• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Peanut meal is good feed
 Feeding peanut meal to beef...
 Feeding peanut meal to dairy...
 Peanuts and peanut meal for...
 Feeding peanut meal to poultry
 Composition of peanut hay
 Feeding peanut hay to beef...
 Feeding peanut hay to dairy...














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 115
Title: Feeding peanut meal and hay to beef cattle, dairy cows, swine and poultry
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025539/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feeding peanut meal and hay to beef cattle, dairy cows, swine and poultry
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sheely, W. J
Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
Mehrhof, N. R ( Norman Ripley ), b. 1899
Brown, Hamlin L., 1914-
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1942>
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: compiled by W.J. Sheely...<et.al>.
General Note: "August, 1942."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025539
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002571120
oclc - 44716353
notis - AMT7435

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Peanut meal is good feed
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Feeding peanut meal to beef cattle
        Page 7
    Feeding peanut meal to dairy cows
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Peanuts and peanut meal for hogs
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Feeding peanut meal to poultry
        Page 11
    Composition of peanut hay
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Feeding peanut hay to beef cattle
        Page 14
    Feeding peanut hay to dairy cows
        Page 15
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









AGRICULTTTTRAL EXTENSION SERVICE
_;.\INES\ LLE. FL'.'RI.Vl
i .


FEEDING PEANUT i

MEAL AND HAY

TO BEEF CATTLE. DAIRY COW S.
SWINE AND POULTRY
2 ii"d~
S" *E


Bulletin 115
Augiu4t. 19142


L ~







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
N. H. MCQUEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

Coperative Home Demonstration Work
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent


1 Part-time.








FEEDING PEANUT MEAL AND HAY

To Beef Cattle, Dairy Cows, Swine and Poultry

Compiled by

W. J. SHEELY, R. B. BECKER, N. R. MEHRHOF and H. L. BROWN*

CONTENTS
Page
Peanut Meal Is Good Feed ....... ..................... 5
Feeding Peanut Meal to Beef Cattle .............. 7
Feeding Peanut Meal to Dairy Cows 7
Peanuts and Peanut Meal for Hogs .... ..... 9
Feeding Peanut Meal to Poultry ................. 11
Composition of Peanut Hay ..........-- 12
Feeding Peanut Hay to Beef Cattle .... ..... ..... 1
Feeding Peanut Hay to Dairy Cows .......

Peanuts are an important crop in the Southeast, ranking high
as a soil conservation crop, as human food, as feed for livestock,
and as a money crop. Throughout the Southeast peanuts are
planted for hog feed and for the oil mills and the confectionery
trade. In recent years millions of pounds of peanuts have been
crushed for oil, reaching the trade in the form of cooking oil,
salad oil, oleomargarine, and other compounds. The demand
for peanut oil exceeded the domestic supply to such an extent
that millions of pounds of peanut oil were imported annually
from China and the Netherlands.
The most valuable by-product from crushing peanuts for oil
is the peanut cake or meal. High in protein, it is a valuable
feed for all classes of livestock and poultry. Peanut meal is
very palatable, being relished by livestock, and is equal in feed-
ing value to cottonseed meal or linseed meal.
Peanut meal is used extensively by mixed feed manufacturers,
livestock men, dairymen, and poultrymen. The mixed feed men
would use more peanut meal if the supply were more stable. The
demand for peanut meal during the year of 1937 resulted in
more than 19 million pounds of peanut cake and meal being
imported from foreign countries.
Normally approximately 11/ to 2 million acres are planted
to peanuts for oil crushing purposes. More than 75% of this
acreage is in the Southeast-Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, and Alabama. Peanut meal and oil are chiefly products
of the lower Southeast.
The war completely cut off the importation of vegetable oils
and fats from the Far East, previously our principal source of
supply, at the same time increasing the demand. To help meet


*Assisted by O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen.








FEEDING PEANUT MEAL AND HAY

To Beef Cattle, Dairy Cows, Swine and Poultry

Compiled by

W. J. SHEELY, R. B. BECKER, N. R. MEHRHOF and H. L. BROWN*

CONTENTS
Page
Peanut Meal Is Good Feed ....... ..................... 5
Feeding Peanut Meal to Beef Cattle .............. 7
Feeding Peanut Meal to Dairy Cows 7
Peanuts and Peanut Meal for Hogs .... ..... 9
Feeding Peanut Meal to Poultry ................. 11
Composition of Peanut Hay ..........-- 12
Feeding Peanut Hay to Beef Cattle .... ..... ..... 1
Feeding Peanut Hay to Dairy Cows .......

