• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Walton County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Walton County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025705/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Walton County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 234 p., 90 folded p. of plates : ill., (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Walton County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Walton County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 131-132).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Flordia, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and the Walton County Board of County Commissioners.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-342-P.
General Note: "Issued May 1989"--P. iii.
General Note: Item 102-B-9.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025705
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619900
notis - AHP4458
oclc - 19958811
lccn - 90601597

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Walton County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    How this survey was made
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Map unit composition
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
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    Prime farmland
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 71
        Crops and pasture
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Recreation
            Page 77
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 78
        Engineering
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Soil properties
        Page 85
        Engineering index properties
            Page 85
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 86
        Soil and water features
            Page 87
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Engineering index test data
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Classification of the soils
        Page 93
        Page 94
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    Formation of the soils
        Page 129
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 129
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 130
    Reference
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Glossary
        Page 133
        Page 134
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    Tables
        Page 139
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    Index to map sheets
        Page 235
        Page 236
    General soil map
        Page 237
    Map
        Page 1
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Full Text

United States In cooperation with
)Department of University of Florida S o il S survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment Stations, W a lto n C o unity
Conservation and Soil Science Department,
Service and the Walton County F lorid
Board of County Commissioners lo r a











~~i





p 4





HOW TO U!


Locate your area of interest on
1 the "Index to Map Sheets'.



I 1 2 3 4 t I
6 P SV -.----.--L--

-13 Note the number of the map
'i. ------= -- -- --ee--- sheet and turn to that sheet.






Locate your area of interest
3* on the map sheet.
151C
S134A
3 56 27C












List the map unit symbols
4. that are in your area.


151 I 27C

134A 56B 5 6 B
27C 131B
134A
.56 131E
148B
134A 148 \ 151 C




-IS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
S which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.







f' ~- %-- -."_'_ "- E .












See "Summary of Tables" (following the
Contents) for location of additional data -- .-., .,
on a specific soil use.


















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.



















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1984. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1984. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services; the Florida Department of Transportation; and the
Walton County Board of County Commissioners. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Choctawhatchee River Soil and Water Conservation
District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Small manmade ponds are common throughout Walton County. The soil
surrounding this pond is Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.




















ii
















Contents


Index to m ap units...................................................... iv Soil properties ............................................................... 85
Sum m ary of tables................................................... v Engineering index properties...................................... 85
Forew ord......................................................................... vii Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 86
G general nature of the county....................................... 1 Soil and w ater features............................................. 87
How this survey was made.......................................... 8 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
M ap unit com position............................................. 10 selected soils................................................... 88
G general soil m ap units............................................... 11 Engineering index test data........................................ 91
Detailed soil m ap units .............................................. 19 Classification of the soils.......................................... 93
Prim e farm land ............................................................ 69 Soil series and their m orphology................................. 93
Use and m anagem ent of the soils ............................ 71 Form ation of the soils................................................ 129
Crops and pasture.................................................. 71 Factors of soil form ation............................................. 129
Woodland management and productivity................. 75 Processes of soil formation...................................... 130
Recreation .................................................................... 77 References ..................................................................... 131
W wildlife habitat ......................... .................................. 78 G lossary .......................................................................... 133
Engineering .................................................................. 79 Tables ........................................................................ 139


Soil Series

Albany series ................................................................... 93 Kureb series....... .................................................. ........... 112
Angie series ..................................................................... 94 Lakeland series ............................................................... 112
Bibb series ............................... ........................................ 95 Leefield series............................. .................................. 113
Bigbee series ................................................................... 96 Leon series....................................................................... 114
Blanton series ................ .................................................. 96 Lucy series .................................. 115
Bonifay series .................................................................. 97 M albis series.................................................................... 115
Bonneau series................................................................ 98 M andarin series ............................................................... 116
Chipley series................................................................... 99 M aure as se es.............................................................. 117
Corolla series...................................................................100 New han series ........................................ ................. 118
Cow arts series ................................................................. 1 0 Norfolk series... ............................................................. 118
Dirego series ................................................................. 101................
Dorovan series................................ ........................... 2 O rangeburg series..................................................... 119
Dothan series.......................................... ................... 102 O sier series...................................................................... 120
Do toan series........ ....... ................103 a u series.................................. 1
Duckston series ............................. .................................. 103 Pactolus series ................................................................ 120
Eglin series.................................. .................................. 103 Pam lico series.................................................................. 121
Escam bia series ........ ......................... ........... ........... .. 1 4 Pantego series ................................................................. 121
Florala series ........................... ........................................ 105 Pickney series................................ .................................. 122
Foxw north series .............. ................................................ 106 Resota series................................................................... 122
Fuquay series................................................................... 107 Rutlege series.................................................................. 123
G arcon series .................................................................. 107 Shubuta series ................................................................. 123
Hurricane series............................................................... 108 Stilson series.................................................................... 125
Johnston series ........................ ...................................... 110 Tifton series ..................................................................... 126
Kenansville series ................. ...................................... 110 Troup series ..................................................................... 127
Kinston series................................................................. 111 Yem assee series............................................................. 127

Issued May 1989






iii
















Index to Map Units


1-Albany-Pactolus loamy sands, 0 to 5 percent 39-Pantego loam, depressional .............................. 44
slopes........................................................................ 19 40-Escambia sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes..... 44
2-Bonifay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 20 41-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded.................... 46
3-Bonifay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes......... 21 42-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .................... 46
4-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..................... 21 43-Kinston-Bibb association, frequently flooded....... 47
5-Chipley sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...................... 22 44-Lakeland-Troup-Urban land complex, 0 to 5
6-Escambia sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ....... 23 percent slopes .................................... ...... 47
8-Dorovan-Pamlico association, frequently flooded. 23 45-Dirego muck, frequently flooded........................... 48
9-Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes............ 24 46-Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes........ 49
10-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes........ 25 47-Bonneau loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 50
11-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes......... 26 48-Yemassee-Garcon-Bigbee complex,
12-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 26 occasionally flooded............................................. 50
13-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 28 49-Eglin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......................... 52
14-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 28 50-Mandarin sand ........................................ 53
15-Kinston-Johnston-Bibb complex, frequently 51-Bigbee loamy sand, to 5 percent spes,
flooded .....................................29 51-Bigbee loamy sand, 0 to .................................5 percent slopes, 29
16-Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ................ 30 occasionally flooded............................................. 53
17-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 30 52-Yemassee fine sandy loam, occasionally
18- Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ................ 31 flooded ...................................................................... 54
18-Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ............... 31
19-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes............. 32 53-Arents, 2 to 8 percent slopes................................ 55
20-Leefield-Stilson loamy sands, 0 to 5 percent 54-Newhan-Corolla sands, rolling............................... 55
slopes...................................................................... 32 55- Beaches................................. ................ 56
21- Leon sand ............................................. ............ 33 56- Kureb sand, hilly...................................................... 57
22-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 34 57-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 57
23-Lucy loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 34 58-Duckston muck, frequently flooded ...................... 58
25-Orangeburg sandy loam, 1 to 5 percent slopes.. 35 59-Malbis fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ... 58
26-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 36 60-Malbis fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ... 59
27-Rutlege fine sand............................................... 36 61-Malbis fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes... 59
28-Tifton fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes..... 37 62-Resota sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..................... 60
29-Tifton fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes..... 37 63-Pickney sand, depressional ................................... 61
30-Tifton fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes..... 38 64-Pamlico muck ................................ .......... .. 61
31-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........................ 38 65-Garcon loamy fine sand, occasionally flooded.... 61
32-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........................ 39 66-Kenansville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
33-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ................... 40 slopes............................................................. 63
34-Troup sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes.................. 40 68-Florala loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes... 63
35-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts loamy sands, 5 to 69-Florala loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes... 64
12 percent slopes............................................... 41 70-Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 65
36-Pits .......................................................................... 42 71-Shubuta fine sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent
37-Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes............ 42 slopes..................... ..................................... 65
38-Bonneau-Norfolk-Angie complex, 5 to 12 72-Osier fine sand ...................................................... 66
percent slopes .................................................... 43 73- Albany loamy sand............................................. 66











iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 140
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2)........................................................ 141
Chance. Spring temperature. Fall temperature.
Freeze data (table 3) .......................................................................................... 141
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .............................. 142
Acres. Percent.
Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table
5 ) ....................................................................................................................... 14 4
Corn. Peanuts. Soybeans. Cotton. Wheat. Oats.
Bahiagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................. 148
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)....................................... 149
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)................................................................ 160
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 166
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 170
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 176
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 182
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel Topsoil
Water management (table 13)........................................................................... 187
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.





v




















Engineering index properties (table 14) ......................................................... 194
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Percentage passing sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................. 203
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)..................................................................... 209
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Risk of
corrosion.
Water table depths and rainfall (table 17) ...................................... 213
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18)............................................... 215
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Saturated
hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19)............................................. 221
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20).................................................. 228
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 21) ........................................................... 231
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density
Classification of the soils (table 22)................................................................ 234
Family or higher taxonomic class.















vi















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Walton County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the
soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be
used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly
suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service














vii













































































Location of Walton County in Florida.












Soil Survey of

Walton County, Florida


By John D. Overing and Frank C. Watts, Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by H. Harrel Weeks, Joseph P. Wilson Jr.,
Perry R. Jackson, and Paul E. Pilney, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department;
Walton County Board of County Commissioners; and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




WALTON COUNTY is on the Gulf Coast in the Paxton, Redbay, Santa Rosa Beach, and Choctaw
northwestern part of Florida. The county has a total area Beach.
of 726,400 acres or 1,135 square miles. About 5,320 Walton County is primarily rural and agricultural. The
acres is fresh water lakes, and about 52,400 acres is economy is based on agriculture, but small industries
large bodies of brackish water. The county is bordered and the military are also important.
on the north by the State of Alabama and on the south
by the Gulf of Mexico. The boundaries of map units in
Walton County join those of Bay, Holmes, and General Nature of the County
Washington Counties to the east and Okaloosa County
to the west. This section describes the environmental and cultural
Walton County is in the Florida Panhandle part of the features that affect the use and management of soils in
Coastal Plain. The Choctawhatchee River, which forms Walton County. These features are history and
some of the eastern boundary of the county, is the development, climate, physiography and stratigraphy,
largest river in the area. It flows into the natural resources, farming, recreation, and
Choctawhatchee Bay, which is a tributary to the Gulf of transportation.
Mexico. The Alaqua, Black, Bruce, Caney, Lafayette,
Little Alaqua, Limestone, Natural Bridge, Rocky, and History and Development
Seven Runs Creeks and the Shoal River are also in the
county. Anna Reardon, historian, and Oscar Harrison, retired county
Elevation ranges from the highest point in Florida, 345 extension agent, helped prepare this section.
feet above sea level, near Lakewood in the northwestern Walton County was established in 1824. It was named
part of the county to sea level in the southern part. The for General George Walton, secretary of West Florida
topography is nearly level to strongly sloping in the during the governorship of Andrew Jackson and
northern part of the county, gently sloping to steep in the secretary of the East-West Florida territory from 1822 to
central part of the county, and nearly level to gently 1826. Walton County was formed from part of Escambia
sloping in the southern part of the county. County. Santa Rosa, Washington, Holmes, and Okaloosa
The county is about 50 miles long and about 33 miles Counties were formed from parts of the original Walton
wide. DeFuniak Springs, the county seat, is in the central County (25).
part of the county. Some of the towns and communities Before the county was established, the Euchees
are Argyle, Darlington, Glendale, Freeport, Mossy Head, Indians lived in the area next to the Choctawhatchee






2 Soil Survey



Bay and River and extending up to the area that is now October and November have the least rain, followed by
Redbay. Spanish explorers passed through the area in April and May. Most rainfall in the summer occurs during
the 1500's. Scottish people from North Carolina and the afternoon and evening in the form of showers or
South Carolina were invited to the area by Sam Story, thundershowers. These showers, which occur on the
chief of the Euchees Indians. They arrived in 1820 and average of 45 percent of the days, are widely scattered,
settled near Bruce Creek across from the area that is of short duration, and are often excessive. Summer
now Eucheeanna. Others settled in Alaqua Valley and showers are occasionally heavy, and 3 to 6 inches of
near Lake Jackson. rain can fall in an hour or two. These showers occur
The first county seat was on the stage coach route more often in the southern part of the county than they
from Tallahassee to Milton. It was located in the home of do in the northern part because of the moisture from the
the first justice-of-the-peace in the Alaqua community. In Gulf of Mexico. Day-long summer rains are rare, but
1845, the county seat was moved to Eucheeanna. The when they occur, they are almost always associated with
Eucheeanna Courthouse burned in 1885, destroying all tropical storms or hurricanes. Rainfall in excess of 8
records. The county seat moved to DeFuniak Springs in inches during a 24 hour period can be expected in about
February 1886. Early villages were Eucheeanna, 1 year in 8. This generally occurs when a hurricane or
Freeport, Redbay, and Argyle. Portland, Gaskin, tropical storm passes through. The hurricane season is
Darlington, Mossy Head, Liberty, Paxton, Glendale, and from June through November.
Bruce were established later. Rainfalls in winter and early in spring occur as a result
The early economy of Walton County depended on of invasions of cold air masses. These rainfalls are
sheep, cattle, woodland, saw mills, turpentine stills, and gentle, of longer duration, generally 1 to 3 days in length,
agriculture (26). In the early 1920's, a tick eradication and more widespread than the rainfalls in summer. The
program was completed and the quality of cattle was Gulf of Mexico diminishes the effect of these large-scale
greatly improved. In the late 1940's, a no-fence law was weather developments in the southern part of the
passed and large herds no longer roamed the area. This county, and as a result, more rainfall occurs in the
helped farmers improve their pastures. Turpentine stills northern part.
decreased as synthetics gained favor. The important Snowfall is rare, and measurable snow occurs about
crops were corn, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, sweet once in 10 years. It rarely remains on the ground for
potatoes, and peanuts. Pulpwood remains an important more than 24 hours. The heaviest snowfall recorded in
factor in the economy. Walton County was on February 12, 1958, when the area
The Choctawhatchee National Forest was established received 2 to 3 inches of snow.
in the southwest part of Walton County in 1908. In 1940, Hail falls occasionally during a thunderstorm, but
the U.S. Forestry Service ceded the Choctawhatchee hailstorms are small, and damage is minimal.
National Forest to the War Department as part of Eglin Ground fog generally occurs at night or early in the
Air Force Base. morning late in fall, in winter, and early in spring. The
sun dissipates the fog very quickly.
Climate The Gulf breeze is largely responsible for the mild,
moist climate, but the proximity to the North American
Agriculture depends as much on climate as it does on land mass gives this county a slightly more continental
the soil. The species, expected yields, and management climate and greater temperature extremes than are
needed are affected by the average length of the encountered in peninsular Florida. The average
growing season, the amount and distribution of rainfall, temperature in June, July, and August is 80.8 degrees F.
and the frequency, intensity, and timing of extremes in Temperatures of 90 degrees or higher occur in June,
temperature and precipitation. July, August, and September, but 100 degrees occurs
Walton County has a warm, humid-temperate climate, only a few days a year. The warm and humid days are
Summers are long, warm, and humid and winters are moderated by clouds and the associated
mild and short. The Gulf of Mexico moderates thundershowers or showers. The Gulf of Mexico
temperatures during the winter along the coast, but the moderates most of the air masses, and as a result, hot
effect diminishes appreciably a few miles inland. The desiccating winds and very high temperatures seldom
average annual temperature is 68 degrees F., and occur. Warm, summery weather lasts until early in
rainfall averages 66 inches a year (22). October.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation Although the county is punctuated with periodic
for Walton County as recorded at DeFuniak Springs for invasions of cold air masses from the north, the cold
the period from 1896 to 1952. periods only last from 1 to 3 days. The coldest weather
About 44 percent of the annual precipitation occurs generally occurs on the second night after heat is lost
during June, July, August, and September, although through radiation. The average temperature in
unusual amounts may fall during any month. The December, January, and February is 54.2 degrees F.
greatest amount of rain occurs in July and August. Temperatures range from the high forties to the low





Walton County, Florida 3



seventies. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of
20 days every winter.
Freezing temperatures of 20 degrees F. or lower can
be expected at least one winter out of two.
Temperatures as low as 10 degrees F. are rare and
occur only once in every 25 years. The lowest
temperature on record is 0 degrees F. recorded at
DeFuniak Springs on February 13, 1899. Table 2 gives
the freeze dates in spring and fall. The earliest freezing
temperature in fall is November 4, and the latest in STE
spring is March 26. Freeze data for the county are WE TERN RIVER
shown in table 3. VALLEY
March is the windiest month of the year with wind LO W LANDS
speeds averaging between 8 and 15 miles per hour HIGHLAN DS
during the day but dropping below 8 miles per hour at H HL S/
night. The prevailing winds are from the north and -
northwest in spring and summer. August has the lowest ---
average wind velocity. Tornadoes are common in spring.
A moderate Gulf breeze blows during the summer, but
the breeze diminishes greatly further inland. High winds
of short duration occur occasionally with thunderstorms H""
in summer and with fronts moving across the country in III II
other seasons. Tropical disturbances can generate very II GULFIN 1 1 1 I I
destructive winds up to 200 miles per hour. These I CI I I A
seriously destructive hurricanes occur about once in IIllIliIllililil I -
every 8 years during June to November. Hurricanes, with W LANDS
high winds and accompanying rainfall and tornadoes, ''IIIl
can destroy crops by wind damage and flooding. Erosion ----
is a severe hazard when more than a half inch of rain
falls within an hour or two. 1 11 11 "
At the other extreme, an occasional short drought I I I
occurs late in spring when plants are beginning to grow
and temperature is high. This moisture deficit can I 1
damage crops, pastures, and gardens, and it can only be
overcome by supplemental irrigation.

Physiography and Stratigraphy Figure 1.-Physiography divisions of Walton County, Florida.
Walter Schmidt, geologist, Florida Geological Survey, helped prepare
this section.
Walton County contains three major geomorphic topography is characterized by erosional remnant hills
divisions-the Western Highlands (8), the Gulf Coastal that have relief of up to 100 feet. The highest hills reach
Lowlands, and the River Valley Lowlands (fig. 1). elevations in excess of 340 feet near the state line and
The Western Highlands is a discontinuous area of slope to elevations of about 150 feet in the southern part
relatively high land that extends from Alabama and of the county where the Pleistocene marine terrace
Georgia into Florida across the northern part of the deposits overlay them. These hills are composed of a
state. The southern boundary is about 30 to 40 miles heterogeneous mixture of grayish to yellowish orange
south of the state line and is generally marked by a silts, quartz sands, and gravels that are poorly indurated
prominent seaward-facing escarpment, the Cody Scarp with clays and iron oxide, massive clay beds, and post-
(13). These highlands have been described as the depositional limonite.
remnant of a large delta plain that blanketed the older A feature that is characteristic of the highlands area of
Miocene deposits in post-late Miocene to early west Florida is called "steepheads." At the head of
Pleistocene time (24). many small creeks or streams, a spring emerges at the
In Walton County, the Western Highlands is base of a steep-walled, semicircular bluff. Indurated
composed of a Pliocene-Pleistocene delta (Citronelle sands and sandy clays are underlain by slightly indurated
Formation) whose surface has been dissected by sands and clays and shell marls. The surface waters
streams, exposing underlying Miocene clastics. The pass into the earth and, upon reaching the underlying






4 Soil Survey



clay or marl beds, emerge as springs. The indurated back into the Pleistocene Epoch, and the
sandy clays near the surface stand up vertically, and the geomorphology of their river valley lowlands reflects the
softer sands, at a greater depth where the springs Pleistocene sea level fluctuations as do the coastal
emerge, erode easily. The result is the formation of a marine terraces.
nearly vertical bluff at the base of which springs emerge. Rivers pass through a period of downcutting or erosion
These bluffs or stream heads assume in time a and alluviation. The younger the stream, the more
semicircular form, which is the "steephead." The vigorous the erosion and the more irregular and steep is
steephead thus formed is retained by the stream as it its longitudinal profile or slope. Gradually, a valley is cut
gradually extends its way back into the plateau. The and the flood plain sediment is deposited within it, and a
steephead is generally from 50 to 60 feet or more deep condition of equilibrium is approached. The stream
into the plateau, depending upon the depth at which the acquires a profile just sufficient to permit transportation
ground waters emerge as springs (16). of its load, and it then meanders back and forth across
Relatively flat, swampy areas that are locally called its flood plain. However, a change in any aspect of the
"bays" also commonly occur in the highlands area of stream system is reflected in a readjustment of the entire
Walton County. The bays range from a few acres to over system by either renewed downcutting or renewed
a square mile in area. The terrain immediately alluviation within its valley. Consequently, during the life
surrounding the bays is steep, and the bay floors are of streams that originated during the Pleistocene Epoch,
usually 60 to 80 feet or more lower than the surrounding a fluvial terrace exists for each lowering of base level.
highlands. The bays are frequently interconnected with The terrace was formed as a flood plain of the river.
small creeks. Their outlines are very irregular, and some Fluvial terraces above the modern flood plain are
of the larger bays have hills within their broader limits, common along streams in the Coastal Plains Province.
Large streams are not responsible for the erosion of Stratigraphic units in the Western Florida Panhandle
these bays. They are the result of dissolution of calcium have been extensively described (11, 14, 23). By
carbonate deposits (limestone) with subsequent surface studying cuttings from deep oil tests and numerous
lowering. Although sinkholes occur in this fashion and water wells, many geologic formations have been
are present in the area, the bays are unlike classical mapped. The deepest unit penetrated in Walton County
sinkholes. The bays are large; have irregular outlines and is a granite at 14,480 feet below the surface. Above that
relatively flat, swampy bottoms; and are apparently are several thousand feet of shales and sandstones of
forming at a slower rate than classical sinkholes. Mesozoic age. Next higher in the section is about 2,000
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands is a series of coast-parallel feet of clays and calcareous sands. Still higher is 1,000
plains or terraces composed of clastics that extend from or 2,000 feet of sandy limestones and calcareous
the coast to successively higher levels in a landward glauconitic sands. Nearing the surface are dolomitic
direction. Each terrace is separated from the next by an limestones, sandy clayey limestones, and finally, shell
escarpment or gentle slope. In the southern part of beds, clayey sands, and sands.
Walton County, plains lying almost parallel to the present The three major stratigraphic units exposed in Walton
coastline are bounded by escarpments. County are-the Alum Bluff Group, the Citronelle
During the Pleistocene Epoch, world-wide fluctuations Formation, and the Terrace and Fluvial Sands.
of sea level were caused by the formation and The Alum Bluff Group sediment extends in a wide
dissipation of polar ice caps. The major advances of the band across the Florida Panhandle from Leon County in
ice caps are referred to as glacial stages. These the east to Okaloosa County in the west. The sediment
advances required vast quantities of water supplied from is generally covered by the younger Citronelle Formation.
the seas, which resulted in lowered sea levels. When the As a result, exposures are limited to areas where the
ice caps receded, large quantities of water were Citronelle sands have been removed, mostly stream
released resulting in higher sea levels. Since each bluffs and the side slopes of river valleys. The outcrop
advance and recession of the ice caps was of a different pattern can be observed on the geologic map (fig. 2). All
magnitude, the lowering or rise in sea level was also exposures are on side slopes of stream valleys and
different, bluffs where the overlying sands and gravels have been
During the period when the ice caps were in an removed.
interglacial stage, the higher sea levels encroached upon These shell beds of the Alum Bluff Group were
the land. At these high stands, the seas eroded the deposited in a shallow water marine environment. Some
inundated sediment and redeposited it in the form of a locations contain fauna characteristic of brackish waters;
sloping plain or terrace. At the landward margin or whereas other outcrops have representatives of open
shoreline of the seas there exists a terrace with its sea conditions. This fauna is indicative of shallow water
shoreline escarpment. inland bays often washed by tidal action.
The River Valley Lowlands is the flood plain deposits The Alum Bluff Group sediment in the Walton County
of streams and their associated valleys. Many streams in area is composed of quartz sands, clays, and shell beds.
the Coastal Plain are old enough to have extended well The lithology ranges from sandy clay or clayey sand, to






Walton County, Florida 5



small quarries are throughout the county. A 5- to 15-foot
---:_ .. ---- section of the Citronelle Formation may be observed in
I these quarries, and all size fractions and admixtures are
iI generally represented in a section only a few feet thick.
The deposits are commonly cross-bedded, leticular,
r .. graveliferous sands that contain an occasional thin bed
-j of clay and varying amounts of silt and clay that tend to
SLE, END weakly indurate the sediment. Bedding has not been
--. observed that extended more than a few hundred feet
S-... without noticeable changes in thickness and variations in
-. -size fractions. Channel scour and fill sequences are also
J common.
S. Overlying most of the mapped and named geologic
--,- --J formations in Florida is a sequence of relatively
S unconsolidated, clean quartz sands. These sands were
'~' ',- deposited during the many Pleistocene sea level
,- .. .. fluctuations as the shallow seas eroded, winnowed, and
-------- redeposited the existing sediment. In Walton County,
-,- ,--- ** ;:---., '' "^most of this sand represents reworked Miocene and
SPliocene deposits, such as the Alum Bluff Group and the
S ---" --' Citronelle Formation. This appears on the geologic cross
r" o-,, 00 ,' sections downdip near the present coast (fig. 3).
76 v Ancient sea level fluctuations to varying degrees have
5 left behind terraces and shoreline scarps on the
S"landscape. These marine features have been mapped by
CHOCTAWHATCHEE -' several geologists throughout Florida (9, 10, 26). In
Walton County, this coastal wedge of sands thins
northward and seems to pinch out near the 150-foot
25' elevation line along one of these ancient scarps (see fig.
2). Late Pleistocene to recent deposition along major
-, I river and stream valleys also represents a significant
accumulation of these sands. In Walton County, the
Choctawhatchee River Valley in the southeastern part of
the county is the major river system (see fig. 1).
The reworked terrace and fluvial sands are
Figure 2.-Geologic map of Walton County, Florida. predominately an unconsolidated body of white to light
gray, medium grained quartz sands. Accessory minerals,
generally in amounts less than 1 percent, include various
heavy minerals, mica, and phosphorite. Clay lenses are
shell marl, to pure sand or clay. Accessory minerals sometimes encountered, associated with occasional
include phosphate, glauconite, various heavy minerals, shell beds.
pyrite, and mica. The clay minerals of the Alum Bluff
sediment are dominated by montmorillonite but also
contain small amounts of kaolinite and illite. The clay Natural Resources
beds are generally gray but may be dark gray to black to Soil is one of the main natural resources in Walton
greenish gray. Limestone is a minor component of the County. More than a third of the soils in the county are
Alum Bluff lithology except where it occurs in used for crops and pasture grasses. The long growing
discontinuous lenses or beds. season, favorable climate, and adequate water supply all
The Citronelle Formation consists of all surface help make this county good for farming.
deposits in the northern two-thirds of Walton County that Water is also a very important natural resource in
occur stratigraphically above the Alum Bluff Group Walton County (12). Many perennial streams throughout
sediment. This includes the interstream divides, but in the county offer a wide variety of recreational activities
most cases not the stream valleys because the and also have high potential for industrial uses. On many
Citronelle deposits have been removed by erosion, farms that do not have adequate surface water, earthfill
exposing the Alum Bluff strata. ponds provide water for livestock and for boating and
The Citronelle deposits range from clay through gravel, fishing. The two major aquifers in Walton County are the
but sands are the most common size fraction. Numerous Sand-and-Gravel Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The








6 Soil Survey






A A'

S w- W-8102
T6N-R21W-SEC36bc W-i103
STN-R21W-SEC35ccc W-8354
400120 CITROT3N-R2W 3ccb -8351
FORMATION T2N-R21W-SEC9c W-8353
1- 00 A TIN-R21W-SECISbdd
300
80 jCITRONELLE W-8877
200- 60 FORMATION TIS-R2,W-SEC22d
200- 60

40 W-B865
100- ALUM T2S-R21WSEC35bb
20 BLUFF
GROUP

-2 0 C H A T TA H O O C H E E / C H IC K A SA W H AY R A
"-40 LIMESTONE UNDIFF.
~BRUCE i INTRacOASTAL
C200--60 REEK LIMESTONE rFM -FOUR-MILE
200 60 VILLAGE
MEMBER
-80
-300 A B
-100 5 S

-400 -120 o .es s
-140 A
-500 -







SB B

400 W-7973 W-10832
1 20 T5N-RI8W-SEC33oc T2N-RI8W-SEC2Idd W-7971 W-8587
W-8013 / W-8105 W-7974 I TIN-RI8W-SEC9dc T2S-RI8W-SEC13bo
300 T5N-RI8W-SEC4d. T4N-Ri8W-SEC3Ibd T N-RIBW-SEC3oo

-80- ~ i-- L Fj ^^ ^ CITRONELLE FM
200 -
ALUM W-8355 W-8873
40 C HOO O BLUFF UNDFF TIS-RI W-SEC20bc T3S-RI8W-SECI bc


0 0 UNOIF SAND MSL

-MTE NTRACOASTAL
-100 < ::][N I FM FOUR-MILE
VILLAGE
-200 MEMBER
-200
--80
-300



Figure 3.-Geologic cross sections of Walton County, Florida.





Sand-and-Gravel Aquifer supplies some water for rural Other natural resources of the county include
domestic use. It also stores water, maintains streamflow, beaches, sand, and soil material suitable for road
and is a source of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer. The construction.
Floridan Aquifer underlies all of Walton County. Most of The natural resources in Walton county can be
the water for domestic and industrial uses comes from developed in an orderly manner. Good management,
wells dug into this aquifer. The aquifer discharges proper use, and wise construction are needed to
through springs and seeps along the Choctawhatchee preserve the resources for the future
River and by leakage to the bay and gulf, and by wells.
Forestry and forest products are important in Walton
County (fig. 4). Much of the county remains in woodland,
which continues to be one of the major natural
resources.






Walton County, Florida 7





L


























Figure 4.-Turpentine is one of several wood products produced in Walton County. These pines are on Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.



Farming grassed waterways, and permanent vegetation are
necessary for maximum protection.
Walton County is mainly a general farming area, and The Choctawhatchee River Soil and Water
the capability of many of the soils, the climate, and Conservation District was organized in March 1940 to
present economic conditions indicate that farming will provide an organized plan for assisting farmers, land
continue to be important. The principal crops are users, and public agencies with problems related to soil
soybeans, corn, peanuts, cotton, and small grains. Small and water conservation. It was the second district in the
acreages of truck crops, muscadine grapes, and pecans state.
are also grown. Most of the cropland is in the northern
part of the county north of U.S. Highway 90. Livestock
production also contributes to the farming industry of the Recreation
county. Cattle, hogs, and poultry are the main livestock. A variety of recreation activities is available in Walton
About 120,000 acres, or 18 percent of Walton County, County including fishing, camping, hunting, swimming,
is in crops and pasture. About 75 percent is cropland sunbathing, hiking, surfing, boating, golfing, water skiing,
and 25 percent is pasture. The main pasture grasses canoeing, cave diving, and horseback riding. Grayton
used for livestock grazing and hay are bahiagrass and Beach and Basin Bayou State Recreation Parks provide
coastal bermudagrass (fig. 5). swimming, sunbathing, picnicking, hiking, boating, and
Much of the cropland is subject to water and wind camping. Eden State Ornamental Garden is a historical
erosion. The soils in the county are some of the best in location. Point Washington and Eglin Wildlife
Florida for farming, but because of their susceptibility to Management Areas are used by hunters as well as for
erosion, terraces, no-till farming, gully control structures, camping, hiking, boating, and picnicking.
acreages ~ ~ ~ -ftukcos ucdn rps n eas sae






8 Soil Survey















W -t












Figure 5.-Hay yields of improved bermudagrass are high in this area of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.



Choctawhatchee River and Bay provide fishing and Railroad service is provided by Seaboard Chessie
boating. Juniper Lake, Spring Lake, Black Creek, System Railroad (formerly Louisville and Nashville
Smokehouse Lake, Kings Lake, Lake Jackson, Holley Railroad). The railroad is located between Interstate 10
Lake, Bishop Lake, and many small farm ponds are also and U.S. Highway 90. Air Service is provided in the
used for fishing. Fish caught include bass, bluegill, county by DeFuniak Springs Municipal Airport. Barge
shellcracker, and catfish, lines serve Walton County from the port of Freeport. Bus
The Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, 4-H Club, and YMCA service is provided to DeFuniak Springs along U.S.
maintain district camps in Walton County. Highway 90.
The southern part of Walton County lies in what is
commonly known as the Miracle Strip. This 24-mile
stretch of white beaches is used by swimmers and How This Survey Was Made
sunbathers, and fishing is also available (fig. 6). Resorts,
camping areas, and golf courses are also along this This survey was made to provide information about the
area. soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
Transportation discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
Walton County has five primary arteries for automobile the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
travel. U.S. Highway 331 extends in a north-south pattern of drainage; and the kinds of crops and native
direction. U.S. Highway 90, Interstate 10, Florida plants growing on the soils. They dug many holes to
Highway 20, and U.S. Highway 98 are in an east-west study the soil profile, which is the sequence of natural
direction. U.S. Highway 90 (Old Spanish Trail) and layers, or horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the
Interstate 10 go through the center of the county. Florida surface down into the unconsolidated material from
Highway 20 is north of Choctawhatchee Bay and U.S. which the soil formed. The unconsolidated material is
Highway 98 is along the coast. Many small roads and devoid of roots and other living organisms and has not
highways are throughout the county. been changed by other biological activity.






