• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Methods of housing poultry
 The site for the poultry house
 Types of houses
 Poultry house essentials
 Floors
 Types of roofs
 Laying houses
 Brooder houses
 Summer ranges and shelters
 Building suggestions
 Poultry house equipment
 List of references














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 77
Title: Houses and equipment for poultry in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025537/00001
 Material Information
Title: Houses and equipment for poultry in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 38 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mehrhof, N. R ( Norman Ripley ), b. 1899
Rogers, Frazier
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1934>
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Housing -- Design and construction   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Equipment and supplies   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 38).
Statement of Responsibility: by N.R. Mehrhof and Frazier Rogers.
General Note: "August, 1934."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025537
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570734
oclc - 44791960
notis - AMT7047

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Methods of housing poultry
        Page 3
    The site for the poultry house
        Page 4
    Types of houses
        Page 4
    Poultry house essentials
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Floors
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Types of roofs
        Page 9
    Laying houses
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Brooder houses
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Summer ranges and shelters
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Building suggestions
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Poultry house equipment
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    List of references
        Page 38
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






August, 1934


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



HOUSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR

POULTRY IN FLORIDA

By
N. R. MEHRHOF and FRAZIER ROGERS


Fig. 1.-Two-thirds span house (12' x 14') at the Florida National Egg-
Laying Contest, Chipley.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 77









BOARD OF CONTROL

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
W. E. EVANS, B.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

'In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
'Part-time.









HOUSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR POULTRY

IN FLORIDA

N. R. MEHRHOF and FRAZIER ROGERS*

CONTENTS
Page Page
Methods of Housing Poultry....... ...... .. 3 Brooder Houses... ..... .... ... .............. 13
The Site for the Poultry House ....... ... 4 Summer Ranges and Shelters........................ 17
Types of Houses ..... .... ............. ..... 4 Building Suggestions..-...... .. ...................... 19
Poultry House Essentials....................... ..... 5 Concrete................................ 21
Floors .............. ... ............... .. 7 Paints and W hitewash........................... 24
Types of Roofs ................... ...... ..... 9 Poultry House Equipment........................... 24
Laying Houses ... ... .. ......... 9 List of References....... .... .... ...... 3S


One of the most important phases of poultry management is
the provision of suitable environmental conditions for the baby
chicks, the growing birds, and the layers. The birds should
have the right kind of houses, properly located. A good poultry
house is an economical investment.
In Florida climatic conditions vary, and houses in South Florida
may not be satisfactory for North and West Florida. Poultry
houses in the southern part of the state are more open than
those in North and West Florida. For this reason each poultry
raiser must use his or her own judgment when planning the
details of the poultry houses. Nevertheless, there are a few
principles of construction which should be carefully considered
in the building of all poultry houses.
This bulletin is prepared to furnish poultry raisers with sug-
gestions for building poultry houses and for constructing differ-
ent types of equipment to be used in the management of birds
of various ages.

METHODS OF HOUSING POULTRY

There are in general, three different methods of housing used
according to the method of management. They are the colony
system, the semi-colony system, and the intensive system. These
methods are employed with baby chicks, growing birds, and
laying stock.
The colony system is used when a relatively small number

Poultryman with the Agricultural Extension Service, and Professor of
Agricultural Engineering, College of Agriculture, respectively.
This bulletin supersedes Bulletin 45.






4 Florida Cooperative Extension

of chicks are to be brooded in one house, and also when a small
number of layers are placed in one house.
Colony houses are either stationary or portable, the greater
majority being of the latter type. If the houses are portable
they should be constructed on skids so that they may be moved
from place to place. No doubt the most important advantage
of this method is that there is less danger from disease. The
disadvantages are that it increases the costs of building, labor
and management.
The intensive system is used when a large number of chicks
or layers are to be kept in one house. The advantages of this
system are that the building costs and the labor requirements
are lower. However, the disadvantage is that there is a greater
opportunity for the spread of disease.
The semi-colony system is the system midway between the
colony and intensive type.
In the State are found all three systems and also combinations
of the three. The most prevalent practice seems to be the use
of the colony system for brooding baby chicks and growing
pullets and the semi-colony and intensive system for managing
the layers.

THE SITE FOR THE POULTRY HOUSE
The poultry house should be located on well drained soil with
a southern or southeastern slope.
In the construction of the poultry house thought and con-
sideration should be given to its relationship to other buildings
in order to save time and labor. Consider the nearness to other
buildings and the central feed and water supply.
The future development of the flock should be borne in mind.
It would be most desirable to make a complete plan of the poultry
farm as you expect to have it eventually, so that all buildings
are located conveniently.

TYPES OF HOUSES
The types of houses that are being used most extensively in
the State are either even-span or shed roof.
The houses should be fairly deep. Narrow houses are more
expensive, and at the same time are undesirable because good
ventilation is almost impossible without causing direct drafts
to blow over the birds. The depth of the house will be influ-
enced by the length.






4 Florida Cooperative Extension

of chicks are to be brooded in one house, and also when a small
number of layers are placed in one house.
Colony houses are either stationary or portable, the greater
majority being of the latter type. If the houses are portable
they should be constructed on skids so that they may be moved
from place to place. No doubt the most important advantage
of this method is that there is less danger from disease. The
disadvantages are that it increases the costs of building, labor
and management.
The intensive system is used when a large number of chicks
or layers are to be kept in one house. The advantages of this
system are that the building costs and the labor requirements
are lower. However, the disadvantage is that there is a greater
opportunity for the spread of disease.
The semi-colony system is the system midway between the
colony and intensive type.
In the State are found all three systems and also combinations
of the three. The most prevalent practice seems to be the use
of the colony system for brooding baby chicks and growing
pullets and the semi-colony and intensive system for managing
the layers.

