Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 51
Title: Home canning of meat
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025616/00001
 Material Information
Title: Home canning of meat
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 23 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Canning and preserving -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Meat -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: written and complied by Isabelle S. Thursby.
General Note: "May, 1929".
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Bibliographic ID: UF00025616
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570478
oclc - 47284663
notis - AMT6789
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 51


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





HOME CANNING OF MEAT

Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY


'~r~ *':


Fig. 1.-A Pinellas


County home demonstration
canning fish.


club smoking and


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the State Home Demonstration
Department, Tallahassee, Florida


May, 1929











BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent









HOME CANNING OF MEAT


Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY
Canning meats on the farm is a part of good business man-
agement. It is particularly valuable when home butchering
is done, as a good supply of meat may be had for the table during
the entire year at a much lower price than the same meat would
cost, if purchased in small pieces from the butcher. Beef, pork,
and veal are typical farm products and when canned by the best
methods known today, these meats furnish just as palatable and
nutritious food as fresh meat. The fact that the meat is ready
to serve, saves time and is a great convenience, thus giving
further reasons for its conservation. It is a wonderful help to
a busy woman, especially during the hot summer months, to have
-for instance-a roast ready to serve just by opening a can.
In small towns, it is practical for people to cooperate with
farmers and buy a quarter of beef, butcher one or two hogs, and
also put up their own meats. When meat is thus secured at a
comparatively low price, it is a temptation to use it extravagantly
and eat a large portion of it while fresh. This extravagance is
not only a great waste of the meat supply, but is very un-
healthful and uses up meat that should last over a longer period
of time.
Canning poultry is both profitable and practical. When the
market is indifferent or overloaded, canning saves the expense
of feeding and caring for extra chickens-the surplus cockerels
and unproductive hens. Besides home canned chicken is deli-
cious. In fact, it is just as good as the freshly cooked and has
the added virtue of being always at hand.
Fish and game likewise can be perfectly preserved by canning
and all their delicious, fresh flavor retained.

PRINCIPLES OF MEAT CANNING
Because of its high protein content, the density of its texture
and the moisture present, meat forms a favorable medium for
the growth of bacteria.
The principle of canning is to kill the bacteria that are in the
meat, in the water, and in the air, in tins or jars, by sufficient
cooking at the proper temperature.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Heat intense enough to can meat is obtained by the steam
pressure canner, and the use of the hot pack method. All the
different meats, beef, veal, pork and their by-products, poultry,
fish and game animals, are canned by this method. This process
is very simple and similar to the methods used for canning
vegetables, except that meats require a slightly longer time for
sterilization.

SELECTION OF MEAT FOR CANNING
Meat, fowl, game, and fish must be in perfect condition to be
canned. Cooking tainted meat may destroy the bacteria present
but will not destroy the poison already formed by them. Meat
about which there is the least bit of suspicion should not be used.
Remember a good grade of canned meat cannot be expected
from meat which would not be good if it were cooked and served
immediately. Meat must be well bled, clean, and protected from
dust and flies. Meats are ready for preparation for canning
as soon as the animal heat has disappeared.

WAYS OF CANNING MEAT
There are two ways of canning meat: first, canning raw meat
and second, canning meat after it has been partially cooked and
seasoned. The second method only is recommended. In this
method, the product will be ready to serve cold, as in case of
meats used for salads, pickled or smoked fish, sandwich pastes,
etc. When heated, the original flavors which are imparted by
different methods of cooking meats are retained and developed.
(There is no difference in the keeping qualities of meats canned
in either way.) Where meats are partially roasted or browned
or boiled for half hour before canning, the heating of the outside
shrinks the product and insures a better pack.

HOW MUCH TO CAN
To estimate approximately how much canned meat will be
needed, figure how many months or days are likely to be too
warm to have fresh meat on hand. Count out the days when you
expect to have smoked meats, fresh chicken, or fish. If the family
uses a pint or a quart of meat per meal once a day, estimate your
budget in as many pints or quarts as days needed.







Home Canning of Meat


TIN CANS AND HAND SEALERS
It is recommended that for greater convenience and safety,
meats be canned in tin, as far as possible.
Tin cans are in many respects superior to glass jars. They
eliminate breakage and the steam pressure canner may be closed
and opened with much more speed and the cans more quickly
cooled than when glass is used. The open top or sanitary can
is the newer type and is just what the name implies. The en-
tire end of the can is the top and the can is easily washed and
filled. The top is sealed on with a hand machine which is quickly
and simply operated, no hot irons or solder being necessary. All
large canneries now use the sanitary can. It is often quite pos-
sible for several families to join in the purchase and the use of
a hand sealer. The cost is approximately $20. It can be made
to pay for itself in one day's canning output.
Some of the many advantages in canning in tin are: no danger
of breaking, no loss of liquid, ease of handling when processing
under pressure. Tin cans heat through more quickly and may be
plunged immediately into cold water. This rapid cooling checks
the cooking and produces a more desirable product.

