• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Wakulla County...
 General nature of the county
 How this soil survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Wakulla County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025704/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Wakulla County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 163 p., 34 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Allen, William J
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Wakulla County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Wakulla County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 93-94).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al.."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025704
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001641611
notis - AHV3044
oclc - 24045651
lccn - 91601166

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Wakulla County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this soil survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
        Use of ground-penetrating radar
            Page 9
        Confidence limits of soil survey
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Use and management of the soils
        Crops and pasture
            Page 51
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Recreation
            Page 54
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 55
        Engineering
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
    Soil properties
        Engineering index properties
            Page 61
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 62
        Soil and water features
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Engineering index test data
            Page 68
    Classification of the soils
        Page 69
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 69
        Alpin series
            Page 70
        Bayvi series
            Page 70
        Chaires series
            Page 71
        Croatan series
            Page 71
        Dorovan series
            Page 72
        Estero series
            Page 72
        Goldhead series
            Page 73
        Hurricane series
            Page 73
        Isles series
            Page 74
        Kershaw series
            Page 75
        Lakeland series
            Page 75
        Leon series
            Page 75
        Lutterloh series
            Page 76
        Mandarin series
            Page 77
        Maurepas series
            Page 78
        Meggett series
            Page 78
        Moriah series
            Page 79
        Ocilla series
            Page 80
        Ortega series
            Page 81
        Otela series
            Page 82
        Pilgrims series
            Page 82
        Plummer series
            Page 83
        Pottsburg series
            Page 84
        Ridgewood series
            Page 84
        Rutlege series
            Page 85
        Sapeto series
            Page 85
        Scranton series
            Page 86
        Seaboard series
            Page 87
        Shadeville series
            Page 87
        Surrency series
            Page 88
        Tooles series
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Formation of the soils
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 91
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 92
    Reference
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Glossary
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Tables
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
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        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    General soil map
        Page 164
    Index to map sheets
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 34
Full Text


SUnited States In cooperation with SS u V f
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, W akulla C county,
Soil Agricultural Experiment C
Conservation Stations, and Soil g
Service Science Department; Florida
Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and United
States Department of
Agriculture, Forest
Service








.












How To Use This Soil Survey




Gen ,al SolMap



Del ailed Sal l Mapsn I









t .
hi-F






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1987. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1987. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services; and United States Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service. This survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Wakulla
County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Wakulla Board of County
Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of this survey.
Additional assistance was provided by the Florida Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: The St. Marks Lighthouse, a landmark in Wakulla County, in an area of Bayvi, Isles,
and Estero soils, frequently flooded.


















ii



















Contents


Index to map units .......................... iv Hurricane series ............................. 73
Summary of tables ............................... v Isles series ............................... 74
Foreword ..................................... vii Kershaw series ................. ............. 75
General nature of the county ....................... 1 Lakeland series ................................. 75
How this survey was made ......................... 7 Leon series .............. .. .. ............... 75
Map unit composition ........................... 8 Lutterloh series ................................ 76
Use of ground-penetrating radar .................. 9 Mandarin series................................ 77
Confidence limits of soil survey information ........ 9 Maurepas series ............................ .. 78
General soil map units .......................... 11 Meggett series ................................. 78
Detailed soil map units ............. ........... 21 Moriah series .................................. 79
Use and management of the soils ................ 51 Nutall series ................................... 79
Crops and pasture .............................. 51 Ocilla series ................................. 80
Woodland management and productivity ........ 52 Ortega series............................... 81
Recreation ..................... ........... 54 Otela series .............................. 82
Wildlife habitat ................................. 55 Pilgrims series ............................. 82
Engineering ................................... 56 Plummer series .................. ............ 83
Soil properties ................... ............... 61 Pottsburg series ............................. 84
Engineering index properties .................... 61 Ridgewood series ............................... 84
Physical and chemical properties ................ 62 Rutlege series ................................ 85
Soil and water features ........................ 63 Sapelo series ................................. 85
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses Scranton series .............. ............... 86
of selected soils ............................ 65 Seaboard series ................... ............. 87
Engineering index test data .................... 68 Shadeville series .............................. 87
Classification of the soils ........................ 69 Surrency series ............................... 88
Soil series and their morphology................... 69 Tooles series ................................. 88
Alpin series.................. .................. 70 Formation of the soils ....................... 91
Bayvi series .................................. 70 Factors of soil formation .................. ..... 91
Chaires series ................................. 71 Processes of soil formation .............. ....... 92
Croatan series ................................. 71 References .................................... 93
Dorovan series ................................ 72 Glossary................... .................... 95
Estero series .................................. 72 Tables ........... .......... ............. .. 105
Goldhead series .......................... .. 73

Issued March 1991









iii



















Index to Map Units


3-Lutterloh fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 21 29-Tooles-Nutall-Chaires fine sands .............. 37
4-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............. 22 30-Ocilla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 38
6-Bayvi, Isles, and Estero soils, frequently 32-Plummer fine sand.......................... 39
flooded ..................................... 23 33-Pottsburg sand .......................... 40
7-Otela fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 24 35-Rutlege sand ................. ............ 41
8-Otela sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .............. 24 36-Rutlege sand, frequently flooded ............. 41
10-Chaires fine sand ............................. 25 37-Sapelo sand ............................. 42
11-Shadeville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..... 26 38-Scranton sand ........................... 42
12-Shadeville-Seaboard fine sands, 0 to 3 39-Surrency mucky fine sand ................... 43
percent slopes ............................. 26 44-Tooles-Nutall fine sands, depressional ......... 43
14-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .... 28 47-Otela-Alpin fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
16- Croatan-Dorovan mucks ...................... 29 slopes ..................................... 44
17-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 30 48-Otela, limestone substratum-Ortega sands,
18-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 31 0 to 5 percent slopes ....................... 45
19-Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 31 50-Udorthents and Quartzipsamments,
21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 32 excavated .............. ............... 46
23- Leon sand .................................. 33 51- Goldhead fine sand ........................... 48
25-Mandarin fine sand ......................... 33 52-Meggett and Croatan soils, frequently
26- Tooles-Nutall fine sands .................... 34 flooded ........... ... ... .. ............ 48
27-Moriah-Pilgrims fine sands................... 35 53-Quartzipsamments, dredged ................. 49
28-Tooles-Nutall fine sands, frequently flooded .... 36 54-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded............ 49























iv


















Summary of Tables


Freeze data (table 1)................................................... 106

Temperature and precipitation (table 2) ................. ............ 106

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) ................... 107
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)... 108
Land capability. Peanuts. Corn. Bahiagrass. Soybeans.

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................ 110
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 6) ..................................... 117
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 7) ................................................ 121
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 8) ..................................... 124
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 9) .............................................. 128
Septic tark absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 10) ..................................... 132
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 11)........................................... 136
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.



v






















Engineering index properties (table 12) .............. ............... 141
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13) .................... 147
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.

Soil and water features (table 14) ....................................... 151
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 15) ........................... 154
Soil name and sample number. Depth. Horizon. Particle-
size distribution. Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density.
Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 16) ............................. 157
Soil name and sample number. Depth. Horizon.
Extractable bases. Extractable acidity. Sum of cations.
Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical conductivity.
pH. Pyrophosphate extractable. Citrate-dithionite
extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 17) ............................. 160
Soil name and sample number. Depth. Horizon. Clay
minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 18) ................................... 161
FDOT report number. Classification-AASHTO, Unified.
Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture
density.

Classification of the soils (table 19) ................ ................ 163
Family or higher taxonomic class.





vi


















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Wakulla County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow (
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service









vii























































Location of Wakulla County in Florida.


















Location of Wakulla County in Florida.















Soil Survey of

Wakulla County, Florida


By William Jeffrey Allen, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Walter G. George, David M. Kriz, and Leland D. Sasser, Soil Conservation
Service; and Pete Avers, Jim.Harrisman, James Hart, Mike Jones, John Vann, and
William R. White, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services; and the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service



WAKULLA COUNTY is in the Big Bend area of the history, transportation facilities, and geology in Wakulla
Florida Panhandle. It is bordered on the north by Leon County.
County, on the east by Jefferson County, on the west
by Liberty County, and on the south by Franklin County Climate
and the Gulf of Mexico.
and the Gulf of Mexico. Wakulla County has a moderate climate. Summers
The land area of the county is about 384,845 acres, Waklla county has a moderate climate. Summer
or about 600 square miles (14). Of this acreage, are long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild or cool.
or about 600 square miles (14). Of this acreage, The Gulf of Mexico moderates the maximum and
222,738 acres is federally owned. About 167,054 acres Te G ec mor mimum n
is in the Apalachicola National Forest and 55.684 acres minimum temperatures.
in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. The county is Annuac rainfall in he county averages about 57
about 22 miles wide from north to south and 36 miles inches. Rainfall is heaviest from June through
wide from east to west. September. About 47 percent of the annual rainfall
tilhe ear W C w occurs during this period. October and November are
Until the early 1960's, Wakulla County was a the driest months. The remainder of the year receives
sparsely populated, rural county. During the 1960's, the evenly distributed rainfall.
population of the county almost doubled. Since then, it st u rainfall
has increased to about 15,000. Crawfordville, the
county seat, is only 20 miles from Tallahassee, the early evening thundershowers. Measurable rainfall can
state capital. A majority of the county residents work in be ected every other day from June through
Tallahassee. Seafood and wood products are the major September. Summer showers are sometimes heavy
Tallahassee. Seafood and wood products are with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling in an hour or two.
industries in the county. About 2 percent of the land
area is used for agriculture, mainly for the production of Daylong rainsin summ are rare andalmost y
are associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring
Strains generally are associated with large-scale,
continental weather developments and are of longer
General Nature of the County duration. Some last for 24 hours or more. They
generally are not so intense as the thundershowers;
This section gives information about the climate, but, occasionally, they do result in large amounts of









2 Soil Survey


rainfall over a large area. A 24-hour rainfall of 7 inches Indians, were mainly hunters and gatherers. They used
or more occurs about once every 10 years. very advanced farming methods for their time.
Hail occurs at irregular intervals during In about 1528, Panfilo de Narvaez led the first
thundershowers. The hailstones are generally small and Spanish expedition up the west coast of the peninsula.
seldom cause much damage. Snow is very rare in the Later, Spanish colonists and missionaries developed
area and generally melts as it hits the ground. the area. In 1679, Fort San Marcos de Apalachee was
Tropical storms can affect the area at any time from built by the Spaniards at the confluence of the St.
early in June through mid-November. The intensity of Marks and Wakulla Rivers. This fort was destroyed and
these storms diminishes quite rapidly as the storms rebuilt several times. The remains of the fort are still
move inland. The likelihood of a hurricane in Wakulla visited by many tourists.
County is about once every 13 years, but fringe effects During the 19th century, the seaport area of the St.
are felt about once every 5 years. Extended periods of Marks River experienced a period of economic
dry weather can occur in any season but are most prosperity. Between 1821 and 1843, five towns were
common in spring and fall. Dry periods in April and May established along the river as a result of the lucrative
generally are of shorter duration than those in the fall cotton transport business. St. Marks was the first town
but are intensified by higher temperatures. established in the area on the site of Fort San Marcos
As the cold continental air flows eastward across the de Apalachee, but it could not handle the growing
Florida Panhandle toward Wakulla County, the cold air waterborne cotton trade. Rockhaven was established at
is appreciably modified. The coldest weather generally the rise of the St. Marks River but never realized its
occurs the second night after the arrival of a cold front anticipated prosperity because the entrance into the
and after heat is lost through radiation. The average port was obstructed by a natural bridge of stone.
date of the first freezing temperature is about December Magnolia, which was established about 7 miles above
3, and the average date of the last freezing temperature St. Marks, was abandoned soon after the mule-driven
is about February 26. Frost has occurred, however, as railroad between Tallahassee and St. Marks diverted
early as November 1 and as late as April 15. Table 1 most of the cotton trade. In 1843, Port Leon was
shows freeze data for Wakulla County. established between St. Marks and Magnolia and was
Summer temperatures are moderated by the gulf designated the county seat. The town was destroyed by
breeze and by cumulus clouds that frequently shade the a hurricane later that year and was never rebuilt. The
land without completely obscuring the sun. The mean county seat was moved from Port Leon to its present
average temperature from June through September is site in Crawfordville. Newport, which was established in
about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 degrees or 1843, experienced phenomenal prosperity and at its
higher have occurred during the period May through peak was the fifth largest town-in Florida with a
September, but 100 degrees is rarely reached. June, population of about 1,500. Rail transportation eventually
July, and August are the warmest months. Their brought about the demise of Newport and the
average maximum temperature is 90 degrees. Fewer waterborne cotton trade.
than 22 days of the year have temperatures above 95 During the Civil War, the largest industry in Florida
degrees. Temperature and precipitation data are shown was the production of salt, which was produced by
in table 2. boiling seawater. Several saltworks were established at
Fog occurs on an average of six mornings a month in the head of small inlets and bays along the coast, but
winter and spring and almost never occurs in summer they were destroyed by Union soldiers during the war.
and fall. Prevailing winds generally are from the south Around the turn of the century, the immense pine
in spring and summer. From October through January, forests in Wakulla County attracted many
however, the winds blow from the north. The mean entrepreneurs. Sopchoppy was the center of the
windspeed for the year is 7.3 miles per hour. The turpentine industry. The production of turpentine was
lowest monthly mean windspeed of 5.8 miles per hour the principal industry in the county during the 1910's
occurs in August, and the highest monthly mean and early 1920's. In 1928, a hurricane destroyed many
windspeed of 9 miles per hour occurs in March. of the pine trees and as a result drastically affected the
economy of the county.
History Many sawmills were along creeks, which flowed into
the Ochlockonee River in the western part of the
Wakulla County was established on March 11, 1843 county. Honey production was also a thriving industry.
(15). The original inhabitants of the area, the Apalachee In 1828, the United States Congress authorized the








Wakulla County, Florida 3


construction of a lighthouse at St. Marks. The building topographic elevations (16). Terraces represent wave-
and tower were completed in 1831 and were renovated cut platforms and depositional features that formed
in 1867. Archeological evidence indicates that the during still stands of the sea. In Wakulla County the
Spanish built a lighthouse early in their explorations. Wicomico terrace was mapped at 70 to 100 feet above
The St. Marks Wildlife Refuge, which was mean sea level (m.s.l.), the Penholoway terrace at 42 to
established along the coast in 1929, is home to 70 feet above m.s.l., the Talbot terrace at 25 to 42 feet
thousands of migratory birds during the winter. At one above m.s.l., the Pamlico terrace at 10 to 25 feet above
time it was the only major wintering area of Canada m.s.l., and the Silver Bluff terrace at 0 to 10 feet above
geese in Florida. Over 35,000 geese once refuged at m.s.I. (16).
St. Marks. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are subdivided (17, 28)
The principal industries in Wakulla County now are into the Woodville Karst Plain and the Apalachicola
seafood and tourism, followed by wood products and Coastal Lowlands (fig. 1). The Woodville Karst Plain in
agriculture. The Apalachicola National Forest in Wakulla Wakulla County is east of an approximate north-south
County is an important source of revenue and also line through Crawfordville and Panacea (29). The
provides excellent opportunities for hunting, fishing, and sediments at the surface and near the surface are
other recreational activities for local residents. In 1975, made up of quartz sand that generally is not more than
about 23,432 acres of the National Forest in Bradwell 20 feet thick. This sand cover is underlain by a karstic,
Bay was designated as a wilderness area. early Miocene limestone.
Minor geomorphic features (17) that lie in the
Transportation Facilities Woodville Karst Plain include the Lake Munson Hills, a
series of relict sand dunes and bars relating to the
Wakulla County is served by a network of highways. Wicomico sea level stand; the Wakulla Sand Hills, sand
U.S. Highway 319 crosses the middle of the county in a dunes relating to the Pamlico sea level stand; and the
north-south direction, while U.S. Highway 98 parallels River Valley Lowlands of the St. Marks and Wakulla
the coast in an east-west direction. The United States Rivers. The Coastal Marsh Belt, representing the
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, maintains an seaward edge of the Silver Bluff shoreline (23, 28), is
extensive network of roads through the Apalachicola along the Gulf of Mexico coastline in Wakulla County
National Forest, which is in the western part of the and forms the southern boundary of the Woodville Karst
county. Plain.
Regularly scheduled air transportation is not available Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands (17) originally
in the county, but the Tallahassee Municipal Airport, he lat, sandy aas n wstn Leon County.
which is only 20 miles to the north, offers both
hich is n ies t the nrth Later, this geomorphic subdivision of the Gulf Coastal
passenger and freight air service. Lowlands was extended (29) into western Wakulla
County, which makes up most of the Apalachicola
Geology National Forest. The Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands are
Steven M. Spencer and Frank R. Rupert, geologists, Geological west of a line approximating U.S. Highway 319. This
Survey, Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural region generally is made up of flat, sandy areas
Resources, prepared this section. underlain by thick sandy clay, clayey sand, and peat.
Wakulla County is in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands These sediments are underlain by early Miocene
physiographic province. The county is essentially flat limestone. Numerous densely wooded wetland areas
and has a Pleistocene-age to Holocene-age sand cover and creeks are in the Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands.
extending from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Cody Although the lowlands are relatively flat, they attain a
Scarp in Leon County. The Cody Scarp forms the maximum elevation of 150 feet above m.s.l. in a paleo-
boundary between the Gulf Coastal Lowlands to the dune area in northwestern Wakulla County.
south and the Tallahassee Hills to the north (28). The The Ochlockonee River Valley Lowlands (17), the
average north-to-south slope of the land surface is 4 Sopchoppy River, and Lost Creek are in the
feet per mile (29). Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands. The Ochlockonee
Ancient marine geomorphic features, including beach River, which forms the western boundary of Wakulla
ridges, spits, bars, dunes, and terraces, make up County, originates in Georgia and meanders southward
modern topography in Wakulla County (30). Five marine more than 100 miles to Ochlockonee Bay and the Gulf
terraces in the county are distinguished by using of Mexico (29). The Sopchoppy River forms at the








4 Soil Survey


,-----'-'l-- ^- -- -












S LEGEND




0, .1,,,4_ 5r wooDviLLE KARST PLAIN
--'~








ILake Munson HiIls
Z 0 2 4 6 A Wakull Sand HIIs,





Wakula River Valley Lowlands


S-St. Marks River Valley Lowlands
MELEGD'









] Coastal Marsh Belt





confluence of several creeks in northwestern Wakulla Suwannee Limestone
County. It meanders through the Apalachicola National The Suwannee Limestone rock exposures are the
Forest until it enters Ochlockonee Bay near Panacea. oldest in the county. They crop out in the southeastern
Lost Creek originates in southern Leon County, where part of the county along the Jefferson-Wakulla county



Forest until it enters hloonee Bay near Panaeawell cuttings from Wakulla County. The Suwannee
The sediments that underlie Wakulla County range Limestone is recrystallized, white to cream or brown
from Paleozoic age to Recent age. The deepest limestone, which is often dolomitic, and is typically
penetration into strata is 12,242 feet below the surface fossiliferous with foraminifera and other invertebrates
in an oil test well, which was completed in 1974. The (29).
stratum has been identified as Paleozoic shale and
diabase (7). The oldest rock outcrop in the county is St. Marks Formation

Oligocene Suwannee Limestone. The youngest The early Miocene sediments of the St. Marks
sediments are Pleistocene terrace and dune sands and Formation are underlain by the Suwannee Limestone
Holocene alluvium. and are overlain by the Hawthorn Group. The St. Marks










Wakulla County, Florida 5


Formation underlies nearly all of Wakulla County and after observation of a core taken from easternmost
interfingers with the Chattahoochee Formation to the Franklin County (31). This description shows its
west (28). It crops out in many springs and sinkholes, probable updip limit in western Wakulla County. In wells
particularly in the eastern and southeastern areas of the to the west of Wakulla County, the Bruce Creek
county. The typical location of the St. Marks Formation Limestone is typically moderately indurated, white to
is "The Swirl," a sinkhole about 3 miles south of light yellowish gray, calcarenitic and sandy quartz,
Crawfordville, just east of U.S. Highway 319. The St. highly fossiliferous limestone. The extent to which it
Marks Formation is very fossiliferous, moderately underlies Wakulla County is yet to be determined.
indurated to well indurated, pale orange to light gray to
cream, calcarenitic limestone. Foraminifera and Intracoastal Formation
numerous species of mollusks are common in this The Intracoastal Formation was earlier described as
formation (21). a soft, sandy Pliocene-age limestone underlying the
coastal area of western Florida (18). Based on
Torreya Formation planktonic foraminifera (32), it was later established that
The early Miocene Torreya Formation is this formation is of middle Miocene to late Pliocene age.
characteristically a siliciclastic unit consisting of very The Intracoastal Formation has been mapped as far
fine or medium clayey sand to sandy silty clay. This east as easternmost Franklin and Liberty Counties (10),
formation frequently contains variable amounts of and its updip limit occurs in westernmost Wakulla
limestone and dolomite with traces of phosphate. Little County (31). Throughout its area extent, the
is known of the areal extent of the Torreya Formation in Intracoastal Formation is a very sandy, highly
Wakulla County. The Torreya Formation extends into microfossiliferous, poorly consolidated limestone. It is
the northwestern and western parts of the county (33) generally argillaceous, phosphatic, and calcilutitic (32).
and has been noted in an abandoned quarry south of
Crawfordville (6). In a series of water well cross Jackson Bluff Formation
sections, there are indications (25) of undifferentiated The upper Miocene mollusk facies (27) were
Hawthorn Group sediments underlying nearly all of combined into the Jackson Bluff Formation (28). This
western Wakulla County and pinching out eastward in formation was named after Jackson Bluff on the
the vicinities of Crawfordville and Panacea. Ochlockonee River in western Leon County. Studies of
the microfauna of the Jackson Bluff Formation (1, 18)
Bruce Creek Limestone
indicate its age as late Pliocene.
The Bruce Creek Limestone is a middle Miocene The areal extent of the Jackson Bluff Formation is
limestone (18) in Walton County. It has been described not well defined in Wakulla County. The Jackson Bluff



A A'



2 0 JACKSON BLUFF FM.





-20
uJ INTRACOASTAL FM. HAWTHORN GROUP


ST. MARKS FM.
--100 /

-150
-,,4

0 1 2 3 4 5
6 --O-200 SUWANNEE LIMESTONE /
0 2 4 6 8
TO -2169 FEET KfLOM ER
Figure 250

Figure 2.-Geologic cross section showing stratigraphy in Wakulla County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.










6 Soil Survey



B B'




N50
20



UNDIFFERENTIATED SANDS AND CLAYS

-50 HAWTHORN GRO
-20
ST. MARKS FM.
-100

-40
-150 SUWANNEE
LIMESTONE

-60 -200 MILES
0 1 2 3 4 5

-250 0 2 4 6 8
KILOMETERS

Figure 3.-Geologic cross section showing stratigraphy in Wakulla County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.




Formation was mapped (17) as extending roughly south predominantly fine-grained quartz sand and are difficult
from Lake Talquin to where Florida State Highway 267 to differentiate from Pleistocene sediment.
crosses the Leon-Wakulla county line and westward to
the Ochlockonee River. Jackson Bluff Formation Structure
deposits were recorded (8) in auger samples from the The Apalachicola Embayment, a broad sedimentary
western half of the Bradwell Bay Wilderness Area in basin, covers about 30,000 square miles (26). Wakulla
western Wakulla County. These samples were County is located along its eastern edge (fig. 4). Data
recovered from a depth of about 20 feet and were from oil test wells have shown that the sediment fill,
described as a sandy, light orange, cream, and very which is Triassic to Holocene age, is 13,000 feet thick
light gray or off-white marl. Marine mollusk fragments in places. These sediments are underlain by Paleozoic
were in the cuttings. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (4, 32).
Pleistocene-age and Holocene-age undifferentiated Wakulla County is in a transitional area between the
quartz sand, silt, and clay (fig. 3) make up the Tertiary carbonate evaporite facies of the peninsula to
undifferentiated surficial sediments of Wakulla County the southeast and the terrigenous siliciclastic facies to
(30). Pleistocene-age sediments are mostly marine the north and west. A channellike area of erosion
terrace deposits unconformably underlain by older separated the continental border from the Paleogene
formations, and Neogene islands of the Florida Peninsula (11). A
In eastern Wakulla County the St. Marks Formation structural channel or trough, possibly a graben, was
and Suwannee Limestone are overlain by a thin veneer later recognized in older sediments extending from
of fine, unconsolidated quartz sand and clay that southeastern Georgia southwestward to the Big Bend
generally is less than 20 feet thick. West of area (5, 20, 26, 39). A good structural history of this
Crawfordville, these sediments are as much as 100 feet feature has been described (31). During the late
thick and may lie directly on the Jackson Bluff Cretaceous through Oligocene ages, this elongated
Formation, Torreya Formation, or St. Marks Formation. structure connected the Southeast Georgia Embayment
Holocene-age alluvial and eolian deposits are with the Apalachicola Embayment (26). Structure maps









Wakulla County, Florida 7


on different stratigraphic horizons indicate that the axis soaks into the ground and moves downward into the
of the trough migrated over time. In the late Mesozoic porous zone of saturation. The top of the zone of
age, the trough axis moved southeastward to the saturation is known as the water table. Once in the
vicinity of western Taylor and Madison Counties. The zone of saturation, the water moves under the influence
direction reversed in the early Tertiary, and the trough of gravity toward discharge points, such as wells,
moved northwestward to the present area of Gadsden springs, or the Gulf of Mexico. Some of the water
and Liberty Counties (31). Throughout its existence as moves into deeper aquifers. Water remaining in shallow
an open connection between the embayments, the sand and clay above the St. Marks Formation is free to
trough was an area of slow deposition or nondeposition. rise and fall and is referred to as unconfined water. This
Strong, scouring marine currents in the trough formed a unconfined water makes up the surficial aquifer system
lithologic and biologic facies barrier during most of the and is not used extensively for public consumption in
Paleocene and Eocene ages (9). Although its influence the county (25). Water that becomes confined under
as a sediment barrier apparently waned by the end of pressure between formations of low permeability is not
the Oligocene age, wells drilled in Oligocene-age and free to rise and fall and is called artesian water. In
younger sediments over the trough show a sediment Wakulla County artesian water is in the Floridan Aquifer
thickening that may be related to post-Eocene system, which provides the bulk of water for drinking
downwarping in the trough (17). and other consumptive uses.

Ground Water The Floridan Aquifer System
In Wakulla County and neighboring counties, ground The Floridan Aquifer system (24, 35) includes the
water is derived mostly from precipitation (17). Part of artesian aquifer and all or parts of formations from early
the precipitation leaves the area as surface runoff in Eocene to middle Miocene age. In most of Wakulla
streamflow or by evaporation and transpiration. The rest County, the St. Marks Formation makes up the upper
part of the Floridan Aquifer system. Basal Hawthorn
Group (Torreya Formation) limestones may make up
the intermediate confining unit in areas of western
,--- Wakulla County (25). Most public water supply wells
/ draw from the St. Marks Formation at a depth of 25 to
./ SOUTHEAST EORGIA 150 feet. The Suwannee Limestone of the Ocala Group
S ., ENT and the Avon Park Formation (22) make up the lower
S\ units of the Floridan Aquifer system in northern Florida
BI -, H YCE E (25).
ANTICLINE
NIINE '.".....-- '." The Floridan Aquifer system is recharged by
.-F downward leakage from the surficial aquifer system, by
S\ direct recharge by way of lakes and sinks, and by direct
%o I O influx through porous sands. In the Big Bend area, the
N E^'*ME Floridan Aquifer system receives much of its direct
recharge from southern Georgia, central Leon County,
/ and northeastern Wakulla County, where porous sand is
\underlain by the aquifer (17, 25).
MILES
0 20 40 60 80 100

SKILOMTERS How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
S description of the soils and their location and a
Discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
.-' management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
Figure 4.-Wakulla County is along the eastern edge of the slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
Apalachicola Embayment. crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the








8 Soil Survey


kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
down into the unconsolidated material from which the of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
roots and other living organisms and has not been in different uses under different levels of management.
changed by other biological activity. Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly and some new interpretations are developed to meet
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms, local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. such as research information, production records, and
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of field experience of specialists. For example, data on
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By crop yields under defined levels of management are
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their assembled from farm records and from field or plot
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil experiments on the same kinds of soil.
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables soil properties but also on such variables as climate
the soil scientist to predict with a considerable degree and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
of accuracy the kind of soil at a specific location on the over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
landscape. from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
into one another as their characteristics gradually soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of specific date.
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, After soil scientists located and identified the
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
determine the boundaries. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, accurately.
size, and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and Map Unit Composition
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil identified and named according to the taxonomic
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind the soils are natural objects. In common with other
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
confirm data and assemble additional data based on areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
experience and research. Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
of the soils in the area are generally collected for other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.