THE SITE FOR THE POULTRY HOUSE
The poultry house should be located on well drained soil with
a southern or southeastern slope.
In the construction of the poultry house thought and con-
sideration should be given to its relationship to other buildings
in order to save time and labor. Consider the nearness to other
buildings and the central feed and water supply.
The future development of the flock should be borne in mind.
It would be most desirable to make a complete plan of the poultry
farm as you expect to have it eventually, so that all buildings
are located conveniently.

TYPES OF HOUSES
The types of houses that are being used most extensively in
the State are either even-span or shed roof.
The houses should be fairly deep. Narrow houses are more
expensive, and at the same time are undesirable because good
ventilation is almost impossible without causing direct drafts
to blow over the birds. The depth of the house will be influ-
enced by the length.






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


The front of the house should be high enough to allow the
sunlight to penetrate into the interior, but there should be pro-
tection against driving rains that would make the house wet.
Sunshine is a good disinfectant.
In deep houses it is desirable to have light underneath the
dropping boards. This can be furnished by having windows in
the rear of the house below the level of the dropping boards.

POULTRY HOUSE ESSENTIALS
In constructing poultry houses, the following features should
be considered: (1) economy, (2) convenience, (3) ventilation,
(4) protection from heat and cold, (5) protection from vermin,
(6) sanitation, (7) sunlight, (8) sufficient space for fowls, (9)
dryness.
Economy in building poultry houses is very important. How-
ever, it does not pay to use a poor grade of lumber. Use only
sound lumber. The lasting qualities must be considered in fig-
uring on economy. Poultrymen in the State are using both
dressed and rough lumber for construction. It is advisable, how-
ever, to use dressed lumber for the dropping boards, nests, and
perches. This will allow an easier control of lice and mites, and
permit the dropping boards to be kept more sanitary.
Construct houses as plain as possible. Fancy trimmings and
unnecessary furnishings do not increase efficiency, and they are
not economical.
Convenience in a poultry house is likewise desirable. All the
fixtures inside the house should be arranged to make the work
easy and efficient. The nests should be arranged so that the
hens can easily enter and the attendant can remove the eggs.
The perch poles should be removable.
Ventilation-Poultry can stand and need plenty of fresh air,
but this should not be in the form of drafts. An open front
house with ventilators at the rear provides a sufficiency of ven-
tilation and protection. The ventilators at the rear of the house
near the top may be hinged at either top or bottom and open
out. These ventilators are made about 8" to 10" wide and run
the full length of house, being divided into convenient lengths
if the house is long.
Also ventilators at either end of the house may be provided.
See figures 6, 10 and 11.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Upper ventilators should be placed at least from 12 to 18
inches above the perches, while floor ventilators are below the
dropping boards. Both types may be used in the same house.
Drafts directly on the birds are conducive to colds and roup.
A house that is poorly ventilated is damp, close, and unhealthy
for poultry.
Protection from heat and cold is another factor for considera-
tion. The house should be constructed so that heated and im-
pure air may escape. With brooder houses, muslin curtains
should be available for protection and in some types of brooder
houses insulation is desirable.
Rats and mice should be kept out. Cement floors or wooden
floors high enough off the ground to prevent hiding places will
keep the vermin out. If rats and mice are present, covers should
be provided for the mash hoppers.
Sanitation is essential for success with poultry. Construct
the dropping boards so that they may be easily and thoroughly
cleaned. Matched lumber is desirable to prevent the droppings
from going through the cracks to the floor. Sprinkling a small
amount of sand or some other type of drying material on the
dropping boards will make them much easier to clean. At the
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest sawdust is used.
Construct the water and mash hoppers so they can be kept
clean and sanitary.
Properly constructed floors will assist in keeping the house
sanitary.
Sunlight in the poultry house is a good disinfectant and is
essential to the health of the birds, particularly young chicks.
The house should be constructed so that plenty of sunshine will
enter. This is secured by facing it to the south or southeast.
Sufficient space should be provided in the house. It is advis-
able to allow plenty of roosting space and floor space to obtain
the best results. Florida poultrymen generally supply from 2
to 4 square feet of floor space per adult bird, depending on the
breed and method of management. From 8 to 10 inches roosting
space is ample.
Dryness in a poultry house is desirable if the health of the
fowls is to be preserved. Damp houses favor the development
of roup, pneumonia, and other diseases. With an abundance of
ventilation, plenty of water drainage away from the house, and
properly constructed floors, the poultry house should be dry.





Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


FLOORS
The essential features of a good floor are: (1) dryness, (2)
smooth, hard surface which can be easily cleaned, (3) proof
against rats and mice, (4) economy of construction. Floors should
be so constructed that they are higher than the outside ground.
The three types of floors used are:
1. Cement or concrete-permanent, sanitary and easy to clean.
2. Wood-use tongue and groove lumber and have it off the
ground (18 to 24 inches).
3. Dirt-used in some places but not as satisfactory as either
the wood or concrete. If a dirt floor is used it is advisable to
remove six inches of the surface material about every six months
and replace with fresh dirt. Avoid using sand, as it soon be-
comes a good breeding place for fleas.








Kil


Fig. 2.-Types of roofs for poultry houses. A, shed roof; B, two-thirds
span; C, even span; D, monitor; E, semi-monitor; F, A-shaped.





























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Fig. 3.-Plans for an
18' x 32' even-span
laying house.


FRONT ELEVATION


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Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


TYPES OF ROOFS
Several types of roofs are being used on poultry houses. Care-
ful consideration should be given to the roof, for it is one of the
most expensive parts of the house. The type of roof will affect
the building cost. Roofs should be constructed so that they are
water-tight, of course.
Figure 2 shows the various types of roofs used. The two most
common types in use in Florida are the shed-roof and the even-
span.
LAYING HOUSES
Laying houses may be movable or non-movable. If they are
to be portable, they should be placed on runners so that they
can be moved from place to place. All laying houses should be
inexpensively but well equipped with labor-saving devices.
The floors in the laying house may be dirt, wood, or concrete.
Wood or concrete floors are better.
Laying houses are generally open front. Some have a 4-foot
opening while others have the entire front open. This will
allow plenty of sunshine and ventilation for the house. Venti-
lators should be placed in the rear of the house just under the
plate or below the dropping boards or both. If a gable roof is
used ventilators at peak should be constructed. (See Fig. 3.)
The sides of the house should be tightly constructed so as to
prevent any drafts on the birds. In central and northern Florida
the houses are constructed more tightly than in southern Florida.
An abundance of fresh air in poultry houses is essential.