STEAM PRESSURE COOKERS
Since pressure cookers are readily available, it is highly de-
sirable that they should be used in the canning of all meats,
poultry, and sea foods. All commercial canners recognize that
meats are most difficult of all foods to can and consequently
greater care must be taken to produce good, wholesome products.
True, there are many home canners who are very successful
in canning meats of all kinds in the hot water bath, where a
temperature of only 2120 F. can be secured. This is possible
when careful attention is given to every detail of the operation
and where a relatively long cooking period is given, but this
method is unsafe.
The steam pressure cooker, or canner, is constructed of strong
material and provided with a tightly fitting lid which, when
clamped in place, makes it possible to hold steam under pressure
and obtain a correspondingly high temperature. (Most steam
pressure outfits will carry up to 30 pounds pressure with a cor-
responding range in temperature from 2120 F. to 2740 F.) Each







Florida Cooperative Extension


steam pressure outfit is equipped with a pressure gauge, which
registers the pressure in pounds. and the corresponding tempera-
ture, a safety valve, and usually a steam pet cock and lifting
crate. The pressure cooker may be easily regulated so as to
maintain the desired pressure and temperature. It is thus suit-
able for use in processing various vegetables that are difficult to
can, as well as for all meats, fish and fowl.
Pressure cookers range in size from the small one which will
contain only three quart cans to the factory sizes which have a
capacity of several thousand cans per day. Pressure cookers for
family use vary in prices from $10 to $36, depending on size and
make desired.

OPERATIONS OF STEAM PRESSURE METHOD

1. Fill pressure cooker with water to a depth of two inches.
Heat. Place properly packed jars or sealed tins on rack.
2. When canner is filled place cover in position with the mark
on the cover and canner in conjunction. Fasten moderately
tight, one pair at a time, the pair of clamps which are placed
opposite each other, then go back over the whole set of clamps,
tightening each pair fully.
3. See that no steam escapes anywhere except at the pet-
cock when it is open and allow the pet-cock to remain open until
the steam escapes with a hissing noise. Then close.
4. Allow temperature to rise until the gauge registers the
desired pressure. Usually 10 pounds pressure is sufficient for
canning meats.
5. Count time from moment the desired pressure is reached
and regulate fire to maintain that pressure. Fluctuations in
pressure as from 10 pounds to 7 pounds and back again, when
canning in glass, are very likely to result in a loss of liquid from
the jar. The steam formed under the liquid cannot, upon sudden
reduction of pressure, escape enough through the narrow space
between cover and rubber, and it "boils up" so furiously that it
pushes the liquid before it out of the jar. This is likely to happen
with any sudden drop in pressure. Also if the canner is opened
before the pressure has fallen to zero, steam may scald the
operator. If tin is used, usually 10 pounds pressure is sufficient
for canning.







Home Canning of Meat


6. Lack of liquor in canned products may be due also to in-
sufficient pre-cooking; failure to expel all air from spaces among
particles of product when the jar was filled with liquor; to im-
proper packing of jar, i. e., packing loosely in bottom and tightly
near the top.
7. Uniform pressure may be maintained by turning the gas
or kerosene flame up or down, as need arises, or, in case of wood
stove, by moving the canner farther from flame to retard the
heat.
8. Remove canner from fire at end of processing period. If
glass jars are used, let pressure run down to zero before pet-
cock is opened. If opened before pressure falls to zero, the jars
will lose a part or all of their liquid contents. Also if the canner
is opened before the pressure has fallen to zero, steam may scald
the operator. If tin cans are used, the release cock may be
opened full and when pressure has fallen to zero, cans may be
removed and plunged immediately in water to cool. As glass
jars are lifted from the processor, they should be set on a dry
table and the seal completed by pushing the side clamp down.

PROCEDURE FOR CANNING COOKED MEATS
(These instructions are taken from the United States Department of
Agriculture Bulletin, "Home Canning of Meats and Sea Foods")
Meats should be cooked first fried, broiled, roasted or
stewed, just as would be done for immediate serving, to pre-
serve not only the meat but the home-cooked flavor as well. This
is seasoned according to individual taste and is heated until it is
entirely cooked through without needing to be cooked tender,
before placing it in the cans. It is very important to try to
utilize all parts of the butchered animal so that nothing is wasted.
The procedure in canning a calf or young steer, for example,
might be as follows:
Select the meat intended for roasting; slice the meat wanted
for steak, and what is not suited to either of those can be used for
goulash or stews, or be chopped up and made into sausage meat,
formed into little cakes, fried and canned. What meat is left
clinging to the raw bones will be utilized when the bones are
boiled for soup stock. For this purpose it is well to cut the bones
at several places. The bones removed from the roasts and
steaks with any adhering meat, can also be utilized for soup