Wakulla County, Florida 9


In the general soil map units, they are called soils of as described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units,"
minor extent. are based on this data.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and Information
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have probability that the composition of a map unit or a
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
or require different management. These are contrasting Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps data to determine confidence limits, the natural
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit must be considered. The composition of map units and
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been other information are derived largely from extrapolations
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the made from a small sample. Also, information about the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
complex that it was impractical to make enough The information presented in the soil survey is not
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
landscape. investigation. Soil survey information can be used to
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way select alternative practices or general designs that may
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the the landscape.
landscape into segments that have similar use and Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
management requirements. The delineation of such units in Wakulla County were determined by random
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient transects made with GPR across mapped areas. The
information for the development of resource plans, but data are statistically summarized in the description of
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses most of the map units in the section "Detailed Soil Map
in small areas. Units." Soil scientists made enough transects and took
enough samples to characterize most map units at a
Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar specific confidence level. For example, in 80 percent of
the areas mapped as Tooles-Nutall fine sands, the
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (12, 13, percentage of the Tooles and Nutall soils will be within
19, 34) was used in Wakulla County to document the the range given in the map unit description. In about 20
type and variability of soils that occur in the detailed soil percent of this map unit, the percentage of Tooles and
map units. Random transects were made with the GPR Nutall soils can be higher or lower than the given range.
and by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
observations made in the field were used with radar map units was based on the judgment of a soil scientist
data from this study to classify the soils and to and was not determined by a statistical procedure.
determine the composition of map units. The map units,









Wakulla County, Florida 9


In the general soil map units, they are called soils of as described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units,"
minor extent. are based on this data.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and Information
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have probability that the composition of a map unit or a
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
or require different management. These are contrasting Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps data to determine confidence limits, the natural
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit must be considered. The composition of map units and
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been other information are derived largely from extrapolations
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the made from a small sample. Also, information about the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
complex that it was impractical to make enough The information presented in the soil survey is not
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
landscape. investigation. Soil survey information can be used to
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way select alternative practices or general designs that may
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the the landscape.
landscape into segments that have similar use and Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
management requirements. The delineation of such units in Wakulla County were determined by random
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient transects made with GPR across mapped areas. The
information for the development of resource plans, but data are statistically summarized in the description of
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses most of the map units in the section "Detailed Soil Map
in small areas. Units." Soil scientists made enough transects and took
enough samples to characterize most map units at a
Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar specific confidence level. For example, in 80 percent of
the areas mapped as Tooles-Nutall fine sands, the
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (12, 13, percentage of the Tooles and Nutall soils will be within
19, 34) was used in Wakulla County to document the the range given in the map unit description. In about 20
type and variability of soils that occur in the detailed soil percent of this map unit, the percentage of Tooles and
map units. Random transects were made with the GPR Nutall soils can be higher or lower than the given range.
and by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
observations made in the field were used with radar map units was based on the judgment of a soil scientist
data from this study to classify the soils and to and was not determined by a statistical procedure.
determine the composition of map units. The map units,






















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication This map unit makes up about 18,635 acres, or 4.8
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 30 percent
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Lakeland soils, 25 percent Ortega soils, 20 percent
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it Alpin soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
consists of one or more major soils and some minor The Lakeland soils are excessively drained.
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand about
up one unit can occur in other units but in a different 6 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
pattern, material, to a depth of 55 inches, is light yellowish
The general soil map can be used to compare the brown and very pale brown sand. The lower part, to a
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of depth of 80 inches, is pale yellow sand.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, The Ortega soils are moderately well drained.
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand about 3
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
planning the management of a farm or field or for to a depth of 34 inches, is light yellowish brown sand.
selecting a site for a road or a building or other The next part, to a depth of 71 inches, is brownish
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from yellow fine sand and very pale brown fine sand mottled
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other with reddish yellow. The lower part, to a depth of 80
characteristics that affect management, inches, is white sand mottled with strong brown.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
Soils on the Sand Ridges surface layer is grayish brown sand about 3 inches
The general soil map unit in this group consists of thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It extends to a
nearly level to gently undulating, moderately well depth of about 42 inches. The upper part is light
drained and excessively drained, sandy soils. Some of yellowish brown, and the lower part is very pale brown.
these soils contain thin bands of loamy material. These The subsurface material has been mixed with the
soils are mainly in the central part of Wakulla County. subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part
of the subsoil is very pale brown sand, and the lower
1. Lakeland-Ortega-Alpin part is white sand that has thin bands of brownish
Nearly level to gently undulating, excessively drained and yellow loamy sand less than 1 inch thick.
moderately well drained, sandy soils; some have thin Of minor extent in this map unit are Shadeville,
bands of loamy material at a depth of 40 inches or more Moriah, Otela, Pilgrims, and Ridgewood soils.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for
The soils in this map unit are mostly on broad The soils inthis un are used mos for
sandhill ridges. The landscape includes some wet woodland auction (fig 5).
depressional areas, sinkholes, and small lakes. The Seepage and the caving of cutbacks are the main
limitations affecting sanitary facilities and building site
largest area of this map unit is in the south-central part l sanita s
of the county, south of the town of Shadeville and west
of the Wakulla River. It is about 9 miles long and 6 S o t
miles wide. Soils on the Low Uplands
miles wide.
The natural vegetation includes mostly longleaf pine, The five general soil map units in this group consist
turkey oak, laurel oak, bluejack oak, and blackjack oak. of nearly level to sloping, very poorly drained to
The understory includes pineland threeawn, running excessively drained, sandy soils. Some of these soils
oak, and scattered wild lupine, have a loamy subsoil, and some have a loamy subsoil








12 Soil Survey

--








-'- > .





























Figure 5.-A wooded area of the Lakeland-Ortega-Alpin general soil map unit.



that is underlain by limestone bedrock. These soils are and adjoins the Leon and Jefferson county lines. It is
throughout Wakulla County. about 2 miles wide and 3 miles long.
The natural vegetation includes mostly slash pine,
2. Ridgewood-Otela-Lutterloh longleaf pine, loblolly pine, laurel oak, live oak, bluejack
oak, red oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and
Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and persimmon. The understory consists of dwarf
moderately well drained, sandy soils; some have a loamy huckleberry and pineland threeawn.
subsoil This map unit makes up about 4,800 acres, or 1.2
The soils in this map unit are on low uplands and on percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent
slightly convex knolls on flatwoods. The landscape Ridgewood soils, 20 percent Otela soils, 15 percent
includes depressional areas, sinkholes, and ponds. One Lutterloh soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
area of this unit is in the northeastern part of the county The Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.









Wakulla County, Florida 13


Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and persimmon. The
inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a understory consists of pineland threeawn, huckleberry,
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is light and briers.
yellowish brown, the next part is light gray mottled with This map unit makes up about 9,120 acres, or 2.4
shades of brown and yellow, and the lower part is white percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent
mottled with yellowish brown. Moriah soils, 20 percent Ridgewood soils, 15 percent
The Otela soils are moderately well drained. Ortega soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand The Moriah soils are somewhat poorly drained.
about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 8
layer, to a depth of 23 inches, is light gray fine sand. inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
The lower part, to a depth of about 58 inches, is white depth of 25 inches. It is yellowish brown in the upper
fine sand. A transitional layer, to a depth of about 67 part and white in the lower part. It has strong brown
inches, is loamy fine sand and is reticulately mottled mottles and light gray sand splotches. The subsoil, to a
with shades of red, brown, yellow, and white. The depth of about 50 inches, is yellow fine sandy loam
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches, is light gray fine sandy mottled with strong brown, light brownish gray, and light
loam mottled with red, strong brown, and brownish gray. Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of about
yellow. Limestone is between depths of 60 and 80 50 inches. The depth to limestone bedrock varies.
inches in less than 20 percent of the map unit. The Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.
The Lutterloh soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is light
sand to a depth of 58 inches. The lower part is mottled yellowish brown, the next part is light gray mottled with
with shades of yellow. The upper part of the subsoil, to shades of brown and yellow, and the lower part is white
a depth of 70 inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy mottled with yellowish brown.
loam, and the lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or The Ortega soils are moderately well drained.
more, is light gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil is Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand about 3
mottled with shades of yellow and brown. inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
Of minor extent in this map unit are Alpin, Shadeville, to a depth of 34 inches, is light yellowish brown sand.
Lakeland, Moriah, Ortega, Pilgrims, and Scranton soils. The next part, to a depth of 71 inches, is brownish
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for yellow fine sand and very pale brown fine sand mottled
woodland production. The poor filtering capacity of the with reddish yellow. The lower part, to a depth of 80
soils and wetness are the main limitations affecting inches, is white sand mottled with strong brown.
sanitary facilities and building site development. Of minor extent in this map unit are Alpin, Shadeville,
Lakeland, Lutterloh, Otela, Pilgrims, and Scranton soils.
3. Moriah-Ridgewood-Ortega The soils in this map unit are used mostly for
woodland production. Wetness and the poor filtering
Nearly level to gently undulating, somewhat poorly woodland production. Wetness and the poor filtering
drained and moderately wel drained, sandy soils; some capacity of the soils are the main limitations affecting
drained and moderately well drained, sandy soils; some s
have a loamy subsoil underlain by limestone sanitary faces and ste development.
The soils in this map unit are mostly in broad areas 4. Otela-Ortega-Shadeville
on low uplands, on knolls on or along flatwoods, and on
some sand ridges. The landscape includes swamps, Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained, sandy
depressions, sinkholes, and ponds. These soils are soils; some have a loamy subsoil, and some have a
interspersed with better drained soils and with some loamy subsoil underlain by limestone
poorly drained soils in swamps and depressions. Most The soils in this map unit are mostly on broad knolls
areas of this map unit are in the eastern part of the adjacent to flatwoods; on gently sloping, broad upland
county between and along the Wakulla and the St. ridges; and in concave areas on sandy uplands. These
Marks Rivers. The largest area is about 7 miles long knolls and ridges generally are slightly higher than the-
and 2 miles wide. surrounding landscape. The landscape includes
The natural vegetation includes mostly slash pine, scattered, small, wet depressional areas and sinkholes.
longleaf pine, spruce pine, laurel oak, water oak, turkey The largest area of this map unit is in the northeastern









14 Soil Survey


part of the county, encompassing the town of Wakulla. ridges. The landscape includes a few scattered
It is west of the St. Marks River and east of U.S. sinkholes and depressional areas. The largest area of
Highway 319. It is about 8 miles long and 4 miles wide. this map unit is in the center of the county, reaching
The natural vegetation includes mostly slash pine, from Leon County to just north of Oyster Bay. It is along
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, bluejack oak, live oak, laurel U.S. Highway 319 and east to the northern part of the
oak, turkey oak, red maple, and cabbage palm. The Wakulla River. It is about 10 miles long and 5 miles
understory consists of dwarf huckleberry, pineland wide.
threeawn, and chalky bluestem. The natural vegetation includes mostly slash pine,
This map unit makes up about 14,560 acres, or 3.8 longleaf pine, loblolly pine, turkey oak, laurel oak, live
percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent Otela oak, bluejack oak, and cabbage palm. The understory
soils, 20 percent Ortega soils, 15 percent Shadeville consists of blackberry, honeysuckle, dwarf huckleberry,
soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soils is This map unit makes up about 31,930 acres, or 8.3
grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The upper percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 35 percent Otela
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 23 inches, is soils, 25 percent Alpin soils, 15 percent Shadeville soils,
light gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 58 and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
inches, is white fine sand. A transitional layer, to a The Otela soils are moderately well drained.
depth of 67 inches, is loamy fine sand and is Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
reticulately mottled with shades of red, brown, yellow, about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
and white. The subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches, is layer, to a depth of 23 inches, is light gray fine sand.
light gray fine sandy loam mottled with red, strong The lower part, to a depth of 58 inches, is white fine
brown, and brownish yellow. Limestone is between sand. A transitional layer, to a depth of 67 inches, is
depths of 60 and 80 inches in less than 20 percent of loamy fine sand and is reticulately mottled with shades
the map unit. of red, brown, yellow, and white. The subsoil, to a depth
Typically, the surface layer of the Ortega soils is light of about 80 inches, is light gray fine sandy loam mottled
gray sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the with red, strong brown, and brownish yellow. Limestone
underlying material, to a depth of 34 inches, is light is between depths of 60 and 80 inches in less than 20
yellowish brown sand. The next part, to a depth of 71 percent of the map unit.
inches, is brownish yellow fine sand and very pale The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
brown fine sand mottled with reddish yellow. The lower surface layer is grayish brown sand about 3 inches
part, to a depth of 80 inches, is white sand mottled with thick. The subsurface layer is sand and extends to a
strong brown. depth of about 42 inches. The upper part is light
Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soils is yellowish brown, and the lower part is very pale brown.
pale brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The The subsurface material has been mixed with the
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28 inches, is light subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part
gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 45 inches is of the subsoil is very pale brown sand, and the lower
brownish yellow sandy clay loam. It is underlain by part is white sand that has thin bands of brownish
fractured limestone, yellow loamy sand less than 1 inch thick.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Alpin, Lakeland, The Shadeville soils are moderately well drained.
Lutterloh, Moriah, Pilgrims, and Ridgewood soils. Typically, the surface layer is pale brown fine sand
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
woodland production. Seepage and the caving of of about 28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil,
cutbanks are the main limitations affecting sanitary to a depth of 45 inches, is brownish yellow sandy clay
facilities and building site development, loam. It is underlain by fractured limestone.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Lakeland,
5. Otela-Alpin-Shadeville Lutterloh, Moriah, Ortega, Pilgrims, and Ridgewood
soils.
Nearly level to gently undulating, moderately well drained The soils in this map unit are used mostly for
and excessively drained, sandy soils; some have a woodland production. Seepage and the caving of
loamy subsoil, and some have a loamy subsoil underlain cutbanks are the main limitations affecting sanitary
by limestone facilities and building site development.
The soils in this map unit are mostly on broad upland








Wakulla County, Florida 15


6. Ridgewood-Ortega-Rutlege Soils in the Coastal Marshes
Nearly level to gently undulating, somewhat poorly The general soil map unit in this group consists of
drained, moderately well drained, and very poorly nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are subject to
drained, sandy soils daily flooding by salt water. Some of these soils have a
thin organic surface layer and are underlain by sandy
The soils in this map unit are mostly on broad low material; some have a sandy, dark, organic-stained
uplands, on slightly convex knolls on flatwoods, or on subsoil; and some have a loamy subsoil that is
sandy side slopes. This map unit is interspersed with underlain by limestone bedrock. These soils are along
shallow depressions and natural drainageways. The most of the ern boundary of Wakulla County on
most of the southern boundary of Wakulla County on
largest area of this map unit is in the center of the the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
county, west of U.S. Highway 319 and west of Ditch
Bay and Bradwell Bay. It is bordered on the north by 7. Bayvi-lsles-Estero
Cow Swamp and on the south by Ochlockonee Bay. It
is about 16 miles long and 8 miles wide. Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils; some have
The natural vegetation includes mostly slash pine, an organic surface layer underlain by a dark, organic-
longleaf pine, turkey oak, live oak, water oak, red stained subsoil; and some have an organic surface layer
maple, cypress, and blackgum. The understory consists and a loamy subsoil underlain by limestone
of saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. The largest area of this map unit is in the saltwater
This map unit makes up about 59,010 acres, or 15.3 marshes adjacent to Apalachee Bay in the southern
percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 30 percent part of the county (fig. 6). This map unit is widest in the
Ridgewood soils, 28 percent Ortega soils, 17 percent eastern part of the county and extends almost across
Rutlege soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. the entire southern border.
The Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained. The natural vegetation includes needlerush,
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 sawgrass, and cordgrass.
inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a This map unit makes up about 25,300 acres, or 6.6
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is light percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent Bayvi
yellowish brown, the next part is light gray mottled with soils, 30 percent Isles soils, 15 percent Estero soils,
shades of brown and yellow, and the lower part is white and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
mottled with yellowish brown. Typically, the surface layer of the Bayvi soils is very
The Ortega soils are moderately well drained, dark brown mucky sand about 26 inches thick. The
Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand about 3 upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of 50
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, inches, is dark gray sand. The lower part, to a depth of
to a depth of 34 inches, is light yellowish brown sand. 80 inches or more, is dark grayish brown sand.
The next part, to a depth of 71 inches, is brownish Typically, the surface layer of the Isles soils is black
yellow fine sand and very pale brown fine sand mottled sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
with reddish yellow. The lower part, to a depth of 80 depth of 35 inches, is dark grayish brown sand. The
inches, is white sand mottled with strong brown, subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is greenish gray sandy
The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically, clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 51
the surface layer is sand about 24 inches thick. It is inches.
black in the upper part, very dark gray in the next part, Typically, the Estero soils have an organic surface
and very dark grayish brown in the lower part. The layer that is very dark gray muck to a depth of about 4
underlying material, to a depth of 72 inches, is grayish inches. Below that, to a depth of 14 inches, is very dark
brown and gray sand mottled with shades of brown, grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
gray, and yellow. about 34 inches, is grayish brown sand. The subsoil, to
Of minor extent in this map unit are Croatan, a depth of 54 inches, is very dark brown sand. The
Dorovan, Lakeland, Lutterloh, Otela, Scranton, and substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark
Surrency soils. grayish brown sand.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for Of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires, Leon,
woodland production. The poor filtering capacity of the Maurepas, Nutall, and Tooles soils.
soils and wetness are the main limitations affecting Most areas of this map unit support natural
sanitary facilities and building site development, vegetation and are used mainly as habitat for wildlife.
Wetness is the main limitation affecting sanitary









16 Soil Survey























*m, '.

I&. A& -t f










Figure 6.-An area of the Bayvi-lsles-Estero general soil map unit in the saltwater marshes in the foreground. Leon, Scranton, and Rutlege
soils are on flatwoods in the background.


facilities and building site development. Flooding is a depressions, and drainageways. The landscape
hazard, includes ponds, narrow to very broad rivers, and some
higher, better drained areas. One area of this map unit
Soils in the Depressions and Drainageways is along the eastern edge of the county. It is about 7
The three general soil map units in this group consist miles long and 1 mile wide and includes part of Gum
of nearly level or depressional, poorly drained and very Swamp.
poorly drained soils. Some of these soils are sandy and The natural vegetation includes red maple,
have a loamy subsoil underlain by limestone bedrock, sweetgum, baldcypress, water oak, tupelo, and cabbage
some have an organic layer underlain by various palm.
mineral textures, some have an organic layer underlain This map unit makes up about 11,020 acres, or 2.9
by sand, and some have a loamy surface layer percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent
underlain by a clayey texture. These soils are Tooles soils, 35 percent Nutall soils, and 25 percent
throughout Wakulla County. soils of minor extent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soils is
8. Tooles-Nutall black fine sand about 3 inches thick. It is underlain by
Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that have a very dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 8 inches.
loamy subsoil underlain by limestone The subsurface layer is sand. It extends to a depth of
The soils in this map unit are in swamps, about 39 inches. The upper part is light brownish gray,









Wakulla County, Florida 17


and the lower part is light gray. The subsoil, to a depth Most areas of this map unit support natural
of about 59 inches, is mottled light brownish gray and vegetation and are used mainly as habitat for wildlife.
very pale brown sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is Ponding and low strength are the main limitations
at a depth of about 59 inches, affecting sanitary facilities and building site
Typically, the surface layer of the Nutall soils is black development.
fine sand about 7 inches thick. It is underlain by mixed
very dark brown and gray sand to a depth of about 11 10. Meggett-Croatan
inches. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
inches, is gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about soils; some have a loamy surface layer and a clayey
26 inches, is light gray sandy clay loam. Limestone subsoil, and some have organic layers underlain by
bedrock is at a depth of about 26 inches.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires,
Croatan, Dorovan, Nutall, Plummer, Rutlege, Surrency, The soils in this map unit are on flood plains along
and Tooles soils. the Ochlockonee River, which forms the western
Most areas of this map unit support natural boundary of the county. The landscape includes some
vegetation and are used mainly as habitat for wildlife, higher, better drained areas. The width of this map unit
Wetness is the main limitation affecting sanitary varies from a few feet to almost 2 miles.
facilities and building site development. Flooding is a The natural vegetation includes cypress, red maple,
hazard. water oak, blackgum, sweetgum, sweetbay, swamp
birch, pond pine, and slash pine.
9. Croatan-Dorovan This map unit makes up about 5,300 acres, or 1.4
percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 55 percent
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are Meggett soils, 30 percent Croatan soils, and 15 percent
underlain by mineral material soils of minor extent.
The soils in this map unit are in broad swamps and The Meggett soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
depressions. The landscape includes ponds, small surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 8
creeks, and a few higher, better drained areas. The inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 18
largest area of this map unit is in the western half of the inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil
county. This area, including Bradwell Bay, is about 10 has common yellowish brown mottles. The upper part of
miles long and 7 miles wide. the subsoil, to a depth of 30 inches, is light gray clay
The natural vegetation includes baldcypress, water loam. The lower part, to a depth of 72 inches, is light
oak, sweetbay, blackgum, sweetgum, red maple, pond gray clay.
pine, and slash pine. The Croatan soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
This map unit makes up about 58,025 acres, or 15.1 the upper part of the surface layer is black muck about
percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 40 percent 4 inches thick. The next part, to a depth of 27 inches,
Croatan soils, 35 percent Dorovan soils, and 25 percent consists of more completely decomposed black muck.
soils of minor extent. The lower part, to a depth of 40 inches, is very dark
Typically, the Croatan soils have an organic surface gray mucky sand. The underlying material, to a depth of
layer that is muck to a depth of about 27'inches. The 72 inches or more, is very dark gray sand.
upper part is black, and the lower part is very dark Of minor extent in this map unit are Dorovan,
brown. Below this, to a depth of 35 inches, is very dark Plummer, Pottsburg, Rutlege, Scranton, and Surrency
gray sand. The upper part of the underlying material, to soils.
a depth of about 53 inches, is grayish brown sandy Most areas of this map unit support natural
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, vegetation and are used mainly as habitat for wildlife.
is dark gray sandy clay loam. Wetness is the main limitation affecting sanitary
Typically, the surface layer of the Dorovan soils is facilities and building site development. Flooding is a
black muck about 65 inches thick. The underlying hazard.
material, to a depth of 72 inches or more, is very dark
grayish brown sandy clay. Soils on the Flatwoods
Of minor extent in this map unit are Leon, Mandarin, The two general soil map units in this group consist
Plummer, Pottsburg, Rutlege, Scranton, and Surrency of nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
soils.









18 Soil Survey


sandy soils. Some of these soils have a dark, organic- depth of 80 inches or more, is greenish gray sandy
stained subsoil; some have a dark, organic-stained clay.
subsoil and a loamy subsoil; and some have a loamy Of minor extent in this map unit are Leon, Lutterloh,
subsoil that is underlain by limestone bedrock. These Moriah, Pilgrims, Ridgewood, Plummer, and Surrency
soils are extensive and are throughout Wakulla County. soils.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for
11. Tooles-Nutall-Chaires woodland production. Wetness and depth to bedrock
are the main limitations affecting sanitary facilities and
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some have a arethe ions affecting sanitary facilities and
building site development.
loamy subsoil underlain by limestone, and some have a bu ste development.
sandy and loamy subsoil 12. Leon-Scranton-Rutlege
The soils in this map unit are on flatwoods. The
landscape includes depressions, swamps, and Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
drainageways and better drained soils on the higher sandy soils; some have an organic-stained subsoil
knolls and rises. The largest area of this map unit is in The soils in this map unit are on flatwoods, along
the eastern part of the county. It is bordered on the small rivers and creeks, and in drainageways and
north by Leon County, on the east by Jefferson County, depressions. The landscape includes better drained
on the south by a marsh, and on the west by the St. soils on knolls and ridges. One area of this map unit is
Marks River. This area is about 9 miles long and 7 extensive and is irregular in shape. It is in the western
miles wide. part of the county. This area is bordered on the north by
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, laurel Leon County and is adjacent to Cow Swamp, Bradwell
oak, water oak, sweetgum, baldcypress, blackgum, Bay, Ditch Bay, and Grimes Bay. It is about 13 miles
cabbage palm, red maple, sweetbay, and cypress. The long and 12 miles wide.
understory consists of waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, and The natural vegetation includes slash pine, laurel
pineland threeawn. oak, water oak, red maple, cypress, sweetbay,
This map unit makes up about 49,785 acres, or 12.9 sweetgum, and blackgum. The understory consists of
percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 35 percent saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
Tooles soils, 25 percent Nutall soils, 15 percent Chaires This map unit makes up about 97,360 acres, or 25.3
soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. percent, of Wakulla County. It is about 30 percent Leon
The Tooles soils are poorly drained. Typically, the soils, 24 percent Scranton soils, 21 percent Rutlege
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
The subsurface layer is sand. It extends to a depth of The Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
26 inches. The upper part is pale brown, and the lower surface layer is very dark gray sand about 5 inches
part is light gray. The subsoil, to a depth of about 50 thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18
inches, is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. inches, is gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 50 inches. depth of 38 inches, is dark brown sand. Separating the
The Nutall soils are poorly drained. Typically, the upper and lower parts of the subsoil, to a depth of 58
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches inches, are layers of subsurface material that is light
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 brownish gray and light gray sand. Below that layer, the
inches, is gray sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
about 37 inches. It is mixed brownish yellow and gray more, is dark brown sand.
sandy clay loam in the upper part and gray sandy clay The Scranton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
in the lower part. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of surface layer is very dark grayish brown sand about 7
about 37 inches. inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth of 80
The Chaires soils are poorly drained. Typically, the inches or more, is grayish brown and light gray sand.
surface layer is black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is the surface layer is sand about 24 inches thick. The
grayish brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a upper part is black, the next part is very dark gray, and
depth of about 34 inches, is very dark brown and dark the lower part is very dark grayish brown. The
brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 62 inches, is underlying material, to a depth of 72 inches, is grayish
light gray and white sandy loam. The substratum, to a brown and gray sand mottled with shades of brown,
gray, and yellow.









Wakulla County, Florida 19


The soils in this map unit are used mostly for affecting sanitary facilities and building site
woodland production. Wetness is the main limitation development.











