• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Roaches
 Ants
 The common housefly
 Other houseflies
 Gnats
 Bedbugs
 Mosquitoes
 Clothes moths
 Carpet beetles
 Fleas
 Rats
 Ticks
 Silverfish
 Book lice of psocids
 Termites
 Powder post beetles
 Bird mites
 Flour beetles and moths
 Household fumigation
 Methods of prepating household...
 Aerosols for household pests
 Household spray and dust equip...
 Index














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 122
Title: Household pests
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025538/00001
 Material Information
Title: Household pests
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 55 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Creighton, John Thomas
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1943>
 Subjects
Subject: Household pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Household pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John T. Creighton.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "December, 1943."
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025538
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002571144
oclc - 40829600
notis - AMT7459

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Roaches
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Ants
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The common housefly
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Other houseflies
        Page 18
    Gnats
        Page 18
    Bedbugs
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Mosquitoes
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Clothes moths
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Carpet beetles
        Page 26
    Fleas
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Rats
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Ticks
        Page 34
    Silverfish
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Book lice of psocids
        Page 36
    Termites
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Powder post beetles
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Bird mites
        Page 46
    Flour beetles and moths
        Page 46
    Household fumigation
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Methods of prepating household sprays
        Page 51
    Aerosols for household pests
        Page 51
    Household spray and dust equipment
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Index
        Page 54
        Page 55
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





December, 1943


4


S4


40:t


24


r. 4 v



4,*J ,


4- Il


I ISBHOtD PEO'. ,

ByOH" T. C W
__ h ~~._ ^B~W


Single copies free upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


r-

;dol
4


*I

ar


Bulletin 122


d -
t


.., 1







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
A. P. SPENCER, Director

BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
P. H. SENN, PH.D., Asst. VFV Leader
MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Asst. WLA Leader
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A, Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
WILMER W. BASSETT, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent3
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman2
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant in Land-Use Planning'
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. McMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
1 Part-time.
SOn leave.









HOUSEHOLD PESTS

By JOHN T. CREIGHTON 1

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ............. ................ .............. 3 Rats .......................................... .... 81
R coaches .............................................................. 4 Ticks ...................................................-............ 34
A nts .................................................................. 9 Silverfish ....... ........ ... .... 34
Common Housefly .................... .. .......... 12 Book Lice ........................................................ 36
Other Houseflies ............................................ 18 Term ites .............................. ......... 86
Gnats ....................................... 18 Powder Post Beetles ..-............................. 44
Bedbugs .......................................................... 18 Bird Mites ................................... 46
Mosquitoes .......................................... .............. 21 Flour Beetles and Moths ............................ 46
Clothes Moths ................................... ............. 24 Household Fumigation .............................. 46
Plaster Bagworm ....................................... 25 Methods of Preparing Household Sprays 51
Carpet Beetles ............................................. 26 Aerosols for Household Pests ............-- 51
Fleas ........................................................... 27 Household Spray and Dust Equipment.... 52

INTRODUCTION

Man has had many competitors for the essentials of existence
since his advent upon earth. Since man first constructed his
perch-like resting place in the trees or his cave-like dwelling
in the cliff, he has had associated with him other forms of ani-
mal life that attempted to make use of his accumulated products.
His successful control of these competitive forms of animal life
has usually influenced the speed of economic and social advance-
ment.
In the evolution of man's abodes one of the most striking
features has been his attempt to prevent invasion by insects
and other pests. Modern houses are constructed in what is
often incorrectly termed "a pest-proof manner". Men and women
today realize that one of their problems is the control of house-
hold pests.
The modern housewife is frequently embarrassed by the pres-
ence in her home of certain revolting types of pests. She feels
that the presence of these creatures is an indication of her fail-
ure to take proper care of her home. Pest control workers can
vindicate her of such guilt. Frequently, the presence of these
pests is merely an indication of an unfortunate domestic happen-
ing. The invasion of the home by pests is practically unavoid-
able. Their continued presence is not conducive to economic
upkeep or clean living.
Scientific workers have devised effective means for the control
or eradication of all household pests. This information should
constitute an important addition to the library of every modern
home.

Professor of Entomology, University of Florida.









HOUSEHOLD PESTS

By JOHN T. CREIGHTON 1

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ............. ................ .............. 3 Rats .......................................... .... 81
R coaches .............................................................. 4 Ticks ...................................................-............ 34
A nts .................................................................. 9 Silverfish ....... ........ ... .... 34
Common Housefly .................... .. .......... 12 Book Lice ........................................................ 36
Other Houseflies ............................................ 18 Term ites .............................. ......... 86
Gnats ....................................... 18 Powder Post Beetles ..-............................. 44
Bedbugs .......................................................... 18 Bird Mites ................................... 46
Mosquitoes .......................................... .............. 21 Flour Beetles and Moths ............................ 46
Clothes Moths ................................... ............. 24 Household Fumigation .............................. 46
Plaster Bagworm ....................................... 25 Methods of Preparing Household Sprays 51
Carpet Beetles ............................................. 26 Aerosols for Household Pests ............-- 51
Fleas ........................................................... 27 Household Spray and Dust Equipment.... 52

INTRODUCTION

Man has had many competitors for the essentials of existence
since his advent upon earth. Since man first constructed his
perch-like resting place in the trees or his cave-like dwelling
in the cliff, he has had associated with him other forms of ani-
mal life that attempted to make use of his accumulated products.
His successful control of these competitive forms of animal life
has usually influenced the speed of economic and social advance-
ment.
In the evolution of man's abodes one of the most striking
features has been his attempt to prevent invasion by insects
and other pests. Modern houses are constructed in what is
often incorrectly termed "a pest-proof manner". Men and women
today realize that one of their problems is the control of house-
hold pests.
The modern housewife is frequently embarrassed by the pres-
ence in her home of certain revolting types of pests. She feels
that the presence of these creatures is an indication of her fail-
ure to take proper care of her home. Pest control workers can
vindicate her of such guilt. Frequently, the presence of these
pests is merely an indication of an unfortunate domestic happen-
ing. The invasion of the home by pests is practically unavoid-
able. Their continued presence is not conducive to economic
upkeep or clean living.
Scientific workers have devised effective means for the control
or eradication of all household pests. This information should
constitute an important addition to the library of every modern
home.

Professor of Entomology, University of Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ROACHES
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS
Houses, restaurants, bakeries, hotels and grocery stores are
frequently invaded by hordes of roaches (Fig. 2). These pests
are also frequently referred to as cockroaches, waterbugs, croton
bugs and "black beetles". They are present throughout all tem-
perate and tropical regions of the world. In America they were
first noted in seaport towns, but as inland settlements were made
they became common in
all sections, being espe-
cially abundant in urban
Districts.
/ Several kinds of
roaches invade houses,
but many types are wild,
living in the woods and
seldom being found in
buildings. The original
habitat of the roach was
S wooded areas. Then as
man perfected his dwell-
ings in which he stored
his supplies, conditions
suitable for human oc-
cupation proved suitable
for roaches and other
pests.
I Roaches have a char-
acteristic body form
Fig. 2.-Adult American cockroach (X 1%). c
which makes them easy
to identify (Fig. 2). They are usually light brown to dark brown
in color, though some are green. They are broad and flat with
the head bent under the body in such manner that the eyes look
at the floor and the mouth parts are directed toward the rear.
These mouth parts are strong and of a chewing type. The head
is also provided with long, many-segmented feelers (antennae)
which are usually in constant motion. The mature or adult
roach may be winged or wingless. The winged roach possesses
2 pairs with the front pair of a little heavier construction than
the back pair, which are folded over and concealed when the
insect is at rest.






Household Pests


There is a distinct male and female. After sexual contact
the female deposits several packets of eggs. These purse-like
packets are termed o6theca. They contain a variable number of
eggs, depending upon the kind of roach in question. They may
be carried by the mother roach protruding from the posterior
part of the body or they may be deposited in various places.
Some roaches will stick them to the walls or ceilings of a build-
ing, but usually they are placed in cracks and behind pictures,
wallpaper, moldings or baseboards and in other places of con-
cealment.
The young roaches upon hatching seek concealment in cracks,
back of furniture, under rubbish and in other places of retreat
during the daytime and emerge at night. Adults and young
show a negative reaction to light and are rarely seen during
daylight hours. Therefore, a heavy infestation may occur before
the owner is aware of the true condition. The young roach
molts several times before reaching maturity.
Roaches feed upon all kinds of plant and animal materials,
woolens, leather and all kinds of paste-containing articles.
They move about very swiftly, especially when exposed to light.
As they walk over shelves, dishes, kitchenware and other things
they void from their bodies salivary secretions that have a
distinct "roachy" odor, often noticeable in an infested environ-
ment. These secretions, which are frequently absorbed by dishes,
will usually change the flavor of hot foods. Roaches are also
dangerous because of the possibility that they may transmit
several kinds of human disease.

KINDS OF ROACHES
In Florida 10 to 12 different kinds of roaches occur in build-
ings. However, there are only 6 kinds of common occurrence.
These are as follows:
German Roach, Blatella germanica (L.).-The adult German
roach is a winged insect, 1/2 to /8 inch in length, light brown
in color, with 2 darker brown stripes on the back. They were
brought to this region of the world by early American settlers.
They are widely distributed at present and are considered the
worst household roach in the Eastern states. In some sections
of Florida they are listed as the most important roach.
American Roach, Periplaneta americana (L.).-The Ameri-
can roach (Fig. 2) is one of the largest roaches occurring in
North America, averaging between 11/4 and 1%3 inches in






Florida Cooperative Extension


length. In Florida this species constitutes one of the worst
household pests. It is medium brown in color with lighter
yellowish areas on the front part of the body. It possesses
strong and prominent wings.
Australian Roach, Periplaneta australasiae (F.).-The Aus-
tralian roach is similar in body form and color to the American
roach. It usually averages 11/4 to 13/ inches in length and is
slightly narrower than the American roach. The front part
of the body has darker spots than the American. It is not as
serious a pest as the native roach.
Oriental Roach, Blatta orientalis L.-The Oriental roach is
frequently called the "black beetle" of Europe. Averaging 3/q
to 1 inch in length, it is dark brown in color. The male possesses
wings which are reduced in length; the female is practically
wingless. It is frequently encountered in Florida houses.
Large Florida Roach, Eurycotis floridana (F. Walker).-The
Florida roach is also frequently called the "woods" roach. Often
it may be discovered in stacked lumber and fuelwood. It is
large, dark brown to almost black, averaging 11/2 to 13/4 inches
in length. It is much broader than all other roaches described
and has a very fetid odor. It is an infrequent visitor in homes.
Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella supellectilium (Serville).-
The brown-banded cockroach averages approximately 1/ inch
in length and is of a clay yellow color. The head is pale brown
with a darker face. Upper wings are pale brown with paler
basal band. This species seems to be gaining in importance
in Florida.

METHODS OF CONTROLLING ROACHES
CONTACT SPRAYS
All roaches have chewing mouth parts and are, therefore,
best controlled by stomach poisons. However, where a roach
infestation has built up excessively it is wise to use both con-
tact and stomach poisons.
Many proprietary mixtures may be purchased from filling
stations, drugstores, grocery stores and feed stores. These
sprays usually consist of a non-staining volatile oil as a base
to which is added pyrethrum, aliphatic thiocyanates or rotenone
as a killing agent. The layman may also prepare these sprays
in the home. (See the section on "Methods of Preparing House-
hold Sprays.")






Household Pests


The operator should be thorough in the application of these
sprays, as the term "contact" indicates the spray must come in
actual contact with each insect. The sprays should be forced
carefully into the runways of the roaches.
Aerosols as discussed in another section of this bulletin are
proving effective for the control of roaches.
The use of contact sprays alone is not entirely satisfactory
for controlling roaches.

