Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 80
Title: The home garden
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Title: The home garden
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jamison, F. S ( Frank Stover ), 1903-
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1935>
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Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 16).
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Jamison.
General Note: "June, 1935."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00025584
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570742
oclc - 44792054
notis - AMT7055
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 8


0 J

COOPERATE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and Jane 30, 1914)


une, 1935


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




THE HOME GARDEN

By F. S. JAMISON
Truck Horticulturist, Florida Experiment Station


Fig. 1.-A good home vegetable garden is not difficult to grow, and
should provide the family with fresh vegetables throughout most of the year.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










BOARD OF CONTROL

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
'Part-time.









THE HOME GARDEN
By F. S. JAMISON

CONTENTS
Page Page
Location of the Garden.............................. 8 Cultivation of the Garden..__.............._ 12
Seed for Planting................... ........ .... 4 Irrigation and Drainage .......-..... 12
Vegetable Varieties ...... .. .......... 4 Cool Season Crops............... ......... ..-_ 18
Growing Plants............................................... 5 W arm Season Crops ............ ..............-...... 18
Transplanting .......... ..... ... ..... ... 8 Hot Weather Crops....................... ....... 18
Preparation of the Soil...... .......... .... 9 Insect and Disease Control.............. 18
Fertilizers -...................................... ...... 9 Harvesting............. ............................... 14
Planting........................ .............. .. 10 Surplus Products................ -..... .... 15

The home vegetable garden considered either for its monetary
value or as a source of wholesome and healthful food is usually
the most valuable piece of land on the farm. The value of the
garden should not be calculated merely from the number of
dollars the produce could be sold for, but its value should be
based on what the produce would cost if purchased at a retail
store. The pleasure of having large quantities of high quality
vegetables has an additional value that cannot be expressed in
terms of money. Many vegetables decrease in quality and food
value very rapidly after they are harvested. The quality deterio-
rates more rapidly at high temperatures. Thus, it is important
in Florida that the vegetables be used very soon after they are
harvested.
To be successful in growing vegetables of good quality, there
are certain facts that should be observed. Some of these are
discussed in this publication.
LOCATION OF THE GARDEN
Considerable money is usually spent by the gardener for seeds,
fertilizer and labor. For this reason every effort should be made
to select a desirable piece of soil for the garden. The plot of
ground selected should be fertile and have adequate water con-
trol. Good water control means providing irrigation for the
dry seasons of the year and good drainage for the wet seasons.
There are places on many farms that, when provided with proper
drainage, do not require irrigation to produce excellent gardens.
These locations are usually on the heavier soils found on the
edge of hammocks and in drained lowlands. Many hours of
labor will be saved the housewife, and the family assured of
more vegetables, if the garden is located conveniently close to
the house. It should be well fenced to protect it from rabbits,
chickens and other animals.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The size of the garden will depend upon the number of indi-
viduals in the family, and upon the method used in caring for
the garden. It should be large enough not only to supply fresh
vegetables for immediate consumption, but also to furnish vege-
tables for canning, pickling and storage. Certain crops grow
best during definite seasons and plenty of these should be grown
for immediate consumption and also for preserving and canning.
There are two distinct ways to care for a farm or home vege-
table garden. The first and probably most satisfactory way is
to use a relatively small area, fertilize it heavily, plant the crops
relatively close together and do the planting and cultivation
with hand tools. The other method is to grow a large area,
planting the rows far enough apart to allow for cultivating with
the same equipment as is used in the fields for this purpose.
More care will probably be given to the small garden. Quite
often gardeners find it profitable to grow certain crops such as
watermelons, cantaloupes, sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes
in the field and grow only those crops in the garden which will
produce heavily on a small area.

SEED FOR PLANTING
There are many reliable sources from which good vegetable
seed can be secured. The important thing in purchasing seed
is to know the amount required and the variety that is adapted
to the particular needs for which it is to be produced, and the
growing conditions to which it will be subjected. Vegetable
seed can be bought at seed stores, grocery stores and many
other places of business. Many gardeners find it an advantage
to secure catalogues from seed houses, even though they pur-
chase the seed at local stores.
The gardener should know the variety of vegetables best suited
to his needs before buying, and not be satisfied to buy just
carrot, beet or cabbage seed. Since seed is such a small part
of the cost in growing a garden it is usually wise to purchase
enough so that one replanting can be made in case the first one
meets with such adverse conditions that it fails to germinate.