21









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and made up of all of them. Bayvi, Isles, and Estero soils,
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be frequently flooded, is an undifferentiated group in this
used to plan the management needed for those uses. survey area.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
under "Use and Management of the Soils." other than those for which the map unit is named.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents Some of these included soils have properties that differ
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
soils for which the unit is named, differences could significantly affect use and
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit management of the soils in the map unit. The included
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
general facts about the soil and gives the principal small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for a special symbol on the soil maps.
specific uses. This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up areas have little or no soil material and support little or
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the no vegetation. The map unit Udorthents and
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils Quartzipsamments, excavated, is an example.
of a series have major horizons that are similar in Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
composition, thickness, and arrangement, that are too small to be shown are identified by a
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface special symbol on the soil maps.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or 3-Lutterloh fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
management. For example, Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
percent slopes, is a phase of the Alpin series, soil is on low uplands and in high areas on flatwoods.
Some map units are made up of two or more major The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or from 5 to 80 acres in size.
undifferentiated groups. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they 58 inches, is light gray fine sand. It is mottled with
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The shades of yellow in the lower part. The subsoil is fine
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar sandy loam mottled with shades of yellow and brown.
in all areas. Tooles-Nutall fine sands is an example. The upper part, to a depth of about 70 inches, is light
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more brownish gray. The lower part, to a depth of more than
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped 80 inches, is light gray.
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include









22 Soil Survey


Ocilla soils, which are similar to the Lutterloh soil but absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 20 and 40 shallow excavations, dwellings with basements, small
inches. Also occurring are some similar soils that are commercial buildings, lawns and landscaping, and golf
underlain by limestone bedrock, fairways. It has moderate limitations affecting dwellings
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar without basements and local roads and streets. The
soils. These are Plummer, Ridgewood, Otela, and wetness is the main limitation.
Ortega soils. Plummer soils are lower on the landscape This soil has severe limitations affecting the
than the Lutterloh soil and are poorly drained, development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
Ridgewood soils are sandy throughout. Otela and and paths and trails. The main limitations are the
Ortega soils are in the higher positions and are better wetness and the sandy texture of the surface layer.
drained than the Lutterloh soil. Also, Ortega soils are The land capability classification is Ille.
sandy throughout. Dissimilar soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit. 4-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
This Lutterloh soil has a seasonal high water table at level to gently undulating, excessively drained soil is on
a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months of the year the uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for most of the and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
very low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It
is moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the extends to a depth of about 42 inches. The upper part
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in is light yellowish brown, and the lower part is very pale
the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately brown. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
low, and natural fertility is low. very pale brown and white sand that has thin lamellae
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash of brownish yellow loamy sand.
pine, and mixed hardwoods, such as white oak, live Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and Lakeland and Ortega soils, which are similar to the
persimmon. The understory consists of native grasses Alpin soil but do not have thin bands of loamy material
and shrubs, such as huckleberry, briers, and pineland at a depth of more than 40 inches. Ortega soils are
threeawn. slightly lower on the landscape than the Alpin soil.
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
crops because of periodic wetness and droughtiness in soils. These are Shadeville, Hurricane, and Otela soils.
the root zone. The variety of suitable crops that can be Shadeville soils have a loamy subsoil between depths
grown is very limited unless intensive water-control of 20 and 40 inches and are underlain by limestone.
measures are used. With adequate water control, corn, Hurricane soils are lower on the landscape than the
soybeans, and peanuts are moderately well suited to Alpin soil and are somewhat poorly drained. Otela soils
this soil. Close-growing, soil-improving cover crops are in the lower positions on the landscape, are
should be included in the rotation with row crops at moderately well drained, and have a loamy subsoil at a
least two-thirds of the time. Applications of lime and depth of more than 40 inches. Dissimilar soils make up
fertilizer are needed for the best yields. about 12 percent of the map unit.
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and This Alpin soil has a water table at a depth of more
pasture. Proper management is needed to obtain than 72 inches. The available water capacity is low in
maximum yields. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer, and
and clover are well suited to this soil. These plants low in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in
respond well to applications of fertilizer and lime. A the surface layer, rapid in the subsurface layer, and
simple drainage system is needed to remove excess moderately rapid in the subsoil. The organic matter
subsurface water during wet periods. Controlled grazing content and natural fertility are low.
helps to maintain plant vigor and obtain optimum yields. The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, turkey
The potential of this soil for the production of slash oak, bluejack oak, laurel oak, and blackjack oak. The
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine is high. A moderate understory consists of honeysuckle, pineland threeawn,
equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant and running oak.
competition are the main management concerns. Slash This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
pine and loblolly pine are the preferred trees to plant. crops. Intensive management practices are needed in
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank cultivated areas. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of








Wakulla County, Florida 23


plant nutrients limit the variety of plants that can be underlying material is sand. The upper part, to a depth
grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops. of about 50 inches, is dark gray, and the lower part, to
In the more sloping areas, row crops should be planted a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish brown.
on the contour in alternating strips with close-growing The Bayvi soil is flooded daily by normal high tides.
cover crops. The cover crops should be grown at least The available water capacity is high in the surface layer
three-fourths of the time. Only a few crops can produce and very low in the underlying material. Permeability is
high yields without irrigation. Irrigation generally is moderately rapid in the surface layer and rapid in the
feasible if water is readily available, underlying material. The organic matter content is
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and moderate in the surface layer and moderately low in the
pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal underlying material. Natural fertility is low.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this Typically, the Isles soil has a black sand surface
soil, but yields are reduced by the periodic layer about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
droughtiness. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer depth of about 35 inches, is dark grayish brown sand.
are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing helps The subsoil, to a depth of about 51 inches, is greenish
to maintain plant vigor and obtain optimum yields. gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth
The potential of this soil for the production of slash of about 51 inches.
pine and loblolly pine is moderately high. The The Isles soil is flooded daily by normal high tides.
equipment limitation and seedling mortality are the main The available water capacity is moderate in the surface
management concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are layer, low in the subsurface layer, and high in the
the preferred trees to plant. subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
This soil has severe limitations affecting trench and subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. The
area sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, lawns and organic matter content is moderate in the surface layer
landscaping, and golf fairways. Seepage and the sandy and subsurface layer and is moderately low in the
texture of the soil are limitations, subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
This soil has severe limitations affecting the Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, Estero soil is very dark gray muck about 4 inches thick.
and paths and trails. The main limitation is the sandy The lower part, to a depth of about 14 inches, is very
texture of the surface layer. dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer, to a
The land capability classification is IVs. depth of about 34 inches, is grayish brown sand. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 54 inches, is very dark
6-Bayvi, Isles, and Estero soils, frequently brown sand. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
flooded. These soils are nearly level and are very more, is dark grayish brown sand.
poorly drained. They are in the tidal marsh areas on the The Estero soil is flooded daily by normal high tides.
gulf coast and are flooded daily by high tides. Slopes The available water capacity is high in the surface layer
are smooth and are 0 to 1 percent. and very low or low in the subsurface layer and in the
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Bayvi, Isles, subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid. The organic
and Estero soils, frequently flooded, the major soils and matter content is moderate in the surface layer and
similar soils make up 95 percent of the map unit. moderately low in the subsurface layer and in the
Generally, the mapped areas are about 48 percent subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Bayvi and similar soils, 32 percent Isles soils, and 15 Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
percent Estero and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make some soils that are similar to the Bayvi and Estero soils
up about 5 percent. Individually, the soils in this map but are underlain by limestone between depths of 40
unit may not occur in every mapped area. The relative and 80 inches.
proportion of the major soils and similar soils varies. Included in this map unit are some small areas of
The areas of the individual soils are large enough to dissimilar soils. These are Chaires, Leon, and Tooles
map separately. Because of the present and predicted soils, which are in slightly elevated areas. Also included
land uses, however, they were mapped as one unit. are some soils that have a high concentration of saline
The percentage of Isles and other soils that are bands in the surface layer. These soils are around the
underlain by limestone bedrock greatly decreases in elevated areas and along transition areas to the marsh.
areas southwest of Spring Creek. The natural vegetation consists mainly of needlerush,
Typically, the Bayvi soil has a very dark brown mucky saltgrass, smooth cordgrass, and marshhay cordgrass.
sand surface layer about 26 inches thick. The The soils in this map unit generally are not used for









24 Soil Survey


cultivated crops, for hay crops or pasture, or for loblolly pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, red oak, and
woodland. They are not suited to cultivated crops. live oak. The understory consists of dwarf huckleberry
Wetness and salinity are severe limitations affecting and pineland threeawn.
cropland. Trees do not grow on these soils. This soil has severe limitations affecting most
These soils have severe limitations affecting septic cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops.
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and In the more sloping areas, row crops should be planted
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The on the contour in alternating strips with close-growing
wetness and the flooding are the main limitations, cover crops. Planting soil-improving cover crops and
These soils have severe limitations affecting the leaving crop residue on the surface help to maintain
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, fertility and control erosion. Irrigation generally is
and paths and trails. The wetness is the main limitation, feasible if water is readily available.
The land capability classification is VIllw. This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
7-Otela fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well suited
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to this soil, but yields are reduced by the periodic
soil is on low knolls and broad uplands. The mapped droughtiness. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer
areas are elongated or irregular in shape and range are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing helps
from 5 to 200 acres in size. to maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine The potential of this soil for the production of pine
sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation,
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 23 inches, is light seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
gray fine sand. The next part, to a depth of about 58 management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree
inches, is white fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of to plant.
about 67 inches, is a transitional layer of loamy fine This soil has moderate limitations affecting septic
sand mottled with shades of red, brown, yellow, and tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, dwellings
white. The subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches, is with basements, lawns and landscaping, and golf
light gray fine sandy loam mottled with strong brown fairways. It has severe limitations affecting area sanitary
and brownish yellow, landfills and shallow excavations. The wetness and the
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include sandy texture of the soil are limitations.
Shadeville soils, which are similar to the Otela soil but This soil has severe limitations affecting the
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 20 and 40 development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
inches and are underlain by limestone at a depth of 30 and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
to 60 inches. layer is the main limitation.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar The land capability classification is Ills.
soils. These are Alpin, Lutterloh, and Ortega soils. Alpin
soils are sandy and have lamellae. They are better 8-Otela sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
drained than the Otela soil. Lutterloh soils are lower on moderately sloping, moderately well drained soil is on
the landscape than the Otela soil and are somewhat low knolls and side slopes adjacent to stream channels
poorly drained. Ortega soils are sandy. Dissimilar soils in the uplands. The mapped areas are elongated or
make up about 15 percent of the map unit. irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
This Otela soil has a perched water table above the Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
subsoil during wet periods. Generally, the water table is sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
at a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water sand. It extends to a depth of about 48 inches. The
capacity is very low in the surface layer and subsurface upper part is yellowish brown, the next part is light
layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is yellowish brown, and the lower part is very pale brown.
rapid in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches
moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content and or more. The upper part, to a depth of about 62 inches,
natural fertility are low. is brownish yellow mottled with strong brown. The next
The natural vegetation includes mainly slash pine, part, to a depth of about 74 inches, is very pale brown









Wakulla County, Florida 25


mottled with strong brown, yellowish red, and light gray. and shallow excavations. The wetness and the sandy
The lower part is gray mottled with yellow and reddish texture of this soil are the main limitations affecting
yellow. these uses. The slope is a moderate limitation on sites
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include for small commercial buildings.
Shadeville soils, which are similar to the Otela soil but This soil has severe limitations affecting the
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 20 and 40 development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
inches and are underlain by limestone at a depth of 30 and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
to 60 inches, layer is the main limitation.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar The land capability classification is IVs.
soils. These are Lakeland, Lutterloh, and Ortega soils.
Lakeland and Ortega soils are sandy. Lutterloh soils are lO-Chaires fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
lower on the landscape than the Otela soil and are drained soil is in broad areas on flatwoods. The
somewhat poorly drained. Dissimilar soils make up mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
about 15 percent of the map unit. to 500 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This Otela soil has a perched water table above the Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
subsoil during wet periods. Generally, the water table is inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
at a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water 18 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The upper
capacity is very low in the surface layer and subsurface part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 32 inches, is
layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is dark brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 80
rapid in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is inches, is light gray sandy clay loam.
moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content and Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
natural fertility are low. some soils that are similar to the Chaires soil but have
The natural vegetation includes mainly slash pine, a more shallow subsoil, have a thicker surface layer, or
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, red oak, and are underlain by fractured limestone or marl between
live oak. The understory consists of dwarf huckleberry depths of 60 and 80 inches.
and pineland threeawn. Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
This soil has severe limitations affecting most soils. These are Leon, Moriah, Nutall, Pilgrims,
cultivated crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant Plummer, Ridgewood, and Tooles soils. Leon soils are
nutrients, and slope limit the choice of plants that can sandy. Moriah, Pilgrims, and Ridgewood soils are
be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted higher on the landscape than the Chaires soil and are
crops. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be better drained. Nutall, Plummer, and Tooles soils do not
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. In addition,
growing cover crops. Planting soil-improving cover Tooles soils are underlain by limestone. Dissimilar soils
crops and leaving crop residue on the surface help to make up about 5 percent of the map unit.
maintain fertility and control erosion. The slope can limit In most years this Chaires soil has a seasonal high
the effectiveness of irrigation systems, water table within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and months of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for
pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal 6 months or more. The available water capacity is very
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well suited low in the surface layer and subsurface layer, is low in
to this soil, but yields are reduced by the periodic the upper part of the subsoil, and is moderate in the
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime lower part. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing helps subsurface layer, is moderate in the upper part of the
to maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover, subsoil, and is moderately slow or slow in the lower
The potential of this soil for the production of pine part. The organic matter content is moderately low.
trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation, Natural fertility is low.
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main The natural vegetation includes bluejack oak,
management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree blackjack oak, laurel oak, water oak, longleaf pine,
to plant. slash pine, and sweetgum. The understory consists of
This soil has moderate limitations affecting septic saw palmetto, dwarf blueberry, greenbrier, fetterbush
tank absorption fields, dwellings with basements, lawns lyonia, gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
and landscaping, and golf fairways. It has severe This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
limitations affecting area and trench sanitary landfills crops. The wetness is the main limitation.










26 Soil Survey


This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and In most years this Shadeville soil has a seasonal
pasture. The seasonal high water table and rapid high water table that fluctuates between depths of 60
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that and 72 inches for more than 6 months and is at a depth
can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted of 42 to 60 inches for 1 to 3 months during periods of
crops. Intensive management of soil fertility and water heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low in the
is required. surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in
The potential of this soil for the production of pine the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
trees is moderately high. If the soil is not fertilized, and is slow in the subsoil. The organic matter content
slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. The equipment and natural fertility are low.
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition are The natural vegetation includes live oak, laurel oak,
the main management concerns. Planting the trees on slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, and red maple.
beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. The understory consists of huckleberry and chalky
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank bluestem.
absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, This soil has severe limitations affecting most
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops.
wetness is the main limitation. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be planted
This soil has severe limitations affecting the on the contour in alternating strips with close-growing
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, cover crops. Planting soil-improving cover crops and
and paths and trails. The wetness and the sandy leaving crop residue on the surface help to maintain
texture of the surface layer are the main limitations, fertility and control erosion. Irrigation generally is
The land capability classification is IVw. feasible if water is readily available.
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
11-Shadeville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
This nearly level to gently undulating, moderately well bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are
drained soil is in moderately broad areas on low moderately well suited to the soil, but yields are
uplands and on broad knolls on flatwoods. The mapped reduced by the periodic droughtiness (fig. 7). Regular
areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 250 applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
acres in size. optimum yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
Typically, the surface layer is pale brown fine sand plant vigor and a good ground cover.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth The potential of this soil for the production of pine
of about 28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation,
to a depth of about 45 inches, is brownish yellow sandy seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
clay loam. Fractured, porous limestone is at a depth of management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree
about 45 inches. to plant.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
Otela soils, which are similar to the Shadeville soil but absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, lawns and
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 40 and 50 landscaping, golf fairways, and shallow excavations. It
inches, has moderate limitations affecting dwellings with
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar basements. The depth to bedrock and the sandy texture
soils. These are Moriah, Ortega, Pilgrims, Ridgewood, of the soil are limitations.
Seaboard, and Tooles soils. Moriah, Pilgrims, This soil has severe limitations affecting the
Ridgewood, and Tooles soils are lower on the development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
landscape than the Shadeville soil and are more poorly and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
drained. Ortega soils are sandy. Seaboard soils do not layer is the main limitation.
have a loamy subsoil and are underlain by limestone The land capability classification is Ills.
between depths of 3 and 20 inches. Also included are
small areas of soils that have a loamy subsoil between 12-Shadeville-Seaboard fine sands, 0 to 3 percent
depths of 20 and 40 inches and are not underlain by slopes. These soils are nearly level to gently sloping
limestone bedrock. Dissimilar soils make up about 4 and are moderately well drained. They are in broad
percent of the map unit. areas on low uplands and in high positions on









Wakulla County, Florida 27






























--sa~~-- i--- T~f;







40P






Figure 7.-Bahiagrass in an area of Shadeville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, provides good forage for beef cattle.



flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and intermingled that mapping them separately at the scale
range from 5 to 350 acres in size. used is not practical. The pattern of Shadeville,
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Shadeville- Seaboard, and similar soils is relatively consistent in
Seaboard fine sands, 0 to 3 percent slopes, these soils most delineations of the map unit. Areas of each soil
and similar soils make up 96 percent of the map unit. within the delineations range from about 0.25 acre to
Generally, the mapped areas are about 63 percent 4.0 acres in size.
Shadeville and similar soils and 33 percent Seaboard Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is
and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make up 4 percent. brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
The soils in this map unit occur as areas so layer, to a depth of about 29 inches, is pale brownrand








28 Soil Survey


very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of The Shadeville soil has moderate limitations and the
about 42 inches, is brownish yellow sandy clay loam. It Seaboard soil has severe limitations affecting hay and
is underlain by weathered limestone, pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
The Shadeville soil has a seasonal high water table bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are
that fluctuates between depths of 60 and 72 inches moderately well suited to these soils, but yields are
most of the time. For about 1 to 3 months during reduced by the periodic droughtiness. Regular
periods of heavy rainfall, however, the water table is at applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the
a depth of 42 to 60 inches. The available water capacity best yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
is low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is vigor and a good ground cover.
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the The potential of the Shadeville soil for the production
surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil. The of pine trees is moderately high and that of the
organic matter content and natural fertility are low. Seaboard soil is low. The equipment limitation, seedling
Typically, the surface layer of the Seaboard soil is mortality, and plant competition are the main
light brownish gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree
next layer, to a depth of about 14 inches, is light gray to plant.
fine sand that has white splotches of clean sand grains. These soils have severe limitations affecting septic
It is underlain by fractured, porous limestone. The depth tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, lawns
to limestone varies. It generally is 3 to 20 inches. About and landscaping, golf fairways, and shallow
5 percent rock outcrop is in most areas. excavations. The Shadeville soil has moderate
The seasonal high water table in the Seaboard soil is limitations affecting dwellings with basements. The
at a depth of more than 48 inches for most of the year. wetness is the main limitation. The Seaboard soil has
It is in the fractured, porous limestone. The available severe limitations affecting dwellings with basements.
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. The organic The depth to bedrock is the main limitation.
matter content and natural fertility are low. These soils have severe limitations affecting the
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit are development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
Otela soils, which are similar to the Shadeville soil but and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 40 and 60 layer is the main limitation.
inches. Also occurring are soils that are similar to the The land capability classification of the Shadeville
Shadeville and Seaboard soils but have a loamy subsoil soil is Ills, and that of the Seaboard soil is Vis.
between depths of 12 and 20 inches.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar 14-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
soils. These are Moriah, Ortega, Pilgrims, and This nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Ridgewood soils. Moriah and Pilgrims soils are lower on drained soil is on uplands and on slightly convex knolls
the landscape than the major soils and are somewhat in the higher areas on flatwoods. The mapped areas
poorly drained. Ortega and Ridgewood soils are sandy are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 150 acres in
throughout. size.
The natural vegetation includes loblolly pine, longleaf Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
pine, slash pine, and mixed hardwoods, such as laurel inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
oak, live oak, red maple, hickory, dogwood, and depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part, to a depth
persimmon. The understory consists of native grasses of about 24 inches, is light yellowish brown; the next
and shrubs, such as pineland threeawn, maidencane, part, to a depth of about 62 inches, is light gray mottled
and greenbrier. with shades of brown and yellow; and the lower part is
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations white mottled with yellowish brown.
affecting most cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that soils. These are Lutterloh, Moriah, Ortega, Scranton,
can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted and Tooles soils. Lutterloh and Moriah soils have a
crops. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be loamy subsoil. In addition, Moriah soils are underlain by
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- limestone. Ortega soils are higher on the landscape
growing cover crops. Planting soil-improving cover than the Ridgewood soil and are moderately well
crops and leaving crop residue on the surface help to drained. Scranton and Tooles soils are poorly drained
maintain fertility and control erosion. Irrigation generally and are in the lower positions on the landscape. In
is feasible if water is readily available, addition, Tooles soils have a loamy subsoil and are









Wakulla County, Florida 29


underlain by limestone. Dissimilar soils make up about development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
15 percent of the map unit. and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
This Ridgewood soil has a seasonal high water table layer is the main limitation.
at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months of the The land capability classification is IVs.
year and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for most of the
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is 16-Croatan-Dorovan mucks. These soils are nearly
low in the surface layer and very low in the underlying level and are very poorly drained. They are in
material. Permeability is rapid. The organic matter depressional areas and along poorly defined
content and natural fertility are low. drainageways on flatwoods. The mapped areas are
The natural vegetation includes mainly slash pine, irregular in shape and range from 5 to several thousand
longleaf pine, and mixed hardwoods. The understory acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
consists of pineland threeawn. Generally, the mapped areas are about 45 percent
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated Croatan soil and 40 percent Dorovan soil. Dissimilar
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant soils make up about 15 percent. The soils in this map
nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be grown unit occur as areas so intermingled that mapping them
and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops. When it separately at the scale used is not practical. The
is within a depth of 42 inches, the water table increases pattern of Croatan and Dorovan soils is relatively
the amount of available water in the root zone. In very consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
dry periods, however, it drops too low for any beneficial Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
effects. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be Croatan soil is black muck about 15 inches thick. The
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- next part, to a depth of about 27 inches, is very dark
growing cover crops. The cover crops should be grown brown muck. The lower part, to a depth of about 35
at least two-thirds of the time. Applications of lime and inches, is very dark gray sand. The underlying material,
fertilizer are needed for the best yields. Planting soil- to a depth of 80 inches or more, is grayish brown sandy
improving cover crops and leaving crop residue on the loam and dark gray sandy clay loam.
surface help to maintain fertility and control erosion. The seasonal high water table in the Croatan soil is
Irrigation generally is feasible if water is readily within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of the
available. Tile drains or other drains are needed to year and is above the surface for 5 to 8 months. The
reduce the crop damage caused by the high water table available water capacity is very high in the surface layer
during the growing season. Intensive management of and moderate in the underlying material. Permeability is
soil fertility and water is required. moderate. The organic matter content is very high in the
The soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and surface layer and low in the subsurface layer. Natural
pasture. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients fertility is low.
are the main limitations. Intensive management of soil Typically, the Dorovan soil has a black muck surface
fertility and water is required. Deep-rooted plants, such layer about 65 inches thick. The underlying material, to
as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well a depth of 80 inches or more, is very dark grayish
suited to this soil but require regular applications of brown sandy clay.
fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing is needed to In most years the Dorovan soil has a seasonal high
maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum yields. water table within 10 inches of the surface throughout
The potential of this soil for the production of slash the year and at or above the surface for 5 to 8 months.
pine and longleaf pine is high. The droughtiness and The available water capacity is very high in the surface
the sandy texture of this soil are the main limitations, layer and moderate in the underlying material.
Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. Permeability is moderate. The organic matter content is
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank very high in the surface layer and low in the underlying
absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, material. Natural fertility is low.
shallow excavations, and dwellings with basements. It Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
has moderate limitations affecting dwellings without soils. These are Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and Surrency soils. All of these dissimilar soils are mineral
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The soils and do not have a thick, organic surface layer. In
wetness and the hazard of seepage are the main addition, Leon, Plummer, and Scranton soils are higher
management concerns. on the landscape than the major soils and are better
This soil has severe limitations affecting the drained.









30 Soil Survey


The natural vegetation includes water-tolerant inches for more than 6 months of the year and is at a
hardwoods, such as water oak, sweetbay, blackgum, depth of 42 to 60 inches for 1 to 3 months during
sweetgum, red maple, black willow, common alder, and periods of heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is
cypress. Pond pine and slash pine grow on the edge of low in the surface layer and very low in the underlying
the delineations and in high areas, material. Permeability is rapid. The organic matter
The soils in this map unit generally are not used for content and natural fertility are low.
cultivated crops, for hay crops or pasture, or for pine The natural vegetation includes mainly longleaf pine,
tree production. Severe limitations affect these uses. slash pine, and turkey oak. The understory consists of
The wetness and the ponding are the main limitations. pineland threeawn.
These soils have severe limitations affecting septic This soil has severe limitations affecting most
tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops.
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The When it is within a depth of 50 inches, the water table
wetness and the ponding are the main limitations increases the amount of available water in the root
affecting most of these uses. zone. In very dry periods, however, it drops too low for
These soils have severe limitations affecting the any beneficial effects. Cover crops should be grown at
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, least two-thirds of the time. Applications of lime and
and paths and trails. The ponding and the excess fertilizer are needed for the best yields. Planting soil-
humus are the main limitations affecting most of these improving cover crops and leaving crop residue on the
uses. surface help to maintain fertility and control erosion.
The land capability classification is Vllw. Irrigation generally is feasible if water is readily
available. Tile drains or other drains are needed to
17-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly reduce the crop damage caused by the high water table
level to gently undulating, moderately well drained soil during the growing season. Intensive management of
is on side slopes or in concave areas on the sandy soil fertility and water is required.
uplands and is on convex knolls on flatwoods. The This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 pasture. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of
to 300 acres in size. nutrients are the main limitations. Deep-rooted plants,
Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand about 3 such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well
inches thick. The underlying material extends to a depth suited to this soil, but applications of lime and fertilizer
of about 80 inches. In sequence downward, it is light are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing is
yellowish brown sand, brownish yellow fine sand, very needed to maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum
pale brown fine sand, very pale brown fine sand mottled yields. Intensive management of soil fertility and water
with reddish yellow, and white sand mottled with strong is required.
brown. The potential of this soil for the production of longleaf
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include pine and slash pine is moderately high. The
Alpin and Lakeland soils, which are similar to the droughtiness and the sandy texture of this soil are the
Ortega soil but are in slightly higher positions on the main limitations. Slash pine is the preferred tree to
landscape and are better drained. Also occurring are plant.
small areas of soils that are similar to the Ortega soil This soil has severe limitations affecting trench and
but have a thicker surface layer. area sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, lawns and
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar landscaping, and golf fairways. It has moderate
soils. These are Shadeville, Hurricane, Otela, limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields and
Ridgewood, and Scranton soils. Shadeville and Otela dwellings with basements. The wetness and the hazard
soils have a loamy subsoil. Hurricane, Ridgewood, and of seepage are the main management concerns.
Scranton soils are lower on the landscape than the This soil has severe limitations affecting the
Ortega soil and are more poorly drained. Dissimilar development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit. and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
In most years this Ortega soil has a seasonal high layer is the main limitation.
water table that fluctuates between depths of 60 and 72 The land capability classification is Ills.









Wakulla County, Florida 31


18-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This the contour in alternating strips with close-growing
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained cover crops. The cover crops should be grown at least
soil is on flatwoods and low uplands. The mapped two-thirds of the time. Applications of lime and fertilizer
areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 60 are needed for the best yields. Planting soil-improving
acres in size. Slopes are smooth or slightly convex, cover crops and leaving crop residue on the surface
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand help to maintain fertility and control erosion. Irrigation
about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface generally is feasible if water is readily available. Tile
layer, to a depth of about 21 inches, is pale yellow drains or other drains are needed to reduce the crop
sand. The next part, to a depth of about 32 inches, is damage caused by the high water table during the
light yellowish brown sand mottled with light gray and growing season. Intensive management of soil fertility
yellowish brown. The lower part, to a depth of about 55 and water is required.
inches, is light gray sand mottled with reddish yellow This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
and yellowish brown. The subsoil, to a depth of about pasture. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of
80 inches, is very dark gray sand. nutrients are the main limitations. Intensive
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include management of soil fertility and water is required. Deep-
Ridgewood soils, which are similar to the Hurricane soil rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
but do not have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil but require
Included in the map unit are small areas of dissimilar regular applications of fertilizer and lime for the best
soils. These are Leon, Lutterloh, Ortega, and Scranton yields. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant
soils. Leon and Scranton soils are higher on the vigor and obtain maximum yields.
landscape than the Hurricane soil and are poorly The potential of this soil for the production of slash
drained. In addition, Leon soils have a sandy, dark, pine and longleaf pine is high. The droughtiness and
organic-stained subsoil within 30 inches of the surface, the sandy texture of this soil are the main limitations.
and Scranton soils do not have a subsoil. Lutterloh soils Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant.
have a loamy subsoil. Ortega soils are higher on the This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
landscape than the Hurricane soil and do not have a absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. Dissimilar soils shallow excavations, dwellings with basements, lawns
make up about 7 percent of the map unit. and landscaping, and golf fairways. It has moderate
This Hurricane soil has a seasonal high water table limitations affecting dwellings without basements, small
at a depth of 18 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months of the commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The
year and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for most of the wetness and the hazard of seepage are the main
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is management concerns.
low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is This soil has severe limitations affecting the
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderately and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
rapid in the subsoil. The organic matter content and layer is the main limitation.
natural fertility are low. The land capability classification is IIIw.
Most areas of this map unit are cutover woodland or
are planted to slash pine. The natural vegetation 19-Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
includes slash pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, turkey nearly level to gently undulating, excessively drained
oak, and post oak. The understory consists of saw soil is on summits in the uplands. The mapped areas
palmetto, broomsedge bluestem, pineland threeawn, are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in
and various native shrubs, size.
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be grown material, to a depth of about 47 inches, is pale brown
and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops. When it sand. The next part, to a depth of about 59 inches, is
is within a depth of 42 inches, the water table increases light gray sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches
the amount of available water in the root zone. In very or more, is white, uncoated sand.
dry periods, it drops too low for any beneficial effects. In Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
the more sloping areas, row crops should be planted on Alpin and Ortega soils, which are similar to the Kershaw









32 Soil Survey


soil. Alpin soils have thin bands of loamy material at a 21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
depth of more than 40 inches, and Ortega soils are in nearly level to gently undulating, excessively drained
slightly lower positions on the landscape and are soil is on uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in
moderately well drained, shape and range from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
soils. These are Shadeville, Otela, and Ridgewood about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
soils. Shadeville and Otela soils have a loamy subsoil. material, to a depth of about 44 inches, is light
Ridgewood soils are lower on the landscape than the yellowish brown sand. The next part, to a depth of
Kershaw soil and are somewhat poorly drained, about 55 inches, is very pale brown sand. The lower
Dissimilar soils make up about 15 percent of the map part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is pale yellow
unit. sand.
This Kershaw soil does not have a high water table Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
within 72 inches of the surface. The available water Alpin and Ortega soils, which are similar to the
capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid. The Lakeland soil. Alpin soils have thin bands of loamy
organic matter content and natural fertility are low. material at a depth of more than 40 inches, and Ortega
The natural vegetation includes turkey oak, longleaf soils are in slightly lower positions on the landscape
pine, slash pine, blackjack oak, and bluejack oak. The and are moderately well drained.
understory consists of pineland threeawn and wild Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
lupine. soils. These are Shadeville, Otela, and Ridgewood
The sandy texture of this soil is a severe limitation soils. Shadeville and Otela soils have a loamy subsoil.
affecting cultivated crops. Intensive soil management Ridgewood soils are lower on the landscape than the
practices are needed if cultivated crops are grown. Lakeland soil and are somewhat poorly drained.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit Dissimilar soils make up about 8 percent of the map
the choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the unit.
potential yield of adapted crops. In the more sloping This Lakeland soil does not have a high water table
areas, row crops should be planted on the contour in within 72 inches of the surface. The available water
alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. The capacity is low in the surface layer and underlying
cover crops should be grown at least three-fourths of material. Permeability is rapid. The organic matter
the time. content and natural fertility are low.
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash
pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and bluejack oak. The
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this understory consists of pineland threeawn and wild
soil, but yields are reduced by the periodic lupine.
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime The sandy texture of this soil is a severe limitation
are needed for optimum yields. Controlled grazing helps affecting cultivated crops. Intensive soil management
to maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum yields, practices are needed if cultivated crops are grown.
Intensive management of soil fertility and water is Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
required. the choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the
The potential of this soil for the production of pine potential yield of adapted crops. In the more sloping
trees is moderate. Seedling mortality and the equipment areas, row crops should be planted on the contour in
limitation are the main management concerns. Longleaf alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. The
pine is the preferred tree to plant, cover crops should be grown at least three-fourths of
This soil has severe limitations affecting trench and the time.
area sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, lawns and This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
landscaping, and golf fairways. The sandy texture of pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
this soil and the hazard of seepage are the main bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this
management concerns, soil, but yields are reduced by the periodic
This soil has severe limitations affecting the droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing helps
and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface to maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum yields.
layer is the main limitation. Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
The land capability classification is Vlls. required.