STOMACH POISONS

Sodium Fluoride.-The use of sodium fluoride dust is one of
the most effective methods of roach control. This powder should
be carefully applied by means of a good hand dust gun to all
cracks, crevices and other places where roaches might be hiding
(Fig. 3). This material acts slightly as a contact poison, which




















Fig. 3.-A good small hand during outfit. Courtesy Georgia State
Department of Entomology. (After Milledge Murphey, Jr.)

causes the roaches to become stimulated and run about wildly.
In doing this they get the powder on their antennae and legs.
After they have quieted down and again concealed themselves
they groom their bodies by drawing the anterior feelers (an-
tennae) and legs through their mouth parts. In this way the






Florida Cooperative Extension


sodium fluoride is taken into the digestive tract and kills as a
stomach poison. Fig. 3 illustrates a good small hand duster.
Sodium fluoride is a slow-acting poison and should be per-
mitted to remain until all roaches have disappeared. It is effec-
tive only in dry places. This poison is also toxic to other animals
and man if consumed in sufficient quantities. Therefore, the
operator should be careful in its application.
It is frequently found desirable to place a good coat of the
dust over infested places and then spray in the runways with
lethane aliphaticc thiocyanates) spray or pyrethrum spray.
These sprays will kill many of the insects and the others will
become greatly stimulated and during their speedy movements
will become coated with the sodium fluoride.
Many commercial mixtures use sodium fluoride as a killing
agent. The housewife will find that she is paying considerable
for the brand name. By all means use bulk sodium fluoride
powder. Some recommendations stipulate the use of flour or
some other inert material as a diluent for the sodium fluoride.
It has been found that this dilution is inadvisable. However,
it may be mixed advantageously with pyrethrum powder at the
rate of 75 parts pyrethrum powder and 25 parts of sodium
fluoride. This greatly reduces the danger to human life.
Sodium and Barium Fluosilicate.-Some workers have found
that sodium fluosilicate is more effective than sodium fluoride.
They have also found that barium fluosilicate is a good roach
poison. The methods of application are the same as those
described for sodium fluoride.
Powdered Borax.-Borax was an old remedy for roaches. It
was used as a powder and dusted in the infested areas. Sodium
fluoride has practically replaced it as a control agent, killing
in 5 to 22 hours while borax requires 2 to 10 days.
Pyrethrum Powder.-Finely ground pyrethrum powder is mod-
erately effective in the control of roaches. If the powder comes
in close contact with the insects they will doubtless succumb.
However, the strength of the powder is rapidly dissipated with
age and exposure.
BAITS
Roaches are attracted to various kinds of plant materials.
Therefore, fermenting fruit juices may be used as an attractant.
These materials may be placed in a dish and surrounded by a
"death ring" consisting of sodium fluoride, sodium fluosilicate,






Household Pests


powdered borax or fresh pyrethrum powder. The death ring
should be 8 inches to 1 foot in width. The roaches attempting
to get to the foods will have to walk through the death ring,
thereby bringing their bodies in direct contact with the killing
agent.
Arsenical Baits.-Arsenical poisons in the form of baits are
fairly effective in the control of roaches. The greatest objection
to the use of arsenical baits is the fact that arsenic is dangerous
to human life. It is never advisable to use it if children are
occupying the house. Many commercial preparations use some
form of arsenic as a killing agent. Homemade baits may be
prepared by using:
Cottonseed meal or
linseed meal ........... 1 pint;
Molasses ..................... 3 to 5 tablespoonsful;
Water ......................... to make a thin paste
Heat mixture for short time and then allow to cool. Stir in
1 yeast cake which has been dissolved in a small quantity of
water. Allow to ferment for 12 to 15 hours. Then add 1 tea-
spoonful of lead arsenate or paris green. Place in shallow
dishes. Expose this during evening in the natural habitats of
roaches.
FUMIGATION
The use of volatile gases in the control of roaches is moder-
ately effective. It is not 100% perfect because the gas may
fail to penetrate into the innermost recesses of the roaches'
home. Likewise, the fumigation of one's home does not destroy
the roaches in outbuildings and they may gradually migrate
into the home a few days after fumigation is completed.

CLEAN-UP TREATMENT OF SURROUNDING
BUILDINGS
Due to the migrating habit of roaches, there cannot be suc-
cessful control without efforts being directed at these pests in
the house, cellar and adjacent buildings. The same methods of
control may be employed in all places where they occur.

ANTS
Ants are one of the most common household pests. There are
many species ranging in size from the minute reddish and black
ants to large, robust carpenter ants (Fig. 4). They constitute






Florida Cooperative Extension


an annoyance to most people to such a degree that they justify
control measures.
The ant colony is interesting. It consists of several queens
and numerous workers. There may be several types of workers.
During certain seasons winged males and females are present
in the colony. These emerge at definite periods and mate.
The male then dies. The female flies away, seeks a desirable
location for the nest and makes an excavation. She deposits a
number of eggs. When they hatch she cares for the larvae and
pupae until the mature workers appear. These workers take
over all duties except reproduction. The queens may live 10 to 14
years and produce thousands of young. Ants usually construct
their nests in the soil. They may have a diffuse type of nest
or a nest with a central opening. Some ants become established
in buildings.
They feed upon all types of human food. At times they injure
clothes, especially starched clothes or soiled clothes.
CONTROL OF ANTS
DESTROYING COLONIES
The best method of ant control is a systematic treatment of
the outdoor nests. These are more evident following rains when
Fig. 4.-The carpenter ant (X 3).






Household Pests


the ants bring up fresh soil. These can be treated with
carbon disulphide, calcium cyanide dust, sodium cyanide or
dichloroethyl ether emulsion. The area should be thoroughly
inspected and each nest located and marked. If a nest has a
central opening, only the 1 opening has to be treated. If it is a
diffuse nest a cane or stick should be used to make openings 10
to 12 inches deep, spaced 6 to 10 inches apart. If sodium cyanide
is used it should be dissolved in water at the rate of 1 ounce
in 2 to 3 quarts of water. One ounce of this fluid should be used
in each hole. One ounce of carbon bisulphide (used without
water) may be substituted. Calcium cyanide dust also may be
used. One teaspoonful should be placed at the bottom of each
hole. In each of the above cases, earth should be placed over
each hole and tamped carefully.
Dichloroethyl ether seems to hold promise as an anticide.
The ether is mixed with potash fish oil soap at the rate of 9
parts of ether with 1 part of soap, and an equal quantity of
water is added. This is diluted at the rate of 9 parts to 91
parts of water for field use. It should be applied to the nests
at the rate of 3 to 4 quarts per square yard. All treatments
for ants should be repeated after a day or two.

ANT BAITS
There are many ant baits that may be prepared at home and
numerous commercial preparations for sale. Many of these are
of value. Where small quantities are needed, the purchase of
commercial preparations is advisable.
The following are good formulae for use in controlling ants:
1. Boil the following together for 25 minutes:
A. Granulated sugar, 11/4 lbs.; water, 11/4 pts.; tartaric
acid (crystallized), 1 gram; benzoate of soda, 1 gram.
Dissolve sodium arsenite in hot water in the following
proportions:
B. Sodium arsenite, 1/8 oz.; hot water, 1 fluid oz. When
these have cooled, add B to A and stir. Add 2/3 pound
of strained honey to resulting syrup.
2. Sugar, 1 lb.; water, 1 pt.; arsenate of soda, 125 grains;
honey, 1 tablespoonful. Boil first 3 until arsenate of soda
is dissolved and then add honey.
These baits can be given to the ants on sponges or in small tin






Florida Cooperative Extension


cans with several holes punched in the sides. Frequent retreat-
ment of the sponge is necessary.
Ants may be discouraged from entering homes if their paths
are dusted frequently with sodium fluoride or pyrethrum powder
or sprayed with a pyrethrum spray.
THE COMMON HOUSEFLY
The true housefly (Fig. 1) is known scientifically as Musca
domestic L. It is called the housefly because 95 to 98 percent
of all of the flies that enter houses are of this species. The
presence of houseflies in dwellings and other areas occupied or
frequented by members of the human family constitutes a menace
to clean living and good health.
DESCRIPTION AND LIFE HISTORY
The adult housefly is gray in body color with many prominent
setae (hairs). The upper part of the body (thorax) has 4 longi-
tudinal dark stripes. The body length is 1/4 inch and the wing
spread averages 1/ inch. The mouth parts are constructed for
lapping and sucking.
Adult flies usually occur in areas or adjacent to areas where
they breed, but they may fly or be blown by winds for 300 to
18,000 yards (1/6 mile to 10 miles). They may live for periods
ranging from 30 to 60 days and during winter periods they may
hibernate as adults. However, in Florida all stages may be
found throughout the year. They are most abundant during
dry weather of spring and fall.
The eggs (Fig. 5) are deposited in varied types of media
such as the excrement from the human, horse, cow, hog and
chicken. Eggs are deposited also in waste around feed troughs,
storage receptacles for slop, garbage heaps and uncovered septic
tanks. The deposition of eggs occurs 9 to 10 days after the
female fly emerges. The eggs are small, white, and approxi-
mately 1/25 inch in length. They are laid on the surface or
slightly beneath the surface of breeding media.
The eggs hatch in 7 to 12 hours and the young white maggots
feed upon the medium in which the eggs were deposited, living
on the decaying material or the organisms contained therein.
Larval maturity is reached in 4 to 7 days in warm weather
but is extended during cold periods. In Florida larval mortality
is fairly high during summer rainy periods, apparently due to
fungous diseases and the washing out of breeding material.
Ants also destroy the several immature stages.







Household Pests


Fig. 5.-Eggs of the common housefly. (Courtesy USDA Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine.) (X 1%.)


Fig. 6.-Larvae of the common housefly (X 3).







Florida Cooperative Extension


The full grown larvae (Fig. 6) attempt to locate a drier place
in which to pupate. They may be found in a band some 6 to 15
feet around the periphery (edge) of the stacked breeding
medium. The last larval skin is not shed but hardens and con-
stitutes a cover over the pupa. This stage of the fly is termed
a puparium. It is dark brown in color and lasts 4 days to
weeks, depending upon weather conditions. The adults emerge
from these.
RELATION TO DISEASE
The structure and habits of houseflies make them a natural
agent in the transmission of organisms that cause human disease.
Their body, legs and mouth parts are covered with numerous
setae (hairs). Their feet have an adhesive fluid and the mouth
parts are damp. They regurgitate while feeding or release saliva
on solid food such as sugar. They may void anally, creating
characteristic fly specks. The adults frequent domestic animal
manure, human excrement when exposed in box privies, human
sores, human sputum and other unclean environments. Any germs
present may be collected upon their bodies. In filthy city dis-
tricts they may average 3,500,000 to 4,000,000 bacteria per fly.
If a single fly drops into milk or other liquid one may readily
visualize the potential danger.
Houseflies are known agents in the transmission of Bacillus
typhosus (typhoid fever), Bacillus dysenteriae (dysentery) and
Endamoeba chistolytica (amoebic dysentery). They are poten-
tial transmitters of tuberculosis.
HOUSEFLY CONTROL
The recommendations for control measures are based upon
the life history and habits of the common housefly. Therefore,
the control may be directed at the larvae and puparia (immature
stages), or at the adults.
Sanitation.-The basic control of housefly larvae is sanitation.
This is true because these pests are creatures of filth. The first
principle of sanitation is the proper disposal of fecal wastes.
Buildings used for housing domestic animals should have cement
floors, as this encourages cleanliness. Manures from cows,
horses, sheep, chickens and hogs should be disposed of daily.
Stacking of manures encourages the breeding of flies and when
exposed to rains results in an estimated loss of 25 to 50 percent
of the value of the manure by leaching. It should be taken to
fields daily and spread thinly.