BUILDING THE LAYING HOUSE
The following suggestions are given to assist in the construc-
tion of a poultry house.
SUGGESTED DIMENSIONS OF SHED-ROOF TYPE POULTRY HOUSES
Height in Feet
Depth, Ft. Length, Ft. Front Rear
12 10 7 -7% 4%-5
14 12 71/2-8 5 -5%
16 16 8 -8Y2 5 -5%
20 20 8%-9 5 -5%
Overhangs or drips are suggested on shed-roof type houses.
The drip should be 2 feet to 21/2 feet at an angle of 45 degrees.
Even span houses are constructed so as to have a front and






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


TYPES OF ROOFS
Several types of roofs are being used on poultry houses. Care-
ful consideration should be given to the roof, for it is one of the
most expensive parts of the house. The type of roof will affect
the building cost. Roofs should be constructed so that they are
water-tight, of course.
Figure 2 shows the various types of roofs used. The two most
common types in use in Florida are the shed-roof and the even-
span.
LAYING HOUSES
Laying houses may be movable or non-movable. If they are
to be portable, they should be placed on runners so that they
can be moved from place to place. All laying houses should be
inexpensively but well equipped with labor-saving devices.
The floors in the laying house may be dirt, wood, or concrete.
Wood or concrete floors are better.
Laying houses are generally open front. Some have a 4-foot
opening while others have the entire front open. This will
allow plenty of sunshine and ventilation for the house. Venti-
lators should be placed in the rear of the house just under the
plate or below the dropping boards or both. If a gable roof is
used ventilators at peak should be constructed. (See Fig. 3.)
The sides of the house should be tightly constructed so as to
prevent any drafts on the birds. In central and northern Florida
the houses are constructed more tightly than in southern Florida.
An abundance of fresh air in poultry houses is essential.

BUILDING THE LAYING HOUSE
The following suggestions are given to assist in the construc-
tion of a poultry house.
SUGGESTED DIMENSIONS OF SHED-ROOF TYPE POULTRY HOUSES
Height in Feet
Depth, Ft. Length, Ft. Front Rear
12 10 7 -7% 4%-5
14 12 71/2-8 5 -5%
16 16 8 -8Y2 5 -5%
20 20 8%-9 5 -5%
Overhangs or drips are suggested on shed-roof type houses.
The drip should be 2 feet to 21/2 feet at an angle of 45 degrees.
Even span houses are constructed so as to have a front and













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FLOOR PLAN
Fig. 4.-Floor plans for 18'x32' even-span laying house.


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Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


FLOOR- PLNN
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LAYING HOU/E-
Fig. 5.-Plans for shed roof laying house, 10'x12', with drip. (See Fig. 16.)









Florida Cooperative Extension


46- 2 6 POULTRY MESH








FRON7 V EW
FRONT VIEW


S '4
SIDE VIEW


-REAR
VENTILATOR
B WIOc


FLOOR PLAN

Fig. 6.-Plans for a two-thirds span laying house.






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


rear height of 7 to 8 feet and the peak 10 feet. The depth ranges
from 16 to 18 feet and the length from 32 to 48 feet.
The fronts are boarded up 21/2 to 3 feet and the remainder
screened with poultry wire.
Rear ventilators just under the plate are 6 to 12 inches wide
and hinged. Ventilators below the dropping boards are fur-
nished by means of glass windows 2'x2' which can be slid back
and forth. The opening is covered with 1-inch mesh wire.
Openings in either end of the even-span house near the peak
are sometimes found to secure greater ventilation.

















Fig. 7.-Even span laying house. Note ventilators at rear, peak and end.
Note water system and arrangement of nests.

BROODER HOUSES
Well constructed brooder houses are essential in raising and
managing baby chicks. They should face to the south or south-
east, and be placed on well drained soil.
Brooder houses are generally of two types, stationary and
portable. The average size is 10'x12' to 12'x14'.
A concrete floor is desirable for a stationary house while a
wooden floor, of tongue and groove lumber, is desirable for a
portable house. The floor should be constructed to be warm
and should be free of drafts.
Portable houses should be constructed on skids or runners
(4"x6"), and should be light in weight, strong, and durable.
The walls should be tightly constructed of drop siding or tongue






Florida Cooperative Extension


and groove material. Some poultrymen are using rough lumber
and ceiling the cracks.





















Fig. 8.-Interior of brooder house, showing colony brooder stove.

The roof should be made waterproof, using either metal,
shingles or roofing paper.
Ventilation in the brooder house can be secured by having
an opening in the front of the house. The opening will vary
with the brooder house. Windows in the front will help in
furnishing light and ventilation. A ventilator in the rear of
the house near the plate also is desirable and can be opened or
closed depending on weather conditions and age of chicks.
A brooder house should be constructed so that it can be kept
warm during winter and cool during the summer. It should be
easy to ventilate in winter and well ventilated in summer.
Enough floor space for the number of chicks to be brooded
should be provided. (See Tables 1 and 2.)
Wire Floors-It is more sanitary to raise chicks on wire
frames than to use litter. The frames can be constructed of
1"x4" material on edge. The edges are beveled so that the
surface collects very little droppings. The frames are made to
suit the size of house and small enough that they can be removed
for cleaning. Sufficient supports to prevent sagging of wire







Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


to allow facilities for walking in the house should be provided.
The supports should not be more than 2 or 3 feet apart either
way. The frames are covered with /2" mesh hardware cloth.
Wire Sun Porch.-After poultry have been raised several years
on one location the soil becomes contaminated, and it is desirable
to keep the young chicks off the ground. Wire-floored platforms
(about %" to 1" mesh hardware cloth) are built in front of the
house to get the chicks out in the direct rays of the sun and so
that the droppings will pass through. The sun parlor is enclosed
by wire on all sides and top. The frame is of 1"x3" material, sides
24" high, and sides and top are covered with 1" mesh poultry
netting. Some use a concrete platform that can be easily
washed with a hose to prevent contamination.
The sun parlor generally has floor space equal to one-half or
more of that inside the brooder house.

