasture plants need large N rB Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
additions of fertilizer, as well as other good pasture man- RdB Riston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
agement. These soils have few permanent limitations, and they
Ti,- -.. il- are extensive, and many areas are cultivated can be cultivated safely if management is moderate.
or are in pasture. They are .oily slightly susceptible to erosion, but use for
cultivated crops is somewhat limited by low available
CAPABILITY UNIT IIws-3 moisture ri: v.ity and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
Ti: -..il in this capability unit are iI...l. r-lyi well 3M.-i 1,'- I i..ps are grown on these soils, but yields are
drained, acid, and nearly level. They have a loamy fine low unless intensive practices are used.to improve the soil.
sand surface layer 10 to 20 inches thick. The upper part of Maintain a! high supply of organic matter by planting
the subsoil is friable to firm fine sandy clay loam to silty green-manure crops and using all crop residue well. Al-
clay loam 8 to 20 inches thick. It grades to very compact, ternate improved pasture wi ill, cultivated crops, and keep
slowly permeable, mottled sandy clay, silty clay, or clay, \.e -,,i,. -,1 1 1.i iVo in full sod at least 2 years in every 3.
which restricts drainage and the root zone. In the These soils are not so -.- ,1.1 ,1,-1 to erosion as those in
surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil, the root ,i,:,,ly Unit IIe-2, but terraces are frequently needed.
zone is favorable for the growth of roots. These soils l ui e2 r t stabilized outlets. Crops
In yhi avil moiu pa he All terraces should drain into stabilized outlets. Crops
1Ii\->. ii,,hn'lr.itrly high available moisture capacity. They
are- of high vale need to be irrigated and highly fertilized if
a am yields are to be high.
EfA Eulonia loamy fine sand, th ur to 2 percent These soils are well suited to most of the pasture grasses
slopes, and legumes grown in the county, and they produce good
These soils are moderately restricted for crop produc- yields if they are well fertilized and limed. Crimson
tion by low natural fertility, slow permeability, \\-tnl-s. clover is a suitable cool-season plant, but the soils are too
and a shallow root zone. They are similar to the soils of I 'nhl,. for white clover. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass
cepablility unit IIws-2 but are suited to fewer kinds of are suitable warm-season plants. Pasture plants need
crops because they have slower permeability and a 1:I-11 additions of fertilizer and other good pasture man-
shallower root zone. agement.







46 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

These soils are moderately extensive, and many areas They are-
have been cleared and are cultivated or are in pasture. CaC2 Carnegie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
FaC2 Faceville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIsw-1 TfC2 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Local alluvial land (Lu) is the only mapping unit in A severe hazard of erosion limits the capability of these
this capability unit. This land consists of small isolated soils. In unprotected areas the steep slopes and low in-
areas of local alluvium in pockets or other low positions filtration cause rapid runoff and severe erosion. The soils
at the bottom of slopes. Most areas are moderately well are well suited to cultivation if intensive practices of
drained. The soil material is mixed and has character- erosion control are used. These soils are suited to many
istics somewhat similar to those of the soils from which kinds of crops because the available moisture capacity is
the alluvium washed. The soil material ranges from high, aeration is good, the root zone is deep, and plant
sand to sandy clay loam and differs in the amount of nutrients are retained well.
stratification. In some areas the material is coarse These soils are well suited to all crops grown in the
textured and has been recently washed from adjacent county, but they require intensive management if erosion
sandy soils. The material is finer textured in other areas is to be controlled. The cropping system should keep
and has been accumulating a long time. Organic-matter cover crops or pasture on the soils at least two-thirds of
content in recent deposits is generally low, and that in the time. Also needed is a complete water-disposal system
older deposits is high. The available moisture capacity that provides terraces and vegetated outlets. Plant crops
varies but is generally high. Natural fertility is generally in strips across the slope. To help maintain organic mat-
moderately high to high. ter and tilth, plow or disk into the soils cover crops, green-
Local nllu.vi.l land is suitable for intensive cultivation, manure crops, and all crop residue. General crops nor-
Although it is occasionally flooded by runoff from adjacent mally receive enough moisture without irrigation, but
soils, water in most places can be controlled by ordinary crops of high value should be irrigated with sprinklers
dr(,iii:t,_e or diversion from higher land. Erosion is not that are carefully controlled to prevent surface runoff.
a problem. These soils are well suited to most locally grown pas-
Areas of this land are usually small and are included in ture grasses and legumes. Both cool-season and warm-
fields dominated by soils from which the alluvium washed. season plants grow well if the soils are fertilized and
Most common crops are well suited, and most areas of this limed. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, sweet-
land produce higher yields than the adjacent soils be- clover, white clover, and crimson clover. Bahiagrass and
cause they have better moisture content and are more bermudagrass are suitable warm-season plants. Because
fertile. Crops are occasionally damaged by runoff from these soils are highly erodible, they need pasture plants
adjacent -lip[-. Because surface outlets are seldom that form a full sod soon after seeding. Because response
available, most drainage is internal. Clean-tilled crops to fertilizer is good, large applications are practical
should be alternated with green-manure crops but should These soils are not extensive, and most areas are cleared
not occupy this land more than half of the time. All crop and cultivated or are in pasture.
residue should be plowed under. In a cropping system
that includes improved pasture, keep well-managed sod CAPABILITY UNIT me-2
crops on the land at least 2 years in every 4. Yields are The soils in this capability unit are well drained, deep,
increased by large applications of fertilizer, acid, and sloping. They have a loamy sand surface layer
This land is well suited to improved pasture consisting 4 to 18 inches thick. These soils are low in most plant
of all locally gr n.vi plants. These plants do well if the nutrients, but they retain fertilizer well in a form that
soil is well fertilized and limed and if grazing is con- plants can use. Although water moves freely through
trolled. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, sweet- them, the soils have a moderate to high available mois-
clover, xvhile clover, and crimson clover. Pensacola ba- ture capacity. They are highly susceptible to erosion.
hiagrass and bermudagrass are the most widely grown The soils are-
warm-season grasses. Good management of pasture is BoC Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
needed. BoC2 Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
S NoC Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Local alluvial land is not extensive. Most areas have NoC2 Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
been cleared for cultivation, but only a few are now culti- RsC Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
vated. Many areas have returned to native vegetation. RsC2 Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
A hazard of erosion limits the capability of these soils.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-1 Because slopes are steep and infiltration is restricted,
In thii c pbilily unit are well-drained, deep, acid soils runoff is rapid and erosion is likely in unprotected areas.
that have a loamy sand surface layer 4 to 10 inches thick. The soils are well suited to cultivation if intensive prac-
The surface layer grades to a friable heavy sandy clay tices of erosion control are used. These soils are suited to
loam to sandy clay subsoil that is 30 to 48 inches thick, many kinds of crops because the available moisture
The subsoil is underlain by moderately friable to firm capacity is moderate to high, aeration is good, the root
sandy clay loam and sandy clay. Tilth is generally good, zone is deep, and plant nutrients are retained well.
the root zone is well aerated, and the surface layer has Although these soils are well suited to all crops grown
moderate organic-matter content. The soils have high in the county, intensive management is needed to control
available moisture capacity and can hold plant nutrients erosion. The cropping system should keep cover crops or
in a form available to plants. Permeability is moderately pasture on the soils at least two-thirds of the time. Also
rapid to moderately slow. The soils are moderately needed is a complete system of water disposal that pro-
eroded and are highly susceptible to further erosion, vides terraces and vegetated outlets. Plant crops in strips






WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

across the slope. Plowing or di-kiig cover crops and crop improved bermudagrass. If yields are to be high, pasture
residue into the soils helps to maintain organic matter and plants need large additions of fertilizer, as well as other
good tilth. General crops normally receive enough mois- good nalgi elelet.
ture without irrigation, but crops of high value should be TiLhee -oil- are iot extensive, and most areas are still in
irrigated with -prinklers that are carefully controlled to trees.
prevent surface uiiti, t. CAPABILITY UNIT IIles-i
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and The soils in this capability unit are well drained, gently
legumes grown in the county. Both cool-season and warm- sl,,pin.-, and acid. Some of them are moderately eroded,
season plants grow well if fertilizer and lime are added. ;nin all are suti-.Iptil.h to erosion unless protected. The
Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, sweetclover, surface layer is loamy sand 3 to 14 inches thick, and the
white clover, and crimson clover, but white clover may be ,ul,..il is sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay 12 to 30
damaged by drought more often than other cool-season inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled and
plants. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are suit- is ii~ .lly denser than the upper part. In the surface
able warm-season plants. Because these soils are highly layer, permeability is rapid and available moisture
c-ro:ill..I, they need to be 1pri-.t.-'-t. by pasture plants that capacity is moderately low. The upper part of the sub-
form a full sod soon after seeding. Pasture plants need soil has moderate to low permeability and moderately high
fairly large additions of fertilizer. ui\iilul.le moisture capacity. Permeability is very slow
These soils are not extensive. Many areas have been in the low%- -ili-o,:il ind substratum. Because water and
cleared for cultivation, but only a few areas are now air move -I.l\\ly iliii.:i.:l the lower part of these soils, the
cultivated. Many fields that were :cuitivatedl hive returned root zone is restricted. The soils have low natural fertil-
to native vegetation or have been planted to pines. ity. Tli-y a e-
CAPABILITY UIT Iw OkB Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIew-l ShB S!,,.,t. I..i,,,,. sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The scils in this capability unit are moderately well shB2 Siih1..,1:i I1..:,n, y sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
drained, acid, and gently slopin... They are only slightly TLherie ,:,il are moderately well suited to many uses but
eroded but are subject to further erosion if they are not are susceptible to erosion if not protected. Runoff is
protected by adequate cover. These soils have a loamy rapid, partly because the -iull,-.il is slowly permeable.
fine sand surface layer 10 to 30 inches thick. The upper This dense, poorly aerated subsoil is unfavorable for
part of the subsoil is friable to firm fine sandy clay loam to development of roots. Because fertility and the avail-
silty clay loam 8 to 20 inches thick. The lower part is able moisture capacity are low, productivity is low and
v,-.y compact, slowly permeable, mottled sandy clay, practices of erosion control are hard to establish and
silly clay, or clay. Organic-matter content is moderate, maintain.
and natural fertility is low. The i..,.t zone is favorable in Most areas of these soils are moderately well suited to
the surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil. Root cultivatei 1 I.rp, but the choice of crops is limited because
development, however, is restricted by the compact, poorly of the moderately shallow root zone. Yields are low unless
aerated, slowly permeable lower subsoil, which also re- these soils are well managed. Management should provide
stricts drlain'iiie. These soils have moderately high for llalii il cover crops, returning crop residue to the
available moisture cu(.apity. They are- soils, and adding lime and fertilizer. Cultivated crops
EfB Eulonia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. should not be grown more than :one-third of the time. If
EnB Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent tilled crops are alternated with ii:-tiure. these soils should
slopes. be in pasture 4 years in every 6. Wl ere practical, establish
A hazard of erosion severely limits tihei use of these soils a r-:,ijii.lh-e -te tem of water control that includes terraces
for cultivated crops. ",\etine- ,ani other s-il character- a]i, -tr:.,iliz.,"l outlets. Keep a dense cover on small areas,
istics also restrict their use. Because permeability and areas dissected by natural draws and drainageways, and
internal drainage are slow, these soils remain wet and poor- other areas not suited to terracing.
ly aerated during wet plrki.,s. Surface runoff is r.ipid IMolrder:itely good improved pasture can be grown on
during these periods, and uinprtected areas erode easily, these soils. Most local tame grasses are suitable, but
Plants suited to these soils are few because of the compact, growth is stunted in dry periods because roots do not
poorly aerated lower subsoil. penetrate the soils deeply. Most legumes are not well
If these soils are fertilized and otherwise well managed, suited. If management is good, the more drought-resistant
I1hy are suited to crops that tolerate slight wetness. They legumes can be grown successfully on the deeper soils. A
are best suited to corn and small grain. The soils erode f sod is needed soon after seeding or springing to
rapidly unless they are protected by good cover. Manage- full sod is needed soon after seedig or sprigging to
ment should provide for planting green-manure crops, prevent severe erosion before the pasture is established.
using crop residue well, and a,;linh: fertilizer and lime. Prepare the seedbed carefully, use enough seed or sprigs,
Also needed is a water-ldi-po-;:l system that includes ter- apply adequate fertilizer and lime, and control grazing.
races and stabilized outlets. A suitable cropping system These soils have a small total acreage in the county.
provides cover crops at least t wo-ltiirdl of the time or Some areas have been cleared and are cultivated or are in
alternates pasture with tilled crops. Keeping the soils' in pasture.
full sod 4 years in every 6 is a good practice. CAPABILITY UNIT IIIes-2
Although these soils are suited to cultivated crops, In this capability unit are sloping, deep, well-drained
they are better suited to pasture or hay. Suitable cool- ,..ils on uplands. These soils are only slightly eroded
season plants are tall fescue, white clover, and crimson but, if cultivated, are susceptible to moderately severe
clover. Suitable warm-season plants are bahiagrass and erosion. They have a loamy sand, sand, or coarse sand





48 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

surface layer 18 to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is friable, fertility, and have a moderately high available moisture
porous, well-aerated sandy loam or sandy clay loam 30 capacity. They are-
to 60 inches thick. It is underlain by sandy clay loam. DuB Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate LyA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
in the subsoil. The available moisture capacity is low in LyB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
the surface layer and moderate to moderately high in the LzA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
subsoil. These soils are strongly acid. The content of Ly rg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percentopes.
LzB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
organic matter and natural fertility are low, but response slopes.
to fertilizer is good. These soils are similar to those in The use of these soils is limited mainly b weness.
capability unit IIIe-2, but they have a thicker surface Control of water, especially in the lowest lying areas,
layer, are more drought, and are more rapidly leached. is difficult. These soils are suitable for cultivation be-
The soils are- cause the texture of the surface layer is good, available
BwC Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes, moisture capacity is moderately high, and when, the soils
NrC Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes draintion is od
RdC Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes. are drained, aeration is good.
The use of these soils is limited by an erosion hazard and they are well suited to crops that tolerate wetness. Track
by the thick sandy surface layer that is drought and crop, potatoes, corn, smacr grain, and soybeans grow
rapidly leached. The rapid runoff on the steep slopes crops, potatoes, corn, small grain, and soybeans grow
causes the loose sandy surface layer to erode easily. The well. High fertility and organic matter should be main-
soils are well suited to cultivation if intensive practices are trained by returning all crop residue to the soils, by
used to control erosion and to improve the soils, planting green-manure crops, and by adding adequate
Under good soil management, use for general crops can lime and fertilizer. Water can be drained quickly from
be moderately intensive. Good yields can be obtained if the surface by bedding and open ditches. The cropping
the content of organic matter is maintained and the soils system should provide a cover crop on the soils at least
are liberally fertilized and limed. The cropping system half of the time. If cultivated crops are alternated with
should provide cover crops at least two-thirds of the time improved pasture, the soils should be kept in pasture for
or should alternate pasture with tilled crops. A good at least 2 years after each cultivated crop is harvested.
practice is to keep the soils in full sod at least 4 years in The soils of this unit are suited to most pasture grasses
every 6. Also needed is a complete water-disposal system and legumes grown in the county, but drains are needed
that includes terraces and protected outlets. Cultivate on to remove water quickly in wet periods. Both cool-season
the contour, and plant rotation crops in contour strips. and warm-season plants grow well if the soils are fertil-
Although most crops can be grown without irrigation, ized and limed. Tall fescue, white clover, crimson clover,
sprinkler irrigation is needed to maintain uniform mois- and sweetclover are suitable warm-season plants. Ordi-
ture for ,.L-,,i, of high value, nary practices of good pasture management are needed.
These soils are well suited to pasture. Most warm- These soils are extensive. Some areas have been cleared
season and cool-season grasses and legumes that are grown for cultivation, but many areas are planted to improved
in northern Florida are suitable. Crimson clover grows pasture.
CAPABILITY UNIT Ifws-2
well, but the soils are too sandy and too drought for C
white clover. The most suitable warm-season plants are Only Bladen soils (Bd) are in this capability unit.
bahiagrass and improved varieties of bermudagrass. Pas- These soils are poorly drained, deep, and strongly acid.
ture needs to be well fertilized and limed. To prevent Their surface layer is loamy sand to clay loam, and their
ture needs tobe well fertilized and limed. To prevent subsoil is firm, plastic sandy clay to clay. Unless they
erosion, a full sod is needed soon after seeding. By con- are artificially drained, these soils are wet most of the
trolling grazing, the stunting of the grasses can be time. The surface layer contains a moderate amount of
prevented, organic matter. Permeability is rapid to moderately slow
These soils are not extensive. Many areas that were in the surface layer and very slow in the subsoil. The
cultivated or in pasture have returned to native vegeta- available moisture capacity is moderate to high, and
tion or have been planted to pines, natural fertility is moderate.
Wetness is the main limitation to the use of these soils.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIws-l Control of water is difficult because the subsoil is very
In this capability unit are somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable, and even if drainage is well established,
-lrin ,,l ;Icid soils that have a high water table. These these soils waterlog in wet periods. The subsoil is very
-..il- ..:".ir on low, nearly level and gently sloping areas, poorly aerated, and the root zone is restricted.
Their surface layer is loamy sand or loamy fine sand If these soils are adequately drained and otherwise well
that is 12 to 30 inches thick, and their subsoil is sandy managed, they are suited to crops that tolerate slight
loam to sandy clay. Permeability is rapid to moderately wetness. Water can be removed from the surface by
rapid in the surface layer but is slow in the lower properly spaced ditches or by bedding. A good cropping
part of the subsoil. The water table normally fluctuates system is one in which deep-rooted, green-manure crops
between depths of 20 and 40 inches but, after a heavy are used frequently to improve soil structure and tilth
rain, sometimes rises to within 20 inches of the surface, and the permeability of the subsoil. For high yields large
Aeration is moderately good above the water table, and additions of lime and fertilizer are needed.
Ir...t penetration is moderately deep. These soils contain If they are intensively managed, these soils are well
a medium amount of organic matter, are moderately low in suited to improved pasture. Drains are needed to remove






WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

excess water after heavy rains. Pasture of grass and to within 42 inches of the surface. In some areas these
clover is good in winter if the soils are limed and fertilized, soils are isolated and are surrounded by wetter or dryer
Pasture of warm-season grasses is also well suited. soils. The soils are-
These soils are not extensive. Many areas have been BfB I-.,ir..i fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
cleared and are in pasture. A few areas have been BnB Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
cultivated but are now idle. KaB Kl-i fin.-- and, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
KgB K\!. I -ii..I. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIse-1 KsB Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
In this unit are deep, \ .ll-il:ji.el -:,ld y soils on high, These soils are drought and low in fertility because
broad, nearly level to gently sloping uplands. These water moves through them so rapidly. Droughtiness,
soils are uneroded or are only slightly eroded, but if however, is somewhat offset by the high water table.
cultivated, they are -u-.i-ipliblle to erosion. They have a Water and wind erosion are active in unprotected areas,
deep sand surface l:yvi liii ik porous and very il pily but ordinary management generally is adequate to control
permeable to water and air. In many places sandy loam erosion. Excess water occasionally is a problem in the
to sn.ndy clay loam is at a depth of 30 to 1.1. ii.-1,.-. The wetter areas.
available moisture capacity is low, and added plant These soils are only moderately well suited to most
nutrients leach rapidly. These soils are medium to general crops. Intensive soil-improving practices are
li.ii.ly acid and are low in organic-matter content, needed for good yields. Maintain fertility and organic
Thi.'\ ;,re- matter by returning all crop residue to the soils, by plant-
EuB Eustis sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes. ing green-manure crops, and by applying adequate fer-
LkB Lakeland sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, tilizer and lime. The cropping system should keep cover
These soils are limited in their suitability for agriculture crops, green-manure crops, or pasture on the soils at least
because their low available moisture capacity and i.pir1 two-thirds of the time. Before cultivated crops are har-
leaching make them drought and low in plant nuti i.n I, -. vested, plant cover crops. Wetter soils that surround these
Water erosion is a minor pi ...II1u, though these soils -'i-- need surface drainage in wet periods.
are isulbj.,:l to gullying and wind erosion if they are not These soils are suited to improved pasture grasses.
protected. Deep-rooted grasses grow well if the soils are fertilized,
These soils are moderately well suited to cultivated liin.-d.. and ,..,-:nvi-. well managed. The roots of these
crops. Watermelons and a few other special crops produce grasses penetrate the moist zone above the water table.
fair yields if management is intensive. Maintain the These soils are extensive. Some areas are cleared and
i0 -:,i. -,in.i ,.i 1nti1i and fertility by returning all crop cultivated or are in pasture. Most areas are still in trees.
i.-,iii.- iil.. i!n- -..i i.1 pliuini i green-manure crops, and
by applying adequate fertilizer and lime. The cropping CAPABILITY UNIT IVew-i
system should provide cover crops for the soils at least The soils of this capability unit are acid, sloping, and
two-thirds of the time, or it should alternate improved ii,, ,,,I.it-ly well drained and somewhat poorly drained.
pasture with clean-tilled crops. A good p1.-i e is to keep In most areas these soils are on I..i_., narrow slopes and
full II1 on these soils at least 4 years in every 6. Before are adjacent to similar soils on more gentle slopes. They
planting the clean-tilled crops, plow under the sod. After have a loamy coarse sand, c..,:r-, -:. ml. or loamy sand
the tilled crops are harvested, annual cover crops should surface layer 10 to 30 inche- hlii.-k. The surface layer
be planted. is underlain by friable sandy loam or sandy clay loam that
Tin,-, -,,!s are suited to improved pasture grasses, but is 18 to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is mottled and is
clover does not::grow well. Deep-rooted bahiagrass and moderate to slow in permeability. It is underlain by
improved varieties of bermudagrass grow well if these moderately permeable to slowly permeable sandy clay
soils are well fr ti1iiz,.-l. limed, and otherwise well man- loam. The root zone is moderately deep to deep. Drain-
aged. Management should provide a firm seedbed, enough age is restricted by the slowly permeable subsoil. These
sprigs or seed, adequate fertilizer and lime, and controlled soils have moderate available moisture capacity and low
r.!r:iz natural tiI tiliry. They are-
T1,-, .-,,l are extensive. Some areas have been cleared GdC Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
and are used for cultivated crops or for pasture. The GcC Goldsboro coarse sand, thick- surface, 5 to 8 percent
oriiii.l vegetation was an open forest of longleaf pine slopes.
and scrub oaks, but most areas have been cut over and Because slopes are steep and permeability is slow,
are now in scrub oaks. erosion is likely and limits these soils to only occasional
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIse-2 cultivation unless intensive practices are used to control
erosion. Unless special practices are used to remove
In this capability u.liii are i e I ly level to gently sloping, excess water, the wetness caused by slow internal drainage
ii. lrail. l1 well drained, moderately deep to deep sandy limits the kinds of crops suited to these soils.
.il- il \ liii sand or fine sand extends from the surface These soils are moderately good for crops that tolerate
to a depth of more than 30 inches. Some of the soils T sil re mdertey god for crops that t te
are underlain by -.,midv 1,.,i, to sandy clay loam at a depth ., wetness but they erode rpidy unless mtensive
of 30 to 42 inche-. Til. ,i-ailable moisture c.ipacitv, the practices of erosion control are followed. They produce
natural fertility, and the amount of organic matter are good yields under intensilve i-!iri:i.eni.:it. Large additions
low. These soils are -tr...n.ly acid. They are porous, of lime and fertilizer, .il.liiel r,.eiilarly, are needed.
permeable, and well aerated. The depth to the water Organic matter can be maintained by planting cover
table varies but normally i- 1i.l1 eii .i '. to bring moisture crops and using plant residue well. Clean-tilled crops








50 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

should be grown not more than one-fourth of the time, CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-2
and green-manure crops or pasture should be on these In this capability unit are strongly acid, nearly level to
soils the rest of the time. gently sloping soils that are moderately well drained and
These soils are well suited to most pasture plants somewhat poorly drained. Some of these soils are only
grown in the county. Suitable cool-season plants are tall slightly eroded, and others are moderately eroded, but
fescue, sweetclover, crimson clover, and white clover, all are very susceptible to erosion unless protected.
Suitable warm-season plants are bahiagrass and improved Shallow gullies are common in most eroded areas. Many
Il.ru.l,. ia:--. Pasture plants need large applications of small areas are highly dissected by natural drains. The
fertilizer if yields are to be high. They also need ordinary soils have a sand to loamy sand surface layer 3 to 18 inches
practices of good pasture management, thick. It is underlain by compact, slowly permeable
These soils have a small total acreage in the county, sandy clay to clay that is underlain, in turn, by moderately
A few areas are cleared and used for cultivated crops or fine textured, compact, very slowly permeable material.
are in pasture, but most areas are in trees. The root zone is shallow because the fine-textured subsoil
is poorly aerated and does not permit penetration of
CAPABILITY UNIT IVes-1 roots. It has low available moisture capacity. These
The soils in this capability unit are well drained, acid, soils have a low organic-matter content and fertility.
and sloping. Some of them are moderately eroded, and They are-
all are ]Li.hly' susceptible to erosion unless protected. AnA Angie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
The surface layer is loamy sand 3 to 14 inches thick. It AnB Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
is underlain by sandy cly 1...in to fine sandy clay 12 to 20 CuB Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled and, CuB2 Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
oEaB Esto loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
in most places, is denser than the upper part. Permeabil-
ity is rapid in the surface layer, and available moisture ca- The use of these soils for cultivated crops is severely
pacity is moderately low. In the upper part the subsoil limited by unfavorable internal soil characteristics. These
has moderate to slow permeability and moderately high include low available moisture capacity and low fertility
available moisture capacity. The lower subsoil and the of the surface layer and a root zone restricted by compact,
substratum have very slow permeability that permits fine-textured material. Crops are damaged by excess water
very little movement of water and air and restricts root in wet periods and by drought in dry periods. The soils
penetration. The soils are low in natural fertility. They are quickly saturated when it rains, and the erosion haz-
are- ard is severe because runoff is rapid. Tilth is generally
OkC Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes. poor.
ShC Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Partly because these soils have a shallow root zone,
ShC2 Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. only a few crops are suitable. Cultivated crops are only
A severe erosion hazard limits the use of these soils in moderately well suited. Most areas of these soils are not
unprotected areas. Runoff is rapid because slopes are suitable for laying out fields or for terracing. To control
steep and the subsoil is slowly permeable. The root zone water, use grassed strips and contour cultivation. Main-
is restricted by the dense, poorly aerated subsoil. Low tam fertility and increase crop yields by returning all
fertility and low available water capacity limit produc- residue to the soil, by planting green-manure crops, and
tivity and make erosion control difficult. by applying adequate fertilizer and lime. Cultivated crops
Partly because these soils have a shallow root zone, only should occupy these soils for not more than one-fourth of
a few crops are suited. Cultivated crops are only mod- the tme. Keep these soils i well-managedpasture or in
erately well suited, and yields are low unless the soils are close-growing crops for 6 years in every 8. Yields are low
well managed. Maintain fertility and increase crop yields unless these soils are well managed.
by returning all crop residue to the soils, by planting These soils are moderately well suited to most locally
green-manure crops, and by applying adequate fertilizer grown pasture plants. Although bahiagrass and bermuda-
and lime. Cultivated crops should be planted not more grass are suitable, their growth is retarded in dry periods
than one-fourth of the time, for these soils erode rapidly because the roots do not penetrate deeply. Because thesq
unless they are protected by close-growing plants. Keep soils are highly erodible, add large quantities of fertilizer
the soils in well-managed pasture or in close-growing and lime to pasture so that the cover is dense, divert water
cover crops 6 years in every 8. from active gullies until a full sod is formed, and use
These soils are moderately well suited to most locally other good management.
grown pasture plants. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are These soils originally were forested with longleaf pine,
suitable, but growth is retarded in dry periods because oak, andhickory. They are well suited to pines.
the roots do not penetrate deeply. Some of the more
drought-resistant legumes can be grown on the deeper CAPABILITY UNIT IVws-1
soils if they are well managed. Pasture needs large addi- In this capability unit are nearly level, deep, acid soils
tions of fertilizer and lime so that a full sod is formed that are poorly drained and very poorly drained. These
to protect these highly erodible soils. In addition, water soils occur in low, flat or depressed areas. They have a
should be diverted from active gullies, and other good mucky loamy fine sand to loamy sand surface layer 8 to
practices of management followed. 30 inches thick. The top 8 to 12 inches is black to gray
These soils are not extensive in the county. Some areas and contains a large amount of organic matter in many
are le:ll 1 and cultivated or are in pasture. Many areas places. The surface layer is underlain by sandy loam to
are in cutover woodland, some of which has been re- sandy clay loam. These soils have a moderate available
planted to pines, moisture capacity. The water table fluctuates between a