Walton County, Florida 9



The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, an area and to determine the boundaries.
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By size and shape of soil aggregates, distribution of plant
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their roots, acidity, and other features that enable them to
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey area
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils and determining their properties, the soil scientists
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape, has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison to
into one another as their characteristics gradually classify soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil classification used in the United States is based mainly
scientists must determine the boundaries between the on the kind and character of soil properties and the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, area, they compared the individual soils with similar soils




771


.. '














: 9 "













Figure 6.-Many beaches along the Gulf Coast are used for recreation. Seaoats protect the dunes from erosion. The dunes are Newhan-
Corolla sands, rolling.






10



in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that they classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
could confirm data and assemble additional data based taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
on experience and research, properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
were field tested through observation of the soils in is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
different uses under different levels of management. some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units,
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other they are called soils of minor extent.
sources, such as research information, production Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
data on crop yields under defined levels of management the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
experiments on the same kinds of soil. inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over management. These are contrasting
or require different management. These are contrasting
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
a high water table within certain depths in most years, cause of t so ae ued n pin the map unit
but they cannot assure that a high water table will contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
date. observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
After soil scientists located and identified the descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they complex that it was impractical to make enough
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. landscape.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
accurately. The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
Map Unit Composition landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area information for the development of resource plans, but
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
identified and named according to the taxonomic in small areas.
















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication bottom lands surrounded by gently sloping to steep side
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of slopes.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general This map unit makes up about 180,981 acres, or about
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map 27 percent of the county. It is 90 percent Lakeland soils
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
one unit can occur in other units but in a different surface layer is dark grayish brown sand 4 inches thick.
pattern. It is underlain by yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and
The general soil map can be used to compare the light yellowish brown sand.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Of minor extent in this map unit are the Eglin, Troup,
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Foxworth, Albany, Chipley, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Rutlege soils. Eglin soils are somewhat excessively
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for drained, and Troup soils are well drained. Foxworth soils
planning the management of a farm or field or for are moderately well drained. Albany and Chipley soils
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. are somewhat poorly drained. Dorovan, Pamlico, and
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place Rutlege soils are very poorly drained.
in slope, drainage, and other characteristics that affect The soils of this map unit are used mostly for natural
management. vegetation of turkey oak, live oak, longleaf pine, sand
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, specialty pine, and wiregrass. In a few areas, they are used for
crops, woodland, urban uses, and recreation areas. urban development.
Cultivated crops are those grown extensively in the These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
survey area. Specialty crops are the vegetables and because of low available water capacity and steepness
fruits that generally require intensive management. of slope. They are moderately suited to use as pasture
Woodland refers to areas of native or introduced trees, or woodland but the low available water capacity is a
Urban uses include residential, commercial, and limitation. In most areas, the soils are well suited to
industrial developments. Intensive recreation areas are development of recreation sites and to urban uses.
campsites, picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that
are subject to heavy foot traffic. Extensive recreation 2. Bonifay-Troup
areas are those used for nature study and as wilderness.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils that
Excessively Drained and Well Drained Soils That are are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more and have a
Droughty loamy subsoil
This group consists mainly of soils that are excessively This map unit is around the drainage system of Shoal
drained and well drained, nearly level to steep. These River and Sandy Creek in the central part of the county.
soils are sandy throughout, or they are sandy to a depth Some small areas of this map unit are on Eglin Air Force
of 40 to 79 inches and are loamy below that. They are in Base. The map unit consists of nearly level ridges and
the south-central part of the county, gently sloping to strongly sloping side slopes
interspersed with long, narrow bottom lands. The Troup
1. Lakeland soils are generally on slightly higher landscape positions
than the Bonifay soils.
Nearly level to steep, excessively drained soils that are This map unit makes up about 79,993 acres, or about
sandy throughout 12 percent of the county. It is about 18 percent Bonifay
This map unit is primarily in the central and soils, 16 percent Troup soils, and 66 percent soils of
southwestern part of Walton County. A large part is on minor extent.
Eglin Air Force Base and extends to DeFuniak Springs Bonifay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
and Red Bay. This map unit consists of broad areas of layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand 7 inches
nearly level sandhills interspersed with long, narrow thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of 44 inches is






12 Soil Survey



yellowish brown and brownish yellow loamy sand. The well drained, and Chipley, Corolla, Hurricane, and
subsoil to a depth of at least 80 inches is yellowish Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
brown and brownish yellow sandy loam that has plinthite. The soils of this map unit are used mostly for live oak,
Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface sand pine, and scrub oak. Very little vegetation is on the
layer is dark grayish brown sand 7 inches thick. The Newhan soils, and vegetation is stunted on the Kureb
subsurface layer to a depth of 51 inches is yellowish soils. The Lakeland soils have a good growth of sand
brown, strong brown, and yellowish red sand and loamy pine. Some areas of this map unit near the Gulf of
sand. The subsoil is red fine sandy loam and sandy clay Mexico are in urban uses.
loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops,
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Fuquay, Lucy, pasture, and woodland because of the low available
Blanton, Pactolus, Albany, Bibb, Kinston, Johnston, water capacity. In most areas, they are well suited to
Dorovan, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. Fuquay and Lucy development of recreation sites and urban uses.
soils are well drained, and Blanton and Pactolus soils Wetness is a limitation in some areas that include the
are moderately well drained. Albany soils are somewhat Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, and Resota soils.
poorly drained. Bibb and Kinston soils are poorly drained.
Johnston, Dorovan, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils are very Well Drained Soils That Have a Loamy Subsoil
poorly drained.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly for natural This group consists mainly of highly dissected soils
stands of turkey oak, live oak, or longleaf pine. In some that are well drained, nearly level to strongly sloping, and
areas, these trees have been cut and chopped, and have a loamy subsoil. Some of these soils have a loamy
slash pines have been planted, surface layer underlain by a loamy subsoil; some have a
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops and surface layer of loamy sand 20 to 40 inches thick
pasture because of the low available water capacity. underlain by a loamy subsoil; some have a surface layer
They are moderately well suited to use as woodland. In of sand and loamy sand 40 to 80 inches thick underlain
most areas, the soils are well suited to development of by a loamy subsoil; and others have a loamy surface
recreation sites and to urban uses. Albany, Blanton, and layer underlain by a clayey subsoil.
Pactolus soils are limited for these uses because of This group of soils is north of U.S. Highway 90 in the
wetness. Eucheeanna and Alaqua Valleys.

3. Kureb-Lakeland-Newhan 4. Fuquay-Dothan-Troup

Nearly level to very steep, excessively drained soils that Nearly level to sloping, well drained, sandy soils that
are sandy throughout have a loamy subsoil at various depths
This map unit borders the Gulf of Mexico. Newhan This map unit is in woodland and cultivated farmland
soils are the sand dunes just back of the beaches. Kureb in the northern part of Walton County. The soils are
soils are inland from the Newhan soils, and Lakeland undulating.
soils are the most inland. This map unit makes up about 114,139 acres, or about
This map unit makes up about 6,475 acres, or about 1 17 percent of the county. It is about 20 percent Fuquay
percent of the county. It is about 54 percent Kureb soils, soils, 16 percent Dothan soils, 13 percent Troup soils,
14 percent Lakeland soils, 6 percent Newhan soils, and and 51 percent soils of minor extent.
26 percent soils of minor extent. Typically, Fuquay soils have a surface layer of dark
Typically, Kureb soils have a surface layer of gray grayish brown loamy sand 5 inches thick. The
sand 4 inches thick. The subsurface is white sand to a subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand that
depth of 17 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 68 extends to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish
inches. In the upper part, it is brownish yellow sand that brown and brownish yellow sandy loam that has plinthite.
has tongues of white, and below that, it is yellowish Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
brown, brownish yellow, and yellow sand. The dark grayish brown loamy sand 8 inches thick. The
substratum is very pale brown sand. subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of dark yellowish brown sandy loam in the upper part, and in the
grayish brown sand 4 inches thick. Below that is middle part, it is yellowish brown and brownish yellow
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and light yellowish sandy clay loam that has plinthite. The lower part of the
brown sand. subsoil is mottled brownish yellow, strong brown, light
Typically, Newhan soils have a surface layer of light gray, yellowish red, and red sandy loam.
gray sand 5 inches thick underlain by white sand. Typically, Troup soils have a surface layer of dark
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Foxworth, grayish brown sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
Resota, Chipley, Corolla, Hurricane, and Mandarin soils, to a depth of 51 inches is yellowish brown sand in the
and Beaches. Foxworth and Resota soils are moderately upper part and strong brown and yellowish red loamy







Walton County, Florida 13



sand in the lower part. The subsoil is red fine sandy Kinston soils are poorly drained. Pantego and Johnston
loam and sandy clay loam. soils are very poorly drained.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bonifay, Lucy, The soils of this map unit are used for cultivated
Orangeburg, Tifton, Blanton, Pactolus, Stilson, Albany, crops. In some areas, they are planted to slash pine.
Escambia, Florala, Leefield, Bibb, Kinston, Johnston, and These soils have few limitations for any use and
Pantego soils. The Bonifay, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Tifton generally need only simple management. They are well
soils are well drained; the Blanton, Pactolus, and Stilson suited to cultivated crops. Nearly all of the acreage has
soils, are moderately well drained; the Albany, Escambia, been cleared and is farmed extensively. These soils are
Florala, and Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained; well suited to use as woodland and pasture and to most
and the Bibb, Kinston, Johnston, and Pantego soils are urban development. They are moderately well suited to
poorly drained. sanitary facilities. Septic tank absorption fields need to
The soils of this map unit are used mostly for forest of be enlarged to compensate for the slower movement of
longleaf and slash pine. In many areas, the soils are effluent through the soil.
used for row crops and pasture. The wetter minor soils
are used mainly for pasture. 6. Norfolk-Shubuta-Bonneau
These soils are moderately well suited to crops
because of low to medium available water capacity. They Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained, sandy and
are well suited to use as pasture. Good management, loamy soils that have a loamy or clayey subsoil at a
including terraces on slopes, helps control erosion on depth of 20 to 40 inches
land cleared for farming. Under such management, these This map unit is in the Eucheeanna and Alaqua
soils are highly productive. Valleys and south of DeFuniak Springs. It includes the
These soils are well suited to use as woodland and watershed of Alaqua Creek and Bruce Creek and some
habitat for wildlife and to recreation uses. Wetness is a of Sandy Creek.
concern in areas of minor soils. The soils are highly This map unit makes up about 70,045 acres, or about
erodible where slope is more than 5 percent. 10 percent of the county. It is about 19 percent Norfolk
These soils are moderately well suited to urban soils, 10 percent Shubuta soils, 17 percent Bonneau
development. They are only moderately suited to use for soils, and 54 percent soils of minor extent.
sanitary facilities. Septic tank absorption fields need to Typically, Norfolk soils have a surface layer of dark
be enlarged to compensate for the soils that restrict grayish brown loamy sand 5 inches thick. The
movement of effluent. subsurface layer to a depth of 15 inches is yellowish
5. Malbis-Fuquay brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a depth of 62 inches
is brownish yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and well substratum is reticulately mottled sandy loam.
drained, loamy and sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil Typically, Shubuta soils have a surface layer of very
at a depth of less than 20 inches or at a depth of 20 to dark grayish brown fine sandy loam 6 inches thick. The
40 inches subsurface layer to a depth of 11 inches is dark brown
This map unit is in the northwestern part of the county. fine sandy loam. The subsoil is yellowish red and red
The soils are undulating. clay to a depth of at least 80 inches.
This map unit covers about 26,786 acres, or about 4 Typically, Bonneau soils have a surface layer of dark
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Malbis soils, grayish brown loamy sand 5 inches thick. The
21 percent Fuquay soils, and 29 percent soils of minor subsurface layer to a depth of 25 inches is yellowish
extent. brown and light brownish yellow loamy sand. The subsoil
Typically, Malbis soils have a surface layer of dark is brownish yellow and strong brown sandy loam and
grayish brown fine sandy loam 6 inches thick. The sandy clay loam to a depth of 68 inches. The substratum
subsoil is brownish yellow, yellowish brown, and strong is reticulately mottled fine sandy loam.
brown fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam. It has high Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lakeland,
silt content and plinthite. Bonifay, Fuquay, Lucy, Troup, Orangeburg, Blanton,
Typically, Fuquay soils have a surface layer of dark Angle, Florala, Bibb, Kinston, and Johnston soils.
grayish brown loamy sand 5 inches thick. The Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Bonifay, Fuquay,
subsurface is yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of Lucy, Troup, and Orangeburg soils are well drained.
26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown and brownish Blanton soils are moderately well drained, and Angle and
yellow fine sandy loam that has plinthite. Florala soils are somewhat poorly drained. Bibb and
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bonifay, Kinston soils are poorly drained, and Johnston soils are
Stilson, Escambia, Leefield, Bibb, Kinston, Pantego, and very poorly drained.
Johnston soils. Bonifay soils are well drained, and The soils of this map unit are used for forest of
Stilson soils are moderately well drained. Escambia and longleaf, slash pine, and loblolly pines. In some areas,
Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. Bibb and they are used for pasture.






14 Soil Survey



These soils are well suited to use for crops and soils, it is swamp cyrilla, greenbrier, baldcypress, and
pasture. Good management and terraces constructed sweetbay.
where slope is a limitation reduce erosion on land These soils are poorly suited to crops. Hurricane soils
cleared for farming. Under such management, these are moderately well suited to the commonly grown
soils are highly productive, grasses, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and coastal
The soils of this map unit are well suited to use as bermudagrass. These grasses grow well if properly
woodland, wildlife habitat, and recreation. The major managed. Controlled grazing helps maintain good ground
soils are highly erodible where slope is more than 5 cover and vigorous plant growth. Regular applications of
percent. lime and fertilizer are also needed. Drainage is required
These soils are well suited to most urban in places to remove water from the minor soils that are
development. They are moderately suited to sanitary wet for long periods. Pamlico soils are not suited to use
facilities; however, absorption fields need to be greatly for the production of these grasses.
enlarged to compensate for the very slow movement of Hurricane soils are moderately well suited to use as
effluent through the Shubuta and Angie soils, woodland. Slash and longleaf pine grow well. Good
management ensures high production. Pamlico soils are
Moderately Well Drained to Very Poorly Drained not suited to use for pines.
Soils That are Mucky, Sandy, or Loamy Hurricane soils are moderately suited to urban and
This group consists of soils that are moderately well recreation uses, but Pamlico soils are not suited. The
drained to very poorly drained and level. They are high water table limits the effectiveness of septic tanks.
organic and sandy soils, and all the soils are sandy or
loamy in some part at a depth of at least 60 inches. 8. Chipley-Foxworth-Albany
These soils are in the southern part of the county.
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
7. Hurricane-Pamlico or moderately well drained soils; some are sandy
throughout, and others are sandy and have a loamy
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained subsoil below a depth of 40 inches
to very poorly drained soils; some are organic underlain This map unit consists of soils in broad, flat areas that
by sandy material, and others are sandy throughout are normally wet during most years. These areas are just
This map unit is in broad flatwoods interspersed with north of the Choctawhatchee River and Bay and are
cypress ponds between the Choctawhatchee River and lower than the surrounding areas of soils in other map
Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane soils are on flatwoods, and units.
Pamlico soils are in the cypress ponds. This map unit makes about 48,809 acres, or 7 percent
This map unit makes up about 23,870 acres, or 4 of the county. It is about 20 percent Chipley soils, 14
percent of the county. It is about 36 percent Hurricane percent Foxworth soils, 12 percent Albany soils, and 54
soils, 22 percent Pamlico soils, and 42 percent soils of percent soils of minor extent.
minor extent. Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand 6 inches thick. The
the surface layer is very dark gray sand 5 inches thick, underlying material is yellowish brown, light yellowish
The subsurface layer to a depth of 63 inches is brown, brown, very pale brown, and light gray sand.
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and white sand. The Foxworth soils are moderately well drained. They are
subsoil is black sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. in higher positions than the Chipley and Albany soils.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown and brown
are muck to a depth of 30 inches and are underlain by sand 7 inches thick. The underlying materi 1I is yellowish
sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. brown, brownish yellow, yellow, very pale brown, and
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lakeland, light gray sand.
Foxworth, Resota, Chipley, Mandarin, Leon, Dorovan, Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
Pickney, and Rutlege soils. Lakeland soils are the surface layer is very dark gray and dark grayish
excessively drained. Foxworth and Resota soils are brown loamy sand 11 inches thick. The subsurface to a
moderately well drained. Chipley and Mandarin soils are depth of 45 inches is yellowish brown loamy sand. The
somewhat poorly drained, and Leon soils are poorly subsoil is yellowish brown and light yellowish brown
drained. Dorovan, Pickney, and Rutlege soils are very sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
poorly drained. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lakeland,
The soils of this unit are used mainly for natural Eglin, Bonifay, Blanton, Stilson, Leefield, Garcon, Bibb,
vegetation. In some areas, they are planted to slash Kinston, Dorovan, Pamlico, Pantego, Johnston, and
pine. Natural vegetation on Hurricane soils is mostly Rutlege soils. Lakeland soils are excessively drained,
slash pine, longleaf pine, turkey oak, post oak, yaupon, and Eglin soils are somewhat excessively drained.
gallberry, and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). On Pamlico Bonifay soils are well drained, and Blanton and Stilson





Walton County, Florida 15



soils are moderately well drained. Leefield and Garcon 10. Leon-Pamlico
soils are somewhat poorly drained. Bibb and Kinston are
poorly drained, and Dorovan, Pamlico, Pantego, Level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils, some
Johnston, and Rutlege soils are very poorly drained, are sandy throughout, and others are muck underlain by
The soils of this map unit are used mainly for natural sandy material
vegetation mostly of pineland threeawn (wiregrass), This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods
gallberry, yaupon, and longleaf pine. In many areas, they interspersed with cypress ponds between the
are bedded and planted to slash pines. Choctawhatchee Bay and Gulf of Mexico. It borders Bay
These soils are poorly suited to crops because of County. Leon soils are in the flatwoods, and Pamlico
wetness. They are moderately suited to pastures of soils are in the cypress ponds.
Pensacola bahiagrass and coastal bermudagrass. The This map unit makes up about 7,987 acres, or 1
grasses grow well if properly managed. Controlled
grazing helps maintain good ground cover and vigorous percent of the county. It is about 42 percent Leon soils,
plant growth. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer 22 percent Pamlico soils, and 36 percent soils of minor
are also needed. Drainage is required to remove surface extent.
water from the minor soils that are wet for long periods. Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
The soils of this unit are moderately suited to use as layer is very dark gray sand 9 inches thick. The
woodland. Slash and longleaf pine grow well. subsurface layer to a depth of 18 inches is gray sand.
These soils are poorly suited to recreation and urban The subsoil is dark reddish brown, black, and yellowish
uses because of wetness. brown sand and loamy sand. Below that are white and
very dark gray sand.
9. Rutlege-Leon Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained soils are muck to a depth of 30 inches and are underlain by
that are sandy throughout sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods Of minor extend in this map unit are the Hurricane,
south of the Choctawhatchee Bay. Mandarin, Dorovan, and Rutlege soils. Hurricane and
This map unit makes up about 27,917 acres, or 4 Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained. Dorovan
percent of the county. It is about 56 percent Rutlege and Rutlege soils are very poorly drained.
soils, 23 percent Leon soils, and 21 percent soils of The soils of this map unit are used for natural
minor extent. vegetation mostly of longleaf pine, gallberry, yaupon, and
Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the palmetto on flatwoods. In some areas, they are planted
surface layer is black fine sand 17 inches thick. The to slash pine. Cypress, swamp cyrilla, greenbrier, and
underlying material is grayish brown, light brownish gray, sweetbay are the natural vegetation in the ponds.
and light gray fine sand. These soils are not suited to crops because of
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface wetness. They are poorly suited to use as pasture only if
layer is very dark gray sand 9 inches thick. The water control measures are used to remove excess
subsurface to a depth of 18 inches is gray sand. The water. Outlets are generally inadequate.
subsoil is dark reddish brown, black, and yellowish brown These soils are moderately suited to use as woodland.
sand and loamy sand. Below that are white and very The soils need to be bedded and drained.
dark gray sand. These soils are poorly suited to recreation and urban
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Resota, Thes be e te t eetn n n
Hurricane, Mandarin, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils. Resota uses because weness.
soils are moderately well drained. Hurricane and
Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained. Dorovan Somewhat Poorly Drained to Very Poorly Drained
and Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Soils That are Subject to Flooding or Ponding
The soils of this map unit are used for natural This group consists of soils that are level. Most of
vegetation mostly of longleaf pine, gallberry, yaupon, and these soils have a high water table dominately just below
palmetto. In some areas, they are planted to slash pine. or above the surface most of the year. Some of these
These soils are not suited to crops because of soils are sandy and mucky at the surface; the muck can
excessive wetness. They are poorly suited to use as extend to a depth of more than 5 feet. Other soils in this
pasture only if water control measures are used to group are somewhat poorly drained and have a loamy
remove excess water. Outlets are generally inadequate, subsoil. These soils are on stream terraces. Some soils
and these soils are seldom used as pasture.
a these soils are erael ued house as woodland have a high sulfur content and a high content of organic
The soils need to be bedde d and drained matter in the upper 3 or 4 feet and are underlain by sand
These soils are not suited to recreation and urban or clay. Also in this group are soils on the alluvial flood
uses because of excessive wetness. plain. These soils are loamy and are underlain by sand.






16 Soil Survey



11. Garcon these soils are on flood plains, thickness of the loamy
and sandy layers varies considerably.
Level, somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bigbee,
depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil e i m
Garcon, Dorovan, Pamlico, Pantego, and Johnston soils.
This map unit consists of soils on stream terraces Bigbee soils are excessively drained, and Garcon soils
along the Choctawhatchee River. These soils are lower are somewhat poorly drained. Dorovan, Pamlico,
than the uplands and are sometimes flooded. Pantego, and Johnston soils are very poorly drained.
This map unit makes up about 5,105 acres, or about 1 The soils of this map unit are used for natural
percent of the county. It is about 54 percent Garcon vegetation mostly of mixed hardwoods and a few
soils and 46 percent soils of minor extent. scattered pine.
Typically, Garcon soils have a surface layer of very These soils are not suited to crops or pasture, and
dark gray and dark grayish brown loamy fine sand 6 they are not used for crops.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown These soils are poorly suited to use as woodland.
and brownish yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of 25 They are not suited to urban or recreation uses. Wetness
inches. The subsoil to a depth of 49 inches is brownish and the hazard of flooding are severe limitations that are
yellow, light yellowish brown, and light gray fine sandy not practical to overcome.
loam and loamy fine sand. The substratum is white fine
sand. 13. Dorovan-Pamlico
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bigbee,
Bonneau, Kenansville, Bibb, Kinston, and Johnston soils. Nearly level, very poorly drained, deep, mucky soils and
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Bonneau and mucky soils that are underlain by sandy material
Kenansville soils are well drained. Bibb and Kinston soils This map unit consists mainly of soils in large bays
are poorly drained, and Johnston soils are very poorly and swamps in the northern part of the county and along
drained. flood plains in the sandhills mostly on Eglin Air Force
The vegetation on the soils of this map unit has been Base. Dorovan soils are mainly toward the center of the
cleared, cut over, and chopped. The soils have been areas and Pamlico soils are closer to the outer edges.
bedded and planted to slash pines. These soils are often flooded.
The soils of this map unit are moderately suited to use This map unit makes up about 25,126 acres, or about
for crops and pasture. Wetness and the hazard of 4 percent of the county. It is about 65 percent Dorovan
flooding by stream overflow are the major limitations, soils, 20 percent Pamlico soils, and 15 percent soils of
These soils are moderately well suited to use as minor extent.
woodland. Bedding is necessary for good pine growth. Dorovan soils are muck to a depth of at least 51
These soils are poorly suited to recreation and urban inches and are underlain by sandy material.
uses because of wetness and flooding. Typically, Pamlico soils are muck to a depth of 30
12. Kinston-Bibb inches and are underlain by sand to a depth of at least
80 inches.
Level, poorly drained soils that are stratified loamy and Of minor extent in this map unit are the Pactolus,
sandy material Albany, Bibb, Kinston, and Johnston soils. Pactolus soils
This map unit consists of soils in swamps and on flood are moderately well drained, and Albany soils are
plains throughout Walton County. These soils are often somewhat poorly drained. Bibb and Kinston soils are
flooded. poorly drained, and Johnston soils are very poorly
This map unit makes up 35,240 acres, or about 5 drained.
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Kinston All soils of this map unit are in swamps and are
soils, 34 percent Bibb soils, and 21 percent soils of undrained. Natural vegetation is swamp cyrilla, scattered
minor extent. longleaf pine, and mixed hardwoods.
Typically, Kinston soils have a surface layer of very These soils are not suited to crops or pasture because
dark gray loam 6 inches thick. The underlying material of wetness and flooding. They are poorly suited to urban
extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is dark and recreation uses because of low strength, wetness,
grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 35 inches and flooding.
and light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 42
inches. It is light gray sand to a depth of 48 inches and 14. Maurepas-Dirego
light gray clay loam below that. Since these soils are
generally on flood plains, the thickness of the loamy and Nearly level, very poorly drained, deep, mucky soils and
sandy layers varies considerably. mucky soils that are underlain by sandy material
Bibb soils are poorly drained. They are stratified sandy This map unit consists of Maurepas soils in the mouth
and loamy material throughout. The loamy material is of the Choctawhatchee River and Dirego soils in the salt
loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or silt loam. Since marshes. The mouth of the Choctawhatchee River is





Walton County, Florida 17



thoroughly dissected by numerous small bayous and Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bibb and
streams. These soils are often flooded. Kinston soils. These soils are poorly drained.
This map unit makes up about 16,297 acres, or about All soils of this map unit are in swamps and are
3 percent of the county. It is about 51 percent Maurepas undrained. Natural vegetation on the Maurepas soils is
soils, 11 percent Dirego soils, and 38 percent soils of mostly blackgum and cypress, and on the Dirego soils,
minor extent. mainly cordgrasses and needlerushes.
Maurepas soils are in low areas and are wet. Typically, These soils are not suited to crops, pasture, woodland,
they are muck to a depth of at least 65 inches. recreation, or urban uses because of excess wetness,
Typically, Dirego soils are muck to a depth of 48 flooding, and low strength.
inches and are underlain by sand to a depth of at least
65 inches. These soils have high salt and sulfur content.









19









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Kinston-Bibb association, frequently flooded, is an
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability of a soil other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
for specific uses. They also can be used to plan the of these included soils have properties that differ
management needed for those uses. More information substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
on each map unit, or soil, is given under "Use and differences could significantly affect use and
Management of the Soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named, a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
specific uses. shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations and
composition, thickness, and arrangement. capabilities for many uses. The Glossary defines many of
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 1-Albany-Pactolus loamy sands, 0 to 5 percent
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the slopes. This map unit consists of somewhat poorly
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil drained Albany soils and moderately well drained
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil Pactolus soils. Areas of these soils are too intricately
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil mixed or too small to be mapped separately at the
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or selected scale. These soils are nearly level to gently
management. For example, Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 sloping. They are on seepage slopes and low flats on
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Dothan uplands. Areas of this map unit range from 3 to 30
series. acres. Individual areas of soils within the map unit range
Some map units are made up of two or more major from 1 acre to 5 acres.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil Albany soil makes up about 55 to 70 percent of the
associations, or undifferentiated groups, map unit. Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand to a
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such depth of 11 inches. It is very dark gray to a depth of 7
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they inches and dark grayish brown below that. The
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand to a
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar depth of 45 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown and
in all areas. Bonneau-Norfolk-Angie complex, 5 to 12 light yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of at least
percent slopes, is an example. 80 inches.
A soil association is made up of two or more This Albany soil has a water table within 12 to 30
geographically associated soils that are shown as one inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months annually. The
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil available water capacity is very low in the surface layer,
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical moderate or low in the subsurface layer, and moderate
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern or high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid to moderately
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate






20 Soil Survey



to moderately slow in the subsoil. Internal drainage is Alternative systems or fill can reduce this limitation.
slow when impeded by the high water table. Response Wetness and seepage are severe limitations for sanitary
to artificial drainage is moderately rapid. The organic landfills and sewage lagoons. If used for these purposes,
matter content is low. the sandy sidewalls need to be sealed.
Pactolus soil makes up 30 to 45 percent of the map The Albany and Pactolus soils are in capability
unit. Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand 12 inches subclass Ille. Albany soil is in woodland suitability group
thick. It is black to a depth of 6 inches and dark grayish 11W, and Pactolus soil is in 10W.
brown below that. The underlying material is brownish
yellow loamy sand to a depth of 28 inches and brownish 2-Bonifay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
yellow and yellowish brown sand to a depth of at least soil is well drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is
80 inches. on broad and narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual
This Pactolus soil has a high water table within 18 to areas of this soil range mostly from 15 to more than 100
30 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months annually. The acres; some areas are as small as 5 acres. Slopes are
available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. The smooth to convex.
organic matter content is low or moderately low. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
Response to artificial drainage is rapid. loamy sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Included with these soils in mapping are Blanton, yellowish brown and brownish yellow loamy sand to a
Bonifay, Chipley, Escambia, Leefield, and Stilson soils, depth of 54 inches. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80
Also included are soils similar to the Albany and inches is yellowish brown and brownish yellow sandy
Pactolus soils except they have more than 5 percent loam that is 10 percent plinthite.
plinthite in the subsoil, have slope ranging from 5 to 8 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent, or they are poorly drained. Soils similar to the Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Fuquay, and Troup soils. Also
Albany soil but that have a sand or loamy sand subsoil included are a few small areas of soils similar to the
are also included. The included soils make up about 5 to Bonifay soil except they have less than 5 percent
15 percent of the map unit. plinthite within a depth of 60 inches, have more than 5
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and percent plinthite at a depth of 60 to 70 inches, have a
slash pine. These pines are intermixed with oaks and sand surface layer, or have slope of 5 to 8 percent. The
other hardwoods and have an understory of gallberry, included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
waxmyrtle, and scattered sawpalmetto. Pitcherplants are unit.
in poorly drained areas. The most common native grass This Bonifay soil has a perched water table at a depth
is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). of 48 to 60 inches for brief periods. The available water
The Albany and Pactolus soils have severe limitations capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
for cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and the moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
thick, sandy surface layer. The variety of adapted crops surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
is very limited unless intensive water control measures subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately low or
are used. With adequate water control, corn, soybeans, moderate. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little
and peanuts are moderately adapted. Close-growing runoff.
cover crops are needed in rotation with row crops. The The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
close-growing crops need to remain on the land at least loblolly pine, and longleaf pine and an understory of
two-thirds of the time. Cover crops and crop residue left blackjack, running oak, turkey oak, and post oak.
on the soil protect the soil from erosion. Conservation Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most common
tillage helps conserve moisture and control erosion, native grass.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture and hay, This Bonifay soil has severe limitations for cultivated
but good management is required to produce good crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
yields. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
are well adapted. These plants respond well to fertilizers adapted crops. Row crops need to be planted on the
and lime. Simple drainage is needed to remove excess contour in alternating strips with close-growing cover
internal water in wet seasons. For best yields, controlled crops. The cover crops need to remain on the land at
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants. least two-thirds of the time. Cover crops and crop
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately residue left on the soil protect the soil from erosion.
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and Lime and fertilizer are needed. Irrigation of high-value
plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and crops, such as watermelon, is generally feasible where
longleaf pines are the best trees to plant, irrigation water is readily available.
These soils have moderate limitations for building This soil is moderately suited to use as improved
sites, local roads and streets, and recreational uses pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal
because of the seasonal high water table. Wetness is a bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well
severe limitation for septic tank absorption fields. adapted. They grow well and produce good ground