TABLE 1.-*MORTALITY OF CHICKS AS AFFECTED BY THE NUMBER BROODED
TOGETHER.
Number of Chicks Number of Average Number Percent
Per Unit Units of Chicks Mortality

100-400 .................... 7 231 15.4
400-800 ..- ------- 12 717 14.2
400-800 ................ ........ 12 717 14.2
800-1200 ........................ 22 1012 18.3
1200-1400 ...........---.... ... 9 1309 20.9

TABLE 2.-*DEATH RATE OF CHICKS AS AFFECTED BY FLOOR AREA ALLOWED.
Number of Chicks I Percent
Floor Area Per 100 Chicks Chicks Died I Died

35 sq. ft. or less................... 73,077 19,254 26.3
35-50 sq. ft............................... 25,371 4,122 16.2
50 sq. ft. or more..................... 25,044 3,484 13.1
California Agricultural Extension Circular 28, Brooding and Pullet
Management, by W. E. Newlon and M. W. Buster.

HOME-MADE BRICK BROODER STOVES
Recently in West Florida home-made brick brooders have come
into use, and seem to be giving satisfaction. They are easily
constructed. The following method has been suggested for their
erection and operation.
Bill of Material.-150 bricks, new or used, 25 pounds of lime,
1/2 sack cement, 1/3 yard sand, 5 heavy iron rods, 3 or 4 joints






Florida Cooperative Extension


of 6-inch stove pipe, 1 joint with damper, 1 piece of tin or other
metal 12"x16" for door, and 1 roof flange.
How to Build.-A mortar mixture of 1 part lime, 1 cement,
and 2 sand is used. Make mortar joints 1/4 inch thick and break
joints with bricks. Lay bricks on flat side. After six rows of
bricks are up, lay irons across top to support a seventh layer
of brick entirely across the top. The cap bricks should be placed
4 inch apart. A thin mortar about 3 inches thick should be
run over entire top.


















Fig. 9-Home-made brick brooder stove, which is inexpensive, easily
constructed and satisfactory.

Angle iron, heavy wagon tires, road scraper blades, and simi-
lar materials make splendid cross bars to support the cover layer
of bricks and mortar. Arrange these bars so as to support the
ends of the cap bricks.
Enough lengths of stove pipe should be used to project the
pipe above the roof about two lengths, or sufficiently to secure
proper draft. The damper should be placed in the first length
of pipe.
Secure a piece of sheet metal or an old stove door 12"x16"
in size, which will fit very closely against the face of bricks so
that operator can regulate draft. It is an added convenience to
attach a light chain or wire from the door through a pulley or
staple which may be placed in the roof. A weight attached to






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


the other end of this wire enables the operator to raise and lower
the door more readily when it is hot.
A properly placed roof flange should remove any danger of
fire starting around the roof. Cut the roof away three or four
inches from stove pipe and insulate with tin or asbestos as a
special precaution.
BATTERY BROODERS
Brooding chicks in batteries is the latest development in
brooding. It consists of having a battery of chick trays, one
above another. The chicks are on wire bottom trays and under
each tray is a metal pan which collects the droppings. The feed
and water vessels are on the outside of the tray and this makes
it impossible for the chicks to contaminate them with their
droppings. It is recommended that when chicks are started in
battery brooders, at least 10 square inches of floor space be
allowed for each chick. (Fig. 10.)
There are many types of battery brooders on the market. The
two main ones are (1) heated compartments and (2) unheated
compartments. In the former type, each compartment is heated
and the heat is regulated by a thermostat. This type generally
has two sections, one warm and one cool. In the latter type
the room is heated and a fan is stationed in the room to circu-
late the air.
Battery brooding appears to be very successful for the first
few weeks. With advancements in types of brooders and meth-
ods of management, perhaps they will be used for a longer period.
They are being used for the production of broilers and fryers.
The length of time that pullets can be kept in the batteries for
the best results is variable.
After the chicks are removed from the battery brooder they
can be put in either the colony or the long type brooders until
they are ready to go on range.

SUMMER RANGES AND SHELTERS
When the cockerels are marketed, cull the slow, runty pullets
and all birds not likely to develop into profitable layers. Place
the remaining pullets on a range that is clean and with a mod-
erate amount of shade and a good supply of green feed.
Provide a suitable light movable summer shelter with a good
circulation of air. Do not crowd. (See Figs. 11 and 12.) These
shelters are about 8'x10' or 10'x10' with wire on all four sides,




Florida Cooperative Extension


wTM I
M,.WU.tjiUiU^-' r


~II hII~It i


Fig. 10.-Battery brooder, unheated type. (Courtesy Smith Incubator Co.)


INlilill IM HU^I


. ~ ~ ~ ~ I -o 1 T ,. .


I-






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


perches and a wire floor (1" mesh poultry netting). Sometimes
a wooden floor with screening under the perches is used.
Keep young chicks and growing pullets away from old birds.


y'.,


Fig. 11.-Interior of colony house for pullets. Note arrangement of
perches, wire under perches, and openings.