Florida Cooperative Extension


stock. Put the bones in cold water, heat to near boiling point,
simmer and continue cooking until all the strength has been
extracted. The sinews, the head and the feet, after they are
cleaned, may be added for soup stock. Do not add salt. When
well cooked remove the bones and meat and strain the soup.
It may be poured into the cans as it is, or, it may be clarified.
To clarify the soup, mix lightly beaten whites of eggs with an
equal portion of water, add the crushed egg shells (which have
been washed) and add this mixture to the soup, bring slowly to
a boil, and cook for five minutes. Strain, salt to taste, and pour
hot into cans. The soup stock should jelly when cold. If it does
not, simmer until sufficient water has evaporated, so that it
will jelly when a little is poured into a saucer and cooled. If the
soup stock is too greasy, let it cool, remove the grease or skim
it off while warm, clarify the grease and save it for home cooking.
Any meat left on the bones is now carefully picked off, cooled,
run through a meat chopper, mixed with salt, pepper, spices to
taste, a little soup stock added, and canned as potted meat.
The liver is soaked in water, the coarse veins cut out and the
liver skinned and prepared as desired before canning it, or it may
be made into liver sausage, boiled and canned. The heart can be
used for goulash. The kidneys should be soaked in salt water,
split open and the little sack removed; then they can be used for
stew, or fried and canned. The sweetbread is boiled and canned,
or may be prepared in various ways, then canned. The brain is
soaked in water to remove blood, and the membrane enclosing it
is removed. It can be fried or prepared in other ways, then
canned. The ox tail is used for soup. The tongue is soaked in
water, washed clean, salted, boiled, skinned, and packed in cans
with meat jelly or soup stock added. If the head is not utilized
for soup stock and is of a young animal, it can be boiled, after it
is split, cross section, and soaked in cold water and cleaned care-
fully, the eyes taken out and the mucous membrane of the
nostrils removed. Boil, remove the meat and utilize it for mock
turtle stew or ragout. The tripe can be prepared in the usual
way, then boiled and canned. When all the value of the bones for
the soup stock has been extracted by boiling, the bones may be
dried, run through a bone crusher, and fed to the chickens or
used for fertilizer. Thus, nothing of the dressed animal is
wasted.







Home Canning of Meat


RECIPES
The following recipes are given to show how home butchered
animals or fowls, and freshly caught fish and other sea foods,
may be made into palatable and economical dishes and canned for
future use. The recipes are merely guides and may be changed
to suit the individual taste. The time and temperature given for
sterilization should not, however, be changed. It is also neces-
sary that nothing but absolutely fresh and cleanly handled meats
and sea foods be used.
ROAST MEAT

Select the piece of meat wanted for roast. Trim and wipe
with damp cloth. Heat some grease in a roasting pan, put in
the meat and sear quickly, turning the meat so all sides are
seared (this prevents the loss of meat juice during cooking),
As soon as well seared, sprinkle with salt and pepper to taste.
Add some boiling water to the grease in the roasting pan. Baste
frequently. Turn the meat from time to time and roast so it is
nicely browned. Cook until meat is done (it should not be red
in the center), without cooking it entirely tender. Stice and
pack in cans within 1/ inch from top of can. Add the gravy
from the roasting pan with boiling water added so it barely
covers the meat. (Leave at least 1/ inch space between gravy
and top of can.)
The above general recipes may be changed to suit the indi-
vidual taste, and the roast may be larded, or trimmed with
sprigs of parsley, cloves, etc., according to desire.
a. For Beef Roast weighing 8 to 10 pounds use 2 to 3
tablespoons of grease, 1 to 2 tablespoons of salt (according to
taste), 1/ to 1 teaspoon of pepper (to taste), and %/ to 1 cup boil-
ing water. Baste frequently.
b. For Pork Roast. Season as for beef. If ham is used
and skin is left on, cut with point of knife just through skin,
so as to dice skin and trim with cloves and little tufts of parsley
(if desired). Leave skin side up (do not turn), baste frequently,
and cook until skin is nicely browned and crisp.
c. For Roast Ham. Where skin and fat are removed before
roasting, lard with narrow strips of larding pork, alternating
with rows of little tufts of parsley. Add one small turnip and
one small root of celery, a few cloves and five or six peppercorns







Florida Cooperative Extension


to roasting pan. Meat may be rubbed with clove of garlic if
desired. Season as for beef roast. Baste frequently.
d. For Roast Veal. Lard and trim with parsley. Use
seasoning as for beef roast, but add a few carrots and one
small onion to roasting pan.
e. For Roast Mutton, Lamb or Kid. Trim in rows with small
tufts of parsley, season as for beef. Add a few carrots to roast-
ing pan.
Process in steam pressure, as per time table.

BEEFSTEAK
The sirloin of beef is skinned and cut into suitable pieces for
steak. Some butter or grease is heated in frying pan. The
sliced steak is put in the hot grease and quickly seared on both
sides. It is then sprinkled with salt and pepper to suit taste and
nicely browned, then packed in the cans. (If desired, sliced
onion, nicely browned or small boiled and browned Irish potatoes
may be packed with the meat.) The cans are then filled to
within /Y inch from top with hot gravy made from the pan
grease with water added. Seal. Process.