Walton County, Florida 21



cover if lime and fertilizer are added to the soil. For This Bonifay soil has very severe limitations for
maximum yields, controlled grazing is needed to maintain cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
vigorous plants. Yields are occasionally greatly reduced plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
by extended severe droughts, potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops need to be
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately planted on the contour in alternating strips with close-
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and growing cover crops. The cover crops need to remain on
plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and the land at least three-fourths of the time. Cover crops
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. and crop residue left on the soil protect the soil from
This soil has slight limitations for use as building sites erosion. Lime and fertilizer are needed.
and for local roads and streets. It has moderate This soil is moderately suited to use as improved
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal
the moderate permeability in the subsoil. Alternative bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well
systems or fill can overcome this limitation. This soil has adapted. They grow well and produce good ground
severe limitations for sewage lagoons and sanitary cover when they are limed and fertilized. For maximum
landfills because of seepage. If used for these purposes, yields, controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
the sandy sidewalls need to be sealed. plants. Yields are occasionally greatly reduced by
This soil has moderate limitations for recreational extended severe droughts.
development because of the sandy surface layer. A The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
overcome this minor limitation, plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
This Bonifay soil is in capability subclass Ills and in loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has slight limitations for use as building sites
woodland suitability group 10S. and for local roads and streets. It has moderate
3-Bonfay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
3-Bonifay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
a 8 the moderate permeability in the subsoil. Alternative
soil is well drained and sloping. It is on side slopes on
uplands. Individual areas of this soil range mostly from syste limitation. This soil has
moderate limitations for small commercial buildings
10 to 60 acres. Slopes are convex to concave.
picall, te race later is gray and grash bron because of slope. Cutting and leveling can overcome
Typically, the surface layer is gray and grayish brown this limitation. This soil has severe limitations for sewage
loamy sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is lagoons and sanitary landfills because of seepage. If
yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 48 inches. The used for these purposes, the sandy sidewalls need to be
subsoil is brownish yellow sandy loam to a depth of 52 sealed.
inches and brownish yellow sandy clay loam containing This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
plinthite, to a depth of 67 inches. It is yellowish brown development because of the sandy surface. Slope is a
sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. moderate limitation for playgrounds.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Bonifay soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
Albany, Bibb, Blanton, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, woodland suitability group 10S.
Leefield, Lucy, Pantego, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also
included are a few small areas of soils similar to the 4-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
Bonifay soil except they have less than 5 percent somewhat poorly drained and nearly level to gently
plinthite within a depth of 60 inches, have more than 5 sloping. It is in areas bordering drainageways on uplands
percent plinthite at a depth of 60 to 70 inches, have a or on low ridges on flatwoods. Individual areas of this
sand surface layer, or have slope of 0 to 5 percent or of soil range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to
more than 8 percent. The included soils make up less convex.
than 25 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand 6 inches
This Bonifay soil has a perched water table at a depth thick. The underlying material is sand to a depth of at
of 48 to 60 inches for brief periods. The available water least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown to a depth of 16
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and inches, light yellowish brown to a depth of 31 inches,
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the very pale brown to a depth of 45 inches, and light gray
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the below that.
subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately low or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
moderate. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little Albany, Blanton, Hurricane, Foxworth, Lakeland, Eglin,
runoff. Leon, Mandarin, Rutlege, and Troup soils. Also included
The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash, are a few small areas of poorly drained soils that have a
loblolly, and longleaf pines and an understory of light color surface layer and gray mottles within a depth
blackjack, turkey, and post oaks. Pineland threeawn of 20 inches. Included are areas of soils similar to
(wiregrass) is the most common native grass. Chipley soil except they are moderately well drained and






22 Soil Survey



have gray mottles within a depth of 40 inches, have 10 This Chipley soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
to 20 percent silt plus clay between depths of 10 and 40 woodland suitability group 11S.
inches, or they have slope of 5 to 8 percent. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map 5-Chipley sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
unit. somewhat poorly drained and sloping. It borders
In most years, this Chipley soil has a high water table drainageways on uplands. Individual areas of this soil are
between depths of 20 and 40 inches for 2 to 4 months, irregular in shape and range from about 5 to 20 acres.
at a depth of less than 10 inches for less than 1 month Slopes are mostly convex but are concave in places.
and at a depth of more than 40 inches for more than 4 Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
months. The available water capacity is low, and 5 inches thick. The underlying material is sand to a
permeability is rapid throughout. The organic matter depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown to a
content is moderate. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and depth of 9 inches, and light gray and pale olive below
there is little runoff. that.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash, loblolly, and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
longleaf pines and a few scattered blackjack, turkey, and Albany, Blanton, Florala, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leefield,
post oaks. The understory is greenbriers and gallberry. Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included are areas of
Pitcherplants are in some poorly drained areas. Pineland Chipley soils where the substratum is loamy sand below
threeawn (wiregrass) is the most common native grass. a depth of 40 inches and areas of similar soils that have
Other grasses include bluestems, low panicums, and slope of less than 5 percent or more than 8 percent. The
purple lovegrass. included soils made up less than 20 percent of the map
This Chipley soil has severe limitations for cultivated unit.
crops because of periodic wetness. The variety of This Chipley soil has a high water table between
adapted crops is very limited unless intensive water depths of 20 and 40 inches for 2 to 4 months during
control measures are used. If the water control system most years. The available water capacity is low
can remove excess water in wet seasons and provide throughout. The organic matter content is moderate.
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons, this soil is well Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, but there is high runoff
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons, this soil is well during heavy rains in unprotected areas.
suited to many crops. In addition to water control, crop dung he natral veg n uisrotected areas
rotations need to include a close-growing cover crop that The natural vegetation is mostly slash, loblolly, and
remains on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Cover longleaf pines; a few scattered blackjack, turkey, and
crops and crop residue left on the soil protect the soil post oaks; an understory of greenriers and
from erosion. Fertilizer and lime need to be added gallberry. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most
common native grass. Other grasses include bluestems,
according to the needs of the crops low panicums, and purple lovegrass.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay. This Chipley soil has very severe limitations for
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted, cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
They require simple drainage to remove excess surface plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
water in times of high rainfall. They also require regular potential yields of adapted crops. The water table limits
use of fertilizers. Some areas respond well to lime. For the depth of the root zone but also provides water
highest yields, controlled grazing is needed to maintain through capillary rise to supplement the low available
healthy plants. water capacity. In very dry seasons, the high water table
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. drops well below the root zone, and little capillary water
Equipment use limitations and plant competition are is available to plants. Row crops need to be planted on
moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best the contour in alternate strips with close-growing crops
trees to plant. that need to remain on the land at least three-fourths of
This soil has moderate limitations for use as building the time. Lime and fertilizer are needed. Cover crops and
sites and for local roads and streets because of the high crop residue left on the soil protect the soil from erosion.
water table during wet periods. It has severe limitations They can also be plowed under to improve soil fertility.
for septic tank absorption fields because of the high This soil is too steep to be effectively irrigated.
water table and poor filtering capacity. Alternative This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture.
systems can reduce these limitations. This soil has Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted.
severe limitations for sewage lagoons and sanitary This soil requires fertilizer and lime. For maximum yields
landfills because of seepage and the high water table and good ground cover, controlled grazing is needed to
during wet periods. maintain vigorous plants.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational The potential productivity of pine trees is high.
development because the sandy surface causes poor Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
trafficability. A suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best
can reduce or overcome this limitation, trees to plant.






Walton County, Florida 23



This soil has moderate limitations for use as building low. The internal drainage rate under natural conditions
sites and local roads and streets and severe limitations is slow, and response to artificial drainage is moderate.
for small commercial buildings because of the high water The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and
table during wet periods. Slope is also a limitation for slash pine that has an understory of gallberry and
commercial buildings. This soil has severe limitations for waxmyrtle. Pitcherplants are in poorly drained areas. The
septic tank absorption fields because of the high water most common native grass is pineland threeawn
table and the poor filtering qualities. Alternative systems (wiregrass). Other grasses are bluestem, panicum,
can reduce or overcome these limitations. This soil has carpetgrass, and longleaf uniola.
severe limitations for sewage lagoons because of This Escambia soil has moderate limitations for
seepage, slope, and the high water table during wet cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. The
periods. It has severe limitations for sanitary landfills variety of adapted crops is somewhat limited by
because of seepage and the high water table. occasional wetness. Crops, such as corn and peanuts,
Limitations are severe for recreational development adapt if they are properly managed. Erosion control
because the soil is too sandy. Suitable topsoil or some measures, such as terraces that have stabilized outlets
form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this limitation, and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips
This soil is also too steep for playgrounds. with cover crops, are needed. Crop rotations need to
This Chipley soil is in capability subclass IVs and in include cover crops that remain on the land at least half
woodland stability group 11S. the time. Crop residue and the soil-improving cover
crops left on the soil protect the soil from erosion.
6-Escambia sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation,
This soil is somewhat poorly drained and gently sloping. fertilizer, and lime.
It is on seepage slopes on uplands. Individual areas of fertilizer, and lime.
sThis soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved
this soil range mostly from 5 to more than 100 acres; a pasture plants, such as covers, tall fescue, coastal
few areas are as small as 2 acres. Slopes are concave. pasure pa such as clovers tal fescue, coas al
Typically, the surface layer is sandy loam 9 inches bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass, are well
thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 6 inches and very adapted and produce well if properly managed. This soil
dark grayish brown below that. The next layer is requires fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is
yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches. The needed to maintain vigorous plants and a good ground
subsoil is sandy loam. It extends to a depth of 67 inches. cover.
It is yellowish brown to a depth of 17 inches, brownish The potential productivity of pine trees is high.
yellow to a depth of 23 inches, and brownish yellow with Equipment use limitations and windthrow hazard are
plinthite and gray mottles below that. The substratum is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best
loam. It is mottled light gray, red, and pale yellow to a trees to plant.
depth of 73 inches and gray with mottles in shades of This soil has moderate limitations for use as building
red, yellow, pink, and brown to a depth of at least 80 sites and local roads and streets because of the high
inches, water table during wet periods. It has severe limitations
Included in mapping are small areas of Bibb, Dothan, for septic tank absorption fields because of the high
Florala, Fuquay, Kinston, Leefield, Malbis, and Stilson water table and slow permeability in the subsoil.
soils. Also included are a few areas of soils similar to Alternative systems or suitable fill can reduce this
Escambia soil except they have slope of 0 to 2 and 5 to limitation. This soil has severe limitations for sanitary
8 percent, are moderately well drained, do not have landfills because of the seasonal high water table.
plinthite (mostly at drainage heads), have less than 18 Seepage is a moderate limitation for sewage lagoons.
percent clay in the upper part of the subsoil, have less This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
than 20 percent silt in the upper part of the soil, or they development because of wetness and slow percolation.
are sandy within a depth of 60 inches. Included are Slope is a severe limitation for playgrounds.
areas of soils that are poorly drained at seepage spots. This Escambia soil is in capability subclass lie and in
The included soils make up less than 25 percent of the woodland suitability group 11W.
map unit.
This Escambia soil has a high water table at a depth 8-Dorovan-Pamlico association, frequently
of 18 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months annually. In about flooded. This association consists of soils that are
20 to 30 percent of the soil, the high water table is at a nearly level and very poorly drained. They are in a
depth of 10 to 18 inches for short periods. The available regular and repeating pattern. The landscape is mainly
water capacity is moderate or high in the surface layer large, hardwood swamps and flood plains of major
and low to high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately drainageways. The Dorovan soil is in the middle of the
rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the upper part of delineation, and Pamlico soil is on the outer part.
the subsoil, and moderately slow or slow in the lower Mapped areas range from 20 to more than 750 acres.
part. The organic matter content is low or moderately Individual areas of each soil range from 10 to 200 acres.






24 Soil Survey



Dorovan soil makes up 50 to 70 percent of the These soils are normally not planted to pine trees
association. Typically, this soil is black muck to a depth because of flooding. Equipment use limitations, seedling
of at least 60 inches, mortality, and plant competition are severe.
This Dorovan soil has a high water table near or These soils are not suited to urban or recreational
above the surface for most of the year. This soil floods development. Flooding is a hazard, and wetness and
more often than once every 2 years for periods of more poor soil quality are severe limitations that are not
than 1 month. Permeability is moderate, and the practical to overcome.
available water capacity is very high. The organic matter These Dorovan and Pamlico soils are in capability
content is very high. The internal drainage rate is slow subclass VIlw and in woodland suitability group 7W.
because of the high water table. Response to drainage
is rapid. 9-Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
Pamlico soil makes up 15 to 25 percent of the soil is well drained and nearly level. It is on uplands.
association. Typically, this soil is dark reddish brown Individual areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to more
muck 2 inches thick and black muck to a depth of 30 than 50 acres; some areas are as small as 5 acres.
inches. It is underlain by very dark grayish brown sand to Slopes are smooth to convex.
a depth of at least 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is light olive brown loamy
This Pamlico soil has a high water table near or above sand 9 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is
yellowish brown to a depth of 14 inches, brownish yellow
the surface for most of the year. This soil floods more yellowih oof 14 inch, brownh yeow
to a depth of 26 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of
often than once every two years for periods of 7 days to ll s depo
57 inches, and yellowish red to a depth of at least 80
1 month. Permeability is moderate, and the available inches.
water capacity is very high. The organic matter content inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is very high. The internal drainage rate is slow because Bibb, Florala, Fuquay, Malbis, Orangeburg, and Tifton
of the high water table. Response to drainage is rapid soils and a few areas of Dothan soil that has slope of 2
Included with this association in mapping are areas of to 5 percent or where the lower part of the subsoil is
Rutlege, Bibb, Kinston, and Leon soils. Rutlege soils are redder than typical. Also included are areas of soils
very poorly drained and are around the outer edge of similar to Dothan soil but they have a loamy sand or
delineations. Bibb, Kinston, and Leon soils are the most loamy fine sand surface layer. A few small wet areas are
significant of the included soils. These soils are poorly shown by a wet spot symbol. The included soils make up
drained. Also included are areas of soils similar to less than 25 percent of the map unit
Pamlico soil but they have a loamy substratum and This Dothan soil has a high water table at a depth of
areas of similar soils that have less than 16 inches of more than 60 inches for most of the year. After periods
organic material. The included soils make up 15 to 25 of heavy rainfall, a perched water table is at a depth of
percent of the association. 30 to 50 inches. The available water capacity is low or
The natural vegetation is mostly baldcypress, moderate in the surface layer and very low to moderate
blackgum, sweetbay, sweetgum, titi, and scattered slash in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
pine. The understory is brackenfern, greenbrier, surface layer and.moderate to slow in the subsoil. The
muscadine vine, and waxmyrtle. organic matter content is very low throughout. Runoff
The Dorovan and Pamlico soils have very severe during rain is slow in unprotected areas. Internal
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness. In drainage is moderately slow under natural conditions,
their natural condition, they are not suitable for and response to artificial drainage is moderate.
cultivation, but with adequate water control and The natural ve nation is mostly longleaf pine, slash
protection from flooding, they are suited to most pine, loblolly pine, gallberry, turkey oak, laurel oak,
vegetable crops. A water control system to remove dogwood, and hickory. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is
excess water during times when crops are on the land the most common native grass.
and to keep the soils saturated with water at all other This Dothan soil has slight limitations for cultivated
times is needed. Fertilizers that contain phosphates, crops. The variety of well adapted crops is slightly limited
potash, and minor elements are needed, and these acid by a restricted root zone and wetness. Corn, peanuts,
soils need heavy applications of lime. Crop rotation of and soybeans (fig. 7) are well adapted. Crop rotations
water-tolerant cover crops and row crops is also needed. that provide cover crops on the land at least half the
All crop residue and cover crops left on the soil can time are needed. Good seedbed preparation, fertilizer,
protect the soil from wind erosion. and lime are needed for best yields.
Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Tall fescue,
area grow well on these soils if flooding is controlled. clovers, and coastal bermudagrass are well adapted and
The water control system needs to maintain the water grow well if properly managed. This soil responds well to
table near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of fertilizers and lime. Controlled grazing can help maintain
the organic horizons, plant vigor.






Walton County, Florida 25






























Figure 7.-Soybeans is one of the principal crops in Walton County. The soil is Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.



The potential productivity of pine trees is high. Plant clay loam that has plinthite in the lower part. The lower
competition is moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf part of the subsoil is reticulately mottled sandy loam in
pines are the best trees to plant, shades of red, brown, yellow, and gray.
This soil has slight limitations for area sanitary landfills, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
building sites, local roads and streets, and recreational Angle, Bibb, Florala, Fuquay, Johnston, Kinston, Malbis,
development. It has severe limitations for septic tank Norfolk, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils and small areas of
absorption fields because of the high water table in wet Dothan soil that has slopes of 0 to 2 and 5 to 8 percent
periods and moderately slow or slow permeability in the or where the lower part of the subsoil is redder than is
subsoil. Alternative systems or fill can reduce these typical. A few wet areas are shown by a wet spot
limitations. This soil has moderate limitations for trench symbol. Included are areas of soils that are sandy within
building sites, local roads and streets, and recreational Angie, Bibb, Florala, Fuquay, Johnston, Kinston, Malbis,




sanitary landfills because of wetness a depth of 60 inches. Also included are soils similar to
This Dothan soil is in capability class I and in the Dothan soil except they have less th an 18 percent
woodland suitability group 11A. clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil or have a
10-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes sandy loam surface layer. A few small areas where the
This soil is well drained and gently sloping. It is on broad surface is eroded are included. The included soils make
and narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of this up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
soil range mostly from 20 to 100 acres; some areas are This Dothan soil has a perched water table at a depth
as small as 3 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to of 30 to 50 inches after periods of heavy rainfall. The
convex but are concave in places, water table is at a depth of more than 60 inches for
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown most of the year. The available water capacity is low or
loamy sand 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a moderate. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown sandy layer and moderately slow or slow in the subsoil. The
loam to a depth of 11 inches, and to a depth of 60 organic matter content is very low. The internal drainage
inches, it is yellowish brown and brownish yellow sandy rate is moderately slow, and runoff is moderate.





26 Soil Survey



The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash cultivated areas. The included soils make up less than
pine, loblolly pine, gallberry, turkey oak, laurel oak, 25 percent of the map unit.
dogwood, and hickory. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is This Dothan soil does not have a water table within a
the most common native grass. depth of 60 inches for most of the year, but a perched
This Dothan soil has moderate limitations for cultivated high water table is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches after
crops because of the hazard of erosion. The variety of heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low or
adapted crops is somewhat limited by occasional moderate. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
wetness. Corn and peanuts adapt well if properly layer and moderately slow or slow in the subsoil. The
managed. Good management practices include terraces organic matter content is very low throughout. Runoff is
that have stabilized outlets, contour cultivation of row rapid.
crops in alternate strips with cover crops, crop rotations The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash
that include cover crops on the land at least half the pine, loblolly pine, turkey oak, laurel oak, flowering
time, and crop residue and soil-improving cover crops dogwood, gallberry, and hickory. Pineland threeawn
left on the soil to protect the soil from erosion. Maximum (wiregrass) is the most common native grass (fig 8).
yields require good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and This Dothan soil has severe limitations for cultivated
lime. crops because of the hazard of erosion, but it is fairly
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved suited to most cultivated crops, such as corn, soybeans,
pasture plants, such as clovers, tall fescue, coastal and peanuts. Intensive erosion control measures are
bermudagrass, and bahiagrass, are well adapted and needed. Contour cultivation of row crops in alternate
produce well if properly managed. This soil requires strips with close-growing crops, crop rotations that
fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is needed to include close-growing crops on the land at least two-
maintain vigorous plants and a good ground cover. thirds of the time, crop residue left on the soil help
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. Plant protect the soil from erosion. Maximum yields require
competition is moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
pines are the best trees to plant. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay.
Cool-season plants, such as tall fescue and clovers, are
This soil has slight limitations for sanitary landfills, Cool-season plants, such as ta fescue and clove are
building sites, and local roads and streets. It hasoastal bermudagrassand ed
moderate limitations for sewage lagoons because of bahiagrass grow moderately well if fertilizer and lime are
slope and moderate limitation for trench sanitary landfills applied to the soil. For maximum yields and good ground
because of the high water table in wet periods. This soil cover, controled grazing is needed to maintain plant
has severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields vigor.
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. Plant
because of the seasonal high water table and moderate competition is moderate. Slash loblolly, and longleaf
slow or slow permeability in the subsoil. Alternative
systems or fill can reduce these limitations. pines are the best trees to plant.
systems or fill can reduce these limitations. This soil has slight limitations for area sanitary landfills,
This soil has slight limitations for most recreational building sites and local roads and streets. Slope is a
development. Slope is a moderate limitation for moderate limitation for small commercial buildings. It has
playgrounds. severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields
This Dothan soil is in capability subclass lie and in because of the high water table in wet periods and the
woodland suitability group 11A. moderately slow or slow permeability in the subsoil.
Alternative systems or fill can reduce these limitations.
11-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Slope is a moderate limitation for sewage lagoons, and
This soil is well drained and sloping. It is on side slopes the seasonal water table is a moderate limitation for
on uplands. Individual areas of this soil range mostly trench sanitary landfills.
from 5 to 25 acres; some areas are as small as 3 acres. This soil has slight limitations for most recreational
Slopes are mostly concave but are convex in places. development. Slope is a moderate limitation for
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown playgrounds.
loamy sand 7 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish This Dothan soil is in capability subclass Ille and in
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. woodland suitability group 11A.
Plinthite is between a depth of 40 and 55 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 12-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
Angie, Bibb, Cowarts, Florala, Fuquay, Johnston, is moderately well drained and nearly level to gently
Kinston, Malbis, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils sloping. It is on uplands and in elevated areas on
and a few areas of Dothan soil that has slopes of 2 to 5 flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil range mostly from
and 8 to 12 percent. Also included are areas of soils that 10 to more than 200 acres; some areas are as small as
are similar to Dothan soil except they have a sandy loam 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to convex but are
surface layer. Moderately eroded spots are common in concave in places.






Walton County, Florida 27







,




















.f -..











Figure 8.-Pine trees and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) are natural vegetation on Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Cover plants
are needed on this soil to control erosion.



Typically, this soil is sand throughout. The surface This Foxworth soil has a high water table that
layer is about 7 inches thick. It is grayish brown to a fluctuates between depths of 40 and 72 inches for 1 to 3
depth of 3 inches and brown below that. The underlying months during most years and between 30 and 40
material is yellowish brown to a depth of 18 inches, inches for less than 1 month in some years. The
brownish yellow to a depth of 44 inches, yellow to a available water capacity is low, and permeability is very
depth of 54 inches, very pale brown to a depth of 69 rapid throughout. The organic matter content is low.
inches, and light gray to a depth of at least 80 inches. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little runoff.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly
Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Lakeland, and Troup soils. Also pine, longleaf pine, live oak, post oak, bluejack oak,
included are soils similar to Foxworth soil except they turkey oak, laurel oak, red oak, water oak, huckleberry,
have slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Included are areas of gallberry, and dogwood. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is
soils that have a slight increase in clay content just the most common native grass.
above a dark color subsoil. The included soils make up This Foxworth soil has severe limitations for cultivated
less than 15 percent of the map unit. crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of







28 Soil Survey



adapted crops. In wet seasons, the high water table percent ironstone pebbles in the surface and subsurface
affects the availability of water in the root zone by layers, or have a sand and loamy fine sand surface
providing water through capillary rise. In very dry layer. Also included are small areas of Fuquay soil that
seasons, the water table drops well below the root zone has slopes of 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up
and little capillary water is available to plants. Row crops less than 20 percent of the map unit.
need to be planted on the contour in alternate strips with This Fuquay soil has a perched high water table at a
close-growing crops that remain on the land at least two- depth of 50 to 70 inches after heavy rainfall. The
thirds of the time. Lime and fertilizer are needed. Soil- available water capacity is low in the surface and
improving cover crops and crop residue left on the soil subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation on high value Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
crops is usually feasible where irrigation water is readily layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
available. slow in the lower part. The organic matter content is low.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed with little runoff.
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted. Natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine,
This soil requires fertilizer and lime. For maximum yields, loblolly pine, turkey oak, laurel oak, and an understory of
controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants. gallberry and smaller oaks. Pineland threeawn
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately (wiregrass) is the most common native grass.
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and This Fuquay soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and crops. It has a well aerated root zone that is limited by a
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. slowly permeable subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50 inches.
This soil has slight limitations for building sites, and This soil can be cultivated safely with ordinary good
local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for farming methods, but droughtiness and rapid leaching of
septic tank absorption fields because of wetness. The plant nutrients limit the choice of crops and the potential
excessive permeability can cause pollution of ground yields of adapted crops. With good management, such
water in areas of high density. Alternative systems can crops as corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be grown.
reduce this hazard. This soil has severe limitations for Proper management includes row crops planted on the
sewage lagoons and area sanitary landfills because of contour in alternate strips with cover crops, crop
seepage. If used for a sewage lagoon, the sidewalls rotations with cover crops that remain on the ground at
need to be shored, lined, and sealed. This soil has least half the time, and crop residue left on the soil to
severe limitations for trench sanitary landfills because of protect the soil from erosion. Best yields require good
seepage and the high water table during wet periods. seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
Limitations for recreational development are severe This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Coastal
because the sandy surface causes poor trafficability. bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted. This soil
Suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or responds well to fertilizer and lime. For maximum yields
overcome this limitation. and good cover, controlled grazing is needed to maintain
This Foxworth soil is in capability subclass Ills and in vigorous plants.
woodland suitability group 10S. The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
13-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and
This soil is well drained and nearly level to gently longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
sloping. It is on uplands. Individual areas of this soil This soil has slight limitations for building sites and
range mostly from 15 to more than 100 acres; some are local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for
as small as 5 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex, septic tank absorption fields because of moderate to
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown slow permeability in the subsoil. Alternative systems or
loamy sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fill can reduce this limitation. This soil has moderate
yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 26 inches. The limitations for sewage lagoons because of slope. This
subsoil is sandy loam. To a depth of 61 inches, it is soil has slight limitation for sanitary landfills.
yellowish brown with plinthite in the lower part, and to a This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
depth of 74 inches, it is brownish yellow. The substratum development because it is too sandy; however, the
is red coarse sandy loam that has mottles in shades of addition of suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can
red, brown, yellow, and gray to a depth of at least 80 reduce or overcome this limitation. Slope is a limitation
inches. for playgrounds.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ils and in
Albany, Bonifay, Bonneau, Dothan, Escambia, Florala, woodland suitability group 11S.
Lucy, Malbis, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included are
soils similar to Fuquay soil except they have a thinner E 14-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
horizon and sandy loam subsoil, have more than 5 This soil is well drained and sloping. It is on side slopes







Walton County, Florida 29



on uplands. Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to moderate limitation for small commercial buildings. This
80 acres. Slopes are mostly concave, but some are soil has moderate limitations for septic tank absorption
convex. fields because of moderate to slow permeability in the
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown subsoil. Alternative systems or fill can reduce this
loamy sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy limitation. This soil has slight limitations for sanitary
sand to a depth of 34 inches. It is yellowish brown to a landfills and moderate limitations for sewage lagoons
depth of 30 inches and brownish yellow below that. The because of slope.
subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To a This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
depth of 45 inches, it is brownish yellow sandy loam that development because of the sandy surface. Suitable
has plinthite. It is brownish yellow sandy clay loam to a topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or
depth of 63 inches and yellow sandy clay loam below overcome this limitation. Slope is a severe limitation for
that. playgrounds.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
Bonifay, Bonneau, Dothan, Escambia, Florala, Lakeland, woodland suitability group 11S.
Lucy, Malbis, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included are
soils that are similar to Fuquay soil except they have a 15-Kinston-Johnston-Bibb complex, frequently
sand and loamy fine sand surface layer. Small areas of flooded. This map unit consists of nearly level Kinston,
Fuquay soil that has slopes of 0 to 5 and 8 to 12 percent Bibb, and Johnston soils on flood plains in narrow creek
are included. The included soils make up less than 25 and stream bottoms. Kinston and Bibb soils are poorly
percent of the map unit. drained, and Johnston soil is very poorly drained. The
This Fuquay soil has a perched high water table at a landscape is dissected with many small, 6 inches to 3
depth of 50 to 70 inches during wet periods. The feet deep and 1 foot to 4 feet wide, meandering
available water capacity is low in the surface and channels. Slope is smooth and ranges from 0 to 2
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. percent. Areas of these soils are too intricately mixed or
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface too small to be mapped separately at the selected scale.
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and Areas of this map unit range from 50 to more than 500
slow in the lower part. The organic matter content is low. acres. Individual areas of soils within the map unit range
Rainfall is rapidly absorbed in protected areas, and from less than 1 acre to 5 acres.
runoff is slight. Kinston soil makes up about 20 to 40 percent of the
Natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine, map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
loblolly pine, turkey oak, and laurel oak. The understory loam 6 inches thick. The underlying material extends to a
is gallberry and small oaks. Pineland threeawn depth of at least 80 inches. It is very dark grayish brown
(wiregrass) is the most common native grass. sandy clay loam to a depth of 35 inches, light brownish
This Fuquay soil has severe limitations for cultivated gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 42 inches, light gray
crops because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of sand to a depth of 48 inches, and light gray clay loam
plant nutrients. The root zone is limited by a slowly below that.
permeable subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. The This Kinston soil has a high water table within 10
steepness of slopes makes cultivation more difficult and inches of the surface for more than 6 months in most
increases the hazard of erosion. Cultivated row crops years. There is more than a 50 percent chance of
need to be planted on the contour with alternating wider flooding in any one year for periods ranging from 2 to 7
strips of close-growing, soil-improving crops that remain days. The root zone is limited by the high water table.
on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and The available water capacity is moderate or high
lime are needed. Cover crops and crop residue left on throughout. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
the soil protect the soil from erosion. surface layer and moderate in the underlying material.
This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture. The organic matter content is moderate. Runoff
Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and accumulates in some areas during heavy rains. Internal
bahiagrass are well adapted. Steepness of slope drainage is slow, but response to artificial drainage is
increases the hazard of erosion and reduces the moderate.
potential yields. Fertilizer and lime are needed to Johnston soil makes up about 10 to 35 percent of the
produce good stands of grass. Controlled grazing helps map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
maintain plant vigor to complete vegetative cover, mucky loam 37 inches thick. The underlying material is
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately light brownish gray sand to a depth of at least 65 inches.
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and This Johnston soil has a high water table at or above
plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and the surface for more than 6 months in most years. It has
longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. more than a 50 percent chance of flooding in any one
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and year for periods ranging from 7 to more than 30 days.
local roads and streets. Steepness of slope is a The root zone is limited by the high water table. The







30 Soil Survey



available water capacity is moderate or high throughout. inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth of 68 inches. To a
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and depth of 28 inches, it is brownish yellow with white
rapid in the underlying material. The organic matter tongues. It is yellowish brown to a depth of 37 inches,
content is very high. Runoff accumulates in many areas brownish yellow to a depth of 47 inches, and yellow
during heavy rains. The internal drainage is moderate, below that. The substratum is very pale brown sand to a
and response to artificial drainage is rapid, depth of at least 80 inches.
Bibb soil makes up 10 to 25 percent of the map unit. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray to dark grayish Corolla, Mandarin, Newhan, and Resota soils. Also
brown loam 12 inches thick. The underlying material is included are some areas of Kureb soil mainly along bays
grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of 37 inches and and beaches that have abrupt drop off. This soil is
light brownish gray stratified sand and loamy sand to a designated by the short, steep slope symbol. The
depth of at least 65 inches. included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
This Bibb soil has a high water table within 18 inches unit.
of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most years. It has This Kureb soil has a loose, well aerated root zone to
more than a 50 percent chance of flooding in any one a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water
year for periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. The root zone capacity is very low, and permeability is very rapid
is limited by the high water table. The available water throughout. The organic matter content is low, and
capacity is moderate or high throughout. Permeability is fertilizers are rapidly leached from the soil. Rainfall is
moderate. The organic matter content is low or rapidly absorbed in protected areas, and there is little
moderately low. The internal drainage is slow, but runoff. This soil does not have a high water table within
response to artificial drainage is rapid. a depth of 6 feet.
Included with this complex in mapping are the Albany, Natural vegetation is mostly turkey oak, bluejack oak,
Chipley, Dorovan, Escambia, Florala, Leefield, Pamlico, a few live oak, scattered sand pine, and in places
Pantego, Stilson, and Rutlege soils. Also included are a longleaf pine. The understory is huckleberry. In some
few small areas of soils that are moderately well drained areas, sand pine is the dominant tree. The most
to poorly drained. These soils are loamy to a depth of common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
less than 40 inches and are underlain by sandy material. Because of the salt spray, the vegetation nearest the
Small, narrow areas of soils that are moderately well Gulf of Mexico is stunted.
drained to poorly drained and sandy are adjacent to This Kureb soil is not suited to cultivated crops, and it
streams. The included soils make up about 35 percent of is poorly suited to use as pasture. Coastal bermudagrass
the complex. and bahiagrass make only fair growth even if the soil is
The natural vegetation is mostly scattered pine, gum, fertilized. Clovers are not adapted.
cypress, juniper (white-cedar), oaks, and titi. The The potential productivity for pine trees is low.
understory is greenbrier, waxmyrtle, and ferns. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are
The soils of this complex are not suited to cultivated severe. Plant competition is slight. Sand pines are the
crops or pasture because of wetness and flooding, best trees to plant.
These soils have high potential productivity for pine This soil has slight limitations for building sites and
trees. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, local roads and streets. It has slight limitations for septic
windthrow hazard, and plant competition are severe, tank absorption fields. However because of poor
Surface drainage and bedding are needed before filtration, ground water contamination is a hazard where
planting. Loblolly pine are the best trees to plant if these there are many septic tanks. Alternative systems can
soils are adequately drained, reduce this hazard. This soil has severe limitations for
These soils are not suited to urban or recreational sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills because of of the
development. Wetness and the hazard of flooding are sandy texture and seepage. If used for these purposes,
severe limitations that are not practical to overcome, the sandy sidewalls and bottom should be sealed.
This complex is in capability subclass Vllw. Kinston This soil has severe limitations for recreational
and Bibb soils are in woodland suitability group 9W, and development because of the sandy surface. Suitable
Johnston soil is in 7W. topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or
overcome this limitation.
16-Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is This Kureb soil is in capability subclass Vlls and in
excessively drained and nearly level to sloping. It is on woodland suitability group 3S.
broad, undulating ridges and short side slopes on upland
sand hills and dune-like ridges. Individual areas of this 17-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
soil range from 50 to 800 acres. Slopes are smooth to is excessively drained and nearly level to gently sloping.
convex and concave. It is on broad ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 4 inches thick. this soil range mostly from 40 to more than 300 acres;
The subsurface layer is white sand to a depth of 17 some areas are as large as 1,000 acres and others are







Walton County, Florida 31



as small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to the sandy texture are severe limitations for trench
concave but are convex in places. sanitary landfills. If this soil is used for sewage lagoons
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand and landfills, the sides and bottom of the excavation
4 inches thick. The underlying material is sand. It is need to be sealed.
yellowish brown to a depth of 7 inches, brownish yellow This soil has severe limitations for recreational
to a depth of 60 inches, and light yellowish brown to a development because the sandy texture causes poor
depth of at least 80 inches. trafficability. A suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of can reduce or overcome these limitations.
Bonifay, Chipley, Dorovan, Eglin, Foxworth, Kenansville, This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
Pamlico, and Troup soils. Also included are areas of woodland suitability group 9S.
soils that have slopes of more than 5 percent but are
otherwise similar to Lakeland soil and soils that are 18-Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
similar but have a few thin lamellae below a depth of 65 soil is excessively drained and sloping to strongly
inches. The lamellae has cumulative thickness of less sloping. It is mainly on upland side slopes leading to
than 1 centimeter. The soils containing lamellae drainageways and around depressions. Individual areas
generally are along areas near the Choctawhatchee of this soil range mostly from 30 to more than 100 acres;
River and are near delineations of Troup soils. A few some areas are as small as 5 acres. Slopes are smooth
small wet areas are shown by wet spot symbols. The to convex.
included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
unit. 3 inches thick. The underlying material is sand. It is
This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity. yellowish brown to a depth of 37 inches and yellowish
Permeability is rapid. The organic matter content is very brown over brownish yellow to a depth of at least 80
low or low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed in protected inches.
areas, and there is little runoff. This soil does not have a Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
high water table within a depth of 6 feet.
Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Also
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly B onifay, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soil that have
included are some areas of Lakeland soil that have
pine, longleaf pine, turkey oak, post oak, and blackjack abrupt drop off. This soil is designated by the short,
oak. In the southern part of the county, the vegetation is steep slope symbol. Areas of soils that have slopes of
sand pine, live oak, sawpalmetto, and reindeer moss. less than 5 percent and soils that have slopes of more
Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most common
than 12 percent are also included. Small areas of poorly
native grass. Other grasses include creeping bluestem, than 12 per are also included. Smal ars o oor
lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, splitbeard bluestem, drained soils are at seepage spots in and along stream
purple lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem. bottoms and drainageways. The included soils make up
This Lakeland soil has very severe limitations for less than 20 percent of the map unit.
cultivated crops because of poor soil quality. Intensive This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity.
soil management practices are required if this soil is Permeability is rapid. The organic matter content is very
cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant low or low. Rainfall is absorbed in protected areas, and
nutrients limit the choice of crops and reduce yields of there is little runoff. This soil does not have a seasonal
adapted crops. Irrigation is usually feasible where high water table within a depth of 6 feet.
irrigation water is readily available. Natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly pine,
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. longleaf pine, turkey oak, and blackjack oak. In the
Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and southern part of the county, sand pine, scrub oak, live
bahiagrass, are well adapted, but yields are reduced by oak, and sawpalmetto are included. Pineland threeawn
periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and (wiregrass) is the most common native grass. Other
lime are needed because of rapid leaching. Controlled grasses include creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
grazing permits plants to maintain vigor for best yields. hairy panicum, splitbeard bluestem, purple lovegrass,
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately and broomsedge bluestem.
high. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality This Lakeland soil is not suited to cultivated crops
are moderate. Sand, slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines because of poor soil quality, steepness of slope, and
are the best trees to plant, susceptibility to erosion.
This soil has slight limitations for use as building sites, This soil is moderately suited to use as pasture. Deep-
local roads and streets, and septic tank absorption fields. rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
However, because of poor filtration, ground water bahiagrass, are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
contamination is a hazard where there are many septic periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and
tanks. Alternative systems can reduce this hazard. lime are needed because of rapid leaching. Controlled
Because of seepage, this soil has severe limitations for grazing permits plants to maintain vigor for highest
sewage lagoons and area sanitary landfills. Seepage and yields.