Household Pests


If storage seems essential manure should be placed in a com-
posting pit, in a storage bin or packed closely. The composting
pit should be constructed to exclude flies and mosquitoes and
made of concrete covered with wood. Manure bins should be
elevated and have screened openings. The front of the bin
should have a hinged door. There should be a stable opening
which will permit the manure to be thrown in to the bin from
the stable side. This should be covered with a screen door.
The close packing of manure is designed to raise the temperature
to 150 to 1690 F.
Additional sanitary measures are to dispose of garbage by
burying or burning; avoiding the use of fresh manure on flower
beds or lawns, unless thinly spread; seal carefully all septic
tanks; use screened covers on sewage treatment plants; and
abolish box privies.
Maggot Trap.-Mature larvae of the housefly tend to migrate
to a slightly drier environment for transformation to pupae.
This tropic response makes the construction of a manure rack
or a maggot trap feasible under certain conditions. Such a trap
(Fig. 7) should consist of a wooden platform 20 to 30 feet long
and 10 to 12 feet wide, supported on legs 1 to 2 feet high. Strips

Fig. 7.-A manure rack. (Courtesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


10 to 12 feet long, 11/4 inches thick and 1 inch wide are nailed
across this framework 1 inch apart. The sides of the trap may
be built up 3 feet high. This rack is placed over a concrete
basin which is 4 inches deep. Water is placed in the basin to
a depth of 1 to 11/2 inches. The migrating larvae will drop
between the slats and drown in the water beneath.
Chemical Treatment of Manures.-Chemicals are applied to
manures in the control of houseflies and they serve either as
repellents to adult flies, as contact or stomach poisons for larvae
or as fumigants for larvae and pupae.
Creosote Oil.-Creosote oil sprayed upon decaying material
will serve as a repellent for adult flies. It is not generally used
in farm sanitation, since manure disposal is a more logical
method.
Hellebore.-Powdered hellebore may be used as a stomach
poison in the control of housefly larvae. This material is derived
from the plants green hellebore (Veratrum viride) and white
hellebore (V. album.). A solution is prepared by soaking 1/2
pound of hellebore in each 10 gallons of water, stirring and
permitting to stand for 24 hours. This mixture is sprinkled
over manure at the rate of 10 gallons to every 8 bushels. The
addition of this to manures that are to be used as plant fertilizers
is not dangerous to plant growth.
Sodium Fluosilicate.-A saturated solution of sodium fluosili-
cate has proven to be a satisfactory larvicide. This material
is a by-product in the chemical preparation of phosphate fertil-
izer. In treatment of fly-infested manures it should be prepared
in a saturated solution of 1 part in 154 parts of water. This
should be sprinkled on manure. It is relatively safe to use this
treated manure as a fertilizer.
Borax.-An old and rather effective treatment is borax pow-
der. This may be used at the rate of 0.6 pound for each 8
bushels of manure (10 cubic feet). The powder should be dusted
over the manure, especially around the outer edges of the stack.
Water may be sprinkled over the stack to increase effectiveness.
Unfortunately, the addition of borax to manures that are to be
used in fertilization of plants is dangerous, as it may have an
injurious effect.
Dichloroethyl Ether.-A new chemical method of manure
treatment for the control of larvae of the common housefly has
been discovered in the Department of Entomology of the Uni-






Household Pests


versity of Florida. It employs the use of dichloroethyl ether
emulsion. The emulsion is prepared by stirring 9 parts of di-
chloroethyl ether into 1 part of good grade potash fish oil soap.
The ether is added slowly to the fish oil soap and thoroughly
stirred before additional quantities are added. When these have
been mixed a volume of water equal to the quantity of ether
used is added and thoroughly stirred. This is the stock
emulsion.
A 3 to 4 percent field dilution is satisfactory. A 4 percent
dilution is prepared by using 8 parts of the stock in 92 parts
of water. This field mixture should be applied at the rate of
3 to 4 quarts per square yard of treated material. It has the
advantage of being non-injurious to plants if the manure is
used 2 to 3 weeks after treatment.
Raw Superphosphate.-The addition of raw superphosphate to
manure is rather effective in the control of larvae of the common
housefly. It also increases the fertilizer value of the manure.

CONTROLLING ADULT HOUSEFLIES

The control of housefly adults must be considered a supple-
mental method, since the most efficient control is accomplished
through sanitation directed at the larvae.
Fly Traps.-The use of screen traps as a measure of reducing
fly populations is quite worthless, unless employed to capture
flies while emerging from breeding media. Electric traps may
be used with some value around dairy barns and similar areas
to reduce the nuisance.
Screening.-The use of properly constructed window and door
screens has materially reduced the danger from the presence of
houseflies. It enables people to eat and sleep in relative freedom.
Sixteen-mesh screen wire should be used, since this prevents
the entrance of mosquitoes as well as flies.
Poisons.-Poison baits that include arsenic or formalin may
be made for adults. Arsenical poisons are dangerous. Formalin
may be added to dilute milk at the rate of 1 teaspoonful to each
pint. This may be placed in shallow dishes in areas frequented
by the adults. Care must be employed if formalin-milk bait
is used around dairies, as milk containing formalin is dangerous
for human consumption.
Swatting and Fly Papers.-These are rather objectionable
types of control but may be used when necessary.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sprays.-Contact insect sprays and aerosols are worthwhile
methods of fly control. The preparation and use of these is
discussed in another section of the bulletin.

OTHER HOUSEFLIES
Numerous other flies frequent dwellings and should be killed
or eliminated. Some of the most common are Family Sarcop-
hagidae or flesh flies; Family Calliphoridae, the blow flies and
screwworm flies; Family Drosophilidae or pomace flies; and other
members of the Family Muscidae, such as the stable (dog) fly.

GNATS
In certain sections of Florida inhabitants are frequently
plagued with small flies that are termed "eye gnats." They be-
long to the family Chloropidae of the insect order Diptera. The
dominant species in Florida is Hippelates pusio Loew.
In Florida, gnats are abundant only in muck and sandy soil
areas where the soils are frequently cultivated, such as the citrus
groves in the Ridge section, the truck areas, and the rolling
farm areas of northern Florida. They are not abundant along
the East Coast or in cattle grazing areas. This is due to the
fact that the females deposit their eggs within a few hours after
soil is plowed or disked.
"Eye gnats" are the cause of "sore eyes." This is a seasonal
acute conjunctivitis, which is common in gnat breeding areas
during crop production periods.

CONTROL OF GNATS
The use of a fine-mesh screen will prevent -the entry of most
gnats. Those that gain entry may be killed with household
sprays or aerosols. Those persons who have to remain in the
open during "gnat breeding" seasons may obtain some relief by
using repellents such as pine oil or oil of citronella.
Control in the field is not recommended at present.

BEDBUGS
Bedbugs (Fig. 8) are parasitic insects belonging to the order
Hemiptera. Bedbugs are also known commonly as wall lice,
chintzes, chinches, red coats and crimson ramblers. When not
engorged they are flat, transparent or deep brown insects. After
feeding they are oval and reddish brown in color. The bedbug







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sprays.-Contact insect sprays and aerosols are worthwhile
methods of fly control. The preparation and use of these is
discussed in another section of the bulletin.

OTHER HOUSEFLIES
Numerous other flies frequent dwellings and should be killed
or eliminated. Some of the most common are Family Sarcop-
hagidae or flesh flies; Family Calliphoridae, the blow flies and
screwworm flies; Family Drosophilidae or pomace flies; and other
members of the Family Muscidae, such as the stable (dog) fly.

GNATS
In certain sections of Florida inhabitants are frequently
plagued with small flies that are termed "eye gnats." They be-
long to the family Chloropidae of the insect order Diptera. The
dominant species in Florida is Hippelates pusio Loew.
In Florida, gnats are abundant only in muck and sandy soil
areas where the soils are frequently cultivated, such as the citrus
groves in the Ridge section, the truck areas, and the rolling
farm areas of northern Florida. They are not abundant along
the East Coast or in cattle grazing areas. This is due to the
fact that the females deposit their eggs within a few hours after
soil is plowed or disked.
"Eye gnats" are the cause of "sore eyes." This is a seasonal
acute conjunctivitis, which is common in gnat breeding areas
during crop production periods.

CONTROL OF GNATS
The use of a fine-mesh screen will prevent -the entry of most
gnats. Those that gain entry may be killed with household
sprays or aerosols. Those persons who have to remain in the
open during "gnat breeding" seasons may obtain some relief by
using repellents such as pine oil or oil of citronella.
Control in the field is not recommended at present.

BEDBUGS
Bedbugs (Fig. 8) are parasitic insects belonging to the order
Hemiptera. Bedbugs are also known commonly as wall lice,
chintzes, chinches, red coats and crimson ramblers. When not
engorged they are flat, transparent or deep brown insects. After
feeding they are oval and reddish brown in color. The bedbug







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sprays.-Contact insect sprays and aerosols are worthwhile
methods of fly control. The preparation and use of these is
discussed in another section of the bulletin.

OTHER HOUSEFLIES
Numerous other flies frequent dwellings and should be killed
or eliminated. Some of the most common are Family Sarcop-
hagidae or flesh flies; Family Calliphoridae, the blow flies and
screwworm flies; Family Drosophilidae or pomace flies; and other
members of the Family Muscidae, such as the stable (dog) fly.

GNATS
In certain sections of Florida inhabitants are frequently
plagued with small flies that are termed "eye gnats." They be-
long to the family Chloropidae of the insect order Diptera. The
dominant species in Florida is Hippelates pusio Loew.
In Florida, gnats are abundant only in muck and sandy soil
areas where the soils are frequently cultivated, such as the citrus
groves in the Ridge section, the truck areas, and the rolling
farm areas of northern Florida. They are not abundant along
the East Coast or in cattle grazing areas. This is due to the
fact that the females deposit their eggs within a few hours after
soil is plowed or disked.
"Eye gnats" are the cause of "sore eyes." This is a seasonal
acute conjunctivitis, which is common in gnat breeding areas
during crop production periods.

CONTROL OF GNATS
The use of a fine-mesh screen will prevent -the entry of most
gnats. Those that gain entry may be killed with household
sprays or aerosols. Those persons who have to remain in the
open during "gnat breeding" seasons may obtain some relief by
using repellents such as pine oil or oil of citronella.
Control in the field is not recommended at present.

BEDBUGS
Bedbugs (Fig. 8) are parasitic insects belonging to the order
Hemiptera. Bedbugs are also known commonly as wall lice,
chintzes, chinches, red coats and crimson ramblers. When not
engorged they are flat, transparent or deep brown insects. After
feeding they are oval and reddish brown in color. The bedbug







Household Pests


Fig. 8.-Adult bedbugs (X 4%).

common throughout the world is Cimex lectularius L. In Florida
occurs also the tropical bedbug, Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius).
The latter is more elongate than the common bedbug.
Bedbugs gain access to a home in traveling bags, on laundry
or by migration. In the South most domestic infestations are
established by means of laundry that has been in the homes of
washerwomen. Establishment in public places such as waiting
rooms, beauty parlors and theaters is due to the infested patrons
frequenting these places.
Bedbug infestations may usually be detected by the distinct
buggy odor which is due to a fluid that is liberated from the
ventral side of the body. Their presence is also noted by highly
colored feces and blood stains on beds. The latter are produced
when an engorged bug is mashed.
The bedbug feeds by inserting its mouth parts into the skin
of warm-blooded animals. A salivary juice is injected. This
causes irritation to some persons, while the skin of others fails
to react. Some relief from this irritation may be obtained by
treating with hydrogen peroxide solution.







Florida Cooperative Extension


LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS
Bedbugs are nocturnal. They conceal themselves in cracks
and crevices, behind wallpaper, and in other places of hiding
during the day and come out after dark to feed upon the host.
It requires 3 to 5 minutes for them to become engorged and then
the insect returns to concealment. Females deposit their white
oval eggs in batches of 5 to 50 which are glued to bedding and
other materials. They hatch into nymphs which feed following
each molt or a total of 5 times before reaching maturity. Bed-
bugs may live for long periods without food. Adults have been
known to survive 10 to 12 months.
Temperature and food influence development. Mature stages
can stand freezing temperature. All stages are killed when
the temperature is raised to 125 to 1350 Fahrenheit for several
hours.
Bedbugs have long been suspected of transmitting human
diseases. However, there has never been a specific case that
scientists have been able to attribute to these pests.

BEDBUG CONTROL
Bedbug control requires care and persistence. The most
satisfactory control where feasible is fumigation. This is dis-
cussed under the topic "Fumigation" in a later section of this
bulletin.
Where fumigation is not logical, other methods of extermina-
tion may be employed. When a room is found infested the
occupant should be given relief as soon as practical. This may
be done by carefully treating the bed, mattress and bed cloth-
ing. The room and its contents should be thoroughly sprayed
with an insect spray having pyrethrum or aliphatic thiocyanates
as a killing agent (Fig. 29). In tests made by the Pest Control
Division of the University of Florida it was found that a 15 to
20 percent aliphatic thiocyanate spray could be used as an eradi-
cation method. This was applied with an electric power sprayer.
The bed should then be isolated from the room by using tin
plates containing oil.
If power sprayers are not obtainable, rather effective results
may be obtained with good hand sprayers. If hand sprayers
are not available, kerosene, gasoline or a strong insecticide may
be applied with feathers. All treatments require thoroughness
and persistence, and should be repeated 3 times at weekly
intervals.