GOULASH
2 lbs. meat-beef, veal, pork, or a mixture of the three
2 medium onions, chopped fine
2 cups tomatoes, fresh or canned
2 stalks celery including leaves chopped fine
1 chopped green pepper
4 to 5 cloves
2 medium sized carrots, shredded
2 finely chopped parsley
Salt to taste
Fat
Wipe meat, cut in small pieces and sprinkle with flour mixed
with salt and pepper. Try out fat in frying pan, add meat and
cook until well seared. Add onions, carrots, and celery and
brown lightly, stirring to prevent sticking and burning. When
nicely browned add tomatoes and other seasonings, and simmer,
covered for 45 minutes. Soy or Worcester sauce may also be
added if desired. Add parsley. Fill hot into cans and process
immediately.
Heat thoroughly before serving. Noodles, macaroni, spaghetti,
or potatoes may be cooked with goulash when it is being re-
heated for serving.







Home Canning of Meat


NOTE: Stews are almost unlimited in number from the
Hungarian Goulash to the Irish stew of the British Isles, the
delicious Brunswick chicken stew of the South and the delight-
ful Florida fish stew, famous in our own state. Make stew by
any favorite recipe, fill into jars while hot and process in the
usual way, the length of time required for the meat which you
have used. Meat stews, well canned, cannot be told from the
same article freshly prepared; in fact, they seem frequently
to have gained in flavor from the long association with the
ingredients in the jar or tin.

TONGUE
The tongue (beef, veal, pork, lamb) may be cleaned, salted
and slightly smoked, then boiled, skin removed and packed in
cans with a little soup stock or meat jelly added. They may also
be cleaned thoroughly, rubbed heavily with salt and left standing
with salt sprinkled over them for 8 to 10 hours. Then boil until
done, remove skin, and pack in cans with a little of the liquid
in which they were boiled (thinned with some boiling water in
order not to be too salty.) Process according to time table.

SPARERIBS
Roast the spareribs in the usual way, seasoning to taste.
Cook until done, browning them nicely. With a sharp knife cut
down the inside of each rib, remove the rib bone, and cut meat
into pieces that can pass through the can opening. Make gravy
by adding water to the pan grease. Pack meat in cans, add the
boiling hot gravy to within 1/ inch from top of can. Process
according to the time table.

PORK CAKES
4 lbs. lean pork
2 lbs. fat pork
2 to 3 tablespoons salt or salt to taste
1 teaspoon black pepper
1 teaspoon red pepper
1 teaspoon chili sauce
/2 teaspoon allspice
2 to 3 teaspoons sage, or poultry seasoning
2 large onions, minced
1 clove garlic, minced (may be omitted)
2 bay leaves, powdered or broken in small pieces
1 teaspoon celery seed, crushed (may be omitted)
6 to 12 tablespoons dry, finely crumbed bread or cracker crumbs
2 eggs beaten together
% to 1 cup sweet milk
% to 1 teaspoon thyme







Florida Cooperative Extension


Knead well, form in cakes, fry in deep fat until nicely browned,
pour off excess grease, add water, and make gravy. Two or
three cooking may be made in one lot of grease. Pack in cans,
fill in with hot gravy to within 1/2 inch from top of can. Process
according to time table.
SAUSAGE
Sausage is made usually from small scraps and trimmings of
meat at butchering time. Only good fresh, clean meat is used.
The best sausage is made by using three parts of lean meat to
one part of fat. While grinding, endeavor to have lean and fat
meat distributed uniformly. Some people prefer a sausage
made from two parts lean pork, one part lean beef and one part
fat pork.
Method: To 10 pounds of meat, use 3 ounces salt, 1 ounce
white pepper and 1/2 ounce sage, rubbed fine. After grinding
the meat, spread it out in layers and sprinkle the mixed season-
ings over it as evenly as possible. Mix carefully, run through
grinder again to be sure it is mixed thoroughly. Make into cakes,
brown, pack into cans and process according to time table.

ROAST FOWL
Clean the fowl, wash and wipe dry. If turkey, goose or
guinea fowl, lard the breast or cover it with thin slices of larding
pork. For chicken and duck tie small pieces of larding pork over
breast. Put two tablespoons lard and butter mixed, in roasting
pan. Place in oven, and when hot lay turkey or fowl in hot
grease and turn until seared on all sides. Season turkey or goose
with 1 tablespoon of salt sprinkled all over and 3/4 teaspoon of
pepper (for smaller fowls use less salt and pepper). Pour into
roasting pan half a cup of boiling water. Place in oven to
roast and baste frequently with the liquid in the pan, turning
the fowl once in a while to get it nicely browned. Cook until
done, but it does not need to be entirely tender. Remove from
oven, place on platter and cut meat from bones. Cut into pieces
that can pass through can openings. Pack into cans. Skim
excess of fat from gravy, and pour gravy over meat in cans
until half an inch from top (if not enough gravy add boiling
water), and process. See time table.
Game birds may be treated as above, but should be stuffed
with parsley.