32 Soil Survey



The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately grow. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and common native grass.
plant competition are moderate. Sand, slash, loblolly, This Lakeland soil is not suited to cultivated crops or
and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant, pasture because of poor soil quality, steepness of slope,
This soil has moderate limitations for building sites and and susceptibility to erosion.
local roads and streets because of slope. This soil has The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields. high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
However, because of poor filtration, ground water plant competition are moderate. Sand, slash, loblolly,
contamination is a hazard where there are many septic and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
tanks. Alternative systems can reduce this hazard. This This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons because building sites, and recreational development because of
of seepage and slope. It has severe limitations for slope and poor soil qualities.
sanitary landfills because of seepage and the sandy This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass VIIs and in
texture. When used for sewage lagoons and landfills, the woodland suitability group 9S.
sandy sidewalls and bottoms should be sealed.
This soil has severe limitations for most recreational 20-Leefield-Stilson loamy sands, 0 to 5 percent
development because it is too sandy. Suitable topsoil, or slopes. This map unit consists of soils that are on nearly
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this level to gently sloping seepage slopes and low flats.
limitation. Slope is a limitation for playgrounds. Areas of the somewhat poorly drained Leefield soil and
This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass Vis and in moderately well drained Stilson soil are too intricately
woodland suitability group 9S. mixed and too small to be mapped separately at the
selected scale. Areas of this map unit range from 5 to 50
19-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes. This acres. Individual areas of soils within the map unit range
soil is excessively drained and moderately steep and from 1 acre to 3 acres.
steep. It is on upland side slopes leading to Leefield soil makes up about 60 to 80 percent of the
drainageways and depressions. Individual areas of this map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
soil range from 20 to 80 acres. Slopes are mostly loamy sand to a depth of 7 inches. The subsurface layer
concave but are convex in places. is loamy sand to a depth of 26 inches. It is yellowish
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown and brown to a depth of 15 inches and brownish yellow
grayish brown sand 5 inches thick. The underlying below that. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80
material is sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is inches. It is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a
brownish yellow to a depth of 40 inches, pale brown to a depth of 34 inches and yellowish brown sandy clay loam
depth of 60 inches, and very pale brown below that. to a depth of 40 inches. Below that, it is sandy clay loam
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of that has plinthite and is reticulately mottled in shades of
Bonifay, Chipley, Dorovan, Foxworth, Pamlico, and Troup red, gray, brown, and yellow.
soils along slope breaks and streams and around stream This Leefield soil has a perched water table at a depth
heads. Also included in and along narrow stream of 18 to 30 inches for about 4 months during most years.
bottoms and drainageways are small areas of soils that In some areas, the perched water table is within a depth
are poorly drained. Areas of soils that are similar to of 10 inches during periods of heavy rainfall. The
Lakeland soil are included. Some of these soils have available water capacity is low in the surface and
slope of 5 to 12 percent, and others have slope of more subsurface layers and moderate or low in the subsoil.
than 30 percent. A few areas of soils in the southern Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
part of Eglin Air Force Base have slopes as steep as 70 and moderately slow to moderate in the subsoil. The
percent. These areas are shown with a short, steep organic matter content is low or moderately low. The
slope symbol. The included soils make up less than 25 internal drainage rate under natural conditions is slow,
percent of the map unit. and response to artificial drainage is moderately slow.
This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity. Stilson soil makes up about 10 to 25 percent of the
Permeability is rapid. The organic matter content is very map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
low or low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed into the soil, but brown loamy sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
runoff in unprotected areas during heavy rainfall is rapid. is loamy sand to a depth of 25 inches. It is brown to a
This soil does not have a high water table within a depth depth of 11 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of 16
of 6 feet. inches, and brownish yellow below that. The subsoil
Natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly pine, extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is brownish
longleaf pine, turkey oak, post oak, live oak, and yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of 32 inches, and
blackjack oak. In the southern part of the county, sand below that, it is sandy clay loam that has plinthite and is
pines are dominant but live oak and sawpalmetto also reticulately mottled in shades of red, brown, and gray.







Walton County, Florida 33



This Stilson soil has a perched water table at a depth These soils have moderate limitations for recreational
of 30 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months annually. The development mainly because of the seasonal high water
available water capacity is low in the surface and table.
subsurface layers and moderate or low in the subsoil. These Leefield and Stilson soils are in capability
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers subclass Ilw and in woodland suitability group 11W.
and moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content
is low. The internal drainage rate is slow under natural 21-Leon sand. This soil is poorly drained and nearly
conditions, and response to artificial drainage is level. It is on flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil range
moderately slow. from 5 to 90 acres. Slope is smooth to convex and
Included with these soils in mapping are Albany, ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Blanton, Dothan, Escambia, Florala, Fuquay, Malbis, Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand 9
Pactolus, and Pantego soils. Also included in some inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand to a
wetter areas are Leefield and Stilson soils that do not depth of 18 inches. The subsoil is dark reddish brown
have 5 percent plinthite and some seepage spots that sand to a depth of 22 inches, black loamy sand to a
have slopes of more than 5 percent. Wet soils that have depth of 27 inches, and yellowish brown sand to a depth
a dark surface layer are along drainageways. The of 31 inches. Below that is white sand to a depth of 67
included soils make up about 10 to 15 percent of the inches and very dark gray sand to a depth of at least 80
map unit. inches.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash, loblolly, and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
longleaf pine. The dominant understory is gallberry and Chipley, Hurricane, Mandarin, and Rutlege soils. Rutlege
southern bayberry. Wetter areas of these soils do not soils are the most common inclusion. Also included are a
have pine trees but have pitcherplants. The most few areas of soils similar to Leon soil except they have a
common native grasses are pineland threeawn surface layer that is thicker, have a Bh horizon that is
(wiregrass) and little and pinehill bluestem. Other more than 30 inches below the surface, or more than
grasses include panicum and toothachegrass. half of the dark color subsoil is weakly cemented. The
These soils have moderate limitations for cultivated included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
crops because of wetness. They are suited to some unit.
cultivated crops, but the variety is limited to water- This Leon soil has a high water table at a depth of 10
tolerant plants. If the soils are properly drained, corn, to 40 inches for periods of more than 9 months during
peanuts, and soybeans are adapted. Tile drains or open most years. The high water table is at a depth of less
ditches are needed to remove water from the wetter than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during periods of high
areas. Row crops need to be rotated with cover crops rainfall and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
that remain on the land at least half the time. Soil- during very dry seasons. The available water capacity is
improving cover crops and crop residue left on the soil very low in the surface and subsurface layers and low in
protect the soil from erosion. For the best yields, these the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
soils require good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately rapid in the
lime. subsoil, and very rapid below that. The organic matter
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal content is low to moderate.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well with good The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly
management. White clover and other legumes are pine, slash pine, water oaks, and myrtle. The understory
moderately adapted. For best yields, these soils require is sawpalmetto, running oak, fetterbush, and gallberry.
fertilizer and lime and grazing needs to be carefully The most common native grass is pineland threeawn
controlled to maintain plant vigor. (wiregrass). Other grasses are creeping and chalky
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately bluestem, hairy panicum, lopsided indiangrass, panicum,
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and and smooth cordgrass.
plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and This Leon soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. crops because of wetness and poor soil quality.
These soils have moderate limitations for building sites However, with good water control measures and soil-
and local roads and streets because of the high water improving measures, this soil is suited to a limited
table during the wet periods. They have severe number of crops. Vegetables crops are the most
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of suitable. Good management practices include a
the high water table and moderately slow to moderate complete water control system that removes excess
permeability in the subsoil. Alternative systems or fill can water quickly after heavy rains and supplies subsurface
reduce these limitations. These soils have severe irrigation in dry seasons; row crops in rotation with soil-
limitations for sewage lagoons and area sanitary landfills improving crops that remain on the land at least three-
because of seepage and the high water table, which also fourths of the time; and crop residue and cover crops left
is a severe limitation for trench sanitary landfills, on the soil to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed







34 Soil Survey



preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer matter content is low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and
and lime should be added according to the needs of the there is little runoff. This soil does not have a high water
crops, table within a depth of 6 feet.
This soil is well suited to use as pasture and hay. The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, slash
Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and several pine, and longleaf pine, white oak, red oak, turkey oak,
legumes are adapted. Water control measures are post oak, hickory, holly, and dogwood. Pineland
needed to remove excess water during heavy rains. threeawn (wiregrass) is the most common native grass.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed This Lucy soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
because of rapid leaching. For best yields, controlled crops because of poor soil qualities. It can be cultivated
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants. safely with ordinary good farming methods. Droughtiness
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of
high. Equipment use limitations, plant competition, crops and the potential yields of adapted crops. With
windthrow hazard, and seedling mortality are moderate. good management, corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. grown. Management practices include row crops planted
This soil has severe limitations for building sites and on the contour in alternate strips with cover crops that
local roads and streets because of the high water table remain on the ground at least half the time, and cover
during wet periods. It has severe limitations for septic crops and crop residue left on the soil to protect the soil
tank absorption filter fields because of wetness and poor from erosion. For best yields, this soil requires good
filtering capacity. Alternative systems or fill can reduce seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. Irrigation is
this limitation. This soil has severe limitations for sewage usually feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
lagoons and sanitary landfills because of seepage and This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Deep-rooting
the high water table, plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
Limitations for recreational development are severe are well adapted. This soil responds well to fertilizer and
because of the high water table and the sandy surface. lime. For maximum yields and good cover, controlled
A suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants.
or overcome the limitations caused by the sandy surface. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw and in high. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality
woodland suitability group 7W. are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the
best trees to plant.
22-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil has slight limitations for most urban and
soil is well drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is recreational uses. Seepage is a severe limitation for
on broad ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of this sewage lagoons. If used for this purpose, the sidewalls
soil range from 15 to more than 100 acres; some areas should be sealed.
are as small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to This Lucy soil is in capability subclass IIs and in
convex but are concave in places. woodland suitability group 11S.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
loamy sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy 23-Lucy loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
sand to a depth of 33 inches. It is dark yellowish brown soil is well drained and sloping. It is on side slopes on
to a depth of 13 inches, dark brown to a depth of 24 uplands. Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to 80
inches, and strong brown below that. The subsoil acres. Slopes are mostly convex but are concave in
extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is red sandy places.
loam to a depth of 39 inches, and yellowish red and red Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy sand 9
sandy clay loam below that. inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy sand to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 28 inches. It is dark brown to a depth of 15
Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, Stilson, and Troup inches, strong brown to a depth of 20 inches, and
soils. Larger areas of Orangeburg soils are at breaks in yellowish red below that. The subsoil is red to a depth of
the landscape. Also included are a few areas of soils at least 80 inches. It is sandy loam to a depth of 33
similar to Lucy soil except they have a sandy and loamy inches, sandy clay loam to a depth of 60 inches, and
fine sand surface layer, have slope of more than 5 sandy loam below that.
percent, or have a darker red Bt horizon than allowed for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the series. The included soils make up less than 20 Dothan, Fuquay, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
percent of the map unit. Larger areas of Orangeburg soils are at breaks in the
In this Lucy soil, the available water capacity is low in landscape. Also included are a few areas of soils similar
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the to Lucy soil except they have a sand and loamy fine
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sand surface layer or have slopes more than or less
subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the upper part of than 5 to 8 percent. Also included are small areas of
the subsoil, and moderate in the lower part. The organic poorly drained soils in and along narrow stream bottoms






Walton County, Florida 35



and drainageways. A few areas include small gullies. The a depth of 25 inches, and red sandy clay loam below
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map that.
unit. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In this Lucy soil, the available water capacity is low in Bonneau, Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Lucy, Norfolk, and
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the Tifton soils. Also included are a few areas of soils similar
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the to this Orangeburg soil except they have slope of more
subsoil and moderate in the lower part. The organic than 5 percent, they are eroded, they have more than 35
matter content is low. Runoff from unprotected areas is percent clay in the upper part of the subsoil, they have a
moderate. This soil does not have a seasonal high water loamy sand surface layer, or they have a subsoil that is
table within a depth of 6 feet. dark red in the upper part. Included in the Eucheeanna
The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, slash Valley are similar soils that have a 20 percent decrease
pine, longleaf pine, white oak, red oak, turkey oak, post in clay content in the subsoil within a depth of 60 inches.
oak, hickory, holly, and dogwood. Pineland threeawn Also included are a few small, wet spots and a few
(wiregrass) is the most common native grass, shallow and deep gullies. The included soils make up
This Lucy soil has severe limitations for cultivated less than 20 percent of the map unit.
crops because of poor soil qualities. Special soil- In this Orangeburg soil, the available water capacity is
improving measures are required. Droughtiness and rapid low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
leaching of plant nutrients severely limit the suitability for Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
most row crops. The steepness of slopes further limits moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content is
the suitability by making cultivation more difficult and by low or moderately low. Rainfall is readily absorbed and
increasing the hazard of erosion. Cultivated row crops retained in the soil. Runoff during rain is moderate to
need to be planted on the contour in alternating wider rapid in unprotected areas. This soil does not have a
strips of close-growing, soil-improving crops. The close- high water table within a depth of 6 feet.
growing crops need to remain on the land at least two- The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly
thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime are needed for best pine, slash pine, laurel oak, hickory, and flowering
yields. Cover crops and crop residue left on the soil dogwood. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most
protect it from erosion. common native grass. Other grasses include varieties of
This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture. bluestem and purple lovegrass.
Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are well adapted. Steepness of slope This Orangeburg soil has moderate limitations for
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. A
increases the hazard of erosion and reduces potential
yields. Good stands of grass can be produced by adding wide variety of cultivated crops is well adapted. Corn and
fertilizer and lime to the soil. Controlled grazing is soybeans grow well if properly managed. Moderate
needed to maintain plant vigor to provide good erosion control measures are needed. The measures
rotective cover include terraces that have stabilized outlets, and contour
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
high. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality crops that remain on the soil at least half the time. Soil-
are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the improving cover cerps and crop residue left on the soil
best trees to plant. protect the soil from erosion. Maximum yields require
This soil has slight limitations for most urban and good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
recreational uses. Slope is a moderate limitation for This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue,
commercial building sites and a severe limitation for coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well
playgrounds. Seepage is a severe limitation for sewage adapted. Clovers and other legumes grow well if properly
lagoons. If this soil is used for this purpose, the sidewalls managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime, and
should be sealed, controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ills and in for highest yields and good soil cover.
woodland suitability group 11S. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Plant competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
25-Orangeburg sandy loam, 1 to 5 percent loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently sloping. It is This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses,
on broad, narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas sanitary facilities, and recreational development. Slope is
of this soil range from 15 to 80 acres. Slopes are a moderate limitation for playgrounds. This soil has
smooth to concave and convex, moderate limitations for sewage lagoons because of
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown seepage and slope. The sidewalls should be sealed in
sandy loam 10 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a some locations where the subsoil is deepest.
depth of at least 80 inches. It is dark brown sandy loam This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass lie and in
to a depth of 17 inches, yellowish red sandy clay loam to woodland suitability group 11A.






36 Soil Survey



26-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent This soil has slight limitations for most recreational
slopes. This soil is well drained and sloping. It is on side development. Slope is a severe limitation for
slopes on uplands. Individual areas of this soil range playgrounds.
from 10 to 40 acres. Slopes are concave at the lower This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass Ille and
part and convex at the upper part. in woodland suitability group 11A.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sandy loam 6
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 27-Rutlege fine sand. This soil is very poorly
80 inches. It is red sandy clay loam to a depth of 20 drained and nearly level. It is in shallow depressions
inches and red sandy loam below that. (sometimes called ponds, bays, or sinks) and on stream
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of or creek flood plains and upland flats. Individual areas of
Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, Norfolk, Lucy, and Tifton this soil range from 5 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth to
soils. Also included are a few areas of soils similar to concave and are less than 2 percent.
this Orangeburg soil except they have slopes of 2 to 5 Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 17
percent or more than 8 percent, they are eroded, they inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
have more than 35 percent clay in the upper part of the depth of at least 80 inches. It is grayish brown to a
subsoil, or they have a loamy sand surface layer. A few depth of 22 inches, light brownish gray to a depth of 60
shallow and deep gullies are also included. The included inches, and light gray below that.
soils make up less than 25 percent of the map unit. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In this Orangeburg soil, the available water capacity is Chipley, Hurricane, Leon, Pamlico, and Pickney soils.
low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Also commonly included are soils similar to this Rutlege
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and soil except they have a dark color surface layer less than
moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content is 10 inches thick, have a dark color subsoil below a depth
of 50 inches, have a loamy subsoil that is mixed or
low or moderately low. This soil does not have a high stratified below a depth of 60 inches, or have a loamy
stratified below a depth of 60 inches, or have a loamy
water table within a depth of 6 feet.
water table within a depth of 6 feet. sand surface layer. The included soils make up less than
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly 30 percent of the map unit.
pine, slash pine, laurel oak, hickory, and flowering This Rutlege soil has a high water table at or near the
dogwood. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most surface for long periods of the year. Shallow ponding is
common native grass. Other grasses include varieties of common. Brief flooding is common in areas adjacent to
bluestem and purple lovegrass. creeks and streams. The available water capacity is high
This Orangeburg soil has moderate limitations for in the surface layer and low in the underlying material.
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. A Permeability is rapid throughout. However, internal
wide variety of cultivated crops is well adapted. Corn and drainage is slow when impeded by the high water table.
soybeans grow well if properly managed. Intensive Response to artificial drainage is rapid. The organic
erosion control measures are needed. The measures matter content is high or very high.
include terraces that have stabilized outlets and row The natural vegetation is mostly hardwoods and pond
crops in alternate strips with cover crops that remain on pines or slash and loblolly pines. The understory is
the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving huckleberry, myrtle, greenbriers, pineland threeawn
cover crops and crop residue left on the soil also protect (wiregrass), and sedges. Some areas do not have pine
the soil from erosion. Maximum yields require good trees.
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue, excessive wetness.
coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well If water control measures are used to remove excess
adapted. Clovers and other legumes grow well if properly water, this soil is moderately well suited to use as
managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime, and improved pasture. Because of the difficulty of installing
controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants these measures and lack of drainage outlets in many
for highest yields and good soil cover, areas, this soil is seldom used as pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately The potential for pine trees is moderately high.
high. Plant competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. competition are severe. Surface drainage or bedding is
This soil has slight limitations for some building sites recommended before planting. Loblolly and slash pines
and local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations are the best trees to plant.
for small commercial buildings because of slope. Cutting This soil has severe limitations for urban uses and
and filling can reduce this limitation. This soil has slight recreational development mainly because of wetness.
limitations for septic tank absorption fields and sanitary Extensive drainage and large amounts of fill material
landfills. Slope is a severe limitation for sewage lagoons. would be needed to make this soil suited to these uses.






Walton County, Florida 37



This Rutlege soil is in capability subclass VIw and in septic tank absorption fields because of the high water
woodland suitability group 9W. table in wet periods and moderate permeability in the
subsoil. Alternative systems or good fill can help
28-Tifton fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, overcome this limitation. Seepage is a moderate
This soil is well drained and nearly level. It is on broad, limitation for sewage lagoons and trench sanitary
narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of this soil landfills. If this soil is used for lagoons and landfills, the
range from 5 to 40 acres. Slopes are smooth to sidewalls need to be sealed in places where the subsoil
concave. is deepest. The seasonal high water table is also a
Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam 11 limitation for trench sanitary landfills. This soil has slight
inches thick. It is dark brown to a depth of 5 inches and limitations for area sanitary landfills.
brown below that. The subsoil is yellowish brown to a This soil has slight limitations for most recreational
depth of at least 80 inches. It is gravelly sandy loam to a development. Small stones on the surface are a
depth of 18 inches and gravelly sandy clay loam to a moderate limitation for playgrounds.
depth of 29 inches. To a depth of 55 inches, it is sandy This Tifton soil is in capability class I and in woodland
clay loam that has plinthite, and below that, it is sandy suitability group 11A.
loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 29-Tifton fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Malbis, Norfolk, and This soil is well drained and gently sloping. It is on
Orangeburg soils. Also included are soils similar to this broad, narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of
Tifton soil except they have slopes of 2 to 5 percent, this soil range from 5 to 60 acres. Slopes are mostly
have a sandy loam subsoil below a depth of 60 inches, convex but are concave in places.
have more than 20 percent silt in the upper 20 inches of Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam 9 inches
the subsoil, have less than 5 percent plinthite in the thick. It is dark grayish brown to a depth of 4 inches and
lower part of the subsoil, or have a loamy sand or sandy dark brown below that. The subsoil extends to a depth of
loam surface layer. The included soils make up less than at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown to a depth of 57
20 percent of the map unit. inches and reticulately mottled in shades of brown, red,
In this Tifton soil, the available water capacity is low in and gray below that. The subsoil is gravelly fine sandy
the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. loam, to a depth of 13 inches, and below that it is
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in gravelly sandy clay loam that has plinthite.
the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
low. Runoff during rains is slow. This soil has a perched Angie, Dothan, Escambia, Florala, Fuquay, Malbis, and
high water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches after Orangeburg soils. Also included are soils similar to this
heavy rainfall. Tifton soil except they have slopes of 0 to 2 and 5 to 8
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf percent, an eroded surface layer, less than 5 percent
pine, loblolly pine, southern red oak, laurel oak, plinthite, a loamy sand or sandy loam surface layer, or
dogwood, hickory, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn more than 20 percent silt in the upper 20 inches of the
(wiregrass) is the most common native grass. subsoil. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
This Tifton soil has few limitations for cultivated crops. of the map unit.
A wide variety of cultivated crops is well adapted, and In this Tifton soil, the available water capacity is low in
corn, soybeans, and peanuts grow well without special the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
erosion control or water control measures. Good Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, lime, and crop rotation the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately
are all that are needed to keep the soil in good low. Runoff during rain is moderate to rapid in
condition. Cover crops need to be alternated with row unprotected areas. This soil has a perched high water
crops. Crop residue left on the soil protects the soil from table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches after heavy rainfall.
erosion. The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue, pine, loblolly pine, southern red oak, laurel oak,
coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well dogwood, hickory, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn
adapted. Clovers and other legumes grow well if properly (wiregrass) is the most common native grass.
managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime, and This Tifton soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants crops because of the hazard of erosion. A wide variety
for highest yields and good soil cover, of cultivated crops is well adapted, and corn, peanuts,
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant and soybeans grow well if properly managed. Moderate
competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly erosion control measures are needed. These measures
pines are the best trees to plant. include terraces that have stabilized outlets; contour
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for crops that remain on the soil at least half the time; and






38 Soil Survey



crop residue left on the soil. Maximum yields require Runoff is rapid in unprotected areas. This soil has a
good seedbed preparation, and applications of fertilizer perched high water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches
and lime to the soil. after heavy rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue, The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf
coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass grow pine, loblolly pine, southern red oak, laurel oak,
well if properly managed. This soil requires fertilizer and dogwood, hickory, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn
lime, and controlled grazing is needed to maintain (wiregrass) is the most common native grass.
vigorous plants for highest yields and good soil cover. This Tifton soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant crops because of the hazard of erosion. A wide variety
competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly of cultivated crops is well adapted, and corn, peanuts,
pines are the best trees to plant, and soybeans grow well if properly managed. Intensive
This soil has slight limitations for use as building sites erosion control measures are needed. These measures
and local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations include terraces that have stabilized outlets; contour
for septic tank absorption fields because of the high cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
water table during wet periods and the moderate crops that remain on the soil at least two-thirds of the
permeability in the subsoil. Alternative systems or fill can time; and crop residue left on the soil. Maximum yields
overcome these limitations. This soil has moderate require good seedbed preparation and application of
limitations for sewage lagoons because of seepage and fertilizer and lime to the soil.
slope. If used for this purpose, the sides of the lagoons This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue,
need to be sealed in some locations. This soil has slight coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well
limitations for area sanitary landfills and moderate adapted. Clovers and other legumes also grow well if
limitations for trench sanitary landfills because of the properly managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime,
high water table, and controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
This soil has slight limitations for most recreational plants for highest yields and good soil cover.
development. Small stones and slope are moderate The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant
limitations for playgrounds. competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly
This Tifton soil is in capability subclass lie and in pines are the best trees to plant.
woodland suitability group 11A. This soil has slight limitations for most building sites
and local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations
30-Tifton fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, for small commercial buildings because of slope. Cutting
This soil is well drained and sloping. It is on broad, and filling can overcome this limitation. This soil has
narrow side slopes on uplands. Individual areas of this moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields
soil range from 5 to 30 acres. Slopes are mostly convex because of the high water table in wet periods and the
but are concave in places. moderate permeability in the subsoil. Alternative systems
Typically, the surface layer is 9 inches thick. It is very or suitable fill can help overcome these limitations. This
dark grayish brown fine sandy loam in the top 5 inches soil has moderate limitations for sewage lagoons
and dark brown gravelly fine sandy loam below that. The because of seepage and slope. If used for this purpose,
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 the sidewalls need to be sealed in places where the
inches. It is strong brown to a depth of 16 inches, subsoil is deepest. This soil has moderate limitations for
yellowish red to a depth of 21 inches, and yellowish trench sanitary landfills because of the high water table.
brown to a depth of 56 inches. It is mottled yellowish It has slight limitations for area sanitary landfills.
brown below that. This soil has slight limitations for most recreational
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of development. Slope is a severe limitation for
Angie, Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and playgrounds.
Troup soils. Included in a few areas is Tifton soil that has This Tifton soil is in capability subclass Ille and in
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are areas of soils woodland suitability group 11A.
similar to Tifton soil except they have a loamy sand or
sandy loam surface layer or an eroded surface layer. 31-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
Areas of Norfolk and Orangeburg soils that have well drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is on
ironstones in the surface layer are included. The uplands. Most areas of this soil range from 40 to more
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map than 300 acres; some are as large as 500 acres and
unit. others as small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to
In this Tifton soil, the available water capacity is low in convex but are concave in places.
the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown
the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately sand to a depth of 16 inches and strong brown and
low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed and retained in the soils. yellowish red loamy sand to a depth of about 51 inches.