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

level near the surface and a depth of about 24 inches. In many places these soils are underlain by sandy loam
Some areas are saturated most of the time. The content to sandy clay loam at a depth of 30 to 60 inches. These
of organic matter is generally moderate but is high in soils are uneroded or are only slightly eroded, but they
many places. Natural fIrtlilily is low, and aeration is are moderately susceptible to erosion if cultivated.
poor. The subsoil i- slowly or moderately permeable. Because their surface layer is deep sand, they are porous
TIi,. ls, are- and very jll:id1lyv permeable to water and air. The
Pr Pocomoke and Rains soils, available moisture capacity is low, and the soils are some-
Pt Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick surface, what (d c'i-...lity in dry periods. The soils are medium acid
Ra Rains loamy sand. to strongly acid and are low in '.ialic matter. They
These wet soils are suited to cultivated crops or im- are-
proved pasture only after excess water has been removed. EtB Eustis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
AdelI. llrely drained areas are moderately well suited to a EtC Eustis sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
few cultivated crops. EuC Eustis sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
LdB Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Good management is needed to maintain high yields. LdC Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Yields can be increa.dil b.y regularly applying large LkC Lakeland sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
amounts of lime and Iferilihz-ir. Plant cover crops and These soils are very severely limited for farming
use plant residue to maintain organic matter. Clean- because low available moisture capacity and rapid
tilled crops should be grown for not more than one-fourth leaching make them both drought and low in plant
of the time, and the rest of the time cover crops or peren- nutrients. On unprotected slopes, erosion is a minor
nial sod should be kept on the soils. hazard, but management that overcomes other limitations
CAPABILITY UNIT IVse-i also controls erosion.
In this capabty unit ae l my wl These soils can be cultivated occasionally if erosion is
In this capability unit are sllil,:, moderately well controlled, but the choice of crops is limited. Watermelons
drained, deep soils in which sand extends from the sur- control e chce of crs is med aemelos
face to a depth of more than 30 inches. Some of the can be grown successfully under good management To
soils are underlain by sandy loam to sandy clay loam maintain organic matter and produce good yields plant
at a ,h.Ill of 30 to 42 inches. The available moisture green-manure crops, return anll residue to the soil,
capacity, natural fertility, and content of organic matter and apply e.:lei cat fertilizer and lime. Good yields of
are low. These soils are strongly acid. They are well cultivated crops can be obtained if these soils are kept in
aerated and are porous and permeable. The deplth ipiin-r,.1l pasture at least three-fourths of the time, or
to the water table varies ai.ptlv, but normally it is high 6 years in every 8. Plant cultivated crops and pasture in
enough to bring Ial,.iIlr esl above a depth of 42 inches. alternate strips across the slope, and plant annual cover
''The., soils are generally on long, narrow slopes ,ljil:.it crops after cultivated crops are harvested. Keep natural
to similar soils on more n e ntll los,,.n. Because ..f n Iioh draws and waterways in clo-,-rowiin.r perennial plants.
water table ;ai.1 onmore .". s.,.,IL t l,, soils are at least These soils are moderately well suited to improved grass
slightly wet i.-.t ,.( lie time. Tli- soils are- pasture. Because they are loose, sandy, and drought,
Blanton sand, 5 to 8 re sloes they are not well suited to clover. Deep-rooted bahiagrass
C Blaton sand, 5to 8 percent slopes. and improved varieties of bermudagrass grow well if the
KgC Klej sand, 5 to R perpont slopes.
KsC Klej sand, -. !.,II.:.;:. r, .:, percent slopes. soils are well fertilized, limed, and otherwise well man-
These deep sandy soils have poor qualities that restrict ;,.1. Management should provide a firm seedbed, enough
their suitability for cultivated crops. AV.a,-ii iov,;. rapidly seed or sprigs, adequate fertilizer and lime, and controlled
through them and leaches plant nutrients rapidly. The grazing.
soils retain little water and are d o: These soils are These soils are not extensive. Some areas have been
similar to those of capability imit III-r-2 but are on cleared and are used for cultivated crops or for pasture.
steeper slopes and are more -',. cli il, to erosion. The ln:it it: vegetation on these soils was an open forest of
These soils are not well suited to cilli\ated crops. 'I""1n:1 f pine and scrub oaks, but the pine has been cut in
Under intensive management, general crops can be grown most areas, and only scrub oaks remain.
but yields are low. Large ;,llitit., '..f lime and fertilizer, CAPABILITY UNIT Vws-I
applied regularly, increase yields. Maintain organic mat-
ter by planting cover crops and using plant residue well. The soils in this capability unit are nearly level, poorly
Clean-tilled crops should not be grown more than one- drained to very poorly drained, and strongly acid. They
fourth of the time, and the rest of the time green-manure occur on the uplands in low, excessively wet depressions
crops or pasture should be on these soils. that have very poor natural outlets and are difficult to
These soils are well suited to improved p:-tii. Bahia- drain. Most areas are frequently flooded. The surface
grass and other deep-rooted grasses grow well because layer of these soils is loamy sand to clay loam that is less
their r,,.i- penetrate to the moist layer above the water than 18 inches thick. The subsoil is very slowly perme-
table. able, plastic fine .riinldy clay to clay. These soils have
The-l soils are not extensive. A few areas have been a ",d'.i.,-t-ly high to high available moisture capacity and
cleared and are used for cultivated crops or improved a moderate to high content of ..'_;ini. matter. They are
1I..-n.ie, but most areas are in trees. ""'..l aerated. The soils are-
Ba Bayboro soils.
CAPABILITY UNIT IVse-2 Gr Grady loam.
In this capability unit are i. -l-p. well-drained to exces- Excess water is the dominant limitation of these soils.
sively drained -. ndy soils that are on sloping uplands. Even if drained, the soils are poorly suited to cultivation









52 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

because of their shallow root zone and other poor qual- 6 to 8 inches thick. In the subsoil, at a depth of 42
ities. inches, is a pan of brown to black coarse sand that is
Partly because they are flooded frequently, these soils weakly to strongly cemented with-organic matter. This
are not suited to cultivated crops. If they could be soil is affected by a seasonally high, fluctuating water
drained and protected from flooding, a few areas would table, but it has a very low available moisture capacity.
be suited to truck crops and other crops of high value. It is very rapidly permeable and is rapidly leached of
Reclamation of these areas, however, is not feasible, plant nutrients. It is low in natural fertility and does not
because of the high cost of draining them and protecting hold plant nutrients well in a form available to plants.
them from flooding. Aeration is poor.
Under intensive management, these soils are suited to Because of these poor soil characteristics, and because
improved pasture, but drainage is needed to remove of periodic wetness, this soil is of somewhat limited use for
excess water in rainy periods. If adequate fertilizer and cultivated crops. It is poorly suited to general farm crops.
lime are added, both cool-season and warm-season plants If intensively managed, some areas can be used for truck
grow well. Tall fescue, crimson clover, white clover, and crops and other special crops.
sweetclover are suitable cool-season plants. Bahiagrass Productive pasture of improved grasses can be main-
and improved bermudagrass are suitable warm-season tained. Ordinary practices of drainage are necessary to
plants. Because they are puddled by trampling, these remove excess surface water during wet periods. If yields
soils should be grazed only in drier periods, are to be high, liberal applications of fertilizer and lime
Almost all areas of these soils in this county are in are required. If clover is irrigated, it can be grown sue-
native vegetation. A few areas have been cleared but are cessfully with grass for winter pasture.
now idle. The native vegetation consists chiefly of hard- The small total acreage of this soil in the county is in
woods, which are well suited to these soils. native vegetation consisting of scattered longleaf pine,
palmetto, and native grasses.
CAPABILITY UNIT Vws-2
The soils in this capability unit are nearly level, poorly CAPABILITY UNIT VIee-l
drained to very poorly drained, deep, and sandy. A few The soils in this capability unit are sloping to strongly
acres of the poorly drained sdils are gently sloping, sloping and excessively drained to well drained. The
Coarse sand to loamy fine sand extends from the surface characteristics of these soils differ widely. The surface
to. a depth of more than 42 inches. In the surface layer layer is sand that is deep and porous in some of these
the content of organic matter ranges from high to low. soils but is less than 18 inches thick in others. It is under-
(Gi.i-eirlly, the water table is near or at the surface most lain by a sandy clay or clay subsoil. Most of these soils
of the time, and some areas are flooded. These soils are highly susceptible to erosion. The soils are-
are very porous and have a low available moisture AnC Angie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
capacity. They are strongly acid. Natural fertility is CuC Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
low, and tilth is poor. The soils are- CuC2 Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Ln D Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 5 to 12 percent
Pm Plummer soils. slopes.
Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand. These soils are generally too steep and too eroded for
Excess water is the main limitation to the use of these cultivation. Some of them have a subsoil that retards
soils for agriculture. The water must be controlled before root development. Available moisture capacity and
the soils can be used for improved pasture. Other char- natural fertility are generally low.
acteristics that limit the use of these soils are sandy tex- Most areas of these soils are susceptible to erosion and
ture, low natural fertility, and low available moisture should not be used for clean-tilled crops. Close-growing
capacity. cover crops can be grown on carefully selected slopes, but
Partly because they are wet, these soils are not suited in these areas intensive management is required to control
to cultivated crops. If adequately drained and inten- erosion. A cultivated crop should be followed by several
sively managed, some areas may be suitable for truck years of pasture. Stabilize gullies and divert excess
crops or other special crops. Under intensive manage- water by ditches.
ment, these soils can be used for pasture, but the choice These soils are moderately well suited to pasture
of plants is limited. Excess water should be drained in grasses. Most local grasses can be grown, but growth is
rainy i.'r" l-. If adequate fertilizer and lime are ap- retarded in dry seasons because roots do not penetrate
plied, yields are moderately high. Bahiagrass grows deeply or the soils are drought. The steep and irregular
well, but 1Ini.l ,.1 i-- does not. Clover can be grown slopes make good management difficult. Grazing should
with grass for winter pasture, but irrigation in dry be controlled so that a good sod is maintained all the
weather is needed for best growth. time. Large amounts of fertilizer and lime are needed
These soils are moderately extensive. Most areas are in for good yields.
native vegetation, but a few acres are used for improved These soils have a moderate acreage in the county.
pasture. The native vegetation is mostly scattered long- Many areas have been cleared and cultivated but have
leaf pine and native grasses, returned to native vegetation. A few areas are in
improved pasture.
CAPABILITY UNIT Vsw-1
Leon coarse sand (Lo) is tl,-. .,lyv soil in this unit. It CAPABILITY UNIT VIse-
is nearly level; deep, strongly acid, sandy, and somewhat The soils in this capability unit are well-drained to
poorly drained. The surface soil is 2 to 6 inches thick excessively drained, very deep coarse sands in nearly level
and is underlain by a layer of highly leached coarse sand to strongly sloping areas. Coarse sand- extends from the









WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

surface to a depth of more than 60 inches. These soils ditches to control erosion. Grazing should be rigidly
are very porous, rapidly permeable, and well aerated controlled to prevent *-,i i.'-,'.. and excessive tram-
t| .-li._'...it. They are drought and very low in available pling.
moisture capacity. N,1iii,1. fertility is very low, and These soils do not have a large total acreage in the
added plant nutrients leach rapidly. These soils are county. Most areas are native woodland or improved
strongly acid and contain little organic matter. Erosion pasture. Many areas that were once cleared and culti-
is a serious hazard on the steeper slopes if these soils are not vated are now in native vegetation.
protected. The soils are-
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIws-1
EsB Eustis coarse sand, 0,to 5 percent slopes. CAPABIY UT
EsC Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Only Alluvial land (Al) is in this capability unit. This
EsD Eustis coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, land consists of moderately well drained to very poorly
LaB Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, drained soils of the stream bottoms that are periodically
LaC Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, flooded. It varies widely in texture and organic-matter
Content and in most areas is made up of small intermingled
These soils are limited mainly by low organic-matter areas of contrasting soils.
content, low available moisture capacity, low fertility, Although flooding may be controlled, the highly
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. Some of them are variable texture and poor soil qualities severely restrict
so steep that erosion is a serious hazard, the kinds of crops that can be grown.
TI'.-:. -,1.l are not suited to cultivated crops. In addi- This land is suited to cultivated crops only if flooding
tion to poor soil qualities, the hazard of severe erosion is prevented by major reclamation. It has little value
prevents cultivation, for improved pasture. Good stands of improved grass
These soils are only moderately suited to improved and clover can be grown in most areas, but serious damage
pasture. If the soils are limed, fertilized, and otherwise by floods is likely.
well managed, bahiagrass, lovegrass, and other deep- This land is extensive. It is still in native vegetation
rooted grasses grow f;irily well. Supplemental pasture consisting of a dense growth of swamp hardwoods, vines,
is a good use, but a heavy application of fertilizer is and shrubs.
needed several days before grazing is started. Ordinary CAPABILITY UNIT VIIse-l
practices of good management should be followed. This capability unit consists of deep coarse sands that
These soils are moderately extensive in this county. are moderately steep or steep and well drained to exces-
M.-t areas are in native vt-.gl.:i ;i, but a few are in sively drained. The coarse sand extends from the surface
pasture. The native vegetation consisted of an open to a depth of more than 60 inches. These soils are very
forest of scattered longleaf pine and scrub oaks with a porous, rapidly permeable, and well aerated throughout.
gri1n.1 cover of grasses and forbs. The present vegeta- iTey are -trc-.nlv acid and very low in organic-matter
tion is thick scrub oaks and a ground cover of native content. Tlle-y ii:, very low available moisture capacity
grasses. and are drought. Natural fertility is very low, and
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIes-1 plant nutrients leach rapidly. TI.' -,.! are-
The soils in this capability unit differ widely in many EsE Eustis coarse sand, 12 to 35 percent slopes.
characteristics. They are gently sloping to vervy steep LaF Lakeland coarse sand, 12 to 45 percent slopes.
and are excessively drained to in.l.'.iltidly w-ll (.1Idi ei. Use of these soils is severely restricted by the low
In most areas they are on long breaks between more natural fertility, the low available moisture capacity,
gentle slopes. -Most of them are severely eroded. In and other poor soil qualities. Steep slopes also restrict
some soils the -ii fr.: layer is deep, porous sand, but in use. The slopes are so steep that adequate practices for
others it is sandy and less than 18 inches thick. The erosion control cannot be applied and farm equipment
subsoil is sandy clay or clay. Most of these soils are cannot be used (.flir'.ivi-ly.
highly Ili-'..(- il. to erosion. The soils are- T'II.- :.':il are not suited to cultivated crops or improved
CtB3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, pasture. Pine trees grow moderately well in most places,
severely eroded. but good stands are obtained only by planting seedlings
CtC3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and protecting them from fire and grazing. Generally,
severely eroded. pines grow best near the base of slopes where moisture
CwD3 Cuthbert, Shubuta, and Lakeland soils, 5 to 12 percent content is best.
slopes, severely eroded.
LnF Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 CAPABILITYUNITVIIs-2
percent slopes.
These soils are so steep and so erodible or severely In this ;ll.,1ilit;v unit are miscellaneous land types in
eroded that they are not suitable for cultivation. Because which so much soil material has been removed by severe
gullying and open excavating that the land is practically
of their poor internal characteristics and their irregular useless for agriculture. The land types vary widely in
or highly dissected -l,, .,-. they are suited only to trees, soil characteristics. They are-
These soils are poorly suited to pasture. Most areas Bp Borrow pits.
are too steep for good pasture in n, I::.-r-iii. If these Gu Gullied land.
soils have to be used for 1i .-. I .n they should receive the These land types are not suitable for cultivated crops
best management possible, ,,,i,,lm fiti1;,.., Iii,.. or improved pasture, but pines grow moderately well in
-;-.-..l and controlling water. Apply enough lime and some areas. Establishing pine plantings on Gullied land
fertilizer to produce a full sod soon after seeding. Plant is difficult because it is generally steep and erodes severely
in contour strips, stabilize gullies, and dig diversion with each rain.










54 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Estimated yields long-term experiments, and on estimates made by agrono-
Table 2 gives estimates of average yields that can be mists who have had experience with the crops and with
expected on each soil in the county under two levels of the soils.
management. In columns A are yields to be expected un- Estimated yields have not been given for certain crops
der the management commonly practiced in the county. on some of the soils. Dashes have been entered in the
In columns B are yields obtained by farmers who used column instead of figures if the expected yields are so
improved management. The estimates are based on rec- low, or the management needed is so exacting, that it is
ords of yi1.h on individual farms, on yields obtained in not practical to grow the crop on the soil indicated.