BUILDING SUGGESTIONS
CONSTRUCTING THE HOUSE
The framework consists of the foundation, the sills which are
placed upon it to support the building, the joists which support
the floor, the studs or uprights which rest upon the sills, the
plate which is on top of the studs, and the rafters which rest
on the plate.
When wooden floors are used they should be about 18" to 24"
above the ground. Concrete floors are placed directly on the
ground, with a sufficiently raised site to insure drainage. The
sills which are usually 2"x4" or 4"x4", depending on size of the
house, are placed on wooden posts, stones, concrete supports,
or directly on the concrete walls to which sills are bolted. In
portable houses the sills serve as runners and are usually of 4"x6"
material. Floor joists are made of 2"x4" or 2"x6" material
depending upon span. They are spaced from 16" to 20" apart.
Spans of 12 feet or more should have center supports. The
studding is of 2"x4" material and is toenailed to sill. The















L II+

------ -- --- -- -L -- -- LL -


r--- T r


L L ------ -------------- 1
r r ----- ---- -----~r~


T-----C---------------- ----

~- T T -------- r-
IIT
------- LL- --






'L --- -----


'- -~ -- -- -L ----- - -

1-3
II II II
OST--tJT PO-t5 2t --


END VIEW


ii: II H.

lea


o'-o- --- SIDE VIEW SHOWING RAFTERS

FLOOR PLAN

Fig. 12.-Plans for desirable type summer shelter.


METAL ROOF


/






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


plates are either 2"x4" or 4"x4" (usually made by spiking two
2"x4"s together).
Rafters are usually of 2"x4" material where span is not more
than 12 feet and then of 2"x6" material.

FLOORS
Both wood and concrete are used for floors. The wooden
floors are of matched tongue and groove flooring. Concrete
floors have a tendency to be damp, especially where poor under-
drainage exists. Tar paper cemented at the joints or 4" to 6"
of crushed stone, gravel or hard cinders, beneath the floor will
aid in keeping the floor dry. Waterproofed concrete, as ex-
plained later, will aid.
WALLS
Walls usually are constructed of siding or flooring nailed di-
rectly to studding, and 1"x6" material is most commonly used
for siding. It is necessary to add about 20% to total square
surface in order to get the number of board feet needed. This
is necessary on account of allowance for matching of materials.
Vertical siding of 1"xl0" or 1"x12" boards with 3" battens to
cover cracks is used also.
ROOFS
Sheet metal, shingles and prepared roofing material are the
ordinary types of coverings found on poultry house roofs in
Florida. Wooden shingles are usually laid 4" to 5" to the
weather. Where laid 41/2" to weather, 1,000 shingles will cover
approximately 125 square feet. Roofs are usually given a pitch
of from 1/4 to 1/3, that is the vertical distance from the plate to
the ridge is from /4 to 1/3 the total width of the house.

CONCRETE
Concrete, due to its permanence, ease of cleaning and disin-
fecting, resistance to the gnawing of rats, and fireproofness, is
a very desirable material to use for poultry house floors.
Proportioning.-The purpose for which concrete is to be used
determines the various proportions of cement, sand, coarse ag-
gregate and water used. The fewer air spaces or voids in the
concrete, the stronger it will be. However, in much of our
poultry house construction it is not economical to make the
strongest concrete. Volume measure is used in designating the
proportions of the material used in a mix. The first number






Florida Cooperative Extension


given in the proportion is cement, second sand, and third coarse
aggregate. Hence a 1-2-4 mix would mean 1 part cement, 2 parts
sand and 4 parts rock or gravel. Portland cement is sold in
bags containing 1 cubic foot and weighing 94 pounds, which
makes it very convenient in proportioning. When no coarse
aggregate is used the mix is called a mortar and is used prin-
cipally for surface coating where considerable wear is likely
to occur. In poultry house construction the 1-2-4 and 1-3-5 are
the principal mixes used, the former in walls and thin floors,
the latter for floors and foundations. The 1-2 mortar is used
for top coating on floors.
Quantities of Material.-In order to determine the amount of
the various materials needed for any piece of concrete work it
is necessary to compute the volume of concrete needed. Then
from the amounts of materials needed per unit volume of par-
ticular mix used, the amount needed for a particular job can
be computed. Remember that the concrete is not the sum total
of the quantities of the various materials used, but is less, due
to the small particles filling the air spaces between the larger
particles. Table 3 gives the amounts of ingredients that under
average conditions will give 1 cubic yard of concrete of the
various mixes.
TABLE 3.-MATERIALS FOR 1 CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE.
PROPORTIONS Cement Sand Gravel
Cement | Sand I Gravel Bags Cu. Yds. Cu. Yds.
1 1 .................. 19.2 .74
1 2 .................. 13.5 1.00
1 IVz 3 7.64 .42 .85
1 2 4 6.00 .45 .90
1 3 5 4.67 .53 .87
1 3 6 4.25 .48 .95

Suppose the amount of concrete needed for a particular job
would be 54 cubic feet and the mix a 1-2-4. From Table 3 we
see that it requires 6 bags of cement, .45 yards of sand and .90
yards of rock per yard. Fifty-four cubic feet being 2 cubic
yards, we would need 12 bags of cement, .9 cubic yards of sand,
and 1.8 cubic yards of rock or gravel.
For one-course floors in poultry houses the 1-2-4 or 1-3-5
mixes are most generally used. The thickness of the floor is