Household Pests


Aerosol applications at the rate of 30 milligrams of pyrethrum
per 1,000 cubic feet are an effective control.
Heating rooms to a temperature of 1250 to 135 Fahrenheit
for several hours while increasing the humidity is also effective.
This is not feasible in the average home.
Infested furniture may be treated by placing it in a tight
room and using a fumigant. It may also be sent to a commercial
pest control operator who has a fumigation tank (Fig. 27).

MOSQUITOES
Mosquitoes (Fig. 9) belong to the order Diptera and the family
Culicidae. The larval (Fig. 10) and pupal stages of these insects
are spent in water and the adults are winged aerial forms. The
adults live near water but some species migrate considerable
distances from the
environment of the
larvae. The female
mosquito feeds upon
the blood of verte-
brate animals while
the male fails to
feed or feeds upon
the juices of plants.
The female deposits ___
eggs (Fig. 11) on or
near water. Follow-
ing the incubation
period, the larval
stages live in water
near the surface or /
beneath the sur-
face. The majority
have to come to the
surface to obtain
oxygen.
The major species /
in the state of
Florida are as fol- ./
lows: The South-
ern house mosquito, Fig. 9.-Adult yellow fever mosquito (X 9).
S (Courtesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and
Culex quinquefasci- Plant Quarantine.)







Florida Cooperative Extension


atus Say; the malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say;
the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Fig. 9) ; the salt
marsh mosquitoes, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) and Aedes sol-
licitans (Walk.) ;
and the fresh marsh
mosquito, Man-
sonia perturbans
(Walk.).


Fig. 10.-Larva of the yellow fever mosquito.
(Courtesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine.)


DOMESTIC
MOSQUITOES
The Southern
house mosquito and
the yellow fever
mosquito are typi-
cal domestic species
in that they breed
in and near dwell-
ings. The malaria
mosquito breeds in
semi-stagnant wa-
ter. Salt marsh
mosquitoes o c c u r
along the coasts,
breeding in brack-
ish waters, while
fresh marsh mos-
quitoes breed in
the fresh water
marshes.
All species men-
tioned are impor-
tant where breed-
ing is heavy. The
Southern house
mosquito, fresh wa-
ter marsh mosquito
and salt water
marsh mosquitoes
are not dangerous
in this section as
vectors of disease.
However, they are






Household Pests


Fig. 11.-Eggs of the house mosquito (X 60). (Courtesy USDA Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.)

a nuisance and discomfort. The yellow fever mosquito is a
potential vector of this dangerous human disease.

MALARIA MOSQUITOES
The malaria mosquito is important in Florida because of its
ability to transmit the protozoan organism causing malaria
fever. The principal organism causing this disease in Florida
is Plasmodium vivax (Grassi and Feletti) which is transmitted
in this state primarily by Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mos-
quitoes are the only known vectors of this disease.
In Florida the malaria belt extends from the central region
of the state northward and westward and is the cause of con-
siderable illness and some deaths annually.

MALARIA FEVER
The malarial organism is injected into the blood of man by
the female mosquito while feeding. The injection is made along
with the salivary juices. The plasmodium is an organism that
attacks the red blood corpuscles, greatly reducing their number.
The disease is characterized by periodic chills and fever. The
plasmodium cycle in the vertebrate before the mosquito can
obtain the sexual stages is 10 days. The cycle in the mosquito
requires 5 days.
Malaria fever can be controlled and possibly eradicated if
treatment is made of all patients in an area and logical mos-






Florida Cooperative Extension


quito control methods are employed. Malaria in the human
may be eliminated by the use of quinine. Atabrine and plas-
mochin have been successfully used as quinine substitutes. These
drugs should be given only under the supervision of a licensed
physician.
MOSQUITO CONTROL
Successful control depends upon the acceptance of its import-
ance by the public. Education will assure this. Laws may be
passed and agencies created with authority to control specific
species. In Florida some anti-mosquito districts organized for the
purpose of controlling salt marsh mosquitoes have been created.
Insofar as control of mosquitoes in dwellings is concerned,
this is primarily a question of good screens, bed nets, repellents,
swatting and contact sprays. Any modern pyrethrum or ali-
pathic thiocyanate household spray is lethal to adult mosquitoes.
In the field, methods of control depend upon the species of
mosquito involved. The fresh water marsh mosquito is best
controlled by drainage and reclamation of fresh water marshes.
The salt water marsh mosquito is controlled by drainage and
reclamation of salt water marshes, filling, pumping and flushing.
The larval stages of house mosquitoes and malaria mosquitoes
may be controlled by treating breeding areas with fuel oil
(diesel) No. 2 applied with a knapsack or power sprayer.
Paris green is frequently used for the control of malaria mos-
quito larvae. It is diluted with some inert material such as
fuller's earth at the rate of 1 part of paris green in 10 parts of
fuller's earth. This is dusted onto water areas.
Larval stages may be partially controlled biologically by
using surface minnows such as Gambusia and others. These
minnows destroy the larvae of Anopheles maculipennis (Meig.)
better than they do Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Toir), due to
the more frequent movement of the former.

CLOTHES MOTHS
The clothes moths (Fig. 12) that trouble people in their homes
are members of the order Lepidoptera. There are 4 closely re-
lated species: The case-making clothes moth, Tinea pellionella
L.; the webbing clothes moth, Tineola biselliella (Hum.); the
tapestry moth, Trichophaga tapetzella (L.) ; and the plaster bag-
worm, T. walsinejhami (L.). The case-making clothes moth
constructs silken cases in which the larvae live. The webbing
clothes moth larvae form webs under which they live.






Household Pests


Adult clothes moths do not like direct light and will be found
in dark or semi-dark places. They never fly directly to lights.
They are approximately 1/2 inch in wing spread and light brown
or buff colored. They mate and the eggs are deposited on the
host material. The eggs hatch into white larvae which feed
upon host materials until they reach maturity and then trans-
form into white pupae which gradually become brown. The
larval stage may last 50 days to 3 or 4 years.
The larval stage is the destructive phase, as the adults do not
feed. The larvae feed upon such materials as feathers, furs,
upholstered furniture, wool, hair, milk powders, dead insects
and leather.
PLASTER BAGWORM
The plaster bagworm is a member of the order Lepidoptera.
The adult is a small moth. The larvae spin a dirty grayish case
which is constructed of silk. They live in this and pull it around
with them wherever they go.
These insects appear in Florida homes infrequently. They are
more abundant in central and southern Florida than in the north-
ern sections of the state.
This species becomes of economic importance when it directs
its attack at rugs or other household furnishings. It may be

Fig. 12.-Adults and larvae of the webbing clothes moth (X 2). (Courtesy
USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


satisfactorily controlled by fumigation and hand collecting.
Spraying to kill the adults is of partial value. The use of pyre-
thrum powders underneath rugs is quite effective.

CLOTHES MOTH CONTROL
The most successful control is fumigation as discussed in an-
other section of this bulletin.
Insecticide sprays using a non-staining oil as a base and pyre-
thrum or aliphatic thiocyanates as killing agents may be effec-
tively used. These should be applied preferably with a power
sprayer. If this is not possible, a hand atomizer may be
employed.
Proper storage of materials subject to attack is essential.
This should be done in a tight-fitting box or a sack. The ma-
terials to be stored should be thoroughly brushed and sunned
before being placed in storage. Flake naphthalene or para-
dichlorobenzene should be placed in the box at the rate of 1
pound to each 10 cubic feet.
Dry cleaning and washing are aids in eliminating immature
stages of moths from clothing and fabrics. There is no moth-
proofing solution that is 100% perfect. Some of them have
value. The most successful are those that are added to the dye
bath when the fabric is to be dyed. The foremost of these is
pentachloro-dioxy-triphenylmethane sulfonic acid. This is used
in dye baths at strengths of 1/ to 2 percent. Those containing
arsenic are not advised, but fluorides may be employed.
Tight-fitting clothes bags are of value only so long as they
are tight-fitting and do not have holes. Of course, materials
stored in such containers have to be free of all stages of the
insect when placed in storage.
Storage in commercial cold compartments or in commercial
fumigation plants is ideal for preventing damage. Cedar-board
closets, cedar chests and cedar-lined closets are of little perma-
nent value, unless value is based upon nature of construction,
and not the effect of cedar oil.
Heat ranging between 1250 and 1300 Fahrenheit for 5 to 10
minutes will kill all stages.

CARPET BEETLES
Carpet beetles (Fig. 13) occur in Florida but do not constitute
a major household pest. They are small grayish or black beetles
belonging to the order Coleoptera.






Household Pests


-t r


Fig. 13.-Adult, pupa and larva of the common carpet beetle (X 10).
(Courtesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.)

These insects may be controlled by treating infested areas
with naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene at the rate of 1 pound
to 10 cubic feet. High temperatures (1350 F.) for 3 hours are
an effective control. General fumigation is the most effective
control.
FLEAS
DESCRIPTION AND LIFE HISTORY
Fleas (Figs. 14, 17) belong to the order Siphonaptera. The
adults are parasitic upon vertebrate animals. They are wing-
less, with heavily developed and compressed bodies. The seg-
ments of the body have posterior, backward projecting spines
which aid in their movement through host hair. The back legs
have enlarged segments with large muscles which enable the
insect to jump easily. The mouth parts are of the piercing and
sucking type.
The adult insects may live for long periods of time with or
without food. The female deposits 3 to 18 eggs per laying and
may lay a total of 300 to 500. The eggs are dry and may be
deposited loosely in animal hair or on materials where an in-
fested animal sleeps. Therefore, a dog permitted to enter a
dwelling may shake thousands of eggs upon the floors, where
the fleas may develop.
The eggs hatch into white or yellowish-white elongate larvae
which have segmental setae (hairs) (Fig. 15). These larvae live
in cracks or on the ground. They require very little food for
development, consuming feces of animals and blood. Excessive






Florida Cooperative Extension


precipitation is detrimental to the immature stages. The larval
stage lasts 9 to 15 days and then the insect spins a cocoon in
which the pupal stage is spent. The adult emerges in a few days.


Fig. 14.-Adult fleas (X 9).
SPECIES OF FLEAS
The most common and economic fleas are the following: The
human flea, Pulex irritans L. (Fig. 16) ; the cat flea, Ctenocepha-
lides felis (Bouche) (Fig. 17); the dog flea, Ctenocephalides
canis (Curt.) (Fig. 14) ; and the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla
cheopis (Rothsch.).
HOSTS OF FLEAS
The major hosts of the fleas are as follows: Brown rats,
Ratus N. norvegicus (Erxleben) ; black rats, Rattus rattus rattus
(Linn.); roof rats, Rattus rattus alexandrinus (Geoffroy-Saint-
Hilaire and Audouin) (Fig. 18); mice, Mus musculus Linn.;
the dog, Canis familiaris Linn.; the cat, Felis domestic Linn.;
and man, Homo sapiens Linn.






Household Pests


Fig. 15.-Flea larvae (X 5).