Wakulla County, Florida 33


The potential of this soil for the production of pine more than 6 months. The available water capacity is
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality and the very low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and
equipment limitation are the main management is low in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface
concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. layer and subsurface layer and is moderately rapid in
This soil has severe limitations affecting trench and the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately
area sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, lawns and low, and natural fertility is low.
landscaping, and golf fairways. The sandy texture of the The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash
soil and the hazard of seepage are the main pine, and water oak. The understory consists of
management concerns. waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, running oak, fetterbush lyonia,
This soil has severe limitations affecting the gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface crops. The wetness is the main limitation.
layer is the main limitation. This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and
The land capability classification is IVs. pasture. The seasonal high water table and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that
23-Leon sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted
is in broad areas on flatwoods. The mapped areas are crops. Intensive management of soil fertility and water
irregular in shape and range from 15 to 300 acres in is required.
size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The potential of this soil for the production of pine
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand trees is moderate. Slash pine is the preferred tree to
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth plant. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and
of about 18 inches, is gray sand. The upper part of the plant competition are the main limitations. Windthrow is
subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is dark brown a hazard. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the effective depth of the water table.
subsoil, to a depth of about 58 inches, are subsurface This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
layers that are light brownish gray and light gray sand. absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
more, is dark brown sand. basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
Other soils occurring in small areas of this map unit streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
include soils that are similar to the Leon soil but have a wetness is the main limitation.
sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil between depths of This soil has severe limitations affecting the
30 and 50 inches. Also included are some similar soils development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
that have organic-stained layers at a depth of about 30 and paths and trails. The wetness and the sandy
inches. texture of the surface layer are the main limitations.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar The land capability classification is IVw.
soils. These are Chaires, Hurricane, Plummer,
Pottsburg, Ridgewood, Rutlege, and Scranton soils. 25-Mandarin fine sand. This nearly level,
Chaires and Plummer soils have a loamy subsoil. In somewhat poorly drained soil is on flatwoods and low
addition, Plummer soils do not have a sandy, dark, uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
organic-stained subsoil. Hurricane and Ridgewood soils range from 5 to 350 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
are higher on the landscape than the Leon soil and are slightly convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
better drained. Pottsburg soils have a sandy, dark, Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
organic-stained subsoil at a depth of more than 50 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
inches. Rutlege soils are very poorly drained and are in 24 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil,
the lower positions on the landscape. Scranton soils do to a depth of about 29 inches, is dark reddish brown
not have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. Also fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth
included are some soils that have a loamy subsoil of about 32 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The next
between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Dissimilar soils part, to a depth of about 60 inches, is light gray sand
make up about 15 percent of the map unit. mottled with brownish yellow. The lower part, to a depth
In most years this Leon soil has a seasonal high of about 80 inches, is light gray sand mottled with light
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 brown.
months of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include









34 Soil Survey


Leon soils, which are similar to the Mandarin soil but vigor and obtain maximum yields.
are in slightly lower positions on the landscape and are The potential of this soil for the production of slash
poorly drained. Also occurring are some areas of similar pine and longleaf pine is high. The droughtiness and
soils that have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil the sandy texture of this soil are the main limitations.
between depths of 30 and 50 inches. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
soils. These are Chaires, Ortega, Ridgewood, and absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
Scranton soils. Chaires soils have a loamy subsoil shallow excavations, dwellings with basements, lawns
below a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. Ortega, and landscaping, and golf fairways. It has moderate
Ridgewood, and Scranton soils do not have a sandy, limitations affecting dwellings without basements, small
dark, organic-stained subsoil. Dissimilar soils make up commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The
about 15 percent of the map unit. wetness and the hazard of seepage are the main
This Mandarin soil has a high water table at a depth management concerns.
of 18 to 42 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years This soil has severe limitations affecting the
and at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for as long as 2 development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
weeks in some years. The available water capacity is and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
low. Permeability is moderately rapid in weakly layer is the main limitation.
cemented layers and is rapid in all other layers. The The land capability classification is Vis.
organic matter content is low to moderate. Natural
fertility is low. 26-Tooles-Nutall fine sands. These soils are nearly
The natural vegetation includes slash pine and level and are poorly drained. They are in broad areas
longleaf pine. The understory consists of scrub oak, on flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
greenbrier, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, creeping and range from 10 to 800 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and 1 percent.
paspalum. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Tooles-Nutall
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated fine sands, these soils and similar soils make up 75 to
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant 91 percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped
nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be grown areas are about 60 percent Tooles and similar soils and
and reduce the potential yield of adapted crops. When it 24 percent Nutall and similar soils. Dissimilar soils
is within a depth of 42 inches, the water table increases make up about 16 percent. The soils in this map unit
the amount of available water in the root zone. In very occur as areas so intermingled that mapping them
dry periods, however, it drops too low for any beneficial separately at the scale used is not practical. The
effects. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be pattern of Tooles, Nutall, and similar soils is relatively
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- consistent in most delineations of the map unit. Areas
growing cover crops. The cover crops should be grown of each soil within the delineations range from about
at least two-thirds of the time. Applications of lime and 0.25 acre to 4.0 acres in size.
fertilizer are needed for the best yields. Planting soil- Typically, the Tooles soil has a black fine sand
improving cover crops and leaving crop residue on the surface layer about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
surface help to maintain fertility and control erosion, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 14 inches, is pale
Irrigation generally is feasible if water is readily brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 26
available. Tile drains or other drains are needed to inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
reduce the crop damage caused by the high water table about 50 inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy loam.
during the growing season. Intensive management of Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 50 inches.
soil fertility and water is required. The Tooles soil has a seasonal high water table
This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 8 months of the
pasture. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of year. The available water capacity is low in the surface
nutrients are the main limitations. Intensive layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in the
management of soil fertility and water is required. Deep- subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and slow in the subsoil. The organic matter content and
bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil but require natural fertility are low.
regular applications of fertilizer and lime for the best Typically, the Nutall soil has a very dark gray fine
yields. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface









Wakulla County, Florida 35


layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is gray fine sand. irregular in shape and range from about 5 to 300 acres
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 20 in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
inches, is mixed brownish yellow and gray sandy clay In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Moriah-
loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 37 inches, is Pilgrims fine sands, these soils make up 79 to 99
gray sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown. percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 37 inches. are about 67 percent Moriah soil and 28 percent
The Nutall soil has a seasonal high water table within Pilgrims soil. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 percent.
10 inches of the surface for 6 to 8 months of the year. The soils in this map unit occur as areas so
The available water capacity is low in the surface layer intermingled that mapping them separately at the scale
and subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. used is not practical. The pattern of Moriah and Pilgrims
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and soils is relatively consistent in most delineations of the
subsurface layer and is slow in the subsoil. The organic map unit. Areas of each soil within the delineations
matter content and natural fertility are low. range from about 0.25 acre to 4.0 acres in size.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include Typically, the Moriah soil has a gray fine sand
some soils that are similar to the major soils but have a surface layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
surface layer that is too thin and too light in color to be layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is yellowish brown
within the defined range of the Tooles or Nutall series, and white fine sand mottled with strong brown and light
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar gray sand splotches. The subsoil, to a depth of about
soils. These are Chaires, Leon, Plummer, and Surrency 50 inches, is yellow fine sandy loam mottled with strong
soils. Chaires and Leon soils have a sandy, dark, brown, light brownish gray, and light gray. Fractured,
organic-stained subsoil. Plummer soils are not underlain limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 50 inches.
by limestone. Surrency soils are lower on the landscape Depth to the bedrock varies. In some areas solution
than the major soils and are very poorly drained. Also holes are within 80 inches of the surface.
included are areas of soils that do not have a loamy In most years the Moriah soil has a high water table
subsoil and are underlain by limestone, at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 5 months of the
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, laurel year. Small, low areas are briefly ponded after periods
oak, sweetgum, cabbage palm, red maple, sweetbay, of heavy rainfall. Because of the underlying porous
and waxmyrtle. limestone, this soil can become saturated by artesian
The soils in this map unit generally are not used for flow. This saturation is most common in areas adjacent
cultivated crops or for hay crops or pasture. Severe to rivers and streams during periods of high water. The
limitations affect these uses. The wetness is the main available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
limitation. subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil.
The potential of these soils for the production of pine Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation and subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural
seedling mortality are the main management concerns, fertility is low.
Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. Typically, the Pilgrims soil has a dark grayish brown
These soils have severe limitations affecting septic fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 9 inches, is pale
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 24
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and inches, is light yellowish brown sandy clay mottled with
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The yellowish brown, light gray, and brownish yellow.
wetness is the main limitation. Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 24
These soils have severe limitations affecting the inches.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, In most years the Pilgrims soil has a high water table
and paths and trails. The wetness is the main limitation, at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 5 months of the
The land capability classification of the Tooles soil is year. Small, low areas are briefly ponded after periods
llw, and that of the Nutall soil is IVw. of heavy rainfall. Because of the underlying porous
limestone, this soil can become saturated by artesian
27-Moriah-Pilgrims fine sands. These soils are flow. This saturation is most common in areas adjacent
nearly level and are somewhat poorly drained. They are to rivers and streams during periods of high water. The
in broad areas on flatwoods. The mapped areas are available water capacity is low in the surface layer and









36 Soil Survey


subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. to 90 percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and areas are about 49 percent Tooles soil and 43 percent
subsurface layer and is slow in the subsoil. Natural Nutall soil. Dissimilar soils make up 8 percent. The soils
fertility is low. in this map unit occur as areas so intermingled that
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar mapping them separately at the scale used is not
soils. These are Chaires, Shadeville, Leon, Nutall, and practical. The pattern of Tooles and Nutall soils is
Tooles soils. Chaires, Leon, Nutall, and Tooles soils are relatively consistent in most delineations of the map
lower on the landscape than the major soils and are unit. Areas of each soil within the delineations range
poorly drained. In addition, Chaires and Leon soils have from about 0.25 acre to 4.0 acres in size.
a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. Shadeville soils Typically, the Tooles soil has a black fine sand
are in the higher positions on the landscape and are surface layer about 3 inches thick. The next layer, to a
moderately well drained, depth of about 8 inches, is very dark gray fine sand.
The natural vegetation includes loblolly pine, longleaf The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 39 inches, is
pine, slash pine, spruce pine, and mixed hardwoods, sand. It is light brownish gray in the upper part and light
such as laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, hickory, gray in the lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of about
dogwood, and persimmon. The understory consists of 59 inches, is mottled light brownish gray and very pale
native grasses and shrubs, such as pineland threeawn, brown sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a
huckleberry, and briers. depth of about 59 inches.
The wetness is a moderate limitation affecting The Tooles soil is flooded for 6 to 8 months during
cultivated crops. These soils are well suited to some the year and has a seasonal high water table within a
cultivated crops, but the choice of crops that can be depth of 12 inches for most of the remainder of the
grown is limited because the water table is near the year. The available water capacity is low in the surface
surface most of the time. If the soil is adequately layer and high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
drained, corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be grown. A surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The organic
close-growing cover crop should be on the land at least matter content and natural fertility are low.
half of the time. Good seedbed preparation, including Typically, the Nutall soil has a black fine sand
bedded rows, and applications of fertilizer and lime are surface layer about 7 inches thick. The next layer, to a
needed to obtain maximum yields, depth of about 11 inches, is very dark brown sand. The
The potential of these soils for the production of pine subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is gray
trees is high. The equipment limitation and plant sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 26 inches, is light
competition are the main management concerns. Slash gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth
pine and loblolly pine are the preferred trees to plant. of about 26 inches.
These soils have severe limitations affecting septic The Nutall soil is flooded for 6 to 8 months during the
tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, year and has a seasonal high water table within a depth
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without of 12 inches for most of the remainder of the year. The
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and available water capacity is moderate in the surface
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The layer and in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
wetness is the main limitation, surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The organic
These soils have severe limitations affecting the matter content and natural fertility are low.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
and paths and trails. The wetness is the main limitation, soils. These are Chaires soils and Tooles and Nutall
The land capability classification of the Moriah soil is soils that are not subject to flooding. All of these
Ills, and that of the Pilgrims soil is IVs. included soils are higher on the landscape than the
major soils and are poorly drained. In addition, Chaires
28-Tooles-Nutall fine sands, frequently flooded, soils have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil. Also
These soils are nearly level and are very poorly included are areas of soils that are not underlain by
drained. They are along the major drainageways on limestone bedrock and some soils in depressional areas
flatwoods (fig. 8). The mapped areas are irregular in that have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil.
shape and range from 20 to several thousand acres in The natural vegetation includes red maple,
size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. sweetgum, sweetbay, cabbage palm, tupelo,
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Tooles-Nutall baldcypress, and water oak.
fine sands, frequently flooded, these soils make up 80 The soils in this map unit are not suited to cultivated








Wakulla County, Florida 37








Ir
































Figure 8.-An area of Tooles-Nutall fine sands, frequently flooded, along a waterway. This unit provides good habitat for wetland wildlife.



crops or to hay crops or pasture. The wetness is the development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
main limitation. The flooding is a hazard, and paths and trails. The wetness and the flooding are
The potential of the soils for woodland is moderately the main limitations.
high. Hardwoods, baldcypress, and sweetgum grow well The land capability classification is Vw.
on these soils but pine trees do not.
These soils have severe limitations affecting septic 29-Tooles-Nutall-Chaires fine sands. These soils
tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, are nearly level and are poorly drained and very poorly
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without drained. They are in low-lying areas and depressions on
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and flatwoods. These soils are irregular in shape and range
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The from 4 to several hundred acres in size. Slopes are
wetness and the flooding are the main limitations, slightly concave and are less than 2 percent.
These soils have severe limitations affecting the In 99 percent of the areas mapped as Tooles-Nutall-









38 Soil Survey


Chaires fine sands, these soils and similar soils make brownish gray sand that has a few mottles of strong
up about 99 percent of the map unit. Generally, the brown. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
mapped areas are about 39 percent Tooles and similar about 33 inches, is very dark brown and very dark
soils, 34 percent Nutall and similar soils, and 26 percent grayish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80
Chaires and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make up inches or more, is very pale brown and light gray sandy
about 1 percent. The soils in this map unit occur as loam and sandy clay loam that has common mottles of
areas so intermingled that mapping them separately at light brown.
the scale used is not practical. The pattern of Tooles, In most years the Chaires soil is ponded for 4 to 6
Nutall, Chaires, and similar soils is relatively consistent months and has a seasonal high water table within a
in most delineations of the map unit. Areas of each soil depth of 20 inches for the remainder of the year. The
within the delineations range from 0.25 acre to 4.0 available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
acres in size. subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil.
Typically, the Tooles soil has a very dark gray fine Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
sand surface layer that has a salt-and-pepper subsurface layer, is moderate in the upper part of the
appearance and is about 8 inches thick. The next layer, subsoil, and is slow in the lower part. The organic
to a depth of about 11 inches, is dark gray fine sand. matter content and natural fertility are low.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 31 inches, is Other soils occurring in small areas of this map unit
light gray sand that has common mottles of light brown. include Chaires, Nutall, Tooles, Rutlege, and Surrency
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 49 soils. These soils are similar to the major soils, but
inches, is light gray sandy clay loam that has common Chaires and Nutall soils are in nondepressional areas
mottles of strong brown. The lower part, to a depth of and Rutlege and Surrency soils are not underlain by
about 57 inches, is greenish gray sandy clay loam that limestone and do not have a sandy, dark, organic-
has many mottles of brownish yellow. Limestone stained subsoil. Depth to limestone and to the subsoil
bedrock is at a depth of about 57 inches, varies in this map unit.
The Tooles soil has a seasonal high water table The natural vegetation includes slash pine,
within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 8 months of the sweetgum, red maple, sweetbay, cypress, blackgum,
year. The available water capacity is low in the surface and cabbage palm.
layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in the The soils in this map unit generally are not used for
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and cultivated crops or for hay crops or pasture. Severe
slow in the subsoil. The organic matter content and limitations affect these uses. The wetness is the main
natural fertility are low. limitation.
Typically, the Nutall soil has a black fine sand The potential of these soils for woodland is
surface layer about 11 inches thick. The subsurface moderately high, although baldcypress and blackgum
layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is gray sand. The grow in areas that are more wet. The equipment
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, limitation and seedling mortality are the main
is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam that has management concerns. Planting the trees on beds
common mottles of brownish yellow. The lower part, to lowers the effective depth of the water table.
a depth of about 39 inches, is greenish gray sandy clay These soils have severe limitations affecting septic
loam that has many mottles of reddish brown. tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 39 inches. shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
In most years the Nutall soil is ponded for 4 to 6 basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
months and has a seasonal high water table within a streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
depth of 20 inches for the remainder of the year. The wetness and the ponding are the main limitations.
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and These soils have severe limitations affecting the
subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and and paths and trails. The wetness and the ponding are
subsurface layer and is slow in the subsoil. The organic the main limitations.
matter content and natural fertility are low. The land capability classification is Vllw.
Typically, the Chaires soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The next layer, to a 30-Ocilla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This gently
depth of about 13 inches, is grayish brown sand. The sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil is in low areas on
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is light uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and








Wakulla County, Florida 39


range from 4 to 70 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for the
to 5 percent, best yields.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand This soil has moderate limitations affecting hay and
about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface pasture. Grasses, such as coastal bermudagrass and
layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is pale brown bahiagrass, grow well with proper management. White
sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 32 inches, is clover and other legumes are moderately suited to this
light gray sand mottled with brown and brownish yellow, soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 50 needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing helps to
inches, is light yellowish brown sandy loam. The next maintain plant vigor and ground cover.
part, to a depth of about 60 inches, is light brownish The potential of this soil for the production of pine
gray sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of trees is moderately high. The main management
about 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray sandy concerns are the equipment limitation, seedling
clay loam. The subsoil is mottled with shades of reddish mortality, and plant competition. Loblolly pine and slash
yellow, light gray, and pale yellow, pine are the preferred trees to plant.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
Lutterloh soils, which are similar to the Ocilla soil but absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40 shallow excavations, and dwellings with basements. It
inches. Also occurring are similar soils that have a has moderate limitations affecting dwellings without
loamy subsoil between depths of 15 and 20 inches. basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
soils. These are Moriah, Otela, Ortega, Pilgrims, and wetness is the main limitation affecting most of these
Shadeville soils. Moriah and Pilgrims soils are underlain uses.
by limestone. Otela, Shadeville, and Ortega soils are This soil has severe limitations affecting the
higher on the landscape than the Ocilla soil and are development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
better drained. Dissimilar soils make up about 7 percent and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
of the map unit. layer is the main limitation.
This Ocilla soil has a seasonal high water table at a The land capability classification is Illw.
depth of 12 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months of the year
and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for the remainder of 32-Plummer fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
the year. The available water capacity is low in the drained soil is in poorly defined drainageways on
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in uplands and flatwoods. The mapped areas are
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer elongated or irregular in shape and range from 10 to
and subsurface layer and is moderately slow in the 900 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
subsoil. The organic matter content and natural fertility Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
are low. about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine and The upper part, to a depth of about 31 inches, is
slash pine. The understory consists of huckleberry, grayish brown. The next part, to a depth of about 38
blueberry, gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, waxmyrtle, saw inches, is light brownish gray. The lower part, to a
palmetto, chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, depth of about 43 inches, is light gray. The subsoil, to a
pineland threeawn, and sedges. depth of 80 inches or more, is light gray sandy loam. It
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated has common mottles in shades of yellow.
crops. This soil is suited to some cultivated crops, but Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
the choice of crops that can be grown is limited Lutterloh soils, which are similar to the Plummer soil but
because the water table is near the surface most of the are in slightly higher positions on the landscape and are
time. If the soil is adequately drained, crops, such as somewhat poorly drained. Also occurring are areas of
corn and peanuts, can be grown. Tile drains or open similar soils that have a darker surface layer and in
ditches are needed to reduce the wetness. In the more places have a sandy, dark, organic-stained layer.
sloping areas, row crops should be planted in Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. Soil- soils. These are Leon, Ortega, Otela, and Scranton
improving cover crops should remain on the land at soils. Leon soils have a dark, organic-stained, sandy
least half of the time. Good seedbed preparation and layer and do not have a loamy subsoil. Ortega and








40 Soil Survey


Otela soils are higher on the landscape than the brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 80
Plummer soil and are better drained. Ortega and inches, is very dark brown sand.
Scranton soils are sandy. Dissimilar soils make up Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
about 15 percent of the map unit. Scranton and Hurricane soils, which are similar to the
This Plummer soil has a seasonal high water table at Pottsburg soil. Scranton soils do not have a sandy,
or within 15 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months in dark, organic-stained subsoil. Hurricane soils are in
most years. The available water capacity is low or very slightly lower positions on the landscape and are
low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is somewhat poorly drained. Also occurring are areas of
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the similar soils that have a darker surface layer.
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately soils. These are Chaires, Leon, Plummer, Ridgewood,
low, and natural fertility is low. and Rutlege soils. Chaires and Leon soils have a
The natural vegetation includes mainly sweetbay, sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil within 30 inches of
water oak, spruce pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, the surface. Chaires and Plummer soils have a loamy
sweetgum, blackgum, and cypress. The understory subsoil. Ridgewood and Rutlege soils do not have a
consists of inkberry, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil and are in different
various ferns. landscape positions than the Pottsburg soil. Dissimilar
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit.
crops. The wetness is the main limitation. This Pottsburg soil has a seasonal high water table
This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months of the
pasture. Most improved grasses and legumes are year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
poorly suited to this soil. Poor or moderate yields of months in most years. The available water capacity is
pasture grasses can be produced with intensive very low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and
management, which includes water control, controlled is moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
grazing, and applications of fertilizer and lime. surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderately
The potential of this soil for the production of pine rapid in the subsoil. The organic matter content is
trees is high in areas with adequate surface drainage, moderately low, and natural fertility is low.
The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash
competition are the main management concerns. Slash pine, water oak, and coastal live oak. The understory
pine and loblolly pine are the preferred trees to plant. consists of waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, running oak,
Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of fetterbush lyonia, gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
the water table. This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank crops. The wetness is the main limitation.
absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without pasture. The seasonal high water table and rapid
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted
wetness is the main limitation, crops. Intensive management of soil fertility and water
This soil has severe limitations affecting the is required.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, The potential of this soil for the production of pine
and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface trees is moderate. Slash pine is the preferred tree to
layer and the wetness are the main limitations, plant. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and
The land capability classification is IVw. plant competition are the main limitations. Windthrow is
a hazard. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
33-Pottsburg sand. This nearly level, poorly effective depth of the water table.
drained soil is in broad, flat areas on flatwoods. The This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
to 150 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
of about 52 inches, is light gray sand. The upper part of wetness is the main limitation.
the subsoil, to a depth of about 72 inches, is dark This soil has severe limitations affecting the









Wakulla County, Florida 41


development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
and paths and trails. The wetness and the sandy shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
texture of the surface layer are the main limitations, basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
The land capability classification is IVw. streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
wetness and the ponding are the main limitations.
35-Rutlege sand. This nearly level, very poorly This soil has severe limitations affecting camp areas,
drained soil is in shallow depressions and natural picnic areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails. The
drainageways on uplands and flatwoods. The mapped sandy texture of the surface layer and the ponding are
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 250 the main limitations.
acres in size. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The land capability classification is Vllw.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black
sand about 6 inches thick. The next part, to a depth of 36-Rutlege sand, frequently flooded. This nearly
about 18 inches, is very dark gray sand. The lower part, level, very poorly drained soil is along natural
to a depth of about 24 inches, is very dark grayish drainageways on flatwoods and low uplands. The
brown sand. The underlying material, to a depth of mapped areas are elongated or irregular in shape and
about 72 inches, is grayish brown and gray sand range from 10 to 600 acres in size. Slopes are less
mottled with shades of brown and gray. than 1 percent.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is very
soils that are similar to the Rutlege soil but have a thin, dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part, to
mucky surface layer about 1 to 6 inches thick or have a a depth of about 14 inches, is very dark grayish brown
dark, organic-stained layer. sand. The underlying material, to a depth of 72 inches
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar or more, is light brownish gray sand.
soils. These are Croatan, Plummer, Scranton, and Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
Surrency soils. Croatan soils have an organic surface some soils that are similar to the Rutlege soil but have
layer at least 16 inches thick and have loamy material a thin, mucky or mucky sand surface layer about 1 to 6
in the underlying layers. Plummer and Scranton soils inches thick; have a dark, organic-stained layer; or do
are higher on the landscape than the Rutlege soil and not have a dark surface layer.
are poorly drained. Plummer and Surrency soils have a Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
loamy subsoil. Dissimilar soils make up about 15 soils. These are Croatan, Plummer, Scranton, and
percent of the map unit. Surrency soils. Croatan soils have an organic surface
This Rutlege soil has a high water table above or layer at least 16 inches thick and have loamy material
near the surface for about 4 to 6 months of the year in the underlying layers. Plummer and Scranton soils
and is subject to ponding after periods of heavy rainfall, are higher on the landscape than the Rutlege soil and
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is are poorly drained. Surrency soils have a loamy subsoil.
rapid. The organic matter content and natural fertility Dissimilar soils make up about 15 percent of the map
are low. unit.
The natural vegetation includes sweetbay, blackgum, This Rutlege soil has a high water table above or
cypress, and pine. The understory consists of black titi, near the surface for about 4 to 6 months of the year
sedges, and grasses. In some places, there are no and is subject to flooding after periods of heavy rainfall.
trees and the vegetation consists of pitcherplant, The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
sedges, and grasses. rapid. The organic matter content and natural fertility
This soil generally is not used for cultivated crops or are low.
for hay crops or pasture. Severe limitations affect these The natural vegetation includes sweetbay, blackgum,
uses. The wetness is the main limitation, cypress, and pine. The understory consists of black titi,
The potential of this soil for the production of pine sedges, and grasses. In some places, there are no
trees is high in areas that have adequate surface trees and the vegetation consists of pitcherplant,
drainage. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, sedges, and grasses.
and plant competition are the main management This soil generally is not used for cultivated crops or
concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the preferred for hay crops and pasture. Severe limitations affect
trees to plant; however, planting trees is feasible only in these uses. The wetness is the main limitation. The
areas that have adequate surface drainage, flooding is a hazard.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank The potential of this soil for the production of pine









42 Soil Survey


trees is high in areas that have adequate surface blueberry, fetterbush lyonia, gallberry, and pineland
drainage. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, threeawn.
and plant competition are the main management This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the preferred crops. The wetness is the main limitation.
trees to plant. This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank pasture. Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass,
absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, and several legumes are suited to this soil. Water-
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without control measures are needed to remove excess water
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and during heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The lime are needed for the best yields. Controlled grazing
wetness and the flooding are the main limitations, helps to maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum
This soil has severe limitations affecting the yields.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, The potential of this soil for the production of pine
and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation,
layer and the flooding are the main limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
The land capability classification is VIw. management concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
the preferred trees to plant.
37-Sapelo sand. This nearly level, poorly drained This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
soil is on flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
shape and range from 20 to 200 acres in size. Slopes shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
are 0 to 2 percent, basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4 streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about wetness is the main limitation.
12 inches, is gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil, This soil has severe limitations affecting the
to a depth of about 20 inches, is dark reddish brown development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
subsoil, to a depth of about 51 inches, are grayish layer and the wetness are the main limitations.
brown, pale brown, and light gray layers of sand mottled The land capability classification is IVw.
with shades of brown and yellow. The lower part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray sandy 38-Scranton sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
loam and light gray sandy clay loam. soil is in broad areas on flatwoods. The mapped areas
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 300 acres
soils. These are Leon, Lutterloh, Plummer, and Rutlege in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
soils. Leon soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Lutterloh Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
and Plummer soils do not have a sandy, dark, organic- brown sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the
stained subsoil. Lutterloh and Rutlege soils are in underlying material, to a depth of about 18 inches, is
different positions on the landscape than the Sapelo grayish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80
soil. Dissimilar soils make up about 20 percent of the inches or more, is light gray sand.
map unit. Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include
This Sapelo soil has a seasonal high water table at a Pottsburg soils, which are similar to the Scranton soil
depth of 15 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months in most but have a sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil at a
years. The available water capacity is very low in the depth of more than 50 inches.
surface layer and subsurface layer, low in the upper Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
part of the subsoil, and moderate in the lower part. soils. These are Chaires, Leon, Plummer, Ridgewood,
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and and Rutlege soils. Chaires and Leon soils have a
subsurface layer, moderate in the upper part of the sandy, dark, organic-stained subsoil within 30 inches of
subsoil, and moderately slow or slow in the lower part. the surface. Plummer soils have a loamy subsoil.
The organic matter content is moderately low, and Ridgewood and Rutlege soils are in different positions
natural fertility is low. on the landscape than the Scranton soil. Dissimilar soils
The natural vegetation includes mainly sweetbay, make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
slash pine, loblolly pine, bayberry, blackgum, and pond This Scranton soil has a seasonal high water table
pine. The understory consists of black titi, saw palmetto, within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months of the








Wakulla County, Florida 43


year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches or
months in most years. The available water capacity is have a mucky surface layer about 3 to 9 inches thick.
very low in the surface layer and underlying material. Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and underlying soils. These are Croatan, Plummer, and Rutlege soils.
material. The organic matter content is moderately low, Croatan soils have an organic surface layer between
and natural fertility is low. depths of 16 and 51 inches. Plummer soils are higher
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash on the landscape than the Surrency soil. Rutlege soils
pine, and water oak. The understory consists of are sandy. Dissimilar soils make up about 16 percent of
waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, running oak, fetterbush lyonia, the map unit.
gallberry, and pineland threeawn. This Surrency soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months of the
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated year. The high water table is at or near the surface for
crops. The wetness is the main limitation, the remainder of the year. The available water capacity
This soil has severe limitations affecting hay and is low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is
pasture. The seasonal high water table and rapid moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in
can be grown and reduce the potential yields of the subsoil. The organic matter content is moderately
adapted crops. Intensive management of soil fertility low, and natural fertility is low.
and water is required. The natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
The potential of this soil for the production of pine sweetbay, slash pine, and pond pine. The understory
trees is moderate. Slash pine is the preferred tree to consists of swamp cyrilla, littleleaf cyrilla, azalea,
plant. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and gallberry, smilax, and brambles.
plant competition are the main limitations. Windthrow is This soil generally is not used for cultivated crops or
a hazard. Planting the trees on beds lowers the for hay crops and pasture. Severe limitations affect
effective depth of the water table. these uses. The wetness is the main limitation.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank The potential of this soil for the production of pine
absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills, trees is high. A water control system must be installed,
shallow excavations, dwellings with or without however, to remove excess water before trees can be
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and planted. The wetness is the main limitation. The
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
wetness is the main limitation. competition are the main management concerns. Slash
This soil has severe limitations affecting the pine and loblolly pine are the preferred trees to plant.
development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
and paths and trails. The wetness and the sandy absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
texture of the surface layer are the main limitations, shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
The land capability classification is IVw. basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
39-Surrency mucky fine sand. This nearly level, ponding is the main limitation.
very poorly drained soil is in drainageways and This soil has severe limitations affecting the
depressions. The mapped areas are circular or irregular development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
in shape and range from 3 to 80 acres in size. Slopes and paths and trails. The ponding is the main limitation
are less than 1 percent, affecting most of these uses.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is very The land capability classification is Vllw.
dark brown mucky fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
lower part, to a depth of about 14 inches, is very dark 44-Tooles-Nutall fine sands, depressional. These
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of soils are nearly level and are very poorly drained. They
about 39 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of are in depressions on flatwoods. The mapped areas are
the subsoil, to a depth of about 54 inches, is grayish irregular in shape and range from 4 to several hundred
brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 acres in size. Slopes are concave and are less than 1
inches or more, is light gray sandy clay loam mottled percent.
with yellowish brown and brown. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Tooles-Nuttall
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include fine sands, depressional, these soils and similar soils
some soils that are similar to the Surrency soil but have make up 76 to 99 percent of the map unit. Generally,








44 Soil Survey


the mapped areas are about 52 percent Tooles and subsoil. Rutlege and Surrency soils are not underlain by
similar soils and about 38 percent Nutall and similar limestone. In addition, Rutlege soils are sandy.
soils. Dissimilar soils make up about 10 percent. The The natural vegetation includes red maple,
soils in this map unit occur as areas so intermingled sweetgum, cabbage palm, tupelo, baldcypress, and
that mapping them separately at the scale used is not water oak.
practical. The pattern of Tooles, Nutall, and similar soils These soils are not suited to cultivated crops. The
is relatively consistent in most delineations of the map wetness and the ponding are the main limitations.
unit. Areas of each soil within the delineations range The potential of the soils in this map unit for
from 0.25 acre to 4.0 acres in size. woodland is moderately high. Baldcypress and gum
Typically, the Tooles soil has a black fine sand trees grow well and are the preferred species to plant.
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The next layer, to a Pine trees do not grow well.
depth of about 15 inches, is dark grayish brown fine These soils have severe limitations affecting septic
sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 38 tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
inches, is light gray sand that has common mottles of shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
yellow. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
about 56 inches. The upper part is dark grayish brown streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
and has common mottles of brownish yellow, and the ponding and the wetness are limitations.
lower part is gray and has common mottles of reddish These soils have severe limitations affecting the
brown. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 56 development of camp areas, playgrounds, and paths
inches. and trails. The wetness and the ponding are the main
In most years the Tooles soil is ponded for 4 to 6 limitations.
months and has a seasonal high water table within a The land capability classification is Vllw.
depth of 20 inches for most of the remainder of the
year. The available water capacity is low in the surface 47-Otela-Alpin fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
layer and subsurface layer and is high in the subsoil. These soils are nearly level to gently undulating and are
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderately well drained and excessively drained. They
subsurface layer and is slow in the subsoil. The organic are in broad areas on low uplands. The mapped areas
matter content and natural fertility are low. are irregular in shape and range from 15 to 30 acres in
Typically, the Nutall soil has a black fine sand size.
surface layer about 8 inches thick. The next layer, to a In areas mapped as Otela-Alpin fine sands, 0 to 5
depth of about 12 inches, is very dark gray fine sand. percent slopes, these soils and similar soils make up
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is about 99 percent of the map unit. Generally, the
light brownish gray sand that has many mottles of mapped areas are about 63 percent Otela and similar
reddish yellow. The subsoil, to a depth of about 33 soils and about 36 percent Alpin and similar soils.
inches, is light gray sandy clay loam that has common Dissimilar soils make up about 1 percent. The soils in
mottles of strong brown. Limestone bedrock is at a this map unit occur as areas so intermingled that
depth of about 33 inches, mapping them separately at the scale used is not
In most years the Nutall soil is ponded for 4 to 6 practical. The pattern of Otela, Alpin, and similar soils is
months and has a seasonal high water table within a relatively consistent in most delineations of the map
depth of 20 inches for the remainder of the year. The unit. Areas of each soil within the delineations range
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and from 0.25 acre to 4.0 acres in size.
subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Typically, the Otela soil has a dark grayish brown
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer and is slow in the subsoil. The organic subsurface layer, to a depth of about 67 inches, is pale
matter content and natural fertility are low. brown, very pale brown, and white fine sand. The
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is yellowish
other Tooles and Nutall soils, which are similar to the brown sandy clay loam mottled with strong brown and
major soils but are in slightly higher positions on the light brownish gray. Limestone is between depths of 60
landscape, and 80 inches in less than 20 percent of the map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar In most years the Otela soil has a perched seasonal
soils. These are Chaires, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. high water table at a depth of about 60 to 72 inches.
Chaires soils have a sandy, dark, organic-stained The perched water table is at a depth of 42 to 60








Wakulla County, Florida 45


inches for 1 to 3 months during periods of heavy moderately well suited to these soils, but yields are
rainfall. The available water capacity is very low in the reduced by the periodic droughtiness. Regular
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer best yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
and subsurface layer and is moderately slow in the vigor and a good ground cover.
subsoil. The organic matter content and natural fertility The potential of these soils for the production of pine
are low. trees is moderately high. The equipment limitation,
Typically, the Alpin soil has a grayish brown fine seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The next layer management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree
is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of about 36 to plant.
inches, is grayish brown, and the lower part, to a depth The Otela soil has moderate limitations affecting
of about 52 inches, is light brownish gray. The septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills,
underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dwellings with basements, lawns and landscaping, and
light gray fine sand that has lamellae of brownish golf fairways. It has severe limitations affecting area
yellow, fine sandy loam less than 1 inch thick. sanitary landfills and shallow excavations. The wetness
The Alpin soil has a high water table at a depth of and the sandy texture of the soil are the main
more than 80 inches. The available water capacity is limitations. The Alpin soil has severe limitations
very low. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface affecting trench and area sanitary landfills, shallow
layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in the excavations, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways.
underlying material. The organic matter content and Seepage and the sandy texture of the soil are the main
natural fertility are low. limitations.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include These soils have severe limitations affecting the
Shadeville, Lakeland, and Ortega soils, which are development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
similar to the Otela and Alpin soils. Shadeville soils and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
have a loamy subsoil between depths of 30 and 40 layer is the main limitation.
inches and have limestone between depths of 40 and The land capability classification is IVs.
80 inches. Lakeland and Ortega soils do not have thin
bands of loamy material at a depth of more than 40 48-Otela, limestone substratum-Ortega sands, 0
inches. Also included are small areas of soils that have to 5 percent slopes. These soils are nearly level to
a loamy subsoil between depths of 30 and 40 inches. gently undulating and are moderately well drained. The
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
soils. These are Lutterloh soils, which are lower on the to 250 acres in size. They are in broad areas on low
landscape than the major soils and are somewhat uplands and in high positions on flatwoods.
poorly drained. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Otela,
The natural vegetation includes mainly slash pine, limestone substratum-Ortega sands, 0 to 5 percent
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, turkey slopes, these soils and similar soils make up 79 to 99
oak, and bluejack oak. The understory consists of percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas
huckleberry, honeysuckle, blackberry, pineland are about 62 percent Otela and similar soils and about
threeawn, and chalky bluestem. 29 percent Ortega and similar soils. Dissimilar soils
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations make up about 9 percent. The soils in this map unit
affecting most cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid occur as areas so intermingled that mapping them
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that separately at the scale used is not practical. The
can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted pattern of Otela, Ortega, and similar soils is relatively
crops. In the more sloping areas, row crops should be consistent in most delineations of the map unit. Areas
planted on the contour in alternating strips with close- of each soil within the delineations range from 0.25 acre
growing cover crops. Planting soil-improving cover to 4.0 acres in size.
crops and leaving crop residue on the surface help to Typically, the Otela soil has a light brownish gray
maintain fertility and control erosion. Irrigation generally sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
is feasible if water is readily available, layer, to a depth of about 50 inches, is pale brown, light
These soils have moderate limitations affecting hay gray, and white sand. It has yellow mottles in the lower
and pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal part. The subsoil is sandy loam and sandy clay loam to
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are a depth of about 63 inches. The upper part of the








46 Soil Survey


subsoil is brownish yellow mottled with yellowish brown. row crops should be planted on the contour in
The lower part is yellowish brown mottled with light alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. The
gray. Limestone is between depths of 60 and 80 inches cover crops should be grown at least two-thirds of the
in most areas of this map unit. time. Applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
In most years the Otela soil has a seasonal high the best yields. Planting soil-improving cover crops and
water table that fluctuates between depths of 60 and 72 leaving crop residue on the surface help to maintain
inches for more than 4 months and is at a depth of 42 fertility and control erosion. Irrigation generally is
to 60 inches for 1 to 3 months during periods of heavy feasible if water is readily available. Tile drains or other
rainfall. The available water capacity is very low in the drains are needed to reduce the crop damage caused
surface layer and subsurface layer and is moderate in by the high water table during the growing season.
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
and subsurface layer and is moderate in the subsoil. required.
The organic matter content and natural fertility are low. These soils have moderate limitations affecting hay
Typically, the Ortega soil has a dark grayish brown and pasture. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of
sand surface layer about 8 inches thick. The underlying nutrients are the main limitations. Deep-rooted plants,
material is sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is, in such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are
sequence downward, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, moderately well suited to these soils. Regular
very pale brown, very pale brown mottled with yellow, applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the
and white mottled with yellow. The yellow mottles in the best yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
underlying material are indicative of wetness. vigor and obtain maximum yields. Intensive
In most years the Ortega soil has a seasonal high management of soil fertility and water is required to fully
water table that fluctuates between depths of 60 and 72 utilize this soil for pasture and hay.
inches for more than 6 months and is at a depth of 42 The potential of these soils for producing longleaf
to 60 inches for 1 to 3 months during periods of heavy pine and slash pine (fig. 9) is moderately high. The
rainfall. The available water capacity is low in the equipment limitation and seedling mortality are the main
surface layer and very low in the underlying material, management concerns. Slash pine is the preferred tree
Permeability is rapid. The organic matter content and to plant.
natural fertility are low. These soils have moderate limitations affecting septic
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, dwellings
Alpin, Shadeville, and Lakeland soils, which are similar with basements, lawns and landscaping, and golf
to the major soils. However, Alpin and Lakeland soils fairways. They have severe limitations affecting area
are in slightly higher positions on the landscape and are sanitary landfills and shallow excavations. The wetness
better drained, and Shadeville soils have a loamy and the sandy texture of the soils are the main
subsoil between depths of 30 and 40 inches. Also limitations.
occurring are areas of similar soils that are underlain by These soils have severe limitations affecting the
limestone between depths of 40 and 80 inches. development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
soils. These are Lutterloh soils, which are lower on the layer is the main limitation.
landscape than the major soils and are somewhat The land capability classification is Ills.
poorly drained.
The natural vegetation includes mainly slash pine, 50-Udorthents and Quartzipsamments,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, and red excavated. These nearly level, somewhat poorly
oak. The understory consists of huckleberry, pineland drained soils are in areas that have been excavated for
threeawn, and chalky bluestem. fill material on the Coastal Plain. The mapped areas are
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations irregular in shape or square and range from 1 to 25
affecting most cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that Generally, the mapped areas contain about 55
can be grown and reduce the potential yield of adapted percent Udorthents and similar soils and 40 percent
crops. When it is within a depth of 60 inches, the water Quartzipsamments and similar soils. Individually, the
table increases the amount of available water in the soils in this map unit may not occur in every mapped
root zone. In very dry periods, however, it drops too low area. The relative proportion of the major soils and
for any beneficial effects. In the more sloping areas, similar soils varies. The areas of the individual soils are









Wakulla County, Florida 47





































.. ,,



Figure 9.-A well managed stand of pine trees in an area of Otela, limestone substratum-Ortega sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



large enough to map separately. Because of the to a depth of about 38 inches, is white sand. The lower
present and predicted land uses, however, they were part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light gray sand.
mapped as one unit. Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
In a representative area, the Udorthents have a soils. These soils have limestone boulders on or near
grayish brown sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. the surface. Also included are soils that have a water
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches table that is dissimilar to that of the major soils.
or more. In sequence downward, it is dark brown sand, In most years the soils in this map unit have a
dark yellowish brown sand, light brownish gray sandy seasonal high water table at a depth of about 24 to 42
loam, white sand, and light gray sandy clay loam. inches. Changes in surface drainage, however, make
In a representative area, the Quartzipsamments have some areas of these soils subject to brief ponding after
a grayish brown sand surface layer about 4 inches periods of heavy rainfall. The amount of excavation or
thick. The upper part of the underlying material, to a backfill in some areas also can drastically alter the
depth of about 26 inches, is brown sand. The next part, depth to the water table. The available water capacity is








48 Soil Survey


low in the surface layer of the Udorthents and moderate Dissimilar soils make up about 13 percent of the map
in the underlying material. It is low in the unit.
Quartzipsamments. Permeability is rapid in the surface In most years this Goldhead soil has a high water
layer of the Udorthents and moderate in the underlying table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months
material. It is rapid in the Quartzipsamments. The of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about
organic matter content and natural fertility are low. 6 months. During periods of heavy rainfall, the soil is
The natural vegetation has been removed from these covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water for
soils. Some of these areas have been replanted to periods of 7 to 30 days. The available water capacity is
slash pine. low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and is
These soils have severe limitations affecting moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
cultivated crops and hay crops and pasture, surface layer and subsurface layer, moderate in the
The potential of these soils for pine tree production is subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility is
very low to moderately high. This potential varies with low.
the original soil type and the amount of excavation. The The natural vegetation includes cabbage palm, slash
equipment use limitation and seedling mortality are the pine, loblolly pine, blackgum, red maple, laurel oak, and
main management concerns. water oak. The understory consists of saw palmetto,
These soils generally have moderate limitations waxmyrtle, pitcherplant, and various sedges and native
affecting urban development, grasses.
A land capability classification has not been assigned This soil generally is not used for cultivated crops or
to this map unit. for hay crops and pasture. Severe limitations affect
these uses. The wetness is the main limitation.
51-Goldhead fine sand. This nearly level, poorly The potential of this soil for the production of pine
drained soil is in broad areas on flatwoods on the Lower trees is moderately high in areas that have adequate
Coastal Plain. Slopes are smooth or concave and are 0 surface drainage. The equipment limitation, seedling
to 2 percent, mortality, and plant competition are the main
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8 management concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to the preferred trees to plant. Planting the trees on beds
a depth of about 19 inches, is dark gray fine sand. The lowers the effective depth of the water table.
lower part, to a depth of about 27 inches, is gray fine This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
sand. The subsurface layer has light yellowish brown absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
and yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil, to a depth of shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
about 38 inches, is gray and light gray sandy loam basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
mottled with reddish yellow. The substratum, to a depth streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
of 80 inches, is gray sand. The content of shell wetness is the main limitation.
fragments is about 10 percent between depths of 69 This soil has severe limitations affecting the
and 80 inches. development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include and paths and trails. The sandy texture of the surface
Tooles soils, which are similar'to the Goldhead soil but layer and the wetness are the main limitations.
are underlain by limestone between depths of 40 and The land capability classification is IIIw.
80 inches. Also occurring are areas of similar soils that
have a thicker and darker surface layer; have a loamy 52-Meggett and Croatan soils, frequently flooded.
subsoil between depths of 15 and 20 inches; are These nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
underlain by a highly carbonatic, bluish gray, sandy drained soils are on the Ochlockonee River flood plain
layer; or are underlain by soft limestone bedrock. on the Lower Coastal Plain. They are flooded during
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar periods of heavy rainfall. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
soils. These are Chaires, Leon, Moriah, Nutall, and Generally, the mapped areas contain about 55
Scranton soils. Chaires and Leon soils have a sandy, percent Meggett and similar soils and 30 percent
dark, organic-stained subsoil. Moriah soils are higher on Croatan and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make up
the landscape than the Goldhead soil and are about 15 percent. Individually, the soils in this map unit
somewhat poorly drained. Nutall soils have a loamy may not occur in every mapped area. The relative
subsoil within 20 inches of the surface and are proportion of the major soils and similar soils varies.
underlain by limestone. Scranton soils are sandy. The areas of individual soils are large enough to map








Wakulla County, Florida 49


separately. Because of the present and predicted land Under natural conditions these soils are not suitable
uses, however, they were mapped as one unit. for pine tree production.
Typically, the Meggett soil has a very dark gray fine These soils have severe limitations affecting septic
sandy loam surface layer about 8 inches thick. The tank absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
subsoil, to a depth of about 30 inches, is light gray clay streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
loam that has common mottles of yellowish brown. The wetness is the main limitation affecting most of these
lower part, to a depth of about 72 inches, is light gray uses. The flooding is a hazard.
clay that has common mottles of yellowish brown. These soils have severe limitations affecting the
The Meggett soil has a high water table at or near development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
the surface in the winter and early in the spring. The and paths and trails. The wetness is the main limitation
available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is affecting most of these uses. The flooding is a hazard.
moderately rapid in the surface layer and subsurface The land capability classification is Vllw.
layer and is slow in the subsoil. The organic matter
content and natural fertility are low. 53-Quartzipsamments, dredged. These soils are
Typically, the Croatan soil has a black muck surface nearly level and are somewhat poorly drained. They
layer about 4 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of formed in fill material that has been reworked and
about 25 inches, is well decomposed, black muck. The shaped by earthmoving equipment. The mapped areas
underlying material, to a depth of about 40 inches, is are highly variable in shape and size. Slopes are 0 to 1
very dark gray mucky sand and, to a depth of 72 inches percent.
or more, very dark gray sand. In a representative area, the surface layer is light
The Croatan soil has a high water table at or near brownish gray sand about 7 inches thick. The
the surface in the winter and early in the spring. The underlying material extends to a depth of about 80
available water capacity is very high in the surface layer inches. In sequence downward, it is dark grayish brown
and moderate in the underlying material. Permeability is sand, light gray sand, light brownish gray sand, dark
moderate. The organic matter content is very high in the grayish brown mucky sand, and grayish brown sand.
surface layer and low in the underlying material. Natural Other soils occurring in small areas of this map unit
fertility is low. are soils that are similar to the Quartzipsamments.
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include These soils occur as areas so small that mapping them
Dorovan soils, which are similar to the Croatan soil but separately at the scale used is not practical.
have an organic surface layer more than 51 inches Included in this map unit are areas of dissimilar soils.
thick. Also occurring in this map unit are areas of soils These are other manmade soils. Similar and dissimilar
that are similar to the Meggett soil but have stratified soils make up less than 25 percent of this map unit.
layers of various sizes of sand throughout the profile The depth to the high water table in the
and soils that are similar to the Croatan soil but have Quartzipsamments varies with the amount of fill material
stratified layers of various textures, such as muck, and extent of artificial drainage in the map unit;
sand, and loamy material, below the organic surface however, the seasonal high water table is commonly at
layer, a depth of 24 to 42 inches. The available water capacity
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar is low. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low.
soils. These are Rutlege and Surrency soils. Rutlege These soils are not used for cultivated crops, for hay
soils are sandy. Surrency soils have sand to a depth of crops or pasture, or for woodland.
20 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil between Because of the highly variable nature of these soils,
depths of 20 and 40 inches. no overall suitability rating has been given for urban or
The natural vegetation includes red maple, water recreational development.
oak, blackgum, sweetgum, sweetbay, swamp birch, A land capability classification has not been assigned
cypress, pond pine, and slash pine. to this map unit.
These soils generally are not used for cultivated
crops or for hay crops or pasture. Severe limitations 54-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded. This
affect these uses. The wetness is the main limitation, nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soil is in
The flooding is a hazard. broad, mixed tidal and freshwater marsh areas on the








50


gulf coast. Slopes are smooth or slightly convex and are This Maurepas soil is flooded daily by normal high
0 to 1 percent, tides, and the high water table is 1 foot above the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish surface to 2 feet below. The available water capacity is
brown, decomposed muck about 5 inches thick. The high. Permeability is rapid.
underlying organic material to a depth of about 72 The natural vegetation consists of needlerush and
inches or more is very dark grayish brown, well sawgrass.
decomposed muck. This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
Other soils occurring in areas of this map unit include crops. The wetness and salinity are the main limitations.
some soils that are similar to the Maurepas soil but This soil is not suited to woodland.
have thin, discontinuous bands of sandy or loamy This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
material in the organic layers, absorption fields, trench and area sanitary landfills,
Included in this map unit are small transitional areas shallow excavations, dwellings with or without
of dissimilar soils. These are Croatan, Leon, Plummer, basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
Rutlege, and Scranton soils. They are not flooded by streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways. The
normal high tides. Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, and wetness and the flooding are the main limitations.
Scranton soils are mineral soils. Croatan soils have an This soil has severe limitations affecting the
organic surface layer about 16 to 51 inches thick and development of camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds,
are underlain by mineral material. Also included are and paths and trails. The wetness and the flooding are
Leon, Plummer, and Scranton soils in a few isolated the main limitations.
high areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than 15 The land capability classification is VIlw.
percent of the map unit.








51









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid each soil.
soil-related failures in land uses. Planners of management systems for individual fields
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, or farms should consider the detailed information given
conservationists, engineers, and others collect in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
extensive field data about the nature and behavior Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Cooperative Extension Service.
various soil uses and management. Field experience About 7,600 acres in Wakulla County is used for
and collected data on soil properties and performance crops and pasture. Of this acreage, 4,000 acres is used
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior, as pasture and 3,600 acres for field crops, mainly corn
Information in this section can be used to plan the and peanuts. The acreage in crops and pasture is
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as decreasing because of urban development and
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, economic conditions.
highways and other transportation systems, and parks Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for cropping system that keeps plant cover on the soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction extended periods helps to control erosion and maintains
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties, the productive capacity of the soil. On livestock farms
Planners and others using soil survey information where hay crops and pasture are grown, legumes and
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on grasses should be included in the cropping system to
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the help control erosion, provide nitrogen, and improve tilth
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain for the next crop.
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with Applying a system of conservation tillage and leaving
nature, crop residue on the surface increase infiltration and
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of reduce runoff and the hazard of erosion, which is
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify caused by periods of intense rainfall.
areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation. Yields Per Acre
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and The average yields per acre that can be expected of
others also find this survey useful. The survey can help the principal crops under a high level of management
them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, higher or lower than those indicated in the table
lawns, and trees and shrubs, because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
Crops and Pasture The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
General management needed for crops and pasture agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants results of field trials and demonstrations are also
best suited to the soils are identified; the system of land considered.









52 Soil Survey


The management needed to obtain the indicated the choice of plants or that require moderate
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil conservation practices.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper choice of plants or that require special conservation
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop practices, or both.
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen, management, or both.
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure, other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures use.
the smallest possible loss. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity generally unsuitable for cultivation.
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
likely to increase as new production technology is them unsuitable for cultivation.
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change. limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in crop production.
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the w, or s to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
about the management and productivity of the soils for erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
those crops. maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
Land Capability Classification the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial
drainage); and s shows that the soil is limited mainly
Land capability classification shows, in a general because it is shallow or drought.
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
that require special management are excluded. The of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops, limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria wildlife habitat, or recreation.
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and clas action
The capability classification of each map unit is given
generally expensive, landforming that would change in the section Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do yields table
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for Woodland Management and Productivity
Woodland Management and Productivity
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
engineering purposes, fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped influence tree growth. Available water capacity and
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only depth of the root zone are major influences of tree
class and subclass are used in this survey, growth.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are others, some are more susceptible to erosion after
defined as follows: roads are built and timber is harvested, and some
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their require special efforts to reforest. In the section
use. "Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce area suitable for producing timber presents information








Wakulla County, Florida 53


about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and year, or if special equipment is needed to avoid or
management concerns for producing timber. The reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if slopes
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table are steep enough that tracked equipment cannot be
5 summarizes this forestry information and rates the operated safely across the slope, if soil wetness
soils for a number of factors to be considered in restricts equipment use for more than 6 months per
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to year, or if special equipment is needed to avoid or
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe
considered in forest management. indicate a need to choose the most suitable equipment
The first tree listed for each soil under the column and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. management operations.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
area and that is generally the most productive on a death of naturally occurring or properly planted
given soil. seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much water
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential and duration of the water table, rooting depth, and the
productivity is based on the site index and the point aspect of the slope. Mortality generally is greatest on
where mean annual increment is the greatest. soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected
excessive water, either seasonal or year round, causes mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, severe indicate that it may be necessary to use
sandy soil. If a soil has more than one limitation, the containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to
priority is W and then S. make special site preparations, such as bedding,
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability furrowing, or installing surface drainage. Reinforcement
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight severe.
if no particular preventive measures are needed under Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
measures are needed for particular silvicultural depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed can be restricted by a high water table, bedrock, or by a
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture,
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
reforestation operations, or use of specialized over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
equipment. or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
use of forest management equipment, year round or thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, may be needed to avoid damage to shallow root
wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it salvage of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. The road and trail system may be needed.
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
wetness for less than 2 months and if special the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if competition becomes more severe on the more
slopes are steep enough that wheeled equipment productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants









54 Soil Survey


inhibits natural or artificial reforestation but does not River Sinks areas. The Morrison Hammock is a
necessitate intensive site preparation and maintenance, hardwood hammock that has specimen trees of spruce
The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable pine and loblolly pine, and the River Sinks is a
plants inhibits natural or artificial reforestation to the hardwood hammock that has many interspersed
extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance sinkholes. The Pope Still, Brownhouse, Pine Creek, and
are needed. The risk is severe if competition from Mack Slough public hunt camps provide camping areas
undesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial during the hunting season. The major game species are
reforestation unless the site is intensively prepared and deer, squirrel, quail, turkey, dove, bear, and wood duck.
maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the About 25 miles of the Florida Trail are in the
need for site preparation to ensure the development of Apalachicola National Forest, mainly along the
an adequately stocked stand. Managers must plan site Sopchoppy River and through the Bradwell Bay
preparation measures to ensure reforestation without Wilderness Area. The Ochlockonee River and Lost
delays. Creek also provide opportunities for superior primitive
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is canoeing.
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
the order of their observed general occurrence, according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate. For recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
the soils that are commonly used to produce timber, the features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
yield is predicted in cubic meters at the point where surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
mean annual increment culminates. Not considered in the ratings, but important in
The site index is determined by taking height evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
measurements and determining the age of selected the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
specified number of years. This index applies to fully The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands, and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
The productivity class represents an expected volume important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
produced by the most important trees, expressed in recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
board feet by multiplying by a factor of about 5. For essential.
example, a productivity class of 8 means the soil can be In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
expected to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
the point where mean annual increment culminates, or properties are generally favorable and that limitations
about 570 board feet per acre per year. are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
Trees to plant are those that are used for limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
produce a commercial wood crop. Desired product, offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
personal preference are three factors of many that can of these measures.
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation. The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
Recreation interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
The Apalachicola National Forest in Wakulla County for local roads and streets in table 8.
provides a variety of recreational opportunities, Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
including hiking in the Bradwell Bay Wilderness Area and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
and canoeing on the Sopchoppy River. Of special roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
interest are the unique examples of the vegetative and facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
geologic diversity in the Morrison Hammock and the heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best








Wakulla County, Florida 55


soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
constructing campsites. and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking established, improved, or maintained in most places.
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, Moderately intensive management is required for
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that limitations are severe for the designated element or
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
roads and parking areas. maintained in most places, but management is difficult
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock impractical or impossible.
should be considered. The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding following paragraphs.
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
once a year during the period of use. They have are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
moderate slopes. available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm and seed crops are corn, soybeans, and millet.
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
or greens is not considered in rating the soils. of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood
Wildlife Habitat hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
are also considerations. Examples of grasses and
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is legumes are ryegrass, bahiagrass, hairy indigo, clover,
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect and lespedeza.
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat properties and features that affect the growth of these
can be created or improved by planting appropriate plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
plants. moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated herbaceous plants are partridge pea, goldenrod,
according to their potential for providing habitat for beggarweed, low panicum, and ragweed.
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
the intensity of management needed for each element these plants are oak, poplar, cherry, sweetgum, saw
of the habitat. palmetto, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and gallberry.








56 Soil Survey


Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
properties and features that affect the growth of Information in this section is intended for land use
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness, planning site investigations prior to design and
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cedar, and construction. The information, however, has limitations.
cypress. For example, estimates and other data generally apply
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
properties and features affecting wetland plants are soil.
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, slope, The information is not site specific and does not
and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland plants are eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
smartweed, wild millet, cattail, rushes, sedges, and for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
reeds. design and construction of engineering works.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
created by dams, levees, or other water-control not considered in preparing the information in this
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow Soil properties, site features, and observed
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and performance were considered in determining the ratings
ponds, in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
in the following paragraphs. liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, bedrock, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
sparrow, cottontail, and sparrow hawk. shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and uses.
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous This information can be used to evaluate the
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
gray fox, raccoon, deer, wild hog, and owl. construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
attracted to such areas are ducks, coots, egrets, septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
herons, ibis, kingfishers, otters, alligators, and beavers, detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
Engineering plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
terraces, and other structures for soil and water
This section provides information for planning land conservation; and predict performance of proposed
uses related to urban development and to water small structures and pavements by comparing the
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the performance of existing similar structures on the same
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are or similar soils.
given in the following tables: Building site development, The information in the tables, along with the soil
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
management. The ratings are based on observed this survey, can be used to make additional
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and interpretations.









Wakulla County, Florida 57


Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
Glossary. flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
Building Site Development properties, site features, and observed performance of
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations the soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table,
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of
without basements, small commercial buildings, local excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and potential, and depth to a high water table affect the
site features are generally favorable for the indicated traffic-supporting capacity.
use and limitations are minor and easily overcome; Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
moderate if soil properties or site features are not and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
favorable for the indicated use and special planning, and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or properties, site features, and observed performance of
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to depth to bedrock, the available water capacity in the
overcome that special design, significant increases in upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness,
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or
where the soil limitations are severe, organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a after vegetation is established.
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The Sanitary Facilities
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Table 9 shows the degree and the kind of soil
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
bedrock or a very firm dense layer, soil texture, and are considered slight if soil properties and site features
slope. The time of the year that excavations can be are generally favorable for the indicated use and
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The soil properties or site features are moderately favorable
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
water table. limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are are unfavorable for the use and if overcoming the
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family maintenance, or alteration.
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
made for small commercial buildings without as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for that soil properties and site features are favorable for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on the use and that good performance and low
soil properties, site features, and observed performance maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell properties and site features are moderately favorable
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement for the use and one or more soil properties or site
of footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to features make the soil less desirable than the soils
bedrock, large stones, and flooding affect the ease of rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
not considered. special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil









58 Soil Survey


through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site layer of soil from a source away from the site.
features, and observed performance of the soils. Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
bedrock, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
Large stones and bedrock interfere with installation, needs to be considered.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties,
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, site features, and observed performance of the soils.
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a water table,
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture,
permeable sand or fractured bedrock is less than 4 feet highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts
below the base of the absorption field, if slope is and sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless
excessive, or if the water table is near the surface. otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that part of
There must be unsaturated soil material beneath the the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper
absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate may not
local ordinances require that this material be of a be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
certain thickness. Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils are the
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is best cover for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or
required to minimize seepage and contamination of cloddy and are difficult to spread; sandy soils are
ground water. subject to soil blowing.
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes After soil material has been removed, the soil
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are enough over bedrock or the water table to permit
excavated to provide material for the embankments. revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high and the best potential for plants. Material from the
water table, depth to bedrock, flooding, large stones, surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
and content of organic matter. cover.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the Construction Materials
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
activity. Slope and bedrock can cause construction soil properties and site features that affect the removal
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
the lagoon floor. compaction, minor processing, and other standard
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and and used in road embankments in another place. In this
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less








Wakulla County, Florida 59


exacting in design than higher embankments. up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface least 3 feet thick. All other soils are rated as an
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil improbable source. Coarse fragments of soft limestone
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. bedrock are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
their profile. The table showing engineering index can be established and maintained. The upper 40
properties provides detailed information about each soil inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
layer. This information can help determine the suitability evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil area.
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
considered in the ratings. properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
The ratings are based on soil properties, site fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
features, and observed performance of the soils. The is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration. texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs rock fragments, and bedrock.
in place after it has been compacted and drained is Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
determined by its strength (as inferred from the depth of at least 40 inches. They have slope of less
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
potential. are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand not so wet that excavation is difficult.
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more appreciable amount of soluble salts, or soils that have
than 35 percent silt- and clay-size particles and have a slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate excavation is difficult.
shrink-swell potential or slopes of 15 to 25 percent. Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated poor than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
have a plasticity index of more than 10, a high shrink- amount of soluble salts, have slope of more than 15
swell potential, or slopes of more than 25 percent. They percent, or have a seasonal water table at or near the
are wet, and the depth to the water table is less than 1 surface.
foot. These soils may have layers of suitable material, The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
but the material is less than 3 feet thick. for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction. available nutrients as it decomposes.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 10,
only the probability of finding material in suitable Water Management
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that site features that affect water management. The degree
affect excavation of the material, and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil), soil properties and site features are generally favorable
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of features are not favorable for the indicated use and
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
properties. overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is difficult to overcome that special design, significant








60


increase in construction costs, and possibly increased Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
maintenance are required, subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
This table also gives the restrictive features that effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and bedrock or to other layers that affect the rate of water
diversions, and grassed waterways, movement; permeability; depth to a high water table or
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding;
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low slope; susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence of
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage organic layers. Excavating and grading and the stability
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock, slope,
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage the soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
capacity of the reservoir area. acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, is not considered in the ratings.
constructed to impound water or to protect land against Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the design and management of an irrigation system are
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about affected by depth to the water table, the need for
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
mixed and compacted during construction. permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural construction of a system is affected by large stones and
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a depth to bedrock. The performance of a system is
depth greater than the height of the embankment can affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of
affect performance and safety of the embankment. salts or sodium, and soil reaction.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
determine these properties. combination of channels and ridges constructed across
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features depth to bedrock affect the construction of terraces and
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard
content of organic matter or salts or sodium. A high of soil blowing or water erosion, an excessively coarse
water table affects the amount of usable material. It texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect
also affects trafficability. maintenance.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that Wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
impound water 3 feet or more above the original construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of soil
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a blowing, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and depth, salts or sodium, and restricted permeability
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content adversely affect the growth and maintenance of the
of large stones affect the ease of excavation, grass after construction.








61









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
explained on the following pages. sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
Soil properties are determined by field examination of is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some defined in the Glossary.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Classification of the soils is determined according to
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the Unified soil classification system (3) and the system
made and examined to identify and classify the soils adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are and Transportation Officials (2).
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the The Unified system classifies soils according to
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, properties that affect their use as construction material.
and compaction characteristics. These results are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
reported in table 18. of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils. for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
upper 5 or 6 feet. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the 20, or higher, for the poorest.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters weight basis. The percentages are estimates









62 Soil Survey


determined mainly by converting volume percentage in soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the field to weight percentage. the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard structure.
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and movement of water through the soil when the soil is
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
estimates are based on test data from the survey area drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
or from nearby areas and on field examination, construction where the rate of water movement under
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, saturated conditions affects behavior.
and plasticity index are generally rounded to the Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
table, the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
Physical and Chemical Properties organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
Table 13 shows estimates of some characteristics in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates design and management of irrigation systems. Available
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
area. The estimates are based on field observations water actually available to plants at any given time.
and on test data for these and similar soils. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
in diameter. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility corrosion.
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving laboratory measurements at representative sites of
operations, nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon construction material, and the potential of the soil to
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil corrode metal and concrete.
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
available water capacity, total pore space, and other change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay









Wakulla County, Florida 63


minerals with water and varies with the amount and loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil measures to control soil blowing are used.
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of 4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind used.
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on 4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
measurements of similar soils, silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is 5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
often needed. than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The blowing are used.
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2 6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
percent, is sometimes used. ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil 7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre 8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
per year. These estimates are based primarily on of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 surface wetness.
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 13, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
water, percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum than 2 millimeters in diameter.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water The content of organic matter in a soil can be
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
per year. infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have other nutrients for crops.
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Soil and Water Features
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions: Table 14 gives estimates of various soil and water
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine features. The estimates are used in land use planning
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. that involves engineering considerations.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
to establish. from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material, water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be precipitation from long-duration storms.
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are The four hydrologic soil groups are:
used. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist









64 Soil Survey


mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained percent chance of flooding in any year). Duration is
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7
water transmission, days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of likely to occur is expressed in months. About two-thirds
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to period.
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a The information on flooding is based on evidence in
moderate rate of water transmission. the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt,
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a organic matter content with increasing depth; and
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These of soils that are not subject to flooding.
soils have a slow rate of water transmission. Also considered is local information about the extent
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table, than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly levels.
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
of water transmission. saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
In table 14, some soils are assigned to two seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
hydrologic soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
water table but can be drained are assigned first to a saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
hydrologic group that denotes the drained condition of soil. Indicated in table 14 are the depth to the seasonal
the soil and then to a hydrologic group that denotes the high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched
undrained condition, for example, B/D. Because there or apparent; and the months of the year that the water
are different degrees of drainage and water table table commonly is highest. A water table that is
control, onsite investigation is needed to determine the seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in
hydrologic group of the soil in a particular location, table 14.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered perched water table is water standing above an
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
a closed depression is considered ponding, table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Table 14 gives the frequency and duration of flooding The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to column indicate the normal range in depth to a
occur, saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None indicates that the water table is above the surface of
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
conditions (there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of feet for less than a month.
flooding in any year). Occasional means that flooding Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
(there is a 5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
year). Frequent means that flooding occurs often under specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
normal weather conditions (there is more than a 50 fractured, excavations can be made with trenching









Wakulla County, Florida 65


machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard given in alphabetical order in the section "Classification
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is of the Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
needed for excavation, additional soils in the county, as well as for other
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of counties in Florida, are on file at the University of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence Florida, Soil Science Department.
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
oxidation of organic material, or both, following selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
over a period of several years. Table 14 shows the analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of Investigations Report No. 1 (38).
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a Particle-size distribution was determined using a
combination of factors. modified pipette method with sodium
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
water throughout an extensive area as a result of cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
lowering the water table. duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or 100 centimeters water (1io bar) and 345 centimeters
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of water (1/3 bar) were circulated from volumetric water
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium carbon was determined by a modification of the
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
soil. Special site examination and design may be Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
needed if the combination of factors creates a severely with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
corrosive environment. The steel in installations that Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
layer. chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. The sum of
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed cations, which may be considered a measure of cation-
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage exchange capacity, was calculated by adding the values
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field for extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
extract. exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed measurements were made with a glass electrode using
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
extract. potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
Analyses of Selected Soils and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, Soil Science Department, spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
University of Florida, prepared this section. extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
properties of representative pedons sampled in Wakulla iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
County are presented in tables 15, 16, and 17. The extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil combustion method.
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida. Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
Detailed profile descriptions of the analyzed soils are was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at









66 Soil Survey


18-, 14-, 7.2-, and 4.31-angstrom positions represent in Wakulla County rapidly become very drought during
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or periods of low precipitation when rainfall is widely
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, scattered. Conversely, these sandy soils are rapidly
respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and saturated when high amounts of rainfall occur. Soils
normalized to give the percent of soil minerals identified with inherently poor drainage, such as Nutall and
in the x-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do Tooles soils, can remain saturated because the ground
not indicate absolute determined quantities of the soil water is close to the surface for long periods.
minerals but do imply a relative distribution of minerals Hydraulic conductivity values exceed 30 centimeters
in a particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages per hour throughout Hurricane and Ortega soils.
would require additional knowledge of particle size, Considerably lower values are recorded for most other
crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and matrix soils with sandy epipedons. Hydraulic conductivity
problems. values in the lower part of the solum in soils that have
argillic horizons rarely exceed 1 centimeter per hour.
Physical Properties Low hydraulic conductivity values at a shallow depth in
Representative soils sampled for laboratory analyses soils, such as Pilgrims soils, could affect the design and
in Wakulla County are inherently very sandy (table 15); function of septic tank absorption fields. Hydraulic
however, many of these soils have an argillic horizon in conductivity values in the Bh horizon of Hurricane soils
the lower part of the solum. All of the soils sampled are much higher than those generally recorded for
have one horizon or more in which the total sand spodic horizons in most soils in Florida. The available
content is more than 90 percent. Ridgewood soils and water for plants can be estimated from bulk density and
two Ortega pedons contain more than 95 percent sand water content data. Soils that have an excessive
to a depth of 2 meters or more. Alpin and Hurricane content of sand, such as Lakeland soils, retain very low
soils contain more than 90 percent sand to a depth of 2 amounts of available water for plants; conversely, soils
meters or more. Lutterloh soils and two Otela pedons that have a higher content of fine textured material,
contain more than 90 percent sand to a depth of slightly such as Nutall fine sand, retain larger amounts of
more than 1 meter, available water for plants.
The content of clay in these sandy horizons is rarely
more than 2 percent. Deeper argillic horizons in Chemical Properties
Lutterloh, Moriah, Nutall, Otela, Pilgrims, Shadeville, Chemical analyses (table 16) show that soils in the
and Tooles soils contain large amounts of clay ranging county have a wide range of extractable bases. All of
from 12.5 to 39.0 percent. the soils have one horizon or more that has less than 1
The content of silt ranges from 0.3 percent in Ortega milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases except
soils to 12.0 percent in Nutall soils. All of the horizons Nutall soils. Nutall soils have the highest amount of
sampled in Nutall and Shadeville soils contain more extractable bases ranging from 4.88 to 48.54
than 5 percent silt. In most soils the silt content ranges milliequivalents per 100 grams. Alpin, Hurricane, and
from 2 to 5 percent. Ridgewood soils and two Ortega have less than 1
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions of all soils milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases in all
except Hurricane soils. All horizons of Ortega, pedons. Only one horizon in Moriah soils has more than
Ridgewood, and Tooles soils and one Otela pedon 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases. The
contain more than 50 percent fine sand. The content of relatively mild, humid climate in Wakulla County results
very fine sand is more than 20 percent in all horizons of in a rapid depletion of basic soil cations (calcium,
Lutterloh, Moriah, Nutall, Pilgrims, and Tooles soils. The magnesium, sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
content of medium sand generally ranges from 6 to 30 Calcium is the dominant base in all of the soils
percent but is somewhat higher in all horizons of the sampled; however, the higher content of calcium in the
Hurricane soils. The content of coarse sand is 2 percent lower horizons of Moriah, Pilgrims, Shadeville, and
or less throughout Lutterloh, Moriah, Nutall, Ortega, Tooles soils reflects the close proximity of limestone at
Pilgrims, Shadeville, and Tooles soils. Alpin, Hurricane, a shallow depth in these soils. Alpin, Hurricane, and
and Lakeland soils contain more than 10 percent coarse Ridgewood soils and two Ortega pedons contain 0.60
sand. The content of very coarse sand generally is less milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable calcium or
than 4 percent and is nondetectable throughout all less in all pedons. The content of extractable
horizons of Lutterloh and Ortega soils. The sandy soils magnesium is more than 1 milliequivalent per 100









Wakulla County, Florida 67


grams only in one or two horizons of the two Otela except in areas immediately adjacent to the Gulf of
pedons and Shadeville soils. Combined amounts of Mexico.
extractable calcium and magnesium rarely exceed 1 Soil reaction in water generally ranges between pH
milliequivalant per 100 grams in the surface layer of the 4.5 and 6.0; however, reaction of more than pH 6.0
soils. The content of sodium generally is less than 0.20 occurs in one horizon or more of Nutall, Pilgrims,
milliequivalent per 100 grams; however, one horizon in Shadeville, and Tooles soils and in one of the Otela
the Pilgrims and Tooles soils exceeds this amount. All soils. With few exceptions, soil reaction values are
of the soils have horizons that have 0.10 milliequivalent about 0.5 to 1.0 pH unit lower in calcium chloride and
per 100 grams or less extractable potassium. Alpin, potassium chloride than in water. The maximum plant
Hurricane, Lutterloh, Moriah, Ridgewood, and Tooles nutrient availability is generally attained when soil
soils and two of each of the Ortega and Otela pedons reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however, under
have one horizon or more that has nondetectable Florida conditions, maintaining soil reaction above pH
amounts of extractable potassium. 6.0 is not economically feasible for most agricultural
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of production purposes.
plant nutrient-holding capacity, are more than 10 The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate extractable
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface layer of carbon and aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of
Nutall and Tooles soils. A large cation-exchange Hurricane soils is sufficient to meet the chemical criteria
capacity parallels the higher content of clay in the for spodic horizons. Pyrophosphate extractable iron and
deeper horizons of Lutterloh, Moriah, Nutall, Otela, aluminum are also sufficient to meet the spodic horizon
Pilgrims, Shadeville, and Tooles soils. Soils, such as criteria for Hurricane soils. Sodium pyrophosphate
Hurricane sand, that have a low cation-exchange extractable iron is 0.01 percent and citrate-dithionite
capacity in the surface layer require only small amounts extractable iron is 0.12 percent in Hurricane soils.
of lime or sulfur to significantly alter their base status Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the Bt horizon of
and soil reaction. Generally, soils of low inherent soil Lutterloh, Moriah, Nutall, Pilgrims, Shadeville, and
fertility are associated with low values for extractable Tooles soils and in two Otela pedons ranges from 0.12
bases and low cation-exchange capacities. Fertile soils to 0.92 percent and is frequently less than 0.60 percent.
are associated with high extractable base values, high Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite from the Bt
base saturation values, and high cation-exchange horizon in these soils ranges from 0.06 to 0.34 percent.
capacities. A larger amount of citrate-dithionite extractable iron
The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent occurs in the Bt horizon as compared to that in the Bh
in Hurricane, Lutterloh, Moriah, Ortega, Pilgrims, and horizon in Hurricane soils. The amount of extractable
Shadeville soils, in two Otela pedons, and in all iron and aluminum in the soils in the county is not
horizons below the surface layer in Alpin, Nutall, sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
Ortega, Ridgewood, and Tooles soils. Only Ortega sand
and Tooles soils contain more than 3 percent organic Mineralogical Properties
carbon. In most soils sampled the content of organic Sand fractions of 2.0 millimeters to 0.05 millimeter
carbon decreases rapidly as depth increases; however, are siliceous and quartz is overwhelmingly dominant in
slight increases in the content of organic carbon are all pedons. Varying amounts of heavy minerals are in
recorded in some Bt horizons and in the Bh horizon of most horizons with the greatest concentrations in the
Hurricane soils. Since the content of organic carbon in very fine sand fraction. No weatherable minerals are
the surface layer is directly related to the soil nutrient- observed. Crystalline mineral components of the clay
and water-holding capacities of sandy soils, fraction of less than 0.002 millimeter are shown in table
management practices that conserve and maintain the 17 for major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
content of organic carbon are highly desirable, mineralogical suite was made up mostly of
Electrical conductivity values are low in all soils montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade mineral,
sampled. They generally range from 0.01 millimhos per kaolinite, and quartz.
centimeter to nondetectable amounts. They are Montmorillonite occurs in all of the soils sampled
nondetectable throughout the Pilgrims and Shadeville except in Ortega soils. The 14-angstrom intergrade
soils. These data indicate that the content of soluble mineral occurs throughout all pedons sampled. KAolinite
salt in soils sampled in Wakulla County is insufficient to occurs throughout all of the sampled soils except the Bt
detrimentally affect the growth of salt-sensitive plants horizon of Pilgrims soils. Quartz occurs throughout all









68


pedons. The content of calcite, mica, and gibbsite is Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil
insufficient for the assignment of numerical values, properties, particularly for soils that have a higher
Montmorillonite in the soils in Wakulla County was content of clay. Soils that contain montmorillonite clay
generally inherited from the sediments in which these have a higher capacity for retention of plant nutrient
soils formed. The stability of montmorillonite is generally than soils dominated by kaolinite, 14-angstrom
favored by a high level of pH or an alkaline condition, intergrade minerals, or quartz. The large content of
Montmorillonite generally is more abundant in areas montmorillonitic clay that occurs in Pilgrims soils
where the alkaline elements have not been leached by creates problems for most types of construction
percolating rainwater; however, montmorillonite can because of the large amounts of swelling when the clay
occur in moderate amounts regardless of drainage or is wet and of shrinking when it is dry. The clay
chemical conditions. The content of montmorillonite was mineralogy influences the use and management of most
most consistently higher in areas adjacent to the Gulf of soils in the county less frequently than the total content
Mexico. of clay.
The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
origin, is widespread in soils in Florida. It tends to be Engineering Index Test Data
more prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively well
drained conditions, although it occurs in a wide variety Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
of soil environments. This soil mineral is a major pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the
constituent of sand grain coatings in Alpin, Hurricane, county. The pedons are typical of the series and are
Ortega, and Ridgewood soils; however, the amount of described in the section "Soil Series and Their
coatings that occurs in these soils is sufficient to meet Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the
the established taxonomic criteria for coated Typic Materials Office, Florida Department of Transportation.
Quartzipsamments only in Alpin soils. These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent engineering purposes. The classifications given are
material; however, it also may have been formed as a based on data obtained by mechanical analyses and by
weathering product of other materials. Kaolinite is tests to determine liquid limit and plastic limit.
relatively stable in the acidic environments of the soils The mechanical analyses were made by combined
in the county. The weathering environment is less sieve and hydrometer methods. The various grain-size
severe with increased depth; therefore, the content of fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material
kaolinite frequently increases in the lower part of the in the soil sample, including material coarser than 2
solum. Clay-size quartz has primarily resulted from millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses
decrements of the silt fraction. should not be used in naming textural classes of soils.








69









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National group. An example is Typic Albaqualfs.
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (37). FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
series. Classification is based on soil properties the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
observed in the field or inferred from those observations where there is much biological activity. Among the
or on laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the properties and characteristics considered are particle-
classification of the soils in the survey area. The size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. soil properties. An example is loamy, siliceous, thermic
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An Arenic Hapludalfs.
example is Entisol. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
that reflect the most important variables within the the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder of the surface layer or of the underlying material within
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, a series.
meaning water, plus od, from Spodosol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Soil Series and Their Morphology
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic In this section, each soil series recognized in the
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
base status. Each great group is identified by the name in alphabetic order.
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (36). Many
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups, defined in Soil Taxonomy (37). Unless otherwise stated,
Extragrades have some properties that are not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
representative of the great group but do not indicate the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each characteristics of the soils in the series.
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The map units of each soil series are described in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great








69









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National group. An example is Typic Albaqualfs.
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (37). FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
series. Classification is based on soil properties the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
observed in the field or inferred from those observations where there is much biological activity. Among the
or on laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the properties and characteristics considered are particle-
classification of the soils in the survey area. The size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. soil properties. An example is loamy, siliceous, thermic
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An Arenic Hapludalfs.
example is Entisol. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
that reflect the most important variables within the the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder of the surface layer or of the underlying material within
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, a series.
meaning water, plus od, from Spodosol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Soil Series and Their Morphology
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic In this section, each soil series recognized in the
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
base status. Each great group is identified by the name in alphabetic order.
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (36). Many
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups, defined in Soil Taxonomy (37). Unless otherwise stated,
Extragrades have some properties that are not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
representative of the great group but do not indicate the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each characteristics of the soils in the series.
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The map units of each soil series are described in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great








70 Soil Survey


Alpin Series fine sand or sand, and the sand grains are mostly
uncoated. The Bt part of the E/Bt horizon has hue of
The Alpin series consists of nearly level to gently 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8; hue of 10YR,
undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in value of 5, and chroma of 4 to 7; or hue of 10YR, value
thick beds of sandy eolian or marine sediment. These of 6, chroma of 6 or 8. It occurs as lamellae of loamy
soils are on ridges and in broad areas on uplands on fine sand, fine sandy loam, or loamy sand 0.1
the Coastal Plain. The water table is below a depth of centimeter to 2 centimeters thick.
72 inches during the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5 Some pedons have an argillic horizon at a depth of
percent. These soils are thermic, coated Typic more than 80 inches, but this horizon is not diagnostic
Quartzipsamments. for the series.
The Alpin soils are geographically associated with
Otela, Lakeland, and Ortega soils. Otela soils have an Bayvi Series
argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Lakeland
and Ortega soils do not have lamellae. Also, Ortega The Bayvi series consists of nearly level, very poorly
soils are moderately well drained, drained soils that formed in marine sediment. These
Typical pedon of Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes; soils are in the coastal tidal marshes and are flooded
about 900 feet east of U.S. Highway 98, 0.5 mile south daily by normal high tides. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
of Medart, in a wooded area, NW14 sec. 1, T. 5 S., R. 2 These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Cumulic
W. Haplaquolls.
The Bayvi soils are geographically associated with
A-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; Chaires, Estero, Isles, Nutall, and Tooles soils. Chaires,
single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy Nutall, and Tooles soils have an argillic horizon. They
boundary. are slightly higher on the landscape than the Bayvi soils
E1-3 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and are adjacent to the tidal marsh. Estero soils have a
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual spodic horizon. Isles soils have an argillic horizon and
wavy boundary. are underlain by limestone.
E2-31 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; Typical pedon of Bayvi mucky sand, in an area of
few fine light gray (10YR 7/2) splotches of clean Bayvi, Isles, and Estero soils, frequently flooded; about
sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly acid; 1,200 feet east of County Road 372-A, 100 feet north of
clear wavy boundary. Dickerson Bay, about 3.7 miles south of Hartsfield lot
E/Bt1-42 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 111 southeast corner, on the south end of Porter Island:
sand (E); common continuous brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) loamy sand lamellae (Bt) 0.5 to 1 A-0 to 26 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) mucky
centimeter thick; single grained; loose; strongly sand; massive; loose; many fine and medium roots;
acid; gradual wavy boundary. moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
E/Bt2-61 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand (E); C1-26 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; few
common continuous brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clean sand grains; single grained; loose; common
loamy sand lamellae (Bt) 0.25 centimeter to 2 fine and medium roots; moderately alkaline; gradual
centimeters thick; single grained; loose; strongly wavy boundary.
acid. C2-50 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; single grained; loose; moderately alkaline.
The thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more.
Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid. The Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
lamellae are at a depth of 40 to 78 inches. alkaline when the soil is wet.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
5, and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is sand or fine or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is mucky loamy
sand. sand, mucky sand, sand, loamy sand, or muck. The
The E horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 5 thickness of the A horizon generally ranges from 24 to
and chroma of 4 to 6, value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 48 inches. If the surface layer is muck, however, this
to 8, or value of 8 and chroma of 2. The texture is fine horizon is less than 8 inches thick.
sand or sand. The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
The E part of the E/Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand.
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is








70 Soil Survey


Alpin Series fine sand or sand, and the sand grains are mostly
uncoated. The Bt part of the E/Bt horizon has hue of
The Alpin series consists of nearly level to gently 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8; hue of 10YR,
undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in value of 5, and chroma of 4 to 7; or hue of 10YR, value
thick beds of sandy eolian or marine sediment. These of 6, chroma of 6 or 8. It occurs as lamellae of loamy
soils are on ridges and in broad areas on uplands on fine sand, fine sandy loam, or loamy sand 0.1
the Coastal Plain. The water table is below a depth of centimeter to 2 centimeters thick.
72 inches during the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5 Some pedons have an argillic horizon at a depth of
percent. These soils are thermic, coated Typic more than 80 inches, but this horizon is not diagnostic
Quartzipsamments. for the series.
The Alpin soils are geographically associated with
Otela, Lakeland, and Ortega soils. Otela soils have an Bayvi Series
argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Lakeland
and Ortega soils do not have lamellae. Also, Ortega The Bayvi series consists of nearly level, very poorly
soils are moderately well drained, drained soils that formed in marine sediment. These
Typical pedon of Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes; soils are in the coastal tidal marshes and are flooded
about 900 feet east of U.S. Highway 98, 0.5 mile south daily by normal high tides. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
of Medart, in a wooded area, NW14 sec. 1, T. 5 S., R. 2 These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Cumulic
W. Haplaquolls.
The Bayvi soils are geographically associated with
A-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; Chaires, Estero, Isles, Nutall, and Tooles soils. Chaires,
single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy Nutall, and Tooles soils have an argillic horizon. They
boundary. are slightly higher on the landscape than the Bayvi soils
E1-3 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and are adjacent to the tidal marsh. Estero soils have a
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual spodic horizon. Isles soils have an argillic horizon and
wavy boundary. are underlain by limestone.
E2-31 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; Typical pedon of Bayvi mucky sand, in an area of
few fine light gray (10YR 7/2) splotches of clean Bayvi, Isles, and Estero soils, frequently flooded; about
sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly acid; 1,200 feet east of County Road 372-A, 100 feet north of
clear wavy boundary. Dickerson Bay, about 3.7 miles south of Hartsfield lot
E/Bt1-42 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 111 southeast corner, on the south end of Porter Island:
sand (E); common continuous brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) loamy sand lamellae (Bt) 0.5 to 1 A-0 to 26 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) mucky
centimeter thick; single grained; loose; strongly sand; massive; loose; many fine and medium roots;
acid; gradual wavy boundary. moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
E/Bt2-61 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand (E); C1-26 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; few
common continuous brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clean sand grains; single grained; loose; common
loamy sand lamellae (Bt) 0.25 centimeter to 2 fine and medium roots; moderately alkaline; gradual
centimeters thick; single grained; loose; strongly wavy boundary.
acid. C2-50 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; single grained; loose; moderately alkaline.
The thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more.
Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid. The Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
lamellae are at a depth of 40 to 78 inches. alkaline when the soil is wet.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
5, and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is sand or fine or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is mucky loamy
sand. sand, mucky sand, sand, loamy sand, or muck. The
The E horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 5 thickness of the A horizon generally ranges from 24 to
and chroma of 4 to 6, value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 48 inches. If the surface layer is muck, however, this
to 8, or value of 8 and chroma of 2. The texture is fine horizon is less than 8 inches thick.
sand or sand. The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
The E part of the E/Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand.
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is








Wakulla County, Florida 71


Chaires Series combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than
30 inches.
The Chaires series consists of nearly level, poorly The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. The thickness
sediment. These soils are on broad flatwoods on the of this horizon ranges from 4 to 13 inches. If value is
Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water table usually is less than 3.5, the thickness of this horizon is less than
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months of the 10 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand.
year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
more. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are sandy, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. In
siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods. some pedons the E horizon has organic-stained sand
The Chaires soils are geographically associated with grains.
Pilgrims, Leon, Moriah, Nutall, Tooles, and Surrency The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
soils. Pilgrims and Nutall soils do not have a spodic and chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
horizon and are underlain by limestone between depths and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is fine sand, sand, or
of 20 and 40 inches. Also, Pilgrims soils are somewhat loamy fine sand.
poorly drained. Leon soils do not have an argillic Some pedons have an E' horizon, which has hue of
horizon. Moriah and Tooles soils do not have a spodic 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. The
horizon and are underlain by limestone between depths texture is sand or fine sand.
of 40 and 60 inches. Also, Moriah soils are somewhat Some pedons have a Bh' horizon, which has colors
poorly drained. Surrency soils are very poorly drained similar to those in the Bh horizon. The texture is fine
and do not have a spodic horizon, sand, sand, or loamy fine sand.
Typical pedon of Chaires fine sand; about 900 feet The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
west of the Jefferson County line, 2.6 miles north of and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5GY, value of 5 to 7,
U.S. Highway 98, in a stand of planted pine, SE/4 sec. and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam, fine
12, T. 3 S., R. 2 E. sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Some pedons have

Ap-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; sandy clay in the lower part of the Btg horizon and have
moderate fine granular structure; very friable; few or common red, brown, or gray mottles.
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
E1-7 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak 5GY, 5G, or 5BG, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. The
fine granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; texture is sandy clay or sandy clay loam. This horizon
clear wavy boundary, generally has a highly mixed matrix color and gleyed
E2-12 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; mottles.
few medium prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) mottles;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy Croatan Series
boundary.
Bhl-18 to 23 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; The Croatan series consists of nearly level, very
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; poorly drained soils that formed in moderately thick,
few very fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy highly decomposed organic material underlain by
boundary. mineral material. These soils are in depressional areas
Bh2-23 to 32 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) sand; on flatwoods and low uplands on the Coastal Plain. The
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; high water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. to 4 months of the year and at or above the surface for
Btg-32 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay 5 to 8 months. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. These soils
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown are loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric Medisaprists.
(10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular The Croatan soils in this survey area are taxadjuncts to
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; the series because they have a sandy Ag horizon.
medium acid. The Croatan soils are geographically associated with
Dorovan, Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to 80 Surrency soils. These associated soils are mineral soils,
inches or more. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to except for Dorovan soils, which have an organic layer
strongly acid in the A, E, and Bh horizons and from very more than 51 inches thick. In addition, Leon, Plummer,
strongly acid to neutral in the Btg horizon. The and Scranton soils are poorly drained.








Wakulla County, Florida 71


Chaires Series combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than
30 inches.
The Chaires series consists of nearly level, poorly The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. The thickness
sediment. These soils are on broad flatwoods on the of this horizon ranges from 4 to 13 inches. If value is
Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water table usually is less than 3.5, the thickness of this horizon is less than
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months of the 10 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand.
year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
more. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are sandy, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. In
siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods. some pedons the E horizon has organic-stained sand
The Chaires soils are geographically associated with grains.
Pilgrims, Leon, Moriah, Nutall, Tooles, and Surrency The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
soils. Pilgrims and Nutall soils do not have a spodic and chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
horizon and are underlain by limestone between depths and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is fine sand, sand, or
of 20 and 40 inches. Also, Pilgrims soils are somewhat loamy fine sand.
poorly drained. Leon soils do not have an argillic Some pedons have an E' horizon, which has hue of
horizon. Moriah and Tooles soils do not have a spodic 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. The
horizon and are underlain by limestone between depths texture is sand or fine sand.
of 40 and 60 inches. Also, Moriah soils are somewhat Some pedons have a Bh' horizon, which has colors
poorly drained. Surrency soils are very poorly drained similar to those in the Bh horizon. The texture is fine
and do not have a spodic horizon, sand, sand, or loamy fine sand.
Typical pedon of Chaires fine sand; about 900 feet The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
west of the Jefferson County line, 2.6 miles north of and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5GY, value of 5 to 7,
U.S. Highway 98, in a stand of planted pine, SE/4 sec. and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam, fine
12, T. 3 S., R. 2 E. sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Some pedons have

Ap-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; sandy clay in the lower part of the Btg horizon and have
moderate fine granular structure; very friable; few or common red, brown, or gray mottles.
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
E1-7 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak 5GY, 5G, or 5BG, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. The
fine granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; texture is sandy clay or sandy clay loam. This horizon
clear wavy boundary, generally has a highly mixed matrix color and gleyed
E2-12 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; mottles.
few medium prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) mottles;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy Croatan Series
boundary.
Bhl-18 to 23 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; The Croatan series consists of nearly level, very
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; poorly drained soils that formed in moderately thick,
few very fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy highly decomposed organic material underlain by
boundary. mineral material. These soils are in depressional areas
Bh2-23 to 32 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) sand; on flatwoods and low uplands on the Coastal Plain. The
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; high water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. to 4 months of the year and at or above the surface for
Btg-32 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay 5 to 8 months. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. These soils
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown are loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric Medisaprists.
(10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular The Croatan soils in this survey area are taxadjuncts to
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; the series because they have a sandy Ag horizon.
medium acid. The Croatan soils are geographically associated with
Dorovan, Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to 80 Surrency soils. These associated soils are mineral soils,
inches or more. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to except for Dorovan soils, which have an organic layer
strongly acid in the A, E, and Bh horizons and from very more than 51 inches thick. In addition, Leon, Plummer,
strongly acid to neutral in the Btg horizon. The and Scranton soils are poorly drained.








72 Soil Survey


Typical pedon of Croatan muck, in an area of that is 16 to 51 inches thick. Leon, Plummer, and
Croatan-Dorovan mucks; about 0.25 mile west of Forest Scranton soils are poorly drained.
Route 313, 2 miles south of Florida State Road 267, in Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, in an area of
a swamp, NW1/4SE1/ sec. 35, T. 2 S., R. 2 W. Croatan-Dorovan mucks; about 0.2 mile south of Forest
Road 347, 0.4 mile east of Farm Road 353, in a
Oal-0 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly depressional area, SW/4NW/4 sec. 12, T. 3 S., R. 1 W.
decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about 10
percent fiber, unrubbed, and less than 5 percent Oa-0 to 65 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly
fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable; extremely acid; decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about 10
gradual wavy boundary. percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable;
Oa2-15 to 27 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
muck; about 10 percent fiber, unrubbed, and less C-65 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
than 5 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable; sandy clay; massive; firm; very strongly acid.
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Ag-27 to 35 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; The thickness of the organic material ranges from 51
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual to more than 80 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in
wavy boundary. the organic layer and is strongly acid or very strongly
Cgl-35 to 53 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy acid in the C horizon.
loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; The Oa horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary. 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is less
Cg2-53 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay than 10 percent after rubbing.
loam; massive; firm; extremely acid. The C or Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand,
The combined thickness of the organic horizons loamy sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay.
commonly ranges from 16 to 35 inches. In places,
however, they extend to a depth of 51 inches. Reaction Estero Series
is slightly acid to extremely acid.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of The Estero series consists of nearly level, very poorly
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is drained soils that formed in marine sediment. These
less than 5 percent after rubbing. soils are in coastal tidal marshes and are flooded daily
The Ag horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, by normal high tides. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. These
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy sand, soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
mucky sand, or sandy loam. Haplaquods. The Estero soils in this survey area are
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, more alkaline in the Bh and C horizons than is definitive
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture ranges from sand to for the series.
sandy clay. The Estero soils are geographically associated with
Bayvi, Chaires, Isles, Nutall, and Tooles soils. Bayvi
Dorovan Series soils do not have a spodic horizon. Chaires, Nutall, and
Tooles soils have an argillic horizon. They are slightly
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very higher on the landscape than Estero soils and are
poorly drained soils that formed in highly decomposed adjacent to the tidal marsh. Isles soils have an argillic
organic material that is more than 51 inches thick and is horizon and are underlain by limestone.
underlain by mineral sediment. These soils are in Typical pedon of Estero muck, in an area of Bayvi,
depressional areas on flatwoods and low uplands on Isles, and Estero soils, frequently flooded; about 3,800
the Coastal Plain. The high water table is within 10 feet east of County Road 59, 200 feet south of dike,
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of the year and NW/4 sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 2 E.
at or above the surface for 5 to 8 months. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. These soils are dysic, thermic Typic Oa-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) muck;
Medisaprists. about 90 percent fiber, unrubbed, and less than 10
The Dorovan soils are geographically associated with percent fiber, rubbed; massive; friable; moderately
Croatan, Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
Surrency soils. These associated soils are mineral soils, A-4 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
except for Croatan soils, which have an organic layer sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;








72 Soil Survey


Typical pedon of Croatan muck, in an area of that is 16 to 51 inches thick. Leon, Plummer, and
Croatan-Dorovan mucks; about 0.25 mile west of Forest Scranton soils are poorly drained.
Route 313, 2 miles south of Florida State Road 267, in Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, in an area of
a swamp, NW1/4SE1/ sec. 35, T. 2 S., R. 2 W. Croatan-Dorovan mucks; about 0.2 mile south of Forest
Road 347, 0.4 mile east of Farm Road 353, in a
Oal-0 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly depressional area, SW/4NW/4 sec. 12, T. 3 S., R. 1 W.
decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about 10
percent fiber, unrubbed, and less than 5 percent Oa-0 to 65 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly
fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable; extremely acid; decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about 10
gradual wavy boundary. percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable;
Oa2-15 to 27 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
muck; about 10 percent fiber, unrubbed, and less C-65 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
than 5 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very friable; sandy clay; massive; firm; very strongly acid.
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Ag-27 to 35 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; The thickness of the organic material ranges from 51
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual to more than 80 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in
wavy boundary. the organic layer and is strongly acid or very strongly
Cgl-35 to 53 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy acid in the C horizon.
loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; The Oa horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary. 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is less
Cg2-53 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay than 10 percent after rubbing.
loam; massive; firm; extremely acid. The C or Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand,
The combined thickness of the organic horizons loamy sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay.
commonly ranges from 16 to 35 inches. In places,
however, they extend to a depth of 51 inches. Reaction Estero Series
is slightly acid to extremely acid.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of The Estero series consists of nearly level, very poorly
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is drained soils that formed in marine sediment. These
less than 5 percent after rubbing. soils are in coastal tidal marshes and are flooded daily
The Ag horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, by normal high tides. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. These
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy sand, soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
mucky sand, or sandy loam. Haplaquods. The Estero soils in this survey area are
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, more alkaline in the Bh and C horizons than is definitive
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture ranges from sand to for the series.
sandy clay. The Estero soils are geographically associated with
Bayvi, Chaires, Isles, Nutall, and Tooles soils. Bayvi
Dorovan Series soils do not have a spodic horizon. Chaires, Nutall, and
Tooles soils have an argillic horizon. They are slightly
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very higher on the landscape than Estero soils and are
poorly drained soils that formed in highly decomposed adjacent to the tidal marsh. Isles soils have an argillic
organic material that is more than 51 inches thick and is horizon and are underlain by limestone.
underlain by mineral sediment. These soils are in Typical pedon of Estero muck, in an area of Bayvi,
depressional areas on flatwoods and low uplands on Isles, and Estero soils, frequently flooded; about 3,800
the Coastal Plain. The high water table is within 10 feet east of County Road 59, 200 feet south of dike,
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of the year and NW/4 sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 2 E.
at or above the surface for 5 to 8 months. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. These soils are dysic, thermic Typic Oa-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) muck;
Medisaprists. about 90 percent fiber, unrubbed, and less than 10
The Dorovan soils are geographically associated with percent fiber, rubbed; massive; friable; moderately
Croatan, Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
Surrency soils. These associated soils are mineral soils, A-4 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
except for Croatan soils, which have an organic layer sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;








Wakulla County, Florida 73


many fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear smooth Ap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
boundary. fine granular structure; loose; medium acid; abrupt
E-14 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; smooth boundary.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; moderately Egl-8 to 19 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
alkaline; clear wavy boundary. few fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
Bh-34 to 54 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand; mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
massive; very friable; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. Eg2-19 to 27 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand;
C-54 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
sand; single grained; loose; moderately alkaline. 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; clear
smooth boundary.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. Btg-27 to 38 inches; mixed gray (10YR 5/1) and light
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2.or 3, gray (10YR 7/1) sandy loam; few medium prominent
and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons do not have an Oa reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) mottles; weak medium
horizon. subangular blocky structure; very friable; neutral;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 clear smooth boundary.
and chroma of 1 or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or Cg-38 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
2. The texture is sand and mucky sand. grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or sand. 2Cg-69 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; about 10
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 or percent shell fragments; single grained; loose;
3 and chroma of 1 or value of 3 and chroma of 1 or 2. moderately alkaline.
The texture is sand or fine sand.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and The thickness of the solum ranges from 35 to 60
chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine sand. inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
alkaline in the A and E horizons and from slightly acid
Goldhead Series to moderately alkaline in the B and C horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
The Goldhead series consists of deep, nearly level, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
stratified, unconsolidated, loamy and sandy marine and chroma of 1 or 2. Common or many pale brown or
sediment. These soils are in broad areas on flatwoods. yellowish brown mottles are in this horizon. The texture
The seasonal high water table usually is within 10 is sand or fine sand.
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of the year and The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more. and chroma of 1 or 2. Common or many white, light
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are loamy, gray, reddish yellow, and brownish yellow mottles are in
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. this horizon. The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay
The Goldhead soils are geographically associated loam.
with Chaires, Leon, Nutall, Scranton, and Tooles soils. The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8,
Chaires and Leon soils have a spodic horizon. Leon and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or loamy
soils do not have an argillic horizon. Nutall soils have sand. The 2Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to
an argillic horizon within 20 inches of the surface and 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Less than 20 percent shell
are underlain by limestone between depths of 20 and fragments are in this horizon. Some pedons do not
40 inches. Scranton soils do not have an argillic horizon have a 2Cg horizon.
between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Tooles soils are
underlain by limestone between depths of 40 and 80 Hurricane Series
inches.
Typical pedon of Goldhead fine sand; about 0.9 mile The Hurricane series consists of nearly level to
north of U.S. Highway 98, 0.8 mile east of the St. Marks gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that
River, 950 feet southwest of radio tower, in a stand of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediment. These
planted pine, SWIANW4 sec. 20, T. 3 S., R. 2 E. soils are in the higher areas on flatwoods and on low








Wakulla County, Florida 73


many fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear smooth Ap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
boundary. fine granular structure; loose; medium acid; abrupt
E-14 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; smooth boundary.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; moderately Egl-8 to 19 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
alkaline; clear wavy boundary. few fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
Bh-34 to 54 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand; mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
massive; very friable; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. Eg2-19 to 27 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand;
C-54 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
sand; single grained; loose; moderately alkaline. 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; clear
smooth boundary.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. Btg-27 to 38 inches; mixed gray (10YR 5/1) and light
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2.or 3, gray (10YR 7/1) sandy loam; few medium prominent
and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons do not have an Oa reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) mottles; weak medium
horizon. subangular blocky structure; very friable; neutral;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 clear smooth boundary.
and chroma of 1 or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or Cg-38 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
2. The texture is sand and mucky sand. grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or sand. 2Cg-69 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; about 10
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 or percent shell fragments; single grained; loose;
3 and chroma of 1 or value of 3 and chroma of 1 or 2. moderately alkaline.
The texture is sand or fine sand.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and The thickness of the solum ranges from 35 to 60
chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine sand. inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
alkaline in the A and E horizons and from slightly acid
Goldhead Series to moderately alkaline in the B and C horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
The Goldhead series consists of deep, nearly level, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
stratified, unconsolidated, loamy and sandy marine and chroma of 1 or 2. Common or many pale brown or
sediment. These soils are in broad areas on flatwoods. yellowish brown mottles are in this horizon. The texture
The seasonal high water table usually is within 10 is sand or fine sand.
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of the year and The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more. and chroma of 1 or 2. Common or many white, light
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are loamy, gray, reddish yellow, and brownish yellow mottles are in
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. this horizon. The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay
The Goldhead soils are geographically associated loam.
with Chaires, Leon, Nutall, Scranton, and Tooles soils. The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8,
Chaires and Leon soils have a spodic horizon. Leon and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or loamy
soils do not have an argillic horizon. Nutall soils have sand. The 2Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to
an argillic horizon within 20 inches of the surface and 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Less than 20 percent shell
are underlain by limestone between depths of 20 and fragments are in this horizon. Some pedons do not
40 inches. Scranton soils do not have an argillic horizon have a 2Cg horizon.
between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Tooles soils are
underlain by limestone between depths of 40 and 80 Hurricane Series
inches.
Typical pedon of Goldhead fine sand; about 0.9 mile The Hurricane series consists of nearly level to
north of U.S. Highway 98, 0.8 mile east of the St. Marks gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that
River, 950 feet southwest of radio tower, in a stand of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediment. These
planted pine, SWIANW4 sec. 20, T. 3 S., R. 2 E. soils are in the higher areas on flatwoods and on low








74 Soil Survey


uplands on the Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. The texture is sand or fine
table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months sand. Iron segregation mottles can occur at a depth of
of the year and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for most more than 20 inches.
of the remainder of the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5 The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is
Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods. sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. The sand grains in this
The Hurricane soils are geographically associated horizon are well coated with organic matter.
with Lutterloh, Ridgewood, Ortega, Leon, and Scranton
soils. Lutterloh soils have an argillic horizon at a depth Isles Series
of 40 to 80 inches and do not have a spodic horizon.
Ridgewood and Ortega soils are sandy and do not have The Isles series consists of very poorly drained soils
a spodic horizon. In addition, Ortega soils are higher on that formed in loamy marine sediment that is 40 to 60
the landscape than the Hurricane soils and are inches thick and is underlain by limestone. These soils
moderately well drained. Leon soils are poorly drained are in tidal marshes and are flooded daily by high tides.
and have a spodic horizon at a depth of 10 to 30 The slopes are smooth or slightly convex and are 0 to 1
inches. Scranton soils are poorly drained and do not percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
have a spodic horizon. Arenic Ochraqualfs. The Isles soils in this survey area
Typical pedon of Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent are slightly more alkaline in the A and E horizons than
slopes; about 1.7 miles west of U.S. Highway 98 at is definitive for the series.
Medart, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 319 on the east The Isles soils are geographically associated with
side of the Forest Service Road, in a planted pine area, Bayvi, Chaires, Estero, Leon, and Scranton soils. Bayvi
NE/4SE/4 sec. 34, T. 4 S., R. 2 W. soils are not underlain by limestone, do not have an
argillic horizon, and are sandy throughout. Chaires and
Ap-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand; Leon soils have a spodic horizon, are higher on the
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear landscape than the Isles soils, and are better drained.
smooth boundary. Estero soils have a spodic horizon. Scranton soils are
E1-5 to 21 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; single poorly drained and are sandy throughout.
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth Typical pedon of Isles sand, in an area of Bayvi,
boundary. Isles, and Estero soils, frequently flooded; about 2 miles
E2-21 to 32 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) west of the Jefferson County line, 25 feet south of the
sand; many medium and fine light gray (2.5Y 7/2) Florida Trail west of the dike loop on Deep Creek, in a
and white (10YR 8/2) splotches of clean sand black needlerush area, NWI/SW/4 sec. 26, T. 4 S., R.
grains; common medium and fine prominent 2 E.
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) iron segregation mottles; single grained; A-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; about 5
loose; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. percent well decomposed organic material; single
E3-32 to 55 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand; many grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear smooth
coarse prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) and boundary.
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron segregation E-9 to 35 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy
abrupt smooth boundary. boundary.
Bh-55 to 80 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; Btg-35 to 51 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. clay loam; massive; sticky and nonplastic; neutral;
abrupt wavy boundary.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly R-51 inches; limestone bedrock.
acid. The thickness of the sand is more than 80 inches.
The spodic horizon is at a depth of more than 50 Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline.
inches. The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value inches.
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture of the A Some pedons have an Oa horizon, which has hue of
horizon is sand or fine sand. 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and








Wakulla County, Florida 75


chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 8.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5GY, value of 4 to 6, and Lakeland Series
chroma of 1 to 3. Yellowish brown, dark greenish gray,
light olive brown, or greenish gray mottles are in this The Lakeland series consists of nearly level to gently
horizon. The texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in
clay loam. thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water
Kershaw Series table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent. These soils are thermic, coated Typic
The Kershaw series consists of nearly level to gently Quartzipsamments.
undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in The Lakeland soils are geographically associated
thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are with Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water lamellae at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and
table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5 Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are lower
percent. These soils are thermic, uncoated Typic on the landscape than the Lakeland soils. In addition,
Quartzipsamments. Otela soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
The Kershaw soils are geographically associated with than 40 inches.
Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have lamellae Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and Ortega slopes; about 1.1 miles west of U.S. Highway 98, 0.2
soils are moderately well drained and are lower on the mile north of County Road 272A near Panacea Park, in
landscape than the Kershaw soils. In addition, Otela a wooded area, NE/4SW/4 sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 2 W.
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Ap-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
Typical pedon of Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual smooth
slopes; about 1,200 feet north of the Zion Hill Church, boundary.
3,000 feet west of U.S. Highway 319, in a wooded area, C1-6 to 44 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
SW/4NE/4 sec. 6, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. sand; coated sand grains; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; diffuse irregular boundary.
A-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; weak C2-44 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
and few medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. C3-55 to 80 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; many
C1-8 to 47 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few fine and medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of
white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand grains; clean sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly
single grained; loose; common fine and medium acid.
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-47 to 59 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
common white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand acid except where lime has been added to the surface
grains; single grained; loose; common medium and layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section
few coarse roots; medium acid; gradual wavy ranges from 5 to 10 percent. The texture is sand or fine
boundary, sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
C3-59 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
grained; loose; few medium roots; medium acid. 5, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly chroma of 3 to 6 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and
acid except where lime has been added to the surface chroma of 4 to 8. Small pockets of white sand grains
layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section are in some pedons.
is less than 5 percent. The texture is sand or fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Leon Series
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Leon series consists of nearly level, poorly








Wakulla County, Florida 75


chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 8.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5GY, value of 4 to 6, and Lakeland Series
chroma of 1 to 3. Yellowish brown, dark greenish gray,
light olive brown, or greenish gray mottles are in this The Lakeland series consists of nearly level to gently
horizon. The texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in
clay loam. thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water
Kershaw Series table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent. These soils are thermic, coated Typic
The Kershaw series consists of nearly level to gently Quartzipsamments.
undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in The Lakeland soils are geographically associated
thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are with Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water lamellae at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and
table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5 Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are lower
percent. These soils are thermic, uncoated Typic on the landscape than the Lakeland soils. In addition,
Quartzipsamments. Otela soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
The Kershaw soils are geographically associated with than 40 inches.
Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have lamellae Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and Ortega slopes; about 1.1 miles west of U.S. Highway 98, 0.2
soils are moderately well drained and are lower on the mile north of County Road 272A near Panacea Park, in
landscape than the Kershaw soils. In addition, Otela a wooded area, NE/4SW/4 sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 2 W.
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Ap-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
Typical pedon of Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual smooth
slopes; about 1,200 feet north of the Zion Hill Church, boundary.
3,000 feet west of U.S. Highway 319, in a wooded area, C1-6 to 44 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
SW/4NE/4 sec. 6, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. sand; coated sand grains; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; diffuse irregular boundary.
A-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; weak C2-44 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
and few medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. C3-55 to 80 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; many
C1-8 to 47 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few fine and medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of
white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand grains; clean sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly
single grained; loose; common fine and medium acid.
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-47 to 59 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
common white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand acid except where lime has been added to the surface
grains; single grained; loose; common medium and layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section
few coarse roots; medium acid; gradual wavy ranges from 5 to 10 percent. The texture is sand or fine
boundary, sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
C3-59 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
grained; loose; few medium roots; medium acid. 5, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly chroma of 3 to 6 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and
acid except where lime has been added to the surface chroma of 4 to 8. Small pockets of white sand grains
layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section are in some pedons.
is less than 5 percent. The texture is sand or fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Leon Series
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Leon series consists of nearly level, poorly








Wakulla County, Florida 75


chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 8.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5GY, value of 4 to 6, and Lakeland Series
chroma of 1 to 3. Yellowish brown, dark greenish gray,
light olive brown, or greenish gray mottles are in this The Lakeland series consists of nearly level to gently
horizon. The texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in
clay loam. thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water
Kershaw Series table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent. These soils are thermic, coated Typic
The Kershaw series consists of nearly level to gently Quartzipsamments.
undulating, excessively drained soils that formed in The Lakeland soils are geographically associated
thick deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are with Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have
in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. Depth to the water lamellae at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and
table is more than 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5 Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are lower
percent. These soils are thermic, uncoated Typic on the landscape than the Lakeland soils. In addition,
Quartzipsamments. Otela soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
The Kershaw soils are geographically associated with than 40 inches.
Alpin, Otela, and Ortega soils. Alpin soils have lamellae Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Otela and Ortega slopes; about 1.1 miles west of U.S. Highway 98, 0.2
soils are moderately well drained and are lower on the mile north of County Road 272A near Panacea Park, in
landscape than the Kershaw soils. In addition, Otela a wooded area, NE/4SW/4 sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 2 W.
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Ap-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
Typical pedon of Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual smooth
slopes; about 1,200 feet north of the Zion Hill Church, boundary.
3,000 feet west of U.S. Highway 319, in a wooded area, C1-6 to 44 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
SW/4NE/4 sec. 6, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. sand; coated sand grains; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; diffuse irregular boundary.
A-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; weak C2-44 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
and few medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. C3-55 to 80 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; many
C1-8 to 47 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few fine and medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of
white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand grains; clean sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly
single grained; loose; common fine and medium acid.
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-47 to 59 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
common white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand acid except where lime has been added to the surface
grains; single grained; loose; common medium and layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section
few coarse roots; medium acid; gradual wavy ranges from 5 to 10 percent. The texture is sand or fine
boundary, sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
C3-59 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
grained; loose; few medium roots; medium acid. 5, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly chroma of 3 to 6 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and
acid except where lime has been added to the surface chroma of 4 to 8. Small pockets of white sand grains
layer. The content of clay plus silt in the control section are in some pedons.
is less than 5 percent. The texture is sand or fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Leon Series
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Leon series consists of nearly level, poorly









76 Soil Survey


drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy common light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) streaks and
marine sediment. These soils are in broad areas on pockets; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
flatwoods on the Coastal Plain. The seasonal high
water table usually is within 10 inches of the surface for Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid.
1 to 3 months of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 The texture is sand or fine sand.
inches for more than 6 months. Slopes are 0 to 2 The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. When this horizon is dry, it has
Haplaquods. a salt-and-pepper appearance as a result of the mixed
The Leon soils are geographically associated with organic matter and white sand grains.
Chaires, Ridgewood, Hurricane, Plummer, Pottsburg, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
Rutlege, Scranton, and Surrency soils. Chaires and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have black or very dark
Plummer soils have an argillic horizon. Ridgewood and gray, organic-stained material along root channels.
Hurricane soils are higher on the landscape than the The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
Leon soils and are somewhat poorly drained. Pottsburg value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3.
soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 51 The E' horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
inches. Rutlege and Surrency soils are very poorly to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons do not have
drained and are in the lower positions on the landscape. an E' horizon.
In addition, Surrency soils have an argillic horizon. The B'h horizon is similar to the Bh horizon and is
Scranton soils do not have a spodic horizon, below the E' horizon. Some pedons do not have a B'h
Typical pedon of Leon sand; about 4,000 feet south horizon.
of Cypress Pond, 3,000 feet west of Arran, NE/4NW/4 Some pedons do not have a bisequum of E' and B'h
sec. 34, T. 3 S., R. 2 W. horizons but have a C horizon, which has hue of 7.5YR
or 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4.
A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; common very Lutterloh Series
fine, fine, medium, and coarse roots; many clean
sand grains; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth The Lutterloh series consists of nearly level to gently
boundary. sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
E-5 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; many clean sandy and loamy marine sediment. These soils are on
sand grains; single grained; loose; common very low uplands and in the higher areas on flatwoods on the
fine, fine, medium, and coarse roots; very strongly Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water table is at a
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. depth of 18 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months of the year
Bh1-18 to 27 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches for most of the
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm remainder of the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5
and friable; few very fine, fine, and medium roots; percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Grossarenic Paleudalfs.
Bh2-27 to 38 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand; The Lutterloh soils are geographically associated with
weak medium and fine subangular blocky structure; Otela, Shadeville, Ridgewood, Pilgrims, Moriah, Ortega,
friable; few very fine and fine roots; very strongly and Tooles soils. Otela soils are moderately well
acid; clear wavy boundary. drained and are slightly higher on the landscape than
E'1-38 to 53 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) the Lutterloh soils. Shadeville soils are in the higher
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; positions and are moderately well drained. They have
gradual wavy boundary. an argillic horizon between depths of 20 and 40 inches
E'2-53 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; and are underlain by limestone at a depth of 40 to 80
common coarse faint gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; inches. Ridgewood soils do not have an argillic horizon.
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy Pilgrims soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of less
boundary. than 20 inches. Moriah soils are underlain by limestone
B'h1-58 to 65 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand; below the argillic horizon. Ortega soils are moderately
few pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) streaks and pockets; well drained, are sandy throughout, and are slightly
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy higher on the landscape than the Lutterloh soils. Tooles
boundary. soils are poorly drained and are underlain by limestone
B'h2-65 to 80 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand; between depths of 40 and 80 inches.








Wakulla County, Florida 77


Typical pedon of Lutterloh fine sand, 0 to 5 percent Mandarin Series
slopes; about 2,700 feet south of the Leon County line,
1,700 feet west of Old Plank Road, NW14SE% sec. 31, The Mandarin series consists of nearly level,
T. 2 S., R. 2 E. somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in sandy
marine sediment. These soils are on flatwoods. The
Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine water table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches for 4 to 6
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid; months during most years. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
clear smooth boundary. These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic
E1-7 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; Haplohumods. The Mandarin soils in this survey area
many medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean are taxadjuncts to the series because the Bh horizon is
sand grains; few coarse prominent yellow (10YR thinner than is defined as the range for the series. This
7/6) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly difference, however, does not significantly affect the
acid; gradual wavy boundary. use, management, and behavior of these soils.
E2-22 to 31 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; The Mandarin soils are geographically associated
many medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean with Ridgewood, Ortega, Leon, Rutlege, Sapelo, and
sand grains; single grained; loose; very strongly Scranton soils. Ridgewood and Ortega soils do not
acid; clear smooth boundary. have a spodic horizon. In addition, Ortega soils are in
E3-31 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; higher positions on the landscape than the Mandarin
many fine prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) iron soils and are better drained. Leon, Rutlege, Sapelo, and
segregation mottles; single grained; loose; very Scranton soils are in the lower positions and are not so
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. well drained as the Mandarin soils. Also, Scranton and
Btg1-58 to 70 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Rutlege soils do not have a spodic horizon.
fine sandy loam; many coarse prominent strong Typical pedon of Mandarin fine sand; about 400 feet
brown (7.5YR 5/8), few medium prominent brown east of Lost Creek, 700 feet north of County Road 374,
(7.5YR 5/4), and few fine distinct reddish yellow in a wooded area, NWV4NW/4 sec. 1, T. 4 S., R. 2 W.
(7.5YR 6/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear Ap-0 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
smooth boundary. granular structure; very friable; extremely acid;
Btg2-70 to 80 inches; light gray (N 7/0) fine sandy abrupt smooth boundary.
loam; common fine and few coarse prominent E-6 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and yellowish brown sand; single grained; loose; extremely acid; abrupt
(10YR 5/6) mottles; few thin clay films on faces of smooth boundary.
peds; moderate medium subangular blocky Bh-24 to 29 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
structure; firm; very strongly acid. sand; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; extremely acid; clear wavy
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to very strongly boundary.
acid in the A or Ap horizon and from medium acid to BC-29 to 32 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand;/
very strongly acid in the E and Bt horizons. The weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more. extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to C1-32 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or common fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
sand.common fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
sand. mottles; single grained; loose; extremely acid; clear
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and wavy boundary
chroma of 1 to 4. Few to many brown, yellow, or gray C2-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
mottles are in this horizon. The texture is fine sand or common fine distinct light brown (7.5YR 6/4)
common fine distinct light brown (7.5YR 6/4)
sand. mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y or
is neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 2 Reaction ranges from medium acid to extremely acid
or less. Few or common brown, yellow, and gray in the A, E, and Bh horizons and from neutral to very
mottles are in this horizon. The texture is fine sandy strongly acid in the BE, B'h, and E' horizons, when
loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons present. The texture is sand or fine sand.
the lower part of the Btg horizon is gleyed. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1.









78 Soil Survey


The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and content of fiber in the surface tier ranges from about 10
chroma of 1 or 2. to 35 percent before rubbing and from 3 to 20 percent
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and after rubbing. The content of fiber in the subsurface
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; tiers is less than 40 percent before rubbing and less
or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. than 10 percent after rubbing. Thin, discontinuous
The BE horizon, when present, or the BC horizon has mineral layers are in some pedons.
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4; hue
of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of Meggett Series
7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The Meggett series consists of nearly level, poorly
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a bisequum of E' drained soils that formed in marly and clayey marine
and B'h horizons between the BE and C horizons, sediment. These soils are on flood plains on the Lower
Some pedons have an E' horizon, which has hue of Coastal Plain and are frequently flooded. This flooding
10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. Some usually occurs in the winter. The high water table is at
pedons have a B'h horizon, which has colors similar to or near the surface in winter and early spring. Slopes
those in the Bh horizon. are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are fine, mixed, thermic
Typic Albaqualfs.
Maurepas Series The Meggett soils are geographically associated with
Croatan, Dorovan, Plummer, Rutlege, and Surrency
The Maurepas series consists of deep, nearly level, soils. Croatan and Dorovan soils are organic soils and
very poorly drained soils that formed in organic are very poorly drained. Plummer soils have a sandy
material. These soils are in broad tidal marsh areas and layer more than 40 inches thick above the argillic
are flooded daily by high tides. Slopes are smooth or horizon. Rutlege soils do not have an argillic horizon
slightly convex and are 0 to 1 percent. These soils are and are lower on the landscape than the Meggett soils.
euic, thermic Typic Medisaprists. Surrency soils have 20 to 40 inches of sand above the
The Maurepas soils are geographically associated argillic horizon and are lower on the landscape.
with Croatan, Leon, Meggett, Plummer, Rutlege, and Typical pedon of Meggett fine sandy loam, in an area
Scranton soils. These associated soils are in different of Meggett and Croatan soils, frequently flooded; about
landscape positions than the Maurepas soils and are 0.3 mile east of Red Lake, 30 feet south of road, on a
not directly influenced by salt water. flood plain, NWI/NE/4 sec. 20, T. 4 S., R. 4 W.
Typical pedon of Maurepas muck, frequently flooded;
3.5 miles west of Ochlockonee Bay Bridge, 4,000 feet A-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
north of Littleman Creek, 120 feet west of the loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
confluence of the Sopchoppy and Shell Rivers, on slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Thoms Island, NW/4NE/4 sec. 4, T. 6 S., R. 2 W. E-8 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
Oal-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
3/2) muck; about 25 percent fiber, unrubbed, and Btg1-18 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) clay loam;
less than 5 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
friable; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
Oa2-5 to 25 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR structure; sticky and plastic; moderately alkaline;
3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber, unrubbed, and clear wavy boundary.
less than 3 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very Btg2-30 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) clay;
friable; neutral; diffuse smooth boundary. common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
Oa3-25 to 72 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber, unrubbed, and structure; very sticky and very plastic; moderately
less than 3 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very alkaline.
friable; mildly alkaline.
The thickness of the solum is 60 to more than 72
The organic material in all tiers is dominantly sapric, inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
but hemic material is in some pedons. Reaction ranges slightly acid in the A horizon and from slightly acid to
from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. This material moderately alkaline in the Btg horizon.
has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. The The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and









78 Soil Survey


The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and content of fiber in the surface tier ranges from about 10
chroma of 1 or 2. to 35 percent before rubbing and from 3 to 20 percent
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and after rubbing. The content of fiber in the subsurface
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; tiers is less than 40 percent before rubbing and less
or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. than 10 percent after rubbing. Thin, discontinuous
The BE horizon, when present, or the BC horizon has mineral layers are in some pedons.
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4; hue
of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of Meggett Series
7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The Meggett series consists of nearly level, poorly
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a bisequum of E' drained soils that formed in marly and clayey marine
and B'h horizons between the BE and C horizons, sediment. These soils are on flood plains on the Lower
Some pedons have an E' horizon, which has hue of Coastal Plain and are frequently flooded. This flooding
10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. Some usually occurs in the winter. The high water table is at
pedons have a B'h horizon, which has colors similar to or near the surface in winter and early spring. Slopes
those in the Bh horizon. are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are fine, mixed, thermic
Typic Albaqualfs.
Maurepas Series The Meggett soils are geographically associated with
Croatan, Dorovan, Plummer, Rutlege, and Surrency
The Maurepas series consists of deep, nearly level, soils. Croatan and Dorovan soils are organic soils and
very poorly drained soils that formed in organic are very poorly drained. Plummer soils have a sandy
material. These soils are in broad tidal marsh areas and layer more than 40 inches thick above the argillic
are flooded daily by high tides. Slopes are smooth or horizon. Rutlege soils do not have an argillic horizon
slightly convex and are 0 to 1 percent. These soils are and are lower on the landscape than the Meggett soils.
euic, thermic Typic Medisaprists. Surrency soils have 20 to 40 inches of sand above the
The Maurepas soils are geographically associated argillic horizon and are lower on the landscape.
with Croatan, Leon, Meggett, Plummer, Rutlege, and Typical pedon of Meggett fine sandy loam, in an area
Scranton soils. These associated soils are in different of Meggett and Croatan soils, frequently flooded; about
landscape positions than the Maurepas soils and are 0.3 mile east of Red Lake, 30 feet south of road, on a
not directly influenced by salt water. flood plain, NWI/NE/4 sec. 20, T. 4 S., R. 4 W.
Typical pedon of Maurepas muck, frequently flooded;
3.5 miles west of Ochlockonee Bay Bridge, 4,000 feet A-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
north of Littleman Creek, 120 feet west of the loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
confluence of the Sopchoppy and Shell Rivers, on slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Thoms Island, NW/4NE/4 sec. 4, T. 6 S., R. 2 W. E-8 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
Oal-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
3/2) muck; about 25 percent fiber, unrubbed, and Btg1-18 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) clay loam;
less than 5 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
friable; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
Oa2-5 to 25 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR structure; sticky and plastic; moderately alkaline;
3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber, unrubbed, and clear wavy boundary.
less than 3 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very Btg2-30 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) clay;
friable; neutral; diffuse smooth boundary. common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
Oa3-25 to 72 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber, unrubbed, and structure; very sticky and very plastic; moderately
less than 3 percent fiber, rubbed; massive; very alkaline.
friable; mildly alkaline.
The thickness of the solum is 60 to more than 72
The organic material in all tiers is dominantly sapric, inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
but hemic material is in some pedons. Reaction ranges slightly acid in the A horizon and from slightly acid to
from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. This material moderately alkaline in the Btg horizon.
has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. The The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and








Wakulla County, Florida 79


chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy sand, sandy sand; light gray uncoated sand grains; common fine
loam, or fine sandy loam. distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) mottles; single
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy sand, sandy boundary.
loam, or fine sandy loam. Some pedons do not have an E2-13 to 25 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand;
E horizon, common streaks or pockets of clean sand grains;
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to common charcoal chips; single grained; loose; very
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Few to many distinct mottles strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
that have higher chroma are in this horizon. The texture Bt-25 to 50 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sandy loam;
is sandy clay, clay loam, or clay. The average content common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8),
of clay in the upper 20 inches of this horizon is, by common fine prominent light brownish gray (10YR
weight, more than 35 percent. Calcareous concretions 6/2), common medium distinct very pale brown
and marl lenses can occur in the lower part. (10YR 7/4) and light gray (10YR 7/2), and few fine
Some pedons have a C or 2C horizon of clay loam, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
sandy clay, or clay, which is commonly mixed with shell subangular blocky structure; firm; medium acid;
fragments, marl, or sand. abrupt irregular boundary.
2R-50 inches; porous limestone bedrock.
Moriah Series
The thickness of the solum and the depth to
The Moriah series consists of nearly level, somewhat limestone bedrock ranges from 40 to 60 inches;
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy however, the depth to limestone varies. Reaction is
marine sediment underlain by limestone. These soils extremely acid or very strongly acid in the A and E
are in the higher areas on flatwoods and on low horizons and ranges from medium acid to moderately
uplands. The high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 alkaline in the Bt horizon.
inches for 2 to 5 months in most years. Also, the porous The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to
nature of the underlying limestone permits these soils to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or
become saturated by artesian flow. This saturation is sand.
most common in areas adjacent to rivers and streams The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
during periods of high water. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. chroma of 1 to 8. The texture is fine sand or sand.
These soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Aquic Arenic White streaks or pockets of clean sand grains are
Hapludalfs. common. Yellow, light yellowish brown, brown, or strong
The Moriah soils are geographically associated with brown mottles are in the lower part of some pedons.
Chaires, Shadeville, Pilgrims, Leon, Nutall, and Tooles The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
soils. Chaires and Leon soils are poorly drained and chroma of 1 to 6. Few or common, fine and medium
have a spodic horizon. Shadeville soils are moderately mottles in shades of gray, brown, yellow, or red are in
well drained and are slightly higher on the landscape this horizon. The texture is fine sandy loam or sandy
than the Moriah soils. Pilgrims soils are less than 40 clay loam. Some pedons have a Btg horizon at a depth
inches deep over limestone bedrock. The thickness of of 40 inches. This horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
their A horizon combined with that of their E horizon is to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles are in shades of
less than 20 inches. Nutall and Tooles soils are poorly gray, yellow, or brown. The texture of the Btg horizon is
drained and are lower on the landscape than the Moriah similar to that of the Bt horizon.
soils. The 2R horizon is fractured, porous limestone
Typical pedon of Moriah fine sand, in an area of bedrock.
Moriah-Pilgrims fine sands; about 2,000 feet west of the
St. Marks River, 2.5 miles north of Newport, in a mixed Nutall Series
stand of pines and hardwoods, NE1/4SW4 sec. 8, T. 3
S., R. 2 E. The Nutall series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained and very poorly drained soils that formed in
Ap-0 to 8 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; weak fine thin, sandy and clayey marine sediment underlain by
granular structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear limestone bedrock. These soils are on the Coastal Plain
smooth boundary, in broad, poorly defined drainageways; on flood plains;
E1-8 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine in depressions; and on flatwoods. They have a









80 Soil Survey


seasonal high water table within a depth of 10 inches horizon is sandy clay or sandy clay loam. Reaction
for 6 to 8 months in most years. In depressions and ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. Depth to
other low-lying areas, these soils are subject to flooding limestone bedrock ranges from 24 to 40 inches.
or ponding for 4 to 6 months of the year. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, Ocilla Series
thermic Mollic Albaqualfs.
The Nutall soils are geographically associated with The Ocilla series consists of deep, gently sloping,
Chaires, Leon, Surrency, and Tooles soils. Chaires and somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and
Leon soils have a spodic horizon. Surrency soils are not loamy marine sediment. These soils are in the lower
underlain by limestone bedrock and have a base areas in the uplands on the Coastal Plain. The seasonal
saturation of less than 35 percent in the subsoil. Tooles high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches for 2 to
soils have a sandy surface layer more than 20 inches 4 months of the year and at a depth of 30 to 72 inches
thick. for most of the remainder of the year. Slopes range
Typical pedon of Nutall fine sand, in an area of from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous,
Tooles-Nutall fine sands; about 2.5 miles north of thermic Aquic Arenic Paleudults.
Newport, 2,500 feet west of Old Plank Road, in a The Ocilla soils are geographically associated with
wooded area, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 12, T. 3 S., R. 1 E. Alpin, Otela, Shadeville, Pilgrims, Ortega, and Moriah
soils. Alpin soils are excessively drained and do not
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; have an argillic horizon. Otela soils are moderately well
salt-and-pepper appearance; weak fine granular drained and have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
structure; very friable; medium acid; abrupt smooth than 40 inches. Shadeville soils are moderately well
boundary, drained and have limestone below the argillic horizon.
E-5 to 10 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; common Pilgrims soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches
fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; of the surface and are underlain by limestone. Ortega
single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy soils are sandy throughout and are moderately well
boundary. drained. Moriah soils have limestone below the argillic
Bt-10 to 20 inches; mixed brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) horizon.
and gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; moderate Typical pedon of Ocilla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
medium subangular blocky structure; firm; mildly about 3,200 feet west of U.S. Highway 319, 1.2 miles
alkaline; common fine limestone chips; clear wavy south of Jump Creek, NW4SE/4 sec. 18, T. 3 S., R. 1
boundary. W.
Btg-20 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
many fine and medium prominent yellowish brown A-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; weak
(10YR 5/6) mottles; strong medium subangular fine granular structure; very friable; very strongly
blocky structure; very firm; common fine limestone acid; many very fine and few fine roots; clear
chips; 5 percent granular rock fragments; mildly smooth boundary.
alkaline; clear wavy boundary. E1-4 to 22 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
R-37 inches; limestone bedrock. grained; loose; very strongly acid; many very fine
and few fine roots; clear wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 or E2-22 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction is very strongly acid medium prominent brown (7.5YR 4/4) and few fine
or medium acid, except for where lime has been added. distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; single
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and grained; loose; very strongly acid; common very fine
chroma of 1 to 3. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to and few fine roots; gradual wavy boundary.
neutral. The combined thickness of the A and E Btl-32 to 50 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
horizons ranges from 10 to 20 inches. The texture of sandy loam; common medium prominent reddish
both horizons is fine sand or sand. yellow (7.5YR 6/8) and many medium and coarse
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; moderate
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Few to many red, brown, medium subangular blocky structure; very friable;
yellow, or gray mottles are in this horizon. In many very strongly acid; few fine roots; gradual wavy
pedons the upper part of the B horizon has no matrix boundary.
color but is coarsely mottled. The texture of the Bt Bt2-50 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)









Wakulla County, Florida 81


sandy clay loam; many medium and coarse These soils are thermic, uncoated Typic
prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) and few Quartzipsamments.
medium distinct pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) mottles; The Ortega soils are geographically associated with
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; Alpin, Otela, Ridgewood, Lakeland, and Scranton soils.
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; very strongly acid; Alpin and Lakeland soils are excessively drained. In
clear wavy boundary, addition, Alpin soils have lamellae. Otela soils have an
Bt3-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) argillic horizon. Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly
sandy clay loam; few medium prominent reddish drained. Scranton soils are poorly drained.
yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; weak medium Typical pedon of Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly sticky and about 1.4 miles north of Renfro Lake, 0.5 mile west of
slightly plastic; very strongly acid. Otter Lake, in a wooded area, SE1/4SE/4 sec. 21, T. 5
S., R. 2 W.
The thickness of the solum is more than 50 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid. A-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and loose; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. C1-3 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
7, and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is sand or fine smooth boundary.
sand. The E2 horizon has mottles in shades of brown, C2-34 to 49 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
strong brown, and brownish yellow. In some pedons the sand; single grained; few fine and medium white
E2 horizon does not have mottles. (10YR 8/1) splotches of clean sand grains; single
Some pedons have a BE horizon, which has hue of grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual smooth
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. boundary.
Mottles of strong brown and light brownish gray are in C3-49 to 59 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
this horizon. The texture is loamy sand. sand; common medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches
The Btl horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, of clean sand grains; single grained; loose; strongly
and chroma of 2 to 4 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, acid; gradual smooth boundary.
and chroma of 4 to 6. Mottles are in shades of light C4-59 to 71 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine
gray, yellowish brown, strong brown, and reddish sand; many medium white (10YR 8/1) splotches of
yellow. The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. clean sand grains; many fine and medium
The Bt2 and Bt3 horizons have hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) iron
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. Mottles are in segregation mottles; single grained; loose; strongly
shades of reddish yellow, strong brown, light brownish acid; gradual smooth boundary.
gray, brownish yellow, yellowish red, yellow, and light C5-71 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; many fine
olive brown. The texture generally is sandy loam or and medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
sandy clay loam, but sandy clay is in the lower part of iron segregation mottles; single grained; loose;
some pedons. strongly acid.

Ortega Series Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly
acid. The texture is sand or fine sand to a depth of 80
The Ortega series consists of nearly level to gently inches or more.
undulating, moderately well drained soils that formed in The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
thick beds of sandy eolian or marine sediment. These and chroma of 1 or 2.
soils are on side slopes or in concave areas on the The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
sandy uplands on the Coastal Plain and on low ridges 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. Few or common, fine to
and in slightly higher undulating areas that are not so coarse splotches of uncoated sand grains can occur in
well drained. The water table is between depths of 42 the C1 and C2 horizons. They are not indicative of
and 60 inches for 1 to 3 months in most years and at a wetness. The-C3, C4, and C5 horizons have hue of
depth of 60 to 72 inches for most of the remainder of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. Few to
the year. It recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches many, distinct or prominent, fine to coarse iron
during dry periods. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. segregation mottles of red, yellow, or brown are in









82 Soil Survey


these horizons. If above the seasonal high water table, strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and brownish yellow
the C3 horizon has colors similar to those of the C1 and (10YR 6/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular
C2 horizons, blocky structure; firm; strongly acid.

Otela Series The thickness of the solum and the depth to
limestone bedrock range from 60 to more than 80
The Otela series consists of nearly level to sloping, inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
moderately well drained soils that formed in sandy and neutral in the surface and subsurface layers and from
loamy marine or eolian sediment. These soils are on very strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Bt
low knolls, broad uplands, and side slopes adjacent to horizon.
stream channels on the Coastal Plain. A perched water The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to
table is above the subsoil during wet periods and at a 6, and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is sand or fine
depth of more than 72 inches for the remainder of the sand. The E horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 6
year. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. These soils are or 7 and chroma of 2 to 6 or value of 8 and chroma of 1
loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudalfs. Otela to 3. Some pedons have many pockets of white
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and Otela sand, 5 to 8 uncoated sand grains. Common mottles in shades of
percent slopes, are taxadjuncts to the series because brown or yellow are in the lower part of the E horizon.
they do not have an argillic horizon that is clayey in the The texture is fine sand or sand. The combined
lower part. thickness of the A and E horizons is 40 to 78 inches.
The Otela soils are geographically associated with Some pedons have a thin EB horizon, which has
Lutterloh, Alpin, Shadeville, and Ortega soils. Lutterloh texture of loamy fine sand, has colors similar to those in
soils are somewhat poorly drained. Alpin and Ortega the Bt horizon, and is underlain by the Bt horizon.
soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. In The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
addition, Alpin soils are excessively drained. Shadeville chroma of 3 to 8. Few or common mottles of brown,
soils have sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are yellow, gray, or red are in this horizon. The Btg horizon
20 to 40 inches thick. has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Typical pedon of Otela fine sand, 0 to 5 percent Mottles are in shades of yellow, red, and brown. The Bt
slopes; 1.2 miles north of Florida State Road 267, 1.5 and Btg horizons extend to a depth of more than 80
miles east of County Road 363, in a planted pine stand, inches. Their texture is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or
NE'NW/4 sec. 11, T. 3 S., R. 1 E. fine sandy loam.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; Pilgrims Series
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. The Pilgrims series consists of nearly level,
E1-7 to 23 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and
common coarse white (10YR 8/1) splotches; clayey marine sediment underlain by limestone. These
common medium very pale brown (10YR 7/4) soils are in the higher areas on flatwoods and on low
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual uplands. The water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
wavy boundary, inches for 2 to 5 months of most years. Also, the
E2-23 to 39 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; porous nature of the underlying limestone permits these
common coarse white (10YR 8/1) splotches; many soils to become saturated by artesian flow. This
medium brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; loose; saturation is most common in areas adjacent to rivers
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. and streams during periods of high water. Slopes are 0
E3-39 to 58 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single to 2 percent. These soils are fine, montmorillonitic,
grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. thermic Albaquic Hapludalfs.
EB-58 to 67 inches; reticulately mottled red (2.5YR The Pilgrims soils are geographically associated with
4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), brownish yellow Chaires, Shadeville, Leon, Moriah, Nutall, and Tooles
(10YR 6/6), and white (10YR 8/2) loamy fine sand; soils. Chaires and Leon soils are poorly drained and
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; have a spodic horizon. Shadeville soils are moderately
friable; strongly acid; clear irregular boundary. well drained and are in the slightly higher positions on
Btg-67 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy the landscape. Moriah soils have A and E horizons that,
loam; common fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8), combined, are more than 20 inches thick and have




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