• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Some essentials of beef production...
 The future of the livestock market...
 The federal quarantine and the...
 Grasses for Florida
 The best hog for the farmer to...
 Feeding and care of the brood...
 Feeding and care of pigs from farrowing...
 Feeding and care of pigs after...
 Velvet beans for brood sows
 The need in Florida of better...
 Boys' dairy calf clubs
 Breeding principles for the...
 Poultry raising in Florida
 Selection of the laying flock
 Feeding the dairy cow in Flori...
 Milk for Florida homes
 Livestock wrok at the agricultural...
 The development of the beef cattle...
 Prussic acid in sorghum
 Experience in feeding silage
 Utilization of tractors
 The development of the tractor...
 Errata














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Division of Agricultural Extension ; no. 23
Title: Addresses delivered before the eighth annual meeting of county agents and the fourth annual farmers' livestock roundup
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025533/00001
 Material Information
Title: Addresses delivered before the eighth annual meeting of county agents and the fourth annual farmers' livestock roundup University of Florida, College of Agriculture, Gainesville, Fla., October 10-17, 1919
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 48 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- College of Agriculture
Conference: Annual Meeting of County Agents, 1919
Annual Farmers' Livestock Roundup, 1919
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1920
 Subjects
Subject: Livestock -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "January, 1920".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025533
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002569909
oclc - 47285476
notis - AMT6212

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Some essentials of beef production in Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The future of the livestock market in Florida as I see it
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The federal quarantine and the rising cost of conducting the cattle business in the tick infested area
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Grasses for Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The best hog for the farmer to raise
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Feeding and care of the brood sow
        Page 13
    Feeding and care of pigs from farrowing to weaning time
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Feeding and care of pigs after weaning time
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Velvet beans for brood sows
        Page 18
    The need in Florida of better Jerseys
        Page 18
    Boys' dairy calf clubs
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Breeding principles for the farmer
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Poultry raising in Florida
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Selection of the laying flock
        Page 27
    Feeding the dairy cow in Florida
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Milk for Florida homes
        Page 33
    Livestock wrok at the agricultural college
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The development of the beef cattle industry in Florida
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Prussic acid in sorghum
        Page 42
    Experience in feeding silage
        Page 43
    Utilization of tractors
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The development of the tractor industry during the past few years
        Page 46
    Errata
        Errata 1
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







January, 1920


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
P. H. ROLFS, Director




ADDRESSES

DELIVERED BEFORE THE

Eighth Annual Meeting of County Agents
AND THE

Fourth Annual Farmers' Livestock Roundup

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
GAINESVILLE, FLA.


October 10-17, 1919


Bulletin 23












CONTENTS


Some Essentials of Beef Production in Florida................................ ....... 1
The Future of the Livestock Market in Florida As I See It........................ 3
The Federal Quarantine and the Rising Cost of Conducting the Cattle
Business in the Tick Infested Area........................................................ 5
Grasses for Florida.......................................... 7
The Best Hog for the Farmer to Raise.............................--..............--....-..... 11
Feeding and Care of the Brood Sow................-----........... .............................-- 13
Feeding and Care of Pigs from Farrowing to Weaning Time.................... 14
Feeding and Care of Pigs After Weaning Time................................. 16
Velvet Beans for Brood Sows.................. .................. ................. ................. 18
The Need in Florida of Better Jerseys..................................... 18
Boys' Dairy Calf Clubs... ............................................. ................... 19
Breeding Principles for the Farmer.............. ..................... 22
Poultry Raising in Florida ............................. ..... ......... 24
Selection of the Laying Flock............................... ..............2.-- 27
Feeding the Dairy Cow in Florida.................... .......... .................... 28
Milk for Florida Homes .............................. ................ 33
Livestock Work at the Agricultural College.. .. ...................... 34
The Development of the Beef Cattle Industry in Florida........-............... 38
Prussic Acid in Sorghum ............. -..................... ............ 42
Experience in Feeding Silage..... ............................... 43
Utilization of Tractors...................................... .... ....... ....... ......... ...... 44
The Development of the Tractor Industry During the Past Few Years.... 46




NOTE
There has been an increasing demand for copies of the addresses made
at the annual meeting of the County Agents and the annual Farmers' Live-
stock Roundup, these requests coming both from men who were present
at the meetings and from those who were unable to attend. Therefore, an
attempt was made at the last meeting (held jointly) to either get copies of
these addresses or have stenographic notes made of same. While it was
not possible to secure every one, the majority of them have been compiled
and some of the essential points discussed reproduced in this bulletin. Un-
fortunately, it is financially impossible to give a complete report of this
meeting. It is hoped that the present bulletin will prove more acceptable
than would have been the case if no report had been published.









SOME ESSENTIALS OF BEEF PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
GEO. M. ROMMEL
Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C.
In order to make our beef production a reasonably safe busi-
ness we must first improve the quality of type of the cattle pro-
duced, and second, reduce the cost of production.
With these two points clearly in mind, the following seem to
be the most important essentials of beef production in Florida:
TICK ERADICATION
On December 31, 1918, only 18 per cent of Florida had been
released from quarantine. At the same time the State of Texas
had 36 per cent of her territory released, Mississippi and South
Carolina were entirely free from quarantine, and the United
States as a whole had cleared 63 per cent of the area originally
quarantined when the tick eradication movement started in 1906.
It is difficult to bring good bulls into tick territory without loss,
the only exception being in the case of Brahma cattle. Brahma
cattle, unquestionably, are of very great value to improve native
Florida cattle, but it hardly seems likely that this will be the
type of cattle which will eventually predominate on Florida
ranges. One and only one thing seems to prevent the use of any
of the breeds of beef cattle, and that one thing is the tick.
One cannot contend with ticks on farms and ranges without
heavy expense. One of the most striking recent examples of
this is the experience of the Texas A. & M. College. This college
has been, until the last year, within the quarantined area, and
the college farm was tick infested. Last year, for the first time,
the farm was free from ticks. For a great many years the col-
lege has been exhibiting calves at the Fort Worth Fat Stock
Show. Last year the calves shown were 200 pounds heavier than
those shown before. They were out of the same cows, raised on
the same farm, on the same feed, and were shown at practically
the same age as those which had formerly been shown. The only
'difference was that they had been free from ticks from birth.
Keeping these calves free from ticks, therefore, added to their
value 200 pounds of high class show beef worth at the very lowest
estimate $30 per head.
PUREBRED BULLS THE SECOND ESSENTIAL
The offspring of purebred bulls are more uniform and larger,
they are more early maturing, and are more profitable to feed
than the offspring of grades or scrubs. The market for them is
infinitely wider. Not only will expert buyers pay more for the







Florida Cooperative Extension


offspring of purebred cattle, but more people are looking for this
kind of cattle than for mongrels.
Over 400 purebred bulls have been placed in Florida during
the past year. This indicates that in spite of the tick, and in the
face of the cost of cattle production under ticky conditions, men
are striving to go ahead in the right direction.
There are good opportunities for the purebred business in
Florida. Both farm and range offer promising outlets for large
numbers of such animals, and this outlet will broaden with the
extension of the tick-free area.
I should offer one caution in this connection, and that is that
prospective purebred breeders should go slow that they do not
stock up beyond their ability to handle their cattle, and particu-
larly that they feed wisely and well. Do not expect that purebred
cattle will live on nothing. However, with proper feed and atten-
tion they will respond more readily than scrubs.
WINTER MAINTENANCE
Beef is too expensive in these days of high prices to waste
fifty or a hundred pounds which each animal has laid on during
the summer, on account of the insufficient winter feeding. The
advent of frost and the dry season in Florida cuts down the
amount of feed available on the pastures, and should be supple-
mented either by feed which has been stored in the silage, hay or
grain, or by pastures which have been allowed to rest and which
promise to furnish a certain amount of winter feed. I would
call your attention to the possibilities of carpet grass as a winter
pasture plant, in the latter connection. Carpet grass does not
seem to be damaged by frost, as are Bermuda, Para and similar
grasses. It may be possible, by keeping stock off of carpet grass
for a few weeks before frost comes, to take advantage of the
growth made during the fall months. Feeding a small allowance
of cottonseed meal or velvet beans in addition would be an ex-
periment worth trying.
FINANCING
The State of Florida is to be congratulated on having taken a
step at the last session of the Legislature towards the protection
of livestock credits by the enactment of the Livestock Loan Law.
The new law provides a-fair and simple method of foreclosure,
and provides heavy penalties for fraudulent removal of mort-
gaged property. It has been my pleasure to submit copies of it
to some of the best known cattle bankers in the country, and
while some of them criticize it in minor details, on the whole they
regard the law as a great step in advance.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


Finally, I should say that the livestock men of the State of
Florida should insist on the building up of the Animal Husbandry
Department of the State University. Your problems will never
be solved until they are worked out by Florida men in original
ways. The small University staff now available cannot ade-
quately, with the funds at their disposal, meet the demands for
this work. Get behind the Animal Husbandry Department and
see that the men who compose it are given every opportunity to
become real leaders with original ideas, the courage of their con-
victions, and the confidence of the people of the State.

THE FUTURE OF THE LIVESTOCK MARKET IN FLORIDA
AS I SEE IT
L. M. RHODES
State Bureau of Markets, Jacksonville, Fla.
Our annual consumption of meats in the United States alone
is 182 pounds per capital. Our annual production of meats is 212
pounds per capital. This leaves a surplus for exportation of 30
pounds per capital, or a total of more than 3,000,000,000 pounds.
In other words we produced in 1918 23,337,050,000 pounds of
meat, consumed 19,125,819,000 pounds and exported to the suffer-
ing people of Europe 3,207,231,000 pounds.
The packers of the United States slaughter 90,000,000 animals
per annum; 80,000,000 of these are sold thru 50 stockyards.
There are about 20,000,000 animals slaughtered by producers and
local butchers. But when we realize that every time the people
of this country take a seat at the table the farmers must drive
82,000 farm animals to the packer, it brings us face to face with
the fact that the packer is the foundation of our livestock market.
Our population is increasing faster than our livestock. This
means that there is no branch of agriculture more profitable, or
permanent, than growing meat producing animals. The farm
animals of the United States are valued at $8,500,000,000, and
serve as the foundation of our meat supply and soil fertility.
That the very best types of livestock can be, and are being
grown in Florida cannot be denied. The fact that Florida has
more hogs than the six New England States and New Jersey,
Delaware, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New
Mexico combined, and more cattle than South Carolina, Maryland,
Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hamp-
shire and Maine shows conclusively that we can grow them. In
fact the climate, soil, water, shade, grass and forage of Florida







Florida Cooperative Extension


combine to make it an ideal livestock section. It only remains for
us to live up to our opportunities as producers of livestock second
to none in size and quality, and then the livestock market in Flor-
ida will become established and secure.
On January 1, 1919, the average price per head for hogs in
Florida was $13, the lowest of any State in the Union. The aver-
age price for hogs per head in the 14 States which have all
together a total number of hogs less than we have in Florida is
$22.75, or $8.75 per head more than the average price in our
State. If Florida's hogs were as good as the average in these 14
States they would be worth $14,642,000 more than they are. If
those we market were properly fed and finished, prejudice against
oily, soft Southern pork would pass away, and our hogs would
bring top prices.
On January 1, 1919, Florida cattle, except milch cows, had an
average value per head of $24.80, which was lower than any State
in the Union. January 1, 1919, the average price of cattle per
head in the United States was $44.16. If we had cattle as good
as the average in the United States they would be worth in round
numbers $18,000,000 more than they are now. If our hogs and
cattle were worth as much as the average in the United States
they would be worth $32,000,000 more than they are.
Florida has more sheep than Rhode Island, South Carolina,
Massachusetts, Delaware and Connecticut, but sheep are valued
at less per head in Florida than in any other State. Again we
are shown that we must improve quality. For the average price
per head in Florida January 1, 1919, was $4.10, while the average
price per head in the United States was $11.61, a difference of
$7.51 per head, or nearly one million dollars loss to the sheep
growers by not having first class sheep.
Organized, cooperative effort in the shape of cooperative live-
stock selling associations will help in the grading, shipping and
selling of livestock in the future, and will have its influence on
the market. The future of the livestock market in Florida as I
see it depends largely on the quality, size, type, feeding and finish-
ing of the animals we grow.
If the people of Florida consumed as much meat per capital as
the average in the United States, it would require 182,000,000
pounds of meat per annum. All the beef, pork and mutton pro-
duced in Florida will not exceed 12,500,000 pounds and this leaves
a shortage of 57,000,000 pounds, or 57 pounds each for every
man, woman and child in the State. We must breed at least
12,000,000 pounds of meat for tourists every year, making it







Bulletin 23, Addresses


necessary to ship into the State 69 or 70 million pounds of meat
per annum.
No State in the Union, we are glad to say, is making greater
progress than Florida and I believe in less than a decade we will
see complete elimination of cattle ticks, hog cholera, scrub cattle
and razor back hogs. Then a strong demand, profitable prices
and regular market await us.