FLEAS AND HUMAN DISEASE
Fleas are important because of their attack upon man and
upon his pets, such as cats and dogs. However, their biological
relationship to the transmission
of human disease intensifies
their importance. They are
known to transmit bubonic
plague which is caused by a bac-
terium, and endemic typhus or
brill's disease which is caused
by a virus. Bubonic plague is -
common in Europe, Asia and
Africa and there have been out-
breaks in coastal areas of the
United States. It is transmit-
ted principally by the oriental
flea. Brill's disease is common inA t n fle
Fig. 16. Adult human flea
the South Atlantic and Gulf (x 22). (Courtesy USDA Bureau
tat. of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
States. tine.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


FLEA CONTROL
Care of Domestic Pets.-Fortunately, fleas can be rather easily
controlled. The proper care of domestic pets such as cats and
dogs will prevent flea infestations. This care consists primarily
of bathing and disinfecting the pet weekly. The bath should
contain rotenone or pyrethrum insect spray. This does not injure
the skin of the animal and is quite toxic to adult fleas. Soap-
ing with a good dog soap
is also essential. Derris
S -" and pyrethrum powders
S r- are also effective. Derris
S powders contain a toxic
principle known as rote-
none. This powder should
S -- be applied to the back,
neck and top of head.
The commercial powder
should contain 0.5%
1-T, S rotenone. Rotenone is a
4' slow killer -do not ex-
Spect immediate results.
--- Pyrethrum powders
Fig. 17.-Adult cat flea (X 19). Cour- used for this purpose
tesy Bureau of Entomology and Plant sul cta nt
Quarantine.) should contain not less
than 0.9% of pyrethrins.
Neither of these materials, when used as directed, is dangerous
to domestic animals. The consumption by cats of quantities
of rotenone may result in illness.
Treatment of Kennel.-The dog kennel should be given fre-
quent inspections and if found infested it should be treated.
Creosote oil sprayed lightly in buildings is excellent. The strong
odor of creosote constitutes an objectionable feature. Other
adverse characteristics are the fact that it will stain painted
surfaces and burn plants and animals. Kerosene as a spray
or kerosene emulsion if there is grass in the kennel area is
effective. Finely ground gas coke or dusting sulphur may also
be employed.
Control of Fleas in Houses.-Quite often flea infestations
occur in homes due to the eggs that drop to the floor from heavily
infested pets. Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas is effec-
tive. The use of a strong aliphatic thiocyanate or pyrethrum
contact spray is moderately effective. Scouring with kerosene






Household Pests


soap solution is effective. Thorough mopping with a dry mop
dipped in kerosene is a good control. The use of paradichloro-
benzene at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds per room, permitted to
remain for 24 hours, will control fleas. The remaining material
may be swept into the next room and an additional amount added.

RATS
Rats (Fig. 18) are a constant nuisance in homes that are not
rat-proof. There are several species involved. Besides those
listed under hosts of fleas, there seems a possibility that in the
South there is another
species (Rattus frugivor-
us) which will be known
by the common name of
the fruit-eating rat.
Rat-proof construction
is accomplished by using
only resistant materials,
such as brick and con-
crete, in the foundation
construction. Ventila-
tion openings should be
covered with heavy
wire (1/2-inch hardware
cloth). Other types of
holes should be covered
with this wire or sealed
with concrete or metal.
Dead space areas be-
tween walls and ceilings
should be avoided. Where
possible, rat-proofing is
the best control.
Rats are prolific,
breeding 3 to 5 times
annually and producing
6 to 19 young per litter.
The young are born in
nests after a gestation
period of 21 days. Sex-
ual maturity is reached 3
months after birth. Fig. 18.-Common house rat.






Florida Cooperative Extension


RAT CONTROL
A satisfactory method of rat extermination is the elimination
of available rat food by proper storage. Rats are omnivorous
feeders and go to great lengths to obtain food. Where they
become established they can be destroyed by fumigation with
hydrocyanic acid gas, by poison baits or by trapping.
Rat Poisons.-The most successful rat poisons are barium
carbonate, red squill and thallium sulphate. Other poisons that
may be used are strychnine, zinc phosphide, arsenic trioxide and
certain alkaloids and glucosides. These are mixed with various
types of food such as oatmeal, hamburger and other meats,
cheese, bread, fish, fruit and vegetables. Barium carbonate is
mixed with the food medium at the rate of 1 part of barium
carbonate in 8 to 10 parts of food. Red squill is used at the rate
of 1 ounce to 1 pound of food. The great toxicity of thallium
sulphate to the human makes it inadvisable to use this chemical
except under professional supervision.
In preparing rat bait it is advisable to mix the dry ingredients
thoroughly. If necessary, add sufficient water to make the
material moist but not wet. This should be put out in quantities
of 1 to 2 tablespoons. Preferably it should be wrapped in waxed
paper. Frequently, it will be found advisable to bait the rats
with food that is not poisoned for a day or so in order to get
them used to it and then substitute the poisoned bait. Excess
bait should be removed after 48 hours.
If children are in the home, care should be take as barium
carbonate and thallium sulphate are dangerous. In fact, it is
inadvisable to use the latter under such conditions.
The selection of the food material to be used in preparing the
bait will depend upon the species of rat involved. The black
rats prefer meat, while the fruit rats prefer fruit and vege-
tables. Sweet potato is especially good for this species. Where
the species of rat is not known a mixture of foods may be em-
ployed and several foods may be used in preparing units of bait.
Some workers believe that it is important to vary the type and
location of food. They also consider it inadvisable to touch it
with hands.
Trapping.-Trapping will be successful if carefully employed.
Different types of bait should be employed in a trigger (snap)
or small steel trap. If meat or cheese is employed it should be
slightly cooked with a flame to increase the odor. It may be






Household Pests


found advisable to wash traps in warm water or burn lightly
after each catch.
Trapping Without Bait.-Rats usually follow a definite trail.
Consequently, they may be trapped successfully with unbaited
traps. In this case, the trigger size should be increased by
forcing a square piece of corrugated pasteboard over the free
end. The traps should be set along the rat runs, which may
be determined by the dirty, greasy appearance.
Rats that enter homes frequently come from outbuildings such
as poultry houses, barns
or other farm build-
ings. They are also
very abundant in poorly
constructed corn cribs,
under sidewalk pave-
ments and in refuse
dumps, loose stone walls
and open fields. Under
such conditions it is ad-
visable to use Cyanogas
G dust and a special ap-
plicator such as aloot
pump duster or a hand
duster to make the
proper application
(Fig. 19). The 2 pieces
of equipment can be
employed in forcing
into the hideouts the
dust which will have a
lethal effect upon the
rats. When rats become
very abundant cooper-
ative control by the peo-
Fig. 19.-Applicator for using calcium
ple living in an area or cyanide dust in the control of rats. (Cour-
in a city and special ap- tesy American Cyanamid and Chemical
Corp.)
propriations for rat ex-
termination and rat-proofing may be required. However, the
economic value is tremendous, giving protection to the health
of people and to the products essential to normal life.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TICKS

Ticks are common in Florida's woodlands. They belong to
the class Arachnida. Infrequently, they may occur in homes,
being carried there on dogs or man.
Some ticks are known to transmit human diseases of great
importance. One of these is Rocky Mountain spotted fever
which has been recorded in Western states since 1893. This
disease is caused by a virus pathogene which uses rabbits and
rodents as reservoirs. In the South and Northeast it has been
found that the American dog tick or "woods tick", Dermacentor
variabilis (Say.), is capable of transmitting the disease. This
tick is also a carrier of
tularemia and causes
canine paralysis.
Ticks may be con-
trolled in the home by
fumigation, by house-
hold spray or by the use
of aerosols.
SILVERFISH
Silverfish, Lepisma
saccharina L., (Fig. 20)
are elongate, slender,
g r a y insects covered
with scales. They pos-
sess 2 many-segmented
antennae and 2 many-
segmented cerci (anal
t_ ^ appendages). There is
also a multi-segmented
median process project-
ing from the posterior
part of the abdomen.
They belong to the or-
der Thysanura. They
Fig. 20.-Adult silverfish (X 5). (Cour- average 14 to 1/2 inch
tesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine.) in length.
These insects are more abundant in damp, warm environ-
ments such as the basements of houses. In Florida, which has
a rather damp, warm climate, they may occur in all parts of






Florida Cooperative Extension


TICKS

Ticks are common in Florida's woodlands. They belong to
the class Arachnida. Infrequently, they may occur in homes,
being carried there on dogs or man.
Some ticks are known to transmit human diseases of great
importance. One of these is Rocky Mountain spotted fever
which has been recorded in Western states since 1893. This
disease is caused by a virus pathogene which uses rabbits and
rodents as reservoirs. In the South and Northeast it has been
found that the American dog tick or "woods tick", Dermacentor
variabilis (Say.), is capable of transmitting the disease. This
tick is also a carrier of
tularemia and causes
canine paralysis.
Ticks may be con-
trolled in the home by
fumigation, by house-
hold spray or by the use
of aerosols.
SILVERFISH
Silverfish, Lepisma
saccharina L., (Fig. 20)
are elongate, slender,
g r a y insects covered
with scales. They pos-
sess 2 many-segmented
antennae and 2 many-
segmented cerci (anal
t_ ^ appendages). There is
also a multi-segmented
median process project-
ing from the posterior
part of the abdomen.
They belong to the or-
der Thysanura. They
Fig. 20.-Adult silverfish (X 5). (Cour- average 14 to 1/2 inch
tesy USDA Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine.) in length.
These insects are more abundant in damp, warm environ-
ments such as the basements of houses. In Florida, which has
a rather damp, warm climate, they may occur in all parts of






Household Pests


the home. They feed upon paper (Fig. 21), bookbindings and
wallpaper. They may feed upon fabrics, felts and starched
clothing.
They never occur in great abundance, as the reproductive
power of the female is low, and they develop very slowly under
normal house conditions.
METHODS OF CONTROL
The control of these pests is accomplished when a home is
fumigated for some other pest. They can also be controlled by
dusting the parts of the home where they are found with fresh
pyrethrum powder, sodium fluoride or borax. Borax and sodium
fluoride may be diluted with flour at the rate of 1 part of poison
in 4 to 5 parts of flour.
Poison baits also may be used. A bait consisting of 1 part
sodium fluoride mixed with 10 parts of flour and used as a dust
will give good results. Baits may be prepared by the following
formulae:
Formula 1 Formula 2
Flour % pint Wheat flour 1 pint
Sodium arsenite %1 ounce White arsenic 1 ounce

Mix into thick paste and place on small pieces of cardboard
or on the side of a thin pasteboard sheet which may be rolled up.
Place these where silverfish are observed.

Fig. 21.-Damage by silverfish. (Courtesy USDA Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine recommends
the following bait: Oatmeal ground to flour, 100 parts by weight;
white arsenic, 8 parts by weight; granulated sugar, 5 parts by
weight; salt, 21/2 parts by weight. Mix thoroughly all dry in-
gredients. Moisten mass and mix to bind materials together.
Dry to prevent mold. Break into small pieces and place where
silverfish occur.
BOOK LICE OR PSOCIDS
Book lice are small, delicate white insects that are commonly
found among the pages of stored books. They are not generally
injurious in occupied dwellings. However, in Florida where
the climate is moist and warm, they may occur. Sometimes they
multiply excessively in some available food supply and swarm
over other materials.
They may be eliminated by general household fumigation.
High temperature for a few hours will destroy all stages. Care-
ful spraying with a good household insecticide has been found
effective.

TERMITES
HISTORY
There is hardly a person in the United States above the age
of 10 years who has not heard some vivid story concerning ter-
mites. Termites are one of the earliest forms of insect life.
A study of rock formations indicates that they have existed on
the American continent for millions of years. In Florida there
have been recent discoveries made of fecal pellets of termites
which indicate that they were present in this geographic area
millions of years before man first appeared on earth. Termites
are more abundant in tropical or semi-tropical regions. How-
ever, they have not migrated from those environments.
Many people do not use the common name 'termites' in re-
ferring to these pests but instead call them 'white ants'. Though
they are social in habit, these insects are not in the least related
to ants.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Their destructive nature has attracted widespread attention
during recent years because of man's abnormal and destructive
exploitation of the forests. Normally, termites live on dead
trees in forest areas and upon decaying vegetation on the forest






Florida Cooperative Extension


The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine recommends
the following bait: Oatmeal ground to flour, 100 parts by weight;
white arsenic, 8 parts by weight; granulated sugar, 5 parts by
weight; salt, 21/2 parts by weight. Mix thoroughly all dry in-
gredients. Moisten mass and mix to bind materials together.
Dry to prevent mold. Break into small pieces and place where
silverfish occur.
BOOK LICE OR PSOCIDS
Book lice are small, delicate white insects that are commonly
found among the pages of stored books. They are not generally
injurious in occupied dwellings. However, in Florida where
the climate is moist and warm, they may occur. Sometimes they
multiply excessively in some available food supply and swarm
over other materials.
They may be eliminated by general household fumigation.
High temperature for a few hours will destroy all stages. Care-
ful spraying with a good household insecticide has been found
effective.