TABLE 2.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and

[In columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common management; in columns B are those obtained

Corn Cotton Peanuts
Map Soil
symbol
A B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Ib.
Al Alluvial land----------------------- -------------- ----- ------ ------------- ------
AnA Angie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -------- -------------- 15 45 ---------
AnB Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------------------- 15 45 ---------------
AnC Angie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------- 10 40 --------------
Ba Bayboro soils.----------------------------- - - -
Bd Bladen soils ------------------------------ ----------- 15 45 -------- -------------
BfB Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------- 20 45------------------------------
BnB Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------ 15 40 ----- -- -------
BnC Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .--------- ----------------- 10 35--------------- --------------
Bp Borrow pits ..------------------- ----..------ -------- ------- -
BoA Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------------- 45 70 250 520 600 1,500
BoB Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------ 45 70 250 520 600 1,500
BoB2 Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ----------------- 40 70 225 520 540 1,500
BoC Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------------- 40 60 225 470 540 1,350
BoC2 Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ---------------- 35 60 215 470 500 1,350
BwB Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------- 35 55 230 475 550 1,425
BwC Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------.------ 30 50 210 425 495 1,280
CaB Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------- 50 75 300 600 650 1,600
CaB2 Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded--------------- 45 75 270 600 585 1,600
CaC2 Carnegie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded--------------- 40 65 250 540 550 1,440
CtB3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded- - -
CtC3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded-- .-------- ------------____-------_ ---
CuB Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------------- 20 35 ---
CuB2 Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded-------------------- 15 30 --- ----
CuC Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes---------- - -
CuC2 Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded------------------------------------- ---------- --
CwD3 Cuthbert, Shubuta, and Lakeland soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded--------------------------------------------------------- ---------------
DuB Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 30 70--
EaB Esto loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------- 15 30
EfA Eulonia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ------------------- 35 65 105 450 800 1,400
EfB Eulonia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------- 35 65 150 450 800 1,400
EnA Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes--- -- 30 60 135 405 720 1,260
EnB Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes------ 30 60 135 405 720 1,260
EtB Eustis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------------ 15 30 100 250 500 1,000
EtC Eustis sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes -- ------------------------- 10 25 90 225 450 900
EsB E'i-ti- -...:.I -. j;Siiri. 0o to 5 percent slopes------------ -------- --------
EsC Efli.- ...., --.. -.,-,-. 5 to 8 percent slopes
EsD Et- .... .., 8 to 12 percent slopes-----------------------------------------------
EsE Eustis coarse sand, 12 to 35 percent slopes---------------------------------------------- --------
EuB Eustis sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 15 30 100 250 500 1,000
EuC Eustis sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---------------------- 10 25 90 225 450 900
FaB Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 50 75 300 600 650 1, 600
FaB2 Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded --------------- 45 75 285 600 585 1, 600
FaC2 Faceville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded --------------- 40 70 270 570 550 1, 520
GdA Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------------- 35 65 150 450 800 1,400
GdB Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --------------- 35 60 150 450 800 1, 400
GdC Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes --------------- 30 50 120 360 640 1,120
GcA Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------- 30 60 135 405 720 1,260
GcB C..1r1-l:...,-, ,...r-.-* sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes --------- 30 60 135 405 720 1,260
GcC .:.I, i-1.:,l:, r,,..- sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes--------- 25 45 105 325 575 1, 000
Gr Grady loam--------------------- -------- ------- ------------------------------ ------ ----------
Gu Gullied land--------------------------- ------------- --------------
KaB Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----- ------------ -- -----------------------------
See footnote at end of table.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

To obtain yields in columns B, a higher level of inimn- rates and at proper times, (6) controls weeds, insects, and
ai-gerienit is needed than that required for the yields in plant diseases, (7) controls excess water through drain-
columns A. The farmer can obtain the yields in columns age, and (8) conserves the soil, plant nutrients, and mois-
B if he (1) chooses carefully the kind of crop to be grown ture.
and the cropping system to be used, (2) adds liberal The level of management needed to get the yields in
amounts of lime and fe tilizer where ieq:luired, (3) main- columns B is about the same as that described in the capa-
tains a high content of organic matter, (4) plants high- ability units in the subsection "C: i.:1 lity Groups of Soils."
yielding varieties and hybrids, (5) seeds at reiomiiniedi.led


carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management

under the highest level of management feasible. Dashed lines indicate that the crop is not generally grown on the soil]

'Watermelons Oats Coastal bermudagrass Pensacola bahiagrass Small grain (pasture)
(pasture) ..:- t. .-i

\A i .\A B A B A B B

.. ..... ... .... ... ... .... ...... I,. .. .
S--------- --------------------------------I ---i.-- -- --- .
I ..' ". 1. .3, :.i,5 15.1 1".' .325 60 145
175 300 15 35 150 450 150 325 60 145
155 270 10 30 135 405 135 290 55 130
.. ---- .. 160 525 150 325 -- ----
150 ., ""i 175 350
21" .i .,II "------------- ---150 ."i 175 350 60 155
200 300 ------ ----------- 150 500 175 350 60 155
140 260 --------- -----110 360 155 325 40 110
- - - - - - - --- --r- - - - - - - - - - - -
2':,1 .:-:. -ni5 1 32 4',1 1 1)1
250 3511 30 45 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 35'. 25 45 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 315 25 40 135 420 135 290 75 150
200 315 20 40 135 420 135 290 75 150
250 350 20 30 150 425 150 300 75 160
225 315 15 25 135 380 135 270 65 140
250 350 30 50' 150 475 150 370 90 175
225 350 25 50 150 475 150 370 90 175
200 315 20 45 135 425 135 315 80 160

-150 450 150 320 ------------
135 410 135 290
------------- --- -- --- 120 360 120 255
-----.----.---.-------- -. 110 320 110 225
------- -------- ------------------------ ------------ -------------------------- ------------ ------------ ------------
, 2 ..17r _,n l l :",i- 7 1 41.1 ., I, 1 1..1.)
r, r I I) 1 11
1; .. 1. IIIn 2', 1 51 -15.1: 150 320 .40 110
250 360 20 40 150 470 150 320 80 160
250 360 20 40 150 470 150 320 80 160
225 325 15 35 135 420 135 290 70 145
225 325 15 35 135 420 135 290 70 145
250 355 15 25 100 250 150 275 60 150
225 320 10 20 90 225 135 245 55 135
50 150------------------------
50 135
40 120
2 ",Ii l.,'!' I r,: I. .I 2.:,11 1511 2 I ., I ..I)
225 320 10 20 90 225 135 245 55 135
250 350 30 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
225 350 25 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
200 330 20 45 145 45-i 145 335 85 170
250 360 20 40 151i 47" 150 320 80 160
250 360 20 40 1511 470 150 320 80 160
200 285 15 30 120 375 120 255 65 130
225 325 15 35 135 420 135 290 70 145
225 325 15 35 135 420 135 290 70 145
180 255 10 25 110 340 110 235 60 115

I'.',., 2.:. .. i, | -- ''--------, -. .. i ------- .,.,, 4: 1-- i_>.)








56 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

TABLE 2. -Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying

Corn Cotton Peanuts
Map Soil
symbol
A B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. U.
KgB Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------------- 20 45 -- 600 1,600
KgC Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------- 15 40 ------- 540 1,440
KsB Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------- 20 45 --- 600 1,600
KsC Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------- 15 40 540 1, 440
LdB Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------------- 15 30 100 250 500 1,000
LdC Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes---------------------------- 10 25 90 225 450 900
LaB Lakeland coarse sand, O to 5 percent slopes__
LaB Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---------------------- -------- ------------------------------------------
LaC Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----------------------
LaD Lakeland coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes----------------- ------------------------------- --------
LaF Lakeland coarse sand, 12 to 45 percent slopes-------------------- -------- ------
LkB Lakeland sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------------------- 15 30 100 250 500 1, 000
LkC Lakeland sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------ 10 25 90 225 450 900
LnD Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes----------------
LnF Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 percent slopes--------------- -- ------------- ---
Lo Leon coarse sand ----------------------------------------------------
Lu Local alluvial land----------------------------------------- --- ---------- -----
LyA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------- 30 70---------------------- ------
LyB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----------------- 30 70
LzA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes---- 25 65-- -
LzB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes---- 25 65 -
MaB Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 50 75 300 600 650 1, 600
MaB2 Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------- _45 75 275 600 600 1,600
NoA Norfolk loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------------- 45 70 250 520 600 1,500
NoB N..W..i: 1 loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------ 45 70 250 520 600 1,500
NoB2 Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ---40 70 225 520 540 1,500
NoC Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes -------------------- 40 65 225 470 540 1, 350
NoC2 Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ------------ 35 65 200 470 510 1,350
NrA Norfolk sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------- 35 55 230 475 550 1, 425
NrB Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----------------- 35 55 230 475 550 1, 425
NrC Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----------------- 30 50 210 i 425 i 495 1, 280
OkB Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------ ----- ----------
OkC Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes--------------------------- ---- --- ----
Pm Plummer soils---------------- - -
Pr Pocomoke and Rains soils -------------------------------------- 15 40 ---
Pt Pocomoke and Rains soils, thick surface__----- ------- 15 40---- --
Ra Rains loamy sand-- -------------------------------------___ 10 25 -
RsB Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------ 45 70 250 520 600 1, 500
RsB2 Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded_ -------------- 40 70 225 520 540 1, 500
RsC Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------ 40 65 225 470 540 1,350
RsC2 Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded- 35 65 200 470 500- 1,350
RcB Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------ 40 65 225 470 540 1,350
RdB Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------ 35 55 i 230 475 550 1,425
RdC Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------ 30 50 210 425 495 1, 280
Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand------------------------------ --
Sc Scranton fine sand-_- 25 70 --
Se Scranton fine sand -------------------------------------------- 2 7
25 55 200----- 4- 0-- 6- -
Sf Scrantbn fine sand, shallow ------------------------ 25 70 ---4----- --
ShB Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------- 25 55 200 1 450 600 1,425
ShB2 Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded---------------- 20 5 180 450 5 1, 425
ShC Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----------- 20 50 180 405 540 1, 280
ShC2, Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded---------------- 15 50 160 ; 405 500 1, 280 ;
Sw Swamp------------------ ---------------------------- ------ ----------------------- -----
TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------50 75 300 600 650 1,600
TfB2 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ------------------ 45 75 270 600 585 1,600
TfC2 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ------------------ 40 65 240 0 4 535 1,400

Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Continued


Watermelons Oats Coastal bermudagrass Pensacola bahiagrass Small grain (pasture)
(pasture) (pasture)

A B A B A B A B A B

No. No. Bu. Bu. Cow-acre-days I Cow-acre-days Cow-acre-days I Cow-acre-days 1 Cow-acre-days 1 Cow-acre-days 1
200 300 15 35 150 500 175 350 60 155
180 270 10 30 135 450 155 315 55 140
200 300 15 35 150 500 175 350 60 155
180 270 10 30 135 450 155 315 55 140
250 355 15 25 100 250 150 275 60 150
225 320 10 20 225 225 135 245 55 135
50 150--------------
50 150
---50 120
----,------ ---------- ---_--------- ----------- --------- -- ---- ------- 50 120 ------------ -----------
250 355 15 25 100 250 150 275 60 150
225 320 10 20 225 225 135 245 55 135


250 350 -2 -sb5 475 -140 310 55 160
250 350 20 50 150 475 140 310 55 160
250 350 20 50 150 475 140 310 55 160
225 315 15 45 135 425 125 280 50 145
225 315 15 45 135 425 125 280 50 145
250 350 30 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
225 350 25 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
250 350 30 45 150 465 150 320 85 170
250 350 30 45 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 350 25 45 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 315 25 40 135 420 135 290 80 155
200 315 20 40 135 420 135 200 SO 155
250 350 20 30 150 425 150 300 75 160
250 350 20 30 150 425 150 300 75 160
225 315 15 25 135 380 135 270 65 145


------3 40- 2--2 -- 130 425 100 225----- ---------
-- 160 525 150 325
--- 160 525 150 325 -
---125 350 115 230 ----------------
250 350 30 40 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 350 25 40 150 465 150 320 85 170
225 315 25 35 135 420 135 290 80 155
205 315 20 35 135 420 135 290 80 155
225 315 25 35 135 420 135 290 80 155
250 350 20 30 130 380 135 270 65 145
225 315 15 25 150 425 150 300 75 160
150 450 125 275------------------------
20 40 150 500 175 350 60 165
20 40 150 500 175 350 60 165
225 330 20 40 150 450 150 335 75 155
200 330 15 40 150 450 150 335 75 155
200 295 15 35 135 405 135 300 65 140
175 295 10 35 135 405 135 300 65 140

250 350 30 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
225 350 25 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
200 315 20 45 135 425 135 315 80 155








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Use of Soils as Woodland 4 Proper management of woodland is a part of good soil
management. Proper management includes (1) protec-
Forests originally covered most of Washington County, tion from fire, (2) tree planting, and (3) proper cutting.
but they have been clear cut to supply timber for the Protection from fire.-When wildfires destroy trees and
large sawmills that operated in and around the county ground cover, the hazard of erosion is increased and the
before 1930. Some areas were cleared for farming. Later ability of the soil to absorb moisture is lessened. Fires
part of the farmland reverted to woodland, and trees also slow the growth of trees, and by injuring them, make
now cover more than 80 percent of the county. Of them more susceptible to damage by insects or disease.
this area, 306,360 acres was classified as commercial forest Throughout the county the Florida Forest Service pro-
in 1959 in the Conservation Needs Inventory. From tects woodland from fire. The individual landowner can
these forests are obtained sawtimber, pulpwood, crossties, increase this protection by observing the rules of fire pre-
poles, piling, veneer, and many other products. These vention and by constructing adequate firebreaks around
products are used locally or are shipped to manufacturing and through his woodland (fig. 14). These firebreaks
plants in surrounding areas.
Except for a small part, all of the woodland in the
county is privately owned. Although large wood-using
industries own a large acreage, small owners own a con-
siderable part.
Oaks are the dominant trees in the county. They vary
in quality from poor scrub trees in the sandhills area to
large, well-formed trees on river bottoms and in swamps.
Also in swamps are large areas of cypress. Longleaf pine
is the most common pine, especially in the sandhills area. :
Slash pine and loblolly pine also occur, but most of the
planted areas are in slash pine.
The scrub oak in the sandhills is in large areas that have
a scattering of longleaf pine (fig. 13). These areas could
be planted to pines if sites are prepared carefully.

General woodland management
Protecting the soil is one of the main benefits gained
from a good stand of trees. A tree cover slows the fall or:
of raindrops so that they hit the ground gently and are
absorbed better by the surface layer. Also, litter from Figure 14.-This firebreak will prevent wildfire from spreading.
trees helps hold the soil in place and cushions the falling The young pines are growing on an old field of Norfolk sand,
thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Woodland suitability
raindrops. Tree roots help stabilize the soil by holding group 4.
it in place to resist the erosive effects of surface runoff.
A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil de- slow or stop a wildfire under normal conditions. Care
terioration and helps to conserve soil and water. should be taken to construct firebreaks so that erosion is
prevented.
Tree planting.-Because trees grow well under many
: conditions, many areas in the county that are not suitable
for cultivation can be planted to them. These areas in-
clude eroded areas, gully banks, and slopes too steep for
cultivation. Idle land can also be planted to trees, which
.. provide an income and protect the soil (fig. 15).
Proper cutting practices.-To profit most from his
woodland and to protect the soil, a forest owner should
use proper cutting practices. These practices vary as the
conditions of the woodland varies. Foresters will gladly
help landowners plan the cutting of trees and other wood-
land management so that a profit is obtained and the soil
is protected.
Soil properties affecting tree production
The soils of Washington County differ greatly in their
suitability for trees. The combinations of species, or for-
est types, that grow on a particular soil are determined
largely by the nature of the site. The site is determined
Figure 13.-Scrub oak covers large areas in woodland suitability by the position on the slope, the steepness of slope, and the
group 1. kind of soil.
4 E. D. HOLCOMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Conservation Among the most important factors that affect the pro-
Service, assisted in preparing this subsection. ductivity of a soil in trees is its ability to maintain opti-








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Use of Soils as Woodland 4 Proper management of woodland is a part of good soil
management. Proper management includes (1) protec-
Forests originally covered most of Washington County, tion from fire, (2) tree planting, and (3) proper cutting.
but they have been clear cut to supply timber for the Protection from fire.-When wildfires destroy trees and
large sawmills that operated in and around the county ground cover, the hazard of erosion is increased and the
before 1930. Some areas were cleared for farming. Later ability of the soil to absorb moisture is lessened. Fires
part of the farmland reverted to woodland, and trees also slow the growth of trees, and by injuring them, make
now cover more than 80 percent of the county. Of them more susceptible to damage by insects or disease.
this area, 306,360 acres was classified as commercial forest Throughout the county the Florida Forest Service pro-
in 1959 in the Conservation Needs Inventory. From tects woodland from fire. The individual landowner can
these forests are obtained sawtimber, pulpwood, crossties, increase this protection by observing the rules of fire pre-
poles, piling, veneer, and many other products. These vention and by constructing adequate firebreaks around
products are used locally or are shipped to manufacturing and through his woodland (fig. 14). These firebreaks
plants in surrounding areas.
Except for a small part, all of the woodland in the
county is privately owned. Although large wood-using
industries own a large acreage, small owners own a con-
siderable part.
Oaks are the dominant trees in the county. They vary
in quality from poor scrub trees in the sandhills area to
large, well-formed trees on river bottoms and in swamps.
Also in swamps are large areas of cypress. Longleaf pine
is the most common pine, especially in the sandhills area. :
Slash pine and loblolly pine also occur, but most of the
planted areas are in slash pine.
The scrub oak in the sandhills is in large areas that have
a scattering of longleaf pine (fig. 13). These areas could
be planted to pines if sites are prepared carefully.