THE FEDERAL QUARANTINE AND THE RISING COST OF
CONDUCTING THE CATTLE BUSINESS IN THE
TICK INFESTED AREA
DR. E. M. NIGHBERT
U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, Inspector in Charge of Tick
Eradication in Florida
Conducting a cattle business in the tick-infested, quarantined
area is undertaking a business under handicaps and restrictions.
These restrictions obstruct proper expansion and interfere with
the adoption of modern methods of breeding, feeding, grazing
and marketing cattle. This condition adds cost to conducting a
cattle business, because of the danger of introducing the improved
types and breeds of cattle to build up the native herds; it adds
cost, because of market restrictions-requiring cattle to be sold
at a lower level because of the restricted market. This condition
stunts the calf and the growing animal, reduces the milk flow in
cows, and causes heavy death rate of both young and adult cattle.
The tick injures the hide and lessens the quality of beef and
stocker cattle, the losses all told amounting to five or six million
dollars annually in Florida.
The average price per head of milch cows for the United States
in 1901 was $30; for other cattle, $19.93.
The average price per head of milch cows for the United States
in 1919 was $72.24; other cattle, $44.16.
This is an increase of 160 per cent for milch cows and 121 per
cent for other cattle.
The average price of milch cows in Florida in 1918 was $53;
in 1919, $61. This is a 15 per cent increase in one year. Missis-
sippi, which was released from quarantine in 1917, shows an in-
crease of 26 per cent.
The average price in Florida of cattle other than milch cows in
1918 was $22.20; in 1919, $24.80. This is an increase of 11 per
cent. Mississippi showed an increase of 22 per cent for this






Florida Cooperative Extension


period. It is seen that the cattle man in Florida has enjoyed a
great increase in the price of cattle; yet the Florida price has not
kept pace with prices of Mississippi, which has recently been
released from federal quarantine.
It must be noted that labor prices in Florida in the past nine
years have increased approximately 56 per cent. This is only
part of the rising cost to the Florida cattle man; there are taxes,
living and incidental expenses, all of which have increased ap-
proximately 75 per cent, totaling 131 per cent, while cattle prices
have only increased 117 per cent. These are natural increases,
owing to conditions of the times. Operating under quarantine
and tick infestation prevents modernizing the cattle business.
The people of Florida have done much towards tick eradica-
tion. The work is thoroly established; the next move is to go for-
ward. The work progresses just as fast as the people will let it;
it is the people's work.
All movements for encouraging and fostering cattle improve-
ment in the state are commendable and will hasten the work. It
must be borne in mind, however, that no matter how well the
improvement under tick infestation and quarantine restrictions,
the cattle business will not come into its own until these condi-
tions are for all time removed.
Tick eradication is accomplished thru public and private ex-
pense, by co-operation of the proper State officials with State
funds, County Commissioners with county funds, and farmers
and cattle owners with private funds. The cattle owner cooper-
ates by taking all steps to dip his cattle because he is the first
beneficiary and the public generally is served and pays for this
service thru public funds.
Under date of September 26 press reports announced a solid
car of Western meats received at Orlando, the heart of the cattle
country in the State. This shipment was not made because of
insufficient cattle at this point, but because of lack of quality of
the native stock to meet the demand of that consuming center.
It may be frankly stated that the cattle men in the State as a
whole are meeting the situation in a commendable way; they have
given the matter of tick eradication first consideration since its
introduction.
The cattle situation in the State as to conditions, manner and
methods of care, grazing, feeding, breeding and marketing, is
well understood by the leaders in the movement for improvement.
The ways, means and plans of dealing with the situation is sound
and practicable. The work is now no experiment.






Bulletin 23, Addresses


Dipping cattle to destroy and completely eradicate ticks in the
quarantined area makes for a clean, healthy and profitable in-
dustry under the new conditions confronting this country. The
earning capacity of cattle in the quarantined tick infested country
is lessened. Therefore, tick eradication, in addition to dealing
with a serious disease of cattle, is an economic question. High
class cattle in the sections freed of ticks the past few years have
yielded the highest dividends ever known in cattle history. There
is no short cut to success. Therefore, the cattle tick will be eradi-
cated; the Federal quarantine will be lifted, and the question of
the Federal quarantine and the rising costs of conducting the
cattle business in the tick infested area will be a question of his-
torical interest, thereby making us ready to face the new prob-
lems that may confront the industry.

GRASSES FOR FLORIDA
J. B. THOMPSON, Forage Crop Specialist
Florida Experiment Station
As a prerequisite to the development of the livestock industry,
we can scarcely overestimate the importance of an abundant and
continuous supply of good forage that can be successfully grown
on those farms and ranches where they are to be converted into
milk, butter, beef, or other animal products. Our cattle business
must, above all, be builded upon a forage crop foundation. It
seems inevitable that, as livestock farming continues to become
better developed, grasses and other forage will be required in
ever increasing quantities.
Including both wild and cultivated species, more than 600 dif-
ferent grasses are found within the State. There is, of course,
only a relatively small number of these grasses that really figure
as important factors in our forage supply. The forage problems
of Florida vary with our soils and with our seasons. Consider
our highly fertile muck lands where Maiden Cane and Dallis
grass, Para and Carib grasses, Rhodes grass and Bermuda all
make remarkably vigorous growth. On the heavier soils of
West Florida and on much of the flatwoods and treeless prairie
areas of the State, grasses may be grown in variety and relative
plenty. The real problems that face the stockmen on these areas
are: (1) the best methods of utilizing what we have on the culti-
vated areas and, (2) practical methods of establishing better
grasses on the uncultivated range. There is, however, a com-
paratively large area of high, sandy, dry land where grasses are







Florida Cooperative Extension


not easily grown. I refer, especially, to the extremely dry type
of soil where Bermuda grass does not thrive or remain perma-
nent. The amount of natural pasturage varies greatly at differ-
ent seasons of the year. Even where all the pasturage that is
needed may be had during the warm growing season, a compara-
tive shortage prevails during winter. This periodic scarcity is
one of our most serious problems; and it is felt to some extent
in all sections of the State.
Let us consider briefly some of our most important grasses.
These may be grouped according to their use into pasture grasses,
hay grasses, those that are used mainly for soiling purposes, and
silage crops.
PASTURE GRASSES
There are a number of essential features that characterize a
good pasture grass. First, it should be palatable and nutritious
and be capable of making vigorous and persistent growth under
conditions of heavy trampling and close grazing. Ease of propa-
gation and habits of supplying an abundance of feed during a
long grazing period are also important features.
Bermuda grass is one of the most important grasses of this
group. It is widely distributed in all sections, and is adapted to a
variety of conditions, from those of good pine land to well drained
flatwoods and muck. It is not a grass for the undrained wet lands,
nor does it succeed well on the very dry sandy lands that are
subject to extreme drought. Giant Bermuda is a rank growing
form of this grass. It has comparatively few rootstocks, render-
ing it more easily eradicated from land than is the common Ber-
muda, while it yields a greater abundance of feed.
Carpet grass, Axonopus compressus, supplies good grazing on
flatwoods and the heavier types of the Bermuda grass areas. It
is very persistent and aggressive and where it thrives best, will
crowd out Bermuda grass. It withstands wet soil conditions bet-
ter than Bermuda and remains green a little longer in autumn.
Para grass furnishes a large proportion of the pasturage sup-
plied by cultivated grasses in South Florida. It can be grown
successfully on land that is too wet for general cultivation. So
far, its distribution and use is most general along the lower East
Coast, especially in that section embracing the counties of Dade,
Broward and Palm Beach, tho there is considerable territory both
to the north and west of these limits where it could be success-
fully grown.
Carib grass, Eriochloa subglabra, is very similar to Para grass,
both in appearance and in its general habits and requirements.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


Where Para grass thrives best we also find optimum conditions
for this grass. It is a little more leafy and upright than Para
grass, shows rather less tendency to spread, and is more easily
injured by cold.
Natal grass is not usually considered among pasture grasses.
However, it is sometimes found to make comparatively good
growth on soils that are too dry and sandy to suit most other
grasses, and under these conditions it has some value for grazing.
The amount of feed supplied on such locations is usually rather
small and the quality is only passably good.
Dallis grass, Paspalum dilatatum, is one of our most promising
grasses on wet or damp land for winter grazing. This is a peren-
nial and grows to greatest perfection during warm weather and
on good moist land. Yet it will furnish considerable grazing
thruout the coldest season of an average Florida winter and is
capable of living thru prolonged periods of drought. To utilize
areas of low wet land not suitable for cultivated crops and to
furnish winter pasturage this grass is undoubtedly one of the
best.
HAY GRASSES
The most serious problem attending the production of hay in
Florida is one of climate rather than the lack of suitable crops.
Frequent summer rains and high atmospheric humidity render
the curing of hay both difficult and uncertain. Wherever possi-
ble, full advantage should be taken of the less humid period of
late autumn for the having operations. Furthermore, where
cultivated annuals are used, it is often possible by planting at
the proper time to fix the time of maturity at a time when there
is a minimum danger from heavy rains. A large portion of our
grass hay is made from uncultivated volunteer growth-the bulk
of it from crab grass which comes in after the cultivation of
other crops is discontinued. It is a grass with slender stems and
coming in late in the season, cures without much difficulty, and
makes a very satisfactory feed if well handled.
The advantages of Natal grass for growing on light sandy soil
has already been mentioned. It is grown on this type of soil,
and to a greater extent for hay. A good grade of Natal grass hay
compares favorably with an equal grade of timothy hay in com-
position and is probably about equally valuable for feeding.
Rhodes grass, Chloris gayana, also makes a high class hay and
is adapted for growing on well drained flatwoods, muck and other
soils that do not become too dry. It is a perennial and, hence,
more or less permanent when once established. On highly fertile







Florida Cooperative Extension


soils this grass returns very heavy yields, and in addition to its
value for hay it may also be used for grazing.
SOILING CROPS
A good supply of succulent green feed that can be cut and fed
as a soiling crop is often desirable, especially for the dairy herd.
This is of special importance during the trying times of late sum-
mer and fall or at other times when pasturage becomes deficient.
Different grasses are used for this purpose. Green corn is often
used and sorghum is another of the best crops for soiling. In the
southern section of Florida, Para grass is often cut and fed green
and Carib grass may be used in the same manner. On good fer-
tile soil, pearl or cattail millet is sometimes found satisfactory
to furnish a green feed supply where a single cow or a few cows
are milked. Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, is a perennial
grass that can sometimes be used to advantage as a soiling crop.
This grass delights in a warm fertile well-drained soil, and under
favorable conditions it yields abundant crops of very palatable
green feed. There are a number of forms or varieties of this
grass which differ widely in their habits and economic value.
SILAGE CROPS
Like the soiling crop, silage may be used to supplement sum-
mer pasturage. However, silage has a much broader application,
as its chief value is for winter feeding.
The best and most satisfactory silage crop we have is corn,
where this crop can be successfully raised. Sometimes the sweet
sorghums thrive on land where corn is not satisfactory and under
these conditions it is often the more profitable since its feeding
value is only a little inferior to that of corn. Japanese cane is
another crop that can be used for silage. It is frequently found
to succeed on land where neither corn nor sorghum will produce
good crops. Pound for pound Japanese cane silage is not equal
to that made from either corn or sorghum, but where properly
handled it makes a good feed while the heavy tonnage makes for
cheap production. The value of Japanese cane lies chiefly in its
sugar content and as this constituent increases rapidly as the
crop approaches maturity, the crop should not be cut until just
before frost. Some feeders cut their cane at this time and rake it
in large piles to be fed in this form thruout the winter. Most of
the leaves are lost by this practice, but the canes remain green
and succulent until warm weather in spring.
NAPIER GRASS
Considerable publicity has been given Napier grass recently in
statements which have appeared in the press and elsewhere and






Bulletin 23, Addresses


more than a passing interest is indicated by the numerous in-
quiries received at the Station concerning it. Some of the state-
ments referred to have contained extravagant claims, inspired,
doubtlessly, by undue enthusiasm and not substantiated by proven
facts. As I believe most of you realize, yields figured from very
small plantings such as single rows or isolated plants are unreli-
able, and the man who plants Napier grass on average Florida
soil expecting to harvest anywhere from 50 to 200 tons of green
feed per acre is doomed to disappointment. We do not want to
leave the impression that we consider Napier grass a worthless
crop, but we want to warn against hopes that can not be attained.
We have seen remarkably heavy crops of this grass on highly
fertile soils and on the other hand we have seen some very light
yields on poor land. We know that animals relish the green feed
if cut while young and tender. We also know that it develops
woody fiber very quickly. As a pasture grass it has been tried
only on a very small scale and the results are not at all conclusive.
As to its value for silage we have yet but little data. Mr. H. L.
Wagener of San Diego County, California, prepared a small
quantity of silage in a barrel and reported that stock were fond
of it. Mr. A. R. Neilson of West Palm Beach, Florida, was, I
think, the first to put this grass in the silo. As I now recall, a few
feet of silage from this grass was placed between layers of sor-
ghum, and little difference between the sorghum and Napier grass
silage was observed when it was fed out. I believe Mr. Neilson
felt that as the quantity of this silage was small, the juices from
the sorghum might have affected its quality. The Experiment
Station has recently put a few tons of this grass in the silo, but
as yet we have not fed it. To summarize the situation, the crop
is yet in the experimental stage and it should be considered only
in that light. I hope that it will prove a valuable forage plant
for our state, but I feel sure it will not be able to fulfill half the
promises that have been made for it.