Walton County, Florida 39



The subsoil is red fine sandy loam to a depth of 55 This Troup soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
inches and red sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 woodland suitability group 10S.
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 32-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, and Lucy well drained and sloping. It is on uplands. Most areas of
soils. Also included are small areas of Troup soil that this soil range from 30 to more than 100 acres; a few
has slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Many areas have soils areas are as small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly convex
similar to Troup soil except they have a loamy sand but are concave in places.
surface layer. The included soils make up less than 15 Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 4 inches thick.
percent of the map unit. The subsurface layer is loamy sand to a depth of 53
In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in inches. It is yellowish brown to brownish yellow. The
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil is red to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is sandy
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and loam to a depth of 65 inches and sandy clay loam below
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The that.
organic matter content is low or very low. Rainfall is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rapidly absorbed in protected areas, and there is little Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Fuquay, Lakeland, and
runoff. This soil does not have a high water table within Lucy soils. Also included are a few areas of Troup soil
a depth of 6 feet. that has slopes of less than 5 percent and more than 8
The natural vegetation is mostly blackjack oak, percent. Dothan, Orangeburg, and Cowarts soils are at
bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, and scattered the head of drainageways. Many areas have soils similar
longleaf pine. The understory is bluestems, paspalums, to Troup soil except they have a loamy sand surface
and annual forbs. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the layer. A few shallow and deep gullies are in some areas.
most common native grass. The included soils make up less than 20 percent of the
This Troup soil has severe limitations for cultivated map unit.
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in
In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
adapted crops. Soil management should include row subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
crops planted on the contour in alternating strips with subsurface ers and moderate in the subsoil. The
close-growing, soil-improving crops that remain on the er
land at least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops and organic matter content is low or very low. Rainfall is
crop residue left on the soil protect the soil from erosion. rapidly absorbed in protected areas and there is little
Lime and fertilizer are needed. Irrigation of high value roff h o
crops, such as watermelons, is usually feasible where a d epth of 6 feet.
irrigation water is readily available. The natural vegetation is mostly blackjack oak,
This soil is moderately suited to use as improved bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, and scattered
pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal longleaf pine. The understory is bluestem, paspalums,
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well and annual forbs. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the
adapted. They grow well and produce good ground most common native grass.
cover if lime and fertilizer are added to the soil. This Troup soil has very severe limitations for
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
for maximum yields. Yields are occasionally greatly plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
reduced by extended severe droughts. potential yields of adapted crops. Soil management
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately should include row crops planted on the contour in
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and alternating strips with close-growing, soil-improving crops
plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and that remain on the land at least three-fourths of the time.
longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. The cover crops and crop residue left on the soil protect
This soil has slight limitations for building sites, local the soil from erosion. Lime and fertilizer are needed.
roads and streets, and septic tank absorption fields. It This soil is moderately suited to use as improved
has severe limitations for sewage lagoons and area pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal
sanitary landfills because of seepage. Sidewalls need to bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well
be sealed if this soil is used for sewage lagoons. This adapted. They grow well and produce good ground
soil has severe limitations for trench sanitary landfills cover if lime and fertilizer are added to the soil.
because it is too sandy. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
This soil has severe limitations for recreational for maximum yields. Yields are occasionally greatly
development because of the sandy surface. Suitable reduced by extended severe droughts.
topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
eliminate this limitation. high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and






40 Soil Survey



moderate plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer are
and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. added to the soil. Grazing must be greatly restricted to
This soil has slight limitations for most building sites maintain vigorous plants for complete ground cover.
and local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
for small commercial buildings because of slope, but high. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality
cutting and filling can easily overcome this limitation, are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
This soil has slight limitations for septic tank absorption best trees to plant.
fields. It has severe limitations for sewage lagoons and This soil has moderate limitations for most building
area sanitary landfills because of seepage. Sidewalls sites and local roads and streets because of the slope.
need to be sealed if this soil is used for sewage lagoons. Sites for homes need cutting and filling. Slopes are a
This has severe limitations for trench sanitary landfills severe limitation for small commercial buildings. This soil
because it is too sandy. has moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields
This soil has severe limitations for recreational because of slope, and the drain field needs to be on the
development because it is too sandy. Suitable topsoil or contour of the slope. It has severe limitations for sewage
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this lagoons because of seepage and slope. The sandy
limitation. Slope is also a severe limitation for texture is a severe limitation for trench sanitary landfills,
playgrounds. and seepage is a severe limitation for area sanitary
This Troup soil is in capability subclass IVs and in landfills. If this soil is used as sewage lagoons and
woodland suitability group 10S. trench sanitary landfills, the sandy sidewalls need to be
sealed.
33-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This soil is This soil has severe limitations for recreational
well drained and strongly sloping. It is on side slopes on development because of the sandy surface. Suitable
uplands. Most areas of this soil range from 20 to more topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or
than 100 acres; some areas are as small as 5 acres. overcome this limitation. Slope is also a severe limitation
Slopes are mostly convex but are concave in places. for playgrounds.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand 2 This Troup soil is in capability subclass Vis and in
inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown to woodland suitability group 10S.
yellowish red loamy sand to a depth of 62 inches. The
subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 34-Troup sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes. This soil
inches, is well drained and moderately steep. It is on side slopes
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of on uplands. Most areas of this soil range from 5 to 80
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Cowarts, Fuquay, acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and concave.
Lakeland, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand 2
a few areas of Troup soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown to yellow
percent or 12 to 25 percent and a few very small areas loamy sand to a depth of 64 inches. The subsoil is
that have slopes of more than 30 percent. Soils similar yellowish red sandy loam to a depth of at least 80
to Troup soil, except they have a loamy sand surface inches.
layer, are in many areas. Both deep and shallow gullies Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
are in many areas of this soil. The included soils make Cowarts and Lakeland soils. Troup soil that has slopes
up less than 25 percent of the map unit. of 8 to 12 percent or of more than 25 percent are
In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in included in a few areas. A short, steep slope symbol is
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the used for long, narrow slopes of more than 30 percent.
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and Also included in many areas are soils similar to Troup
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The soil except they have a loamy sand surface layer. Both
organic matter content is low or very low. Rainfall is deep and shallow gullies are in many areas. The
absorbed in protected areas, and there is little runoff. included soils make up less than 30 percent of the map
This soil does not have a high water table within a depth unit.
of 6 feet. In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in
The natural vegetation is mostly blackjack oak, the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, and scattered subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
longleaf pine. The understory is bluestem, paspalums, subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
and annual forbs. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the organic matter content is low or very low. Rainfall is
most common native grass, rapidly absorbed, but runoff from unprotected areas is
This Troup soil is not suited to cultivated crops and is rapid during heavy rainfall. This soil does not have a high
poorly suited to use as improved pasture. Deep-rooting water table within a depth of 6 feet.
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and improved The natural vegetation is mostly blackjack oak,
bahiagrass, are well adapted. They grow well and bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, and scattered





Walton County, Florida 41



longleaf pine. The understory is bluestem, paspalums, In this Orangeburg soil, the available water capacity is
and annual forbs. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
most common native grass. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in
This Troup soil is not suited to cultivated crops nor to the subsoil. The organic matter content is low or
use as pasture, moderately low. Runoff from unprotected areas is rapid
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately to very rapid. This soil does not have a high water table
high. The erosion hazard, equipment use limitations, within a depth of 6 feet.
seedling mortality, and plant competition are moderate. Cowarts soil makes up about 10 to 20 percent of the
Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to map unit. Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand
plant. about 6 inches thick. It is very dark grayish brown to a
This soil has severe limitations for building sites and depth of 1 inch and brown below that. The subsurface
local roads and streets because of slope. Proper layer to a depth of 10 inches is yellowish brown loamy
planning and designs are needed. This soil has severe sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 49 inches. It is
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. Hillside strong brown to yellowish red sandy clay loam and
seepage is the major limitation. Cutting and filling are sandy loam. The substratum is yellowish red loamy sand
needed to reduce the slope grade. Seepage and slope to a depth of 80 inches or more.
are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and area In this Cowarts soil, the available water capacity is low
sanitary landfills, and slope and the sandy texture are or moderate in the surface and subsurface layers,
severe limitations for trench sanitary landfills. The moderate in the subsoil, and low or moderate in the
limitations are difficult to overcome for these uses. substratum. Permeability is slow. The organic matter
This soil has severe limitations for recreation content is low. Rainfall is readily absorbed and retained
development because of the sandy surface and steep in the soil. Runoff from unprotected areas is rapid to very
slope. Suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can rapid. This soil does not have a high water table within a
reduce the limitations caused by the sandy texture. depth of 6 feet
This Troup soil is in capability subclass Vlls and in Included wit these soils in mapping are the Albany,
woodland suitability group 10. Ange, Bonifay, Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Norfolk,

35-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts loamy sands, 5 to Pactolus, and Tifton soils. Small seepage spots also
12 percent slopes. This map unit consists of well occur in a few mapped areas. Small, poorly drained
drained soils on sloping to strongly sloping side slopes. areas in and along narrow stream bottoms and
Areas of the Troup, Orangeburg, and Cowarts soils are drainageways are shown by drainage symbols. Also
too intricately mixed and too small to be mapped included are areas of the Troup, Orangeburg, and
separately at the selected scale. Areas of this map unit Cowarts soils that have slopes of more than 12 percent.
range from 3 to 100 acres. Individual areas of soils These areas are too small and narrow to delineate. In a
within the map unit range from less than 1 acre to 3 few areas, either Orangeburg or Cowarts soils are not
acres. present. The included soils make up 10 to 45 percent of
Troup soil makes up about 30 to 50 percent of the the map unit.
map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly
brown sand 2 inches thick. The subsurface is brown to pine, longleaf pine, red oak, water oak, laurel oak,
yellowish red loamy sand to a depth of 42 inches. The blackjack oak, turkey oak, hickory, magnolia, sweetgum,
subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or bay, and holly. The understory is shrubs. The most
more. common grasses are bluestem and pineland threeawn
In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in (wiregrass).
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the The Troup, Orangeburg, and Cowarts soils are very
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and severely limited for cultivated crops because of the
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The hazard of erosion. The soils are poorly suited to row
organic matter content is low to very low. Rainfall is crops because the slopes are too steep to be safely
rapidly absorbed, and there is little runoff. This soil does cultivated or effectively terraced. Erosion control
not have a high water table within a depth of 6 feet. measures are limited to the use of vegetative cover.
Orangeburg soil makes up about 15 to 25 percent of When row crops are grown, they should be planted in
the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark narrow strips on the contour with alternating wider strips
grayish brown loamy sand 6 inches thick. The of close-growing vegetation. A crop rotation needs to
subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand to a keep the soil under close-growing vegetation at least
depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is yellowish red to a three-fourths of the time. All crop residue needs to be
depth of 80 inches or more. It is loamy sand to a depth left on the soil to protect it from erosion. Both row crops
of 17 inches, sandy loam to a depth of 33 inches, and and close-growing crops require lime and fertilizer for
sandy clay loam below that. best yields.






42 Soil Survey



These soils are moderately well suited to improved uplands. Individual areas of this soil range from 3 to 30
pastures. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and acres.
improved bahiagrass are well suited. Fertilizer, lime, and Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sandy loam 4
controlled grazing are needed for best yields and to inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 35
complete vegetative cover to prevent severe erosion. inches. It is yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of 6
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately inches and strong brown to yellowish brown clay below
high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and that. The substratum is light olive gray clay to a depth of
plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and at least 80 inches.
longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Slope is a moderate limitation to the use of these soils Bonneau, Dothan, Norfolk, and Shubuta soils. Also
for building sites and local roads and streets. Sites for included are soils similar to Angie soil except they have
small commercial buildings and houses can be leveled a red subsoil, a sandy or loamy substratum, or a loamy
by cutting and filling. Slope is also a moderate limitation sand surface layer. Small, moderately eroded areas of
for use for septic tank absorption fields. Seepage and Angie soil and Angle soil that has slopes of less than 2
slope are severe limitations for sewage lagoons. The percent or more than 5 percent are included. The
sandy texture severely limits the use of these soils for included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
trench sanitary landfills, and seepage severely limits unit.
them for area sanitary landfills. If these soils are used for This soil has a high water table at a depth of 3 to 5
sewage lagoons or trench sanitary landfills, the sandy feet during the rainy season. The available water
sidewalls should be sealed. capacity is moderate in the surface layer and low or
The sandy texture is a severe limitation to the use of moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid
these soils for recreational development; however, a in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The organic
suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce matter content is low or moderately low. Runoff in
this limitation. Slope is an additional limitation for unprotected areas is rapid.
playgrounds. The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf
The Troup, Orangeburg, and Cowarts soils are in pine, slash pine, Florida maple, water oak, willow oak,
capability subclass Vis. Troup soil is in woodland sumac, American holly, southern magnolia, tuliptree,
suitability group 10S, and Orangeburg and Cowarts soils yaupon, common sweetleaf, gallberry, and cedar.
are in 11A. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) and broomsedge
bluestem are the most common native grasses.
36-Pits. This miscellaneous area consists of open This Angie soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
excavations from which sand and loamy material have crops because of the hazard of erosion. The variety of
been removed. The excavations vary from 2 to more cultivated crops that are well adapted is somewhat
than 12 feet deep. The material from these excavations limited by occasional wetness. Corn, soybeans, and
is used mainly in the construction and repair of roads peanuts grow well if properly managed. Moderate
and as fill material for foundations. In some areas erosion control and water control measures are needed.
mixtures of sandy, loamy, and clayey material are piled Rows need to be bedded on the contour in alternate
or scattered around the edges of the excavations. This strips with cover crops that remain on the land at least
material has been mixed to the extent that the half the time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop
identification of individual soils is not possible. Individual residue left on the soil protect the soil from erosion.
mapped areas generally range from 5 to 100 acres. Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation and
Areas that are too small to be delineated are shown on additions of fertilizer and lime to the soil. Tile drains to
the map by the two shovel spot symbol. Pits occur remove excess water during wet seasons are needed for
throughout the county but have a small total acreage. some water-sensitive crops.
Most areas are almost barren. Some pits have been This soil is well suited to improved pasture and hay.
abandoned, but many are still used. In a few areas, Tall fescue, clover, coastal bermudagrass, and
especially in areas that have a high water table, water bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well if the soil is
ponds during high rainfall, fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed to
Pits have little or no value for agriculture or pine trees; maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
however, pine trees are growing in some older pits. No ground cover.
interpretations, limitations, or potential ratings are given The potential productivity for pine trees is high.
for these areas. Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
Pits are not assigned a capability subclass or moderate. Loblolly, longleaf, and slash pines are the
woodland suitability group. best trees to plant.
This soil has moderate limitations for building sites
37-Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This because the clayey subsoil shrinks and swells and has
soil is moderately well drained and gently sloping. It is on low strength. Steel reinforcing rods in the foundation and





Walton County, Florida 43



a base of sand under the foundation reduce these In this Norfolk soil, the available water capacity is low
limitations. This soil has moderate limitations for area in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
sanitary landfills because of wetness, and the high water subsoil. Permeability is moderate. The organic matter
table and clayey texture are severe limitations for trench content is low or moderately low. Runoff is rapidly
sanitary landfills. This soil has a severe limitation for absorbed and retained in the soil. Runoff from
septic tank absorption fields because of slow unprotected areas is very rapid during rain. The high
permeability in the subsoil. Low strength is a severe water table is below a depth of 4 feet.
limitation for local roads and streets. This soil has severe Angie soil makes up 15 to 25 percent of the complex
limitations for sewage lagoons because of the high water and generally occurs on slopes of less than 7 percent.
table during wet periods. Special measures are needed Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sandy loam 4
to overcome these limitations, inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 35
This soil has slight limitations for picnic areas and inches. It is yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of 6
paths and trails and moderate limitations for camp areas inches, strong brown clay to a depth of 15 inches, and
and playgrounds because of slow permeability in the below that, it is yellowish brown clay that has brown, red,
subsoil. Slope is also a moderate limitation for and gray mottles. The substratum is light olive gray clay
playgrounds. to a depth of 80 inches.
This Angie soil is in capability subclass Ille and in This Angie soil has a high water table at a depth of 36
woodland suitability group 11W. to 60 inches during the rainy season. The available water
8-B u-N k-A 5 t 1 capacity is low or moderate in the surface layer and
38-Bonneau-Norfolk-Angie complex, 5 to 12 subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
percent slopes. This complex consists of Bonneau, layer and slow in the subsoil. The organic matter content
Norfolk, and Angie soils on uplands. These soils areis low or moderately low. Runoff in unprotected areas is
sloping to strongly sloping. Bonneau and Norfolk soils
very rapid, and erosion is a very severe hazard.
are well drained, and Angie soil is moderately well
drained. Areas of these soils are too intricately mixed or Included with this complex in mapping are the Albany,
too small to be mapped separately at the selected scale. Bonifay, Cowarts, Orangeburg, Shubuta, and Troup soils.
The mapped areas range from 3 to 200 acres, but Soils similar to Bonneau and Norfolk soils except they
individual areas of soils within the map unit range from have a loamy sand or sand substratum within a depth of
less than 1 acre to 3 acres. 40 to 60 inches are also included. Included are soils on
Bonneau soil makes up 30 to 40 percent of the nearly level ridgetops that are too small and narrow to
complex. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish delineate and areas of soils similar to Bonneau soil
brown loamy sand to a depth of 5 inches. The except they have gray mottles below a depth of 60
subsurface layer is loamy sand to a depth of 25 inches. inches. Also included at the heads of the drainageways
It is yellowish brown to a depth of 18 inches and light are areas of soils that have short, steep slopes, and in a
brownish yellow below that. The subsoil extends to a seepage area below the drainageways are various soils
depth of 68 inches. It is brownish yellow sandy loam to a that are somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained.
depth of 28 inches, brownish yellow fine sandy loam and About 10 to 30 percent of this complex has slopes of 12
sandy clay loam to a depth of 56 inches, and strong to 25 percent, and about 2 to 5 percent is very small
brown sandy clay loam below that. The substratum is areas of soils that have slopes as steep as 70 percent.
mottled sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. These small areas are generally at stream heads. Some
This Bonneau soil has a high water table at a depth of areas do not have Angie soils. The included soils make
3.5 to 5.0 feet for brief periods during the wet season. up 10 to 45 percent of the complex.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. pine, slash pine, Florida maple, American holly, willow
Permeability is moderate. The organic matter content is oak, sumac, water oak, tuliptree, southern magnolia,
low or moderately low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, but yaupon, common sweetleaf, gallberry, cedar, hickory,
there is some runoff during heavy rains. greenbrier, dogwood, and huckleberry. Pineland
Norfolk soil makes up about 25 to 35 percent of the threeawn (wiregrass) and broomsedge bluestem are the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish most common native grasses.
brown loamy sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer The soils of this complex have very severe limitations
is yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 15 inches, for cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 62 inches. It is Steepness of slope further limits the suitability by making
yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of 17 inches, and cultivation more difficult. Conservation tillage helps
brownish yellow sandy clay loam below that. The control erosion and conserve moisture. A crop rotation
substratum is reticulately mottled sandy loam in shades should keep the land under close-growing crops at least
of gray, yellow, brown, and red to a depth of at least 80 two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
inches. Cover crops and crop residue left on the land protect the






44 Soil Survey



soil from erosion. The soils in this complex are too steep the subsoil. The organic matter content is high.
for irrigation to be feasible. Adequate outlets for artificial drainage systems are
The soils of this complex are moderately well suited to generally not available.
use as pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal The natural vegetation is mostly pond pine,
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted. baldcypress, blackgum, sweetbay, and red maple.
Steepness of slope increases the hazard of erosion and This Pantego soil is not suited to cultivated crops or
reduces potential yields. Good stands of grass can be pasture in its natural state.
produced by adding fertilizer and lime to the soil. The potential productivity of pine trees is high if a
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant vigor to good water control system is installed before planting.
provide good protective cover. Equipment use limitations, plant competition, and
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. seedling mortality are severe, and the windthrow hazard
Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are is moderate. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees
moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best to plant.
trees for planting. This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
The soils of this complex have moderate limitations for development. Ponding and wetness are severe
septic tank absorption fields and area sanitary landfills limitations that are not practical to overcome.
because of the high water table during wet periods and This Pantego soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
This Pantego soil is in capability subclass Vlw and in
the steepness of slope. Alternative systems, shaping, or
fill can reduce the limitations for septic tank absorption woodland suitability group 7W
fields. These soils have severe limitations for trench
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons because of the 40Escambia sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
high water table. They have moderate limitations for This soil is somewhat poorly drained and nearly level. It
building sites and local roads and streets and severe is in low areas on uplands. Individual areas of this soil
limitations for commercial buildings because of slope. range mostly from 1 to more than 100 acres; a few
Cutting and leveling can reduce this limitation. areas are as small as 5 acres. Slopes are smooth to
These soils have moderate limitations for recreational concave.
development because of the sandy surface layer and Typically, the surface layer is sandy loam 17 inches
steepness of slope. Slope is also a severe limitation for thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 5 inches, dark
playgrounds. Suitable topsoil can overcome the sandy grayish brown to a depth of 9 inches, and yellowish
problem. brown below that. The subsoil to a depth of 67 inches is
This complex is in capability subclass IVe. Bonneau yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has mottles. The
soil is in woodland suitability group 11S, Norfolk soil is in substratum is reticulately mottled loam to a depth of at
11A, and Angie soil is in 11W. least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
39-Pantego loam, depressional. This soil is very Albany, Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Leefield, Malbis,
poorly drained and nearly level. It is in depressions. Pantego, and Stilson soils and a few areas of Escambia
Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to 30 acres, soil that has slope of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are
Slopes are concave to flat and are less than 2 percent, areas of soils similar to Escambia soil except they have
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loam 17 a sandy clay and clay loam subsoil, have a dark color
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least surface layer more than 10 inches thick, are moderately
80 inches. It is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of well drained and poorly drained, do not have plinthite
35 inches and gray sandy clay loam below that. and are sandy within a depth of 60 inches, or have less
Included with this soil in mapping are soils similar to than 20 percent silt in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil
Pantego soil except they have a thin muck or mucky and are generally in association with Dothan and Fuquay
loam surface layer, a finer textured subsoil, or a dark soils. The included soils make up less than 20 percent of
surface layer less than 8 inches thick. Also included are the map unit.
Albany, Bibb, Escambia, Dorovan, Johnston, Kinston, This Escambia soil has a high water table at a depth
Leefield, Pamlico, and Stilson soils. The included soils of 18 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months annually. In about
make up less than 25 percent of the map unit; however, 25 to 35 percent of this soil, the water table is at a depth
the proportion and composition of each mapped area is of 10 to 18 inches for short periods. The available water
variable. capacity is moderate or high in the surface layer and low
This Pantego soil has a high water table above or at to high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in
the surface from December to May. Ponding is common the surface layer, moderate in the upper part of the
for 3 to 6 months, and water is about 1 foot above the subsoil, and moderately slow or slow in the lower part.
surface in most years (fig. 9). The available water The organic matter content is low or moderately low.
capacity is moderate or high throughout. Permeability is The internal drainage rate under natural conditions is
moderately rapid in the surface layer and moderate in slow, and response to artificial drainage is moderate.







Walton County, Florida 45




























.
.,



















Figure 9.-Water ponds on Pantego loam, depressional, for long periods in most years. The ponded areas are used by wildlife.



The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and properly managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime,
slash pines. The understory is gallberry and waxmyrtle. and controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
Pitcherplants are in poorly drained areas. The most plants for highest yields.
common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). The potential productivity of pine trees is high.
Other grasses are bluestem, panicum, carpetgrass, and Equipment use limitations and windthrow hazard are
longleaf uniola. moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best
This Escambia soil has moderate limitations for trees to plant.
cultivated crops. The variety of adapted cultivated crops This soil has moderate limitations for use as building
is somewhat limited by occasional wetness. Corn and sites and local roads and streets because of the high
peanuts are adapted if properly managed. Management water table during wet periods. It has severe limitations
can include simple ditching to remove excess surface for septic tank absorption fields because of the high
water during rains, crop rotations that include cover water table and the moderately slow or slow permeability
crops on the land at least half the time, and crop residue in the lower part of the subsoil. Alternative systems or
left on the ground to protect the soil from erosion, suitable fill can reduce these limitations. The high water
Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation and table is a severe limitation for sanitary landfills, and
additions of fertilizer and lime to the soil. seepage is a moderate limitations for sewage lagoons.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
pasture plants, such as clovers, tall fescue, coastal development. Wetness and moderately slow or slow
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass, grow well if permeability are the main problems to overcome.






46 Soil Survey



This Escambia soil is in capability subclass IIw and in of 16 inches. Below that it is light yellowish brown, very
woodland suitability group 11W. pale brown, and light gray fine sand. The subsoil extends
to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is light yellowish
41-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded. This soil is brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 70 inches and pale
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on low, broad brown and light brownish gray fine sandy loam below
flood plains consisting mostly of hardwood swamps on that.
flood plains of the Choctawhatchee River and its Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
tributaries. Albany, Bibb, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Fuquay,
Typically, this soil is very dark grayish brown muck Lakeland, Leefield, Johnston, Kinston, Rutlege, Troup,
about 4 inches thick underlain by black and very dark and Stilson soils. The included soils make up less than
gray muck that has a high content of mineral material to 20 percent of the map unit.
a depth of at least 65 inches. This Blanton soil has a perched high water table at a
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Rutlege depth of 60 to 72 inches for 1 to 3 months. It does not
and Pamlico soils at the edge of delineations. "Islands" have a high water table within a depth of 6 feet for the
of Bibb, Chipley, Foxworth, and Kinston soils are the rest of the year. The available water capacity is
most significant of the minor soils and occur most often moderate or high in the surface layer, very low to
near the stream and river banks. Also included are areas moderate in the subsurface layer, and low or moderate
of soils similar to Maurepas soil except they have less in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
than 51 inches of organic material that is underlain by subsurface layers and moderate or moderately slow in
soft, sandy clay loam. the subsoil. The organic matter content is low. Rainfall is
The high water table is at the surface for 8 to 12 readily absorbed, and there is little runoff.
months. This soil has more than a 50 percent chance of The natural vegetation is mostly slash, loblolly, and
flooding in any one year for very long periods. longleaf pine. The understory is live oak, post oak,
Permeability is moderately slow or moderate. The bluejack oak, turkey oak, laurel oak, water oak, yaupon,
available water capacity is very high. The organic matter dogfennel, huckleberry, and dogwood. Pineland
content is very high. Response to drainage is moderate. threeawn (wiregrass) is the most common native grass.
The natural vegetation is dominantly baldcypress and This Blanton soil has severe limitations for most
blackgum. Cypress is more common in areas that stay cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
ponded for long periods. Red maple, sweetgum, redbay, plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
sweetbay, and water tupelo are along stream and river potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops need to be
banks. The understory consists of giant cane and planted on the contour in alternating strips with close-
greenbrier. growing crops that remain on the soil at least two-thirds
This Maurepas soil has a very severe limitation for of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue
cultivated crops and pastures because of frequent left on the soil protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of
flooding and ponding. Under natural conditions it is not high value crops is usually feasible where water is readily
suited to these uses, but flood protection and drainage available.
systems can help overcome some of the problems. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay.
This soil is not suited to the production of slash, Deep-rooting coastal bermudagrass and improved
loblolly, and longleaf pines because of the excessive bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
high water table and low strength. periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational lime are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to
development. Wetness, the hazard of flooding, and poor maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
soil quality are severe limitations that are not practical to The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
overcome. high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
This Maurepas soil is in capability subclass VIllw and plant competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and
in woodland suitability group 6W. longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has slight limitations for building sites, septic
42-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is tank absorption fields, and local roads and streets. It has
moderately well drained and nearly level to gently severe limitations for sewage lagoons and area sanitary
sloping. It is on uplands and in elevated areas of the landfills because of seepage. The sandy texture is a
flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil range mostly from severe limitation for trench sanitary landfills. If this soil is
10 to more than 200 acres in size; some areas are as used for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills, the
small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to convex sandy sidewalls need to be sealed.
but are concave in places. This soil has severe limitations for recreational
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand 6 inches development because the sandy surface causes poor
thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of 65 trafficability. Suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing
inches. It is yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth can reduce or overcome this limitation.






Walton County, Florida 47



This Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills and in The natural vegetation consists mostly of sweetgum,
woodland suitability group 11S. cypress, loblolly pine, ash, blackgum, and several
species of oak (fig. 10). The understory consists of
43-Kinston-Bibb association, frequently flooded. greenbrier, holly, maidencane, and muscadine vines.
This association consists of soils that are nearly level These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
and poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy, loamy, pastures because of wetness and flooding.
and clayey fluvial deposits along old meandrous stream The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
channels, sloughs, slight ridges, and depressions on Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
flood plains of the Choctawhatchee River. They generally competition are severe. Surface drainage and bedding
are in a regular and repeating pattern with the Bibb soil are recommended before planting trees. Loblolly and
closer to the river, old riverbeds, and channels, and the slash pines are the best trees to plant.
Kinston soil away from the river and near the outside These soils are not suited to urban or recreational
banks. Individual areas range from 20 to more than development. Wetness and the hazard of flooding are
1,000 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent, severe limitations that are not practical to overcome.
Kinston soil makes up 35 to 55 percent of the The Kinston soil is in capability subclass VIw, and the
association. Typically, the surface layer is brown loam 10 Bibb soil is in capability subclass Vw. Kinston soil is in
inches thick. The underlying material is mostly gray woodland suitability group 11W, and Bibb soil is in 9W.
sandy clay loam to a depth of 50 inches. It is light gray
clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. Thin strata of 44-Lakeland-Troup-Urban land complex, 0 to 5
loamy sand and sand occur throughout, percent slopes. This complex is 40 percent Lakeland
This Kinston soil has a high water table within 10 soil, 25 percent Troup soil, and about 20 percent urban
inches of the surface for more than 6 months in most land. The urban land is intricately mixed with the
years. It has more than a 50 percent chance of flooding Lakeland and Troup soils.
in any one year for periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. Typically, Lakeland soil has a surface layer of dark
The root zone is limited by the high water table. The grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
available water capacity is moderate or high throughout. material is sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and yellowish brown to a depth of 11 inches, brownish yellow
moderate in the underlying material. The organic matter to a depth of 60 inches, and light yellowish brown below
content is moderate. Internal drainage is slow, but that.
response to drainage is moderate. This Lakeland soil is excessively drained. The
Bibb soil makes up 30 to 45 percent of the available water capacity is low or very low. Permeability
association. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and is rapid. This soil does not have a high water table within
dark grayish brown loam 12 inches thick. The underlying a depth of 6 feet.
material extends to a depth of at least 65 inches. To a Typically, Troup soil has a surface layer of dark
depth of 37 inches, it is grayish brown sandy loam that grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
has mottles in shades of brown. It is light brownish gray layer extends to a depth of about 51 inches. It is
sand below that. yellowish brown sand to a depth of 16 inches and strong
This Bibb soil has a high water table within 18 inches brown and yellowish red loamy sand below that. The
of the surface for 1 to 4 months each year. It has more subsoil is red fine sandy loam to a depth of 55 inches
than a 50 percent chance of flooding in any one year for and red sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. The root zone is This Troup soil is well drained. The available water
limited by the high water table. The available water capacity is low or moderate in the surface and
capacity is moderate or high throughout. Permeability is subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
moderately rapid. The organic matter content is low or Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
moderately low. The internal drainage is slow, but and moderate in the subsoil. This soil does not have a
response to artificial drainage is rapid. high water table within a depth of 6 feet.
Included with this association in mapping are small The Urban land part of this complex consists of
areas of soils next to the river and old river channels streets, parking lots, buildings, and other structures that
that are slightly elevated, better drained, and mostly obscure or alter the soils.
sandy. Some of these soils have a loamy subsoil. Also Included in mapping and making up about 10 percent
included are areas of soils that are very poorly drained, of the map unit are areas of Bonifay soils.
These soils are in old river and stream channels that are The soils in this complex not covered by manmade
covered with water most of the year. Small areas of objects are mostly used for lawn grasses and shrubs.
Pantego and Pamlico soils also occur near the outer Regular watering and applications of fertilizer are needed
edge of some delineations. The included soils make up for good lawns. Longleaf pine and a variety of oaks are
as much as 35 percent of the map unit. common.






48 Soil Survey








i .
.. 1 ..


















!,Zw











Figure 10.-The natural vegetation on Kinston-Bibb association, frequently flooded, includes hardwoods.



Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
complex for cultivated crops, pasture, or woodland, unit.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability This Dirego soil has a high water table that is at or
subclass or woodland suitability group. above the soil surface for more than 9 months annually.
It has more than a 50 percent chance of flooding in any
45-Dirego muck, frequently flooded. This soil is one year for very long periods. The available water
very poorly drained and is frequently flooded by brackish capacity is high or very high in the surface layer and
water. It is on broad, level tidal marshes that border the moderate in the substratum. Permeability is rapid, but it
Choctawhatchee Bay. Individual areas of this soil range is impeded by the high water table. The organic matter
from 10 to 400 acres. Slopes are smooth and less than content is very high.
1 percent. The natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant plants,
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 48 inches such as black needlerush, big cordgrass, smooth
thick. It is black to a depth of 40 inches and very dark cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, and row grass (fig.11).
gray below that. The substratum is dark olive gray fine This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture
sand to a depth of at least 65 inches. grasses, or woodland. The potential for these uses is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of very low because of frequent flooding, high salt content,
Maurepas soils. Also included are narrow, sandy areas and high sulfur content.
of soils along the banks of streams and rivers. The







Walton County, Florida 49
































Figure 11.-Black needlerush, smooth cordgrass, and marshhay cordgrass are common on Dirego muck, frequently flooded.