General woodland management
Protecting the soil is one of the main benefits gained
from a good stand of trees. A tree cover slows the fall or:
of raindrops so that they hit the ground gently and are
absorbed better by the surface layer. Also, litter from Figure 14.-This firebreak will prevent wildfire from spreading.
trees helps hold the soil in place and cushions the falling The young pines are growing on an old field of Norfolk sand,
thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Woodland suitability
raindrops. Tree roots help stabilize the soil by holding group 4.
it in place to resist the erosive effects of surface runoff.
A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil de- slow or stop a wildfire under normal conditions. Care
terioration and helps to conserve soil and water. should be taken to construct firebreaks so that erosion is
prevented.
Tree planting.-Because trees grow well under many
: conditions, many areas in the county that are not suitable
for cultivation can be planted to them. These areas in-
clude eroded areas, gully banks, and slopes too steep for
cultivation. Idle land can also be planted to trees, which
.. provide an income and protect the soil (fig. 15).
Proper cutting practices.-To profit most from his
woodland and to protect the soil, a forest owner should
use proper cutting practices. These practices vary as the
conditions of the woodland varies. Foresters will gladly
help landowners plan the cutting of trees and other wood-
land management so that a profit is obtained and the soil
is protected.
Soil properties affecting tree production
The soils of Washington County differ greatly in their
suitability for trees. The combinations of species, or for-
est types, that grow on a particular soil are determined
largely by the nature of the site. The site is determined
Figure 13.-Scrub oak covers large areas in woodland suitability by the position on the slope, the steepness of slope, and the
group 1. kind of soil.
4 E. D. HOLCOMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Conservation Among the most important factors that affect the pro-
Service, assisted in preparing this subsection. ductivity of a soil in trees is its ability to maintain opti-








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

Use of Soils as Woodland 4 Proper management of woodland is a part of good soil
management. Proper management includes (1) protec-
Forests originally covered most of Washington County, tion from fire, (2) tree planting, and (3) proper cutting.
but they have been clear cut to supply timber for the Protection from fire.-When wildfires destroy trees and
large sawmills that operated in and around the county ground cover, the hazard of erosion is increased and the
before 1930. Some areas were cleared for farming. Later ability of the soil to absorb moisture is lessened. Fires
part of the farmland reverted to woodland, and trees also slow the growth of trees, and by injuring them, make
now cover more than 80 percent of the county. Of them more susceptible to damage by insects or disease.
this area, 306,360 acres was classified as commercial forest Throughout the county the Florida Forest Service pro-
in 1959 in the Conservation Needs Inventory. From tects woodland from fire. The individual landowner can
these forests are obtained sawtimber, pulpwood, crossties, increase this protection by observing the rules of fire pre-
poles, piling, veneer, and many other products. These vention and by constructing adequate firebreaks around
products are used locally or are shipped to manufacturing and through his woodland (fig. 14). These firebreaks
plants in surrounding areas.
Except for a small part, all of the woodland in the
county is privately owned. Although large wood-using
industries own a large acreage, small owners own a con-
siderable part.
Oaks are the dominant trees in the county. They vary
in quality from poor scrub trees in the sandhills area to
large, well-formed trees on river bottoms and in swamps.
Also in swamps are large areas of cypress. Longleaf pine
is the most common pine, especially in the sandhills area. :
Slash pine and loblolly pine also occur, but most of the
planted areas are in slash pine.
The scrub oak in the sandhills is in large areas that have
a scattering of longleaf pine (fig. 13). These areas could
be planted to pines if sites are prepared carefully.

General woodland management
Protecting the soil is one of the main benefits gained
from a good stand of trees. A tree cover slows the fall or:
of raindrops so that they hit the ground gently and are
absorbed better by the surface layer. Also, litter from Figure 14.-This firebreak will prevent wildfire from spreading.
trees helps hold the soil in place and cushions the falling The young pines are growing on an old field of Norfolk sand,
thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Woodland suitability
raindrops. Tree roots help stabilize the soil by holding group 4.
it in place to resist the erosive effects of surface runoff.
A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil de- slow or stop a wildfire under normal conditions. Care
terioration and helps to conserve soil and water. should be taken to construct firebreaks so that erosion is
prevented.
Tree planting.-Because trees grow well under many
: conditions, many areas in the county that are not suitable
for cultivation can be planted to them. These areas in-
clude eroded areas, gully banks, and slopes too steep for
cultivation. Idle land can also be planted to trees, which
.. provide an income and protect the soil (fig. 15).
Proper cutting practices.-To profit most from his
woodland and to protect the soil, a forest owner should
use proper cutting practices. These practices vary as the
conditions of the woodland varies. Foresters will gladly
help landowners plan the cutting of trees and other wood-
land management so that a profit is obtained and the soil
is protected.
Soil properties affecting tree production
The soils of Washington County differ greatly in their
suitability for trees. The combinations of species, or for-
est types, that grow on a particular soil are determined
largely by the nature of the site. The site is determined
Figure 13.-Scrub oak covers large areas in woodland suitability by the position on the slope, the steepness of slope, and the
group 1. kind of soil.
4 E. D. HOLCOMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Conservation Among the most important factors that affect the pro-
Service, assisted in preparing this subsection. ductivity of a soil in trees is its ability to maintain opti-







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 59

500


400-


Ld300

Lioo







60 70 80 90 100 110
SITE INDEX
Figure 15.-Slash pine planted 6 years ago in bahiagrass pasture Figure 16.-Average yearly growth per acre (Doyle Rule) at 60
on Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Woodland suitability years of age in well-stocked, second-growth stands without in-
group 4. tensive management.

mum moisture and to permit the development of an ade- are expressed in relative terms, slight, moderate, or severe.
quate root system. Other soil characteristics that affect The relative term expresses the degree of limitation, as
the site are thickness of the surface layer, natural supply explained in the following paragraphs.
of plant nutrients, texture and consistence of the layers, PLANT COMPETITION: When a woodland is disturbed
aeration, depth of fine-textured material, and depth to the by fire, cutting, grazing, or some other means, undesirable
water table, brush, trees, and plants may invade. The invading
Woodland suitability groups growth competes with the desirable trees and hinders
their establishment and growth.
To assist owners of woodland in planning the use of Competition is slight if unwanted plants present no
their soils, the soils of Washington County have been special problem. It is moderate if the invaders delay but
placed in woodland suitability groups. Each group con- do not prevent the establishment of a normal, fully
sists of soils that have about the same suitability for wood stocked stand. Where plant competition is moderate,
crops, require about the same management, and have seedbed preparation is generally not needed and simple
about the same potential productivity, methods can be used to prevent undesirable plants from
Listed in table 3, and later described in the text, are the invading. Competition is severe if trees cannot regenerate
12 woodland suitability groups in the county. Average naturally. Where competition is severe, carefully prepare
site indexes of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are listed the site and use management that includes controlled
for each suitability group. Also shown are ratings of the burning, spraying with chemicals, and girdling.
hazards and limitations that affect management. The SEEDLING MORTALITY: Even when healthy seedlings
ratings in table 3 are based largely on the experience and of a suitable tree are correctly planted or occur naturally
judgment of local soil scientists, foresters, and landown- in adequate numbers, some of them will not survive if
ers. The terms used in the table require explanation, characteristics of the soil are unfavorable.
The potential productivity of a soil for a specified kind Mortality is slight if not more than 25 percent of the
of tree is expressed as a site indew. The site index for a planted seedlings die, or if trees ordinarily regenerate
given soil is the height, in feet, that a specified kind of tree naturally in places where there are enough seeds. Mor-
growing on that soil will reach in 50 years. The site in- tality is moderate if 25 to 50 percent of the seedlings die,
dex of a soil is determined mainly by the capacity of the or if trees do not regenerate naturally in numbers needed
soil to provide moisture and growing space for tree roots, for adequate restocking. In some places replanting to
A site index in table 3 is an average for all the soils in the fill open spaces will be necessary. Mortality is severe if
suitability group. The site index for any one soil in the more than 50 percent of the planted seedlings die, or if
group may be slightly more or less than average, trees do not ordinarily reseed naturally in places where
The curves in figure 16 show, according to site index, there are enough seeds. If mortality is severe, plant
the average yearly growth per acre of loblolly, slash, and seedlings where the seeds do not grow, prepare special
longleaf pines at 60 years of age in well-stocked, second- seedbeds, and use good methods of planting to insure
growth stands that are not intensively managed. Growth a full stand of trees.
is measured in board feet according to the Doyle Rule EQUIPMENT LIMITATION: Drainage, slope, stoniness,
and includes trees 9 inches in diameter or larger. soil texture, or other soil characteristics may restrict or
Each woodland suitability group has, in varying degree, prohibit the use of ordinary equipment in pruning,
limitations that affect its management. In the descrip- thinning, harvesting, or other woodland management.
tions of the suitability groups, some of these limitations Different soils may require different kinds of equipment,






60 ,SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

TABLE 3.-Site ind-es and hazard

S Site index
Woodland suitability group Map symbols I
Longleaf Slash Loblolly

Group 1:
Very deep, excessively drained coarse sands that are highly EsB, EsC, EsD, EsE; LaB, LaC, LaD, LaF__i 60 70 ()
leached and have coarse texture to a depth of more than
60 inches.
Group 2:
Deep, somewhat excessively drained to well-drained highly EtB, EtC; LdB, LdC_ ------------------- 65 75j i)
leached soils that have a sandy surface layer and are finer
textured at a depth of 42 to 85 inches.
Group 3:
Deep, somewhat excessively drained soils that have a sandy EuB, EuC; LkB, LkC -------------------- 70 80 )
surface layer and are finer textured at a depth of 30 to
42 inches.
Group 4:
Deep, well-drained soils that have a coarse sand to loamy fine BoA, BoB, BoB2, BoC, BoC2; BwB, BwC; 70 90 90
sand surface layer that is underlain by sandy loam to sandy CaB, CaB2, CaC2; FaB, FaB2, FaC2;
clay at a depth of less than 30 inches. MaB, MaB2; NoA, NoB, NoB2, NoC,
NoC2; NrA, NrB, NrC; RcB, RdB, RdC:
RsB, RsB2, RsC, RsC2; TfB, TfB2, TfC2.
Group 5:
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained soils that have a AnA, AnB, AnC; CtB3, CtC3; CuB, CuB2, 70 90 85
sand to sandy clay loam surface layer and, except for the CuC, CuC2; CwD3; EaB; LnD, LnF; OkB,
Lakeland soils, clayey or sandy clay material at a depth OkC; ShB, ShB2, ShC, ShC2.
of less than 18 inches.
Group 6:
Deep, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained DuB, EfA, EfB; EnA, EnB; GcA, GcB, 65 90 90
soils that have a coarse sand to loamy fine sand surface GcC; GdA, GdB, GdC; LyA, LyB;
layer and mostly sandy clay loam at a depth of less than LzA, LzB.
30 inches.
Group 7:
Deep, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained BfB; BnB, BnC; KaB; KgB, KgC; KsB, 70 80 80
soils that have sand to loamy sand to a depth of more than KsC; Sc, Sf.
42 inches, and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils that have fine-textured materials at 30 to 42
inches.
Group 8:
Somewhat poorly drained soil that has a sand to coarse sand Lo------------------------------------ 65 85 80
surface layer and a compact organic pan at a depth of 12 to
42 inches.
Group 9:
Poorly drained or very poorly drained soils that have a loamy Ba; Bd; Gr; Pr; Pt; Ra------------------ 70 90 95
sand to clay loam surface layer and sandy clay loam to
clay at a depth of less than 30 inches.
Group 10:
Deep, poorly drained or very poorly drained soils in which Pm; Ru ----------------------- 260 2 90 100
loamy fine sand or sand extends from the surface to a
depth of more than 42 inches.
Group 11:
Slightly wet, generally coarse-textured soil that is along Lu------------------------------------- 70 100 100
streams or in depressions and consists of material from
adjacent areas.
Group 12:
Miscellaneous land types that vary greatly in characteristics Al; Bp; Gu; Sw------------------------- ) () ()
and generally are not suitable for pine trees.

1 Loblolly pine generally does not grow naturally on these soils. 2 Site index is for drained areas.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

of woodland suitability groups


Plant competition Seedling mortality Equipment limitation Erosion hazard Windthrow hazard




Severe___---------------- Severe----------------- Moderate or severe-------- Moderate or severe ------_ Slight.


Severe --------------- Severe -------------------Moderate -----------------Moderate----------------- Slight.


Severe---------------- Moderate or severe ------- Moderate----------------- Moderate-----------------Slight.


Slight --------------- Slight or moderate--------- Slight or moderate--------- Moderate----------------- Slight.




Moderate or severe -__- Slight or moderate--------- Moderate -----------------Moderate or severe-------- Slight or moderate.



Slight or moderate----- Slight --------------------Moderate----_-------__-- Slight-------------------- Slight.



Slight or moderate -__- Slight --------------------Slight or moderate--------- Slight --------------------Slight.




Moderate------------- Slight-------------------- Moderate----------------- Slight-------------------- Moderate.


Severe---------------- Moderate or severe-------- Severe-_---------------_- Slight-------------------- Moderate.


Severe---------------- Moderate ---------- ---'--- Severe------------------- Slight-------------------- Moderate.


Severe---------------- Slight-------------------- Moderate or severe-------- Slight-------------------- Slight.





3 Generally not suited to pines.







62 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

methods of operation, or seasons when equipment may Plant competition is severe, and if trees are to regen-
be used. rate successfully, the site should be specially prepared
Limitation is slight if there are no restrictions on the (figs. 17 and 18). Natural regeneration cannot be
type of equipment or on the time of year that the equip-
ment can be used. It is moderate if slopes are moderately
steep, if heavy equipment is restricted by wetness during
the wettest seasons, or if the use of equipment damages
the tree roots to some extent. Equipment limitation is
severe if many types of equipment cannot be used, if the
time equipment cannot be used is more than 3 months
a year, and if the use of equipment severely damages the
roots of trees and the structure and stability of the soil.
Limitation is severe on moderately steep and steep soils.
It is also severe on wet bottom lands.
EROSION HAZARD: Hazard of erosion is rated according
to the risk of erosion on well-managed woodland that is
not protected by special practices. It is slight where only
a small loss of soil is expected. Generally, erosion is
slight if slopes range from 0 to 2 percent and runoff is
slow or very slow. The erosion hazard is moderate where
a moderate loss of soil is expected if runoff is not con-
trolled and the vegetative cover is not adequate for
protection. It is severe where steep slopes, rapid runoff,
slow infiltration and permeability, and past erosion make Figure 17.-In preparation for planting trees on Lakeland coarse
the soil susceptible to severe erosion. sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, scrub oaks and wiregrass have been
Woodland can be protected from erosion by choosing destroyed by machinery and chemicals.
the kinds of trees, by adjusting the rotation age and cut-
ting cycles, by using special techniques in management,
and by carefully constructing and maintaining roads,
trails, and landings.
WINDTHROW HAZARD: Soil characteristics affect the
development of tree roots and how firmly the roots anchor
the tree and enable it to resist the force of the wind.
Root development may be prevented by a high water
table or by an impermeable layer. The protection by
surrounding trees also affects windthrow hazard. Know-
ing the degree of this hazard is important when choosing
trees for planting and when planning release cuttings or
harvest cuttings.
The windthrow hazard is slight if roots hold the tree
firmly against a normal wind. Individual trees are likely
to remain standing if protective trees on all sides are
removed. The hazard is moderate if the roots develop
enough to hold the tree firmly, except when the soil is
excessively wet and the wind velocity is very high. It is
severe if rooting is not deep enough to give adequate sta-
bility. Individual trees are then likely to be blown over
if they are released on all sides. Figure 18.-Two-year-old planted slash pine on Lakeland coarse
In the following pages the 12 woodland suitability sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The native vegetation has been
groups are described, and the soils in each group are listed. controlled by machinery and chemicals.
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 1 depended on, for more than 50 percent of the planted
In this group are very deep, excessively drained coarse seedlings often die. Wiregrass must be controlled.
sands that are highly leached and extend to a depth of The use of equipment on the steeper slopes may be
more than 60 inches. They are well above ground water restricted in dry weather by the looseness of the coarse
and have a very low available moisture capacity. Per- sand. Wind erosion is severe on some exposd sites.
meability is rapid to very rapid. These soils are on ridges Windthrow normally is not a hazard.
and broad, gently sloping uplands. They are- WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 2
EsB Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. are deep, somewhat eeiel drained
EsC Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. In this group are deep, somewhat excessively drained
EsD Eustis coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. to well-drained, highly leached soils that have a sand sur-
EsE Eustis coarse sand, 12 to 35 percent slopes. face layer and finer textured material at a depth of 42 to
LaB Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. 85 inches. These soils have a low available moisture
LaD Lakeland coarse sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, capacity and rapid to very rapid permeability. Ground
LaF Lakeland coarse sand, 12 to 45 percent slopes, water is well below the surface.