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


governed by the foundation on which it is to be laid. If a good
foundation, such as clay, is to be used then a 3" floor would be
sufficient but in other cases 4" of concrete would be safer. For
two-course floors the first course is usually constructed of from
21/2" to 31/4" of a 1-3-5 mix and the top 1/2" of a 1-2 mix. This
gives a smoother surface finish under ordinary conditions than
the one-course floors.
Curing.-The ultimate strength of concrete depends to a great
extent upon the proper curing of the concrete after it is placed.
This is done by protecting it from the sun and supplying plenty
of water during the seven 'days just after it has been placed.
After the concrete has been troweled to a surface finish it should
be permitted to get its permanent set, which will occur within
10 hours after placing in a temperature of at least 80 degrees F.
After that time it should be kept moist for several days. This
can be very conveniently done by covering the concrete with
sand or burlap and wetting it three or four times daily for the
seven days.
Mixing and Placing.-The materials used in making concrete
should be thoroughly mixed before being placed in form. This
can be done either by machine or hand. In machine mixing the
materials are placed in a mixer in the proper proportions, water
is added, and the materials are mixed for about two minutes.
In hand mixing the sand for a batch is usually placed on a mix-
ing board of sufficient size. The cement is then spread over
the sand and both are thoroughly mixed. After a uniform color
is obtained part of the water needed is added and the mass is
again stirred. Then rock and remaining water added and mixed
until the mixture is uniform. It is then ready to be placed in
the forms, that are well made and braced.
Consistency.-The amount of water used in mixing has a great
influence on the strength of the concrete. An excess of water
will weaken the concrete while too little water will make it hard
to mix and place. A good rule to follow is to use just as little
water as possible to get a workable mix. The amount per bag
of cement will be governed largely by the amount of moisture
in the aggregates. The amount generally required is from 5 to
61/2 gallons per bag of cement used.
Waterproofing.-One of the essentials of a poultry house floor
is dryness, therefore ordinary concrete will need something to
prevent moisture coming through it unless some materials such
as gravel or cinders are placed beneath it to remove the water.






Florida Cooperative Extension


A very effective, as well as inexpensive method of waterproofing
the floor, is to add 15% as much hydrated lime as cement to the
mix. This aids in filling up the floor spaces and thereby renders
it more waterproof. There are many commercial waterproofing
materials on the market, most of which are good and may be
used with safety.
PAINTS AND WHITEWASH
Paints add greatly to both the appearance and durability of
wooden structures. Outside oil paints should be used on exterior
surfaces. Surfaces to be painted should be clean and dry before
being painted. Unpainted wood should first have a priming coat
consisting of one-half linseed oil and one-half stock paint. White-
wash while not as durable as oil paint is much cheaper and can
be used to a great advantage in improving the appearance of
poultry houses.
Ordinary whitewash is made by slaking quick lime and al-
lowing it to stand for one hour after slaking. Thin to desired
consistency for spreading.
Whitewash for interior work may be made by (1) slaking 38
pounds hydrated lime in 15 gallons water; (2) mix 21/ pounds
of rye flour in 1/2 gallon cold water, then add 2 gallons boiling
water; (3) dissolve 21/ pounds common salt in 21/2 gallons hot
water. Mix solutions 2 and 3 and pour into solution 1. Stir
vigorously until thoroughly mixed.
A good outside whitewash may be made by (1) slaking 38
pounds of quick lime in 12 gallons of hot water; (2) dissolve 2
pounds common salt (sodium chloride) and 1 pound of zinc
sulfate in 2 gallons of boiling water. Pour solution 1 into solu-
tion 2, then add 2 gallons of skimmed milk and mix thoroughly.

POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT
Dropping boards should be constructed of tongue and groove
material. The boards should be laid from front to rear to facili-
tate cleaning. The boards should be horizontal and parallel with
the floor. They should be about 21/2 to 3 feet off the ground,
and should extend 9 to 12 inches beyond the front and back
roosts.
Roosts.-Removable roost poles should be provided for the
hens. They should be placed on the same level (horizontal) to
prevent the birds from crowding to the top poles. Lumber 2"x2"
or 2"x3" should be used with the sharp corners rounded. These






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


roosts are generally placed 6 inches above the dropping boards
and are supported either by wires from the roof or by a frame
resting on the dropping boards. In the latter case, it is well to
use hinges so as to raise the perches when cleaning the dropping
boards. (Fig. 5.) From 8 to 10 linear inches (8" for Leghorns
and 10" for Plymouth Rocks) are allowed per bird for roosting
space. The roosts are placed 12 to 16 inches apart. Wire (11/2"
mesh poultry netting) should be stretched below the roosts to
keep the hens out of the droppings in order to promote health
and cleanliness.
Roost poles should also be provided for the chicks. It is most
desirable to get the chicks to roost as early as possible. Roost
poles for chicks are generally constructed of 1"x2" lumber on
edge, the sharp corners rounded. Also 1" mesh poultry netting
should be fastened under the perches. A great many poultry-
men slope the chick perches. Do not have the high part of slope
more than 12" from the floor at the back and then have it taper
gradually to the floor. This will get the chicks up off the floor
which will allow better ventilation.
Nests should be easily accessible to both hens and caretaker,
economically constructed, and easily cleaned. They can be lo-
cated on the end walls or in front. For Leghorns and other light
breeds, nests 12"x12", and for Rhode Island Reds and other
heavy breeds, nests 12"x14", are of sufficient size. The nests
should be 12 inches high and the front edge board 3 to 4 inches
high to retain nesting material. Plenty of nests should be avail-
able for the birds. One nest for every four to six hens is suf-
ficient.
In constructing nests, the bottoms are of either wood or wire.
When single tiers of nests are used 1/2" mesh hardware cloth
(fine wire) or netting may be used for the bottom. This permits
more circulation of air and allows droppings and trash to be
scratched through the wire netting. This helps to keep the
nest clean.
A sloping roof over the nests will keep the hens from roosting
on top and hinged jump boards in front may be closed to keep
hens out of nest at night.
Some poultrymen are using orange boxes and egg crates as
nests.
Trapnests are the only sure way of telling what the hens will
do. Working plans of a suitable trapnest are shown in Fig. 13.






Florida Cooperative Extension


_4^,C~--~-------- 15"------^--- y-----^-4
CR0 ,5 SECTION
Fig. 13.-Details of trapnest construction.