TERMITES
HISTORY
There is hardly a person in the United States above the age
of 10 years who has not heard some vivid story concerning ter-
mites. Termites are one of the earliest forms of insect life.
A study of rock formations indicates that they have existed on
the American continent for millions of years. In Florida there
have been recent discoveries made of fecal pellets of termites
which indicate that they were present in this geographic area
millions of years before man first appeared on earth. Termites
are more abundant in tropical or semi-tropical regions. How-
ever, they have not migrated from those environments.
Many people do not use the common name 'termites' in re-
ferring to these pests but instead call them 'white ants'. Though
they are social in habit, these insects are not in the least related
to ants.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Their destructive nature has attracted widespread attention
during recent years because of man's abnormal and destructive
exploitation of the forests. Normally, termites live on dead
trees in forest areas and upon decaying vegetation on the forest






Household Pests


floor. As man has harvested forest trees for his use in the con-
struction of buildings and the manufacture of various other
articles of commerce, he has materially reduced the normal
food supply of these pests. Today they are attacking many of
man's possessions, including homes, outbuildings, commercial
buildings, field crops, fruit trees, stored grain, leather, furniture
and other wood products.
Florida has 15 described species and their damage is con-
siderable.
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS
Castes.-The society of man is not more interesting than
insect society. Most people have heard of and marvelled at the
remarkable social development in the true ants and honeybees.
Theirs is a high form of social life. The termite, which is
improperly termed the white ant, is also social.
The termite colony may be composed of different kinds, or
castes; different in both structure and function. The most strik-
ing castes are (1) the winged males and females, which shed
their wings after swarming and become kings and queens; (2)
the secondary reproductive castes; (3) the soldiers; and (4) the
workers.
The winged termites or alates (Fig. 22) have pigmented bodies
and compound eyes. They have fully developed wings that are
slightly longer than the body.
The primary or funtional king and queen have pigmented
bodies. The queen is much larger than the king, especially after
her abdomen becomes heavily impregnated with eggs. The
secondary reproductive caste or supplementary kings and queens
are practically the same size as the winged individuals. How-
ever, they are white of body that is, not pigmented; they lack
wing scales and their eyes are not as well developed as in the
primaries. The worker (Fig. 23) is usually a blind, white, non-
pigmented individual with chewing mouth parts. The soldier
(Fig. 24) is also a small white individual frequently without
eyes, but it has a prominent head which is brown and bears
prominent brown mandibles or jaws. In the more primitive
termites these jaws are developed into defense organs. In many
termites the upper lip is extended and has a gland attachment.
This gland secretes an adhesive fluid which is used as a material
for defense, serving as an entangling or toxic agent.
Migration Swarm.-During certain seasons of the year one
of the most abundant forms of termite life to be found is the






Florida Cooperative Extension


winged or alates (Fig. 22). These insects respond very defi-
nitely to temperature and humidity. It will be observed that
the swarming of termites in any area occurs more or less simul-
taneously from all termite colonies. These emergence swarms
usually occur during a warm period and shortly after a rain.
During the emergence period the alates are preyed upon by
numerous enemies such as birds, dragonflies and other predators.
After their brief aerial existence they again settle to the
ground; pairing occurs shortly thereafter. After the male and
female are paired, they immediately snap off each other's wings.
This is done by catching them in their mandibles up near the
body. Then the male follows the female around for a brief period
of time, apparently attracted by a sex odor.


Fig. 22.-Winged alatee) adult termite (X 10). (Courtesy USDA Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.)






Household Pests


After a short "courting" period the 2 individuals start excava-
tion for a new colony.
The Colony.-The fundamental features of insect social life are
sex suppression, division of labor
and sanitary habits. In termite
colonies these characteristics are
not as highly developed as in
ants and bees, but they do occur.
With the exception of the
brief exposure of the plates or
winged termites, during the
migratory swarm, the life of ter-
mites is one of concealment.
They construct nests consisting
of many tunnels and chambers.
These are usually in close prox-
imity to some cellulose-contain-
ing material from which their
food is obtained.
After the formation of the
initial small nest the former
alate or winged male and female,
which are now the primary king
and queen, mate. After copula-
tion, the abdomen of the queen
enlarges as the rapid develop-
ment of the eggs Fig. 23.-Worker termite (X 17).
takes place. (Courtesy USDA Bureau of En-
tomology and Plant Quarantine.)
Once the queen
starts depositing eggs and the first brood has de-
veloped, she becomes nothing more than a repro-
ductive machine and is cared for by the soldiers
and workers. The queen may live for 8 to 10
) years, during which time she lays millions of eggs,
depositing them more or less clock-like every few
seconds. The workers feed her constantly to keep
her well supplied with the necessities for egg de-
SoFig.er t r velopment. They in turn lick her body, from
mite (x 5). whence they obtain a body secretion or exudate.
USDA Buresau If this secretion does not flow rapidly enough the
of Entomology workers will frequently use their mandibles in
Quarantine.)t order to tear strips of the queen mother's skin






Florida Cooperative Extension


away. Frequently these scars may be observed on the queen.
The transfer of exudates between members of a colony is one
of the most interesting happenings in the colony. It is believed
that the exudate from the queen inhibits sexual functioning in
other castes.
In a termite nest the worker caste outnumbers all other forms
many times. Fundamentally, the most important 2 castes are
the primary kings and queens and the workers- the former
for their reproductive ability, the latter for their working
ability. Though delicate of appearance, these innumerable work-
ers are strong of function. They are capable of destroying the
majority of woods and wood products. They construct the nest
with its many chambers and ramifying tunnels which serve as
passageways for the incessant movement of the many occupants.
They also construct the tunnels, which lead to their source of
food, whether it be an old decaying stump, a living tree, an old
building, a table, a book or even a new building (Fig. 25).


Fig. 25.-Termite galleries. (Courtesy Ga. Dept. of Entomology, after
Milledge Murphey, Jr.)






Household Pests


Their food is cellulose, one of the most complex of all forms
of organic matter, and they are one of the extremely few forms
of animal life having the ability to use it as food. With their
relatively strong jaws (mandibles), they continuously rasp off
small quantities of this plant material and swallow it. Their
ability to digest this material is due to the presence in their
gut of countless numbers of protozoa, 1-celled animals constitut-
ing one of the lowest forms of animal life. The protozoa appar-
ently produce enzymes which break the cellulose into simpler
forms of carbohydrate food which may be assimilated. There
are also in the gut of the termite innumerable bacteria which
may act in a similar capacity, but as yet this has not been proven.
The bacteria and protozoa are transferred from termite to ter-
mite by the consumption of fecal wastes.
Termites have a close relationship with fungi. They consume
fungi that are present in wood, while consuming the wood.
These doubtless serve as food. Very frequently dry wood fungi
(dry rot) exist in wood that has been attacked by termites and
the injury is often incorrectly attributed to these plant or-
ganisms.
It used to be thought that the major protective or defensive
caste was the soldier. This was a natural deduction because
of the prominent head and strongly developed mandibles. Though
they do serve as a protective caste, it has been proven that they
are likely no more effective in this than one of the many workers.
Destructive Ability.-Termites possess great powers of de-
struction and should therefore be carefully watched and when
necessary effectively controlled. However, during recent years
there has been built up an exaggerated fear of these primitive
animals. Exaggerated fears should be dispelled. There is very
slight danger of termite attack advancing to a point where a
structure will collapse and result in fatalities.

CONTROL OF TERMITES
Prevention of Damage.-Ninety-nine percent of the control
of termites should be prevention. Prevention is based primarily
upon proper construction. The type of construction that Flor-
idians have been subjected to in past years is not conducive to
economic and social advancement. People should realize the
advantages of proper construction and then demand that con-
tractors construct their homes in a manner that at least tends
toward the prevention of termite damage. Contractors should






Florida Cooperative Extension


and must realize that their obligation extends further than the
time when the owner receives the key. The owner's house be-
comes his home. The home should tend toward a permanent
institution. The contractor should contribute to this perma-
nency by constructing upon a solid and termite-proof foundation.
Major Types of Termites.-Based upon their habits, there are
2 major types of termites. These are the subterranean type
which nests in the ground and extends to wood and wooden
materials and must be in constant contact with the soil; and
the dry-wood termite which nests in the wood and is not de-
pendent upon the soil for its existence. Florida has both forms
of termites. The subterranean or ground-dwelling termite causes
85 to 95 percent of the damage in Florida. However, the dry-
wood form is a constant menace, especially in the Southern to
South Central zone. The control of the 2 different types is
somewhat different.
Construction Protection.-If homes or other buildings are to
be constructed on newly cleared land every pice of decaying
wood, stumps and other cellulose-containing material should be
carefully removed and destroyed. If the immediate construc-
tion area is heavily infested with termites the soil should be
sterilized with steam, kerosene-coal tar mixture at the rate of
2-1, carbon bisulphide emulsion or orthodichlorobenzene. The
chemical treamtents should be made at the rate of 2 gallons
per each 10 linear feet.
Complete insulation from the soil of all untreated wood will
prevent attack by subterranean termites. This may be accom-
plished by constructing the foundations entirely of stone, brick,
concrete and steel, concrete or coal tar creosote-pressure im-
pregnated lumber. Though concrete is a fairly good protection
against subterranean termite invasion, it is not 100% perfect
(Fig. 25). They will frequently extend earthen runways for
several feet over concrete and other non-penetrable construction
material. To prevent this, home builders should demand the
use of metal caps, guards or termite shields. All dampness,
especially in cellars, should be avoided. Bungalows or frame
buildings which do not possess cellars should be built on moder-
ately high foundations to provide for proper light and ventilation.
In the Florida districts where the dry-wood form of termite
it prevalent, every opening should be carefully screened, espe-
cially openings to the attic. The interior woodwork and furni-
ture should be constructed from termite-proofed lumber.






Household Pests


Building Codes.-The construction of a house that is termite-
proof insofar as subterranean termites is concerned will cost
relatively little. It is usually estimated at 11/2 to 21/2% of the
initial cost. To protect against dry-wood forms will average
10% of the initial cost.
Every Florida town and city should have a rigid building code
based upon the specifications recommended by the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. These recommendations are:
1. No untreated or unprotected wood shall be used in founda-
tions, basements or cellars or within 18 inches of the ground.
2. Cement mortar, with not more than 10% weight of lime,
shall be used in masoning foundations. 3. All masonry founda-
tions shall be capped with at least 2 inches of concrete or mortar
and slate. 4. Non-corrodible metal mechanical barriers shall
be placed over foundations, especially interior walls, piers, piping,
etc. (The metal strips are inserted over masonry, extend out
2 inches horizontally, and are bent down for an additional 2
inches at an angle of 45 degrees. The corners are soldered or
crimped.) 5. Proper ventilation shall be provided for by having
at least 2 square feet of clear open area per 25 lineal feet of
foundation wall. 6. All ventilation openings and doors shall
be screened with 20-mesh non-corrodible screen. 7. Earth shall
not be used as a filler for the foundations of porches or sun
parlors adjoining houses unless these are insulated from the
buildings by a concrete or metal apron.
In rural communities the above construction recommendations
should likewise be carefully followed. County agents will render
service in aiding in the interpretation and application of these
recommendations.
Control When Construction Was Improper.-The elimination
of termites after they have once become established in a build-
ing is frequently a laborious as well as a rather expensive pro-
cedure. As soon as it has been determined that a termite in-
festation exists a definite effort should be made to locate the
colony. At times this may necessitate the destruction of
foundations, floorings and other wood-work. One rather good
method of determining the colony location is to wait for the
migratory swarms. Then mark the place where the winged
termites (alates) appear. If the wood is torn away at the emer-
gence holes the destructive effect of the termites will usually
be uncovered. Other indications of colony locations are the






Florida Cooperative Extension


presence of dead winged termites or old broken wings; frass and
pellets that have been pushed out as the emergence took place;
and covered runways or shelter tubes that are constructed by
the workers from the nest to wooden material.
At times an emergence will take place within a house and the
occupants naturally become greatly alarmed. The destruction
of these adults will not serve as a control because they are con-
stantly produced in large numbers in the main nest.
The subterranean termites that are infesting the superstruc-
ture of an invaded house are not to be considered in an attempted
eradication. The quickest and most effective method of control
is to remove the foundation and separate the wood from the soil.
The foundation may be replaced with concrete, concrete and
steel, or with wood that has been treated with coal-tar creosote
or zinc chloride. The ground area where the termites are nest-
ing should be stirred thoroughly and treated with steam, carbon
bisulphide emulsion or orthodichlorobenzene. In some instances
it may be found feasible merely to jack up the house and place
termite shields on the foundation.
The treatment for dry wood termite infestations is different.
If the wood attacked is not structurally weakened it may be
treated with orthodichlorobenzene by mopping, painting or
spraying. It may also be treated by boring small holes in the
lumber and introducing paris green by means of a dust gun.
If the lumber is structurally weak it should be removed and
replaced with treated lumber.