Peanuts are an important crop in the Southeast, ranking high
as a soil conservation crop, as human food, as feed for livestock,
and as a money crop. Throughout the Southeast peanuts are
planted for hog feed and for the oil mills and the confectionery
trade. In recent years millions of pounds of peanuts have been
crushed for oil, reaching the trade in the form of cooking oil,
salad oil, oleomargarine, and other compounds. The demand
for peanut oil exceeded the domestic supply to such an extent
that millions of pounds of peanut oil were imported annually
from China and the Netherlands.
The most valuable by-product from crushing peanuts for oil
is the peanut cake or meal. High in protein, it is a valuable
feed for all classes of livestock and poultry. Peanut meal is
very palatable, being relished by livestock, and is equal in feed-
ing value to cottonseed meal or linseed meal.
Peanut meal is used extensively by mixed feed manufacturers,
livestock men, dairymen, and poultrymen. The mixed feed men
would use more peanut meal if the supply were more stable. The
demand for peanut meal during the year of 1937 resulted in
more than 19 million pounds of peanut cake and meal being
imported from foreign countries.
Normally approximately 11/ to 2 million acres are planted
to peanuts for oil crushing purposes. More than 75% of this
acreage is in the Southeast-Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, and Alabama. Peanut meal and oil are chiefly products
of the lower Southeast.
The war completely cut off the importation of vegetable oils
and fats from the Far East, previously our principal source of
supply, at the same time increasing the demand. To help meet


*Assisted by O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen.






Florida Cooperative Extension


this urgent demand the Secretary of Agriculture set the 1942
goal for oil peanuts at 10 times the 1941 acreage for this pur-
pose. Florida's oil peanuts goal was set at 200,000 acres, up
from 21,000 acres the year before. To encourage production
the Department of Agriculture announced supported prices for
peanuts harvested for the oil trade.
While it seems that the high goals for oil peanuts will be
reached in few, if any, Southeastern states, it is obvious that
there will be from six to eight times as many peanuts for oil as
formerly, and that heavy production of oil peanuts will continue
as long as the war lasts.
This larger acreage of peanuts for oil will result in increased
production of peanut meal and hay throughout the Southeast,
which should be a boon to the livestock and feed industry and
should aid farmers materially in attaining the meat, milk, and
egg goals.
Fortunately, oil mills are located at strategic points in the
Southeastern peanut producing areas. They are accessible to
peanut producers and the meal and cake they produce are within
easy reach of Southern farmers, dairymen, cattlemen and poul-
trymen. Enterprising feeders will take advantage of this en-


Pulling peanut vines for hay before the nuts are hogged off.






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


large supply of peanut meal and cake, which are expected to
sell at prices that will make them attractive to feeders. And
since congested transportation conditions make it almost im-
possible to bring in roughages from distant points, the larger
supply of peanut hay will be a welcome nearby source of this
important type of feed.

PEANUT MEAL IS GOOD FEED
Two feed products made from whole peanuts are on the mar-
ket. Peanut meal is the by-product of peanut oil manufactured
from shelled nuts. Two grades are produced, the best contain-
ing 45 to 48 percent crude protein, about 8 percent fat, and
generally less than 10 percent crude fiber. Peanuts whole
pressed, or peanut feed meal, is the by-product remaining after
the unshelled nuts have been pressed for oil. Usually this grade
contains less than 36 percent crude protein, around 9 percent fat,
and above 20 percent crude fiber. As a war measure to reduce
tonnage and improve quality, the Southeastern Peanut Associa-
tion in June 1942 adopted a new rule recommending that its
members make "pure peanut" meal with 48 percent protein and
peanut feed with a minimum of 41 percent protein.
Peanut shells or hulls are not recommended for feeding dairy
cows or any other livestock. European feeding trials show pea-
nut hulls to have a negative feeding value-do more harm than
good. The Texas Experiment Station has shown peanut shells
to contain over 60 percent of crude fiber, which accounts for
their negative value as feed.
The several grades of peanut oil meal are quoted by F. B.
Morrison to analyze, on the average, as follows:
I Total
Average Composition I Diges- Diges-
Protein Content I Nitro- tible tible
of Peanut Meal Crude Crude Crude I gen-free Crude Nutri-
IProtein Fat I Fiber Extract Protein ents
percent percent I percent percent percent percent
Above 45 percent! 46.4 8.6 9.2 1 24.3 41.3 83.5
36-43 ................... 40.3 8.6 8.3 29.2 35.9 81.8
Whole pressed .... 35.4 9.1 21.4 21.6 28.7 57.8