THE BEST HOG FOR THE FARMER TO RAISE
J. POPE BASS
Pierce, Fla.
I shall try to tell you, in my opinion, the best hog for the
farmer to raise.
It is true that some breeds do better under certain conditions,
with certain feeds and methods of feeding, than do others, but
there is NO BEST BREED. If there was any one breed that
possessed ALL the good qualities, the American farmer would






Florida Cooperative Extension


have found this out, and there would be today only that one breed.
No fads or fancies should influence the farmer in selecting or
maintaining foundation breeding-animals. The farmer breeds
hogs for the same reason that one is in any other line of business
-FOR PROFIT. This being true, it is well for the beginner-
and likewise many "old timers"-to keep constantly in mind the
fact that UTILITY is the essential in breeding.
A breed or herd will stand or fall to just the extent that its
supporters recognize this fundamental fact.
Each breed must justify its claims by its efficient performance
at the pail, the butcher's-block, or in the collar-or have the
farmer's disapproval.
It is not fancy pedigrees that pay the farmer's bills or feed
the hungry world, but PORK and LARD; the true constructive
breeder recognizes these facts. A pedigree is nothing more nor
less than an accurate record of the sires and dams, together with
their owners and the breeders responsible for the individual for
which the pedigree is issued, and to be valuable should disclose
the fact that back of the individual is a long line of carefully
selected ancestors that have proven, and are continuing to prove,
a source of efficient animals. In weighing the value of a pedigree
the most important part is that it belongs to a good individual of
the modern and approved type. Thousands of pure-bred "culls"
are recorded every year, and are always a menace to the beginner,
and a disgrace to the breed they represent. Unfortunately a large
number of these fall into the hands of the farmer and are the
cause of many becoming disgusted and a pure-bred "knocker."
These "culls" are worth no more than their price as pork, and
should not be used or sold at any price for breeders, even tho
they are sired by, and out of world champions.
"One swallow does not make a summer," neither does one fam-
ous sire or dam in a pedigree insure merit in a living animal. In
every breed there are certain lines of breeding that are deservedly
popular because they have been built up thru generations of care-
ful selection by Master Breeders who have succeeded in establish-
ing the more fundamental essentials. The farmer should keep
these facts in mind, and carry on these improvements by close
culling and proper feeding.
The Farmers' Hog should be a breed that is popular with the
feeder and the packer; that is adapted to all sections of the coun-
try; that will thrive and fatten on a large variety of feeds; that
will produce, at any age, the most pounds at the lowest cost;
that will mature early to the greatest weight consistent with







Bulletin 23, Addresses


quality; that has inherited the ability to grow frame and make
growth. Broad, high backs with good spring of ribs and full,
deep hams denote carrying ability and high-priced cuts. Good,
strong feet and heavy bones are essential for the carrying of
great weight. Long, deep and roomy bodies mean prolificy and
lots of pork. Deep chests and bright, open eyes are signs of
vigor and energy. With smoothness and mellow touch, you have
quality of carcass.

FEEDING AND CARE OF THE BROOD SOW

W. C. BENNETT
Alachua, Fla.

In my several years' experience in the care of the brood sow I
find that it is not best to adhere to any fixed rule or prescribed
method, as there is a wide difference in the temperament of the
individual sows. Some are lazy and quiet, not disposed to take
any exercise, not even to satisfy their appetite; while others are
of such a nervous and ambitious nature that they are on the go
most of the time. We all agree that for the sow to develop a litter
of large strong pigs she must necessarily have plenty of exercise,
so that we devise plans to compel her to take it. One way of
doing this is to fix her feeding place at a long distance from
her watering place. If you are not situated where you can
arrange any such plan, and you consider the sow and prospective
litter of much value, I would recommend that she be given daily
exercise by driving her around the lot.
Again, in feeding the brood sow we have such varied condi-
tions that a fixed rule will not apply. The season of the year, the
pasture or forage and the kind of forage available all go to deter-
mine the quality and amount of concentrated feed she should be
given. I have decided in my own mind that I get better results
by feeding a more narrow ration than is prescribed by many. I
would not have the ratio wider than 1 to 4. And in the absence
of good forage I would provide a slop of the concentrates con-
taining plenty of fiber, finely ground meal from the clovers, or
any legume hay combined with shorts and corn in proportion of
one part each by weight. Then she should have access to animal
tankage.
Then again it is a hard proposition to handle a large number of
sows together and get the best results from each one. If you
have them in separate lots or a few in each lot you will have a
better opportunity to observe their individual condition, and if







Florida Cooperative Extension


necessary change the ration and in other ways give them better
treatment.
The care-taker of the brood sow should be a close observer and
a good judge of the animal's condition and needs, and by experi-
ence or education know how and what to do for her. Here is
where the boy of today has a chance to begin right; our agricul-
tural schools teach the boys in a short time the solution of many
problems that took their fathers a lifetime to learn by experiment
and many times these experiments were very expensive.

FEEDING AND CARE OF PIGS FROM FARROWING TO
WEANING TIME
J. P. RAMSEY, Micanopy, Fla.
There is no time in a hog's life when care is so essential as
from farrowing to weaning time. Farrowing time may begin
several days before the arrival of the litter, as the sow does not
always farrow just at the time she is due. This is the time that
we need to give our closest attention to the business, as here our
future success is hinged.
The sow should be properly fed and handled thru her gesta-
tion period, and should be acquainted with your farrowing pen
or house as it may be. Upon arrival of the pigs they should be
dried off with a cloth. They should then be placed in a basket
and out of her way until she has finished farrowing, when they
should be placed with the sow. It should be seen that the smaller
pigs get the biggest dish at the table, and it should be seen that
they are not rooted away, for this meal has more value than any
other they get during life. After they have nursed good they
should be placed back in the basket and carried away from the
sow; in a couple of hours they should be placed with the sow
and allowed to nurse again.
I have always found it a good idea to nip the pig's teeth as
they arrive, for the pigs are not so strong and are easy to man-
age then. By nipping the teeth you eliminate a great amount of
danger as it is natural for them to fight over the teats, and they
very often bite them. This may cause the sow to jump up
quickly and mash a pig. They will sometimes fight and bite one
another until they are bloody and are liable to get an infection.
Marking should be done along with the nipping of the teeth. It
is necessary to mark the pigs, and this is the best time to do it.
Our faith is very often shaken when we visit a farm and see
several litters running around with no ear marks for identifi-
cation.






Bulletin 23, Addresses


Good authorities tell us that it is not best to feed a sow for at
least twelve hours before and twenty-four hours after farrowing,
but I have never been able to apply this rule. I begin to cut off on
a sow's feed seven to ten days before she farrows, and I feed her
right up to farrowing time, but in very small quantities and very
light feed. I have found crushed oats or bran to be an excellent
feed for this time. At farrowing time a sow is naturally in a
fevered condition and I have found that by giving only a small
amount of feed I can get something into her to keep her bowels
in a good condition. I have also found that a sow fed at the
regular feeding time even tho she is fed a very watery slop and
a small amount of this, is much easier to handle and not near so
restless as the one that is made to starve for twenty-four hours.
After a couple of days I begin to increase my feed and try to have
them on a full feed by the time they are two weeks old, yet it
may take longer.
I have found that it is a good thing to get the pigs out of the
house and in the lots just as early as possible, as the sunlight
seems to be very strengthening to them.
It is said that scours kills more pigs than all the other diseases
combined. I have found it to be a good rule to see every pig
before I fix feed for their mothers, and the best remedy I know
of is to shut down on a sow's feed just as soon as you see any
sign of scours.
It is said that it is hard to get away from nature and as nature
provided milk as a pig feed it is hard to get a substitute. If a
small pen is built with creeps and milk is kept in a shallow trough
in the pen you can learn your pigs to eat very young and once
they are eating you can begin to add other feed to your milk.
Soaked corn and only soaked corn is used as a pig feed by some.
I have found that milk, wheat, shorts, rolled oats, oil meal,
tankage and soaked corn, with a little lime phosphate and salt
added, all make excellent pig feed.
Opinions differ as to the best age to wean pigs, but I think it
best that other things be considered more than age. I am not in
favor of weaning pigs too young, for I think it well to let them
run with their mothers until they are at least ten weeks old and
in a good many cases it would be best for them to run with their
mothers until they are twelve weeks old. Some argue that it is
best to take a larger pig away first and gradually take the others
away, but I have found it is a very good way to take them all away
and keep them away for about twelve hours, then I turn them
back and let them suck, then they are separated for another






Florida Cooperative Extension


twelve hours. After the third time they are kept away twenty-
four hours and are allowed to suck once every twenty-four hours
until the sow has completely dried up.
In conclusion, I would like to say; no matter whether you are
feeding oats, shorts, tankage or corn, or any combination of feed,
make your mixture rich with attention, as this is the secret of
success.

FEEDING AND CARE OF PIGS AFTER WEANING TIME
L. H. WILLIS
Evinston, Fla.

In feeding pigs for market, the prime factor is economy,
whereas in feeding for breeding stock the first consideration
is the pig. The market pig should have a fattening feed, while
pigs for breeding should be fed to build a strong frame.
We will first consider the market pig and how to'get him there
weighing as many pounds as possible, and at the lowest cost.
This can be done by having the hog do as much of the work as
possible-that is, by hogging down the crops. It does not pay
to hog down a crop where the feed is so scarce that the hog has
to spend too much energy to get it.
It is my belief that pigs that are pushed from the time they
are weaned until they go to market are the ones that show the
most profit, even tho you have to buy some feeds while waiting
for your grazing crop to get ready. A very satisfactory system
for feeding spring pigs is to wean them on bermuda pasture,
feed all of the soaked corn they will eat twice daily, feed shorts
and tankage in separate self feeders, having a field of cowpeas
ready to turn them on as soon as possible, and continue the
same system of feeding. By this time you can have early corn
and hundred day beans ready and by continuing the tankage,
you will find that they have made good gains and saved you
considerable labor.
I regret that I cannot give you a record of cost and gains of
this system of feeding, for I am sure it would be far more satis-
factory than the results some of us are getting.
I have never been able to get milk in sufficient quantity to
feed pigs, but I have been feeding dried milk and have found it
has been of great value to me, fed in connection with corn, shorts
and tankage, cutting down the tankage about half where I used
the milk. I have not kept a record of the results of this feeding,
but can give you the results of an experiment station test of






Bulletin 23, Addresses


dried milk feeding. The pigs were divided into three lots, giving
one lot corn and tankage, one corn and milk and another corn,
milk and tankage.
Lot No. 1 fed corn and tankage in separate self feeders, con-
sumed 310 pounds of corn and 79 pounds of tankage for each
hundred pounds gained.
Lot No. 2 fed corn in self feeders, milk hand fed, consumed
252 pounds of corn and 91 pounds of dried milk, for each hundred
pounds of gain.
Lot No. 3, fed corn in the self feeder and equal amounts of
tankage and dried milk, consumed 276 pounds of corn and 32
pounds each of tankage and dried milk for each hundred pounds
gained.
Figuring the cost at present prices, lot No. 3 cost $1.71 less
for each hundred pounds of gain than did lot No. 1.
I believe that most of us lose money in trying to economize
in feeding, especially when the feed is high. The cheapest meat
that we put on a hog is the first hundred pounds. Then why not
take advantage of that fact and push the pigs as fast as we can.
The following test gives evidence that it is cheaper to push them
than to feed them a light ration; or, as we say, just carry them
along.
Four lots of pigs of the same average weight were fed as fol-
lows until each lot had gained an average of 22 pounds. As each
lot had access to the same kind of pasture and were fed equal
amounts of tankage, we get a full comparison from the amount of
grain consumed.
The pigs in lot No. 1 fed a half ration of corn, were 174 days
reaching the desired weight, and consumed 403 pounds of corn
for each hundred pounds of gain.
Those in lot No. 2 fed 3 rations of corn, were 147 days making
the desired weight and consumed 403 pounds of corn for each
hundred pounds of gain. Lot No. 3 fed a full feed of corn twice
daily, made the necessary gain in 131 days, and required 388
pounds of corn for each hundred pounds of gain. Lot No. 4 fed
corn in self feeders, made the gain in 121 days, and gained 100
pounds for each 374 pounds of corn consumed. It seems to be
the result of every test that the self feeder, free choice system,
proves to be the one that results in not only the most rapid gain,
but also the most economical. Where slop is fed to pigs, I find
that the thick slop is better, as thin slop is apt to make them pot-
gutted.
Cracked corn, self fed, shorts, self fed, dried milk and tankage






Florida Cooperative Extension


in equal parts, mixed in water, has proved one of the best feeds I
have ever used.
The pigs should have access to green pasture. I prefer ber-
muda for permanent pasture, and believe we should use either
rape, rye or oats for grazing purposes.
A few words about breeding stock: As the aim is to build
frame for a long life, it is not desirable to load these pigs with
fat, and it is frequently necessary to change the feed in order to
prevent this. Corn can usually be used to advantage to about 50
per cent of the ration; the balance to be made up from shorts,
bran, oats and tankage. In order to feed either market or breed
pigs it is absolutely necessary to have them in good healthy con-
dition, or much of your feed will be wasted. Keep them free
from worms and lice.