POWDER POST BEETLES
Infrequent visitors to the household are the powder post
beetles. When they do occur they are usually mistaken for ter-
mites because of the nature of their attack. Like termites, they
feed upon wood and wood products but, unlike termites, they
attack only the sapwood of hardwoods such as hickory, ash
and oak.
Powder post beetle infestation usually occurs while the timber
is being seasoned by hardwood companies. However, these in-
sects may make an invasion anywhere that seasoned sapwood
occurs, such as in old furniture, rustic furniture, timbers, floors,
wagons and handles of tools. Their attack is second in import-
ance to termites.
The adults are small, flattened, elongate, brown in color, aver-
aging 1/8 to 1/6 inch in length. They are relatively inactive.






Household Pests


The adults usually appear in the spring and after mating the
female returns to the wood from which she emerged or enters
another area, where she lays many eggs. When the larvae hatch
they cut their way into the lumber and form tunnels, each larva
having an independent tube or series of tubes in which it lives.
These larvae use the cellulose of the sapwood as food and that
part that is not used is passed from the body as a fine powder.
Little stacks of this powder are frequently the first indication
of an infestation. Very frequently household infestations are
brought about by leaving oak wood in open fireplaces.
The beetles live generation after generation in the same piece
of wood, thereby building up a population of thousands. Their
continued and incessant attack may reduce the wood to a fragile,
powdered mass that will collapse easily. A heavily infested area
may be detected by the shot holes that are cut by the emerging
adults. These are usually filled with the sawdust-like fecal
wastes.

METHODS OF CONTROL
Prevention.-The most satisfactory method of control for
powder post beetles is prevention. New lumber should not be
stored next to lumber that has been stored for a number of
years. Sapwood lumber should be carefully inspected before
being used in interior work. Infested pieces of lumber should
be removed and destroyed to prevent attack of adjacent lumber
as well as of furniture. Hardwood such as oak and hickory that
is to be used as fuel wood should never be left in fireplaces dur-
ing the warmer seasons of the year as the adults may emerge
and start an infestation in furniture and flooring.
Use of Kerosene.-Powder post beetles may be eradicated
from floor boards by painting the boards carefully several times
with kerosene. If possible, it is advisable to add 4 to 6 ounces
of pyrethrum per gallon of kerosene. The pyrethrum will destroy
the insects in their tunnels. This fluid may also be applied by
use of oil cans, thereby forcing the liquid into the tunnels. A
heavy coat of varnish or paint should be applied following the
chemical treatments.
Treatment of Timber.-The larger timbers used in construc-
tion may be creosoted to prevent attack by these pests. Heavily
infested timbers and flooring should be removed, as they con-
stitute a danger to human life.
Fumigation.-Valuable furniture and other articles constructed






Florida Cooperative Extension


of wood may be fumigated with hydrocyanic acid gas. To be
most satisfactory, this should preferably be done in a retort
where a vacuum can be created, thereby forcing the gas into
every tunnel. However, where retort fumigation is impossible
the articles may be treated during the fumigation of the dwell-
ing as described in the section on "Fumigation" in this bulletin,
or they may be treated in special fumigation chambers (Fig. 27).

BIRD MITES
Birds frequently build nests on or near the windows of homes.
At times the birds become heavily infested with small Arachnids
which we call bird mites. When abundant, these may enter the
home. If this occurs the nests should be removed and the area
treated with rotenone or pyrethrum spray. Dusting sulphur is
also effective. If the birds are an objectionable type they may
be poisoned, using grain treated with thallium sulfate.

FLOUR BEETLES AND MOTHS
Foods stored in the kitchen and closets may at times be at-
tacked by beetles and moths. The most common insects causing
this type of damage are as follows: Confused flour beetle,
Tribolium confusum Duv.; the saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzae-
philus surinamensis (L.) ; the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus
(L.) ; angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.); Medi-
terranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Tell.; the Indian meal
moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hon.).
CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN PESTS
If small quantities of materials are involved they should be
removed and destroyed. If the storage area is of moderate size
the pests may be destroyed by heat which is applied when the
outside temperature is high. Temperatures of 1200 to 1300
Fahrenheit for several hours is sufficient.
Fumigation is also effective. General fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid is preferred. However, small areas may be treated
with sulfur dioxide, methyl bromide, or carbon bisulphide. The
latter is explosive and very dangerous.

HOUSEHOLD FUMIGATION
PREPARATION OF BUILDINGS
The determination of the cubical contents of the building to
be fumigated is the first step in the fumigation process. Meas-






Florida Cooperative Extension


of wood may be fumigated with hydrocyanic acid gas. To be
most satisfactory, this should preferably be done in a retort
where a vacuum can be created, thereby forcing the gas into
every tunnel. However, where retort fumigation is impossible
the articles may be treated during the fumigation of the dwell-
ing as described in the section on "Fumigation" in this bulletin,
or they may be treated in special fumigation chambers (Fig. 27).

BIRD MITES
Birds frequently build nests on or near the windows of homes.
At times the birds become heavily infested with small Arachnids
which we call bird mites. When abundant, these may enter the
home. If this occurs the nests should be removed and the area
treated with rotenone or pyrethrum spray. Dusting sulphur is
also effective. If the birds are an objectionable type they may
be poisoned, using grain treated with thallium sulfate.

FLOUR BEETLES AND MOTHS
Foods stored in the kitchen and closets may at times be at-
tacked by beetles and moths. The most common insects causing
this type of damage are as follows: Confused flour beetle,
Tribolium confusum Duv.; the saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzae-
philus surinamensis (L.) ; the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus
(L.) ; angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.); Medi-
terranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Tell.; the Indian meal
moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hon.).
CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN PESTS
If small quantities of materials are involved they should be
removed and destroyed. If the storage area is of moderate size
the pests may be destroyed by heat which is applied when the
outside temperature is high. Temperatures of 1200 to 1300
Fahrenheit for several hours is sufficient.
Fumigation is also effective. General fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid is preferred. However, small areas may be treated
with sulfur dioxide, methyl bromide, or carbon bisulphide. The
latter is explosive and very dangerous.

HOUSEHOLD FUMIGATION
PREPARATION OF BUILDINGS
The determination of the cubical contents of the building to
be fumigated is the first step in the fumigation process. Meas-






Florida Cooperative Extension


of wood may be fumigated with hydrocyanic acid gas. To be
most satisfactory, this should preferably be done in a retort
where a vacuum can be created, thereby forcing the gas into
every tunnel. However, where retort fumigation is impossible
the articles may be treated during the fumigation of the dwell-
ing as described in the section on "Fumigation" in this bulletin,
or they may be treated in special fumigation chambers (Fig. 27).

BIRD MITES
Birds frequently build nests on or near the windows of homes.
At times the birds become heavily infested with small Arachnids
which we call bird mites. When abundant, these may enter the
home. If this occurs the nests should be removed and the area
treated with rotenone or pyrethrum spray. Dusting sulphur is
also effective. If the birds are an objectionable type they may
be poisoned, using grain treated with thallium sulfate.

FLOUR BEETLES AND MOTHS
Foods stored in the kitchen and closets may at times be at-
tacked by beetles and moths. The most common insects causing
this type of damage are as follows: Confused flour beetle,
Tribolium confusum Duv.; the saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzae-
philus surinamensis (L.) ; the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus
(L.) ; angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.); Medi-
terranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Tell.; the Indian meal
moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hon.).
CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN PESTS
If small quantities of materials are involved they should be
removed and destroyed. If the storage area is of moderate size
the pests may be destroyed by heat which is applied when the
outside temperature is high. Temperatures of 1200 to 1300
Fahrenheit for several hours is sufficient.
Fumigation is also effective. General fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid is preferred. However, small areas may be treated
with sulfur dioxide, methyl bromide, or carbon bisulphide. The
latter is explosive and very dangerous.

HOUSEHOLD FUMIGATION
PREPARATION OF BUILDINGS
The determination of the cubical contents of the building to
be fumigated is the first step in the fumigation process. Meas-






Household Pests


urements of each room should be made. The cubical content is
determined by multiplying the length by the width by the height.
Deductions should not be made for space occupied by furnish-
ings. The dosage of the fumigant should be determined for each
room.
The house must then be prepared for treatment (Fig. 26).
The primary objective is to make the area gas-tight. All open-
ings such as flues, chimneys and grills must be sealed. If win-
dows and doors do not fit tightly they should be packed with
waste paper or sealed with masking tape or other adhesive paper.
The windows should be unlocked and arrangements made where
some or all of them may be opened from outside the building.
The temperature inside the area should be 650 Fahrenheit or
above for best results. The fumigation operator should make
a careful inspection of the building to make sure that all persons
and pets are out. Goldfish, plants and fresh fruits and vege-
tables should be removed. The operator should never enter the
building after treatment is begun.
Fumigation should preferably last for 12 to 24 hours. The
area should then be ventilated. Gas masks should be worn by
the operator during the entire period that the building is being
opened. Front and back doors and all accessible windows should


Fig. 26.-Room prepared for


fumigation. (Courtesy Am. Cyanamid and
Chem. Corp.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


be opened first. After a ventilation period of 1 to 2 hours the
operator may use a gas mask to enter and open additional win-
dows. During the fumigation period "Danger," "Death" and
"Poison Gas" signs should be placed on all unlocked openings.
During the ventilation period guards should stand at the open-
ings. The ventilation period depends upon the nature of the
building, the air currents and the humidity in the air. Ventila-
tion should be continued until there is no gas odor. Bedding,
pillows and other absorbent materials should be beaten and
aired.
If instructions are carefully followed accidents should not
occur. However, if such accidents do occur a physician should
be called at once.
First aid preliminary to the physician's arrival should include:
Removal of victim to fresh air; prompt first aid action should
be given unconscious victim; do not permit patient to exert
himself if breathing; have patient inhale smelling salts; if pa-
tient has stopped breathing use artificial respiration; if patient
is fully conscious but slow in recovery, give 16 drops of aromatic
spirits of ammonia in water.