Home Canning of Meat


Soup: The bones of the turkey, chicken, goose, or duck with
any adhering meat, and the scalded and skinned feet are put on
to boil in cold water (enough to cover) and simmered for several
hours until bones are exhausted for soup stock, which is cooked
down until very strong, strained and poured hot into cans to
within an inch from top. Process immediately according to time
table.
Potted Meat: What meat was left on the bones may now be
removed and ground fine in a meat grinder, mix with salt and
spices to taste, and add a little soup stock or gelatin (dissolved
in cold water). Use to 1 pound of meat 1 or 11/2 teaspoon salt,
1/2 teaspoon pepper, and other spices to suit taste. Process No. 1
flat cans 30 minutes at 10 pounds pressure.

FRIED CHICKEN (SPRING FRYER)
Clean in the usual manner, split lengthwise or cut into
quarters. Sear in hot fat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, or
if preferred, dip into flour or cracker crumbs mixed with salt
and pepper. Fry until nicely browned in the same way as pre-
paring for the table. The canning may now be done in different
ways as follows:
Canning dry without removing the bones: Pack in the
thoroughly cleaned and sterilized cans, adding no liquid. Process.
Canning with gravy, without removing bones: Pack in the
sterilized cans, fill to within 1/ inch from top of can with boiling
hot gravy, made from the pan grease with addition of water
or soup stock. Process.

FRICASSEED CHICKEN
Clean the chicken in the usual manner and cut in pieces.
Place in a kettle with enough water to cover. Tie in a bunch for
each 21/2 pounds of chicken, 2 branches of parsley, 1 small stalk
celery, 1 sprig thyme, 1 bay leaf, and small onion. Add 1 tea-
spoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Let boil for 15 minutes. Add
13 small peeled white onions and 1 good sized potato, pared and
cut into little cubes. If desired, 2 or 3 ounces of sliced and diced
pork may be added. Cook for Y hour. Remove chicken and
herbs, cut meat from bones and return it to the kettle. Let come
to a boil, pack into cans to within 1/2 inch from top, distributing







Florida Cooperative Extension,


meat and soup evenly between cans. Add a little finely chopped
parsley to each can. Process.
When serving, empty contents of can into stew pan, heat and
add a little flour stirred with cold water for thickening. The
beaten yolk of an egg and a little butter may also be added.

CHICKEN SOUP
Old fowl may be used, weighing 4 or 5 pounds
3 quarts of cold water
1 onion or leek
2 or 3 stalks of celery
1 or 2 carrots
1 turnip
Salt and pepper, to taste
Chopped celery
Clean chicken carefully and cut in pieces. Place in a kettle
and pour the 3 quarts of cold water on it. Cook slowly or simmer
until the chicken is tender. If the above mentioned vegetables
can be had, tie them in a "bouquet" and let boil in with the
meat about 1 hour before the meat is done. Remove the meat,
add-salt and pepper to taste, and if the vegetables cannot be
had, the flavor may be improved by crushing a teaspoonful of
celery seed and boiling that in with the soup. Fill while boiling
hot into cans, add a little finely chopped parsley to each can.
Process.
When ready to use, re-heat and serve with dumplings made
as follows:
DUMPLINGS
% pound of flour
2% ounces of butter
Scant % pint of boiling water
4 eggs
A little salt
A little sugar
Melt the butter in a frying pan, stir in the flour, and rub to-
gether with constant stirring until smooth and well done-(cook
it until the butter is coming well out) ; then pour it into a mixing
bowl to cool. When it has cooled sufficiently, stir in four eggs, one
at a time, a little salt and sugar. Pat the dough smooth and with a
spoon, first heated in the soup or in hot water, form little oval
balls or dumplings and drop into the boiling soup or into boiling,
lightly-salted water. The dumplings sink to the bottom but as
they are heated through they will rise to the surface where they







Home Canning of Meat


must be turned over and over until they are done. There will be
20 or 25 dumplings of the amount given. If desired the
dumplings may be made the day before they are used, placed on
an inverted plate on a large platter and just re-heated in the
soup before serving.
These dumplings may also be served in hot milk or in thinned
and sweetened juice thickened with a little rice flour or corn
starch.
CHICKEN SPAGHETTI
1 chicken weighing 4 or 5 pounds
1% tablespoons butter
1 tablespoons lard
6 medium sized onions, cut in small pieces
1 crown of garlic in small pieces (may be omitted)
2 red pepper pods
2 bay leaves
6 cloves
1 pinch thyme
1 medium lemon, chopped, rind and all (may be omitted)
2 No. 3 cans of tomatoes or the same amount of fresh tomatoes
2 tablespoons salt (or salt to taste)
3 pounds of best spaghetti
Clean the fowl, cut into pieces, add 4 quarts of water. Stew
until the meat can be removed from the bones. Remove the
bones and mince the meat. Return the meat to the liquid.
Put the lard and butter into a frying pan, heat, and fry in it
the onions and garlic until nicely browned. Add this to the
fowl and add the pepper pods, bay leaves, cloves, thyme, lemon
and tomatoes. Let simmer.
Break the spaghetti in small pieces, put in a colander, rinse
well, and put immediately into boiling, salted water and let boil
for 20 minutes. Drain and cover with cold water to prevent
sticking together. Drain again and add to the above mixture.
Add salt, and if the fowl was not fat, add 11/2 cups of the best
olive oil. Mix thoroughly, fill in cans, cap, exhaust five minutes
(if filled in cans boiling hot exhausting is not necessary).
Process.
This may be served hot or cold or may be covered with grated
cheese and baked brown.