VELVET BEANS FOR BROOD SOWS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist
Experiment Station
A number of experiments have been conducted with velvet
beans for brood sows, and results have been published in Experi-
ment Station Press Bulletin No. 306. A copy of this bulletin
may be had upon request.

THE NEED IN FLORIDA OF BETTER JERSEYS
AUG. VAN EEPOEL
Tampa, Fla.
I do not want to run down any other breeds of dairy cattle;
they are all welcome in Florida. The more breeds the better, as
there is certainly a lack of good cows all over the State. But it
is an indisputable fact that 80 per cent of the dairy cattle in
Florida are Jerseys, or grade Jerseys.
The dairy business in our State, like in many other States,
has for the last two years passed thru a severe crisis; the business
did not pay, more so in Florida, which is young in the business,
and where there was always a demand for many improvements.
This crisis may be a blessing in disguise for some, for it has
brought forth two absolutely necessary points: First, the neces-
sity of improving a herd by careful selection of dams, and the
necessity of better Jersey sires. Second, the raising of more feed-
stuff for the animals, and the raising of better pastures.
The scrub bull or graded bull must be eliminated; there must
be a clean sweep of inferior sires. Jersey breeders, let us sup-






Florida Cooperative Extension


in equal parts, mixed in water, has proved one of the best feeds I
have ever used.
The pigs should have access to green pasture. I prefer ber-
muda for permanent pasture, and believe we should use either
rape, rye or oats for grazing purposes.
A few words about breeding stock: As the aim is to build
frame for a long life, it is not desirable to load these pigs with
fat, and it is frequently necessary to change the feed in order to
prevent this. Corn can usually be used to advantage to about 50
per cent of the ration; the balance to be made up from shorts,
bran, oats and tankage. In order to feed either market or breed
pigs it is absolutely necessary to have them in good healthy con-
dition, or much of your feed will be wasted. Keep them free
from worms and lice.

VELVET BEANS FOR BROOD SOWS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist
Experiment Station
A number of experiments have been conducted with velvet
beans for brood sows, and results have been published in Experi-
ment Station Press Bulletin No. 306. A copy of this bulletin
may be had upon request.

THE NEED IN FLORIDA OF BETTER JERSEYS
AUG. VAN EEPOEL
Tampa, Fla.
I do not want to run down any other breeds of dairy cattle;
they are all welcome in Florida. The more breeds the better, as
there is certainly a lack of good cows all over the State. But it
is an indisputable fact that 80 per cent of the dairy cattle in
Florida are Jerseys, or grade Jerseys.
The dairy business in our State, like in many other States,
has for the last two years passed thru a severe crisis; the business
did not pay, more so in Florida, which is young in the business,
and where there was always a demand for many improvements.
This crisis may be a blessing in disguise for some, for it has
brought forth two absolutely necessary points: First, the neces-
sity of improving a herd by careful selection of dams, and the
necessity of better Jersey sires. Second, the raising of more feed-
stuff for the animals, and the raising of better pastures.
The scrub bull or graded bull must be eliminated; there must
be a clean sweep of inferior sires. Jersey breeders, let us sup-







Bulletin 23, Addresses


port the Boys' Calf Clubs, and pass over to them only those calves
that we would want to keep ourselves. Those dairy clubs will
be another foundation of the real dairy industry and a knockout
blow to the scrub sire and scrub dam.
I want to make a serious appeal to the generosity of the papers
of this State that have been knocking the high price of milk.
Everybody knows the dairyman's life is 365 workdays in the year.
The average dairy farmer, the man that depends on his cows for
a living, is passing thru the crisis of his life. He is being assailed
by some members of the press who keep aflame the fires of preju-
dice and ignorance. We find ourselves the subject of criticism,
we are accused of profiteering and of getting rich, when our over-
head expenses have doubled and tripled. Consumers will pay the
increased price on canned milk, but they will fight to the last a
two cents' raise on a quart of fresh milk. One way to find out
conditions, is for some of those prejudiced newspapermen of the
State to go around among the milk producers and find out how
many are paying an income tax. With the advent of prohibition,
we were led to believe that more grain would be milled and feed-
stuff would be a good deal cheaper by October, 1919. To the con-
trary feed is still going up with no relief in sight.
We are compelled to ask more for our milk or go out of busi-
ness.
BOYS' DAIRY CALF CLUBS
G. L. HERRINGTON
State Boys' Club Agent, Gainesville, Florida
This branch of the boys' agricultural clubs was started this
year, and in determining the best methods to follow in the various
parts of the State, there are many problems to be worked out as
we go along.
You have heard it said many times and seen it proven in no
uncertain way that the small farmers' family has far too little
milk and other dairy products in the daily diet.
To correct this condition, to give the country boy a knowledge
of how to raise and care for high-grade and pure-bred dairy
cattle, and to demonstrate that the animal of the best quality
and best milking strains can be made just as profitable in the
hands of the club boy as the large dairyman, are the reasons why
we propose organizing the dairy calf clubs.
There are many boys who have means with which to purchase
well-bred cattle and have feed and other facilities for taking care
of them. There are others who will produce the feed, but need







Florida Cooperative Extension


assistance in purchasing well-bred animals. Both classes will
take an interest in the work and be successful if given the right
assistance and encouragement. We will assist everyone who will
respond with his best efforts.
It was early last spring that I went to Palm Beach and
Dade counties and held conference with the county agents rela-
tive to organizing calf clubs among the boys in those counties.
Both county agents thought that this branch of club work would
be more applicable than any other for their conditions. The
dairymen in those counties were consulted and all promised to
allow club members free use of their herd bulls, to assist in locat-
ing and bringing in heifers and to give the work any other pos-
sible support.
The bankers agreed to give the club boys financial assistance by
loaning them money for a period of 30 months, one-fourth of
which would be due and payable at the end of 12 months, one-
fourth due and payable at the end of 24 months and the balance
at the end of 30 months. The rate of interest was to be 6 per cent.
This money was to be used in buying weaned calves. If boys
buy bred heifers or mature cows it will not be necessary to have
notes for more than 18 months. Each boy is required to get his
father's endorsement.
About 40 boys in those two counties have enrolled and agreed
to follow the instructions of the county agents. All want to pur-
chase bred heifers, Jerseys and Holsteins being equally repre-
sented, with a few Guernseys. It is thought best to purchase
bred heifers this fall that will freshen in early winter in order
to help relieve the great demand for milk in those counties this
winter.
With the limited amount of feed in that section of the State,
it is reasonable to suppose it more advisable to buy cattle that
will soon be producing milk than to buy calves that must be fed
for a couple of years before returning any profit.
It is a long way to transport cattle from where they can be
bought to the lower east coast of Florida and it costs as much
to ship grades as the best purebreds, therefore it seemed advisable
to purchase the latter. In the general farming sections the high-
grade cattle in all probability would be most practical when the
present high price of cattle is considered. In other places
where the feed problem causes more concern and where much
of it must be bought, I am inclined to believe that every animal
in the dairy herd and even the family cow should be pure-bred
and of the best-producing strains.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


The matter of locating these heifers was then undertaken. A
local dairyman agreed to buy the Jerseys along with some he was
purchasing for himself. Holsteins in the South cannot be found.
In other words, they just "aint." The search, however, will be
kept up with the hope that the right kind can be found.
The county agents in Orange, Pinellas and some other South
Florida counties believe there are possibilities for some good
work with the calf clubs. I have great hopes of starting this work
in Leon, Suwannee and some other general farming counties
where dairying has already received some attention. A few club
members in Pinellas have already made a beginning by starting
with calves on their farms.
If the bull calves now slaughtered among the dairies could be
distributed out to the club boys in communities where they are
most needed, they would be helpful in breeding up our cattle.
Some dairymen offer to give these away to their neighbors, but
most of the neighbors are close in to the cities, where it is not
profitable to keep such an animal. They prefer to pay the dairy-
man for the service of his bull than to keep one.
My plan here would be for every dairyman who has a bull
calf he does not want to keep to notify his county agent at once,
who will locate a boy to take care of the calf and raise him. The
dairyman ought to have enough of the missionary spirit for the
cause to keep the calf until it is at least two weeks old and then
give it away.
The boy receiving it will pay express charges, will sign up as
a regular member of the calf club, and as soon as the animal
proves his worth the club member will be encouraged to register
it. He will be required to keep a complete record of feeds, etc.,
which is always necessary to keep up the most interest in the
work.
In adopting a plan of this kind I admit that we would put out
some animals that are not the most desirable individuals and
would be criticised by the breeder of high-class cattle. But I am
not hoping to accomplish everything in the beginning. I am first
interested in getting something better than that which we now
have, and look to it as a stepping-stone to something better still.
When these clubs are well under way, our general plan will be
to supply the club members with weaned calves or bred heifers.
Some will be purebreds and some grades. Boys who can pay cash
for them will be encouraged to do so, but those who cannot will be
assisted by their local bankers in the same way that the pig
club boys are assisted.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The dairy calf clubs must have much assistance and the club
members must have much encouragement by everyone interested
if they are expected to make a success. The boys and girls in the
pig club and poultry club can by putting out a very small sum of
money, and a reasonable amount of attention to their work, in a
few months earn several times as much as their efforts and
expenditures have amounted to.
It is not so in the calf club work. If the club member purchases
a pure-bred animal he must pay dearly for it. Weaned calves are
now quoted by many breeders at $75 to $100 and upward and
bred heifers at $200 to $250. On this account we must exercise
rigid care in selecting the boys to take up this work in the begin-
ning, for we must have no failures and must retain the aid of the
bankers who will loan money to any number of boys as soon as it
is shown that some can succeed.
The boy goes into the work with the feeling that he will supply
milk and butter for his home table and in many instances will
receive nothing for it. In Dade county it has been agreed that
all club boys will receive 15 cents a gallon for the milk that their
families use. This will pay him for his work when his father
furnishes the feed.
This work needs the co-operation and support of every school
teacher, every banker, every farmer, every stockman and espe-
cially every dairyman and the Florida Dairy Association. We
want to work in close co-operation with this association and will
be guided in our work in various communities by the past experi-
ence of its members.
I have entered the boys' dairy. calf club as a member of the
Florida Dairy Association, paid the dues, and hope that in the
future it will consider this club an active member and a strong
supporter of its association. As leader of the club boys, I shall
be glad to have at any time any suggestions that this association
might wish to offer.