VEGETABLE VARIETIES
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that there is a tremen-
dous difference among varieties, and quite often the success or
failure of a garden depends upon the care shown in selecting
the proper varieties. Varieties should be carefully selected for







The Home Garden


the climatic conditions in which they are to be grown and, also,
adaptation to a particular purpose. The varieties given in Table
1 have been selected because of their adaptability to Florida
gardens. The wise gardener will select varieties from this list,
unless from past experiences other varieties have been found
that are superior to the ones given. While some of the varieties
listed are grown by commercial growers, many of them are not
adapted to commercial production. Some are of superior quality
to those grown commercially, but will not stand handling and
shipping. Others have been selected because of their lateness
or earliness of production. It should be understood that the list
has been prepared for home gardeners and not for the commer-
cial truck grower.
The approximate number of days that it takes the varieties
to reach edible maturity after planting is given in the table.
The climatic conditions prevailing during the time the crop is
being grown will influence the maturity date. In some seasons
the crops will mature in fewer days, in other seasons more days
will be required for the crops to reach edible condition. How-
ever, within any one season there will be an approximate varia-
tion in the time necessary to reach maturity of the varieties as
is indicated in the table. Thus, early and late varieties may be
selected from it for use in the garden.
GROWING PLANTS
Plants of such vegetable crops as cabbage, tomato, onion and
pepper can be grown successfully by the home gardener. Quite
often the gardener finds it advantageous to depend upon a local
plant grower for young plants, or the plants may be bought from
one of the larger plant growers that do a mail order business.
Plants bought from a reliable plant grower are satisfactory.
However, there is always present the danger of bringing in
various diseases with the plants. In ordering or buying plants
the gardener should be careful to specify definite varieties, and
not buy just cabbage or tomato plants.
Home gardeners who wish to grow plants find a box filled with
hammock soil an ideal place for this purpose. If the weather
becomes unfavorable the young plants may be protected either
by covering them with paper or cloth, or the entire box can be
moved to a protected place. Some home gardeners prepare with
extra care a small plot in the garden for growing plants for
transplanting. When plants are grown in this way some pro-
vision must be made in winter or early spring to protect them








TABLE 1.-VARIETIES, TIME OF MATURITY AND PLANTING TIME OF FLORIDA GARDEN VEGETABLES.


Approximate No.
KIND VARIETY of Days to Reach
I Edible Maturity
Beans Bountiful 49
Bush Stringless Green Pod 53
Stringless Refugee 70
Stringless Black Valentine 49
Stringless Wax 52
Surecrop Wax 53
*Beans Kentucky Wonder 65
Pole McCaslan 65
*Beans Fordhook (Bush) 75
Lima Sieva (Pole) 77
Jackson Wonder (Semi-bush) 65
Beets Crosby Egyptian 60
Early Wonder 57
Detroit Dark Red 68
Broccoli Italian Green Sprouting 60
Cabbage Golden Acre 72
Copenhagen Market 66
Glory of Enkhuizen 82
Early Jersey Wakefield 64
Carrots Coreless or Nantes 70
Chantenay 72
Imperator 77
*Cauliflower Snowball 56
SDwarf Erfurt 1 54
*Celery I White Plume 112
SGolden Self Blanching 118
Collards Georgia 85

Corn Stowell's Evergreen 82
Trucker's Favorite 75
Tuxpan 90
Early Snowflake 80
Country Gentleman 75
Florida 191 75
Cucumbers Early Fortune 64
SClark's SpecialI 63
Cowpeas Brown Crowder 65
ILarge Blackeye 60
Blue Goose 65
Eggplant Florida High Bush 85
SNew r Improved 83
Endive and Green Curled 95
Escarole Broad-Leaved Batavian 92


Vegetables marked by asterisk (*) are difficult to grow and should be grown only by gardeners experienced in growing other vegetable crops.


ISouthern Florida
Sept.-April


TIMF TO PLANT
Northern Florida | Central Florida
March-April Feb.-March
and and
Aug.-Sept. September


March-June Feb.-April

March-June Feb.-April


Feb.-March Jan.-March
and and
Sept.-Nov, Sept.-Nov.
Aug. and Feb. Aug. and Jan.
Jan.-March Sept.-Jan.
and
Sept.-Nov.

Feb.-March Jan.-March
and and
Sept.-Nov. Sept.-Oct.
Jan.-Feb. and Jan.-Feb. and
Aug.-Oct. Aug.-Oct.
Jan. Aug.-Feb.

Feb.-March and Jan.-April and
Sept.-Nov. Aug.-Nov.
March-April Feb.-March




Feb.-April Feb.-March and
Sept.
March-May March-May


Feb.-March Jan.-Feb. and
July
SFeb.-March and Jan.-Feb. and
SSept. Sept.


T E


Jan.-Feb.

Feb.-April


Dec.-Feb. and
Aug.-Sept.
Sept.-Jan.





California Wonder
Worldbeater
Bliss Triumph
Spaulling Rose
Chippewa
SImproved Porto Rico

Cincinnati Market
Early Scarlet Turnip
New Zealand (summer)
Bloomsdale (winter)

White Bush
Yellow Straight Neck
Fordhook
d Lucullus
Marglobe
Livingston's Globe
Pritchard's Scarlet Topper
White Globe
Japanese Foliage


75
75
100-120
100-110
100-120
100

28
26
50-60
42

53
55
60
45-60
79
82
73
45
45


Feb.-April

Jan.-Feb.


April-June

Oct.-March

March-April
Oct.-Nov. and
Jan.-Feb.
March-April and
Aug.

Oct.-Feb.
Feb.-Aug.


Jan.-April and
Aug.-Oct.


Jan.-March Jan.-Feb. and
Aug.-Oct.
January Sept.-March


March-July j Feb.-June

Oct.-March Oct.-March

March-April Jan.-April
Oct.-Nov. and Oct.-Jan.
January. I
Feb.-March and Jan.-March and
August Sept.-Oct.

Oct.-Feb. Oct.-Feb.
Feb.-Sept. Aug.-March


Jan.-March and Oct.-Feb.
Sept.-Nov.


Vegetables marked by asterisk (*) are difficult to grow and should be grown only by gardeners experienced in growing other vegetable crops.


Peppers

Potatoes
Irish

Potatoes
Sweet
Radishes

Spinach


Squash


Swiss Char
Tomatoes


Turnips


TABLE 1.-VARIETIES, TIME OF MATURITY AND PLANTING TIME OF FLORIDA GARDEN VEGETABLES-COntinued.

Approximate No. TIME TO PLANT
KIND VARIETY of Days to Reach
Edible Maturity Northern Florida I Central Florida Southern Florida
*Lettuce New York Imperial F (Iceberg type) I 88 Feb.-March and IJan.-Feb. and | Sept.-Jan.
Big Boston | 75 Sept. Sept.
*Melons Netted Gem 92 March-April Feb.-April Feb.-March
Cantaloupes Emerald Gem 85
Watermelons Tom Watson 93 March-April Jan.-April Feb.-March
Florida Favorite 83
Stone Mountain 90
Mustard Southern Giant Curled 35-60 ]Jan.-March and Jan.-March and Sept.-March
I Sept.-Nov. Sept.-Nov.
Okra White Velvet 60 March-May and March-May and F eb.-March and
I Aug. AugustI Aug.-Sept.
Onions Sets Jan.-March and Jan.-March and Jan.-March and
Australian Brown 100 Aug.-Nov. Aug.-Nov. Sept.-Dec.
Silver Skin 100
Plants
Bermuda 95
Parsley Moss Curled 40-80 Feb. Dec.-Jan. Sept.-Jan.
SEmerald I
Peas Little Marvel 62 Jan.-Feb. Sept.-March Sept.-Feb.
Laxton's Progress 62