CONSTRUCTING A THREE-COMPARTMENT NEST
Cut four %1" boards for ends and partitions, 12" wide by
181/2 long, enough 1/" boards 391/" long, laid lengthwise, to
cover the top, back, and bottom, and two strips, 391/2" long and
11/2" wide for the front of the nests and for the front extended
rail. Cut three pieces of 1/" boards 12" long and 3" high to
insert in the nest to hold the nesting material away from the
door. The total quantity of material needed will be one 3/"
board, 12" wide by 8' 2" long for the ends, partitions, and front
of the nest; and two 1/2" boards 10" wide and 10' long for the






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


top, back, bottom, and front rail of the nest. If wire is used
on top of the nest an equal number of square feet of 1/2" lumber
can be substracted from the amount stated.
Nail the top, back, and bottom to the ends and partitions
(see Fig. 13), insert the 3" strips in the nests, and make the
guard (b) nailing it to the left side of nest. [Note (b) may be
left out if desired.] Bore a hole in the catch (a) large enough
that the catch will move freely when screwed into position on
the side, and use a washer on both sides of the catch. The
catch should be made of hardwood, so that it will not wear
readily around the screw which holds it in place. The catch is
made of material 1/2" thick and is 11/" wide at the upper end
and 3/4" wide at the lower end. Place a screw at the lower edge
of the catch to stop it when set, so that the catch will just hold
the door.
Make the doors (c) of 1/" material, 12"x6", and cut a triangu-
lar notch in the center 4 inches wide. Put two screw eyes in
the top of the doors and bore holes in the front of the nests 2"
below the top (inside measurement), through which a 3/16"
wire is run to support the door.
Attach a narrow strip to the front of the nests for the hens
to jump upon when entering the nests. Place a button or block
of wood on the front of each partition to hold the door when
the nest is closed.
If the nests are to be placed directly below the dropping board,
a wire top should be used on the nest, except for a 5" strip of
wood on the front edge of the top to stiffen the nest.

WATER EQUIPMENT
The water fountain is a fixture to which careful consideration
should be given. It should be so constructed that it can be
easily cleaned and disinfected, is easily accessible for the poultry,
and is protected from contamination. Water vessels should be
placed on stands near the mash hopper.
Plenty of drinking vessels should be available for the chicks.
A one-quart jar for about 30 chicks is satisfactory. In using
such a jar, it must be filled at least twice daily. Some find a
one-half gallon fountain for 50 chicks very satisfactory. (See
Fig. 14.)
Galvanized pails are used quite extensively as water vessels
for layers. It is suggested that a 12 to 16 quart pail be used,
allowing 2 pails for each 100 to 125 birds.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 14.-Two types of water vessels for growing birds.
Fig. 14-Two types of water vessels for growing birds.


Fig. 15.-Water or milk pan protector.


Stand for Water Pails.-When pails are used to supply water
for the layers, a stand should be provided to keep the pail off the
floor. It can be easily constructed as follows: Use 2"x4" for






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


the legs, making them 18" high. The slats which form the top
are 1"x2" strips about 1/z" apart which permit dirt and drop-
pings to work down between them, thus helping to keep the
stand clean and dry. The pail is set down about 4". If a pan
is used it is well to have a protector over it to keep the birds
from walking through.
Water or Milk Pan Protector.-A simple yet very important
part of the water equipment is a protector. It can be made in
many different ways as indicated in Fig. 15.
Sometimes it has been found desirable to have a water barrel
mounted on skids, especially for birds on range. A small tap is
placed at bottom of barrel with a pipe leading from it so that
it will drip into a pan which has a protector.
Screened Platform for Drinking Vessels.-Such a platform
will make it possible to keep the floor or ground dry. One can
be easily con-
structed. Use 2"
x4" for frames
and cover with
1/l, mesh hard-
ware cloth. Make
frame any desired
size.
If screened
platform is used
in the yard, first
make a dry well
and put frame
over the well.
(Fig. 16.)
On the larger Fig. 16.-Water pan on wire platform with cover,
poultry farms used on range for pullets. Dry well underneath
wire stand.
automatic foun-
tains are used rather extensively. This allows for a continuous
supply of fresh running water.
FEEDERS
Mash hoppers are essential in all phases of poultry manage-
ment. They should be constructed so as to be clean, sanitary
and non-wasting. There are many different types.
Chick Feeders.-Chick feeders should be sanitary and non-
wasting. There are a number of different types which are easily







Florida Cooperative Extension


constructed. One of these is the reel type, which has a reel
placed above it so that chicks cannot perch on top and conse-
quently the feed and feeder are kept cleaner. Plans for a feeder
4" wide, 30" long and 11/2" deep are shown in Fig. 17. The reel
is one inch square, and is supported by a heavy wire at each
end of the feeder.

NO. 8 WIRE
REEL I' l'
SCREW
LATH


^t -j ------------- 30 --------------3
1-3 1

END VIEW SIDE VIEW
ENLARGED
Fig. 17.--lans for the construction of a reel-type chick feeder. A similar
feeder, only larger, can be used for pullets or layers.

A similar feeder 6" wide, 4' long and 31/4" high is used for
pullets. The reel for it is 11 inches square, and is supported
by extra heavy wire.
Another type of chick feeder that is used and is easily con-


Fig. 18.-Two types of indoor feeders.






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


structed is made by taking a board 6" wide and 4' long as the
bottom and using 23", boards for sides. Then take a strip of
1/2" hardware cloth 3' 10"x51I/" and set in trough. The wire


Fig. 19.-A good type of out-
door hopper for use on the
range.


Fig. 20.-A good outdoor feeder.






Florida Cooperative Extension


is placed on top of mash and will prevent the mash from being
scratched out.
Outdoor Hopper.-This type of hopper is used for growing
birds on range. It is so constructed that rain will be kept out.
(Fig. 19.)
Feeding Space.-Ample room should be allowed so chicks can
feed freely. It is recommended that 1 square foot of mash
hopper space be allowed for 50 chicks for first 4 weeks, then 1
square foot of space for 25 chicks.
A 3' feeder will take care of 100 chicks for first three weeks.
More feeders are needed after this time.