Peanut meal contains 0.56 percent phosphorus and only about
0.18 percent calcium. Like all high protein feeds of plant origin,
it should be fed with either a high-calcium roughage or a calcium
supplement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The vitamin content is of particular interest to poultrymen.
Peanut meal, when freshly prepared, contains on the average 250
international units of vitamin A, 900 units of vitamin B1, 1200
micrograms or 910 Cornell units of vitamin G, and 4.0 modified
Jukes-Lepkosky units (chick antidermatosis factor) per pound.
It is a fair source of vitamin E.
At least four of the amino-acids needed for promoting growth
in fowls are found in fair proportions in peanut meal. These are
cystine, histidine, lysine, and trypotophane. Others are present
in satisfactory amounts. The protein is of high quality for dairy
cattle, growing and fattening animals. It is relatively low in
methionine for small animals.
Marketing and storage of peanut by-products present a prob-
lem to the oil millers, feed dealers, and purchasers for ultimate
use. Peanut oil in the nuts or meal tends to oxidize and become
rancid upon exposure to the air, particularly in warm moist
climates. The mills press peanuts for oil over rather a long
season so as to move the cake or meal into the feed trade while
still fresh. On this account, oil millers like to dispose of the
peanut cake and meal as soon as possible after it has been
milled. Feed dealers try to carry in stock only such tonnages

Peck's bad boy never had any better time than this youngster did in a pile of peanuts
intended for the oil mills-and eventually peanut meal.














21. tt






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


of peanut meal as they can sell in a short period. Owners of live-
stock and poultry likewise need to know that the peanut meal
is fresh, and then buy only in amounts that will be fed out in
two or three months in cool weather, or not over six weeks
during the summer. Livestock dislike rancid peanut meal. In
fact, rancid meal may throw dairy cows off-feed and actually
prove harmful to milk yields. On the other hand, fresh peanut
meal is highly palatable to cattle and poultry.

FEEDING PEANUT MEAL TO BEEF CATTLE
High in content of easily digested protein, peanut meal is
one of the valuable protein supplements in livestock feeding.
Feeding of peanut meal to beef cattle in both fattening and
wintering rations in experiments and under actual farm condi-
tions has proven the value of this feed for beef cattle.
Cattle feeding experiments in Texas, Alabama, Georgia, and
Florida have proven the value of peanut meal as compared with
cottonseed meal and other vegetable proteins, peanut meal giv-
ing as good-in some cases better-results as did the other
meals. In addition, the Alabama Experiment Station has shown
that peanut meal is satisfactory for wintering beef cattle.
Cattlemen and farmers who have used peanut meal in feeding
beef cattle substantiate the facts as presented by the experi-
ment stations, especially when a good quality of fresh meal is
used. Judging by results obtained from experiments and in
actual practices of cattle feeders, peanut meal is an excellent
protein supplement in feeding beef cattle. The high quality of
its protein and its palatability make it valuable for the breeding
herd, growing young animals, and fattening steers. The effi-
ciency of the meal as a feed, the outlook for increased produc-
tion, and the need of maximum production of livestock should
encourage the use of peanut meal as a feed for beef cattle.
In feeding steers, young stock, and the breeding herd, the
amounts of peanut meal used in the ration should be about the
same as recommended for cottonseed meal.

FEEDING PEANUT MEAL TO DAIRY COWS
For the family cow, peanut meal is fully equal in feeding value
to the highest quality of cottonseed meal, soybean meal, linseed
meal and other meals having the same protein content obtained
from plants. It can replace them in mixed concentrates. When






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


of peanut meal as they can sell in a short period. Owners of live-
stock and poultry likewise need to know that the peanut meal
is fresh, and then buy only in amounts that will be fed out in
two or three months in cool weather, or not over six weeks
during the summer. Livestock dislike rancid peanut meal. In
fact, rancid meal may throw dairy cows off-feed and actually
prove harmful to milk yields. On the other hand, fresh peanut
meal is highly palatable to cattle and poultry.