,







Florida Cooperative Extension


from frost or freezes, while if the plants are being started in
late summer for fall planting they should be protected in the
early stages of growth from the hot sun and dashing rains. Old
fertilizer bags washed clean, or other such material, afford good
protection. The cloth is stretched tightly above the plants, and
should be 10 to 12 inches above the top of the plants in order
to insure adequate ventilation.
Success in getting transplanted plants to grow satisfactorily
depends very much upon the growing conditions to which the
plants are subjected in the plant bed. As the time for trans-
planting approaches the plants should be gradually hardened.
This means subjecting them to slightly adverse growing con-
ditions so that they will store food instead of using it in growing.
To harden the plants the cover protecting the young plants
should be left off a little longer each day so that for the last week
before transplanting it is not used. Water should be withheld
from the plants for longer periods than usual. However, it is
always wise to water the plants thoroughly a few hours before
removing them from the plant bed.
TRANSPLANTING
There is no difficulty in getting plants to grow when trans-
planted, provided the plants are suitable for transplanting and
are planted properly and at the right season. Well hardened
plants should be used for transplanting. Fast growing, very
succulent plants will have an exceedingly difficult time in resum-
ing growth after transplanting and will recover only when ex-
tremely favorable conditions prevail. Plants should be watered
thoroughly 12 hours before they are removed from the seedbed.
The soil into which they are to be transplanted should be firm,
well worked and free from trash. The plants should be set
slightly deeper in the garden than they were in the seedbed, and
the soil should be carefully pressed around the roots. Watering,
following transplanting, not only supplies needed soil moisture
but helps to bring the soil into close contact with the roots and
is, therefore, very beneficial.
Plants may be transplanted any time of the day. However,
if they are transplanted in the morning or during the heat of
midday it is wise to protect them from the hot sun. This is often
accomplished by using a palmetto leaf or shingle. These are
stuck into the ground alongside the plant so as to shade it from
the sun. Plants transplanted in late afternoon or evening will
withstand the shock of transplanting much better than those







The Home Garden


transplanted in the morning. There should be no difficulty in
getting transplanted plants to grow if the plants are carefully
handled, the soil well firmed around the roots and adequate mois-
ture provided.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
The soil in the garden should be carefully and well prepared.
This means that the crop residue that is present either will be
burned, raked off or, much better, turned into the soil so that
it is well decomposed by planting time. When the plant residue
on the garden is raked off or burned, the organic material so
valuable in maintaining the fertility of the soil is destroyed.
However, there are times in the home garden when the old plant
growth should be removed so as to get the land into shape for
planting small seeds.
It is best to select a piece of soil free from weeds and nema-
todes, but if this is impracticable such plants as Bermuda grass
may be partially eliminated by carefully raking out the stems
and roots as the ground is spaded or plowed. A few hours of
extra work before planting will save many hours of hoeing later
in the season.
The land should be well spaded or plowed sometime before
planting begins. Ten days or two weeks before planting the
soil should be well pulverized and the commercial fertilizer ap-
plied. The rows are then marked out and the garden is ready
for planting.
FERTILIZERS
Practically every soil type on which crops are grown in this
state requires the addition of plant foods to grow a satisfactory
crop. Part of this plant food can be supplied by animal manures.
In fact, manure is one of the most satisfactory fertilizing ma-
terials that the gardener can use, and if available in sufficient
quantities, will furnish all the elements necessary for the grow-
ing of vegetables with the exception of phosphoric acid. The
latter should be applied in addition to the manure. For every
ton of manure approximately 200 pounds of superphosphate
should be used. This will balance the plant foods furnished by
the manure.
If well-rotted animal manures are used there is really no limit
to the amount that can be applied. Approximately 25 pounds of
manure and two and one-half pounds of 16 percent superphos-
phate for each 100 square feet of garden will furnish an adequate
food supply for the garden. However, if the manure is not well






Florida Cooperative Extension


rotted and larger quantities are to be used it should be applied
two or three weeks before planting and well worked into the soil
so that it will be partially decomposed before the garden is
planted.
When manure is not available the plant food required for the
successful growing of vegetables may be secured entirely from
commercial fertilizers. Probably the best fertilizer for general
purposes is one analyzing 5% nitrogen, 7% phosphoric acid and
5% potash. This fertilizer may be applied at the rate of two
and one-half to five pounds for 100 square feet of area. While
the fertilizer can be applied in the crop row if properly mixed
with the soil it is safer for the home gardener to broadcast the
fertilizer. It should be applied 10 days or two weeks before the
seed are planted. If applied just previous to planting time it is
liable to burn the young plants as they emerge from the seed.
Many gardeners get splendid results by applying the major part
of the fertilizer 10 days before the seed are planted and the
remainder when the crop is one-half grown. When fertilizer is
applied to growing plants care should be used in applying it so
that none touches the leaves or stems of the plant. The plant
will be severely burned whenever fertilizer is allowed to remain
in contact with the foliage.

PLANTING
The time of planting has much to do with the successful
growth of any crop. In Table 1 is given the approximate date
that the different vegetables can be planted in the various parts
of the state. Judgment should be shown in using the suggested
dates. Perhaps the location is relatively warm or cold as com-
pared to adjoining areas. This should influence the selection
of a planting date. Then, too, some seasons are warm and others
cold. The home gardener can afford to take some risk to assure
an early or late crop. However, it is important that considera-
tion be given to the risks of having the crop frosted or of running
into too hot weather for proper maturity.
Care should be used in planting the seed at the proper distances
and depths. The spacing distance of rows and of seeds in the
row should be studied in Table 2. The seed will be planted much
thicker in the row than the plants are to stand. After the
plants are well started they are thinned to a stand at the approx-
imate distance given in Table 2 to allow the proper amount of
space for best development.






TABLE 2.-PLANTING DISTANCE AND AMOUNT OF SEED REQUIRED FOR VEGETABLES.


Vegetable Seed Required
100 Feet of Row
Beans, Bush.............. 1 lb.
Beans, Lima.............. 1 lb.
Beans, Pole............... 1 lb.
Beet ...................... 1 oz.
Broccoli...................... --.....................-.............
Cabbage........................ ..-......-...-..-----....
Carrot ........................ z oz.
Cauliflower............... ---------
Celery-..... ......------.. --..---
Collards...-...- ........ ...........
Corn, Sweet -.......... 1/2 lb.
Cowpeas ..................... 1 Ibs.
Cucumber .................. 1 oz.
Eggplant .......................
Endive ... ............... 1 oz.
Lettuce ........................ oz.
Melons, Musk............ 1 oz.
Melons, Water.......... 2 oz.
Mustard...................... 1 oz.
Okra-----............................ 2 oz.
Onion.......................... 1 oz.
Parsley ..................... 1 oz.
Peas ..........-------.... 1 lbs.
Pepper........................ ......-----------
Radish ........................ 1 oz.
Rutabaga.................... 1 oz.
Spinach ...................... 2 oz.
Squash (Bush)......... 2 oz.
Sweet Potatoes ........ 80 plants
Tomato.......................-------
Turnip ........................ 1 oz.


Seed Required to
Produce Given
Number of Plants
.....................................
-....................................


1 oz. to 5000
1 oz. to 5000

1 oz. to 4500
1 oz. to 8000
1 oz. to 4000


1 oz. to 2000









1 oz. to 1000
.....................................
.....................................
1 oz. to 2000
......................................

......................................
......................................
....................................

.................................... ..

.....................................
1 oz. to 1000


.....................................



.....................................


Distance
Between Rows
(inches)
24 to 32
26 to 48
40 to 48
14 to 24
20 to 36
24 to 36
16 to 24
24 to 30
24 to 40
24 to 30
34 to 42
24 to 36
48 to 60
24 to 36
18 to 24
12 to 18
70 to 80
90 to 120
14 to 24
24 to 40
18 to 24
12 to 20
24 to 36
20 to 30
12 to 18
18 to 24
14 to 18
42 to 48
36 to 48
40 to 60
12 to 20


Distance Between
Plants in Row
(inches)
2 to 3
3 to 6
6 to 8
1 to 3
16 to 22
14 to 24
1 to 3
20 to 24
4 to 6
14 to 18
12 to 18
2 to 3
15 to 24
24 to 36
8 to 12
4 to 8
48 to 60
90 to 120
4 to 6
18 to 24
3 to 4
4 to 6
1 to 2
18 to 24
1 to 2
4 to 7
3 to 5
42 to 48
15 to 18
36 to 40
2 to 4


Depth of
Planting
i (inches)
1% to 2
1% to 2
1% to 2
% to 1
% to 1
%
%
%
U to %

1 to 2
1 to 2
% to %
%


%to 1
%
1 to 2


1 to 2






% to %







Florida Cooperative Extension


Planting depths for seed of the different crops also are given
in Table 2. Where different depths are listed for the same seed,
the shallow depth is used usually on heavy or very moist soils,
the greater depth on light and dry soils.

CULTIVATION OF THE GARDEN
The primary purpose of cultivating the garden is to keep
weeds under control. Since this is the important thing, every
effort should be made to keep weeds out of the garden. If a
wheel hoe or cultivator is used the teeth or knives should be set
shallow so that the weeds will be cut off close to the surface of
the soil. When the soil is cultivated or hoed deeply the roots
of the vegetables will be cut off as well as the weeds. On sandy
soil the only time cultivation is either necessary or desirable is
when there are weeds present, then immediate cultivation is an
advantage. It is much easier to destroy weeds when they are
quite young than it is to remove them after they become large.

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
For those crops that are to be grown during the dry seasons
of the year it is desirable that some method of watering or irri-
gating be provided. There are a number of satisfactory ways
of doing this. Overhead sprinkling with an ordinary garden hose
is satisfactory, if piped water is available. On some soil types
watering can be accomplished by running the water down the
middle of the row, controlling the flow so that the soil all along
the row is thoroughly saturated. If no other means is available
buckets can be used, although this is a very laborious method.
With any method the soil should be thoroughly saturated
whenever it is watered. Frequency of watering will depend upon
the type of crop being grown and the weather conditions pre-
vailing. For the majority of crops a thorough watering once
a week is sufficient. If the soil is thoroughly wetted at each
watering the amount of water to be applied for growing the
crop will be less than if simply the surface of the soil is watered
frequently. The foliage of some plants may be burned severely
if water is applied when the sun is very bright. For this reason,
it is advisable to water in the early morning or late evening.
Crops grown during the rainy summer season should be plant-
ed on ridges or beds so that the soil immediately around their
roots is well drained. Frequently cultivations during this period
may help to dry out the soil.






The Home Garden


COOL SEASON CROPS
There are many vegetable crops that thrive best during cool
weather. Not only will they grow best during cool weather but
they will stand light frost without being seriously injured. This
permits their culture late in the fall and early in the spring,
and quite often they can be grown during the entire winter.
Cabbage and all its relatives, as cauliflower, Brussels sprouts,
collards, turnips, mustard and radishes, grow best during cool
weather. Other vegetable crops that thrive in cool weather
are lettuce, endive, spinach, carrots, beets and onions.
WARM SEASON CROPS
Snap beans, lima beans, cucumbers, tomatoes, Irish potatoes
and sweet corn, while they must be grown in a season that is
free from frost, will do best if produced before or after the
season of hot summer temperatures. While some of these crops
will grow during hot weather it is almost impossible to control
the diseases that develop during summer.
HOT WEATHER CROPS
It is fortunate that different vegetables do require different
temperatures for growing. Thus, there are not only cool season
crops for growing during the cooler parts of the year, but there
are some crops that thrive in hot weather. Sweet potatoes,
New Zealand spinach, okra, eggplant, pepper and watermelons
will all produce well during hot weather. For this reason all
or part of these crops should be planted in the home gardens.
INSECTS AND DISEASES
Insects and diseases attack all vegetable crops and in seasons
favorable for their development will destroy the crop unless
they are properly and vigorously fought by the gardener. The
gardener should be prepared to control both insects and diseases.
There are two important types of insects attacking the foliage
of the crops. These may be classed as chewing and sucking
insects. The chewing insects eat the foliage and their injury
can be easily seen. The cabbage worms are a good example of
this type. They are controlled by using a stomach poison, such
as arsenate of lead. Dusting with a lead arsenate dust made
by mixing 1 part of lead arsenate to 4 or 5 parts of lime usually
gives good control. Beans are the only crop that cannot be
dusted with this dust as the arsenate burns the plants. Since






Florida Cooperative Extension


arsenical dusts and sprays are poisonous to humans, care should
be used in washing off any residue on the vegetable before
using it.
The damage done by sucking insects is not easily recog-
nized. Some sucking insects are very small and not easily
seen. They suck the sap from the plant and cause a mot-
tling of the plant or the dying of tissue in small areas. The
aphids are an example of this type. They are controlled by
applying a contact dust. Nicotine sulphate or Black Leaf 40
has been the standard insecticide used. A 2 or 3 percent dust
is made, using lime as the filler. Pyrethrum compounds also
are good.
Fungous diseases on plants can be controlled by dusting with
copper-lime dust or spraying with bordeaux mixture. To be
most effective, dust used for controlling either insects or diseases
should be applied when there is no wind. Nicotine dust used to
control sucking insects should be applied on a warm day.
There are certain other diseases and insects that live in the
soil or are carried by the seed. These cannot be controlled by
a dust or spray. For this reason it is advisable, if possible, not
to grow the same crop on the same land two years in succession.
For the home garden in Florida it is well to select, at least every
three years, a new piece of soil which is free from nematodes
and has not had vegetables grown on it for several years. Also
it is advisable to rotate the crops so that no individual crop
or its relatives is grown on the same soil two years in succession.