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 63

The soils are- NoC2 Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
NrA Norfolk sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
EtB Eustis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. NrB Norfolk sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
EtC Eustis sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. NrC Norfolk sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
LdB Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. RsB Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
LdC Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. RsB2 Ruston loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
Because of competition from undesirable plants, special RsC Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
RsC2 Ruston loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
preparation of the site is essential if trees are to regenerate RcB Ruston coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
satisfactorily. The trees cannot be relied on to reproduce Rd B Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
naturally. Consequently, it is often necessary to replant RdC Ruston coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
them, even after the best preparation of the site. TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The use of some kinds of equipment, especially on TfB2 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
steeper slopes, may be restricted in extremely dry weather. TfC2 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Erosion may occur on the steeper slopes, and wind erosion On the more eroded soils, the site index may be lower
is a hazard in exposed areas. Windthrow is not a problem. than those given in table 3. Slash pine grows well in
natural stands (fig. 19).
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 3 natural stands (fig. 19).
In this group are deep, somewhat excessively drained
soils that have a sandy surface layer and finer textured
material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. These soils have
a low available moisture capacity and rapid to very rapid
permeability. They are somewhat drought during dry
periods but are not so drought as the soils in groups
1 and 2. The soils are-
EuB Eustis sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
EuC Eustis sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
LkB Lakeland sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
LkC Lakeland sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Loblolly pine generally does not occur naturally on
these soils, but scattered trees indicate that its site index
is 70 to 75.
Plant competition is severe, and special preparation of
the site is necessary for establishing a good stand of trees.
Replanting may be needed, especially after extensive
droughts. In most areas natural reproduction cannot be
relied upon. Wiregrass is a serious problem and needs
to be eliminated.
The use of equipment may be restricted on slopes
during dry weather. Wind erosion is a hazard in exposed
areas, but water erosion is likely only on the steeper
slopes.
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 4
In this group are deep, well-drained soils that have a
coarse sand to loamy fine sand surface layer that is under-
lain by sandy loam to sandy clay at a depth of less than
30 inches. Permeability is moderate to moderately slow, ..
and the available moisture capacity is medium to high. .-.
These soils are strongly acid and have moderate natural
fertility. They are-
Figure 19.-A good natural stand of slash pine on soils in wood-
BoA Bowie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. land suitability group 4.
BoB Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
BoB2 Bowie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
BoC Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Plant competition is generally slight, but low-quality
BoC2 Bowie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. trees and shrubs in stands of desirable trees that are
Bw B Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
BwC Bowie loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes. planted or naturally seeded should be deadened or re-
CaB Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moved. During periods of extremely dry weather, seed-
CaB2 Carnegie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, ling mortality may be a problem in areas that have a
CaC2 Carnegie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
FaB Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, thick surface soil.
FaB2 Faceville loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. The use of equipment is limited on the steeper slopes.
FaC2 Faceville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. Erosion is severe on some of the exposed steep slopes.
MaB Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Windthrow generally is not a hazard.
MaB2 Marlboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
NoA Norfolk loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 5
NoB Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
NoB2 Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. The soils of this group are well drained to somewhat
NoC Norfolk loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, poorly drained and have a sand to sandy clay loam surface
726-719-65- 5









64 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

layer. In most of them clay or sandy clay is at a depth LyA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
of less than 18 inches. The soils are- LyB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
LzA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
AnA Angie loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, slopes.
AnB Angie loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. LzB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
AnC Angie loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, slopes.
CtB3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, *
severely eroded. In somewhat poorly drained areas, site indexes are
CtC3 Cuthbert sandy clay loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, slighter higher than those listed in table 3.
severely eroded. Planting or seeding is generally successful, but after
CuB Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the seedlings are established, it may be necessary to re-
CuB2 Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. .
CuC Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, move some competing trees and shrubs. Because these
CuC2 Cuthbert soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, soils are wet most of the time, their structure may be dam-
CwD3 Cuthbert, Shubuta, and Lakeland soils, 5 to 12 percent aged by compaction. For the best growth of pines, some
EaB Esto loamy severeland, 0y eoded. areas should be drained. Erosion is not a problem in most
EaB Esto loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Ln D Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 5 to 12 percent areas (fig. 20).
slopes.
Ln F Lakeland, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 12 to 45 per-
cent slopes.
OkB Oktibbeha soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
OkC Oktibbeha soils, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
ShB Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Sh B2 Shubuta loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
ShC Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
ShC2 Shubuta loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
The soils in this group are slow to very slow in perme- b
ability and are moderate in available moisture capacity.
In spots of Lakeland sand and coarse sand, the sandy sur-
face soil is more than 18 inches thick.
Site indexes on the Lakeland soils are about 10 less than
those listed in table 3.
Plant competition varies, but the sites require some
preparation, and low-quality trees should be deadened or
removed. Because the seedling mortality is a problem
on the steeper slopes and on the coarse-textured soils, some
replanting may be necessary. The use of equipment is re-
stricted on the steeper slopes, and special equipment may
be needed for planting and harvesting.
Erosion hazard is severe on the steeper slopes and in
exposed areas of the finer textured soils. Special care s5 L5H PIRE PLANTED 1934
should be taken in harvesting and in locating firebreaks
and roads. Windthrow is moderate on some of the steeper
slopes and in severely eroded areas. Figure 20.-This 28-year-old plantation of slash pine shows excel-
lent growth on soils of woodland suitability group 6.
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 6
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 7
In this group are deep, moderately well drained to WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 7
somewhat poorly drained soils that have a coarse sand to In this group are deep, moderately well drained to
loamy fine sand surface layer. At a depth of less than somewhat poorly drained soils that have sand to loamy
30 inches, the surface layer is underlain mainly by sandy sand extending from the surface to a depth of more than
clay loam or fine sandy clay loam. Permeability is rapid 42 inches. In some areas finer textured material occurs
to moderately rapid in the surface soil and generally at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. Available moisture capacity
moderate in the subsoil. Available moisture capacity is is low, and permeability is rapid to very rapid. The
moderate. The soils are- water table is generally 36 inches or more below the surface.
The soils are-
DuB Dunbar loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. BfB Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
EfA Eulonia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. BnB Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
EfB Eulonia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. BnC Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
EnA Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent KaB Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
slopes. KgB Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
EnB Eulonia loamy fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent KgC Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
slopes. KsB Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
GdA Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. KsC Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
GdB Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Sc Scranton fine sand.
GdC Goldsboro loamy coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Sf Scranton fine sand, shallow.
GcA Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
slopes. Under the best moisture conditions of these soils, the
GcB Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent site index for slash pine is higher than that given in table 3.
slopes.
GcC Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent Removing unwanted trees and shrubs may be necessary
slopes, to release pine seedlings so that they grow and produce a








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 65

good stand. Seedling mortality is not a problem under Permeability is moderate to rapid, and available moisture
normal conditions. The use of equipment is limited capacity is moderate to high. Normally, the texture and
during extremely dry weather, color of this land varies greatly from place to place.
This land is likely to be flooded frequently for short
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 8 periods, and during these periods the use of equipment is
Leon coarse sand (Lo) is the only soil in this group. It restricted. Because plant competition is severe, un-
is somewhat poorly drained and has a sand to coarse desirable trees, shrubs, and vines must be removed to
sand surface layer and a compact organic pan at a depth allow normal growth of pines. Seedlings can be estab-
of 12 to 42 inches. The water table is generally 12 to 36 lished if competing plants are controlled. After a stand
inches below the surface. Available moisture capacity is is established, some control of competing plants is still
low, and permeability is very rapid. needed. Damage caused by windthrow generally is low,
The high water table restricts the root zone and may and erosion normally is not a problem.
cause seedling mortality, even in dry periods. Some
drainage may be necessary because, in wet periods, the WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 12
water table causes excessive wetness that may limit the T'l i- group consists of the following miscellaneous land
use of some kinds of equipment. Because the root zone types-
is shallow, the hazard of windthrow may increase after Al Alluvial land.
thinning. Erosion is not a problem. Plant competition Bp Borrow pits.
is moderate; unwanted trees and shrubs may require Gu Gullied land.
removal so that desirable trees are released. Sw Swamp.
Except for Gullied land, these land types generally are
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 9 not suited to pines.
The soils in this group are poorly drained or very poorly
drained and have a loamy sand to clay loam surface layer Use of Soils for Wildlife 5
that is underlain by sandy clay loam to clay at a depth of
less than 30 inches. Permeability is slow to very slow, The kinds of wildlife and their abundance within an
and the water table is generally high. Available moisture area are influenced by the soils of the area. Basically,
capacity is high. The soils are- the capability of the soils to produce plants desirable for
Ba Bayboro soils, food and cover determines the suitability of an area for
Bd Bladen soils, different kinds of wildlife. Each soil has specific capa-
Gr Grady loam. ability for producing desirable plants. In a large area,
Pr Pocoinoke and Rains soils, ck however, the suitability of the soils for ,lb ln kinds of
Ra Rains loamy sand. plants and, consequently, for .lil..'..!i kinds of wildlife
a is determined by the pattern of soils within the area and
Drainage or other practices to control water are neces- is determined by the patter of soils within theIn addition to
sary for best growth of pines. Because undesirable the capability of the soils in the pattern. In addition to
shrubs and trees compete, site preparation is needed. the patterns of soils, topography, agricultural develop-
Seedling mortality may be severe unless surface water is ment, extent of wooded areas, and presence of open water
drained. Unless well-drained roads are constructed and are also important in determining the wildlife population.
excess surface water is removed, the use of equipment is An interpretation of the soil survey for wildlife suita-
severely limited. The root zone is restricted by the high ability can be made conveniently by using the generalized
water table. map that shows soil associations, or patterns of soils.
After naming plants suitable for food and cover for the
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 10 .
main game species in Washington County, this subsection
The soils in this group are deep and poorly drained or discusses the wildlife potential of the seven soil associa-
very poorly drained. They consist of sand or loamy fine soil -
sand that extends to a depth of more than 42 inches. The tions, which are shown on the general soil map at the back
water table is high, available moisture capacity is low, of this report. Because soil associations 2 and 3 are
and permeability is rapid. The soils are- similar in their suitability for wildlife, they are discussed
Pm Plummer soils. together in this subsection. The seven soil associations
Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand. are described generally in the section "General Soil Map."
Surface drainage or other practices to control water are Food and cover suitable for wildlife
necessary for best growth of pines. Competition from In Washington County the main kinds of wildlife that
undesirable shrubs and trees is severe. To insure that a live on land are white-tailed deer, wild turkey, wood duck,
good stand develops, site preparation is necessary. Be- ve on a are white-tailed deer, wild turkey wood duck,
S deve sie pe i i bobwhite (quail), mourning dove, gray and fox squirrels,
cause these soils are wet, the use of equipment may be re- and rabbit. Oposs raccoon, skunk, and nonga
,. and rabbit. Opossum, raccoon, skunk, and nongame
stricted most of the time. The high water table restricts birds are common throughout the county.
e ,o birds are common throughout the county.
the root zone. Deer.-Choice foods for deer are acorns, greenbrier,
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 11 saw-palmetto, gallberry, bracken, moss, mushrooms, pine-
Local alluvial land (Lu), the only soil in this woodland land three-awn, yellow-eyed grass, clovers, goldenaster,
group, consists of material along streams that is slightly goldenrod, alder, pipewort, youpon, and other native
wet and has been washed from adjacent areas. It is 5 By DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist, and HOWARD R. BISSLAND,
generally coarse textured and moderately well drained, biologist, Soil Conservation Service.








WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 65

good stand. Seedling mortality is not a problem under Permeability is moderate to rapid, and available moisture
normal conditions. The use of equipment is limited capacity is moderate to high. Normally, the texture and
during extremely dry weather, color of this land varies greatly from place to place.
This land is likely to be flooded frequently for short
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 8 periods, and during these periods the use of equipment is
Leon coarse sand (Lo) is the only soil in this group. It restricted. Because plant competition is severe, un-
is somewhat poorly drained and has a sand to coarse desirable trees, shrubs, and vines must be removed to
sand surface layer and a compact organic pan at a depth allow normal growth of pines. Seedlings can be estab-
of 12 to 42 inches. The water table is generally 12 to 36 lished if competing plants are controlled. After a stand
inches below the surface. Available moisture capacity is is established, some control of competing plants is still
low, and permeability is very rapid. needed. Damage caused by windthrow generally is low,
The high water table restricts the root zone and may and erosion normally is not a problem.
cause seedling mortality, even in dry periods. Some
drainage may be necessary because, in wet periods, the WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 12
water table causes excessive wetness that may limit the T'l i- group consists of the following miscellaneous land
use of some kinds of equipment. Because the root zone types-
is shallow, the hazard of windthrow may increase after Al Alluvial land.
thinning. Erosion is not a problem. Plant competition Bp Borrow pits.
is moderate; unwanted trees and shrubs may require Gu Gullied land.
removal so that desirable trees are released. Sw Swamp.
Except for Gullied land, these land types generally are
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 9 not suited to pines.
The soils in this group are poorly drained or very poorly
drained and have a loamy sand to clay loam surface layer Use of Soils for Wildlife 5
that is underlain by sandy clay loam to clay at a depth of
less than 30 inches. Permeability is slow to very slow, The kinds of wildlife and their abundance within an
and the water table is generally high. Available moisture area are influenced by the soils of the area. Basically,
capacity is high. The soils are- the capability of the soils to produce plants desirable for
Ba Bayboro soils, food and cover determines the suitability of an area for
Bd Bladen soils, different kinds of wildlife. Each soil has specific capa-
Gr Grady loam. ability for producing desirable plants. In a large area,
Pr Pocoinoke and Rains soils, ck however, the suitability of the soils for ,lb ln kinds of
Ra Rains loamy sand. plants and, consequently, for .lil..'..!i kinds of wildlife
a is determined by the pattern of soils within the area and
Drainage or other practices to control water are neces- is determined by the patter of soils within theIn addition to
sary for best growth of pines. Because undesirable the capability of the soils in the pattern. In addition to
shrubs and trees compete, site preparation is needed. the patterns of soils, topography, agricultural develop-
Seedling mortality may be severe unless surface water is ment, extent of wooded areas, and presence of open water
drained. Unless well-drained roads are constructed and are also important in determining the wildlife population.
excess surface water is removed, the use of equipment is An interpretation of the soil survey for wildlife suita-
severely limited. The root zone is restricted by the high ability can be made conveniently by using the generalized
water table. map that shows soil associations, or patterns of soils.
After naming plants suitable for food and cover for the
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 10 .
main game species in Washington County, this subsection
The soils in this group are deep and poorly drained or discusses the wildlife potential of the seven soil associa-
very poorly drained. They consist of sand or loamy fine soil -
sand that extends to a depth of more than 42 inches. The tions, which are shown on the general soil map at the back
water table is high, available moisture capacity is low, of this report. Because soil associations 2 and 3 are
and permeability is rapid. The soils are- similar in their suitability for wildlife, they are discussed
Pm Plummer soils. together in this subsection. The seven soil associations
Ru Rutlege loamy fine sand. are described generally in the section "General Soil Map."
Surface drainage or other practices to control water are Food and cover suitable for wildlife
necessary for best growth of pines. Competition from In Washington County the main kinds of wildlife that
undesirable shrubs and trees is severe. To insure that a live on land are white-tailed deer, wild turkey, wood duck,
good stand develops, site preparation is necessary. Be- ve on a are white-tailed deer, wild turkey wood duck,
S deve sie pe i i bobwhite (quail), mourning dove, gray and fox squirrels,
cause these soils are wet, the use of equipment may be re- and rabbit. Oposs raccoon, skunk, and nonga
,. and rabbit. Opossum, raccoon, skunk, and nongame
stricted most of the time. The high water table restricts birds are common throughout the county.
e ,o birds are common throughout the county.
the root zone. Deer.-Choice foods for deer are acorns, greenbrier,
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 11 saw-palmetto, gallberry, bracken, moss, mushrooms, pine-
Local alluvial land (Lu), the only soil in this woodland land three-awn, yellow-eyed grass, clovers, goldenaster,
group, consists of material along streams that is slightly goldenrod, alder, pipewort, youpon, and other native
wet and has been washed from adjacent areas. It is 5 By DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist, and HOWARD R. BISSLAND,
generally coarse textured and moderately well drained, biologist, Soil Conservation Service.