BREEDING PRINCIPLES FOR THE FARMER
C. H. WILLOUGHBY
Professor of Animal Husbandry, State College of Agriculture,
Gainesville, Fla.
A better understanding among our farmers of the well known
principles underlying animal breeding should be helpful in the
progress of the livestock industry. There is a common belief
that certain secrets in breeding are known only to a few of the
elect, and that there is considerable mystery and perhaps super-







Bulletin 23, Addresses


station about the entire subject. Nothing could be further from
the truth, for modern science and the microscope have shown us
facts that give much light on many complicated problems, and
the record is open to all who will read and study it. We hope in
this article to present some of the facts and methods that have
proved their usefulness by practical experience of breeders, and
their soundness by scientific investigation.
If animals reproduced themselves exactly, there would be no
change and no improvement as generations pass. But we find
that no two animals are precisely alike in all things, no matter
how closely related, and the fact of these variations occurring,
gives opportunity for change and improvement. The ability to
recognize these slight changes, and to pursue them by proper
selection and mating so as to intensify them and produce an im-
proved strain, is one of the necessary qualifications of a success-
ful breeder. When we consider that each animal inherits possi-
bilities from a long line of its previous ancestors, with chance for
many thousand different combinations of characteristics, it is
easy to explain why related animals frequently differ, or we have
occasional appearance of points that have been dormant or over-
looked for many years. If we may use the human family for
illustration, the force of heredity in our own lives goes further
back than our immediate parents, perhaps as far back as the
first men of earth. When we ask ourselves the question, are we
the sons of our fathers, the answer might be; No, more than that,
we are the sons of all our ancestors, reaching back many genera-
tions.
With this view of heredity, the only logical basis for improve-
ment is the proper selection of animals for reproductive pur-
poses; for if we continue to mate only the best in each generation,
and cast out the inferior animals, the result will be a strain with
superior qualities along the line desired.
It might seem then an easy task to continue improvement
through selection, but often there are difficulties in securing the
right sort of foundation stock. Even successful breeders differ
greatly in their keenness and foresight in interpreting what they
see in the animals before them, and in their willingness to act
upon the possibilities offered by different animals. The more we
know of the previous history of the breed and family of the
animals, and the requirements of the markets, the better we
can make these selections. The most common mistakes made are
in trying to have a large number of animals in the breeding herd,
and in failing to invest the necessary money to secure the best







Florida Cooperative Extension


animals available for the particular purpose. In the fierce com-
petition of the present, the old sayings, "The best is none too
good," and on numbers "Not how many, but how good," should
be the beacon lights that will guide the way to permanent success.
The great advantages of improved animals over the scrub is
found in their ability to use larger amounts of feed, and convert
this into a more profitable product. There is considerable discus-
sion as to the relative importance of heredity and environment in
animals. If both are desirable, the safest plan is to provide the
maximum of both conditions. In other words, secure the best
breeding possible, and then give such animals the best feed and
care. In our opinion, good inheritance is more important than
environment, for unless the animal has within its makeup the
possibilities for securing good results, no amount of feed and care
will bring the highest success. We cannot make "a silk purse
from the sow's ear." Complaint is frequent that the purebred
animal does not make as much gain and profit under natural or
range conditions as the scrub. We should not expect them to do
so, for they have been developed and kept for many years under
improved feed conditions, and cannot do their best in any other
way. No man should invest in purebred animals unless he is
ready to give them purebred attention, or as near this as his local
conditions will permit. When handled in this way, the purebred
animal will more than repay the expense involved, and will be a
source of pleasure as well as profit. The ideal plan is to grow
plenty of nutritious feed for the animals on hand, and feed them
all or more than they can eat, rather than stint and tantalize them
with just enough feed to keep them alive. In this way, the
animals work day and night, converting the rough feeds of the
farm into high priced animal products. Naturally, the more feed
they use, and the more work they do under proper conditions, the
greater profit they make.

POULTRY RAISING IN FLORIDA
N. W. SANBORN
Poultry Specialist, Extension Division of the College of
Agriculture
There is no better state for poultry raising than Florida. It
has more advantages, and less of the disadvantages, than states
to the north. It does not have to consider deep snows, below
zero temperature, spring frosts or summer drouths. Our poultry
houses do not need electric lighting to give us a fair winter egg
production.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


The housing problem is simple. A water tight roof; full pro-
tection on the north, or side against which the wind comes in the
cool season; partial closing of the two ends of the house; with an
open front to the south; these provide full comfort to the flock
on disagreeable nights or thru the short summer showers. In
fact we need the poultry house just to protect the hens thru the
night hours and the few inclement days. The hens spend most
of their time out of the house, under the shade of the trees, or
ranging out into the grove or pasture that may be provided by
the thoughtful owner. The poultry house is hardly more than
roosting and sleeping quarters, with space for feed hoppers and
nests. A house eight by sixteen feet, eight feet high on the front,
five feet in the rear, with four roosts running the long length of
the building, will give ample room for one hundred hens of the
smaller breeds, or sixty hens of the American varieties such as
Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes or Rhode Island Reds.
The tendency, today, is toward more simple rations, as well
as easy methods. The high cost of feeds, and the absence of some
of them during the war period, has caused a change in some of the
popular rations of past years. The feeding of dry, fine ground,
feeds, in what is known as "dry mash," has made feeding more
easy and many folks think it fully as profitable as the old plan
of feeding wet or moistened feeds. A satisfactory formula for
a good dry mash, one that will produce good egg yields, can be
made of equal weights of cornmeal, wheat bran, wheat shorts and
beef or meat scrap. Remember that this is by weight, not by
measure! In the absence of green, succulent, foods, it would im-
prove the ration to add some well cured peanut or beggarweed
leaves or peanut hay in a rack so that the poultry can pick off the
leaves and work out the stems on to the floor of the house. Where
full use is being made of the various truck crops, lettuce, cabbage,
green peppers, etc., there will be little call for the dry hays.
This dry mash is put into a hopper large enough to hold the
supply for a week. The hopper is so constructed as to allow the
hens to get all the feed they wish, but so planned as to save wast-
ing of the feed.
The hens never suffer for lack of food under this plan of feed-
ing. If hungry their table is spread; if satisfied they leave the
dry feed for more attractive bugs and worms, weed seeds and
green leaves. Busy truck growers, owners of citrus groves will
never go back to wet mashes when they have thoroly tried out
dry, hopper, ways of feeding the mash.
To complete the ration of a good laying hen, or a maturing







Florida Cooperative Extension


pullet, we feed some whole or cracked grains. The tendency
today among good poultrymen is to give less whole grain than a
few years ago. Where a well balanced mash is always before the
flock the need of variety in the scratch part of the ration is not
so important. I have found good egg laying in flocks that had no
other grain than corn. In fact, I know of one farm flock that is
laying splendidly on cracked corn and beef scrap, but the flock
has unlimited range on a hundred acre farm. The scratch feed
can be improved by the addition of oats. If wheat can be had, at
not too high a cost, then a well rounded scratch feed can be made
of equal weights of corn, oats and wheat. Do not waste scratch
feed. Most poultrymen have been feeding too much grain and not
enough mash. Limit the hens to a single feeding each day of
scratch feed, limit the amount fed to a hen to less than a full
handful. Never have the hens so fed on grain that they will leave
grain on the ground over night. Feed grain toward night, feed so
long as the poultry seem eager for it, then stop. With hopper feed-
ing of the mash given, with full amounts of succulent feed daily,
the hens should consume fewer pounds of grain than of mash.
That mash is the center of the plan of good feeding that brings
the full egg basket.
Oyster shells help make a better and firmer egg shell and are
needed on most of the farms in Florida. Grit is even more im-
portant, and some soils are entirely lacking in it. Within a few
miles is likely to be some place that has the desired grit, and a
one-horse load will last your flock a long time.
Charcoal can be forgotten if your poultry food is clean, sweet,
fit to use for livestock. No harm in letting hens run out where
fires have burned over land, letting them pick as they please, but
it is not wise to load down your mash with charcoal.
The failure in growing better chicks has been more due to the
lack of animal food and to absence of a constant supply of succu-
lent feed, than anything else. We cannot raise "better" chickens
unless we start them on milk and give them access to a legume
pasture. Milk and peanut pastures for chicks? Decidedly yes!
Not milk enough for the children and yet say feed it to growing
chicks? Yes-again. We know what milk will do for the young
pig, young calf, the baby, all young life. It is the one best food
for the early days of livestock. Milk fed to little chicks will do
more to insure their proper growth, hasten maturity, bring large
egg yield, than any other food. Add to the buttermilk, skim milk
or whole milk if we can, daily access to growing peanut or beggar-
weed pasture. Let the chicks pick the leaves as they desire, filling







Bulletin 23, Addresses


in as they have the chance on the bugs and worms that come their
way. This method of feeding, with the usual mash and scratch
feed, will truly help you rear better, if not the very best, sort of
hens and roosters.
Lastly, I want to urge the need of more careful breeding along
egg lines. We are too careless in keeping hens and pullets that
do not return the cost of their grain ration. The best laying hen
in the flock should be known, and eggs from her used to produce
males to head future breeding pens. The best laying hens should
be saved to lay eggs for a second year, for both profitable egg pro-
duction and breeding, and a few of the very best layers should be
kept for a third year's breeding work. It is only as we recognize
and use our best layers that we will get that larger egg yield that
is now needed to fill the shortage in Florida.
Poultry raising is promising for the next five years, at least,
and both eggs and poultry promise to remain high in price for
nearly that length of time. The backyard flock, the farm flock,
the commercial poultry farm, will have to work hard to meet the
demand that Florida folks are making for poultry products.

SELECTION OF THE LAYING FLOCK
R. C. BLAKE
Dade City, Florida
There are several reasons why rigid selection of the laying
flock should be practiced. The most important of these is the
cutting down of the feed bill. It is not necessary to carry a flock
of 100 birds when 50 will lay as many eggs if the other 50 have
been properly culled. Remember also that in culling out those
that only lay a few eggs each year you are gradually improving
the laying ability of your flock year by year. The poor layers
usually lay most heavily during the hatching season and by con-
tinuously hatching eggs from them you are increasing the num-
ber of that kind of stock in your flock.
Culling should be a continuous process thruout the year, elimi-
nating all weak sickly individuals whenever found. But a careful
culling out of the non-producers should be made each fall during
September or early October.
Those showing low vitality should be culled first because only
vigorous individuals will be able to produce strong chicks capable
of standing the heavy strain of high egg production.
Next, the early molting birds should be culled out for their
period of molting is long and their egg record small. The feath-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ers of the late molters will be broken and worn at this time, when
their loafing sisters will have a bright smooth appearance.
Another good indication of heavy egg laying ability is the color
of the legs, beak and ear-lobes. In the yellow legged varieties
the shanks and beak will gradually lose their bright yellow pig-
ment as the period of laying continues. In the fall those which
have been laying almost a year will have shanks and beak which
will be quite pale and faded in appearance and the ear-lobe will
have lost its bright waxy surface. On the other hand the non-pro-
ducers will have good yellow shanks and beak, and the ear-lobes
will be bright and lustrous.
The vent of the laying bird is usually white or pink in color
and large, moist and expanded. The reverse is true of the poor
layer. The pelvic bones are located in the abdomen of the bird
and their position is found by placing the breast bone of the bird
in the palm of the hand, having the head towards the arm. By
running the fingers up thru the fluff and by pressing them gently
into the abdomen just below the vent, the ends of the two pelvic
bones will be touched. The points of the two bones should be
wide enough apart to allow three or four finger tips to pass easily
between them. These points will be much closer together in the
non-producer. In the bird that is laying the abdomen itself
should be soft and flexible and free from heavy deposits of fat.
Remember, that the laying qualities of a hen cannot be judged
by one factor; only by carefully observing all these points will it
be possible to cull out the non-producers.

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW IN FLORIDA
ALF. R. NEILSON
West Palm Beach, Fla.
The most important phase we have in any livestock undertak-
ing is feeding. It is thru feeding that we have either the factor
of a profit, or that of a loss, for in feeds, and the feeding of feeds,
to our livestock we find the greatest item of cost.
It is to the feeding of The dairy cow in Florida that I will con-
fine my remarks. The Florida dairymen of today are in the same
position as the dairymen have been in every other part of the
country when they first started to get into the dairy business on
a commercial basis-that is, they do not appreciate the value of
proper feeding, and where they do, they are not trained nor have
they the experience to cope with the situation. No doubt in many
cases no amount of good feeding will make their dairy venture







Bulletin 23, Addresses


profitable, because their cows are not bred nor "grown out" so
that they will respond properly to good feeding, and in most in-
stances the Texas fever tick precludes any effort to make the most
of feeding. Not long ago while visiting a Florida dairyman, I saw
a most beautiful pure-bred Jersey cow with magnificent digestive
and udder development. This animal had but just recently been
acquired by this farmer. During our conversation this dairyman
said, "She is too good for me. I can not afford to feed her."
When asked what she was fed, he said, "Oh, about a quart or two
of bran a day and sometimes we feed her two or three quarts
of peanut meal." Think of it, could not afford to feed a cow that
was giving better than three gallons of milk on that feed, and
should be giving six or seven gallons of milk on a proper feed.
Good pastures will do more than any other one thing to make
dairying what it should be in our State, and it should be the first
consideration of the Florida dairyman. In the southern part of
our State we have Para grass which will make as fine a pasturage
as one can hope for. We have the wonderful possibilities of
Bermuda grass in every part of our State, and no finer pasture
can be grown. One fault with us is, that we let a great many of
our pastures go to weeds and in a comparatively short time we
have nothing but weeds. If we would only exert ourselves half
as much as dairymen do in the North to keep up their pastures,
we would soon be a state noted for pastures.
The next crop of importance to Florida dairymen is some
leguminous crop. We have three or four legumes that are on a
par with alfalfa, and that is our beggarweed, cowpea, velvet
beans and soy beans.
We must appreciate the leguminous crops, for it is thru them
that we get one of the most important minerals for the proper
growth of our animals, and also the highest production of milk.
Dairymen in Florida have neglected this most important feed in
the dairy cow's ration, and it must be remedied.
It is often said that the silo is not necessary here in Florida
and especially in the southern part of the State. I would say that
the silo is as important on any dairy farm in Florida as it is in
the North. True enough, we can have green soiling crops, for
the most part, any time of the year, and that our cattle can go
into the pastures the whole of the year. However, for no
reason other than from an economical standpoint, we should have
the silo. We are then in a position to harvest our crops while the
greatest feeding value is in them. We are also in position to start
in and do this work, and continue it, until it is completed, and






Florida Cooperative Extension


thereby eliminate the many daily "starts" that are necessary in
soiling a crop. Starting a job on a farm costs money. Our
silos can be filled with field corn, sorghum, or Japanese cane.
Where else can we find a condition where one can have three
chances during the year to fill the silo?
Succulence of a dairy cow's ration is one of the first prerequi-
sites in successful feeding. The silo well filled is our best insur-
ance for having this most important feed always at hand. The
large stock beet that is beginning to become recognized in Florida
as it should be, is practically all water. Still, in it we have one
of the best feeds for milk production that is known. The reason
is its extreme succulence.
Often we have heard that dairying in Florida may be all right
where it is located close to some winter resort where high prices
prevail for dairy products, but should the business get down to
a butter-fat basis, it would mean financial ruin as a business
proposition. This idea has been allowed to become current due
to the fact that the facts as they really are have rarely been
brought out. True enough, we have not the wheat from which
to get our bran, but we have corn and velvet beans to take its
place. We may not have the flaxseed from which linseed meal
is derived, but we have peanuts from which to get our peanut
meal. In fact, how many dairy farms in the intensified dairy sec-
tions of this country do raise all of the grains for their concen-
trates? There are but a few of them that do, and where they do,
it will be found that dairying is but a very minor part of their
efforts. Just because the ingredients that go into making up a
concentrate are raised on the farm, is no reason for maintaining
that it costs nothing, for it has a market value, and should be
charged against the dairy the same as if it was bought in a sack.
Successful feeding, and consequently, profitable dairying resolves
itself to well bred, well "grown out" cows that are able to make
the most of the feeds that they consume, and to knowing the prin-
ciples of economical and profitable feeding. The greater part of
the cost of the care of our cows will be taken care of by the man-
ures that we are able to conserve under proper management,
because manure has a greater money value in Florida than any
State in the Union. Certainly we can compete with the Northern
dairy farmer.
The feeding of the milch cow in full milk requires careful study.
It is not possible to take any amount of the various grains on
hand, make up a mixture, and give her a bucket or two of it twice
daily with any expectation of getting the best results. Neither






Bulletin 23, Addresses


can we hope for regular production if the feeding is irregular as
to amounts and as to time of feeding. Her appetite will become
rather sluggish, as also will her digestion, if the matter of variety,
palatability, digestibility and succulence is left out in our calcu-
lations. Plenty of good fresh water is as important as her feeds.
Balancing the ration properly is all important. By balancing a
ration we mean the mixing of the grains so that the proper per-
centages of proteins, carbohydrates and fats are in the whole
of the cow's total ration. We must, of course, take into consid-
eration these constituents in the roughages that the cow con-
sumes. Good results can not be expected from a concentrate
made up of cotton seed meal and peanut meal, nor can any more
favorable results be obtained from a grain feed made up entirely
of corn. These and many more of the grains that go to make up
a proper grain ration are mixed in such proportions, that they
are what is termed balanced. With milch cows on good pastures,
and where necessary supplemented with good ensilage and legum-
inous hays, we can safely figure on a grain ration that will run
from 18 to 22 per cent of proteids, 50 per cent carbohydrates and
about 5 per cent of fat. The proteids can be as low as 12 to 15
per cent for dry cows, but should rarely be below 18 per cent for
cows in milk. Where the pasturage is abundant or the ensilage
has a good percentage of grain in it, and leguminous hay is avail-
able, one pound of concentrates to 4 to 6 pounds of milk produced
will be found in most cases to be the most economical. Where the
roughages are not abundant it will be found that one pound of
the concentrates to every 3 pounds of milk produced is more satis-
factory. This will again vary some as to the butter-fat content
of the milk. The Jersey and Guernsey cow need some more
grain for the amount of milk produced than do the Holstein be-
cause the butter-fat content of their milk is somewhat higher than
that of the Holstein. The palatability and digestibility of grains
as a rule go hand in hand, as palatable grain is nearly always very
digestible.
There are several very good ready mixed dairy feeds on the
market, and often it is possible to buy these feeds to advantage.
However, where a large herd is fed, the grains can be mixed on
the farm with excellent results. In this way we are able to incor-
porate in our mixtures nearly all of our home grown feeds. Our
Experiment Station is always ready to advise us as to the best
combinations to employ, and we should seek their advice at all
times. Thru them, and the Dairy Extension Service, when we
get it, we will be able to have at our command the most reliable






Florida Cooperative Extension


information possible as to the best practices of feeding, and I
would say here, that it would be well not to practice a too radical
departure in the feeding of our rich milch cows, until it has
been vouched for by our Experiment Station. There is a great
deal for us to learn here in Florida, and no doubt in a few years
we will be able to utilize our home grown feeds to better advan-
tage than we are today. A dairyman should post himself so that
he is able to take what feeds he has on hand, and with some pur-
chases, make up a ration that will fill the requirements of his herd.
That dairyman will be successful, while the one that depends on
the ready mixed feeds on the market, or uses feeds without any
regard to their composition, will rarely be rewarded to any
marked extent.
The proper feeding of a cow really begins while she is in the
dry period, that is, while she is dry before calving. It is during
this time that the calf is also being given a start so that it will
come into this world with vitality enough to start out and grow
into the milch cow that it should be. The practice of turning the
dry cow out into the woods or meager pasture to rustle for itself,
cannot be condemned too severely. I believe that the money and
time one spends on properly feeding and caring for a cow at this
time of her life will return greater returns than at any other
time. A liberal allowance of grain should be fed a cow during the
dry period, with all of the leguminous hay that she will eat. This
with a good pasture, will replenish her system with the phos-
phates and limes, and put her in excellent condition for her next
lactation period.
I cannot help but digress some from the subject at hand-the
opportunity is too good not to say something on the proper grow-
ing out of our calves, and especially the heifers. Most heifer
calves in Florida are given but very little attention. It is during
the growing age of a heifer that we are able to either make a
good high producing cow, or one that is not able to pay for her
keep. She should be fed grains that will promote growth, with
leguminous hays, and have an abundance of good pasturage.
Where pasturage is not available she should have other rough-
ages, for the consumption of them will aid in developing the
digestive system, so important in the profitable milch cow. A
grain with one-half corn meal, and the other half cottonseed meal
and peanut meal will make a fairly good ration, where plenty
of pasturage is at hand. Some will say that they cannot afford
to feed their young stock. If that is the case, they cannot afford
to raise their calves and heifers. It will be admitted that one







Bulletin 23, Addresses


can often get $75 to $100 for an undersized two-year-old, at the
present prices for cows, but a well grown out, large and rugged
heifer, bred so that she will come in at about two years old, will
command $200, or even more, and quite a nice profit can be made
from growing out a heifer properly for that extra $100. Her
value is even greater where she is retained in the herd. Most
assuredly we can afford to take the best care of our heifers, for
thru that care we will be developing a class of cows that will
always be getting better, instead of going back.
If some of us will go away from here with the determination to
grow out our young stock better than we have heretofore we will
feel well repaid for the time and money spent in coming here. I
think that it is the greatest need in Florida's dairy industry to-
day, and let is grow out and develop our young stuff.

MILK FOR FLORIDA HOMES
MIss MAY MORSE, Dairy Specialist
Tallahassee, Fla.
I want to give you briefly an idea of the milk situation in
Florida.
Two years ago tomorrow we started work to interest people
in greater production and consumption of dairy products. The
original idea of putting a dairy worker in the field was to improve
and conserve products. We found there was the greatest need
for a decided increase in supply.
Our plan for development soon shaped itself into a continuous
educational campaign to teach people the value of milk as a food
and the necessity for more and better dairy stock.
We have a population estimated at about one and one-fourth
million people with an added half million tourists every winter.
Statistics show that we have 145,000 dairy cows in the State
with an annual average production of 300 gallons. This amounts
to 476,712 quarts per day. When authorities like Dr. McCollum,
Dr. Lusk and Dr. Sherman' tell us that every child should have a
quart of milk a day and the adult at least a glass full, you will
see our supply is entirely inadequate.
To show you the interest which has developed within the last
few years, I will give you a few facts which are the result of the
work of different organizations and individuals to promote the
dairy industry in Florida: 600 silos have been built within the
last few years; Dairy Calf Clubs have been organized in several
counties which are tick free; about 150 boys and girls have en-







Florida Cooperative Extension


rolled. There was very little pure bred dairy stock in the State
a few years ago. The last enumeration shows that we have 2,550
pure bred dairy animals now and without doubt at this time the
number is greater, as pure bred dairy cows are being imported
frequently into the sections which are free from ticks. In the
territory covered by twenty-nine agents there is estimated to be
46 pure bred dairy bulls.
As a result of the work of the Home Demonstration Agents
this year we have the following report:
There are 29 Home Demonstration Agents supervising dairy
work; 339 women making butter; 267 making cheese; 172 cows
are known to have been bought as a direct result of our campaign
for milk for children; 15 counties report difficulty in supplying
the demand for good cows; 56 barrel churns, 57 better paddles,
9 butter workers, and 22 butter molds were bought; 40 iceless
refrigerators were made; 42 small topped milk pails, 24 dairy
thermometers, 2 separators, and 1 gas engine were purchased;
18 milk clubs were organized to increase production and utiliza-
tion of milk; 125 members are keeping records of cost of produc-
tion, amount of milk produced by each cow, the quantity used at
home, and sale of products; 1,900 children were weighed and
measured.

LIVESTOCK WORK AT THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE
P. H. ROLFS
Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
Dean of the College of Agriculture, Gainesville, Fla.
The value of the livestock interests to the State of Florida
cannot be over estimated; it is in fact the foundation of the pros-
perity of every agricultural community in the country. In this
direction we are making more progress now in a single year than
we did formerly in ten years. The many excellent papers and
reports that you have heard during this meeting would have been
considered an epoch-making program if it could have occurred 10
or 15 years ago. Of course, that would have been impossible,
since many of the scientific truths uttered in this meeting have
been accumulated within less than a decade. This is one thing
that makes the Livestock Roundup so attractive to the active
stockmen of the State. It has given us a clearing house where we
not only hear the best and latest truths in connection with our
livestock interests, but also get the practical experience of the
people who are trying to carry out this work in practice on their
farms.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


The Florida Agricultural College has long recognized livestock
growing as of fundamental importance and the subject has been
one of the principal courses of instruction in the curriculum.
The curriculum has been strengthened just as rapidly as the finan-
cial condition of the State would permit.
WORK OF THE COLLEGE
The livestock work at the Agricultural College is a great deal
more extensive than most people understand. It really requires
a comprehensive view of the whole situation to understand how
much the Agricultural College is doing for the livestock interests
of the State.
The livestock work divides itself naturally into three general
groups: The first of these groups that I will discuss is the teach-
ing group; the second is the Experiment Station group; and
third, the Extension group.
THE TEACHING DIVISION
The leader of the teaching division in animal husbandry at the
University is Prof. C. H. Willoughby, who has been with us for
a long number of years and has carried many students thru the
various classes.
There are 13 different courses in animal husbandry. This
gives you a fair idea of the large range of selection that students
of animal husbandry can make. These courses, of course, are not
closed to other students, but in some of the classes the attendance
is so large that it has to be broken into sections. It is rarely satis-
factory to have more than 25 students in a section.
Last year we added a new department in the animal husbandry
line in the matter of Veterinary Science. The courses have been
much appreciated by the students and we find a large number
classifying for this work. The department is under the able
leadership of Dr. A. L. Shealey. Veterinary Science will un-
doubtedly become one of the most popular courses at the institu-
tion when the State can afford to supply equipment commensurate
with the importance of the work.
A third department, that of Poultry Husbandry, in charge of
Dr. N. W. Sanborn, has been added this year. Unfortunately the
State has not felt able to supply sufficient funds to carry this
course thruout the entire year; we have, therefore, to give the
poultry husbandry course only during half the year. During the
other half year, Dr. Sanborn gives his entire time to the Exten-
sion Work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EXPERIMENT STATION DIVISION
The animal husbandry work in the Experiment Station has
been conducted since the establishment of the institution. A
large amount of most excellent work has been done for the State
of Florida. There are very few of my hearers but what have
profited by the results of these experiments. To give even a cur-
sory review of all that has been done in the last 19 years should
occupy more time than has been allotted to me on this program.
I will, however, take up a few of the things that may prove of
most interest to you today.
One very interesting experiment was completed in 1903, when
26 head of purebred Shorthorn cattle, introduced from Kentucky,
were taken to the Experiment Station and treated with the blood
from native cattle, under the direction of Dr. Dawson. This was
done in the attempt to immunize pure bred animals from so-called
Texas fever. As the protozoa which causes the fever is con-
stantly present in the blood of our tick infested animals, it was
only necessary to get the blood from such animals. Of the 26
animals treated, 25 head were fortified against the disease.
We have now made so much advance in the handling of Texas
fever that it is not considered a profitable undertaking to bring
cattle in and attempt to immunize them in this way, but you must
remember, gentlemen, that there was a time when this knowledge
had to be obtained. The right way to handle Texas fever is to
eradicate it by killing the tick.
A certain very interesting experiment that I wish to call to
your attention today, was that carried on by Prof. Scott in breed-
ing native cattle to a native bull in comparison with breeding an
equal number of similar cattle to a Shorthorn bull and to a Here-
ford bull.
Naturally when experiments of any kind are begun, no one
can foretell what the results will be, otherwise it would not be
an experiment. Nevertheless everyone has his opinion as to
what the results of an experiment will be. It was freely predicted
that the calves at birth from the Shorthorn and Hereford bulls
would be distinctly larger than the calves by the native bull. It
was expected that these would show very decided advantages in
growth over the natives at the end of the year, and at the end
of three years we rather expected that there would be a very
large difference. In carrying on this work the animals were
properly selected and the cows and calves properly cared for, and
weighing made at regular intervals. You can imagine, there-
fore, what our surprise was when at the end of the experiment






Bulletin 23, Addresses


we found that the full blooded native animals compared very
favorably in size and slaughtering test with the half-breeds, and
that all of the animals, both native and half-breds, at the end of
the three-year period showed an extremely fine growth. The
basic truth brought out by this experiment was that the bigness
in the native cattle had not been entirely bred out. In other
words, the grade animals were distinctly finer animals when
taken from the butchering standpoint, but the native cows were
capable of producing fair-sized progeny, if the progeny was given
a reasonably good chance.
One of the.most important pieces of work done by the Experi-
ment Station has been the utilizing of cassava, sweet potatoes,
velvet beans, cocoanut meal and peanut meal as feed for livestock.
To the average stockman it seems like quite a small matter to
determine the relative feeding values of different materials on
the market or present on the farm. However, when you take
into consideration that in the case of velvet beans there was no
other place in the world where investigations were being made,
you will realize that this had to be carried on single handed, by
the Florida Experiment Station. Not even could one find the
chemical analysis of the velvet bean as to its ash content, much
less would one be able to find the analysis of the velvet bean that
would give any idea as to its feeding value. Even after these
chemical analyses had been made it was still necessary to find
out the amount of the velvet bean material that was actually
digested by the animals. This digestive experiment was carried
on in a very thoro manner and has been very generally accepted
as accurate by the stockmen of the country. The work was done
in 1901. Later tests had to be made to work out the relative
values between the use of velvet beans and other standard feeds
such as bran and cottonseed meal. It is not unusual for long
continued experiments of this kind to be summarized in a single
press bulletin. Such a press bulletin, however, is very different
from the ordinary prepared article, where you can get your data
from previously printed information.
All of this work of the Experiment Station has had to be car-
ried on in the face of very limited means. One of the North-
western States in preparing a prize-winning animal, spent more
money in the preparation of this one animal than we spent in an
entire year on our whole herd.
EXTENSION DIVISION
The livestock extension project which we are carrying on this
year, is headed by Prof. Scott, ably assisted by W. H. Black and







Florida Cooperative Extension


J. B. Thompson. This livestock project has for its object the
carrying of information obtained by the Experiment Station, and
the information contained in bulletins and other publications
from the United States Department of Agriculture, to all parts
cf the State.
In addition to the livestock extension project there is a special
project on poultry husbandry which is carried out under the
leadership of Dr. Sanborn from the University of Florida, also
Home Demonstration Work in Poultry carried out in co-opera-
tion with the Home Demonstration Project. This is headed by
Miss Floyd.
Dr. Logan is carrying out another special project in connec-
tion with educational work in hog cholera. This has been of the
greatest service in the State in connection with the hog industry.
The object of this project is to teach the County Agents, as well
as the farmers of the State, how to administer the serum and
virus for the prevention and spread of hog cholera.
The work done with the pig clubs in the State should also be
mentioned here. The leader of this work is G. L. Herrington.
Finally, it should be remembered that all of the County Agents,
as well as the Home Demonstration Agents, co-operate with all of
these agencies in bringing this livestock work before the people
of the State.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the Agricultural Col-
lege is instrumental in carrying on a very large and comprehen-
sive program in livestock work.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY
IN FLORIDA
WM. H. BLACK
Agent in Animal Husbandry, Gainesville, Fla.
Just as the boll weevil in the '90s drove many cotton men in
Louisiana and Mississippi from the cotton industry into cattle
raising, likewise did the great freeze of '95 in Florida drive many
citrus men into the cattle business. This was probably more
noticeable in Marion county, and accounts for the great develop-
ment of the cattle industry in that section, which today stands
second to no other locality in Florida.
The man to get in the first blooded bull, so far as I am able to
ascertain, was Mr. W. J. Chambers, then of McIntosh. He bought
a Shorthorn bull from Texas in 1898, and used him on the com-
mon Florida cow.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


In 1902, Mr. Gaitskill bought Mr. Chambers' land, including
the livestock, among which were a good number of mixed cattle.
In looking over the livestock exhibit at the State Fair at Lake
City in November, 1902, Mr. Gaitskill, Mr. Camp and Mr. Cham-
bliss decided to get in some good cattle. It was agreed that Mr.
Gaitskill go to Kentucky and buy a carload of heifers and yearling
bulls.
These bulls and a number of heifers of Shorthorn breeding,
were brought back and divided among the above men, Mr. Gaits-
kill retaining the larger number. This shipment really marked
the first important introduction of blooded cattle into Florida.
The above cattle were inoculated at Lake City and held there until
they were considered immune. In spite of the. inoculation, sev-
eral of them died after coming to Marion county.
Mr. Z. C. Chambliss of Ocala became very much interested in
good cattle and went to Texas early in 1903 and shipped to Ocala
three carloads of tick-immune cattle, mostly Shorthorns. Mr.
Chambliss made more trips to Texas, bringing to Florida in all
about ten carloads, the greater portion bei:g purebred animals.
Three public sales were held, the first one on September 9,
1903, marking the first public sale of blooded cattle held in Flor-
ida. The sale consisted of 100 head, 28 registered bulls and heifers
averaging $137; 57 grades, $55, and 15 calves, $35.
The next sale was held April 12, 1904, and consisted of 40
pure breds selling at an average of $190, and 22 grades at $61.
Another sale was held Nov. 4, 1904, and consisted of 29 pure-
breds averaging $165, and 24 grades, $54.
It is difficult to express the extent of good these sales did, but
the improvement of the cattle shown in the next few years in
sections where these cattle were placed, was certainly very notice-
able. These cattle were distributed from the Apalachicola River
in western Florida to Charlotte Harbor in southern Florida.
During December of this same year, 1904, Mr. Callison of
Gainesville went to the St. Louis Exposition and brought back
from there a carload of very fine registered Herefords, undoubt-
edly one of the best carloads of cattle that has ever come into
Florida. Mr. Callison received more shipments of good Here-
fords from Texas the succeeding year.
The years 1904 and 1905 marked the beginning of Angus his-
tory in Florida. Dr. E. P. Guerrant, then of McIntosh, shipped
in from Kentucky about 15 head of registered Angus. These
cattle were disposed of in 1906, Mr. S. T. Sistrunk buying the
greater part of the herd.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The foundation stock of the Angus herds of L. K. Edwards,
Anthony Farms and E. W. Rusk was purchased from Mr. Sis-
trunk's herd, and traces directly to the shipment of cattle by Mr.
Guerrant in 1904 and 1905.
During 1910 the Galloway was introduced into Florida by Mr.
E. E. Goodno of Labelle, who had previously made a success of
the Galloway in Kansas. He crossed the Galloway on scrub cows
and after about four years of breeding, sold out his herd, which
included 132 Galloway heifers of 1/2 and 3/4 breeding; all black
and all muleys. But in three years' time not a trace of this Gallo-
way blood remained in the country. It was the practice in that
section of the country as well as in many others, to sell the fattest
regardless of breeding, and the Galloways being in good shape
went first.
Mr. Goodno again in 1916 embarked into the cattle business,
buying in Indiana 13 head of purebred Galloway bulls and heifers.
He used and is still using them on Red Devon cows purchased
the same year along the Kissimmee River.
In 1909, according to government statistics, Florida for the
first time surpassed all the Gulf States, Texas excepted, in num-
ber of beef cattle and in value per head. The increased valuation
was certainly due in large part to these early introductions of
Angus, Shorthorn and Herefords, which were redistributed ex-
tensively thruout the State. Naturally the improvement of beef
cattle during the last ten years or since 1909 has been more
marked.
Since 1909 the beef cattle of Florida have increased approxi-
mately 35 per cent in numbers, and 148 per cent in average value
per head. Florida today has more cattle in proportion to her
land area than the other States mentioned. She has one beef
animal for every 37 acres; Alabama, one for each 38 acres; Mis-
sissippi, one for each 41 acres; Louisiana, one for each 42 acres,
and Georgia, one for each 49 acres of land.
During each of the last ten years, good cattle have been
shipped into Florida, but it may be safely said that more good
breeding cattle have been shipped into Florida the last three
years than all the years heretofore.
During 1916, my records show that there were 142 head of
blooded cattle brought into Florida; 1,413 in 1917, 1,588 in 1918,
and 422 so far this year, making a total of 3,165 head. This does
not include 400 head of steers.
Of this number, 67 per cent were Herefords, 24 per cent Angus
and 9 per cent Shorthorns. These cattle have been distributed in







Bulletin 23, Addresses


25 counties, extending from Escambia to Dade county. What a
vast improvement in the cattle industry these cattle should make
in the next five years.
The future development of the beef cattle industry should be
toward improving the quality of the cattle, rather than making
any material increase in number.
At the present time and under the present conditions, it seems
as tho there are too many cattle of the predominating kind. We
had better have fewer and better cattle. Not one beef carcass
from Florida was taken by the Government during the war, nor
was it accepted for any other first class trade. The trouble was
that the cattle had neither the size, quality nor condition to meet
the necessary requirements for the popular trade.
A greater development along the right line can come only one
way, and that is by more men following the methods of the men
heretofore mentioned; that is by getting in more blooded cattle
and handling them properly.
The successful livestock industry depends upon three factors.
First, the man himself. Second, the breeding of the right kind
of animals, and third, the proper feed, care and management of
the herd.
Now, under breeding, one of two courses must be pursued.
Either the purebred business, selling the surplus for breeders, or
the grade business, producing beef for market.
The average man is more apt to be successful in producing
beef for market, by using good bulls, on grade cows or on selected
common cows of good conformation, constitution, quality and
color.
Grading should be practiced in preference to cross-breeding.
Just what is the difference? By grading up, we mean that sys-
tem of breeding when the sire belongs to some one of our pure
bred breeds, and the dams are of common or mixed breeding.
This is the most economical method possible of improving our
domestic animals. It is the method each and every man can
practice.
By cross breeding, we mean the pairing of animals of two dis-
tinct breeds. It is just the opposite of in-and-in breeding. I
know of a certain man in Florida after using beef bulls for sev-
eral years and getting a nice herd of grade beef cattle, introduced
a Holstein bull into his herd to increase the size. Possibly the
size of the offspring was increased, but the quality was decreased
much more in proportion. A steer with Holstein markings is a
drag on the market. Cross breeding though has been resorted to






Florida Cooperative Extension


in the past with sheep and with certain breed of cattle, in produc-
ing dual purpose animals, with good results.
It makes little difference whether the pure bred industry or
the grade industry is pursued, so far as the sire is concerned. In
either case the sire should be an excellent individual. Insist on a
registered bull. If he is registered, you may know he is pure bred
and this being the case, he will transmit his beef characteristics
to his offspring with a greater degree of certainty than will a
grade.
The bull for the grade herd should be excellent, particularly in
conformation and quality, the characters that are especially of
practical value, from a packer's view. Fancy points desired in
the show ring are of no marketable value.
Cows for use in purebred herds, should be the get of bulls of
pronounced and established merit. This being the case, they will
possess the necessary characteristics as to color, form, constitu-
tion and quality.
As important as it is in getting the right kind of breeding ani-
mals to begin with, it is just as important to handle them prop-
erly.
It is not necessary to dwell further with the purebred herd at
this time, because generally speaking we are beginners in the
development of the cattle industry and our attention should be
largely with the grade herd. With this in view, our object should
be to produce animals of early maturity for the market.
At the outset, have sufficient bulls to insure all females being
bred, so as to get a maximum calf crop. Conserve to the utmost
the supply of good breeding females.
Try and have the calves come in the early spring so that when
the grass comes on they will be old enough to do some grazing.
Be sure that you have the grass to graze. The growing of suit-
able grasses is perhaps the greatest problem the livestock man
is up against, with the possible exception of the cattle tick.

PRUSSIC ACID IN SORGHUM
S. E. COLLISION, Chemist
Experiment Station
A number of varieties of sorghum have been analyzed to de-
termine the amount of prussic acid contained in same. This
information has been published in Experiment Station Bulletin
No. 155, and may be had upon request.






Bulletin 23, Addresses


EXPERIENCE IN FEEDING SILAGE
M. CREWS
Manager Komoko Farms, Newberry, Fla.
My experience in feeding silage is not very extensive, altho
we have been feeding silage for quite a while. Have fed it in
connection with velvet beans, both to stock cattle and beef cattle.
However, we carried on no feeding experiments as the war came
on, and labor was scarce. However, the feeding of silage to our
beef and stock cattle has been very satisfactory. We have car-
ried this silage to the bean field-we have our feed troughs out
there and feed once or twice a day, depending upon the circum-
stances. We usually start in with small quantities of the silage
until we get them on to it, and then as the beans decrease, we
increase the amount of silage. We have fed the silage with very
satisfactory results.
We use the sorghum silage altogether. My friend, Prof. Wil-
loughby, is a great advocate for corn silage. I like the sorghum
silage the best. I think we can produce as many tons per acre as
we can the corn silage, and get about as much grain.
I noticed that on one occasion in feeding the corn silage (we
were feeding this, however, to quite a bunch of beef steers)
that there was quite a lot of the cobs and stalks they did not
clean up, but in feeding the sorghum silage they ate that readily
and cleaned it all up.
During the feeding of these steers I will say (I do not know
whether Prof. Willoughby would like to hear that or not, but it
is the cause, I think) that when we changed from sorghum to
corn silage it seemed for some cause the steers did not gain any
more, but came to a standstill. When the corn silage gave out
and we went back to the sorghum silage, it seemed that our
steers picked up and went right on.
1 do not pretend to say now that the sorghum is better than
the corn silage along that line. However, I like it better than the
corn silage, and as I have said, we fed it with very good results.
We have been very much satisfied with the results we have
gotten from feeding this silage, both to beef and dairy cattle.







Florida Cooperative Extension


UTILIZATION OF TRACTORS

FRAZIER ROGERS
Asst. Professor of Farm Machinery, College of Agriculture,
Gainesville, Fla.
Theoretically the advantages of mechanical power for the
farm are many, but to the prospective purchaser of a tractor the
important thing is to know what the men who have used tractors
have found to be their principal advantage and disadvantage.
Several hundred Illinois and New York farmers were asked the
question: "What do you find to be the principal advantage of a
tractor for farm work?" and "What are the principal disadvant-
ages?" The ability of a tractor to do heavy work and do it
quickly, thus covering the desired acreage in the proper season,
is considered the principal advantage. The saving of man labor,
and the doing away with hired-help, enabling a man to farm a
larger acreage and thus increasing the crops he can raise, is next
in importance. Under disadvantages, the difficulty of efficient
operation is the principal point.
The amount of work a tractor will do before it must be replaced
is an important factor in determining its value for farm work.
There are several factors which have considerable influence upon
the amount of service rendered by a machine, by far the most im-
portant being the care it receives at the hands of the operator.
The quality of outfit, kind of work for which it is used, and con-
ditions under which it is operated will all materially affect its
life. The conditions under which nearly all tractors are used are
extremely severe on any kind of a machine. They travel over
rough uneven ground receiving severe shocks, both from obstruc-
tions in the path and loads being pulled. A still more injurious
condition, especially in our State is their exposure to almost con-
stant showers of dirt and sand, which attack all gears and bear-
ings exposed, not only those of the exterior of the machine, but
also those inside of the engine itself, unless an efficient filter is
provided for the air intake to the carburetor. This excessive
wear due to dust was a very serious matter in the earlier models
of tractors, but many manufacturers have made great progress
during the last year or two in protecting their machines in this
respect.
Since none of our latest model tractors have worn out it is
impossible to determine definitely their probable life. However,
we have the estimates of several hundred farmers of the east
and central west who have used tractors one or more years.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


According to these figures a prospective purchaser could expeAt
from 7 to 8 years of service from his machine.
Probably the one point in which a prospective purchaser will
be more interested than any other will be the cost of performing
farm operation with the tractor. This cost is made up of five
main factors: Operating expenses (including fuel, oil and grease),
repairs, depreciation, cost of man labor, and interest on invest-
ment. According to tests made in several states, the aver-
age amount of fuel consumed per acre in plowing was from
21/2 to 3 gallons. The average amount of lubricating oil used
per acre was about 1 quart. The kind of fuel used does not
seem to make any decided difference in the quantity of lubrication
oil required per acre. The quantity of grease or hard oil did not
amount to over 3 cents per acre in any case. Then should we
figure gasoline at 25 cents and kerosene at 18 cents the cost of
fuel per acre would be for the gasoline tractor 73 cents and the
kerosene tractor 52 cents. The cost of lubricating oil would be
15 cents (60 cents per gallon) and hard oil 3 cents, making a
total of 91 cents per acre for the gasoline and 76 cents per acre
for the kerosene tractor, for fuel per acre.
The extent of repairs required depends upon: The proficiency
of the operator and the care he gives the outfit; condition under
which the outfit is used; load required to pull, and quality of
machine itself. The average repair bills for tractor owners in
New York and Illinois for the first three years was about 4 per
cent of the initial cost of their machines. However, this percent-
age would undoubtedly increase year after year.
With the average life of a tractor at 71/ years, the average
annual depreciation on the 2, 3 and 4 plow outfits would be
$106.67, $146.67 and $186.67, respectively. The daily charge,
therefore, based on 45 working days per year would be $2.37,
$3.26 and $4.15, respectively. The cost per acre based on the
average acreage plowed by the different size outfits will be 36,
37 and 42 cents, respectively. From these figures it is seen that
the depreciation charge is one of the largest items which go to
make up the total cost of performing work with a tractor.
The next item or man labor varies quite a bit, but the average
cost of man labor per acre plowed with the 2, 3 and 4 plow out-
fits was 46, 34 and 30 cents, respectively, placing labor at $3
per day.
The interest charge on a tractor is a fixed annual charge and
the interest cost per unit of work obviously will vary with the
number of days the tractor is used, decreasing as the number of







Florida Cooperative Extension


days used increase. Assuming the average number of days used
annually to be 45, the average interest charge per day for the
2, 3 and 4 plow outfits at 6 per cent will be 53, 73 and 93 cents,
respectively, based upon average acreage would be 8, 8 and 9
cents, respectively.
The approximate cost for plowing per acre based upon the
above figures would be $8, $11 and $14 for the 2, 3 and 4 plow
outfits, respectively.
The advantage of a tractor, like that of most other improved
farm machines, lies not so much in the reduction of the cost of
performing a unit of work as in the fact that it permits one man
to do considerably more work within a given time. Judging from
the experience of tractor users it is not safe to expect any mate-
rial reduction in the cost of farm operations per acre thru the
use of a farm tractor, but it is safe to expect to be able to in-
crease the acreage and thereby increase the income.
The quality of work done by a tractor and the reliability of the
tractor are almost wholly dependent upon the operator. How-
ever, the size and shape of the fields do affect the quality of work.
If the fields are small and irregular and require considerable
turning the quality of work will be reduced, while in reasonably
large fields the work of a tractor is equal to that of horses. The
work of the tractor is to pull the plows and if the plows are.
out of adjustment and are not doing good work that is no fault
of the tractor, but of the plow.
Since so much depends upon the tractor operator it is neces-
sary that he understand his job. It is too costly to experiment
on your own machine when the necessary training can be gotten
so easily. To operate a tractor efficiently means more than
simply starting and stopping the motor. A successful operator
must be able to detect trouble and overcome it before any great
damage is done. To be a good operator does not mean always
tinkering with the machine. If the machine operates smoothly
and powerfully it should not be changed or tampered with.
"Tinkeritis" is a sad malady for a tractor operator.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRACTOR INDUSTRY DUR-
ING THE PAST FEW YEARS
L. A. NIVEN
Birmingham, Ala.
The farm tractor is here to stay and will become, or is even
now, the one outstanding piece of farm machinery or implement.

























The paragraph on cost per acre for plowing with the tractor
should read as follows: The approximate costs for plowing per
acre, based upon the above figures, are: for the gasoline tractor,
2-plow outfit, $1.92; 3-plow, $1.81; 4-plow, $1.84. For the kero-
sene 2-plow outfit, $1.71; 3-plow, $1.60; 4-plow, $1.63.







Bulletin 23, Addresses


Too many folks, when deciding whether or not to buy a tractor,
try to figure out what it will cost to break an acre of land, or
what it will cost to cultivate an acre of ground with a tractor as
compared to the cost of breaking the ground with horses, or culti-
vating with horses. I maintain that this is not the right way in
which to figure this proposition. The old saying, that time is
money, enters into this proposition to a very great extent. The
present high cost of labor, scarcity of labor, and the high price
of horses and mules, all combine to make the tractor of even more
importance than it would have been a few years ago when these
were not so high priced. The actual cost per acre of breaking or
cultivating with a tractor should not be the whole basis of deter-
mining whether or not a tractor can be profitably used, because
when one depends solely on horse power for breaking the ground
or cultivating the crop, the amount that one man can handle is
very much more limited than when the use of a tractor is made.
It is my contention that thousands of farmers in the South
could afford to buy a tractor if no further use could be made of it
than in helping to break the ground in the winter or spring, and
breaking the stubble land in the summer. It is a well known fact
that oats, wheat and rye are harvested here in the South during
one of the busiest seasons of the year, and it is also well known
that the cowpeas or corn crop, or other crop that follows the small
grain, do not usually produce anything like maximum results
because they are not properly put in. They must be put in when
the teams and the men are busy with the cultivated crops, and the
result is that these crops are thrown in in a haphazard manner
and the yield very greatly reduced thereby.
Therefore, the farm that has a tractor on it can make use of
this piece of machinery to break this stubble land and let the
most of the labor be free to work with the cultivated crops.
Then, too, it is impossible under average conditions for horse-
power to do as efficient work as the farm tractor. It is impossible
to plow as deep with the horses or mules as with the tractor, and
who is it that will dispute the fact that by plowing two or four
inches deeper sometimes means the difference of profit or loss
on a crop?
But the things mentioned above are not by any means all of the
pieces of work that the farm tractor is capable of doing. Too
many overlook the possibilities of the farm tractor for belt power
work. It is also true that many have overlooked the fact that a
great many of the farm tractors now made are just as capable of
doing good cultivation as they are of breaking ground. Many of







Florida Cooperative Extension


our southern farms have considerable belt power work, especially
the running of the silage cutter, grist mill, water pump, wood
sawing machine, stump puller, hay press, stone pulverizer, etc.
It is a fact that most of the farm tractors are so made and so
equipped that they are capable of doing highly satisfactory belt
power work. So in considering the tractor, one should by all
means take this phase of the proposition into consideration.
Another phase of this tractor proposition that should be given
very serious consideration is the matter of the proper handling
and operating of the machine after it is bought. There is prob-
ably more loss and dissatisfaction along this line thru ignorance
of the machine and how to operate it than from any other source.
Nine times out of ten the fault is with the person trying to
operate the tractor rather than with the machine itself. This is
one reason why our agricultural colleges and extension forces are
giving such serious consideration to the matter of instruction in
farm engineering. More and more of our southern institutions
are putting in a farm engineering department and the institution
that would make'itself more solid with the farmers must certainly
become immensely busy along this line.
The farm tractor, when properly handled and operated even
under present conditions is an economical piece of machinery.
Every live, wide-awake, progressive farmer would do well to most
carefully investigate and put his money into a tractor as soon as
he determines that his farm is of such nature that he can profit-
ably make use of one of these machines.




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