Florida Cooperative Extension


THE CANNING OF FISH AND OTHER SEA FOODS
Do not attempt to can fish unless very sure they are absolutely
fresh. As soon as fish are caught it is well to kill them with a
knife and let the blood run out. Scale fish. (It is easier to re-
move scales if the fish is dipped in boiling water.) If skin is
very tough remove it and wash the fish clean. Remove entrails
and the dark membrane found in such fish as mullet, which
cover the abdominal cavity. For small fish the backbone may
be left in. For the larger fish remove the backbone and utilize
it with what meat adheres to it for making fish chowder.
In order to draw out all blood before canning, place the fish in
brine strong enough to float a potato. Time will vary according
to the thickness of fish from a few minutes to one hour.

FISH CHOWDER
The backbones cut out of large fish with what meat adheres
to them, the cleaned heads, and other fish scraps may be used
for fish chowder.
Put over the fire in cold water (just enough to cover) and cook
until the meat can easily be removed from the bones. Take up
the fish and remove the bones, strain the fish soup, and return
it with the picked fish meat to kettle. Add diced onions, diced
potatoes, butter, and white pepper to taste. Simmer until the
vegetables are half done. Salt to taste. Pack in hot cans, and
process immediately.
When ready to serve, heat and add milk according to taste.
A good chowder is made in the following proportions:
4 Bermuda or white onions, medium size, diced
3 potatoes medium size, diced
1 pound of fish picked from bones
1 level teaspoon white pepper
1 to 2 level teaspoons of salt or salt to taste
1 level tablespoon of butter
When ready to serve, add Y to 1 quart sweet milk

PLAIN CANNING
Remove the fish from the brine, drain well, and cut in can
lengths. Dip quickly into boiling water to shrink. Pack closely
in the can to within 1/2 inch from top. Add a small amount of
salt (about 1/3 to 1/ teaspoon). Seal while hot. Process. Cool
immediately.







Home Canning of Meat


FLORIDA FISH STEW
2 lbs. of dry meated fish, weigh after cleaned, skinned, boned
and cut in pieces as for serving
1 quart of canned tomatoes, or 8 large fresh ones
% cup of good cooking oil
2 cloves of garlic, finely cut
1 tablespoon of mixed spices
1 tablespoon of lemon juice or good vinegar
2 tablespoons ripe pimientoes, finely chopped
(ripe sweet peppers can be used)
1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley
2 medium sized onions, finely minced
Salt, paprika and a little sugar
Put the tomatoes into a sauce pan and season with salt, pepper
and just a little sugar. Add the spices and let simmer for half
an hour. Remove from fire and pass through a strainer. Return
to fire and add the chopped pimiento. Let simmer until fish is
ready.
In frying pan, heat 1/3 cupful of cooking oil and add the garlic
and onion. Cook until soft, but do not brown. (It is best done
by covering the pan with a closely fitting cover.) Add this to the
tomatoes, and if this mixture is too thin, allow it to simmer until
it is thick as ketchup.
After the fish is cleaned, boned and skinned, it is cut in service-
able pieces, (about five to the pound) sprinkled with salt, and
cooked on both sides in the remainder of the oil until it is of
a light brown color.
Add the lemon juice and parsley to the tomato mixture; taste
it, and if needed, add more salt and paprika. Add the pieces
of fish and let simmer in an aluminum kettle on back of stove
(where it cannot stick or burn) until it is thoroughly done, if
for immediate service. If it is to be canned, pack before the
final simmering into glass jars or inside lacquered tin cans.

PINE BARK STEW-4-H BRAND
5 Ibs. cleaned fish (catfish, bream, seabass, trout,
red snapper or similar fish)
1 quart of tomatoes or equivalent amount of fresh tomatoes
2 cups olive, peanut or other cooking oils
1 bay leaf (may be omitted)
1 lb. finely diced carrots (may be added)
1 clove of garlic, finely minced (may be omitted)
6 medium sized onions, minced
1 bunch celery cut fine
1 pint pimientoes or equivalent in fresh pimientoes, peeled
(other sweet peppers may be used)
1 quart okra (finely cut crosswise)
12 whole pepper corns
Salt and pepper to taste







Florida Cooperative Extension


The oil is heated in an enamel kettle, the minced onions (and
garlic) are added and cooked until tender. Then add the finely
cut celery and okra and cook for ten minutes. The tomatoes,
pimientoes, whole pepper (bay leaf) salt and pepper are next
added, the whole is allowed to simmer for 20 minutes.
The cleaned fish is next added, cut in suitable pieces. (If large
fish is used, remove the backbone and large ribs.) Cover the
fish pretty well with the vegetable mixture and simmer until
tender. If too thick, a little water may be added. Pack boiling
hot into inside lacquered tin cans. Seal at once and process.
Serve hot, poured over rice, boiled "Southern Style."
NOTE: The name is due to the custom of serving this fish
stew at public gatherings on a piece of clean pine bark used as
a plate.
PICKLED FISH
1 quart vinegar
1 quart water
Salt to taste
18 whole pepper corns
36 whole allspice
8 slices of lemon
5 medium onions sliced
10 bay leaves, broken up