66 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

shrubs and herbs for browse. For habitats deer require range for deer, turkey, quail, and other wildlife, but
extensive wooded areas and areas where there is not much natural foods are limited because the soils are poor and
farming. management for wildlife is inadequate. The ponds and
Turkey.-Choice foods for turkey are insects, acorns, lakes provide good habitats for wood duck. The wild-
pawpaws, yellow-eyed grass, blackberries, browntop millet, life can be increased appreciably by planting suitable
clover leaves, corn, cowpeas, peanuts, dogwood seed, seed food plants and by using other good management prac-
from Pensacola bahiagrass and carpetgrass, oats, pine tices.
seed, and soybeans. For habitats wild turkey require ex- Many of the lakes in association 1 provide good
tensive wooded areas that are not intensively managed. fishing. Other lakes can be improved for fishing by
They need surface water for daily drinking and swampy managing them to increase fish production. Some
areas for roosting, sites suitable for construction of ponds are in the north-
Bobwhite (quail).-Choice foods for bobwhite are western part of the county where stream patterns are
acorns, blackberries, wild black cherries, dogwood seed, well established.
seeds of annual and bicolor lespedezas, beggarweed, tick- Areas of soil associations 2 and 3 are dominant in
clovers, and ragweed. Soybeans, cowpeas, corn, peanuts, the northern part of the county. The soils in these asso-
and many other cultivated crops are also choice foods, ciations are among the most fertile in the county and are
Bobwhite eat many insects. They have a limited range on gently sloping to steep hillsides. Natural drains are
and require food and shelter within a short distance, numerous and well established. Many areas have been
These birds thrive in general farming areas where fence cleared for cultivation and now have a pattern of culti-
rows and small woodlots are common. They also are vated fields, pastures, and woodlots. Along many fence
found in wild, open areas that have not been cultivated, rows are trees, native shrubs, and grasses. Some large
Dove.-Choice foods for dove are browntop millet, areas are in mixed stands of pine, oak, and hickory.
corn, peanuts, cowpeas, and soybeans, as well as seed Bobwhite and dove are the principal game birds in the
eat insects. They range widely and do not need water more intensively farmed areas of soil associations 2 and 3.
near the feeding ground, but they do need water daily. They thrive on farms where good wildlife management is
They thrive in open farmland and feed in large, open practiced, because the soils are well suited for growing
fields and in woodland. choice food crops for these birds (figs. 21 and 22). Squir-
Squirrel.-Gray and fox squirrels are found in Wash- rel and many nongame animals and birds live in larger
ington County. Their choice foods are acorns, hickory wooded areas. Bobwhite are found in the wooded areas
nuts, pine nuts, chinkapins, pecans, small fruits, and where there is some open land or poor stands of trees, but
mushrooms. They also eat larvae and insects. The gray the number of bobwhite is usually small because food is
squirrel raid cornfields, and they eat the seeds of pears. scarce.
Both kinds of squirrel live in wooded areas, but the gray
squirrel like protection and are common in the town of
Chipley and other towns and in public parks throughout .
the county. Fox squirrel do not like populated places
and frequent areas of live oaks, ponded areas of cypress,
and areas of pine and oak.
Wood duck.-The wood duck, called summer duck lo- fc .
cally, nest principally in small ponds in wooded areas A L .
along the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek and I
in the area of lakes in the south-central part of the ,
county. Their foods are acorns, dogwood fruits, seeds F
and tubers of pond weeds, and water insects and their
larvae.
Rabbit.-Rabbits are common in Washington County. -J
Their choice foods are young corn, oats, crimson clover,
cowpeas, browntop millet, peanuts, kudzu, carpetgrass,
and the young tender shoots and leaves of most native
grasses and shrubs. Rabbits have a limited range and ,
require food and shelter within a short distance. They
thrive in general farming areas where fence rows and '
small woodlots provide shelter. They are also found in
wild, open areas that have not been cultivated.'
Wildlife suitability of the soil associations .';..*,'
The principal soils of soil association 1 are deep,
drought sands that have been used little for farming. .
Extensive areas have a cover consisting principally of .
scrub oak, wiregrass, and scattered longleaf pine. ... -
Swampy areas are common along small stream bottoms .
or in depressions, and there are many small lakes or in- Figure 21.-Browntop millet on the right and chufa on the left
termittent ponds. The uncleared areas provide good provide excellent food for dove.







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 67

well suited to wildlife if plantings are made for food and
if other wildlife management is practiced.
Natural lakes are numerous in soil association 5 and are
well stocked with fish. Some of these lakes can be
improved by deepening, by clearing the water weeds, and
by restocking desirable kinds of fish.
S Soil association 6 is extensive in the northern part of
the county. Many large areas, particularly the one west
of Vernon, have been farmed little and are mainly
wooded. In other areas farming has been more intensive,
and open fields and pastures are numerous. The pattern
of comparatively flat, moderately well drained soils,
interspersed with numerous wet depressions and draws,
provides good habitats for many kinds of wildlife. The
numbers of wildlife, however, are limited by inadequate
wildlife management. The extensive wooded areas are
well suited to deer and turkey. Squirrel, bobwhite, dove,
songbirds, and other wildlife also live in these wooded
areas and in the more intensively farmed areas. They
can be increased by good wildlife management.
SSoil association 6 has a few lakes that provide good
fishing. Although there are many streams and draws,
the topography is too nearly level for construction of
fish ponds.
Figure 22.-A field border of shrub lespedeza provides good food The principal areas of soil association 7 are the swamps
and shelter for dove and quail, along the Choctawhatchee River, Holmes Creek, and
Pine Log Creek. Smaller swamps in this association are
Supplemental plantings of choice food plants, along in the south-central part of the county. Most of these
with other practices of wildlife management, can increase swamps are covered with a dense growth of hardwoods,
wildlife in these associations. swamps are covered with a dense growth of hardwoods,
Although there are not many natural lakes or large cypress, and vines and shrubs. The swamps provide
streams in associations 2 and 3, there are many natural excellent cover for most kinds of wildlife that live in
drainageways that make good sites for medium-sized and the county and are especially well suited to woodland
small ponds. Such ponds can be constructed and man- species such as deer, turkey, and squirrel. Wood duck
aged to provide excellent fishing. find suitable feeding and nesting places along the
Soil association 4 is made up of sloping to steep, streams. Most kinds of wildlife can be increased by
erodible soils that have been farmed in only a few places. applying good management.
Most areas support stands of pine and hardwoods and a The major streams in soil association 7 are well stocked
thick undergrowth of shrubs and bushes. A few scat- with fish and provide good fishing. The lakes in the
tered, small fields on the more gentle slopes are culti- south-central part of the county are excellent for fishing.
vated. Many kinds of wildlife find excellent cover on
this soil association. Food for wildlife can be increased Use of Soils for Engineering Works 6
by plantings in open areas of woodland and along field
borders. The number of squirrel, bobwhite, and song- Soil engineering is well established today. It is, in a
birds varies from few to many. broad sense, a subdivision of structural engineering because
A well-established pattern of small streams and draws it deals with soil as the foundation material upon which
provides numerous good sites for small ponds. Such structures rest or with soil as a structural material. To
ponds can be constructed and managed to provide excel- the engineer, soils are natural materials that occur in
lent fishing. great variety over the earth. Their engineering properties
Areas of soil association 5 are nearly level and wooded, vary widely from place to place, even within the bounda-
and they occur predominantly in the southern part of the ries of a single project (fig. 23).
county next to large areas of soil association 1. The soils Generally, soil is used in the locality and in the condition
of association 5 are deep, moderately well drainedto poorly in which it is found. A large part of soil engineering
drained sands, on which there has been little farming. deals with locating the various soils, determining their
Smdrainedll sandmps, shallow ponds, and lakes arlittle farming. engineering properties, correlating those properties with
Small swamps, shallow ponds, and lakes are numerous. the requirements of the job, and selecting the best possible
The vegetation is mainly pine and an undergrowth of wire- material for each job.
grass, palmetto, and gallberry. This soil survey report contains information about the
Wooded areas of soil association 5, together with wooded soils of Washington County that will help engineers.
areas of soil association 1, are large enough to be the Special emphasis has been placed on properties related to
home of deer and turkey. Bobwhite, squirrel, and other
wildlife are common, but their number is limited because 6 L. E. STRICKLAND, agricultural engineer, and DAVID P. POWELL.
food is scarce. The ponds and lakes in this association soil specialist for interpretations, Soil Conservation Service; and
food is scarce. The ponds and lakes in this association WILLIAM GARTNER, JR., engineer of research, Florida State Road
provide good habitats for wood duck. The association is Dept., assisted in preparing this subsection.








68 )SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

TABLE 4.-Engineering t-.t data' for


Mechanical analyses

Bureau of
Public Percentage paying
Soil name and location Parent material Roads Depth Horizon sieve-
report
No.
No. 4
34 in. (4.7
mm.


Bowie loamy sand: 1,nch
SE/4SW4 sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 13 W. Thick beds of sandy clay. S37592 0-5 Ap
(ortho profile). S37593 15-27 B2
S37594 41-52-- C2
SE4ESE/4 sec. 34, T. 3 N., R. 14 W. Thick beds of sandy clay. S37598 4-11 A2
(coarser textured). S37599 19-2S B2 100 99
S37600 43-57- C2 100 99
Bowie loamy sand, thick surface:
NE4SW)/ sec. 5, T. 3 N., R. 14 W. Thick beds of sandy clay. S37595 5-12 A2
(thick A horizon). S37596 22-43 B3
S37597 43-70+ C1
Cuthbert soils:
NE}NE} sec. 18, T. 3 N., R. 12 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37601 0-5 Al 100 99
(ortho profile). clay. S37602 9-15 B2
S37603 15-30 B3
S37604 38-51- C2
SWNE) sec. 28, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37605 0-5 Al 1l0 99
(AC profile), clay. S37606 7-13 Cl
S37607 22-36- C3

SE)SW}i sec. 27, T. 3 N., R. 14 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37608 3-9 A2 100 9S
(coarse-textured A and C horizons). clay. S37609 14-22 B3
S37610 22-42 Cl 100 99
Goldsboro loamy coarse sand:
NESE/4 sec. 36, T. 5 N., R. 14 W. Sandy clay loam. S37611 4-8 A2
(ortho profile). S37612 14-26 B2
837613 34-64- Cl
SEISW}I sec. 25, T. 5 N., R. 13 W. Sandy clay loam. S37617 0-4 Al
(coarser textured B horizon). S3761S 17-28 B22
837619 3S-52-- Cl

Goldsboro coarse sand, thick surface:
SWSSWA} sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 16 W. Sandy clay loam. S37614 7-13 A2
(thick A horizon). S37615 24-32 B2
S37616 42-55+ C2

Klej sand:
NWNW sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 14 W. Thick beds of sand underlain S37620 3-6 A2
(ortho profile), by sandy clay loam. S37621 16-32 C2
S37622 55-77 C4

NE4NE)4 sec. 29, R. 16 W., T. 1 N. (fine- Thick beds of sand underlain S37623 5-25 A2
textured D horizon), by sandy clay loam. S37624 25-52 C1
S37625 76-98+ D1

Klej sand, shallow: Thick beds of sand underlain S37626 0-5 Al
SWNW' sec. 15, T. 3 N., R. 14 W. by sandy clay loam. S27627 23-33 C3 100 99
(shallow). S27628 37-53+ D2 100 97

Lynchburg loamy fine sand:
NE/YSE}4 sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 13 W. Thick beds of clay loam. S37629 0-5 Al
(ortho profile). S27630 17-30 B2g
S37631 56-72- C2g

NWjSW} sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 12 W. (shal- Thick beds of clay loam. S37632 0-7 Al
low to C horizon). S37633 19-25 B3g 100 99
S37634 31-50- C2

Lynchburg loamy fine sand, thick surface: Thick beds of clay loam. 837635 3-12 A12 --
NET4NE1, sec. 16, T. 3 N., R. 15 W. S37636 27-39 B2g
(thick A horizon). S37637 45-55- C2g ------
See footnotes at end of table.










WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 69

soil samples taken from 24/ soil profiles


Mechanical analyses 2-Continued Classification

Percentage passing Percentage smaller than-
sieve-Continued Liquid Plasticity
limit index
SAASHO a Unified 4
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 (0.42 (0.074 0.05 nun. 0.02 mni. 0.005 mm. 0.002 nimm.
mm.) mm.) mm.)


100 84 16 12 6 4 2 6NP 5NP A-2-4(0) -- SM.
100 86 38 35 31 26 24 37 16 A-6(2)- SC.
100 93 67 65 62 56 53 68 33 A-7-5(1S) MH.

100 61 12 11 9 7 5 NPPNP A-2-4(0) SP-SM.
97 65 24 23 21 19 16 25 10 A-2-4(0) -- SC.
96 45 22 21 20 19 18 34 15 A-2-6(0)- SC.

100 60 12 10 8 6 2 NP NP A-2-4(0)- SW-SM.
100 73 35 33 31 27 25 36 16 A-2-6(l) SC.
100 73 35 33 31 27 25 37 16 A-2-6(1) SC.
97 75 19 15 11 6 4 NP NP A-2-4(0)---- SM.
100 92 57 54 53 50 47 58 29 A-7-6(14)_ MH-CH.
100 96 59 55 51 47 45 59 26 A-7-5(14) IH.
100 98 59 52 46 42 39 55 23 A-7-5(12)-- MH.