FEEDING PEANUT MEAL TO BEEF CATTLE
High in content of easily digested protein, peanut meal is
one of the valuable protein supplements in livestock feeding.
Feeding of peanut meal to beef cattle in both fattening and
wintering rations in experiments and under actual farm condi-
tions has proven the value of this feed for beef cattle.
Cattle feeding experiments in Texas, Alabama, Georgia, and
Florida have proven the value of peanut meal as compared with
cottonseed meal and other vegetable proteins, peanut meal giv-
ing as good-in some cases better-results as did the other
meals. In addition, the Alabama Experiment Station has shown
that peanut meal is satisfactory for wintering beef cattle.
Cattlemen and farmers who have used peanut meal in feeding
beef cattle substantiate the facts as presented by the experi-
ment stations, especially when a good quality of fresh meal is
used. Judging by results obtained from experiments and in
actual practices of cattle feeders, peanut meal is an excellent
protein supplement in feeding beef cattle. The high quality of
its protein and its palatability make it valuable for the breeding
herd, growing young animals, and fattening steers. The effi-
ciency of the meal as a feed, the outlook for increased produc-
tion, and the need of maximum production of livestock should
encourage the use of peanut meal as a feed for beef cattle.
In feeding steers, young stock, and the breeding herd, the
amounts of peanut meal used in the ration should be about the
same as recommended for cottonseed meal.

FEEDING PEANUT MEAL TO DAIRY COWS
For the family cow, peanut meal is fully equal in feeding value
to the highest quality of cottonseed meal, soybean meal, linseed
meal and other meals having the same protein content obtained
from plants. It can replace them in mixed concentrates. When









"I've got my goobers,
and them cows do relish
peanut meal and hay."

the price of peanut meal (over
45 percent total protein) is
not higher than that of cot-
tonseed meal containing 41
percent protein (8 percent
ammonia), a saving is effected
by using the peanut meal. The
protein of these feeds is of
high quality, that of the pea-
nuts slightly excelling most
others.
Corn and peanut meal can
be combined to balance with
homegrown roughages for a family cow on a farm. Other simple
feed mixtures might be slightly better in the long run. In Flor-
ida, one should add 1 pound of common salt and 2 pounds of
steamed bonemeal to each 100 pounds of mixed concentrates. If
either oyster shell flour or marble dust (kalsite) are available,
either of them may replace one-half of the bonemeal. Cows
should have access to the regular iron-copper-cobalt supplement
("salt sick" mineral) recommended by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.

TABLE 1.-PEANUT MEAL IN MIXED CONCENTRATES FOR FAMILY COWS.

Proportion in pounds of various ingredients in each mixed feed.
Ground snap corn .......................... 200 100 300 200 100 200 100
Dried citrus pulp ..-..................... 100 100 ..... ...- 100
Peanut meal, 45% protein .......... 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Oats (light weight) .................... ..... 100 ..... ..... .... ...... 100
W heat bran .... .. ..................... .. ... .. ...... 100 ...... ..... 100

Nutrient content of each of these mixed feeds.
Total crude protein, percent ....... 17.2 18.0 18.1 19.9 20.0 21.3 22.4
Digestible crude protein, percent 13.6 14.0 14.7 16.5 16.1 17.7 18.3
Total digestible nutrients,percent 75.1 72.6 73.7 73.5 76.6 74.9 71.6
For each 100 pounds of mixed feed, it is recommended to add 1 pound of common salt,
1 pound of steamed bonemeal, and 1 pound of either oyster shell flour or marble dust
("kalsite").

The commercial dairyman who purchases feeds in quantities
can save materially on feed at times by taking advantage of
price differentials in favor of peanut meal. Commercial dairy
cows usually have better appetites for mixed concentrates that






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay 9

contain a variety of feeds. Careful studies have shown that milk
production is slightly higher with cows on mixed feeds contain-
ing both peanut and cottonseed meal than on either alone. With
feed formulas containing 200 pounds or more of high protein
feeds, these may consist of equal amounts of peanut and cotton-
seed meals, or two parts of one and one part of the other as
prices justify.
Suggested rations for family cows and for use with commercial
dairy herds are given in the accompanying tables.

TABLE 2.-PEANUT MEAL IN MIXED CONCENTRATES SUGGESTED FOR USE
WITH COMMERCIAL DAIRY HERDS.

Pounds of various ingredients in each mixed feed.
Brewers'grains, over 25% protein ............ 200 400 ..... 500
Corn, ground snap ........................ 400 -.. ..- 500 ...... 500
Corn feed meal .......................... ...... .. 400 400 ...... 500 --. 400
Citrus pulp, dried ........................ 400 400 400 ...... 500 ...... 400
Cottonseed meal, 41% protein .... 200 200 100 100 200 100 200
Oats, light weight ... ..-..-..----..---.. 200 ..... 300 ...... 200
Peanut meal, 45% protein .. -. 200 200 200 200 300 200 400
Rice bran ..-......... ................... 400 300 400 300 500 400 400
Wheat bran .................................. 400 300 400 300 500 400 400
Common salt .--..... ........-.........-...... 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Steamed bonemeal ........................ 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Marble dust ("kalsite")* ......... 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Nutrient contents of each of these mixed feeds, estimated on basis of
average composition.
Total crude protein, percent ........ 16.6 16.8 16.8 18.5 18.2 20.0 20.1
Digestible crude protein, percent 12.9 12.9 13.2 14.7 14.5 16.1 16.2
Total digestible nutrients, percent 70.2 72.1 72.4 66.9 75.0 68.1 73.7
*A clean grade of oyster shell flour can replace the marble dust. If neither one is
available, it is recommended that 2.0% of steamed bonemeal be used.

PEANUTS AND PEANUT MEAL FOR HOGS

For pork production, peanuts are unsurpassed, especially in
cost per pound of gain. Throughout the peanut producing areas
of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama peanuts are the main hog feed
crop. Hogs are turned on a field of peanuts or to glean in the
fields where peanuts have been harvested for market.
Peanut hams are known for their high quality, tenderness, and
flavor. These delicious hams are produced from hogs that have
been fed and finished out on peanuts. True, peanuts produce soft
pork, but it is different from soft pork produced by other feeds.
The savory flavor of the peanut ham is unsurpassed by any other
pork.
Peanut meal is an excellent supplement for swine feeding.
Experimental work in hog feeding at six of the leading experi-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ment stations has definitely proven this fact. These experiments
with high grade peanut meal showed that the proportion of pea-
nut meal to corn in the ration can be changed with very little
effect on the rate or economy of gain. This would indicate that
when corn is scarce and high in price, and the price of peanut
meal is low, the proportion of peanut meal in the hog ration can
be increased.
Where there is a large supply of peanut meal, it would seem
wise that, where hogs are fattened on corn, maximum use be
made of peanut meal as a protein supplement. It must be re-
membered that in all hog feeding throughout the Southeast,
corn, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, and tankage, must be supple-
mented with mineral mixtures to obtain maximum results.
Fattening Rations for Hogs.-Data and results in hand indi-
cate that the proportion of corn and peanut meal to feed will
depend on the prevailing prices of the two feeds. Following are
three suggested rations:
Corn 2 parts, peanut meal 1 part, free access to minerals.
Corn 3 parts, peanut meal 1 part, free access to minerals.
Corn self-fed and a mixture of peanut meal and tankage half
and half self-fed, free access to minerals.

Sorting peanuts at a Florida shelling plant. The good ones go to the confectionery trade,
the poor ones to the oil mills.






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


FEEDING PEANUT MEAL TO POULTRY
The Poultry Department at the University of Georgia reports
on using peanut meal in rations for chicks and layers. The au-
thors state that when as much as 100% peanut meal replaced
animal sources of protein there was no material difference in
the maintenance of body weight, average egg production, livabil-
ity of adult birds, or hatchability of eggs. All the animal sources
of protein may be replaced by peanut meal in a well balanced
ration without affecting the subsequent growth of chicks, pro-
vided mineral and vitamin contents are satisfactory.

TO GROWING CHICKS
Four feeding trials conducted at the Virginia Agricultural
Experiment Station with Barred Plymouth Rock chicks indicated
that peanut meal is a good source of protein. These trials were
conducted for a period of eight weeks and the author concluded
that peanut meal supplemented with minerals could be used to
replace 50 percent of the meat scrap without affecting the growth
of the chicks.
FOR EGG PRODUCTION
North Carolina reports on a study showing the influence on
egg production, hatchability of eggs, and livability of chicks
when peanut meal was substituted in certain quantities for part
of the animal protein concentrates in the North Carolina State
laying mash. Replacing either fish meal, meat scraps, or dried
skimmilk in the North Carolina State laying mash with 62 to
64 percent peanut meal failed to bring about any significant
differences in production, hatchability of eggs or livability of
progeny up to 10 weeks of age. The cost of producing a dozen
eggs where peanut meal was substituted for an animal protein
concentrate was materially lower than with the control mash.
Alabama reports that peanut meal is superior to whole pea-
nuts, ground peanuts without shells, and ground peanuts with
shell in chick and in laying rations. The report also indicates
that peanut products should be supplemented with an animal
protein concentrate.
High grade peanut meal contains the necessary nutrients
which permit replacing at least 50 percent of the more expen-
sive animal protein concentrates in general use in well balanced
laying mashes. The efficiency of the peanut products for hens
was improved materially when skimmilk was added in propor-
tions to supply 50 percent of the protein supplement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PEANUT MEAL FOR TURKEYS
Many turkey growers regard peanut meal highly and use it
in the mashes up to 10 or 15 percent by weight. Peanut meal
produces meat of good flavor when fed to turkeys.

SUGGESTED PEANUT MEAL RATIONS FOR POULTRY


Laying Mash (Alabama)
71 pounds yellow corn meal
12 pounds peanut meal
17 pounds dried skimmilk*
7 pounds bone meal
1 pound salt
Grain-Whole white corn

Laying Ration (North Carolina)
24 pounds yellow corn meal
20 pounds wheat middlings
20 pounds pulverized oats
10 pounds wheat bran
5 pounds fish meal
(or meat scrap)
15 pounds peanut meal
3 pounds ground limestone
1 pound bone meal
1 pound salt
1 pound cod liver oil


Chick Mash (Alabama)
52 pounds of yellow corn meal
20 pounds wheat shorts
5 pounds alfalfa leaf mealt
13 pounds dried buttermilk
9 pounds peanut meal
2% pounds bone meal
34 pounds oyster shell
Chick Ration (Virginia)
46 pounds yellow corn meal
15 pounds wheat bran
15 pounds flour middlings
5 pounds ground oats
5 pounds dried skimmilk
9 pounds meat scrap
4 pounds peanut meal
3 pounds alfalfa leaf meal
1 pound cod liver oil
1 pound charcoal
Mineral Supplement-60% bone meal.
20% oyster shell, 20% common salt


COMPOSITION OF PEANUT HAY

Three kinds of peanut hay are made. 1. Peanuts may be cured
into hay, nuts, vines and all, to be fed on the farm where grown.
Very little of this kind is produced because the peanuts are
valuable as food and for oil. 2. With the erect-growing type of
peanuts, the vines may be mowed and cured into an excellent
quality of hay. In this case, the nuts may be hogged off in
fattening swine. 3. When the nuts are grown for market, either
as human food or for oil production, nuts are removed by a pea-
nut picker after the entire plant has been cured for some time
about poles in the field. The remaining straw, which is called
"peanut hay, with few nuts or with nuts removed," is fed to
livestock locally, or is sold for feeding purposes. More than 95
percent of all peanut hay produced is of this type.
The quality of hay depends on weather conditions and the care
used in harvesting and stacking the vines. Some farmers stack
the vines soon after wilting to prevent bleaching by the sun and

*If one gallon of liquid skimmilk or buttermilk is available daily for each 50 hens, the
dried skimmilk may be omitted from the laying mash.
tAlfalfa leaf meal could be omitted without much change in the results if the chicks
had some green feed available daily.






Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


rains, and are careful in capping the stacks with material that
sheds rain during the curing period.
Average compositions of these three types of peanut hay, as
cited in Morrison's Feeds and Feeding and from analyses by the
Florida State Chemist, are summarized here:


IAverage Composition
I Nitrogen-
Class of Hay Crude Crude Crude free
SProtein Fat I Fiber I Extract


Percent percent percent percent
Peanut hay, with nuts mostly
rem oved ................................ 9.7 3.3 23.3 45.7
Peanut hay, with nuts mostly
removed, Florida analyses ... 10.0 3.2 34.2 34.0
Peanut hay, with nuts ................ 13.4 12.6 23.0 34.9
Peanut hay, mowed ..............I 10.6 5.1 23.8 42.2


Five representative samples of peanut hay with nuts removed
were separated mechanically. These contained an average of
26.4 percent of leaves, 62.9 percent of coarse stems and roots,
5.7 percent of shelled peanuts, 2.9 percent of shells, and 2.1 per-
cent of foreign matter.
There are no dependable values for the digestible nutrients
of peanut hay applicable to this region, because the methods of
curing and climatic conditions during harvest affect the me-
chanical losses of leaves, the losses from leaching caused by rain
and dews, and average bleaching of the hay in the curing pro-
cess. However, an estimate has been made of the feeding value
of the peanut hay, based on the Florida analyses, and the average

Peanuts which have been well stacked and capped to protect from rain produce a fairly
good grade of hay after the nuts are picked.