Boil vinegar and water 1/2 hour with salt, pepper, allspice, bay
leaves and three sliced onions. Add the lemon slices, cook for
five minutes; then remove them. Cook only a few small fish
or slices of fish at one time. As soon as fish is cooked, pack
(without the large backbones) into glass jars or inside lacquered
cans with a few slices of raw onions between the layers. When
all is cooked and packed, pour the boiling hot liquid with its
seasoning over fish. Seal and sterilize in steam pressure canner.
Before serving place cans on ice to chill contents thoroughly.
Garnish with chopped parsley and sliced lemon.
If prepared for immediate consumption and not intended for
canning, proceed as above stated. Pack the cooked fish into a
stone crock with one or more raw sliced onions between layers.
Pour over it the hot liquid with seasonings. Cover and keep in
a cool place. In a few days the liquid will form a jelly around
the fish. The liquid in the recipe is enough for one gallon of
fish. If kept chilled it will keep for several weeks.







Home Canning of Meat


FISH ROE A LA SPENCER
Select clean, fresh roe with the skin unbroken. (If there is
any small opening in the skin, tie it with a piece of twine.) Wash
in salted water and pat dry with a coarse towel. Dip each piece
of roe into heavily salted milk then into finely crushed, sifted,
dry bread crumbs. Oil a baking pan and place the roe in it,
sprinkling liberally over the top with oil. Bake in a very
hot oven (about 600 degrees F.) for 10 to 15 minutes according
to thickness of roe. Pack immediately while hot. Seal and
process.
SHRIMP
Shrimp should be used when absolutely fresh, as they
deteriorate quickly. They may be peeled or left with shell
on until cooked. In either way they are boiled in salted water;
1 pound of salt to 1 gallon of water. Do not put shrimp into
the water until it is boiling. If to be packed wet, boil from 5 to
6 minutes. If they were not peeled before boiling, drain through
a colander and sprinkle with salt. This will harden the meat,
and they can more easily be peeled. Shrimp should be packed
into inside lacquered tin cans and may be packed wet or dry.
Wet Pack: After shrimp are boiled and peeled, pack into
cans and fill in with a weak brine to within one-half inch from
top of can. Brine is made by adding 1 level teaspoon of salt to
a quart of boiling water.)
Dry Pack: After shrimp are boiled and peeled, pack dry
into cans adding no liquid. Process.
NOTE: In case inside lacquered cans cannot be had, the
shrimp can be put up in ordinary tin cans lined with parchment
paper at sides, bottom and top. They may also be put in small
glass jars.
OYSTERS
In canning oysters be sure they are absolutely fresh, have
not "soured" and contain no oysters that are spoiled. It is, there-
fore, best to open the oysters by hand and absolutely reject the
oysters where the shell is partly open, as this is a sign that the
oyster in this particular shell is dead and unfit to use. Rinse the
oysters to be sure no pieces of shell or grit are put into cans.
Pack 16 ounces of oyster meat in a No. 2 can and fill with boil-
ing brine (made in the proportion of 1/4 pound of salt to 5
quarts of water) to within one-half inch from top of can. Cap







Florida Cooperative Extension


and exhaust 10 minutes at boiling temperature (212 F.) This
may be done by placing the cans in the steam pressure (with
boiling water in bottom of retort.) Keep it boiling, put on the
lid, but leave the pet-cock open so steam escapes.

SAUCES FOR SERVING ON FISH

MUSTARD SAUCE
1 box mustard
2 tablespoons salt
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 tablespoon tumeric
114 quart vinegar
1 tablespoon cinnamon
2 tablespoons corn starch
2 teaspoons pepper
1' cup sugar
Use the one-fourth quart of vinegar to mix with dry ingred-
ients then add one cup oil and remaining vinegar.

TOMATO SAUCE
4 cans tomato soup
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon whole allspice
3 teaspoons salt
1 tablespoon pepper vinegar
2 small cloves garlic
1 teaspoon whole black pepper
1 cup vinegar
1 bottle ketchup-16 oz.
1 bottle tomato chili sauce
1 tablespoon sugar
Garnish with pickle, use on smoked fish.