HARVESTING
To insure high quality products some vegetables must be
S harvested promptly when they have reached the proper stage
of maturity. Many deteriorate rapidly. Sweet corn and English
peas lose one-half of their sweetness at prevailing field tempera-
ture in two days after they have reached edible maturity, and
snap beans rapidly become fibrous and stringy once the pod is
fully grown. However, it is not true that all crops lose quality
quickly. Carrots, turnips, beets, and, in fact all root crops,
continue to be of high quality as long as they continue to grow
rapidly. Peppers and eggplants may be harvested over a long
period of time without a decrease in the quality. With such
crops as tomatoes, cantaloupes and watermelons higher quality
is developed if they are allowed to ripen on the vines.
Those crops that deteriorate rapidly on the plant, such as
corn, peas and beans, will continue to deteriorate when removed







The Home Garden


from the plant. This change occurs much more rapidly at high
than at low temperatures, and in storing they should be held
at as low a temperature as possible without freezing them. One
of the primary reasons for the garden is to have high quality
products for the home, and, therefore, we should make every
effort once the crop is grown to harvest it at the proper time
so as to insure high quality.

SURPLUS PRODUCTS
Many home gardeners quite often have a surplus of certain
vegetables. The first use of this surplus should be to preserve
it for future use. This can be accomplished by canning, pre-
serving in salt brine or storing dry. If a surplus remains after
these needs are filled, it often may be sold.


















Fig. 2.-An abundant supply of garden vegetables gives variety in the
fresh product and the surplus can be preserved for times of less abundance.

However, the gardener must remember when attempting to
sell garden produce that competition will be had not only with
experienced commercial growers but with experienced salesmen
as well. The man who makes his living growing vegetables
knows the type of product and pack the market requires. To
be marketable, surplus garden produce must be of as high quality
as that of the commercial grower and the products must be
graded and packaged so that they are acceptable to the buyer.






Florida Cooperative Extension


It should be emphasized that the home gardener is primarily
interested in growing products for home use and it is not until
all the needs of the home are filled that he can afford to sell any
of his produce. If the produce is used at home its value is what
would have to be paid for it if purchased. If the produce is sold
its value is what the seller gets. Since there is quite a wide
spread in these two prices the home gardener can easily see that
it pays to grow and use at home the products of the garden.

BULLETINS WHICH WILL AID THE GARDENER
The Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural
Extension Service at Gainesville have a number of bulletins
available for distribution free to Florida residents which will be
of considerable assistance to the home gardener in this state.
Some are on culture, but many are concerned with the control
of diseases and insects, which are ever present to plague the
crops wherever they are grown.
A partial list of these bulletins is given here. Please order
no more than one copy of any one bulletin.

OBTAIN FROM AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Bul. 195. Diseases of Lettuce, Romaine, Escarole and Endive.
Bul. 208. Cucumber Diseases in Florida.
Bul. 232. Florida Truck and Garden Insects.
Bul. 256. Some Diseases of Cabbage and Other Crucifers in Florida.
Press Bul. 377. Disinfecting Truck Crop Seed with Corrosive Sublimate.
Press Bul. 391. Salamanders and Gophers.
Press Bul. 415. Plants Susceptible and Resistant to Root-Knot.
Press Bul. 416. The Control of Root-Knot in Seedbeds.
Press Bul. 446. Mosaic Diseases of Vegetable Plants.
Press Bul. 467. Control of Phoma Rot of Tomatoes.
OBTAIN FROM AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Bul. 58. Vegetable Crops of Florida.
Bul. 61. Sweet Potatoes.
Bul. 63. Strawberry Production.
Bul. 64. Save the Surplus (by canning).
Extension Bulletins 58 and 64 and Station Bulletin 232 will be
found especially suitable for home gardeners.




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