Florida Cooperative Extension


coefficients of digestibility of the straws from four other legume
crops harvested for seed. According to this estimate, the peanut
hay with nuts mostly removed, based on the Florida analyses,
would provide about 4.4 percent of digestible protein and 43.2
percent of total digestible nutrients. This assumes that cattle
would eat the entire product. If allowed to refuse the less valu-
able parts of the stems and roots, undoubtedly the hay has a
higher value than this. Mowed hay should be equal in value to
other legume hays of like quality.

FEEDING PEANUT HAY TO BEEF CATTLE
Peanut hay as a roughage for beef cattle occupies a very de-
sirable position in local areas where the hay is produced.
Experimental work in feeding steers at both the North Flor-
ida Experiment Station and the Georgia Experiment Station
have proven the value of peanut hay as compared with other
roughages for steer feeding. In every feeding trial peanut hay
has proven economical.
The Florida Experiment Station at Gainesville has shown that
cattle can be wintered satisfactorily on peanut hay alone. These
feeding trials and results obtained by farmers show that good
peanut hay is a very satisfactory and valuable legume for all
classes of cattle.
Cattlemen and farmers may well make the maximum use of
peanut hay in wintering their breeding herd and young stock
and in finishing out beef for market. If the breeding herd is
given sufficient peanut hay and peanut meal (or other feeds)
for wintering, succeeding calf crops should be materially im-
proved and more than pay for the cost of the hay and wintering
the herd.
Peanut hay should be fed in low open racks so the sand may
sift out of the hay.
The following suggested rations for beef cattle should prove
economical and satisfactory.
Fattening Steers.-Peanut meal 4 to 6 Ibs., corn 6 to 14 lbs.,
and silage 25 Ibs., or peanut hay 12 to 15 lbs., peanut meal 2 to
3 Ibs., and corn 8 to 12 lbs.
For yearling steers, the following ration is satisfactory: Pea-
nut hay 3 Ibs., peanut meal 21/ lbs., and ground snapped corn
14 lbs.







Feeding Peanut Meal and Hay


Wintering the Breeding Herd.-2 to 3 lbs. of peanut cake or
meal on pasture, or 2 lbs. peanut meal and 15 to 25 lbs. silage
or 10 to 18 lbs. of peanut hay in feed lot.
Wintering Calves.-7 to 15 Ibs. peanut hay or 1 to 11/2 lbs.
peanut meal and 10 to 18 Ibs. silage.

FEEDING PEANUT HAY TO DAIRY COWS
Peanut vine hay is a fairly good roughage for dairy cows,
especially when it is well cured. On account of the very high
percent of stems a large amount of leaves are lost in the
process of harvesting-this hay is high in fiber content. It
should be fed only in limited quantities to cows producing four
gallons or more milk per day. Good quality peanut vine hay fed
10 to 15 pounds per day to dry cows and to lower producing
animals may supply a valuable roughage when other roughages
are costly or probably not available at any price.
It is desirable to feed peanut vine hay whole (unground) in
racks. By feeding hay in racks the cows may refuse the unde-
sirable stems and foreign substances that often are found in
peanut vine hay.
Chopped peanut vine hay is more desirable for feeding dairy
cows than the ground. The ensilage cutter with blower attached
provides a convenient method of storing peanut hay on farms
where peanuts are grown. The vines are run direct from picker
to ensilage cutter and the cut hay is blown into a barn or other
storage space.
It is not necessary to add molasses to good quality hay, since
good hay is palatable and nutritious, while molasses added to
poor hay may cause cows to consume hay that has moldy or
woody stems and is very undesirable as feed.
Two tons of good peanut vine hay for each family cow per
year would be most valuable in helping to insure that Florida
farmers will adequately meet their milk production goals. Pea-
nut vine hay of good quality provides good supplemental rough-
age for dairy cows.




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