This soil is not suited to urban or recreational soils that have a sandy substratum at a depth of 40 to
development. Wetness and the hazard of flooding are 60 inches and a few areas of Norfolk soil that has
severe limitations that are not practical to overcome, slopes of 0 to 2 percent and 5 to 8 percent. The
This Dirego soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. It has included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
not been assigned to a woodland suitability group, unit.
This Norfolk soil has a high water table at a depth of 4
46-Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, to 6 feet for brief periods during the wet seasons. The
This soil is well drained and gently sloping. It is on broad available water capacity is low in the surface and
and narrow ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of this subsurfe layers and moderate in the subs
soil range mostly from 3 to 50 acres. Slopes are mostly subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
smooth to convex but are concave in places. Permeability is moderate. The organic matter content is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown low or moderately low. Runoff is moderate in protected
loamy sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is areas and rapid in unprotected areas.
brown to yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf
about 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 62 pine, slash pine, Florida maple, American holly, willow
inches. It is brownish yellow sandy loam to a depth of 17 oak, sumac, water oak, tuliptree, sweetgum, cedar,
inches and brownish yellow to strong brown sandy clay hickory, yaupon, southern magnolia, dogwood, gallberry,
loam below that. The substratum is mottled sandy loam and huckleberry. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) and
to a depth of at least 80 inches. broomsedge bluestem are the most common native
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of grasses.
Angle, Bibb, Bonifay, Bonneau, Cowarts, Dorovan, This Norfolk soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Kenansville, Kinston, Lucy, crops because of the hazard of erosion, but a wide
Pamlico, and Troup soils. Also included are areas of variety of cultivated crops are well adapted. Corn and






50 Soil Survey



soybeans grow well if properly managed. Conservation Permeability is moderate. The organic matter content is
tillage can help control erosion and conserve moisture. low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little runoff.
Moderate erosion control measures are needed. These The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf
measures include terraces that have stabilized outlets; pine, slash pine, Florida maple, American holly, willow
contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with oak, sumac, water oak, tuliptree, gallberry, sweetgum,
cover crops that remain on the soil at least half the time; cedar, hickory, yaupon, southern magnolia, dogwood,
and crop residue left on the soil. Maximum yields require and huckleberry. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) and
good seedbed preparation and additions of fertilizer and broomsedge bluestem are the most common native
lime to the soil. grasses.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall fescue, This Bonneau soil has moderate limitations for
coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well cultivated crops because of poor soil qualities. It can be
adapted. Clovers and other legumes are also adapted cultivated safely with ordinary good farming methods, but
and grow well if properly managed. This soil requires droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is needed to the choice of crops and the potential yields of adapted
maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and good sbil crops. Conservation tillage helps control erosion and
cover, conserve moisture. With good management, such crops
The potential productivity for pine trees is high, and as corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be grown. Crop
there are no serious concerns in management. Slash rotations need to include cover crops that remain on the
and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. soil at least half the time. These cover crops and crop
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and residue left on the ground protect the soil from erosion.
local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for Best yields require good seedbed preparation and
septic tank absorption fields because of the high water regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is
table during periods of high rainfall. Alternative systems usually feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
can reduce this limitation. This soil has slight limitations This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Deep-rooting
for sanitary landfills. Seepage is a moderate limitation for plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
sewage lagoons. The sidewalls need to be sealed in are well adapted. This soil responds well to fertilizer and
some locations where the subsoil is deepest. lime. Controlled grazing is important to maintain vigorous
This soil has slight limitations for most recreational plants for maximum yields and good cover.
development. Slope is a moderate limitation for The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
playgrounds. high. Equipment use limitations, plant competition, and
This Norfolk soil is in capability subclass lie and in seedling mortality are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and
woodland suitability group 11A. longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and
47-Bonneau loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for
This soil is well drained and nearly level to gently septic tank absorption fields and area sanitary landfills
sloping. It is on broad ridgetops on uplands. Individual because of the high water table. Alternative systems or
areas of this soil range from 5 to 50 acres. Slopes are fill can overcome the limitations for septic tank
mostly smooth to convex but are concave in places. absorption fields. The high water table is also a severe
Typically, the surface layer is gray loamy sand 4 limitation for trench sanitary landfills. Seepage is a
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light yellowish severe limitation for sewage lagoons. The sandy
brown loamy sand to a depth of 25 inches. The subsoil sidewalls of the lagoons need to be sealed.
is yellowish brown to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
sandy loam to a depth of 27 inches and sandy clay loam development because of the sandy surface. Suitable
below that. topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of overcome this limitation. Slope is a moderate limitation
Angie, Bonifay, Cowarts, Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, for playgrounds.
Leefield, Norfolk, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included This Bonneau soil is in capability subclass Ils and in
are areas of soils that have a sandy substratum at a woodland suitability group 10S.
depth of 40 to 60 inches, some areas of soils that have
gray and light gray mottles below a depth of 60 inches, 48-Yemassee-Garcon-Bigbee complex,
and a few areas of soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 ocassionally flooded. This complex consists of soils
percent. The included soils make up less than 20 that are nearly level to gently sloping. Yemassee and
percent of the map unit. Garcon soils are somewhat poorly drained, and Bigbee
This Bonneau soil has a high water table at a depth of soil is excessively drained. These soils are on terraces
42 to 60 inches for brief periods during the wet season. on flood plains along streams. Areas of this map unit
The available water capacity is low in the surface and range from 3 to 100 acres. Individual areas of soils
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. within the map unit range from 1 acre to 3 acres. Slopes






Walton County, Florida 51



are smooth to concave and convex. They generally are very low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is
range between 0 and 3 percent, but they can range up little runoff.
to 5 percent. Areas of these soils are too intricately Included with this complex in mapping are Bibb,
mixed and too small to be mapped separately at the Johnston, Kinston, Leon, Mandarin, Pamlico, Pantego,
selected scale. and Rutlege soils and areas of soils similar to Garcon
Yemassee soil makes up about 30 to 40 percent of and Yemassee soils except they have a silty clay loam
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is very dark or silty clay subsoil. Also included are areas of soils that
gray loamy sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is are well drained and sandy. These soils have a loamy
loamy sand to a depth of 17 inches. It is dark grayish subsoil within a depth of 40 inches that is underlain by
brown to a depth of 13 inches and brown below that. sandy layers at a depth of less than 60 inches. Soils that
The subsoil is grayish brown and gray sandy clay loam are poorly drained or somewhat poorly drained and
to a depth of 50 inches. The substratum is light gray sandy are also included. In these soils, the upper part of
sand and dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of the subsoil is sandy and dark in color, and the lower part
more than 80 inches. is loamy. The included soils make up about 25 percent
This Yemasse soil has a high water table at about 12 of the map unit.
to 18 inches below the surface for about 2 to 4 months The natural vegetation is mostly southern red oak,
during the winter and early in spring. This soil has a 10 laurel oak, live oak, willow oak, water oak, yaupon, slash
to 50 percent chance of flooding in any one year for pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, American
periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. The available water holly, red maple, sweetbay, blueberry, huckleberry,
capacity is low to high. Permeability is moderately rapid gallberry, common sassafrass, and sawpalmetto. The
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the most common native grass is pineland threeawn
subsoil. The organic matter content is low to moderate. (wiregrass). Other grasses are bluestem and panicums.
The internal drainage rate under natural conditions is These soils have moderate limitations for cultivated
low, but response to artificial drainage is moderately crops because of wetness and flooding. They are well
rapid. suited to some cultivated crops, but the variety is limited
Garcon soil makes up about 20 to 30 percent of the by the seasonal high water table. Corn and soybeans are
complex. Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand adapted only if these soils are properly drained. Tile
18 inches thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 8 drains or open ditches are needed. Row crops need to
inches and dark grayish brown below that. The be planted in rotation with cover crops that remain on
subsurface layer is pale brown loamy fine sand to a the land at least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops
depth of 28 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 51 and crop residue left on the soil protect the soil from
inches. It is brown sandy loam to a depth of 34 inches erosion. For best yields, good seedbed preparation,
and light grayish brown and gray sandy clay loam below fertilizer, and lime are needed.
that. The substratum is white sand to a depth of at least These soils are well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal
80 inches. bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well with good
management. White clovers and other legumes are
This Garcon soil has a high water table less than 20 management. White covers and other legumes are
moderately adapted. For best yields, these soils require
inches below the surface for 4 to 6 months and below fertilizer and lime, and carefully controlled grazing is
40 inches for more than 6 months. It has a 10 to 15
needed to maintain plant vigor.
percent chance of flooding in any one year for periods These soils have high potential productivity for pine
ranging from 2 to 7 days. The available water capacity is trees. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
moderate or low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and pla competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
organic matter content is moderately low or moderate. loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
organic matter content is moderately low or moderate. These soils have severe limitations for use as building
Bibbee soil makes up about 15 to 25 percent of the sites and local roads and streets because of the high
complex. Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand 8 water table and the hazard of flooding (fig. 12). To
inches thick. It is grayish brown to a depth of 2 inches reduce these limitations, houses and buildings can be
and brown below that. The substratum is pale brown, elevated. These soils have severe limitations for sanitary
light gray, and white sand to a depth of at least 80 facilities because of flooding, slow percolation and the
inches. high water table.
This Bigbee soil has a high water table between These soils have moderate limitations for most
depths of 20 and 40 inches for about 2 weeks and at a recreational development because of the seasonal high
depth of 40 to 70 inches for 1 to 2 months each year. It water table. The hazard of flooding is a severe limitation
has a 10 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any one for camp sites.
year for periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. The available This complex is in capability subclass IIw. Yemassee
water capacity is low, and permeability is rapid soil is in woodland suitability group 11W, Garcon soil is
throughout. Natural fertility and organic matter content in 10W, and Bigbee soil is in 10S.






52 Soil Survey
































Figure 12.-Roads and bridges are flooded during periods of heavy rainfall on Yemassee-Garcon-Bigbee complex, occasionally flooded.



49-Eglin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is This Eglin soil does not have a high water table within
somewhat excessively drained and nearly level to gently a depth of 6 feet. In most years, the high water table is
sloping. It is on low uplands. Individual areas of this soil between depths of 72 and 80 inches in winter and early
range mostly from 10 to 200 acres; some areas are as in spring. After heavy rains, the water table can rise to a
small as 3 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to convex depth of 60 inches for periods of less than 1 month. The
but are concave in places. available water capacity is low in the surface and
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand subsurface layers and low to moderate in the subsoil.
2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
of 68 inches. It is yellowish brown to a depth of 5 inches, and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The
light yellowish brown to a depth of 62 inches, and organic matter content is low or moderately low.
yellowish brown below that. The subsoil is sand to a Natural vegetation is mostly sand pine, longleaf pine,
depth of at least 80 inches. It is dark brown to a depth of live oak, laurel oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and turkey
75 inches and dark reddish brown below that. oak. The understory is huckleberries, few scattered
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sawpalmetto, woody goldenrod, broomsedge bluestem,
Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, and Lakeland soils. Also and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
included are some areas of soils that have a light gray, This Eglin soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
compact fine and very fine sand layer above the subsoil crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
and some areas of soils that have gray mottles above a limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
depth of 40 inches. Small areas of soils similar to Eglin adapted crops. In wet seasons, the availability of water
soil except they have thinner coatings of organic matter in the root zone is provided through capillary rise. In dry
on the sand grains are included. The included soils make seasons, the water table drops well below the root zone
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. and little capillary water is available to plants.






Walton County, Florida 53



Conservation tillage helps conserve moisture and control This Mandarin soil has a high water table at a depth of
erosion. Crop rotations need to include close-growing 20 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years and
crops that remain on the land at least three-fourths of below a depth of 40 inches for 6 to 8 months. The high
the time. Lime and fertilizer are needed. Soil-improving water table is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for up to 2
cover crops and crop residue need to be left on the land weeks after periods of heavy rainfall in some years. The
during critical erosion periods. Irrigation on high value available water capacity is very low or low in the surface
crops is usually feasible where irrigation water is readily and subsurface layers and moderate or low in the
available, subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted, subsoil, and rapid in the lower part. The organic matter
but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Fertilizer, content is very low to moderate.
lime, and controlled grazing are needed to maintain The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly
vigorous plants for maximum yields. pine, slash pine, and scrub oaks. The understory is
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. sawpalmetto, running oak, and fetterbush. The most
Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
moderate. Sand and longleaf pines are the best trees to Other grasses are creeping bluestem and panicum.
plant. This Mandarin soil is not suited to cultivated crops.
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and This soil is only moderately suited to use as pasture.
local roads and streets. It has slight limitations for septic Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are fairly suitable
if this soil is fertilized. Clovers are not adapted.
tank absorption filter fields; however, because of poor h i oi
filtration, ground water contamination is a possible The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
filtration, ground water contamination is a possible
Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
hazard where there are many septic tanks. Alternative Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
can reduce hs haar eeae s a sevmoderate. Seedling mortality is severe. Slash and loblolly
systems can reduce this hazard. Seepage is a severe
pines are the best trees to plant.
limitation for sewage lagoons and area and trench pines are the best trees to plant.
limitation for sewage lagoons and area and trench This soil has moderate limitations for building sites and
landfills. The sandy texture is also a severe limitation for local roads and streets and severe limitations for septic
ana and. this soil is s a local roads and streets and severe limitations for septic
trench sanitary landfills. If this soil is used for sewage tank absorption fields because of the high water table.
aoons and landfill the s ial nee to Alternative systems or fill can reduce this limitation for
sealed.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational absorption fields. This soil has severe limitations for
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills because of the
development because of the sandy surface. Suitable high water table and seepage.
topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or This soil has severe limitations for recreational
overcome this limitation. development because of the sandy surface. Suitable
This Eglin soil is in capability subclass IVs and in topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or
woodland suitability group 5S. overcome this limitation.
This Mandarin soil is in capability subclass Vis and in
50-Mandarin sand. This soil is somewhat poorly woodland suitability group 10S.
drained and nearly level. It is in slightly elevated areas
on flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil range from 3 to 51-Bigbee loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
50 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave. occasionally flooded. This soil is excessively drained
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 8 inches and nearly level to gently sloping. It is on flood plain
thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand to a depth terraces along streams. Individual areas of this soil range
of about 21 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 60 from 3 to 30 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.
inches. It is black sand to a depth of 23 inches, very Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand 8 inches
dark gray fine sand to a depth of 25 inches, dark reddish thick. It is grayish brown to a depth of 2 inches and
brown sand to a depth of 38 inches, and yellowish brown brown below that. The underlying material is pale brown
sand below that. The substratum is white sand to a loamy sand to a depth of 23 inches and very pale brown,
depth of at least 80 inches. light gray, and white sand to a depth of at least 80
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches.
Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, Leon, Resota, and Rutlege Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils. Also included are small areas of soils similar to Blanton, Garcon, Mandarin, and Yemassee soils and
Mandarin soil except they have a dark color subsoil that soils similar to Bigbee soil except they are moderately
is lighter in color than is typical for the Mandarin series, well drained and somewhat poorly drained. Areas of soils
Small areas of similar soils that have a dark color subsoil that have lamellae and areas of soils that are near
at a depth of more than 30 inches are also included. The streams and have slopes of more than 5 percent are
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map also included. The included soils make up about 25
unit. percent of the map unit.






54 Soil Survey



This Bigbee soil has a high water table between and rivers. Individual areas of this soil range from 3 to 50
depths of 20 and 40 inches for about 2 weeks each year acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent and are concave or
and at a depth of 40 to 70 inches for 1 to 2 months. This convex.
soil has a 10 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 6
one year for periods ranging from 2 to 7 days. The inches thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 3 inches
available water capacity is low, and permeability is rapid and dark grayish brown below that. The subsoil is fine
throughout. The organic matter content is low to sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches and sandy clay loam
moderately low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is to a depth of 47 inches. It is yellowish brown to a depth
little runoff. of 16 inches, light brownish gray to a depth of 28 inches,
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly and gray below that. The substratum is light gray fine
pine, slash pine, southern red oak, laurel oak, live oak, sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
and water oak, yaupon, American holly, and few Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sawpalmetto. The most common native grass is pineland Bigbee, Florala, Garcon, Kinston, Leefield, Pantego, and
threeawn (wiregrass). Stilson soils. Also included are soils similar to Yemassee
This Bigbee soil has severe limitations for cultivated soil except they have a subsoil to a depth of 60 inches
crops. Droughtiness, flooding, and rapid leaching of plant or more or they are moderately well drained. The
nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce the included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops need to be unit.
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- This Yemassee soil has a high water table 12 to 18
growing, soil-improving crops that remain on the land at inches below the surface for about 2 to 4 months during
least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops and crop winter and earl in spring. It has a 10 to 50 percent
residue left on the soil protect the soil from erosion. ae o loo ay oe yer or er
Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed o gay on er f ers rni
egular apcaions o lime and fertilier are needed from 2 to 7 days. The available water capacity is medium
because of rapid leaching. Measures need to be taken
for protection from flooding. During periodsor high, and permeability is moderately rapid in the
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The organic
droughtiness, irrigation of high value crops, such ashe
rmgh one E ips us, ri aio where irrigation atr is matter content is low to moderate. The internal drainage
watermelons, is usually feasible where irrigation water is
atermel s is la y f rate under natural conditions is low, but response to
artificial drainage is moderately rapid.
This soil is moderately suited to use as improvedrel raingei rais rp
pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well pine, longleaf pine, silverleaf maple, American holly,
adapted. They grow well and produce good ground water oak, willow oak, huckleberry, gallberry, southern
cover if the soil is limed and fertilized. Controlled grazing magnolia, sweetbay, yaupon, briers, and ferns. The most
is needed to maintain vigorous plants for maximum common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
yields. Yields are occasionally greatly reduced by Other grasses are bluestem and panicums.
extended severe droughts and by flooding. This Yemassee soil has moderate limitations for
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately cultivated crops because of wetness and the hazard of
high. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality flooding. It is well suited to some cultivated crops, but
are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the the variety is limited by the seasonal high water table.
best trees to plant. Corn and soybeans are adapted only when the soil is
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank properly drained. Tile drains or open ditches are needed.
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and Row crops need to be planted in rotation with cover
streets because of flooding. Houses and buildings should crops that remain on the land at least half the time. Soil-
be elevated. This soil has severe limitations for sewage improving cover crops and crop residue left on the soil
lagoons and area sanitary landfills because of flooding protect the soil from erosion. For best yields, this soil
and the high water table during wet periods. requires good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas and Conservation tillage helps to control erosion and
playgrounds because of flooding and the sandy surface. conserve moisture.
The limitations for picnic areas and paths and trails is This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal
moderate because of the sandy surface causing poor bermudagrass, tall fescue, clovers, and bahiagrass grow
trafficability. Suitable topsoil can reduce this limitation, well with good management. For best yields, this soil
This Bigbee soil is in capability subclass Ills and in requires fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is
woodland suitability group 10S. needed to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high.
52-Yemassee fine sandy loam, occasionally Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
flooded. This soil is somewhat poorly drained and gently moderate. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to
sloping. It is on terraces along flood plains of streams plant.






Walton County, Florida 55



This soil has severe limitations for use as building limitations for sewage lagoons. This soil has severe
sites, local roads and streets, and septic tank absorption limitations for trench sanitary landfills because of
fields because of flooding and the high water table. seepage and the sandy texture, and seepage is also a
Homesites and buildings can be elevated or fill can be severe limitation for area sanitary landfills. If this soil is
added to reduce this limitation. This soil has severe used for sewage lagoons and landfills, the sandy
limitations for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills sidewalls need to be sealed.
because of seepage, the hazard of flooding, and the This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
high water table during wet periods, areas, and paths and trails because of the sandy
This soil has moderate limitations for most recreational surface; however, suitable topsoil or some form of
development because of the hazard of flooding and the surfacing can reduce or overcome these limitations. It
high water table. Wetness is a moderate limitation for has severe limitations for playgrounds because of slope
camp areas and playgrounds, and the hazard of flooding and poor trafficability caused by the sandy surface.
and the high water table are severe limitations. This Arents soil is in capability subclass Vlls. This soil
This Yemassee soil is in capability subclass IIw and in has not been assigned to a woodland suitability group.
woodland suitability group 11W.
54-Newhan-Corolla sands, rolling. This map unit
53-Arents, 2 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is consists of Newhan and Corolla soils in undulating dune-
excessively drained and gently sloping to sloping. It is like areas adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. These soils
sandy material excavated from the Intercoastal are gently sloping to steep. Newhan soil is excessively
Waterway and deposited along the banks. This material drained, and Corolla soil is moderately well drained or
is a mixture of fine sand, sand, fragments of subsoil somewhat poorly drained. Areas of these soils are too
material from the Hurricane and Leon soils, and sand intricately mixed and too small to be mapped separately
from the Foxworth and Rutlege soils. Individual areas at the selected scale. Areas of this map unit range from
generally are rectangular to polygonal and range from 5 10 to 200 acres. Individual areas of soils within the map
to 200 acres. Most areas are long and are up to 0.25 unit range from less than 1 acre to 5 acres.
mile wide. Newhan soil makes up about 35 to 55 percent of the
In most places, this soil is variable with discontinuous map unit. Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand
lenses, pockets, and streaks of light gray, grayish brown, about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
very pale brown, yellowish brown, yellow, black, dark of 80 inches or more is white sand that contains
reddish brown, strong brown, yellowish red, and red fine horizontal bands of black heavy minerals.
sand or sand. It contains few to common black and dark Permeability of this soil is very rapid throughout. The
reddish brown sandy fragments from the subsoil of the available water capacity and organic matter content are
soils in the borrow area. Thickness of the material very low. This soil does not have a high water table
ranges from 2 to 20 feet. This soil does not have an within a depth of 6 feet.
orderly sequence of horizons. Corolla soil makes up about 25 to 40 percent of the
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand 8
overburden is less than 2 feet thick. Also included are inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material is
small areas of soils that contain fragments or they are sand to a depth of 57 inches. It is white to a depth of 33
organic material or muck. The included soils make up inches, light gray to a depth of 42 inches, and gray
less than 15 percent of the map unit. below that. A buried dark gray sand surface layer is
This Arents soil has very low available water capacity. between depths of 57 and 67 inches. The lower part of
Permeability is very rapid. The organic matter content is the underlying material is gray sand to a depth of at least
low or very low. This soil does not have a high water 80 inches. Horizontal bands of heavy black minerals and
table within a depth of 6 feet. lenses of gray sand are throughout the profile. They are
This soil supports small amounts of rosemary and remnants of a former surface layer that was moved and
reindeer lichens. deposited by drifting and blowing sand.
This soil is not suited to use as cropland, pasture, or This Corolla soil has a high water table 18 to 36
woodland. Sand pine could be planted, but results are inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months during most
unpredictable at this time. years. The high water table is 36 to 60 inches below the
This soil has slight limitations for septic tank surface the rest of the year. Permeability is very rapid
absorption fields; however because of poor filtration, a throughout. The available water capability and organic
hazard of ground water contamination is possible where matter content are very low.
there are many septic tanks. Alternate systems can Included in this map unit are soils similar to Corolla
reduce this hazard. This soil has slight limitations for and Newhan soils except they have a seasonal high
building sites and local roads and streets. It has water table at a depth of 36 to 72 inches for 2 to 6
moderate limitations for small commercial buildings months. Also included are Kureb, Leon, Mandarin,
because of slope. Seepage and slope are severe Resota, and Rutlege soils and soils that have a Bh






56 Soil Survey



horizon below a depth of 30 inches. Numerous wet spots Alternative systems can overcome these limitations.
that occur as small ponds or as long narrow sloughs are Seepage, the hazard of flooding, slope, and the high
shown by wet spot symbols. Also included are soils that water table are severe limitations for sewage lagoons.
have numerous short, steep slopes of up to 70 percent. These soils have severe limitations for sanitary landfills
The included soils make up 10 to 35 percent of the map because of seepage, the high water table, the sandy
unit. texture, and slope.
Natural vegetation is sparse. It is chiefly stunted sand These soils have severe limitations for recreational
pine, seaoats (fig. 13), switchgrass, rosemary, reindeer development because they are too sandy and have
lichen, scrub live oak, and palmetto. The vegetation is steep slopes. Flooding is also a hazard for camp areas.
stunted because of salt spray. These Newhan and Corolla soils are in capability
The soils in this map unit are not suited to use as subclass VIlls. They have not been assigned to a
cropland, pasture, nor woodland. woodland suitability group.
These soils have severe limitations for building sites
and local roads and streets because of flooding, the high 55-Beaches. Beaches are narrow strips of tide
water table, and slope. Where they are subject to washed sand along the Gulf of Mexico. The sand is
flooding, the houses can be elevated. Leveling can white and has few to common heavy minerals. Beaches
reduce the slope limitation. These soils have severe range from 200 to 500 feet in width. As much as half of
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of the beach can be covered by saltwater daily by high tide
the high water table, poor filtration, and slope, and wave action, and all of it can be covered during




























ure 13.-Seaoats protect the dunes from erosion n ths area of Newhan-Corolla sands, rolling.
-. ;7








Figure 13.-Seaoats protect the dunes from erosion in this area of Newhan-Corolla sands, rolling.






Walton County, Florida 57



storms. The shape and slope of the beaches commonly The potential productivity for pine trees is low.
change with every storm. Most areas have a uniform, Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are
gentle slope, but a short, stronger slope is at the water's severe. Sand pine is the best tree to plant.
edge. Beaches generally have no vegetation, but inland This Kureb soil has severe limitations for building sites
edges are sometimes sparsely covered with sea-oats, and local roads and streets because of slope. Cutting
The high water table ranges from the surface to a and filling can reduce this limitation. Slope is also a
depth of 4 feet or more. The depth varies depending on severe limitation for septic tank absorption fields.
distance from the water, height of the beach, effect of Alternative systems or leveling can reduce this limitation.
storms, and time of year. Permeability is very rapid. Slope and seepage are severe limitations for sewage
Included in mapping are sand dunes on the north side. lagoons and sanitary landfills. Shaping and sealing the
The dunes are generally Newhan and Corolla soils. They bottoms and sides can reduce these limitations.
are not subject to wave action except during storms, but This soil has severe limitations for recreation
they commonly receive salt spraydevelopment because of the sandy surface and the
they commonly receive salt spray.
slope. Shaping and a suitable topsoil or some form of
Beaches are used for recreational activities including s .urfacin can reduce or overcome these limitations.
surfacing can reduce or overcome these limitations.
sunbathing, strolling, pleasure driving, picnics, swimming, This Kureb soil is in capability subclass VIIs and in
fishing, surfing, scuba diving, and boating. In most woodland suitability group 3S.
places, the sand is firm enough to support vehicles with
wide tires. 57-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
Beaches are not suited to use for cultivated crops, is somewhat poorly drained and nearly level. It is in
pasture, or woodland. They are mainly suited to slightly elevated areas on flatwoods. Individual areas of
recreational use and to use as habitat for wildlife, this soil generally range from 10 to more than 100 acres;
Beaches are in capability subclass VIllw. This map unit a few are as small as 3 acres. Slopes are smooth to
has not been assigned to a woodland suitability group. slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand 5
56-Kureb sand, hilly. This soil is excessively drained inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
and strongly sloping to steep. It is on dune-like ridges. 63 inches. It is brown to a depth of 14 inches, yellowish
Individual areas of this soil range from 20 to 80 acres. brown to a depth of 22 inches, brownish yellow to a
Slopes are concave and convex, depth of 47 inches, and white below that. The subsoil is
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 2 inches thick. black sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The subsurface is sand to a depth of 45 inches. It is light Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
gray to a depth of 12 inches and white below that. The Chipley, Foxworth, Leon, Mandarin, and Rutlege soils.
subsoil is brownish yellow sand to a depth of at least 80 Also included are poorly drained soils in which the
inches. surface layer is underlain by a shallow, weakly
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of developed, dark color subsoil. Also included are soils
Lakeland, Resota, and Newhan soils and a few areas of similar to this Hurricane soil except they are poorly
soils that have slopes of more than 30 percent that are drained and areas of soils in which the content of clay
too short and narrow to delineate. The longer and increases just above the deep, dark color subsoil. The
steeper slopes are shown with a short, steep slope included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
symbol. The included soils make up less than 20 percent unit.
o i me up e tn p This Hurricane soil has a high water table within 20 to
S eap i. 40 inches of the soil surface for 3 to 6 months in most
This Kureb soil has a loose, well aerated root zone to years and below a depth of 40 inches for the rest of the
a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water year. The available water capacity is low in the surface
capacity is very low and permeability is rapid throughout. and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
The organic matter content is very low to moderately Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
low. Fertilizers are rapidly leached from the soil. Rainfall and moderately rapid in the subsoil. The organic matter
is rapidly absorbed into the soil, but runoff in unprotected content is very low to moderately low.
areas is rapid during heavy rainfall. This soil does not Natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
have a high water table within a depth of 6 feet. loblolly pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, turkey oak, and
Natural vegetation is mostly turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak. The understory is yaupon, sawpalmetto,
a few live oak, sand pine, and in a few areas, longleaf gallberry, broomsedge bluestem, and pineland threeawn
pine. The understory is sawpalmetto. The most common (wiregrass).
native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). The This Hurricane soil has severe limitations for cultivated
vegetation nearest the Gulf of Mexico is stunted as a crops because of periodic wetness. The number of
result of salt spray. adapted crops is very limited unless intensive water
The soil is too steep to use for field crops or pastures. control measures are used. This soil is well suited to






58 Soil Survey



many kinds of crops if the water control system removes The organic matter content is very high in the organic
excess water in wet seasons and provides subsurface layer and low in the surface layer and substratum.
irrigation in dry seasons. Other management measures The natural vegetation includes sand cordgrass,
needed include crop rotations that have a close-growing, marshhay cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and few
soil-improving crop that remains on the land at least two- scattered waxmyrtle.
thirds of the time, and crop residue left on the soil to This soil is not suited to use as cropland, pasture, or
protect the soil from erosion. Conservation tillage also woodland because of flooding and occasional salinity.
helps to control erosion and conserve moisture. Fertilizer This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
and lime should be added according to the needs of the development. Wetness and the hazard of flooding are
crop. severe limitations that are not practical to overcome.
This Hurricane soil is moderately well suited to pasture This Duckston soil is in capability subclass Vllw. This
and hay. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well soil has not been assigned to a woodland suitability
adapted. They require simple drainage to remove excess group.
surface water in times of high rainfall, and regular use of
fertilizers. Some areas of this soil respond well to lime. 59-Malbis fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain This soil is moderately well drained and nearly level. It is
healthy plants for highest yields. on uplands. Individual areas of this soil range mostly
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. from 15 to more than 100 acres; some areas are as
Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant small as 5 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.
competition are moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
pines are the best trees to plant. fine sandy loam 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
This soil has moderate limitations for building sites and depth of at least 80 inches. It is brownish yellow sandy
local roads and streets and severe limitations for septic loam to a depth of 13 inches. Below that, the subsoil is
tank absorption fields because of the high water table. sandy clay loam. It is brownish yellow to a depth of 40
Alternative systems or fill can reduce this limitation for inches, and it is yellow and contains plinthite to a depth
absorption fields. This soil has severe limitations for of 45 inches. Below that, it is mottled in shades of gray,
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills because of red, brown, and yellow.
seepage and the high water table. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil has severe limitations for recreational Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Stilson, and Tifton
development because the sandy texture causes poor soils. Also included are areas of Malbis soil that has
trafficability. Suitable topsoil or some form of surfacing slopes of 2 to 5 percent and has a loamy sand or loamy
can reduce or overcome this limitation, fine sand surface layer. A few small wet areas are
This Hurricane soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in shown by a wet spot symbol. Some areas of soils similar
woodland suitability group 11W. to Malbis soil except they have slightly less than 20
percent silt in the subsoil or that have less than 5
58-Duckston muck, frequently flooded. This soil is percent plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil are also
very poorly drained and frequently flooded by heavy included. The included soils make up less than 25
rains or high storm tides. It is on broad, level tidal percent of the map unit.
marshes that border the Choctawhatchee Bay. Individual This Malbis soil has a perched high water table at a
areas of this soil range from 10 to 400 acres. Slope is depth of 30 to 50 inches during winter and early in
smooth and less than 1 percent. spring. It is as shallow as 20 inches for short periods.
Typically, 4 inches of black muck is on the surface. The available water capacity is moderate in the surface
The surface layer is sand to a depth of 21 inches. It is layer and low to high in the subsoil. Permeability is
dark grayish brown to a depth of 6 inches and dark gray moderate in the surface layer and moderate or
below that. The substratum is sand in shades of gray to moderately slow in the subsoil. The organic matter
a depth of at least 80 inches. content is low. Runoff is slow in unprotected areas.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Internal drainage is moderately slow under natural
Dirego, Leon, and Rutlege soils. Also included are soils conditions, and response to artificial drainage is
that have more than 8 inches of muck on the surface, moderate.
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of the The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash
map unit. pine, loblolly pine, gallberry, southern red oak, laurel oak,
This Duckston soil has a high water table at a depth of dogwood, and hickory. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is
10 to 20 inches below the surface most of the year. It the most common native grass.
has more than a 50 percent chance of flooding for brief This Malbis soil has slight limitations for cultivated
periods in any one year. The available water capacity is crops. The variety of well adapted crops is slightly limited
very high in the organic layer and very low in the surface by a restricted root zone and wetness. Corn and peanuts
layer and substratum. Permeability is rapid or very rapid. are well adapted. Crop rotations that provide cover crops





Walton County, Florida 59



on the land at least half the time are needed. Good areas. Internal drainage is moderately slow, and
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime are needed for response to artificial drainage is moderate.
best yields. The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash
This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Tall fescue, pine, loblolly pine, gallberry, turkey oak, laurel oak,
clovers, and coastal bermudagrass are well adapted and dogwood, and hickory. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is
grow well if properly managed. This soil responds well to the most common native grass.
fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to This Malbis soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
maintain plant vigor, crops because of the hazard of erosion. The variety of
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant adapted crops is somewhat limited by occasional
competition is moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly wetness. Corn and peanuts are adapted if properly
pines are the best trees to plant. managed. Erosion control measures, such as terraces
This soil has slight limitations for building sites and that have stabilized outlets; contour cultivation of row
recreational development. It has moderate limitations for crops in alternate strips with cover crops that remain on
septic tank absorption fields because of moderate or the land at least half the time; and crop residue and soil-
moderately slow permeability. Alternative systems or fill improving cover crops left on the ground to protect the
can reduce this limitation. This soil has slight limitations soil from erosion. Maximum yields require good seedbed
for sewage lagoons. It has moderate limitations for area preparation and additions of fertilizer and lime to the soil.
sanitary landfills and severe limitations for trench This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved
sanitary landfills because of the high water table. Low pasture plants, such as clovers, tall fescue, coastal
strength is a moderate limitation for local roads and bermudagrass, and bahiagrass, are well adapted and
streets. Drainage can reduce this limitation, produce well if properly managed. This soil requires
This Malbis soil is in capability class I and in woodland fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is needed to
suitability group 11A. maintain vigorous plants and a good ground cover.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant
60-Malbis fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, competition is moderate. Slash and loblolly pines are the
This soil is moderately well drained and gently sloping. It best trees to plant.
is on broad ridgetops on uplands. Individual areas of this This soil has slight limitations for building sites. Low
soil range mostly from 20 to 200 acres; some areas are strength is a moderate limitation for local roads and
as small as 5 acres. Slopes are mostly smooth to streets. Drainage can reduce this limitation. This soil has
convex but are concave in places. moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine because of the moderate or moderately slow
sandy loam 6 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a permeability. Alternative systems or fill can reduce this
depth of at least 80 inches. It is brownish yellow fine limitation. Slope is a moderate limitation for sewage
sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches thick. The rest of the lagoons. This soil has moderate limitations for area
subsoil is fine sandy loam except the sandy clay loam sanitary landfills and severe limitations for trench
layer between depths of 38 and 48 inches. To a depth of sanitary landfills because of the high water table.
48 inches, the subsoil is brownish yellow, and to a depth This soil has moderate limitations for recreational
of 60 inches, it is yellowish brown and has plinthite. development mainly because of the high water table.
Below that, it is strong brown. Slope is a limitation for playgrounds.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Malbis soil is in capability subclass lie and in
Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Stilson, and Tifton woodland suitability group 11A.
soils. Also included are areas of Malbis soil that has
slopes of 0 to 2 percent and 5 to 8 percent and areas 61-Malbis fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
that have a loamy sand or loamy fine sand surface layer. This soil is moderately well drained and sloping. It is on
A few wet areas are shown by a wet spot symbol. Some uplands. Individual areas of this soil range mostly from
areas have soils similar to this Malbis soil except they 10 to 50 acres; some areas are as small as 3 acres.
have slightly less than 20 percent silt in the upper part of Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
the subsoil or have less than 5 percent plinthite in the sandy loam 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
lower part. The included soils make up less than 25 depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown fine
percent of the map unit. sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches and yellowish brown
This Malbis soil has a perched high water table at a sandy loam to a depth of 17 inches. Below that, the
depth of 30 to 50 inches during winter and early in subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
spring. It is as shallow as 20 inches for short periods. plinthite.
The available water capacity is moderate or high. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Permeability is moderate in the surface layer and Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, and Tifton soils and a few
moderate or moderately slow in the subsoil. The organic areas of Malbis soil that has slopes of 2 to 5 and 8 to 12
matter content is low. Runoff is slow in unprotected percent. Also included are areas of soils similar to this






60 Soil Survey



Malbis soil except they have a loamy fine sand or loamy 62-Resota sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
sand surface layer, have slightly less than 20 percent silt moderately well drained and nearly level to gently
in the upper part of the subsoil, or they have less than 5 sloping. It is on moderately elevated ridges on flatwoods.
percent plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil. Some Individual areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to more
areas are eroded. A few poorly drained soils are in and than 50 acres; some areas are as small as 5 acres.
along small bottom lands and drainageways. The Slopes are mostly smooth to convex but are concave in
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map places.
unit. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 3 inches thick.
This Malbis soil has a perched high water table at a The subsurface is light gray sand 10 inches thick. The
depth of 30 to 50 inches during winter and early in subsoil is sand to a depth of 53 inches. To a depth of 19
spring. It is as shallow as 20 inches for short periods. inches, it is yellowish brown with light gray tongues, and
The available water capacity is moderate in the surface to a depth of 31 inches, it is yellowish brown. It is
layer and moderate or high in the subsoil. Permeability is brownsh yelow to a depth of 40 inchesand very pale
moderate in the surface layer and moderate or brown below that. The substratum is white sand to a
moderate in the surface layer and moderate or
moderately slow in the subsoil. The organic matter
content is l. Rnf is ri. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
content is low Runo is r Foxworth, Kureb, and Mandarin soils. Also included are
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash soils similar to Resota soil except they have slopes of
pine, loblolly pine, turkey oak, laurel oak, flowering more than 5 percent. The included soils make up less
dogwood, gallberry, and hickory. Pineland threeawn than 15 percent of the map unit.
(wiregrass) is the most common native grass. This Resota soil has a high water table at a depth of
This Malbis soil has severe limitations for cultivated 40 to 60 inches for up to 4 months in most years and at
crops because of the hazard of erosion. It has only fair a depth of 60 to 80 inches in dry seasons. The available
suitability for most cultivated crops. Corn, soybeans, and water capacity is very low, and permeability is very rapid
peanuts are only fairly well adapted. Intensive erosion throughout. The organic matter content is low or very
control measures are needed. These measures include low. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little runoff.
contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with The natural vegetation is mostly sand pine, longleaf
close-growing crops that remain on the land at least two- pine, slash pine, and live oak. The understory is
thirds of the time and crop residue left on the soil. sawpalmetto, woody goldenrod, sand heath, and
Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation and panicum. Pineland threeawn (wiregrass) is the most
additions of fertilizer and lime to the soil. common native grass.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay. This Resota soil has very severe limitations for
Cool-season plants, such as tall fescue and clovers, are cultivated crops because of poor soil quality.
poorly adapted. Coastal bermudagrass and improved Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
bahiagrass, grow only moderately well. Fertilizer and lime reduce the variety and potential yields of adapted crops.
are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain Row crops need to be planted on the contour in
plant vigor for maximum yields and good ground cover, alternating strips with close-growing crops that remain on
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Plant the soil at least three-fourths of the time. Cover crops
competition is moderate. Slash and loblolly pines are the and crop residue left on the soil protect the soil from
best trees to plant. erosion. The variety of crops that produces good yields
This soil has slight limitations for building sites. It has without irrigation is restricted. Irrigation is usually feasible
moderate limitations for local roads and streets because where irrigation water is readily available.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
of its low strength when wet. Drainage can reduce this Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
limitation. Limitations for small commercial buildings are bahiagrass, are well adapted but yields are reduced by
moderate because of slope. Cutting and filling can periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and
reduce this limitation. Permeability is a moderate lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
limitation for septic tank absorption fields. Alternative plant vigor for best yields.
systems or fill can reduce this limitation. This soil has The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
moderate limitations for area sanitary landfills and severe Equipment use limitations and plant competition are
limitations for trench sanitary landfills because of the moderate. Sand pine is the best tree to plant.
high water table. This soil has slight limitations for building sites and
This soil has slight limitations for most recreational local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for
development. Slope is a severe limitation for septic tank absorption fields because of the seasonal
playgrounds. high water table. Alternative systems or fill can
This Malbis soil is in a capability subclass Ille and in overcome this limitation. Because of poor filtration, a
woodland suitability group 11A. hazard of ground water contamination is possible where






Walton County, Florida 61



there are many septic tanks. Seepage is a severe 64-Pamlico muck. This soil is poorly drained and
limitation for sewage lagoons and area sanitary landfills. nearly level. It is in depressional areas of the flatwoods.
This soil has severe limitations for trench sanitary Individual areas of this soil range from 3 to 100 acres.
landfills because of seepage, the high water table, and Slopes are smooth to convex and are less than 2
the sandy texture. If this soil is used for sewage lagoons percent.
and landfills, the sandy sidewalls and bottoms need to Typically, the surface layer is black muck 25 inches
be sealed. thick. The underlying material is sand to a depth of at
This soil has severe limitations for recreational least 60 inches. It is black to a depth of 28 inches, very
development because it is too sandy. Suitable topsoil or dark gray to a depth of 35 inches, dark gray to a depth
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this of 42 inches, and gray below that.
limitation. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This Resota soil is in capability subclass Vis and in Dorovan, Leon, Pickney, and Rutlege soils. The included
woodland suitability group 4S. soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
This Pamlico soil has a water table up to 2 feet above
63-Pickney sand, depressional. This soil is very the surface for 6 months in most years. Permeability is
poorly drained and nearly level. It is in drainageways and moderate or moderately rapid, and the available water
depressional areas of the flatwoods. Individual areas of capacity is very high. The organic matter content is very
this soil range from 5 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth high. The internal drainage is slow because of the high
to convex and are less than 2 percent. water table.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand 37 inches The natural vegetation is mostly swamp cyrilla,
thick. The underlying material is dark gray or very dark greenbrier, baldcypress (fig. 14), pond pine, and
gray sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. sweetbay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil is not suited to use as cropland or pasture.
Hurricane, Leon, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. The Rutlege Water covers the surface most of the year and drainage
soils occur more often than the other included soils. Also outlets are few.
included are areas of soils that have a deep, dark color Pine trees are normally not planted on this soil
subsoil. The included soils make up less than 20 percent because of ponding. Equipment use limitations, seedling
of the map unit. mortality, windthrow hazard, and plant competition are
This Pickney soil is ponded for more than 4 months severe.
annually. During the drier seasons, the high water table This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
can recede to a depth of 20 inches. The available water development. Ponding, wetness, and poor soil quality are
capacity is very low to moderate. Permeability is rapid severe limitations that are not practical to overcome.
throughout, however, internal drainage is low when This Pamlico soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in
impeded by the high water table. The organic matter woodland suitability group 7W.
content is high. Response to artificial drainage is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly hardwoods, swamp 65-Garcon loamy fine sand, occasionally flooded.
cyrilla, scattered baldcypress, yaupon, pond pines, slash This soil is somewhat poorly drained and nearly level. It
pine, and loblolly pine. The understory is greenbriers, is on terraces along flood plains of streams and rivers.
pineland threeawn (wiregrass), gallberry, and sedges. Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to 100 acres.
This Pickney soil is not suited to cultivated crops Slopes are 0 to 2 percent and are smooth to concave.
because of excessive wetness. Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 6
If water control measures are used to remove excess inches thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 3 inches
water, this soil is moderately suited to use as improved and dark grayish brown below that. The subsurface layer
pasture. Because of the difficulty of installing these is loamy fine sand to a depth of 25 inches. It is yellowish
measures and the lack of drainage outlets in many brown to a depth of 11 inches and brownish yellow
areas, it is seldom used as pasture. below that. The subsoil extends to a depth of 49 inches.
areas it i s so s a re t pate t pe trees It is brownish yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of 28
Most areas of this soil are not planted to pine trees
because of ponding. Equipment use limitations, seedling inches, lig yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth
mortality, and plant competition are severe. The of 46 inches, and light gray loamy fine sand below that.
The substratum to a depth of at least 80 inches is white
windthrow hazard is moderate. Loblolly and slash pines The substratum to a at least 80 nches swhte
ind w hazad os oer ate. L an sas pes fine sand that has mottles in shades of yellow or brown.
Ta n b plant only ted ran r rraina Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational Pantego and Yemassee soils.
Bigbee, Blanton, Kinston, Pantego, and Yemassee soils.
development because of ponding. This limitation is
development because of ponding. This limitation is Also included are soils similar to Garcon soil except they
havThis Pickney soil ise a subsol that extends to a depth of 60 inches or
This Pickney soil is in capability subclass Vw and n more, they are moderately well drained, or they are near
woodland suitability group 7W. streams and have slopes of more than 5 percent. The






62 Soil Survey






-9

































unit. panicums.
This Garcon soil has a high water table 20 to 40 This Garcon soil has moderate limitations for
inches below the surface for up to 4 months, above a cultivated crops because of wetness and flooding. It is
depth of 20 inches for brief periods, and below a depth well suited to some cultivated crops, but the variety is
of 40 inches for more than 6 months. This soil is flooded limited by the seasonal high water table. Corn and
less often than once every two years for periods ranging soybeans are adapted only when the soil is properly
from 2 to 7 days. The available water capacity is drained. Tile drains or open ditches are needed to
moderate in the surface layer, low in the subsurface protect crops from wetness. Row crops need to be
layer, and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid rotated with cover crops that remain on the land at least
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the half the time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop
subsoil. The organic matter content is low to moderate, residue left on the soil help control erosion and conserve
The internal drainage rate under natural conditions is moisture.
moderate, and response to artificial drainage is good. This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, loblolly bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well with good
pine, longleaf pine, red maple, American holly, management. White clovers and other legumes are
huckleberry, gallberry, southern magnolia, yaupon, briers, moderately adapted. Best yields require applications of
and ferns. The most common native grass is pineland fertilizer and lime to the soil and carefully controlled
grazing to maintain plant vigor.






Walton County, Florida 63



The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately rotations need to include cover crops to protect the soil
high. Seedling mortality and plant competition are from erosion. Best yields require good seedbed
moderate. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best preparation and regular applications of fertilizer and lime.
trees to plant. Irrigation of high value crops is usually feasible where
This soil has severe limitations for use as building sites irrigation water is readily available.
and local roads and streets because of flooding. Raising This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Deep-rooting
the elevation of buildings can reduce this hazard. The plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
high water table is a severe limitation for sanitary are well adapted. They produce well if fertilizer and lime
facilities, and flooding is a hazard. Seepage is a severe are applied to the soil. Controlled grazing is important to
limitation for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and good
This soil has severe limitations for recreational cover.
development because of the sandy surface. Suitable The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
topsoil or some form of surfacing can reduce or high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
overcome this limitation. Flooding is a severe hazard for plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
camp areas. loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
This Garcon soil is in capability subclass IIw and in This soil has slight limitations for building sites and
woodland suitability group 10W. local roads and streets. It has slight limitations for septic
tank absorption fields. Seepage is a severe limitation for
66-Kenansville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. If this soil is used
slopes. This soil is well drained and nearly level to for these purposes, the floor and sidewalls should be
gently sloping. It is on stream terraces. Individual areas sealed.
of this soil range mostly from 10 to more than 100 acres; This soil has severe limitations for recreational
some areas are as small as 3 acres. Slopes are smooth development because it is too sandy. Suitable topsoil or
to convex. some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine limitation. Slope is a limitation for playgrounds.
sand 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light This Kenansville soil is in capability subclass Ils and in
yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of about 31 woodland suitability group 10S.
inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam
to a depth of 57 inches. The substratum is light yellowish 68-Florala loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
brown fine sand to to a depth of at least 80 inches. This soil is somewhat poorly drained and nearly level. It
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of is in low areas on uplands. Individual areas of this soil
Bigbee, Bonneau, Garcon, Norfolk, Troup, and range mostly from 10 to more than 30 acres; a few
Yemassee soils. Also included are soils similar to this areas are as small as 2 acres. Slopes are smooth to
Kenansville soil except they have a subsoil to a depth of concave.
60 to 70 inches or have surface and subsurface layers Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand 10
more than 40 inches thick. The included soils make up inches thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 6 inches
less than 20 percent of the map unit. and dark gray below that. The subsoil extends to a depth
In Kenansville soil, the available water capacity is very of at least 80 inches. To a depth of 30 inches, it is light
low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate olive brown and yellow fine sandy loam that has plinthite,
in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and and below that, it is sandy clay loam that is mottled in
subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the subsoil. shades of gray, brown, yellow, and red.
The organic matter content is low or moderately low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and there is little runoff. Albany, Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Pantego,
Natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and Stilson soils. Also included are a few areas of soils
slash pine, hickory, various oaks, yaupon, sweetgum, similar to this Florala soil except they have slopes of 2 to
blackgum, American holly, huckleberry, and briers. The 5 percent, have a sandy clay and clay loam subsoil,
most common native grass is pineland threeawn have a dark color surface layer more than 10 inches
(wiregrass). thick, or they are moderately well drained and poorly
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops drained. Included are areas of soils similar to the Florala
because of poor soil qualities. Kenansville soil can be soil that do not have plinthite and that are sandy within a
cultivated safely with ordinary good farming methods, but depth of 60 inches. The included soils make up less than
droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit 20 percent of the map unit.
the choice of crops and the potential yields of adapted This Florala soil has a high water table at a depth of
crops. Conservation tillage helps control erosion and 18 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months annually. In about 25
conserve moisture. With good management, such crops to 35 percent of this soil, the high water table is at a
as corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be grown. Row depth of 10 to 18 inches for short periods. The available
crops need to be planted on the contour, and crop water capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate






64 Soil Survey



or high in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in yellowish brown to a depth of 12 inches and brownish
the surface layer, moderate in the upper part of the yellow below that. The subsoil is fine sandy loam to a
subsoil, and slow in the lower part. The organic matter depth of at least 80 inches. It is brownish yellow to a
content is low or moderately low. The internal drainage depth of 28 inches, and to a depth of 39 inches, it is
rate under natural conditions is slow, and response to light yellowish brown with plinthite. Below that, it is
artificial drainage is moderate. reticulately mottled in shades of brown, yellow, red, and
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and gray.
slash pines. The understory is gallberry and waxmyrtle. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pitcherplants are in poorly drained areas. The most Bibb, Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Kinston, Leefield, and
common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Stilson soils. Also included are a few areas of soils
Other grasses are bluestem, panicum, carpetgrass, and similar to this Florala soil except they have slopes of 0 to
longleaf uniola. 2 percent and 5 to 8 percent, they are moderately well
This Florala soil has moderate limitations for cultivated drained, they do not have plinthite (mostly at drainage
crops. The variety of adapted crops is somewhat limited heads), they have less than 18 percent clay in the upper
by occasional wetness. Corn and peanuts are adapted if part of the subsoil, or they are sandy within a depth of
properly managed. Simple ditching to remove excess 60 inches. Included are areas of soils that are poorly
surface water during rains is needed for most crops. drained at seepage spots. The included soils make up
Crop rotations need to include cover crops that remain less than 25 percent of the map unit.
on the land at least half the time. Crop residue and the This Florala soil has a high water table at a depth of
cover crops need to be left on the ground to protect the 18 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months annually. In about 20
soil from erosion. Conservation tillage helps conserve to 30 percent of this soil, the high water table is at a
moisture and control erosion. Maximum yields require depth of 10 to 18 inches for short periods. The available
good seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer water capacity is low in the surface and subsurface
and lime to the soil. layers and moderate or high in the subsoil. Permeability
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved is moderately rapid in the surface and subsurface layers,
pasture plants, such as clovers, tall fescue, coastal moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and slow in
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass, are well the lower part. The organic matter content is low or
adapted. They grow well if properly managed. This soil moderately low. The internal drainage rate under natural
requires fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is conditions is slow, and response to artificial drainage is
needed to maintain vigorous plants for highest yields. moderate.
The potential productivity of pine trees is high. The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and
Equipment use limitations and plant competition are slash pine. The understory is gallberry and waxmyrtle.
moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best Pitcherplants are in poorly drained areas. The most
trees to plant. common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
The Florala soil has moderate limitations for use as Other grasses are bluestem, panicum, carpetgrass, and
building sites, local roads and streets, lawns, longleaf uniola.
landscaping, golf fairways, and paths and trails because This Florala soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
of wetness. It has moderate limitations for camp areas, crops because of the hazard of erosion. The variety of
picnic areas, and playgrounds because of wetness and adapted crops is somewhat limited by access and
slow permeability. Seepage and slope are moderate wetness. Corn and peanuts are adapted if properly
limitations for sewage lagoons. The sidewalls need to be managed. Terraces that have stabilized outlets, contour
sealed. This soil has severe limitations for trench and cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
area sanitary landfills because of wetness. It has severe crops that remain on the land at least half the time, crop
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of residues and soil-improving cover crops left on the
wetness and slow permeability. Alternative systems can ground, and conservation tillage, help conserve moisture
overcome these limitations. and control erosion. Maximum yields require good
This Florala soil is in capability subclass IIw and in seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer and
woodland suitability group 11W. lime to the soil.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Improved
69-Florala loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, pasture plants, such as clovers, tall fescue, coastal
This soil is somewhat poorly drained and gently sloping. bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass, are well
It is on seepage slopes on uplands. Individual areas of adapted. They produce well if properly managed. This
this soil range mostly 5 to more than 30 acres; a few soil requires fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing is
areas are as small as 2 acres. Slopes are concave, needed to maintain vigorous plants and a good ground
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine cover.
sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy fine The potential productivity of pine trees is high.
sand or loamy sand to a depth of 17 inches. It is Equipment use limitations and plant competition are






Walton County, Florida 65



moderate. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best control measures are needed. Well designed terraces
trees to plant. that have stabilized outlets; row crops planted on the
This soil has moderate limitations for use as building contour in alternate strips with cover crops that remain
sites, local roads and streets, lawns, landscaping, golf on the soil at least half of the time; crop residue and
fairways, and paths and trails because of wetness. It has cover crops left on the land; and conservation tillage
moderate limitations for camp areas, picnic areas, and help control erosion and conserve moisture. Maximum
playgrounds because of wetness and slow percolation. yields require good seedbed preparation and applications
Seepage and slope are moderate limitations for sewage of fertilizer and lime to the soil.
lagoons. The sidewalls should be sealed. This soil has This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Improved
severe limitations for trench and area sanitary landfills pasture plants, such as clovers, coastal bermudagrass,
because of wetness. It has severe limitations for septic and bahiagrass, are well adapted and grow well if
tank absorption fields because of wetness and slow properly managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime,
percolation. Alternative systems can overcome these and controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
limitations, plants for highest yields and good soil cover.
This Florala soil is in capability subclass lie and in The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
woodland suitability group 11W. high. Equipment use limitations are moderate. Loblolly
and slash pines are the best trees to plant.
70-Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent This soil has moderate limitations for use as building
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently sloping. It is sites because of shrinking and swelling. Backfill and
on uplands. Individual areas of this soil range from 3 to reinforced foundations can reduce this limitation. Low
30 acres. strength is a severe limitation for local roads and streets.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown The moderately slow permeability is a severe limitation
fine sandy loam 6 inches thick. The subsurface is dark for septic tank absorption fields. Alternative systems or
brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches. The sandy fill material can reduce this limitation.
subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is This soil has moderate limitations for camp areas,
yellowish red clay to a depth of 17 inches, red clay to a picnic areas, and playgrounds because of the moderately
depth of 34 inches, red sandy clay to to a depth of 51 slow permeability. Slope is also a limitation for
inches, and sandy clay and clay that is mottled in shades playgrounds. This soil has slight limitations for paths and
of yellow, brown, red, and gray below that. trails.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Shubuta soil is in capability subclass lie and in
Angie, Bonneau, Dothan, Florala, Lucy, Norfolk, and woodland suitability group 10C.
Orangeburg soils. Also included are soils similar to
Shubuta soil; some have mottles in chroma of 1 or 2 at a 71-Shubuta fine sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent
depth of less than 30 inches, some have a sandy or slopes. This soil is well drained and sloping to strongly
loamy substratum, and some have a loamy sand surface sloping. It is on side slopes on uplands. Individual areas
layer. Small, moderately eroded areas and soils that range from 3 to 300 acres.
have slopes of less than 2 percent or more than 5 Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown
percent are included. The included soils make up less sandy loam 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
than 25 percent of the map unit. yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches. The
This Shubuta soil has moderate or high available water subsoil is clay to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
capacity. Permeability is moderate in the surface and yellowish red to a depth of 46 inches and is mottled in
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil. gray, yellowish brown, strong brown, and red below that.
The organic matter content is moderately low or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
moderate. Runoff in unprotected areas is rapid. This soil Angie, Bonneau, Cowarts, Lucy, Norfolk, and
does not have a high water table within a depth of 6 Orangeburg soils. Also included are areas of Shubuta
feet. soils on nearly level to gently sloping ridgetops that are
The natural vegetation is chiefly loblolly pine, longleaf too small and narrow to delineate. About 10 to 30
pine, slash pine, Florida maple, water oak, willow oak, percent of the soils are unnamed soils that have slopes
sumac, American holly, southern magnolia, tuliptree, of 12 to 25 percent, and about 2 to 5 percent are very
yaupon, common sweetleaf, and cedar. Pineland small areas of unnamed soils that have slopes as steep
threeawn (wiregrass) and broomsedge bluestem are the as 70 percent, more often at stream heads. The included
most common native grasses. soils make up less than 30 percent of the map unit.
This Shubuta soil has moderate limitations for This Shubuta soil has moderate to high available water
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. The capacity. Permeability is moderate in the surface and
variety of well adapted crops is somewhat limited by a subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil.
restricted root zone. Corn, soybeans, and oats grow The organic matter content is moderately low or
moderately well if properly managed. Moderate erosion moderate. Runoff is very rapid in unprotected areas, and






66 Soil Survey



erosion is a very severe hazard. This soil does not have Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
a high water table within a depth of 6 feet. fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is
The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is grayish
pine, slash pine, Florida maple, American holly, willow brown to a depth of 20 inches, pale olive to a depth of
oak, sumac, water oak, tuliptree, southern magnolia, 28 inches, light olive brown to a depth of 40 inches, pale
yaupon, common sweetleaf, gallberry, cedar, hickory, olive to a depth of 65 inches, and light yellowish brown
greenbrier, dogwood, and huckleberry. Pineland below that.
threeawn (wiregrass) and broomsedge bluestem are the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
most common native grasses. Albany, Chipley, Hurricane, Rutlege, and Yemassee soils.
This Shubuta soil has very severe limitations for Albany, Chipley, and Hurricane soils are in higher, better
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. It is drained positions than Osier soil. Yemassee soils are in
poorly suited to row crops because slopes are too steep about the same position but closer to streams, and
to be effectively terraced and erosion measures are Rutlege soils are wetter and are subject to frequent
limited primarily to vegetative cover. When row crops are flooding. Also commonly included are soils similar to
grown, they need to be planted on the contour in Osier soil except they have higher chromas in the
alternating wider strips of close-growing crops that subsoil. The included soils make up less than 30 percent
remain on the soil at least three-fourths of the time. of the map unit.
Conservation tillage helps control erosion and conserve This Osier soil has a high water table at or near the
moisture. Crop residue needs to be left on the land to surface for 3 to 6 months in most years. The available
protect the soil from erosion. Lime and fertilizer are water capacity is very low or low. Permeability is rapid
needed for best yields of row and close-growing crops. throughout. Internal drainage is low when impeded by
the high water table. The organic matter content is
This soil is moderately suited to use as pasture. the high water table The organic matter content is
moderate or high. Response to artificial drainage is rapid.
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately Natural vegetation consists mostly of slash, loblolly,
well suited. When this soil is properly limed and fertilized, ongleaf pine. The understory is pineland threeawn
the potential for grazing increases and a good sod cover e resr nd te
(wiregrass), gallberry, greenbrier, and myrtle.
for protection against erosion can be produced. Grazing ( a
for protection against erosion can be produced. Grazing This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
should be carefully controlled to maintain vigorous plants excessive wetness and lack of established drainage or
excessive wetness and lack of established drainage or
and maximum growth for good cover.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. water control measures are used to remove excess
Equipment use limitations are moderate. Loblolly and water, this soil is moderately well suited to use as
slash pines are the best trees to plant. improved pasture. Because of the difficulty of installing
This soil has moderate limitations for use as sites for these measures and lack of outlets in many areas, it is
houses and severe limitations for small commercial seldom used for pasture.
buildings because of slope and shrinking and swelling. The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
Steel reinforcing rods in the foundation, sand as backfill high on this soil. Equipment use limitations, seedling
and a base for the foundation, and leveling can reduce mortality, and plant competition are severe. Slash and
these limitations. This soil has severe limitations for loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
septic tank absorption fields because of the moderately This soil has severe limitations for urban uses and
slow permeability. Alternative systems can reduce this recreational development mainly because of wetness. A
limitation. The clayey subsoil is a severe limitation for drainage plan and large amounts of fill material would be
trench sanitary landfills. Slope is a moderate limitation needed to make this soil suited for these uses.
for area sanitary landfills and a severe limitation for This Osier soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
sewage lagoons. Low strength is a severe limitation for woodland suitability group 10W.
local roads and streets.
This soil has moderate limitations for camp areas and 73-Albany loamy sand. This soil is nearly level and
picnic areas because of slope and the permeability, somewhat poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Individual
Slope is also a severe limitation for playgrounds. This areas of this soil range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes
soil has severe limitations for paths and trails because range from 0 to 2 percent.
the soil erodes easily. Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand 11 inches
This Shubuta soil is in capability subclass IVe and in thick. It is very dark gray to a depth of 7 inches and dark
woodland suitability group 10C. grayish brown below that. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 45 inches. The
72-Osier fine sand. This soil is poorly drained and subsoil is yellowish brown and light yellowish brown
nearly level. It is in poorly defined drainageways of the sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
200 acres. Slopes are smooth to slightly concave. Blanton, Chipley, and Osier soils. Also included are soils







Walton County, Florida 67



similar to Albany soil except they have a sand or loamy time and cover crops and crop residue left on the soil to
sand subsoil. The included soils make up less than 15 protect the soil from erosion. Conservation tillage also
percent of the map unit, helps conserve moisture and control erosion.
This Albany soil has a high water table within 12 to 30 This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay, but it
inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months annually. The requires good management to produce high yields.
available water capacity is very low in the surface and Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers are well
subsurface layers and low in the subsoil. Permeability is adapted. This soil responds well to fertilizers and lime.
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and Simple drainage is needed to remove excess internal
moderately rapid in the subsoil. Internal drainage is low water in wet seasons. Grazing control is needed to
when impeded by the high water table. The organic maintain vigorous plants for best yields.
matter content is moderately low. Response to artificial The potential production of pine trees is moderately
drainage is moderately rapid. high. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf, loblolly, and plant competition are moderate. Slash, longleaf, and
slash pines intermixed with oaks and other hardwoods. loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
The understory is gallberry, pineland threeawn This soil has moderate limitations for building sites,
(wiregrass), waxmyrtle, and scattered sawpalmetto. local roads and streets, and recreational uses because
This Albany soil has severe limitations for cultivated of the seasonal high water table. Wetness is a severe
crops because of periodic wetness and thick sandy limitation for septic tank absorption fields. Alternative
surface and subsurface layers. The number of adapted systems or fill can reduce this limitation. Wetness and
crops is limited unless water control measures are used. seepage are severe limitations for sanitary landfills and
With adequate water control, corn, soybeans, and sewage lagoons. If this soil is used for these purposes,
peanuts are moderately adapted. Good management the sandy sidewalls need to be sealed.
includes row crops in rotation with close-growing cover This Albany soil is in capability subclass Illw and in
crops that remain on the land at least two-thirds of the woodland suitability group 11W.









69









Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and About 74,212 acres, or about 11 percent of Walton
discussed, and the prime farmland soils in Walton County, meets the soil requirements for prime farmland.
County are listed. These soils occur mainly in map units 4 and 5 of the
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important general soil map. This land is used mainly for corn,
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, soybeans, and peanuts.
It is of major importance in meeting the nation's short- A recent trend in land use in some parts of the county
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage of has been the loss of some prime farmland to community
high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. Department development. The loss of prime farmland to other uses
of Agriculture recognizes that government at local, state, puts pressure on marginal land, which generally is more
and federal levels, as well as individuals, must erodible, drought, and difficult to cultivate and usually is
encourage and facilitate the wise use of our nation's less productive.
prime farmland. The following map units, or soils, make up prime
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S. farmland in Walton County. The location of each map
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited unit is shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of
to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. this publication. The extent of each unit is given in table
Such soils have properties that are favorable for the 4. The soil qualities that affect use and management are
economic production of sustained high yields of crops. described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." This
The soils need only to be treated and managed using list does not constitute a recommendation for a particular
acceptable farming methods. The moisture supply, of land use.
course, must be adequate, and the growing season has Soils that have limitations, such as a high water table
to be sufficiently long. Prime farmland soils produce the or flooding, may qualify as prime farmland if these
highest yields with minimal inputs of energy and limitations are overcome by such measures as drainage
economic resources. Farming these soils results in the or flood control. In the following list, the measures
least damage to the environment, needed to overcome the limitations of a map unit, if any,
Prime farmland soils may presently be in use as are shown in parentheses after the map unit name.
cropland, pasture, or woodland, or they may be in other Onsite evaluation is necessary to determine if the
uses. They either are used for producing food or fiber or limitations have been overcome by the corrective
are available for these uses. Urban or built-up land, measures.
public land, and water areas cannot be considered prime 6 Escambia sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
farmland. Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit of (where artificially drained)
land 10 acres or more in size that is used for such 9 Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
purposes as housing, industrial, and commercial sites, 10 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
sites for institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf 11 Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary 25 Orangeburg sandy loam, 1 to 5 percent slopes
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water control 26 Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
structures. Public land is land not available for farming in 28 Tifton fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
national forests, national parks, military reservations, and 29 Tifton fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
state parks 30 Tifton fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
Prime far land soils usually get an adequate and 37 Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (where
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or artificially drained)
irrigation/The temperature and growing season are 40 Escambia sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is (where artificially drained)
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are 46 Norfolk loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
permeable to water and air. They are not excessively 52 Yemassee fine sandy loam, occasionally flooded
erodible or saturated with water for long periods and are (where artificially drained)
not subject to frequent flooding during the growing 59 Malbis fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 8 percent. 60 Malbis fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes






70



61 Malbis fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes 69 Florala loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
68 Florala loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (where artificially drained)
(where artificially drained) 70 Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes






71









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and suitabilities of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, About 104,000 acres in the Walton County soil survey
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses area was used for crops and pasture, according to the
and management. Field experience and collected data 1982 Census of Agriculture. Of this total, about 35,000
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis acres was used for pasture and about 31,000 acres was
for predicting soil behavior. used to produce soybeans, the major field crop. The rest
Information in this section can be used to plan the use is used for field or speciality crops.
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as The potential of the soils in Walton County for
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary increased food production is good. About 205,000 acres
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and of potentially good cropland is currently used as
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife woodland and about 15,000 acres as pasture. In addition
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and to that acreage, some land used as woodland or pasture
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help could be used for cropland if intensive conservation
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil measures were used to control soil blowing on sandy
properties. soils. In addition to the reserve capacity represented by
Planners and others using soil survey information can this land, food production could be increased
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity considerably by extending the latest crop production
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. technology to all cropland in the county. This soil survey
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a can help in the application of such technology.
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. The acreage in crops and pasture has remained
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of constant, but that in woodland has been decreasing
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to slightly as more land is used for urban development. In
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can 1970, about 10,500 acres was in urban development.
cause difficulty in excavation. This acreage has increased about 2 percent per year for
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and the past 10 years according to the Comprehensive Plan
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can for Walton County. The use of this soil survey to help
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate make land use decisions that will influence the future
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. "General Soil Map Units."
Water erosion is a problem on about a third of the
Crops and Pasture cropland and pastureland in Walton County. If the well
drained and moderately well drained Angie, Bonifay,
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, Kenansville, Malbis, Lucy,
Service, helped prepare this section. Orangeburg, Norfolk, Shubuta, Stilson, Tifton, and Troup
General management needed for crops and pasture is soils, and the somewhat poorly drained Escambia and
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Florala soils have slope of more than 2 percent, erosion
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly is a hazard.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Productivity is reduced as the surface layer is lost and
land capability classification used by the Soil part of the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Soil erosion on farmland also results in sediment






71









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and suitabilities of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, About 104,000 acres in the Walton County soil survey
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses area was used for crops and pasture, according to the
and management. Field experience and collected data 1982 Census of Agriculture. Of this total, about 35,000
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis acres was used for pasture and about 31,000 acres was
for predicting soil behavior. used to produce soybeans, the major field crop. The rest
Information in this section can be used to plan the use is used for field or speciality crops.
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as The potential of the soils in Walton County for
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary increased food production is good. About 205,000 acres
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and of potentially good cropland is currently used as
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife woodland and about 15,000 acres as pasture. In addition
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and to that acreage, some land used as woodland or pasture
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help could be used for cropland if intensive conservation
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil measures were used to control soil blowing on sandy
properties. soils. In addition to the reserve capacity represented by
Planners and others using soil survey information can this land, food production could be increased
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity considerably by extending the latest crop production
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. technology to all cropland in the county. This soil survey
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a can help in the application of such technology.
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. The acreage in crops and pasture has remained
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of constant, but that in woodland has been decreasing
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to slightly as more land is used for urban development. In
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can 1970, about 10,500 acres was in urban development.
cause difficulty in excavation. This acreage has increased about 2 percent per year for
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and the past 10 years according to the Comprehensive Plan
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can for Walton County. The use of this soil survey to help
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate make land use decisions that will influence the future
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. "General Soil Map Units."
Water erosion is a problem on about a third of the
Crops and Pasture cropland and pastureland in Walton County. If the well
drained and moderately well drained Angie, Bonifay,
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, Kenansville, Malbis, Lucy,
Service, helped prepare this section. Orangeburg, Norfolk, Shubuta, Stilson, Tifton, and Troup
General management needed for crops and pasture is soils, and the somewhat poorly drained Escambia and
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Florala soils have slope of more than 2 percent, erosion
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly is a hazard.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Productivity is reduced as the surface layer is lost and
land capability classification used by the Soil part of the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Soil erosion on farmland also results in sediment






72 Soil Survey



entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
pollution of streams by sediment and improves the Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at
fish and wildlife. In many fields, preparing a good specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend
seedbed and tilling are difficult on clayey spots because on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the
the original friable surface soil has eroded away. Such crop to damage from sandblasting.
spots are common in areas of the moderately eroded Information for the design of erosion control practices
Angie and Shubuta soils. for each kind of soil is in the "Water and Wind Erosion
Erosion control practices provide protective surface Control Handbook-Florida," which is available in the
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. Vegetative local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
cover on the soil for extended periods can hold soil Soil drainage is a major management need on about
erosion losses to amounts that will not reduce the 11.5 percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture
productive capacity of the soil. On livestock farms that in Walton County. Some soils are naturally so wet that
need pasture and hay, legume and grass forage crops in the production of crops common to the area is generally
the cropping system reduce erosion on erodible, sloping not practical. There are about 134,632 acres of the poorly
land. These crops also provide nitrogen and improve tilth drained soils, such as Bibb, Kinston, and Leon soils, and
for the following crop. the very poorly drained soils, such as Dorovan,
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the Johnston, Pamlico, Pantego, and Rutlege soils.
surface increase infiltration and reduce the hazards of Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat
runoff and erosion. These practices can be adapted to poorly drained and poorly drained soils are wet enough
most soils in the survey area, but they are more difficult to cause some damage to pasture plants during the wet
to use successfully on eroded soils and on soils that seasons. These are mainly the Albany, Chipley,
have a clayey surface layer, such as Angie and Shubuta Escambia, Florala, Hurricane, Leefield, Leon, Mandarin,
soils. No-till systems for corn and soybeans are effective and Yemassee soils. The Chipley, Hurricane, and Leon
in reducing erosion on sloping land and can be adapted soils also have a low available water capacity and are
to most soils in the survey area. drought during dry periods. It is necessary to
Terraces, diversions, and stripcropping reduce runoff subsurface irrigate these soils for adequate pasture
and erosion by reducing the length of slope. These production.
practices are more practical on deep, well drained soils Blanton, Foxworth, Garcon, Malbis, Pactolus, and
that have regular slopes. Diversions, and sod waterways, Stilson soils have good drainage most of the year, but
which reduce runoff and erosion, can be installed on they tend to dry out slowly after rains. Small areas of
most soils in the county. It is more difficult to install wetter soils along drainageways and in swales are
terraces and diversions successfully on soils that have a commonly included in areas of the moderately well
clayey surface layer. Contour farming to reduce erosion drained soils, especially those soils that have slope of 2
is most suited to soils that have smooth, uniform slopes, to 5 percent. Artificial drainage is needed in some wetter
including most areas of the Bonifay, Bonneau, Dothan, areas.
Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, Lakeland, Norfolk, Shubuta, The very poorly drained soils are very wet during the
Tifton, and Troup soils. rainy periods. Water stands on the surface of most
Wind erosion is a hazard on soils that have a sandy areas, and the production of good quality pastures is not
and or loamy sand surface layer. About 521,693 acres, possible without artificial drainage. Dorovan, Johnston,
or 78 percent of the county's cropland soils, is sandy Pamlico, Pantego, and Rutlege soils are very poorly
and is subject to wind erosion. Wind erosion can drained.
damage soils and tender crops in a few hours in open, The design of both surface drainage and subsurface
unprotected areas if the winds are strong and the soil irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the
surface is dry and bare of vegetation and mulch, pastures grown. Drains have to be more closely spaced
Maintaining plant cover and surface mulch minimizes in slowly permeable soils than in more permeable soils.
wind erosion. A combination of surface drainage and subsurface
Wind erosion reduces soil fertility by removing finer irrigation systems is needed on these soils for intensive
soil particles and organic matter; damages or destroys pasture production. Information on the drainage and
crops by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and irrigation for each kind of soil is in the Technical Guide
weed seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning available in the local office of the Soil Conservation
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms Service.
and improves air quality for more healthful living Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the survey
conditions. area. Most of the soils have a sand or loamy sand
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as surface layer. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In
Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and this category are the Angie, Albany, Blanton, Bonneau,
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain are Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Garcon, Kenansville, Leefield,






Walton County, Florida 73



Lucy, Orangeburg, Norfolk, Shubuta, Stilson, Tifton, Tifton soils that have slope of less than 8 percent. If
Troup, and Yemassee soils. The Bigbee, Chipley, irrigated, about 223,923 acres of Blanton, Bonifay,
Corolla, Eglin, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Newhan, Lakeland, and Troup soils that have slope of less than 8
Mandarin, Pactolus, and Resota soils have sandy percent are very well suited to vegetables and small fruit.
material to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Eglin, In addition, if adequately drained, about 73,589 acres of
Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin soils have an organically Albany, Chipley, Escambia, Florala, Garcon, Hurricane,
stained layer within their sandy subsurface layer. Most of Leefield, and Yemassee soils are very well suited to
the soils have a strongly acid to very strongly acid vegetables and small fruits.
surface layer if lime has not been added. Ground Most of the well drained and moderately well drained
limestone is needed to raise the pH level sufficiently for soils in the survey area are suitable for orchards (fig. 15)
good growth of crops on these soils. Nitrogen, potash, and nursery plants. However, if these soils are in low
and available phosphorus levels are low in most of these areas that have poor air drainage and frequent frost
soils. Additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on pockets, they are not as well suited to early vegetables,
the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crops, and small fruits, and orchards.
the expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts forage for beef and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf
of fertilizer and lime to apply, operations are the major cattle systems. Bahiagrass and
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of coastal bermudagrass are the major pasture plants.
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that Grass seeds can be harvested from bahiagrass for
have good tilth are granular and porous, improved pasture plantings as well as commercial
Most soils in the survey area have a sand, loamy purposes. Many cattlemen seed small grain on cropland
sand, or sandy loam surface layer that is light in color and overseed ryegrass on pastures in the fall for winter
and low to moderate in organic matter content. The and spring grazing. Excess grass is harvested from
Dirego, Dorovan, Duckston, Johnston, Maurepas, coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass as hay during the
Pamlico, Pantego, Pickney, and Rutlege soils have high summer for feeding during the winter.
organic matter content. The Johnston, Pantego, Pickney, The well drained and moderately well drained Angie,
and Rutlege soils have a dark surface layer and high Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, Garcon, Kenansville, Lucy,
organic matter content. The Dirego, Dorovan, Duckston, Malbis, Pactolus, Orangeburg, Norfolk, Shubuta, Stilson,
Maurepas, and Pamlico soils are organic or have an and Tifton soils are well suited to bahiagrass and
organic surface layer. Generally, the structure of the improved bermudagrass. The somewhat poorly drained
surface layer of these soils is weak. Soils low in organic Albany, Chipley, Escambia, Florala, Hurricane, Leefield,
matter content, form a slight crust following intense Mandarin, and Yemassee soils are well suited to
rainfall. The crust is slightly hard when it is dry and is bahiagrass, improved bermudagrass, and legumes, such
slightly impervious to water. Once the crust forms, it as white, crimson, and arrowleaf clover, if adequate lime
reduces infiltration and increases runoff. This increased and fertilizer are added to these soils. Where subsurface
runoff causes soil erosion. Regular additions of crop irrigation is used, the total forage production on these
residue, manure, and other organic material can improve soils will increase.
soil structure and reduce crust formation. Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
Fall plowing is generally not a good practice in Walton by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of pasture can
County. About two-thirds of the cropland is sloping soils be increased by adding lime and fertilizer, including
that are subject to damaging erosion if they are plowed legumes in the cropping system, by irrigating, and by
and exposed all winter. using other management practices. The amount and kind
Field crops grown in the survey area include corn, of pasture yields are related closely to the kind of soil.
soybeans, peanuts, cotton, wheat, oats, and grain Proper management of pasture is based on the
sorghum. Rye is the common close-growing crop. relationship of soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area moisture.
are watermelons, snap beans, cucumbers, tomatoes,
chufas, popcorn, peas, and some squash, blueberries, Yields Per Acre
grapes, blackberries, pecans, and nursery plants. If
economic conditions are favorable, there is potential to The average yields per acre that can be expected of
increase the production of blueberries, grapes, the principal crops under a high level of management
blackberries, and nursery plants. are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
especially well suited to many vegetables and small of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
fruits. About 99,552 acres of these soils are in the survey The yields are based mainly on the experience and
area. They are the Bonneau, Dothan, Fuquay, records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
Kenansville, Lucy, Orangeburg, Norfolk, Shubuta, and agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and






74 Soil Survey

























.17
a"-























Figure 15.-Excellent pecan groves are on Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in the northern part of Walton County.



results of field trials and demonstrations are also Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
considered. about the management and productivity of the soils for
The management needed to obtain the indicated those crops.
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion Land Capability Classification
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction require special management are excluded. The soils are
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and they respond to management. The criteria used in










harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum. Capability classification is not a substitute for
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of interpretations designed to show suitability and
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
to increase as new production technology is developed and for engineering purposes.







The productivity of a given soil compared with that of In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
other soils, however, is not likely to change. the levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only







Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
results of field trials and demonstrations are also Cooperative Extension Service can provide information















the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed are defined i the following paragraphs. the
The management needed to obtain the indicated those crops
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil



















because the acreage of such crops is small. The local Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the designated by Roman numerals I through V. Thelan
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction require special management are excluded. The soils are
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way

harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,


applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum Capability classification is not a substitute for
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of interpretations designed to show suitability and





because the acreage of such crops is small. The local Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The






Walton County, Florida 75



numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and owned. Commercial forest land has increased 4,000
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are acres between 1969 and 1979. The soils and climate are
defined as follows: well suited to timber, and forest occurs on almost all of
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. the soils throughout the county.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the Slash, longleaf, loblolly, and sand pine are the main
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation species. Sand and longleaf pine dominate the Lakeland
practices, and Troup soils because their root systems have the
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the ability to collect water in these dry sites.
choice of plants or that require special conservation Choctawhatchee sand pine dominates Lakeland soils in
practices, or both. the southern part of Eglin Air Force Base. The lack of
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce replanting of longleaf pine and lack of controlled burning
the choice of plants or that require very careful have encouraged the spread of Choctawhatchee sand
management, or both. pine northward on what was once mainly longleaf pine-
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have turkey oak stands. Slash pine has been planted
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their extensively throughout the county on somewhat poorly
use. drained to moderately well drained soils and on well
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them drained soils that have clay within 2 to 5 feet of the
generally unsuitable for cultivation, surface. The Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Dothan, Florala,
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make Escambia, Fuquay, Garcon, Hurricane, Leefield, Lucy,
them unsuitable for cultivation. Malbis, Mandarin, Orangeburg, Stilson, and Tifton soils
Class VIll soils and miscellaneous areas have are in this group. Longleaf pine has been planted on the
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial well drained Bonifay, Bonneau, Fuquay, Lucy, and Troup
crop production. soils. Loblolly pine is planted on soils where the subsoil
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class. is close to the surface or has high clay content, such as
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or the Angie, Dothan, Norfolk, Shubuta, and Tifton soils.
c, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless a Ma hardwoodtrees, such s weetgm, bkg
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that black willow baldcypress, and sweetbay, grow in
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or wetlands and wet depressions and on flood plains and
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly bottom lands on Bibb, Dorovan, Johnson, Kinston,
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is Maurepas, Pamlico, and Pantego soils. Live, laurel,
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony; water, turkey, and blackjack oaks are on the sandhills on
and c, used in only some parts of the United States, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Fuquay, Kureb, Lakeland,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold Lucy, Orangeburg, and Resota soils. These hardwoods
or very dry. have little commercial value, although they are valuable
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils for wildlife.
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are Timber management varies from intensive thinning,
subject to little or no erosion, but they have other clearcutting, site preparation, and planting on corporate
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, land to less intensive selective cutting and harvest on
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains private land. Prescribed burning is important in reducing
only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c. "rough" and in exposing mineral soils as a seedbed for
The acreage of soils in each capability class and natural reproduction. It also encourages grasses and
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification forbs, which help support various wildlife, such as deer,
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil turkey, dove, and quail.
Map Units." A good market for pine trees is available even though
there is not a major wood-using industry in the county.
Woodland Management and Productivity Several small lumber mills are scattered throughout the
county. Several major pulp and paper mills, plywood, and
Hal Brockman, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Jacky saw mills, and a pole and piling mill are within 100 miles
Balkcom and Joe D'Elia, county foresters, Florida Department of of DeFuniak Springs. The majority of the local
Agriculture and Consumer Services, helped prepare this section. hardwoods has little value for use for pulp and paper
Walton County has 541,728 acres, or 81 percent of production. All of the woodland areas are considered
the total land area, in productive forest land, according very valuable as habitat for wildlife. Woodland areas help
to the 1979 USDA Forest Survey. Of this 136,133 acres control erosion and improve water quality. They provide
is Federal land (Eglin Air Force Base), 127,200 acres is natural beauty and many recreational benefits.
owned by the forest industry, 46,900 acres is owned by More detailed information on woodland and forest
corporate industries, and 231,495 acres is privately management can be obtained from the local offices of






76 Soil Survey



the Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of additional care in planning of harvesting and
Forestry, and the Cooperative Extension Service. reforestation operations, or use of specialized
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth, equipment.
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate use of forest management equipment, year-round or
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site. seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
are of particular importance in mountainous areas. becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land. the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot
Some soils respond better to fertilization than others, operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The
some are more susceptible to landslides and erosion rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
after building roads and harvesting timber, and some wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment
require special efforts to reforest. In the section is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep
"Detailed soil map units," each map unit in the survey enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated
area suitable for producing timber presents information safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness
management concerns for producing timber. The restricts ground-based equipment, or if special
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table 7 equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction.
summarizes this forestry information and rates the soils The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that
for a number of factors to be considered in tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts ground-
considered in forest management, based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to
The first tree listed for each soil under the column avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. and other management operations.
Table 7 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too
productivity is based on the site index and the point little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling
where mean annual increment is the greatest. mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, duration of the water table, rooting depth, and the aspect
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and of the slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if,
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
significant limitation. The letter C indicates a soil that has percent; moderate if expected mortality is between 25
a limitation because of the kind or amount of clay in the and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality
upper part of the soil. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe
soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized or
restrictions or limitations for forest use and management. larger than usual planting stock or to make special site
If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
follows: W, C, and S. surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability seedings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or risk is moderate or severe.
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of
no particular preventive measures are needed under trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
measures are needed for particular silvicultural activities; can be restricted by a high water table or by a
and severe if special precautions are needed to control combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture,
erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings of structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
moderate or severe indicate the need for construction of cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate if
higher standard roads, additional maintenance of roads, strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown over






Walton County, Florida 77



and many trees to break; and severe if moderate or wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such
strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in thinning factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to
or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment may be use for reforestation.
needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic salvage of Recreation
windthrown trees and the maintenance of a road and
trail system may be needed. Recreational opportunities in Walton County are
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of excellent. The many rivers and streams and the Gulf of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant Mexico provide good swimming, boating, and fishing.
completion becomes more severe on the more Eglin Air Force Base is in the southwestern part of the
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils county. It has beaches and boating, canoeing, camping,
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The cycling, fishing, and hunting activities. Grayton Beach
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants and Basin Bayou State Parks have facilities for
reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but picnicking, sunbathing, hiking, swimming, camping, and
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and other recreation activities. Fishing is popular in
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from Choctawhatchee Bay and River, Juniper Lake, and
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial numerous other lakes and ponds. Walton County has 24
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation miles of white beaches on the Gulf that are used for
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if swimming, sunbathing, and other recreation.
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand. surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
reforestation without delays, site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in vegetation, access to water, potential water
the order of their observed general occurrence. impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate, capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
predicted at the point where mean annual increment recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
culminates. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
The site index is determined by taking height recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
measurements and determining the age of selected duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
number of years. This index applies to fully stocked, properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
technique to determine site index are given in the site limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
index tables used for the Walton County soil survey (3, design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
5, 6, 7, 15, 17, 21). properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
The productivity class represents an expected volume offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
produced by the most important trees, expressed in intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per of these measures.
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by other information in this survey, for example,
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to 11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point and for local roads and streets in table 10.
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
board feet per acre per year. and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best






78 Soil Survey



soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to game fish include largemouth bass, bluegill, redear,
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs spotted sunfish, redbreast sunfish, black crappie,
rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not dusty when pickerel, and warmouth. Nongame fish include eels,
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of shad, bowfin, catfish, gar, suckers, and shiners.
constructing campsites. Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that be created or improved by planting appropriate
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
roads and parking areas, promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not according to their potential for providing habitat for
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
depth of the soil over a hardpan should be considered. suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are the intensity of management needed for each element of
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and the habitat.
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
the period of use. They have moderate slopes, very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have established, improved, or maintained in most places.
moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees or Moderately intensive management is required for
greens is not considered in rating the soils. satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
Wildlife Habitat of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, and Lewis and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates
Jeter, wildlife biologist, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
Commission, helped prepare this section. very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Walton County. expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
Large, undeveloped areas support a large variety and impractical or impossible.
number of wildlife species. Most of the county provides The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
good habitat for wildlife, especially the woodland in the following paragraphs.
northern third of the county, Eglin Air Force Base, and Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
the Point Washington Wildlife Management Area. producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
Game and fur-bearing animals include bobwhite quail, features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
mourning dove, rabbit, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, white- are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
tailed deer, turkey, waterfowl, red fox, gray fox, bobcat, available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
coyote, and raccoon. A variety of songbirds, hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
woodpeckers, predatory birds, wading birds, reptiles, and considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
small mammals are common; occasionally wild hogs and corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, and millet.
black bear are seen. Small game is all over the county, Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
but deer, turkey, and waterfowl are less common. Deer and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
populations are greatest in the large wooded tracts of that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
the sandhills and swamps. Turkey populations, which of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
have declined during the past few years, are fairly low. water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
Most turkey are along the river bottoms and on Eglin Air temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Force Base. Waterfowl are sparse. Examples of grasses and legumes are fescue,
A wide variety of fish are in the streams, lakes, and bahiagrass, lespedeza, partridge pea, hairy indigo, and
reservoirs of the county. The most commonly sought clover.






Walton County, Florida 79



Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
properties and features that affect the growth of these attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds,
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface otter, mink, and beaver.
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also Engineering
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, wild grape, David L. Clay, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
honeysuckle, blackberry, greenbrier, low panicums, prepare this section.
ragweed, paspalams, sawpalmetto, and gopher apple. This section provides information for planning land
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts uses related to urban development and to water
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
properties and features that affect the growth of most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, given in the following tables: Building site development,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
these plants are oak, wild cherry, sweetgum, gallberry, management. The ratings are based on observed
dogwood, hickory, blackberry, horse sugar, and performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are test data in the "Soil properties" section.
suitable for planting on soils rated good are pyracantha, Information in this section is intended for land use
autumn-olive, and crabapple. planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil planning site investigations prior to design and
properties and features that affect the growth of construction. The information, however, has limitations.
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of For example, estimates and other data generally apply
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness, only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cedar, and and because of the map scale, small areas of different
cypress. soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
Wetlandplants are annual and perennial, wild specific soil.
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. The information in the tables is not site specific and
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation of
properties and features affecting wetland plants are the soils. Additional testing and analysis by personnel
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity experienced in the design and construction of
and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, engineering works may be needed.
wild millet, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and State and local government ordinances and
reeds. regulations that restrict certain land uses or impose
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less specific design criteria were not considered in preparing
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are the information in this section. Local ordinances and
created by dams, levees, or other water-control regulations must be considered in planning, in site
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow selection, and in design.
water areas in Walton County are wetness, slope, and Soil properties, site features, and observed
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are performance were considered in determining the ratings
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
the following paragraphs, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
include bobwhite quail, meadowlark, bobcat, deer, field erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential,
sparrow, cottontail, and fox. available water capacity, and other behavioral
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of characteristics affecting engineering uses.
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and This information can be used to: evaluate the potential
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
turkey, bobwhite quail, woodcock, thrushes, construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
woodpeckers, squirrels, fox, cottontail rabbit, raccoon, roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
deer, and bear. cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,





80 Soil Survey



septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 to 6
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate feet are not considered.
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
terraces, and other structures for soil and water have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
structures and pavements by comparing the performance flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils, limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this the soils. Depth to a cemented layer, a high water table,
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, flooding, and slope affect the ease of excavating and
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the classification of the soil), shrink-swell potential, frost-
Glossary. action potential, and depth to a high water table affect
the traffic-supporting capacity.
Building Site Development Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
Te 10 s s te d e ad kd of sl l s ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
without basements, small commercial buildings, local reaction, a high water table, depth to a cemented layer,
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The the available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect
features are generally favorable for the indicated use plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer
if soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive affect trafficability after vegetation is established.
for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are unfavorable and special design, soil reclamation, and Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
possibly increased maintenance are required. Special limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
feasibility studies may be required where the soil sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
limitations are severe. are considered slight if soil properties and site features
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are generally favorable for the indicated use and
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to a limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
cemented layer, or a very firm dense layer, soil texture, are unfavorable and special design, soil reclamation, and
and slope. The time of the year that excavations can be possibly increased maintenance are required.
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the and that good performance and low maintenance can be
water table. expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed more soil properties or site features make the soil less
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made that one or more soil properties or site features are
for small commercial buildings without basements, for unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site costly alteration.
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
table, depth to a cemented layer, and flooding affect the part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping and evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site





Walton County, Florida 81



features, and observed performance of the soils. landfills. Texture, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and
Permeability, a high water table, depth to a cemented content of salts and sodium affect trench type landfills.
layer, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. A Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that
cemented layer can interfere with installation, part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate may not
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
the water table is near the surface. There must be Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
require that this material be of a certain thickness, free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level and seepage.
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of After soil material has been removed, the soil material
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly a cemented layer, or the water table to permit
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
required to minimize seepage and contamination of landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
ground water. generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes and the best potential for plants. Material from the
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
foot or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are cover.
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Construction Materials
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
to a cemented layer, flooding, and content of organic of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
matter, good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function properties and site features that affect the removal of
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of compaction, minor processing, and other standard
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
cemented layers can cause construction problems. Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is and used in road embankments in another place. In this
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered exacting in design than higher embankments.
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
away from the site. their profile. The table showing engineering index
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy properties provides detailed information about each soil
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground layer. This information can help determine the suitability
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
needs to be considered. after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties, in the ratings.
site features, and observed performance of the soils. The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
Permeability, depth to a cemented layer, a high water and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
table, slope, and flooding affect both trench and area suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of






82 Soil Survey



excavation is affected by a high water table and slope. Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
How well the soil performs in place after it has been relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
compacted and drained is determined by its strength (as 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil) appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
and shrink-swell potential. soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand not so wet that excavation is difficult.
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
material, low shrink-swell potential, and slopes of 15 than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
percent or less. Depth to the water table is more than 3 of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
feet. Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
clay-sized particles and have a plasticity index of less near the surface.
than 10. They have moderate shrink-swell potential or The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
slopes of 15 to 25 percent. Depth to the water table is 1 for topsoil because of its organic matter content. The
foot to 3 feet. Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
more than 10, a high shrink-swell potential, or slopes of retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to available nutrients as it omoses
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet W r
thick. Water Management
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and site features that affect water management. The degree
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific properties and site features are generally favorable for
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
excavation of the material. overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of restrictive for the indicated use and special planning,
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
by the engineering classification of the soil) and the minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
thickness of suitable material. Acidity and stratification site features are unfavorable and special design, soil
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of reclamation, and possibly increased maintenance are
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index required.
properties. This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
each soil for drainage, irrigation, terryce s and diversions,
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to and raised waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3d w
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
source. seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation potential is determined by the permeability of the soil.
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is reservoir area.
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and constructed to impound water or to protect land against
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
area is affected by slope, a water table, and toxic feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
material, and compacted during construction.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less depth greater than the height of the embankment can
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, affect performance and safety of the embankment.
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
not so wet that excavation is difficult. determine these properties.






Walton County, Florida 83



Soil material in embankments must be resistant to sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable the ratings.
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
of organic matter or salts or sodium. A high water table and management of an irrigation system are affected by
affects the amount of usable material. It also affects depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
trafficability. available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a is affected by depth to a cemented layer. The
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that root zonethe amount of salts or sodium, and soi
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. reaction.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent combination of channels and ridges constructed across
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
of the soil. intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, and depth to a
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and cemented layer affect the construction of terraces and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard of
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to a wind or water erosion, an excessively coarse texture,
cemented layer, or to other layers that affect the rate of and restricted permeability adversely affect maintenance.
water movement; permeability; depth to a high water Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
table or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
of organic layers. Excavating and grading and the Wetness, slope, and depth to a cemented layer affect
stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to a the construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of wind
cemented layer, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks erosion, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
caving. The productivity of the soil after drainage is depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
adversely affected by extreme acidity or by toxic restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
substances in the root zone, such as salts, sodium, or maintenance of the grass after construction.









85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages, and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field sm
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the M.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-l-b, A-2-4, A-2-
e 14 g e o t e 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
or 6 feet. 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification

Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer for soils tested, with group index numbers in
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other parentheses, is given in table 20.
properties of each layer are given for each soil series Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil that is laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
20 to 35 percent clay, less than 28 percent silt, and 45 in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
percent or more sand. If the content of particles coarser Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
than sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
are defined in the Glossary. or from nearby areas, and on field examination.






85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages, and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field sm
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the M.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-l-b, A-2-4, A-2-
e 14 g e o t e 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
or 6 feet. 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification

Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer for soils tested, with group index numbers in
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other parentheses, is given in table 20.
properties of each layer are given for each soil series Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil that is laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
20 to 35 percent clay, less than 28 percent silt, and 45 in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
percent or more sand. If the content of particles coarser Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
than sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
are defined in the Glossary. or from nearby areas, and on field examination.






86 Soil Survey



Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils, fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
soil's absorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3s p
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying c
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material of clay minerals in the soil The size of the load on the
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, contend influence the amount of swelling of soils in
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, measurements of similar soils.
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are often needed.
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
rate of water movement under saturated conditions millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
affects behavior, less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The is sometimes used.
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
most important properties are the content of organic and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. per year. These estimates are based primarily on
Available water capacity is an important factor in the percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
and management of irrigation systems. Available water K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
actually available to plants at any given time. water.






Walton County, Florida 87



Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that other nutrients for crops.
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per Soil and Water Features
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations.
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
distinctions: groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. precipitation from long-duration storms.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
establish. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
erosion are used. transmission.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
control wind erosion are used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 texture These soils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided transmission.
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils o oratl e tetur or in ttr. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are Group oils having a very slow infiltration
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
control wind erosion are used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
on os are lus. chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
slightly erodible. Crops can be roown if measures to A soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups if part of
control wind erosion are used. the acreage is artificially drained and part is undrained.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay rainfall is not considered flooding. Standing water in
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. swamps and marshes or in a closed depression is
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily considered ponding.
be grown. Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
to wind erosion. occur.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
soil at various stages of decomposition, are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None means that
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil flooding is not probable. Rare means that flooding is
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. unlikely but possible under unusual weather conditions
The content of organic matter of a soil can be (there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the year). Occasional means that flooding occurs
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, infrequently under normal weather conditions (there is a






88 Soil Survey



5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any year). 17. The data resulted from a study of water tables and
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal rainfall performed over a period of 3 to 6 years.
weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent Cemented pans are cemented or indurated subsurface
chance of flooding in any year). common is used when layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
classification as occasional or frequent does not affect in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
interpretations. Duration is expressed as very brief (less pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated,
than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
month), and very long (more than 1 month). The time of Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
year that floods are most likely to occur is expressed in backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
months. November-May, for example, means that inches thick if continuously indurated, or more than 18
flooding can occur during the period November through inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
May. About two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
occurs during the stated period, needed in excavation.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
organic matter content with increasing depth; and corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
of soils that are not subject to flooding, electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
Also considered are local information about the extent concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the Special site examination and design may be needed if
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
levels. than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a of soil or within one soil layer.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched, as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
artesian, or apparent; and the months of the year that acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
the water table commonly is highest. A water table that extract.
is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated
in table 16. Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water Analyses of Selected Soils
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is Dr. V.W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, and Dr. M.E. Collins,
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An assistant professor of soil science, Soil Science Department, University
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally of Florida, prepared this section.
below an impermeable layer. When this layer is The results of physical analysis of several typical
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. pedons in the survey area are given in table 17 and the
A perched water table is water standing above an results of chemical analysis in table 18. Mineralogical
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water properties are given in table 19. The data are for soils
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone. sampled at carefully selected sites. The pedons are
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth" typical of the series and are described in the section
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated "Soil Series and Their Morphology." Soil samples were
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first analyzed by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at the
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A University of Florida. Laboratory data and profile
plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the information for additional soils occurring in Walton
water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than County as well as for other counties in Florida are on file
6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6 at the Soil Science Department, University of Florida.
feet or that the water table exists for less than a month. Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected
Fluctuations in depth to the water table of selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and sieved
soils in Walton County and the rainfall are shown in table through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical methods




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