DIRECTIONS FOR SMOKING AND CANNING FISH

Apparatus for Smoking: Take a big, tight barrel, such as a
coca-cola barrel, knock both ends out. Make a tight fitting lid
of one end, or a piece of tin may be used for a lid. Tack a piece
of wire netting about one and one-half feet from the top, on
which to lay the fish.
Preparation of Fish: Split the fish down the back, remove
insides and wash well. Do not scale. Salt to taste.
Smoking: Scoop out a shallow hole, smaller around than
the barrel, set the barrel over it, top off. Kindle a good fire in
it, adding oak wood chips and bark. When there is a good bed
of coals let the flame die down and cover coals with oak chips







Home Canning of Meat


and bark and get the smoke going well. Do not try to use pine
chips, but hard wood such as oak. Lay fish on wire netting,
skin side to the fire, put cover on barrel, and smoke fish about
30 minutes to the pound. There should be a dense smoke all
the time. If the barrel lid fits too tightly the fire will go out; if
there is too much draft, the flame will come up and burn the
fish or the barrel. The fire must be fed frequently by tipping
the barrel and adding chips from the bottom, enough to keep
the fire covered.
The fish when sufficiently smoked should look firm and done,
not too dry, but not too juicy. Unless the smoke has been kept
going constantly, 30 minutes to the pound may not be enough
time.
To Can: Remove skin and pack the fish while very hot into
jars. If allowed to become cool, the pieces will break up.
Process in steam pressure canner 45 minutes at 10 pounds
pressure (for quarts).
NOTE: Above directions are furnished through the courtesy
of the Keene Home Demonstration Club, Pinellas County,-
whose members are efficient smokers and canners of fish.

TIME TABLE FOR CANNING OF MEATS-COOKED AND PREPARED

No. 2 tins No. 3 cans
and pint and quart Pounds
Meat according to preparation jars pro- jars pro- of
cessed cessed Pressure
minutes minutes


Roast meats, beef, pork, veal, fowl .......... 45 60 10
Broiled steaks .......-.....---.--- ..-----. 45 60 10
Swiss steaks .....................---.....----- 45 60 10
Tongue ......... .................... .. -- .... 50 60 10
Spare ribs and pork cakes .................... 45 60 10
Fried chicken without gravy ................... 90 120 10
Fried chicken with gravy ....................... 90 120 10
Fricassee chicken without bones................ 45 60 10
Chicken soup .........-- ......--.......----..... 45 55 10
Chicken spaghetti ...................... 45 60 10
Pickled fish ........ --..... ............. 35 45 10
Florida fish stew ............-..................... 45 55 10
Pine bark stew ................... ................. 45 55 10
Fish roe fried ..................................... 50 60 10
Shrimp .......................- ..-..-- -- 20-30 10
Oysters ....--........... .............. 35 10







22 Florida Cooperative Extension

SCORE FOR CANNED MEAT
Selection: Uniform size and free of bone, gristle and excess fat........ 10
Color: Natural color .................................-.... ----.. ------------- 15
Pack: Economical and uniform ..------...................... .. .. .............. 10
Condition of Solids: Firm, tender ............................................... 10
Condition of Liquids: Clear ..------...................... ---------------- 10
Flavor: That of freshly cooked meat- -----..................-----.................. 45
Total.........................-........ ..-- --------..---- .... 100

Canned Meat: An excellent jar of meat will have pieces of
uniform size with a little, but not too much fat. The pieces will
be well packed and with clear, jellied liquid (not necessarily
covering meat). Cooked meats (as roasted, baked, or broiled)
will not have as much jelly as meat canned uncooked. It should
have characteristic flavor and odor of freshly cooked meat.

SOAP MAKING
Every bit of fat from all sources should be saved. The parts
that are not fit for cooking can be made into soap. Fats that
have been used for cooking and on account of peculiar flavor
cannot be used again should be saved for soap fat. A very satis-
factory soap for dish washing, laundry and similar purposes
may be made from these fats that might otherwise be wasted.

RECIPE FOR SOAP
7 pounds solid (hard) fat
1 pound lye dissolved in 6 cups water
Fats should be clarified, strained and then hardened. Warm
fat until it is melted and add lye solution gradually. Stir mass
until creamy and thoroughly blended. Pour into molds to
harden.








Home Canning of Meat 23








INDEX TO RECIPES
Page
Beefsteak ...... --.......--... --...-...-....-------- --------- .....------------ 10
Chicken, fried ....................................... ........ ........ .......... 13
Chicken, fricasseed ......-.....-..---.---... -. ..---------- ...-- ... 13
Chicken soup ...................--...... ...................... ----................... 14
Chicken spaghetti ..........--------------........ -.........-- ................ 15
Fish Chowder ........... ..........-.. ---------------......... -....--......... --16
Fish, pickled ...............--. ~........... ............................... ............. ................ -- 18
Fish roe a la Spencer ..................... ------...-..-.--........ 19
Florida fish stew ............ ...... .........-----.- .---.----..-.. 17
G oulash .................................----- .......-........... ................. 10
Mustard sauce ..............------. .----------------- .....- ..............-... 20
Oysters ............. ....................................... . ...................... ..... 19
Pine bark stew- 4-H Brand .......................................................... 17
P ork cakes ............................................................................ .............. 11
R oast fow l ................... .................. ......... .......................................... 12
Roast meat ----- -- ---.................. ................... ............ ..... 9
Sausage ......................................-.................. 12
Spareribs ............................------------------ ........-- ...... .... 11
Shrim p ....................... ................. ............................ .............. 19
Soap .................................................... ...... 22
Tom ato sauce .................. ........................... ...... ............ 20
Tongue ...... .. ............................... ............-................-- -...-....----..... 11




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