98 85 23 18 12 8 6 NP NP A-2-4(0) --_ SM.
100 92 52 50 48 45 42 42 19 A-7-6(7)-- CL.
100 90 56 51 46 41 39 47 26 A-7-6(11)___C CL.
95 71 11 10 9 6 3 NP NP A-2-4(0) SP-SM.
100 85 33 32 31 31 29 42 17 A-2-7(1I) SM-SC.
97 68 26 25 23 22 21 43 21 A-2-7(1)- SC.

100 72 23 18 14 10 7 NP NP A-2-4(0)-- SM.
100 72 30 26 22 16 13 22 8 A-2-4(0) -- SC.
100 75 39 37 33 28 25 40 19 A-6(3) ----- SC.

100 68 23 20 15 10 7 NP NP A-2-4(0)-- SM.
100 75 26 23 19 14 12 NP NP A-2-4(0) -- SM.
100 74 39 37 34 31 30 44 20 A-7-6(3) SC.

100 73 20 16 9 5 4 NP NP A-2-4(0) -- M.
100 73 26 23 19 15 12 22 8 A-2-4(0)----_ SC.
100 86 62 60 56 52 50 63 33 A-7-5(16) -- MH-CH.

100 79 11 10 8 5 2 NP NP A-2-4(0)--- SP-S\M.
100 72 9 8 6 5 4 NP NP A-3(0).--- SP-SM.
100 75 6 5 4 2 1 NP NP A-3(0)------ SP-SM.

100 SO 13 10 7 4 3 NP NP A-2-4(0)--- SM.
100 85 16 12 8 4 3 NP NP A-2-4(0)---- SM.
100 87 28 24 21 18 17 24 8 A-2-4(0)----- SC.

100 81 14 12 9 5 3 NP NP A-2-4(0)-- SM.
98 80 16 14 12 8 6 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM.
95 80 21 20 17 13 12 NP NP A-2-4(0)-- SM.

100 88 28 23 16 8 5 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM.
100 89 35 30 24 17 14 21 6 A-2-4(0) SM-SC.
100 90 44 40 36 33 31 39 21 A-6(5)------ SC.

100 82 33 29 22 14 11 18 3 A-2-4(0) --- SM.
98 82 32 29 24 19 17 23 9 A-2-4(0) --. SC.
100 85 36 32 28 25 24 35 16 A-6(2)----- SC.
100 87 19 16 11 8 6 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM.
100 85 28 26 22 17 15 22 8 A-2-4 (0) SC.
100 85 36 34 31 28 21 35 16 A-6(2) SC.










70 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

TABLE 4.--Engieering tt dabs' for so

Mechanical analyges 2

Bureau of
Public Percentage paying
Soil name and location Parent material Roads Depth Horizon sieve-
report
No.
No. 4
% in- (4.7
mm.)

Plummer soils: Inees
NWNW4 sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 16 W. Thick beds of sand underlain S37638 5-14 A2
(ortho profile), by sandy clay. S37639 28-46 C3g
S37640 46-60+ C4g --------
SWSWy4 sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 14 W. Thick beds of sand underlain S37641 0-5 Al
(compact C2 horizon). by sandy clay. S37642 13-32 C1
S37643 32-72+ C2
SEYNE>i sec. 9, T. 2 N., R. 14 W. (shal- Thick beds of sand underlain S37644 0-14 Al ........
low). by sandy clay. S37645 19-32 C2g I------------I-
S37646 46-51+ D2g
Shubuta loamy sand:
SWSW~4 sec. 30, T. 3 N., R. 13 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37647 0-6 Al
(ortho profile), clay. S37648 11-21 B21
S37649 52-74+ C2
SE/4NW}4 sec. 28, T. 4 N., R. 15 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37650 0-9 Ap 100 97
(thicker and coarser textured B hori- clay. S37651 18-35 B2
zon). S37652 39-57 C1
SENWY sec. 19, T. 3 N., R. 15 W. Thick beds of sandy clay and S37653 3-8 A2 100 98
(coarse-textured A horizon), clay. S37654 9-23 B2
S37655 35-50+ C2 .....-....
Vaucluse coarse sand: 6
NESEs sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 16 W. (ortho Unconsolidated sandy clays. S37656 2-7 A12 100 93
profile). S37657 16-24 B2 100 94
S37658 32-41+ C1
SW3YNWy4 sec. 15, T. 3 N., R. 16 W. Unconsolidated sandy clays. S37659 6-16 A2 ____- 99
(thick B horizon). S37660 16-32 B2 100 86
S37661 45-57+ C1
NWY4NW}4 sec. 21, T. 3 N., R. 16 W. Unconsolidated sandy clays. S37662 3-11 A12 100 96
(thick A horizon). S37663 19-33 B2 __-__ 98
S37664 45-64+ C1

1 Tests performed by Bureau of Public Roads in accordance with Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is
standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway analyzed by the hydrometer method and the various grain-sie
Officials (AASHO). fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including
2 Mechanical analyses according to the American Association of that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SiC ail
State Highway Officials Designation T 88. Results by this proce- survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette
dure frequently may differ somewhat from results that would have method and the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter is
been obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical







WASHINGTON COUNTY, FLORIDA 71

samples taken from 24 soil profiles-Continued

Mechanical analyses 2-Continued Classification

Percentage passing Percentage smaller than-
sieve-Continued Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO Unified 4
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 (0.42 (0.074 0.05 mm. 0.02 mm. 0.005 mm. 0.002 mm.
mm.) mm.) mm.)


100 60 9 8 6 5 3 NP NP A-3(0) ------ SP-SM.
100 59 8 7 6 6 5 NP NP A-3(0) ------ SP-SM.
100 62 10 9 7 4 3 NP NP A-3(0)------ SP-SM.

100 84 41 38 27 12 8 41 8 A-5(1) ------ SM.
100 66 4 4 4 3 1 NP NP A-3(0) ------ SP.
100 74 26 26 20 9 4 NP NP A-2-4(0) ---- SM.
100 86 14 12 9 6 4 NP NP A-2-4(0) ---- SM.
100 84 14 11 9 7 5 NP NP A-2-4(0) ---- SM.
100 84 29 27 24 20 17 23 7 A-2-4(0) -.._ SM-SC.

100 87 26 20 13 8 6 NP NP A-2-4(0) ---_ SM.
100 94 62 60 56 51 47 61 31 A-7-5(16) _.- MH-CH.
100 89 37 35 31 29 26 38 17 A-6(2) ------ SC.

95 72 17 14 11 8 6 NP NP A-2-4(0)--_- SM.
100 84 49 46 44 41 38 38 18 A-6(6) ------ SC.
100 82 39 37 36 35 33 40 17 A-6(2) ------ SC.
96 80 12 11 10 7 5 NP NP A-2-4(0) ___- SP-SM.
100 92 44 43 42 41 38 54 28 A-7-6(8) ---- SC.
100 91 35 34 33 32 31 49 25 A-2-7(3)----_ SC.
86 40 6 5 3 3 3 NP NP A-l-b(0)---- SW-SM.
86 42 23 22 21 20 20 56 28 A-2-7(1)----- SM-SC.
100 66 33 33 32 32 32 63 30 A-2-7(4) ---- SM-SC.

96 50 11 9 7 3 3 NP NP A-l-b(0) ---. SW-SM.
70 34 16 16 15 15 15 56 29 A-2-7(0) ---- SC.
100 73 27 27 25 25 25 52 26 A-2-7(2)_-_- SC.
90 49 7 6 4 3 3 NP NP A-l-b(0) --- SP-SM.
84 31 20 20 19 18 18 68 38 A-2-7(1) ---- SC.
100 39 26 26 24 24 23 66 34 A-2-7(2) -- -_ SM-SC.

analyses used in this table are not suitable for use in naming textural No. 3-357, v. 1, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engi-
classes for soils. neers, March 1953.
3 Based on Standard Specifications for Highway Materials and 6 NP=Nonplastic.
Methods of Sampling and Testing (Pt. 1, Ed. 7): The Classification I In the final correlation Vaucluse sand was combined with other
of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction soils in two mapping units-Cuthbert soils, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
Purposes. AASHO Designation M 145-49. and Lakeland Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes.
4 Based on the Unified Soil Classification System, Tech. Memo.


















"726-719-65--- 6







72 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

suitable for the kind of construction planned. Thus, a
minimum number of soil samples will be needed for
laboratory testing.
Much of the soil terminology in this report is that
used by agriculturists. Many of the terms have a special
meaning to soil scientists and should, therefore, be defined
for the engineer. Some of the more common terms are
defined in the Glossary at the back of the report. The
.... engineer should refer to the sections "Descriptions of the
S:: ;Soils" and "Formation and Classification of Soils." In
: :':. : :'i::';:: these sections there is much information that will be of
;"" ':': value in planning engineering work.
Soil test data
Samples of the principal soil types in eight extensive
.ii ..... ,:... .. .: : ... ::-. soil series were tested in accordance with standard proce-
dures to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes.
Figure 23.-This highway passes through several different soils. The test data are given in table 4, beginning on p.68. Each
The engineering properties were determined for each soil before soil series was sampled in three localities, and the test data
construction began. soil series was sampled in three localities, and the test data
from different locations show some variation in physical
agriculture, especially those that affect irrigation struc- characteristics. The data, however, do not show the max-
tures, farm ponds, and other structures designed to control imum variations of the B and C horizons of each of the soil
and conserve soil and water, series. Because all samples were obtained at a depth of
The information in the report will be helpful in: less than 9 feet, the data are not adequate for estimating
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, the characteristics of soil materials in deep cuts that may
business, homes, and recreation. be made in rolling or hilly areas.
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and The engineering soil classifications in table 4 are based
airports. on data obtained by the mechanical analyses and by tests
3. Locating sand that can be used in construction, made to determine liquid limits and plastic limits.
4. Correlating pavement performance with kinds of Mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
soils and thus developing information that is hydrometer methods. In the procedure of the American
useful in designing and maintaining pavements. Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the fine
5. Determining the suitability of soils for cross- material is analyzed by the hydrometer method and the
country movement of vehicles and construc- various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
tion equipment. of all the materials in the soil sample, including that
6. Supplementing information obtained from pub- coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Soil Conser-
lished maps and reports and aerial photographs vation Service uses the pipette method and excludes
for the purpose of presenting information that material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from the
can be used readily by engineers, calculations. Percentages of clay obtained by the hydrom-
7. Making preliminary estimates of the engineering eter method are not used in naming soil textural classes.
properties of soils in planning agricultural The liquid-limit and plastic-limit tests measure the
drainage systems, farm ponds, irrigation sys- effect of water on the consistence of the soil material. As
teams, and diversion terraces, the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from a very
dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a
Engineers of the Florida State Road Department, the plastic state. As the moisture content is further in-
United States Bureau of Public Roads, and the Soil Con- creased, the material changes from the plastic to a liquid
servation Service collaborated with soil scientists of the state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
Soil Conservation Service in preparing this part of the the soil material passes from a semisolid to a plastic
report. These engineers used their knowledge of soils to state. The liquid limit is the moisture content at which
interpret laboratory tests and field experiences and to the material passes from a plastic to a liquid state.
determine how the properties of soils in this county affect The plasticity index is the numerical difference between
engineering. the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the
The engineering interpretations in this report are nec- range of moisture content within which a soil material is
essarily generalized. At many construction sites, the in a plastic condition.
soil material varies greatly within the depth of proposed
excavations. Also, several different soils may be found Engineering classification systems
within short distances. Without further tests and sacn- The engineering classifications of the soil materials in
piling, the information in this report, therefore, is not the soil samples tested are given in table 4 for the system
adequate for design and construction of specific engi- approved by the American Association of State Highway
neering works. Officials (AASHO) and the Unified system. Most
The maps, soil descriptions, and other data in this highway engineers classify soil materials according to
report are valuable in planning detailed engineering sur- the AASHO system. In this system soil materials are
veys. By using information in this report, the engineer classified in seven principal groups. The groups range
can select and then concentrate on the soil units most from A-i, consisting of gravelly soils of high bearing







72 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1962, NO. 2

suitable for the kind of construction planned. Thus, a
minimum number of soil samples will be needed for
laboratory testing.
Much of the soil terminology in this report is that
used by agriculturists. Many of the terms have a special
meaning to soil scientists and should, therefore, be defined
for the engineer. Some of the more common terms are
defined in the Glossary at the back of the report. The
.... engineer should refer to the sections "Descriptions of the
S:: ;Soils" and "Formation and Classification of Soils." In
: :':. : :'i::';:: these sections there is much information that will be of
;"" ':': value in planning engineering work.
Soil test data
Samples of the principal soil types in eight extensive
.ii ..... ,:... .. .: : ... ::-. soil series were tested in accordance with standard proce-
dures to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes.
Figure 23.-This highway passes through several different soils. The test data are given in table 4, beginning on p.68. Each
The engineering properties were determined for each soil before soil series was sampled in three localities, and the test data
construction began. soil series was sampled in three localities, and the test data
from different locations show some variation in physical
agriculture, especially those that affect irrigation struc- characteristics. The data, however, do not show the max-
tures, farm ponds, and other structures designed to control imum variations of the B and C horizons of each of the soil
and conserve soil and water, series. Because all samples were obtained at a depth of
The information in the report will be helpful in: less than 9 feet, the data are not adequate for estimating
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, the characteristics of soil materials in deep cuts that may
business, homes, and recreation. be made in rolling or hilly areas.
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and The engineering soil classifications in table 4 are based
airports. on data obtained by the mechanical analyses and by tests
3. Locating sand that can be used in construction, made to determine liquid limits and plastic limits.
4. Correlating pavement performance with kinds of Mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
soils and thus developing information that is hydrometer methods. In the procedure of the American
useful in designing and maintaining pavements. Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the fine
5. Determining the suitability of soils for cross- material is analyzed by the hydrometer method and the
country movement of vehicles and construc- various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
tion equipment. of all the materials in the soil sample, including that
6. Supplementing information obtained from pub- coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Soil Conser-
lished maps and reports and aerial photographs vation Service uses the pipette method and excludes
for the purpose of presenting information that material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from the
can be used readily by engineers, calculations. Percentages of clay obtained by the hydrom-
7. Making preliminary estimates of the engineering eter method are not used in naming soil textural classes.
properties of soils in planning agricultural The liquid-limit and plastic-limit tests measure the
drainage systems, farm ponds, irrigation sys- effect of water on the consistence of the soil material. As
teams, and diversion terraces, the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from a very
dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a
Engineers of the Florida State Road Department, the plastic state. As the moisture content is further in-
United States Bureau of Public Roads, and the Soil Con- creased, the material changes from the plastic to a liquid
servation Service collaborated with soil scientists of the state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
Soil Conservation Service in preparing this part of the the soil material passes from a semisolid to a plastic
report. These engineers used their knowledge of soils to state. The liquid limit is the moisture content at which
interpret laboratory tests and field experiences and to the material passes from a plastic to a liquid state.
determine how the properties of soils in this county affect The plasticity index is the numerical difference between
engineering. the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the
The engineering interpretations in this report are nec- range of moisture content within which a soil material is
essarily generalized. At many construction sites, the in a plastic condition.
soil material varies greatly within the depth of proposed
excavations. Also, several different soils may be found Engineering classification systems
within short distances. Without further tests and sacn- The engineering classifications of the soil materials in
piling, the information in this report, therefore, is not the soil samples tested are given in table 4 for the system
adequate for design and construction of specific engi- approved by the American Association of State Highway
neering works. Officials (AASHO) and the Unified system. Most
The maps, soil descriptions, and other data in this highway engineers classify soil materials according to
report are valuable in planning detailed engineering sur- the AASHO system. In this system soil materials are
veys. By using information in this report, the engineer classified in seven principal groups. The groups range
can select and then concentrate on the soil units most from A-i, consisting of gravelly soils of high bearing




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