HYDROCYANIC ACID FUMIGATION
Hydrocyanic acid is the most successful of domestic dwelling
fumigants. It is toxic in certain concentrations to all stages of
pests that invade or live in dwellings. It diffuses well in air
and penetrates into fumigated materials. Foods fumigated with
this gas may be used for human consumption. However, liquid
foods, fruits, butter and milk may be removed if desired. To-
bacco and smoking equipment should be removed, as they have
an affinity for the gas.
HCN gas is deadly and should be employed only by persons
who have had fumigation experience. This gas may be liberated
in a dwelling by treating sodium cyanide with dilute sulphuric
acid, by using calcium cyanide dust, or by using Zyklon-discoids.
Pot Method.-The old method of fumigation employed sodium
cyanide and sulphuric acid. This method is slightly cheaper but
requires more labor and is messy. The following formula may
be employed in this method of fumigation:

For each 100 cubic feet
Sodium cyanide ......................... 1 ounce
Sulphuric acid .......---...................-- 1 fluid ounces
W ater ............-.. ................ 2 fluid ounces






Household Pests


The area of each room is determined and a crock of 3 to 5
gallons capacity is placed in each area. If possible, tin or build-
ing paper should be placed under each container. The quantity
of acid and water needed is determined. The dilution of the acid
should be made 24 hours before fumigation is to be performed.
The water should be placed in the crock and the acid slowly
poured in. The day of fumigation the sodium cyanide should
be measured. This is usually manufactured in 1 ounce or 1/2
ounce pellets or balls; therefore, it may be counted. The quan-
tity for each space should be placed in heavy paper bags and
tied with string.
The actual fumigation should be done only by an operator
using a good tested gas mask. The canister in the mask should
be replaced frequently to assure safety. The operator should
begin dropping the cyanide into the acid in the room farthest
from the exit door and proceed carefully to the door. The door
should be sealed from the outside.
Exposure should last from 6 to 24 hours. This fumigation
process is rather expensive; therefore, the longer periods of
exposure are economically advisable as they may give more
complete controls.
The windows and doors should be opened from outside the
house and the dwelling should be aired 2 to 12 hours, depending
upon atmospheric conditions. If it is a still day long periods
will be required; if a good wind occurs the aeration period may
be shortened. Occupants should not use the area as long as
the odor of the gas is discernible.
Calcium Cyanide G Dust.-Calcium cyanide dust is tending to
partially replace sodium cyanide in some types of domestic dwell-
ing fumigation. This is due to the fact that it gives approxi-
mately the same results and is easier to apply. It is useful for
fumigating tourist camps and summer camps but not for fumi-
gating a good class of dwelling, since it may stain painted sur-
faces. Calcium cyanide G dust should be employed at a rate
of 2 pounds to 1,000 cubic feet. It may be sprinkled thinly (not
more than 1/8 inch thick) on strips of wrapping paper or news-
paper. The atmospheric moisture will react with it to produce
the gas.
Zyklon-discoids.-Zyklon-discoids (Fig. 27) are the most
modern method of liberating hydrocyanic acid. Absorptive and
porous material such as wood and paper pulp is used for pre-
paring discs which are impregnated with the acid and then






Florida Cooperative Extension


canned in 16-ounce or 40-ounce tins. This means that the tin
actually contains 16 ounces of hydrocyanic acid. The area to
be fumigated is computed and a certain specified number of
ounces of the acid are used. The discs are distributed on the
floor or on paper. A gas mask is used (Fig. 27). This method
is advantageous because it reduces labor, is speedier and cleaner,
and the process is uniform. It does not cost a great deal more.
Sulphur Dioxide.-Sulphur dioxide is a gas prepared by burn-

Fig. 27.-Opening can of Zyklon-discoids. (Courtesy Am. Cyanamid and
Chem. Corp.)







J.. ...






Household Pests


ing sulphur. It is a fairly economical method of fumigation but
is not as satisfactory as hydrocyanic acid. It tarnishes silver and
metal equipment. This can be protected by coating with a thin
film of vaseline or oil. It tends to bleach fabrics. It will kill
living plants and destroy the germinating power of seed.
Sulphur dioxide may be liberated by using a metal or other
container that will stand high temperatures. It should be used
at the rate of 2 to 6 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet. The sulphur
may be placed on wood shavings or sawdust and set on fire. It
may also be set on fire by wetting slightly with wood alcohol and
igniting the latter. Exposure should last 12 to 24 hours.
Fumigants used in a limited way in domestic dwellings are
methyl bromide, carbon bisulphide and paradichlorobenzene.

METHODS OF PREPARING HOUSEHOLD SPRAYS
Contact sprays for use in the control of domestic dwelling
pests may be purchased in commercial packages. Although vary-
ing in price, they are usually similar in character. They use a
non-staining lubricating oil as a base and either pyrethrum,
pyrethrum combined with rotenone, or aliphatic thiocyanates
as killing agents.
If large quantities are needed they may be prepared. The oil
may be purchased in 55-gallon drums and the pyrethrum or
alipathic thiocyanate in 5-gallon drums. The standard strengths
range from 3 to 6 percent, depending upon the pest involved. A
3 percent pyrethrum oil spray may be prepared by using 97
parts of oil and 3 parts of the concentrate. These home made
preparations are just as good as the commercial sprays.
Where small quantities are needed, home preparation is usually
inadvisable because of the costs involved.

AEROSOLS FOR HOUSEHOLD PESTS
A recent discovery in the application of household sprays is
the aerosol method. This employs the use of a quickly volatile
liquid such as freon 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) as a carrier.
One of the most satisfactory killing agents for use with freon
12 is pyrethrum extract. The apparatus used in the dispersal
of the insecticidal aerosol consists of a tank, a siphon tube, a
valve, a screen and a nozzle. The freon is transferred to the
cylinder from drums. The pyrethrum is added. The amount
of pyrethrum required depends upon the type of insect. It






Household Pests


ing sulphur. It is a fairly economical method of fumigation but
is not as satisfactory as hydrocyanic acid. It tarnishes silver and
metal equipment. This can be protected by coating with a thin
film of vaseline or oil. It tends to bleach fabrics. It will kill
living plants and destroy the germinating power of seed.
Sulphur dioxide may be liberated by using a metal or other
container that will stand high temperatures. It should be used
at the rate of 2 to 6 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet. The sulphur
may be placed on wood shavings or sawdust and set on fire. It
may also be set on fire by wetting slightly with wood alcohol and
igniting the latter. Exposure should last 12 to 24 hours.
Fumigants used in a limited way in domestic dwellings are
methyl bromide, carbon bisulphide and paradichlorobenzene.

METHODS OF PREPARING HOUSEHOLD SPRAYS
Contact sprays for use in the control of domestic dwelling
pests may be purchased in commercial packages. Although vary-
ing in price, they are usually similar in character. They use a
non-staining lubricating oil as a base and either pyrethrum,
pyrethrum combined with rotenone, or aliphatic thiocyanates
as killing agents.
If large quantities are needed they may be prepared. The oil
may be purchased in 55-gallon drums and the pyrethrum or
alipathic thiocyanate in 5-gallon drums. The standard strengths
range from 3 to 6 percent, depending upon the pest involved. A
3 percent pyrethrum oil spray may be prepared by using 97
parts of oil and 3 parts of the concentrate. These home made
preparations are just as good as the commercial sprays.
Where small quantities are needed, home preparation is usually
inadvisable because of the costs involved.

AEROSOLS FOR HOUSEHOLD PESTS
A recent discovery in the application of household sprays is
the aerosol method. This employs the use of a quickly volatile
liquid such as freon 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) as a carrier.
One of the most satisfactory killing agents for use with freon
12 is pyrethrum extract. The apparatus used in the dispersal
of the insecticidal aerosol consists of a tank, a siphon tube, a
valve, a screen and a nozzle. The freon is transferred to the
cylinder from drums. The pyrethrum is added. The amount
of pyrethrum required depends upon the type of insect. It






52 Florida Cooperative Extension

ranges from 5 milligrams per 1,000 cubic feet for mosquitoes to
25 milligrams per 1,000 cubic feet for roaches.
The aerosol is more valuable than oil sprays because the car-
rier volatilizes instantly and leaves the killing agent suspended
in air, where it may remain for 1 to 5 hours, depending upon
conditions.
This method should be available for domestic use after the
present war. It is not now available.
HOUSEHOLD SPRAY AND DUST EQUIPMENT
The real success of household pest control depends as much
upon the use of proper equipment and thorough application as
it does upon toxic sprays and dusts.
The nature of the apparatus to be purchased depends upon
the size of the area to be treated. If the area is small it may

Fig. 28.-Class in pest control, University of Florida, watches demonstra-
tion in use of power sprayer.






Household Pests


be advisable to purchase a good grade hand atomizer for liquid
sprays and a plunger type of duster for application of dusts.
The purchaser should study such apparatus carefully and select
the most desirable type. The careful use of such equipment will
result in a thorough application of the toxic agent and should
result in good control.
Power equipment may be used in larger areas or where the
individual desires to do a more thorough job with less labor.
A satisfactory liquid spray outfit is an electrically operated
spray-painting outfit of 1/4 horsepower (Figs. 28 and 29). This
type of outfit has a compression unit and a spray gun prefer-
ably of the pressure feed type. It will develop a pressure of
30 pounds. If a special gun is obtained the outfit may be used
for applying dusts as well as sprays. The greatest objection
to such an outfit is the weight, which ranges from 50 to 65
pounds.
Smaller electric sprayers and dusters are available which do
an excellent job and are very light. Of course, they are not as
durable as the spray-painting outfit.

Fig. 29.-Control of bedbugs is demonstrated by class in pest control,
University of Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COVER CUT.-The cover cut shows a common housefly, Musca domestic.
Photograph courtesy The American Museum of Natural History.

INDEX


Aedes aegypti, 22
Aedes sollicitans, 22
Aedes taeniorhynchus, 22
Aerosols, 51
American roach, 5
Anopheles maculipennis, 24
quadrimaculatus, 22, 23, 24
Ants, 9
control, 10
Australian roach, 6


Baits, 8, 11, 32
Bagworm, plaster, 25
Barium carbonate, 32
fluosilicate, 8
Bedbugs, 18
Bird mites, 46
Blatella germanica, 5
Blatta orientalis, 6
Book lice, 36
Borax, 8, 16
Brill's disease, 29
Brown-banded cockroach, 6
Bubonic plague, 29


Calcium cyanide, 49
Canis familiaris, 28
Carpet beetles, 26
Cat flea, 28
Cimex hemipterus, 19
lectularius, 19
Clothes moths, 24
Cockroaches, 4
Codes, buildings, 43
Contact sprays, 6
Creosote oil, 16
Ctenocephalides canis, 28
felis, 28
Culex quinquefasciatus, 21


Dermacentor variabilis, 34
Dichloroethyl ether, 16
Dog flea, 28
Dust equipment, 52


Ephestia kuehniella, 46
Eurycotis floridana, 6

Felis domestic, 28
Fleas, 27
Florida roach, 6
Flour beetles, 46
Flour moths, 46
Fly papers, 17
Fresh marsh mosquitoes, 22
Fumigation, 9, 30, 46

German roach, 5
Gnats, 18
Grain pests, 46

Hellebore, 16
Hippelates pusio, 18
Houseflies, other, 18
Housefly, common, 12
Housefly control, 17
Household sprays, 51
Human flea, 28
Hydrocyanic acid, 46, 48


Kennel, treatment of, 30

Lepisma saccharine, 34
Lice, book, 36


Maggot trap, 15
Malaria, 23
Malaria mosquito, 23
Mansonia perturbans, 22
Manures, chemical treatment of, 16
Mice, 28
Mites, bird, 46
Mosquitoes, 21
Mosquitoes, control, 24
Mosquitoes, domestic, 22
Mosquitoes, malaria, 23
Musca domestic, 12
Mus musculus, 28







Household Pests


Oriental rat flea, 28
Oriental roach, 6
Oryzaephilus surinamensis, 46

Periplaneta americana, 5
australasiae, 6
Pets, hosts of fleas, 30
Plasmodium vivax, 23
Plaster bagworm, 25
Plodia interpunctella, 46
Powder post beetles, 44
Psocids, 36
Pulex irritans, 28
Pyrethrum powder, 8

Rats, 31
hosts of fleas, 28
Rat poisons, 32
Rat trapping, 32
Rattus frugivorus, 31
N. norvegicus, 28
rattus alexandrinus, 28
rattus rattus, 28
Red squill, 32
Roaches, 4

Salt marsh mosquitoes, 22
Screening, 17
Silverfish, 34
Sitotroga cerealello, 46


Sodium fluoride, 7
Sodium fluosilicate, 8, 16
Sprays, fly, 18
household, 51
Stomach poisons, 7
Storage, clothes, 26
Stored grain pests, 46
Sulphur dioxide, 46, 50
Supella supellectilium, 6

Tenebroides mauritanius, 46
Termites, 36
Thallium sulfate, 32
Ticks, 34
Tinea pellionella, 24
Tineola biselliella, 24
Traps, fly, 17
rat, 32
Tribolium confusum, 46
Tricophaga tapetzella, 24
walsenejhami, 24

White ants, 36

Xenopsylla cheopis, 28

Yellow fever mosquito, 22


Zyklon-discoids, 49




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs