• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Special uses to which annual flowering...
 Introduction
 Securing seeds
 Planting the seeds
 Annuals from cuttings
 Culture
 Annual flowers
 Planting guide














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 73
Title: Annual flowering plants for Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025530/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual flowering plants for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1933>
 Subjects
Subject: Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Annuals (Plants) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: "March, 1933."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025530
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570730
oclc - 44791855
notis - AMT7043

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Special uses to which annual flowering plants are adapted
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Securing seeds
        Page 6
    Planting the seeds
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Annuals from cuttings
        Page 9
    Culture
        Page 9
    Annual flowers
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Planting guide
        Page 36
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







March, 1933


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director

ANNUAL FLOWERING PLANTS

FOR FLORIDA
By JOHN V. WATKINS,
Assistant Horticulturist, Florida College of Agriculture.


Fig. 1.-Pansies probably are the best annuals for winter edgings and borders.


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


$>t':J

Bulletin 73









BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys: Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry1
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

lIn cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2Part-time.









SPECIAL USES TO WHICH ANNUAL FLOWERING PLANTS
ARE ADAPTED

ANNUALS FOR CUTTING
Aster, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
blue lace flower, butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy,
calliopsis, candytuft, carnation, chrysanthemum (annual), clarkia,
cornflower, cosmos (both species), florists' paint brush, floss
flower, gilia, godetia, globe amaranth, hunnemania, larkspur, lep-
tosyne, lupine, marigold, mignonette, mourning bride, nasturtium,
orange African daisy, painted tongue, pansy, phlox, pinks, poppies,
strawflower, scarlet flax, snapdragon, stock, statice, sunflower,
sweet pea, zinnia.

ANNUALS THAT READILY RE-SEED THEMSELVES
Alyssum, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy, California
poppy, calliopsis, Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos (sulphureus),
floss flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroccan toad
flax, nicotiana, petunia, phlox, poppies, sunflower, torenia, zinnia.

ANNUALS FOR WINDOW BOXES OR PORCHES
Alyssum, balsam, carnation (Marguerite), double English daisy,
floss flower, lobelia, mignonette, moss rose, nasturtium, pansy,
petunia (dwarf), phlox, torenia, verbena.

ANNUALS FOR THE ROCK GARDEN
Alyssum, butterfly flower, California poppy, candytuft, double
English daisy, florists' paint brush, floss flower (dwarf), lobelia,
mignonette, Moroccan toad flax, moss rose, orange African daisy,
pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, pinks, snapdragon (dwarf), stock,
torenia, verbena.
ANNUAL VINES
Cypress vine, gourd, morning glory, nasturtium (climbers),
sweet pea.
ANNUALS FOR EDGINGS
Alyssum, calendula, double English daisy, floss flower (dwarf),
lobelia, marigold (dwarf), Moroccan toad flax, moss rose, pansy,
phlox, snapdragon (dwarf), torenia, zinnia (Liliputs).









PLANT THESE ANNUALS IN THE FALL FOR WINTER AND
SPRING BLOOM
Alyssum, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy, calliopsis, candytuft,
carnation, Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia, cornflower, double Eng-
lish daisy, florists' paint brush, gilia, godetia, hunnemania, lark-
spur, leptosyne, lobelia, lupine, mignonette, Moroccan toad flax,
mourning bride, nicotiana, orange African daisy, painted tongue,
pansy, petunia, phlox, pinks, poppies, scarlet flax, snapdragon,
stock, statice, sweet peas.

PLANT THESE ANNUALS IN THE EARLY SPRING FOR SUMMER
BLOOM
Aster, balsam, blue lace flower, celosia, chrysanthemum (an-
nual), cosmos (both species), cypress vine, floss flower, globe
amaranth, gourd, marigold, morning glory, moss rose, nasturtium,
straw flower, sunflower, torenia, verbena, zinnia.


PLANTING GUIDE WILL BE FOUND IN THE
BACK OF THIS BULLETIN










ANNUAL FLOWERING PLANTS

FOR FLORIDA
By JOHN V. WATKINS

The annual flowering plants-those which grow from seeds,
produce their flowers, their seeds and then die in one growing
season-comprise one of the most showy, dependable groups of
plants that are grown. Annuals are especially valuable in Flor-
ida, as many of them are in bloom during the winter months,
contributing splendidly toward a colorful garden and producing
endless blossoms for home decoration.
Other more tender annual species are depended upon to give us
flowers during the trying months of June, July, August, and Sep-
tember, persistently blooming through the heat and heavy rains
that usually come during summer.
One may literally have a colorful garden and cut flowers every
month in the year, by judiciously selecting varieties, and planting
seeds at intervals so as to give a succession of plants for bed-
ding out.
Annual plants may be roughly divided into two groups as to
seasonable adaptation. First, and possibly the most important,
are those hardy frost resisting, cool weather plants, the seeds of
which are sown in autumn, that they may take advantage of the
temperate climate of the months of November to May.
Second are those tender heat-tolerant, pest-resistant plants that
defy the high temperatures, heavy rains and numberless garden
pests of the summer. Seeds of this second tender group are best
planted in the months of February through August in those por-
tions of the state that experience freezing temperatures, but in
frost-free areas they are planted at any time of the year.
The uses of annuals are endless. The variety of colors, the dif-
ferences in height and habit of growth, the ways in which they
lend themselves to effective flower arrangements, account in part
for the tremendous popularity of this group of blooming plants.
Indeed it is a drab garden that does not display annuals as edgings,
as bold but incidental color masses in the prominent shrubbery
bays or in the bright striking borders that are so essential in our
modern gardens.
Although the permanent woody shrubs are always to be pre-
ferred for foundation plantings about buildings, and to enclose






Florida Cooperative Extension


the garden, sometimes a temporary planting is desirable, and
then the annuals, especially the tall growing sorts, will serve the
purpose admirably.
As window box materials and porch plants, annuals are indis-
pensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a sunny
piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy, pest-resis-
tant annuals whose seeds may be sown, broadcast and forgotten.
Many of our flowers such as annual phlox, alyssum, annual blanket
flower, coreopsis, and petunia can be used in this manner; they
will volunteer each year, supplying endless numbers of colorful
blossoms with the least possible care.

SECURING SEEDS
It is an established fact among successful growers that the best
seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of course
there is no one best source or seed house, but an old reliable con-
cern that has a big turn-over, that buys large quantities of seeds
from established producers, can be depended upon to distribute
fresh seeds of excellent quality. In many cases, experienced
flower growers buy seeds direct from the specialist who produces
them and who has spent years of careful work and study develop-
ing good strains. Fresh seeds from true-to-name, robust parents
contribute in a large way toward a successful garden of annuals.
One is attracted by the glowing accounts describing the novel-
ties offered each year by the seedsmen, and it is usually worth
while to try a packet or so of any new plant or variety that seems
especially attractive. It should be borne in mind that perhaps
these newer sorts have never been grown in your section and may
not be adapted to your local conditions, but at the same time, our
gardens would certainly be commonplace if no one ever tried a
novelty. One should, of course, go in for novelties in a small way,
depending upon the old and tried varieties for the principal com-
ponents of the garden.

PLANTING THE SEEDS
The one item of greatest difficulty with most gardeners is get-
ting a good stand of seedlings and protecting them from the dread
disease known as "damping off." During August, September
and October, when most annual seeds are planted, the warm
weather is very favorable to the growth of damping-off organisms,
and the loss of seedlings is tremendous, if proper precautions are
not observed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


the garden, sometimes a temporary planting is desirable, and
then the annuals, especially the tall growing sorts, will serve the
purpose admirably.
As window box materials and porch plants, annuals are indis-
pensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a sunny
piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy, pest-resis-
tant annuals whose seeds may be sown, broadcast and forgotten.
Many of our flowers such as annual phlox, alyssum, annual blanket
flower, coreopsis, and petunia can be used in this manner; they
will volunteer each year, supplying endless numbers of colorful
blossoms with the least possible care.

SECURING SEEDS
It is an established fact among successful growers that the best
seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of course
there is no one best source or seed house, but an old reliable con-
cern that has a big turn-over, that buys large quantities of seeds
from established producers, can be depended upon to distribute
fresh seeds of excellent quality. In many cases, experienced
flower growers buy seeds direct from the specialist who produces
them and who has spent years of careful work and study develop-
ing good strains. Fresh seeds from true-to-name, robust parents
contribute in a large way toward a successful garden of annuals.
One is attracted by the glowing accounts describing the novel-
ties offered each year by the seedsmen, and it is usually worth
while to try a packet or so of any new plant or variety that seems
especially attractive. It should be borne in mind that perhaps
these newer sorts have never been grown in your section and may
not be adapted to your local conditions, but at the same time, our
gardens would certainly be commonplace if no one ever tried a
novelty. One should, of course, go in for novelties in a small way,
depending upon the old and tried varieties for the principal com-
ponents of the garden.

PLANTING THE SEEDS
The one item of greatest difficulty with most gardeners is get-
ting a good stand of seedlings and protecting them from the dread
disease known as "damping off." During August, September
and October, when most annual seeds are planted, the warm
weather is very favorable to the growth of damping-off organisms,
and the loss of seedlings is tremendous, if proper precautions are
not observed.







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


There are, perhaps, as many different methods of planting
seeds as there are gardeners. The method described herewith
has been used successfully at the horticultural grounds of the
College of Agriculture for the past five years, and though it is
not necessarily the best way to plant seeds, it has proven very
satisfactory.
First of all, the autumn sown annuals may be divided arbitrarily
into two classes-those which transplant readily and those which
do not. Seeds of the former are planted in flats, while those of
the latter are sown in the open ground where the plants are to
stand.
A flat is a shallow box of any convenient size that has plenty
of drainage holes or cracks in the bottom to allow water to pass
freely out of the soil. Thorough drainage is exceedingly impor-
tant in soils where tender seedlings are grown, as a sour, water-
logged soil is fatal to most young garden plants. In the bottom
of the flat should be placed a layer of pine straw, dead grass
clippings or other coarse material so that the soil will not wash
through the drainage holes.
The soil used in flats may be any good grade of garden soil
which contains a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such
as cow manure, oak leaves, peat moss, etc. The older the soil is,
the better. Soil that is free from root-knot nematodes is de-
sirable.
Firm the soil to within a half inch of the top of the flat with
a brick or a block of wood. Flood this gently packed soil with a
solution of one of the organic mercury compounds that are indi-
cated for the control of damping off. After this solution has
drained off, sift the seeds, broadcast, on the wet soil. Cover
lightly, by sifting sand or sandy soil through a screen, over the
seeds. Covering seeds too deeply is a common error. Generally
speaking, if the seeds be just barely hidden, good. results may be
expected. After the seeds have been covered with soil, place a wet
newspaper over the flat. Water should be sprinkled on the paper
whenever it becomes dry. In this way, there is no danger of wash-
ing the seeds out of the soil, and the soil is kept uniformly moist.
The wet newspaper should remain on the flat until the seeds ger-
minate. Place the flats on boxes or benches that are protected
from ants which often carry away the seeds. Some of the most
popular of our autumn-sown annuals, such as pansies, snapdrag-
ons, and larkspur, are cool weather plants and their seeds will not
germinate readily if the temperature is excessively high. For this
reason, to assure a fair stand, it is important that the flats should






Florida Cooperative Extension


be placed in the coolest possible situation. The north side of a
building, under a tree, or under an open shed should do nicely.
After germination, the flats must be placed where the seedlings
can get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade, the
seedlings will grow into weak, leggy plants. We have found that
a muslin shade, such as is used for celery or tobacco seedbeds,
allows sufficient light to penetrate to the young plants. Shortly
after germina-
tion, the flats
should receive an-
other application
of a compound for
the control of
damping off. Wa-
ter should be care-
fully applied
through a fine
spray.
When the seed-
lings show about
four true leaves,
they may be
transplanted to
well prepared
beds where they
are to bloom.
Choose a cool,
cloudy, afternoon
for transplanting
if it is at all pos-
sible, and set the
plants about 12 to
18 inches apart.
Close planting is
Fig. 2.-A garden of mixed annuals, showing a desirable to as-
desirable effect obtained by random planting.
sure bold color
masses. As further insurance against damping off, it is often a
good plan to use the damping-off- control immediately after trans-
planting. Great care should be exercised in watering the young
plants until they are well established. Over-watering can be as
harmful as under-watering.
The second class of annuals, those which are planted in the open
ground where they are to bloom, may be handled much the same







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


as vegetables. Sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills or trenches.
Cover lightly with soil and sprinkle with a damping-off control.
The drills or rows may be covered with wet strips of burlap. If
this material is used, water will not wash the seeds out of the
soil, and the soil stays uniformly moist. If ants are abundant,
grits or cornmeal should be sprinkled liberally along the rows.
These will be taken in preference to the seeds. As soon as the
seeds germinate, the burlap must be removed, and a second appli-
cation of the damping-off control should be made. When the
plants are well established, thin so that they stand about 12 to
18 inches apart.
ANNUALS FROM CUTTINGS
Although the majority of annuals are grown from seeds, it is
sometimes desirable to propagate a particularly fine individual
by cuttings. Tip cuttings about 3 inches long inserted in clean,
coarse sand should root in two or three weeks. A box or flat
with plenty of drainage holes may be used to contain the sand.
The sand should be kept moist, the cuttings protected from sun,
wind or cold. When the roots are an inch or so in length the cut-
tings may be potted up or planted where they are to bloom. Some
annuals that will grow readily from cuttings are carnation, chry-
santhemum (annual), petunia, pinks, snapdragons, torenia and
verbena.
CULTURE
Special preparation of the soil is usually necessary if thrifty
plants which produce large numbers of flowers of good substance
are expected. If the native soil be light, sandy and low in organic
matter, it should be built up by using good quantities of rotted
manure, rotted leaves, hammock soil, or peat moss. If the native
soil, on the other hand, is low and subject to flooding, adequate
drainage should be provided. Beds raised about 12 inches with
ditches between them, should be satisfactory for annuals. The
writer is a firm believer in mulching and after the plants are set
where they are to bloom, a blanket of peat moss, rotted manure
or oak leaves will preserve the moisture, keep the roots cool, and
discourage weed growth.
Light bi-weekly applications of a good balanced fertilizer, which
supplies nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, are important to insure
robust plants and an abundance of blooms. Nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia dissolved in water at the rate of one table-
spoonful to the gallon is an excellent stimulant for vegetative
growth, but these materials should-be supplemented with ferti-







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


as vegetables. Sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills or trenches.
Cover lightly with soil and sprinkle with a damping-off control.
The drills or rows may be covered with wet strips of burlap. If
this material is used, water will not wash the seeds out of the
soil, and the soil stays uniformly moist. If ants are abundant,
grits or cornmeal should be sprinkled liberally along the rows.
These will be taken in preference to the seeds. As soon as the
seeds germinate, the burlap must be removed, and a second appli-
cation of the damping-off control should be made. When the
plants are well established, thin so that they stand about 12 to
18 inches apart.
ANNUALS FROM CUTTINGS
Although the majority of annuals are grown from seeds, it is
sometimes desirable to propagate a particularly fine individual
by cuttings. Tip cuttings about 3 inches long inserted in clean,
coarse sand should root in two or three weeks. A box or flat
with plenty of drainage holes may be used to contain the sand.
The sand should be kept moist, the cuttings protected from sun,
wind or cold. When the roots are an inch or so in length the cut-
tings may be potted up or planted where they are to bloom. Some
annuals that will grow readily from cuttings are carnation, chry-
santhemum (annual), petunia, pinks, snapdragons, torenia and
verbena.
CULTURE
Special preparation of the soil is usually necessary if thrifty
plants which produce large numbers of flowers of good substance
are expected. If the native soil be light, sandy and low in organic
matter, it should be built up by using good quantities of rotted
manure, rotted leaves, hammock soil, or peat moss. If the native
soil, on the other hand, is low and subject to flooding, adequate
drainage should be provided. Beds raised about 12 inches with
ditches between them, should be satisfactory for annuals. The
writer is a firm believer in mulching and after the plants are set
where they are to bloom, a blanket of peat moss, rotted manure
or oak leaves will preserve the moisture, keep the roots cool, and
discourage weed growth.
Light bi-weekly applications of a good balanced fertilizer, which
supplies nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, are important to insure
robust plants and an abundance of blooms. Nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia dissolved in water at the rate of one table-
spoonful to the gallon is an excellent stimulant for vegetative
growth, but these materials should-be supplemented with ferti-






Florida Cooperative Extension


lizer which contains phosphorus and potash. Steamed bone meal
is an excellent food that will not burn the plants. It becomes
available to the plant rather slowly, but its effect is lasting.

ANNUAL FLOWERS
ALYSSUM (Alyssum maritimum)
The several varieties of sweet alyssum, with white or lilac flow-
ers, are among the best of annuals for edging and for planting
in the rock garden.
Low-growing, seldom exceeding a height of 12 inches, this plant
should have a place in every garden, window box or hanging basket.
Of easiest culture, extremely hardy, sweet alyssum may be
sown every month in the year, and will bloom in four to six weeks.
Volunteer seed-
lings are usually
abundant about
Solder plants.


fw
Photo by Harold Mowry.
Fig. 3.-Asters are very popular for cutting, beauti-
ful in color, but difficult of culture.


ASTER-CHINA
ASTER
(Callistephus
hortensis)
The annual as-
ter as we know it
today is a highly
developed horti-
cultural form, the
parent of which
was introduced
from China and
should not be con-
fused with the
smaller flowered
perennial aster
native to America.
The annual
China aster is an
old favorite,
prized as a cut
flower on account
of its variety of
color and form
and its grace in a






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


cut flower arrangement. Unfortunately, a host of insects and
diseases prey upon the China aster and for this reason great care
should be taken to grow the plant in new soil each year, to give
the plants a bit of shade and to keep them in a vigorous growing
condition at all times. Even with the most careful grower, asters
are all too often a failure. The new wilt-resistant strains promise
much toward successful culture.
BABY'S BREATH (Gypsophila elegans)
The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three varieties of
baby's breath are especially valuable in flower arrangements, par-


Fig. 4.-Baby's breath adds daintiness and compactness to collections of
cut flowers.
ticularly is this true if sturdy flowers such as blanket flowers,
dwarf sunflowers, carnations or pinks are the principal subject
of the boquet. The tiny flowers on wiry stems add a daintiness,
a softness to an arrangement that might be somewhat stiff and
lacking in gracefulness.
Baby's breath blooms quickly from the time of sowing and un-
fortunately passes quickly into seed production so several plant-
ings at monthly intervals are to be recommended.
BALSAM (Impatiens balsamina)
Of easy culture, the quick growing, cheerful balsam is well
worth using as a window-box subject, porch plant or as a border






Florida Cooperative Extension


in a shady place. The newer kinds of this old favorite are strik-
ing in form and color. The seedlings should be pinched several
times so as to assure stocky, well-shaped plants.
BLANKET FLOWER (Gaillardia pulchella picta)
The annual forms of the blanket flower, single, semi-double and
full double, are of great value in any garden. The red and yellow
daisy-like blossoms are desirable for cutting on account of their
cheerful colors, long stiff stems and excellent keeping quality.
The blanket flower is cosmopolitan, happy in almost any type of
soil, volunteering annually and producing abundant flowers per-
sistently, even on the poor light sands of the seashore.

BLUE-EYED AFRICAN DAISY (Arctotis grandis)
Graceful, light blue, daisy-like flowers about 21/2 inches across
with steel blue centers are profusely borne by the plants of Arc-
totis. One of the most easily grown of the hardy annuals, like
the blanket flower, it succeeds in trying situations, volunteering
each year. The flowers close in the afternoon, so it is best not to
put the blue-eyed African daisies into a flower arrangement that
is to be used in the evening.
BLUE LACE FLOWER (Trachymeme caerulea)
The globular blossoms of the blue lace flower are composed of
many tiny light blue florets and resemble a sky blue scabiosa
flower. The plants are not attractive as garden subjects. Merit
lies solely in the blossoms as cut flowers which are rather out of
the ordinary and lend themselves well to attractive arrangements.
Apparently sometimes difficult to grow, the blue lace flower is
not at all widely planted.

BUTTERFLY FLOWER (Schizanthus pinnatus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is covered
with tiny, orchid-like blooms and always attracts a great deal of
attention. Perhaps because it requires constant care and the most
favorable conditions and because it is easily injured by slight
cultural mistakes, the butterfly flower is not often seen in Florida
gardens.
CALENDULA (Calendula officinalis)
A universal favorite, the calendula is one of our most important
winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers in shades
of orange and yellow are not only excellent as part of the garden
picture but they are unsurpassed as cut flowers. If the seeds are






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


sown in August and the seedlings are protected from the direct
sun for a month or so before bedding out, blossoms may be cut in
December and throughout the winter into the early spring, pro-
vided that extremely low temperatures are not experienced. The
plants will stand considerable cold; even though the blossoms are
blasted by the heavy frosts, others will quickly open with the
advent of warmer weather.

CALIFORNIA POPPY (Escholtzia californica)
The California poppy is especially effective when grown in


large groups in a
sunny garden.
Recently the seed-
men have of-
fered varieties in
creams, white and
reds that are
striking devia-
tions from the
typical yellows.
Very hardy, eas-
ily grown from
broadcast seeds,
the California
poppy should have
a place in every
garden. The
blooms are excel-
lent as cut flowers
when arranged in
low containers
with their own
foliage. Unfortu-
nately the flowers
close in the eve-
ning.


Photo by Harold Mowry.
Fig. 5.-California poppy furnishes an abundance
of warm tones of yellow and orange throughout early
spring.


CALLIOPSIS (Coreopsis-several species)
The calliopsis or coreopsis is another type of the numerous
daisy-like flowers that play so important a part in an annual
border. The flowers in shades of yellow, some varieties with
maroon or terra cotta, are borne in profusion on stiff, wiry stems,
and are valuable both in the garden and in bouquets. Of easy






Florida Cooperative Extension


culture, growing in difficult places and often naturalizing in large
colonies, the calliopsis can be most highly recommended.
CANDYTUFT (Iberis in two species)
Candytuft in its varieties with white, lilac, crimson umbels of
flowers, is a good subject for edging, for the rock garden or for
cutting. It is sim-
ilar to sweet alys-
S'v' i sum, but is a taller
plant and the
flowers are larger.
Hardy and not
difficult to grow,
the candytuft can
fill the need, as
does sweet alys-
sum, for a hardy,
dwarf, much
branched flower-
ing annual.
CARNATION
(Dianthus in several
species)
The hybrid an-
nual carnations
which have re-
cently been devel-
oped by plant
Photo by Harold Mowry.
Fig. 6.-Candytuft is an excellent winter and early breeders, will sup-
spring annual for rock gardens and edgings. ply everything
save size, for which the perfect florist carnations are prized. The
delightful spicy fragrance, the charming variety of colors, the
way in which the flowers lend themselves to arrangements cer-
tainly makes the annual carnation worth growing.

CELOSIA (Celosia in several species)
The red or yellow plumes of the celosias or cockscombs, borne
on robust, quickly growing plants, are often seen in summer
gardens and occasionally as dried bouquets. Tender, but of easiest
culture, the celosias succeed during the summer months. How-
ever, root-knot is a serious pest to these plants and will some-
times take a heavy toll of the seedlings growing on soil infested
with nematodes.






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


CHINESE FORGET-ME-NOT (Cynoglossum amabile)
For blue flowers in the late spring garden, one should certainly
consider the Chinese forget-me-not. Although it is injured by
frost, it is easy to grow, volunteers readily and blooms in a com-
paratively short time. This charming annual deserves a place
in everyone's garden. Possibly its greatest use is for blue color
masses in the garden, because the flower spikes usually wilt badly
when they are used as cut flowers.
CHRYSANTHEMUM-ANNUAL (Chrysanthemum-several species)
The perennial chrysanthemums are among the most important
of the flowers for cutting, and for blossoms that come earlier than
the perennial sorts, we might take advantage of the annual vari-
eties. These are tender and are best planted when there is no
danger of frost. The plants, which attain a height of 2 or 3 feet,
should furnish during the summer months abundant yellow, white
or banded, small daisy-like flowers that are admirable for cutting.
As the plants are robust growers, they should be thinned to a
stand two feet apart.
CLARKIA (Clarkia in two species)
Native to the Western United States, hardy and comparatively
easy to grow during the cool weather of the winter and early
spring, the Clarkia, although seldom seen in Florida gardens, is
worthy of trial. The plants, attaining a height of about two feet,
produce spikes of single or double flowers in shades of white, pink,
salmon or red, that are worth-while additions to the annual border
and to flower arrangements.
CORNFLOWER (Centaurea cyanus)
The cornflower has long been a favorite and somehow seems
characteristic of the old-fashioned garden. The single and double
flowers of white, pink, red, blue and purple borne in profusion in
early spring, contribute beautiful clear colors to the border and
are excellent for cutting. Especially pleasing color combinations
may be obtained by planting good seeds in separate colors. Soil-
borne diseases in the late spring sometimes are fatal to the plants
and for this reason it is well to sow the seeds early and thus have
plants that bloom before the advent of hot weather. Excepting
for this trouble, the plants are of easy culture, germinating
promptly, transplanting well, and will stand considerable frost.
COSMOS-EARLY (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Single, crested or double daisy-like flowers in white, pink or
red that are particularly good for cutting, may be had during






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June and July if the seeds of the early cosmos are planted in
March. Tall growing, tender and seldom very attractive as a
garden plant in Florida, the chief value of the cosmos lies in the
excellence of its blossoms in summer flower arrangements. The
seeds germinate easily, especially in the single varieties, the
plants grow rapidly and bloom quickly. Staking and careful
tying are recom-
mended to pre-
vent the wind
from blowing the
plants over or
breaking off the
heavy branches.
COSMOS, Late or
Klondyke (Cosmos
sulphureus)
Yellow flowers
are produced in
the autumn by
many members of
the Compositse or
Daisy family, and
with us, one of the
most dependable
of this class is the
Late or Klondyke
cosmos. Volun-
teering year after
year, the vigor-
ous, rank growing
plants are cover-
ed with delightful
single yellow blos-
S"" soms in October.
Photo by Harold Mowry.
Fig. 7.-Early cosmos is desirable as a cut flower, This cosmos is ap-
lending itself very well to flower arrangements. parently not at all
particular as to its requirements, as it succeeds without any care
whatsoever, thriving in abandoned dooryards or very often escap-
ing from cultivation.
CYPRESS VINE (Ipomeae quamoclit)
A graceful vine whose finely cut foliage and attractive tiny
blossoms of white, red or salmon make it a good subject for tem-
porary small screens or trellises. It is said that the seeds are so






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


hard that they do not germinate readily unless they are scarified,
but given fair conditions, volunteers often grow where the vine
has seeded.
DOUBLE ENGLISH DAISY (Bellis perennis)
Although the English daisy or bellis is really a perennial, in
Florida usually it will not thrive after the advent of warm
weather in May and is grown as a winter annual so that it may
enjoy the cool growing season. For edgings or for rock gardens
the English daisy is excellent. The plants are merely flat, tight
rosettes of shin-
ing green leaves
from which the
flower stems
arise. The charm-
ing double flowers
of white, pink or
red are borne
singly on stems
about four inches
long. If plants are
properly grown
and set in close
masses, the effect
is particularly de
lightful.
FLORISTS' PAINT
BRUSH
(Emilia flammea)
Clusters of gay
orange, tassel-like
or brush-like
flowers on stiff
stems about 18
inches long are
produced by the
florists' paint Photo by Harold Mowry.
brush in the Fig. 8.-Florists' paint brush is valuable in a
flower arrangement where a gay orange is wanted.
spring. The flow-
ers are rather small and loosely arranged to be of great value in
the garden picture, but they are valuable in a flower arrangement
if orange is wanted. They will furnish a light airiness to a
bouquet which might otherwise be heavy or coarse.






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FLOSS FLOWER (Ageratum conyzoides)
For blue flowers during the summer, nothing surpasses the floss
flower or ageratum. Equally desirable as garden material or for
cutting, the soft lacy flowers are an adjunct to every garden and
lend themselves very well to color combinations and special effects.
There are dwarf sorts as well as tall varieties in white, pink, or
shades of blue. The plants are of easiest culture, seedlings usually


Fig. 9.-The floss flower withstands considerable cultural difficulties, in-
cluding heat. It volunteers readily and is easily established from cuttings.
volunteering in abundance about old plants. They are injured by
frost and should be grown after the danger of cold has passed.
GILIA (Gilia spp.)
Another blue flower of merit that blooms in the late spring is
gilia. The foliage is lacey, fern-like and is an attractive feature
in itself. The flowers are rough, globular heads, about an inch in
diameter, and are borne in profusion all over the plant. As yet
something of a novelty in Florida, the gilia has proven its ability
to thrive here and should be tried in everyone's garden.
GLOBE AMARANTH (Gomphera golbosa)
As this plant is sometimes called batchelor's button, it should
not be confused with the cornflower (Centaurea) which also goes
by that common name. The globe amaranth thrives during hot
weather, producing myriads of white or red, globular flowers that







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


resemble clover heads. In texture they are harsh, woody, like
straw-flowers or statice and are used for permanent or dried bou-
quets. Tender but of easy culture, volunteering in great pro-
fusion, the globe
amaranth can be
depended upon
to succeed under
almost any condi-
tions during the
summer.
GODETIA
(Godetia spp.)
Although the
Godetia or satin
flower, like the
gilia, is not often
seen, it will suc-
ceed in Florida,
especially in a
partially shaded
situation, and it
undoubtedly de-
serves considera-
tion as a spring
flowering annual.
The open, prim-
rose-like flowers
of white, rose or
red are borne on
spikes about 18 Fig. 10.--Gilia produces small, globular blue flow-
ers in profusion. Should be more widely planted,
inches long. The especially where blue is desired in the spring garden
seeds germinate and for cutting.
well in the autumn and the young seedlings, which closely re-
semble snapdragon plants, grow off quickly and the losses from
transplanting are negligible.
GOURD
The gourds in their many varieties are too well known to war-
rant descriptions or discussions. Interesting, unusual fruits of
multitudinous shapes are borne on the annual vines which are
exceptionally vigorous and free from pests. For temporary
screens during the summer or to cover stumps or small buildings,
they are very useful. The seeds should be planted when danger
of frost has passed.






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HUNNEMANIA (Hunnemania fumariaefolia)
The hunnemania, sometimes called tulip poppy, resembles a
sulphur-yellow California poppy of giant size, coarser and of
greater substance. The plants, about two feet in height, are very
prolific, hardy and
easy of culture
after germina-
tion. Difficulty in
getting a good
Stand is the gen-
eral rule. Like the
poppies, the seed-
lings do not trans-
plant readily and
for this reason the
Seeds should be
Ssown where the
plants are to
bloom. The hun-
nemania is excel-
lent as a source of
sulphur yellow
g color in the late
spring border and
as a cut flower
because of its
Ji Mrsprightly color
Photo by orold Mowry. and attractive tu-
Fig. 11.-Hunnemania, with flowers of pure, clear,
sulphur yellow, resembles the giant California poppy. lip-like form.
LARKSPUR (Delphinium spp.)
The well-known larkspur is so popular, so widely grown, that
it seems hardly necessary to describe this most valuable annual.
Single and double flowers of white, buff, rose, blue, lavender and
purple are borne on tall, erect spikes during the early spring.
Some of the newer creations, named varieties having very double
flowers of clear colors, are very charming, and should find places
in every garden. These are especially desirable if color combina-
tions are to be worked out. Frequently larkspur seeds fail to
germinate if they are planted early in the fall. Because this is a
distinctly cool-weather plant, it is probably best to wait until No-
vember, then sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills, firm them into
the ground and water with a fine spray without covering. Volun-







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


teer seedlings are usually numerous where the plants bloomed the
previous season. These seedlings, however, usually produce single
flowers in colors that are not so clear nor so attractive as are the


Fig. 12.-Annual larkspur is one of the most striking, yet dependable gar-
den flowers for spring.

flowers produced from new seeds from the specialists. The young
plants are hardy, transplant very readily and react very favorably
to good care.
LEPTOSYNE (Leptosyne spp.)
Two varieties of annual leptosyne will produce their yellow
flowers during the early spring in Florida. Good for cutting, they
are unusual, worthwhile annuals, although seldom seen.

LOBELIA (Lobelia erinus)
Lobelias, in their beautiful shades of blue, may be had in the
dwarf compact form, which is so desirable as an edging and also
in the trailing or hanging form which is used in rock gardens,
pots, boxes and baskets. The charming dwarf plants, under six
inches in height, of many tiny branches, are covered with tiny
blue flowers throughout the blooming season. Unfortunately,
they demand cool weather, but cannot stand freezing, so they must
be grown during the winter and receive protection on cold nights.
The seeds germinate well and quickly produce good stands of






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robust plants. For good color effects the plants should be set no
farther than 4 to 6 inches apart.
LUPINE (Lupinus spp.)
As subjects for a tall border, the annual Lupines are very
effective, and they are no less striking as cut flowers. Their
keeping quality is excellent. Long spikes of pea-like flowers of


Fig. 13.-Annual lupine, one of the tallest growing annuals, is desirable
for borders and for cutting.

white, pink and shades of blue are numerous in the spring. Sow
the seeds where the plants are to stand and thin the seedlings to
12-inch intervals in the row. Usually the plants will need staking
at blooming time.
MARIGOLD (Tagetes spp.)
The African marigold is tall, erect, attaining a height of three
feet and bears large globular flowers that range in color from
lemon yellow to orange. This type is valuable at the back of
borders where height is desired. If the typical marigold odor is
not found objectionable, the blossoms are among the best of the
early autumn annuals for cutting.
The French and Mexican marigolds are compact, dwarf, rarely
exceeding 16 inches in height, and are good subjects for edging
and for positions in front of other, taller plants.
In late September through October, when most annuals are out







Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


of season, the marigolds, in their many forms and varieties, con-
tribute their bright yellow and orange flowers to our gardens
whose brightness has begun to wane. Withstanding heat and
drought, thriving where many plants would perish, free from


Fig. 14.-Marigolds are dependable for color during September and Octo-
ber, when most other annuals are out of bloom.
pests, the marigolds are exceedingly useful both in the garden
and in the home. Seeds germinate well and quickly, and the
seedlings are easy to handle.
MIGNONETTE (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for mignonette a place in
everyone's heart. The dwarf plant which bears the odd flower
trusses of this old favorite should have a place in every garden.
Of no particular beauty so far as color or design is concerned,
the chief value of mignonette is its use in bouquets of flowers
which have no odor of their own. Difficulty is often encountered
in getting the seeds to germinate and hot weather is fatal to the
plants.
MORNING GLORY (Ipomoea purpurea)
As an annual vine, nothing can surpass the morning glory, a
vigorous rapid grower which is covered with glorious flowers
throughout the summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds offered






Florida Cooperative Extension


by the seedsmen will produce plants that bear large flowers of
beautiful clear colors. Volunteer seedlings usually have flowers
of inferior quality. The morning glory is excellent material with
which to make a screen or as a covering for unsightly objects
during the summer.
MOROCCAN TOAD FLAX (Linaria maroccana)
Of comparatively recent introduction into Florida gardens, this
little toad flax from Morocco is rapidly gaining the popularity it
so rightfully deserves. It is a dwarf grower of exceeding hardi-
ness that bears its spikes of tiny snapdragon-like flowers through-
out the winter and early spring. The small dark green leaves are
narrow, delicate in texture; the flowers are white, lemon, pink,
blue and purple. The plant self-sows and volunteers most readily,
apparently not deteriorating as regards the quality or the color
of the flowers even though the chance seedlings are used as plant-
ing stock year after year.
Blooming profusely, even during frosts, in poor sandy soil, the
toad flax is very much at home with us and can be most highly
recommended for
edgings, borders,
and for rock gar-
dens. Some of the
larger seed houses
are now offering
the seeds.
MOSS ROSE
(Portulacca
grandiflora)
For a summer
edging or rock
garden plant,
probably nothing
else equals the
moss rose. The
leaves are narrow,
thick, succulent,
and are complete-
ly hidden in a
blanket of gay col-
ors in the morn-
Fig. 15.-Moss rose, probably the best low edging ings when the
plant for the summer. flowers open.






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


Shades of buff, salmon, pink and red are characteristic of the
double and single flowers. The flowers are about an inch and a
half in diameter, the plants attain a height of about four inches.
Always extremely popular, flourishing under the most trying
conditions of heat, drought and poor soil, this little plant is one
of the most satisfactory for summer gardens. The seeds germi-
nate best during warm weather, the young plants can be moved
with very little loss. Volunteer seedlings, although numerous,
should not be used because of the possibility of mixing in plants
of the wild type which have inferior flowers. Seeds of the best


Photo by Harold Mowry.


Fig. 16.-Nasturtiums are
profuse bloomers when grown
in sunny locations and well
fed. Do not stand much cold.






Florida Cooperative Extension


double strains will give the most satisfactory color effects. As
the blooming season is short, it is well to have small plants avail-
able by sowing seeds at monthly intervals during the summer.
MOURNING BRIDE (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the mourning bride or pincushion
flower furnish a range of color found in no other annual. From
white, through yellow, blue, rose, red, maroon, to an almost black
purple, the colors are most charming, and are, of course, always
harmonious. The plants, which attain a height of about three
feet when well grown, are prolific, thrifty and almost indispen-
sable in the spring garden. The keeping quality of the blossoms
is good, the long stiff stems make for artistic flower arrangements.
NASTURTIUM (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums if planted after the danger of frost has passed, in
the early spring, will furnish an abundance of delightful color
for a period of about two months. The many flowers of yellow,
orange and maroon make an attractive addition to the garden
and are good for cutting. A fragrant, double yellow variety has
met with considerable favor. Climbing varieties make good
screens, although only for a short time. Free from pests, and
enjoying light soils, the nasturtium well deserves its popularity.
NICOTIANA (Nicotiana spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of most kinds of orna-
mental tobaccos remain closed and of little beauty during the day,
the principal value of this plant is for its perfume which is delight-
ful when the flowers open in the evening. Very much like com-
mercial tobaccos, the ornamental forms are large, coarse annuals,
to three feet, that succeed during the late spring and summer.
Several different colors are available.
ORANGE AFRICAN DAISY (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca)
Daisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in shades of yellow,
are produced in considerable abundance by the dwarf spreading
plants of Dimorphotheca. The plants do not always succeed and
the flowers close in the evening. Hybrids, having flowers of dif-
ferent colors, are available.
PAINTED TONGUE (Salpiglosis sinuata)
The striking, highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers of
the painted tongue resemble ornate petunias. A wide range of
bright, bizarre colors is exhibited by these funnel-shaped blos-
soms, which unfortunately are not particularly numerous on
plants, that are, at best, rather difficult to grow. Germination of






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


the seeds is satisfactory in cool weather, but even under good
cultural conditions, the small plants perish in such large numbers
that continual replacement is necessary.
PANSY (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach pansies for edging or for bedding in the
late winter and early spring. The newer, highly-developed strains
are characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking brilliance
and endless variety of design. The pansy is distinctly a cool
weather plant, seeds will not germinate well in the warmth of late
summer, the young plants that are produced are sickly and slow-
growing. However, if fresh seeds are planted in a cool, shaded
place in late autumn, no difficulty should be experienced. Set the
plants 6 to 8 inches apart so as to obtain a continuous border with-
out breaks. A stock of plants should be kept on hand for a while
so that dead or unthrifty plants in the border may be replaced.
The loss from mowing, if properly done, is negligible. Pansies
will ordinarily stand considerable cold without injury.
PETUNIA (Petunia axillaris)
No garden would be complete without petunias. The humble,
small single sorts are valuable for color-effects, while the more


Fig. 17.-No spring garden is complete without petunias. This is the single,
bedding form. Strikingly beautiful double forms are available.






Florida Cooperative Extension


pretentious, single and double fringed and veined giants always
attract a great deal of attention because of their unusual texture,
size and colors.
The small single varieties are very easily grown from seeds, if
the flats are protected from ants. Seeds of the large, fringed
types are rare and expensive, especially in the double flowered
varieties, because they are the result of hand pollination. Not
only are the seeds expensive, but germination is often slow and
uncertain. Poor stands of small, weak plants usually result from
the sowing of the seeds of the giant fringed petunias unless the
greatest care is observed in planting, watering and transplanting.
The smaller single sorts are more hardy than are the giants, which
should be protected when sub-freezing weather is expected. The
full, double-fringed varieties are propagated by placing tip cut-
tings in coarse sand in order to secure plants that are identical
with the parent. PHLOX (Phlox drummondi)
The annual phlox is one of the easiest of all plants to grow from
seed. A wide variety of color is offered by the trusses of charm-
ing little flowers that cover the dwarf, spreading plants through-
out the early spring. Excellent as an edging, for ribbon beds, as
a ground cover for a sunny expanse, and for naturalizing. De-
lightful effects are obtained by using a solid color as an edging.
Self-sown volunteers are numerous in the vicinity of old plantings
and even in places where discarded plants have been piled. If


Fig. 18.-Phlox is a low annual, easily established, especially suitable for
ground cover in expansive, sunny areas.






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


true, rich, clear colors are wanted, it is best to plant fresh seeds
rather than to rely on volunteer seedlings, because the colors
deteriorate after about two years.
Annual phlox is relatively free from pests, transplants most
easily, and succeeds in dry, light, sandy soils. The star phlox,
with its irregular, pointed petals, is an unusual and interesting
novelty that should be more widely grown.
PINKS (Dianthus in several species)
Pinks are very much at home with us, numerous kinds thriv-
ing as annuals, very often as perennials if they are cut back in
the early summer and fertilized for a second period of bloom. No
attempt will be made to distinguish the species or hybrids of
Dianthus, but it is suggested that different kinds be tried, so that
the gardener can select those which are best suited to his con-
ditions. The hardiness of the plant, the old-fashioned quaintness
of the fragrant blossoms, in their many colors, the ease with which
the seeds sprout and grow, commend the annual pinks to every-
one who has a garden. Several new hybrid dianthus are charm-
ing annuals of considerable merit.


Fig. 19.-Annual pinks in many kinds are well adapted to Florida. Attrac-
tive in the flower arrangement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


POPPY (Papaver in several species)
Poppies have long been garden favorites, and certainly they
can never lose the universal popularity they have always enjoyed.
The bold, bright colors of the hybrids of the opium poppy and the
fragile, fine-textured, delicately tinted flowers of the Shirley
group, offer us variety in substance, color and design. The poppies
do not transplant well, the seeds do not sprout in hot weather;
hence, it is best to sow the seeds in November, where the plants
are to grow. As ants are very fond of poppy seeds, grits should
be sprinkled along the rows, so that the seeds will be unmolested.
Thin the seedlings to stand a foot or a foot and a half apart. Some
of the varieties of the opium poppy volunteer so readily that they
occupy the same garden spot year after year.
SCARLET FLAX (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered, annual variety of flax that is gradually gain-
ing popularity as a garden subject in Florida deserves every gar-
dener's consideration. A hardy, bushy annual, to two feet, of ex-
ceedingly graceful habit, it is covered with charming red open
flowers throughout the spring. The clear color is good in the
border or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings are easy to grow
and can be moved with little or no loss.


Fig. 20.-Scarlet flax adds a beautiful, clear red to the garden in the
spring. Of easy culture, it should be found in more Florida gardens.






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


SNAPDRAGON (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the snapdragon is really a perennial, in Florida it is
treated as an annual because it rarely survives the high tempera-
tures and heavy rains of our summers. Like the pansy and the
larkspur it is distinctly a cool weather plant and is really success-
ful only when it is grown through the winter and early spring
months.
The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place which is
protected from ants. After germination, culture is easy, as the
seedlings transplant and grow off readily, producing their spikes
of delightful blossoms in the early spring. Invaluable as a cut
flower, as well as a border subject, the snapdragon in its highly-
developed colors
is well worth
growing.
STATICE
(Statice in several
species)
The annual
kinds of statice
are well adapted
to our gardens,
thriving, if neces-
sary, under diffi-
culties. Statice
sinuata has, in the
spring, tall spikes
of blue or white
flowers arising
from dwarf, tight
rosettes of lobed,
spatulate leaves.
S. bonduelli is
very similar in
habit, but pro-
duces yellow flow-
ers, while S.suwo-
rori, the rat-tail Photo by Harold Mowry.
statice, bears tall Fig. 21.-Statice succeeds easily and can be used
either fresh or dried.
graceful spikes of
delicate pink flowers. This last-named species deserves wider
trial as it is especially good, and receives favorable comment
wherever seen. All of these kinds are desirable garden plants,






Florida Cooperative Extension


excellent for fresh bouquets or as everlastings. Like the straw-
flowers, they are hung in bundles, blossom end down, to dry before
being used. Germination is slow, but the plants are easily
handled, once they become established.
STOCK (Matthiola incana annua)
Stocks are old favorites that have developed wonderfully at
the hands of plant breeders. Full double varieties in many de-
lightful colors belonging to different strains, the plants of which
vary in habit and time of bloom, are offered by the seed houses.
The seeds give a good stand and in transplanting it should be
borne in mind that the smallest plants are often those whose flow-
ers will be most
double, while the
robust, thrifty
seedlings tend to
produce the less
desirable single
blooms. The
plants should
stand 8 to 12
inches apart.
Aphids or plant
lice are fond of
stocks and are
sometimes very
troublesome. A
tobacco spray is
used in controll-
ing these pests.
Several soil-borne
diseases that are
prevalent during
warm weather in
old garden sites,
may be reduced
Photo by Hby the use of soil-
Photo by Harold Mowry.
Fig. 22.-The strawflower is used principally in sterilizing com-
dried, permanent boquets. pounds.

STRAWFLOWER (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust annuals which may attain a height of three feet
if well grown, the strawflowers will supply attractive material for
dried bouquets. Cut the flowers when they are about half open,






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


strip off the leaves, and hang in bundles, blossom end down, in a
shady place until they dry. A variety of gay colors is available.
The plants will stand some cold, but are best set out after the
danger of frost has passed. Strawflowers are of some value in
the garden scheme, but there are so many plants that give greater
returns as regards color, that it seems that their chief merit lies
in their use as dried bouquets.
SUNFLOWER (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is available
in this group of heat-tolerant annuals. They are good material
for screens, boundaries and for cutting during the months of May
through September if successive sowings of seed are made. These
should be sown where the plants are to stand, and the seedlings
should be thinned to two or three foot intervals, depending upon
the habit of the variety. Refined types are being sold by the
seedsmen that are a far cry from the old-fashioned, coarse kinds.
Mildew attacks some varieties but does little harm, apparently.
It can be controlled by dusting with sulphur.
SWEET PEA (Lathirus odoratus)
Sweet peas are, without doubt, among the most important of
our winter and spring blooming annuals. Their fragrance, deli-
cacy of texture and design have won for them a place in everyone's
heart, but at the same time it must be conceded that the host of
pests which prey upon them are most alarming and often most
difficult to control.
The Spencers, now the most popular group, have reached a re-
markable state of perfection. Winter flowering or "early" strains
planted in the early fall should start blooming in December if
conditions are favorable, and the spring or "late" flowering strains,
if planted in the winter, should produce a wealth of bloom in
March, April or May. The list of varieties is long-no kinds can
be recommended as being preferable to others, one must try dif-
ferent sorts in order to discover which are best for his purpose,
or be content with the "mixed packets."
There are many ways of planting sweet pea seeds, many ideas,
often at variance, as to how to prepare the seedbeds. The method
described herewith, although not necessarily the best, has proven
satisfactory. If the soil is light, sandy, infested with rootknot,
remove it from a trench two feet deep where the trellis is to stand.
In the bottom of this trench place six inches of rotted cow manure,
fill to the ground level with a good compost of rich hammock soil.
Rootknot will probably not be troublesome for the first season if
the soil is taken from a heavily shaded, wooded hammock. It is






Florida Cooperative Extension


important to treat the bed with a soil sterilizing compound. Plant
the seeds in a staggered double row, so that the trellis may be
erected between the rows. When the seedlings emerge treat the
bed again with the soil sterilizing compound to control damping
off. It is best to thin the plants to stand a foot apart. When the
plants are six inches high apply steamed bone meal so as to make
the ground white, then stir it in lightly. A mulch of oak leaves
or peat moss is valuable in conserving the moisture. When ten-
drils appear some sort of support must be provided. This may
be poultry netting stretched between posts, a trellis of cotton
cords running vertically over horizontal bars at top and bottom,
or a line of brush stuck firmly into the ground between the rows.
Frequent cutting of the blooms is essential to prevent the for-
mation of seed pods which will materially reduce the period of
flowering. When the stems begin to get short, apply nitrate of
soda in a water solution at the rate of one tablespoon to the gallon.
Aphids, frequent visitors to sweet peas, are controlled by to-
bacco sprays, and red spiders are forestalled by dusting with sul-
phur or syringing the vines with water under high pressure.
Sweet peas are hosts to diseases whose effects are most discour-
aging. Little is known about their control. Remove and burn
badly infected plants and continue to use soil disinfectants.
The vines will stand considerable cold but the flower buds are
so easily injured that protection on cold nights is suggested after
the plants have commenced to blossom.
TORENIA (Torenia fournieri)
As an edging or rock garden subject that will withstand heat
and succeed with little attention, the Torenia deserves considera-
tion. The plants, not over a foot tall, are covered throughout the
summer with masses of unusual white or lavender, yellow blotched
flowers. The habit of this sun-tolerant annual is creeping, the
runners or stems rooting where they come into contact with the
ground. The rooted tips, of course, may be separated and used
as new plants. Chance seedlings are present under favorable
conditions. It is hoped that Torenia will receive wider trial in
Florida gardens.
VERBENA (Verbena hybrida)
The modern verbena, with its globular heads of large individual
flowers, is a particularly desirable garden subject. Although
ordinarily a perennial in Florida, it may be treated as an annual.
Strong, clear colors are characteristic of this hardy, low growing
herb. If no particular color is wanted, the plants may be grown
from seeds, however, propagation of choice kinds should be by
cuttings.






Annual Flowering Plants for Florida


ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans)
When one considers the remarkable thriftiness, the heat toler-
ance of the zinnia, the facility with which it grows in adverse
conditions, it must be awarded a place of importance on our list
of summer blossoming annuals It is easily realized that our
gardens, from July to November, would be colorless, indeed, if
it were not for
this most admir-
able of flowers.
Plant breeders
have worked long
and patiently with
the zinnia and
now we may have
many charming
clear colors, in
blossoms that
range in size from
the tiny liliputs to
the giant dahlia-
flowered kinds
that are, perhaps,
eight inches
across. There are
pom pom sorts,
curled and crest-
ed, picotes, quilled
and others that
contribute variety
to the flower ar-
rangement.
The seeds may
be planted either
Photo by Harold Mou r).
in flats or in the Fig. 23.-The zinnia in its many forms is indispen-
garden after dan- sable in its many forms.
ger of frost has passed. Sowings should be repeated every six
weeks so as to have a succession of new plants to replace those
which have ceased blooming. The liliput kinds should stand a
foot apart, while the dahlia flowered giants should not be set
closer than two feet, if they are to be properly cared for. Abun-
dant plant food and water should be available to these gross
feeders. As garden subjects, as well as for cutting, the zinnias
cannot be excelled during the summer and early fall months. The
liliputs are especially good as edging plants.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PLANTING GUIDE

When to Sow Approximate Tender or
Name Seeds Time in Bloom Hardy Page
Alyssum* ............. .Any time ..... Any time ..... Hardy ..... 10
Aster ................. Feb.-April .... July-Aug. ..... Tender ..... 10
Baby's Breath ......... Aug.-Dec.. .Jan.-June ... Hardy ..... 11
Balsam ................ Feb.-April .. April-Nov. ... Tender ..... 11
Blanket Flower* ........ Sept.-Dec. ...April-Aug. ....Hardy ..... 12
Blue-Eyed African Daisy*. Aug.-Jan. .... March-June ... Hardy ..... 12
Blue Lace Flower ....... Feb.-April .... July-Aug. ..... Tender ..... 12
Butterfly Flower ........ Aug.-Feb. ..... April-June .... Tender ..... 12
Calendula .............. Aug.-Oct. .....Dec.-June .... Hardy .. 12
California Poppy* ...... Sept.-Dec .... March-June ... Hardy ..... 13
Calliopsis .............. Oct.-Dec ....... April-June .... Hardy .... 13
Candytuft .............. Aug.-Dec ...... March-June ... Hardy ..... 14
Carnation .............. Aug.-Dec...... March-June ... Hardy ..... 14
Celosia ................ Feb.-April .... May-Sept ..... Tender ..... 14
Chinese Forget-Me-Not* Aug.-Feb ...... April-July ..... Hardy ..... 15
Chrysanthemum (annual) Feb.-March .... May-July ..... Tender ..... 15
Clarkia ................. Sept.-Nov. ....April-June .... Hardy ..... 15
Cornflower ............. Aug.-Oct. ..... Dec.-June ..... Hardy ..... 15
Cosmos (bipinnatus) ..... Feb.-April ..... May-Aug ...... Tender ..... 15
Cosmos (sulphureus)*... May-Aug ..... Oct.-Nov ...... Tender ..... 16
Cypress Vine* .......... March-May ... July-Sept. .....Tender ..... 16
Double English Daisy. ... Sept.-Oct. .....Mar.-May .....Hardy ..... 17
Florists' Paint Brush.... .Aug.-Dec. .... March-June .. .Hardy ..... 17
Floss Flower* .......... Feb.-April .... May-August ... Tender ..... 18
Gilia .................... Sept.-Dec. .....April-June ....Hardy ..... 18
Globe Amaranth ........ March-April ...May-July ..... Tender ..... 18
Godetia ................ Sept.-Dec ...... April-June .... Hardy ..... 19
Gourd .................. Feb.-April ..... ........................ 19
Hunnemania ............ Nov.-Dec. ..... April-June .... Hardy ..... 20
Larkspur* .............. Oct.-Dec ...... March-May .... Hardy ..... 20
Leptosyne .............. Aug.-Nov. .... March-June .Hardy ..... 21
Lobelia ................ Sept.-March ... Nov.-May ..... Tender ..... 21
Lupine ................. Aug.-Dec ...... March-June ... Hardy ..... 22
Marigold* .............. Feb.-May ..... Sept.-Nov...... Tender ..... 22
Mignonette ............. Sept.-Nov ..... March-May .... Hardy ..... 23
Morning Glory .......... Feb.-April .....May-Nov. .... Tender ..... 23
Moroccan Toad Flax* Sept.-Nov. .... Dec.-May ..... Hardy ..... 24
Moss Rose ............. Feb.-July ..... May-Oct....... Tender ..... 24
Mourning Bride .......... Sept.-Dec. ..... April-June .... Hardy ..... 26
Nasturtium ............. Feb.-March .... April-June .... Tender ..... 26
Nicotiana ............. Aug.-Nov. .... March-June ... Hardy ..... 26
Orange African Daisy.... Aug.-Feb. .....April-July .....Hardy ..... 26
Painted Tongue ......... Aug.-Nov. .....April-May .....Hardy ..... 26
Pansy ................ Aug.-Nov. .....Jan.-May ...... Hardy ..... 27
Petunia* ............... Aug.-Jan ..... Jan.-July .... Hardy ..... 27
Phlox* ................. Aug.-Feb ...... March-July ... .Hardy ..... 28
Pinks ................. Aug.-Feb...... Jan.-July ......Hardy ..... 29
Poppies* ............... Nov.-Dec ...... March-May .. Hardy ..... 30
Scarlet Flax ............ Sept.-Nov. ....April-June .... Hardy ..... 30
Snapdragon ............ Aug.-Dec ...... Feb.-June ..... Hardy ..... 31
Statice ................. Aug.-Dec ...... April-Aug. ....Hardy ..... 31
Stock .................. Aug.-Dec ..... Feb.-May .....Hardy ..... 32
Strawflower ............ Feb.-April .... .June-Aug .... .Tender ..... 32
Sunflower .............. Feb.-April .... June-Aug ..... Tender ..... 33
Sweet Pea .............. Sept.-Nov. .....Jan.-April .....Hardy ..... 33
Torenia ................ Feb.-May ..... April-Sept ... .Tender ..... 34
Verbena ............... Aug.-Dec. .... Feb.-July .....Hardy ..... 34
Zinnia* ................. Feb.-Aug ..... May-Oct ..... .Tender ..... 35
*Re-seed and volunteer readily.




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