T:,/V\ a '*zu-zzz9zzz2


<----- /o0
ENo


SIDE
(T f=~


PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 1.-Plans for a satisfactory mash hopper.






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida










E ELEVATION S1D0. FLLVATION
j ,- 3". 31"CLOCK LPLTHr



31CLLAT
--12" -- --1
I- I |" .4"--
^ ^ Tl t !f 1.r' 1"4____


Fig. 22.-Open non-wasting mash hopper. -U--

DRY MASH FEEDER
BILL OF MATERIAL (Fig. 22)
4-2"x2"x18". 2-1"x6"x4'. 3-1"x3"x/2"x3/2".
2-1"x2"x24". 1-1"x12"x4'. 4-plaster lath.
2-1"x4"x4' 2". 2-1"x12"x81/2". 2-21/" No. 10 screws.
6-1"x2"x4' 2". 2-1"x1"x18". 1/ Lb. 6d. box nails.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Layers' Mash Hoppers.-Sufficient mash hoppers should be
available for the birds. Approximately 16 (8' hopper feeding
from both sides) linear feet of dry mash hopper space should
be provided for each 100 adult birds. See Figures 21 and 22
for construction of two different types of mash hoppers.
An oyster shell and grit hopper should be provided. Figure 23
shows a suitable type of hopper which will hold large amounts
of grit and oyster shell. This material should be kept before
the laying and growing stock all of the time.
Another type of hopper for grit, shell, and charcoal can be
easily constructed as follows:
Construct a box 4' long, 6" wide, 5" deep, and divide into
two or three sections and nail to side of house 1' from floor. A
lip may be used to check waste.

5MALL BUTT kIN&EL






< \ /^ ^T""'^ -^ 4''* ^ -- y--*---^









Fig. 23.-Oyster shell and grit hopper.

BILL OF MATERIAL (Fig. 23)
1 pc. 1"x12"x14'-backs, ends, partitions and fronts
1 pc. l"x8"x6'-top and front of trough
1 pr. 2" butt hinges

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
A broody coop is used to break up hens that want to set. This
can be arranged on top of the roosts at one end of the roosting
space, using the regular dropping board to care for the droppings
and utilizing the end, back, and roof of the house for three of






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


the sides of the broody coop. The other side, the front, and the
bottom should be slats about 11/2" apart made of lath or lattice,


or thin strips, or
covered with
poultry netting.
This permits a
constant circula-
tion of air, lots of e
light, and forces
the broody bird
to roost on the
slats and provides
no place for her
to make her nest.
Provide feeding
and drinking ves-
sels for broody
hens. See Fig. 24.
Catching Hook.
A catching hook
is a necessary and
useful piece of
equipment for the
poultry farm. See
Fig. 25.
Oat Sprouter.-An


7/77,,, w777,
S.
0IDE VIEW











I .
FRONT VIEW
Fig. 24.-Sugges-ions for a broody coop.

oat sprouter is a very useful piece of


equipment for the poultry farm. When green feed cannot be
grown, oats may be sprouted. Figure 26 shows the details of
an oat sprouter. It is a frame so constructed as to hold a series


Fig. 25.-Type of hook for catching chickens.






Florida Cooperative Extension


of trays. Metal or wood may be used in the construction of the
trays, small holes being punched or drilled in the bottoms of
the trays.


Fig. 26.-An oat sprouter.

Fattening Crate.-Birds should be in good flesh before they
are put on the market or are used at home. A fattening crate
is very useful and can be constructed very easily. Figure 27
will give some suggestions in the construction of a fattening
crate.
Catching Crate.-A catching crate is used often during the
year in the management of a flock of birds. Figure 28 illustrates
a type that can be easily constructed. It can be made any size,
with a sliding door at the end and a hinged door at top.






Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida


Fig. 27.-Home-made fattening crate for broilers and fryers.


Fig. 28.-A desirable type of catching crate






38 Florida Cooperative Extension

LIST OF REFERENCES

ALP, H. H. Poultry farm equipment. Ill. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 333. 1929.

BOTSFORD, H. E. Plans of Cornell poultry houses and appliances. Cornell
Ext. Bul. 139. 1926.

CARVER, J. S., G. R. SHOUP, W. D. BUCHANAN, and L. J. SMITH. Washing-
ton poultry houses. Wash. Agr. Expt. Sta. Gen. Bul. 188. 1925.

CLAYBAUGH, J. H. Practical poultry equipment. Nebraska Agr. Ext. Circ:
1441. 1928.

DOUGHERTY, J. E., and H. L. BELTON. Poultry houses and equipment. Cali-
fornia Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 476. 1929.

GOODING, P. H. Laying houses and equipment. South Carolina Agr. Ext.
Circ. 115. 1931.

HOLMGREEN, E. N. Poultry yard equipment. Texas Agr. Ext. Circ. B-71.
1930.

JULL, M. A., and A. R. LEE. Poultry houses and fixtures. U. S. D. A.
Farmers' Bul. 1554. 1928.

KELLEY, J. B., and J. HOLMES MARTIN. Housing farm poultry. Kentucky
Agr. Ext. Circ. 107. 1931.

KENNARD, D. C. New poultry equipment. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Spec.
Circ. 14. 1928.

PHILIPS, A. G., and LEROY L. JONES. Poultry house equipment. Indiana
(Purdue) Ext. Bul. 57. 1919.

SIPE, G. R., and J. W. CARPENTER. Poultry houses and equipment. Missis-
sippi Agr. Ext. Bul. 53. 1929.

TROLLOPE, G. A., and M. T. GOWDER. Home-made brick brooder. Alabama
Agr. Ext. Circ. 111. 1929.

TWITCHELL, H. P., and R. E. CRAY. Poultry housing. Ohio Agr. Ext. Bul.
94. 1930.

WINTON, BERLEY, and W. C. BOWEY. Poultry equipment made at home.
Missouri Agr. Ext. Circ. 151. 1924.




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