• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 The name
 Landscape uses for camellias
 Selection of varieties
 Selection of planting site
 Preparation of soil
 Planting
 Fertilization
 Mulching
 Watering
 Winter protection
 Bud drop
 Pruning
 Propagation
 Pest control














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 161
Title: Growing camellias in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025528/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing camellias in Florida
Series Title: Fla. University, Gainesville. Agricultural Extension Service. Bul.
Physical Description: 38 p. : illus. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McElwee, E. W ( Edgar Warren ), 1907-
Publisher: <University of Florida>
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Camellias -- Florida   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: "A revision of Bul. 142, Camellia growing, by R.J. Wilmot."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025528
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002787893
oclc - 16403084
notis - ANR6070

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
    The name
        Page 5
    Landscape uses for camellias
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Selection of varieties
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Selection of planting site
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Preparation of soil
        Page 14
    Planting
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Fertilization
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Mulching
        Page 26
    Watering
        Page 27
    Winter protection
        Page 27
    Bud drop
        Page 28
    Pruning
        Page 29
    Propagation
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Pest control
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 161


Growing

Camellias

In Florida
E. W. MCELWEE GIGANTEA
Ornamental Horticulturist


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA


June 1955


















PLATE II. Amabilis, a single.


IDSdff1""' 2


PLATE III. Adolphe Audusson, a semi-double.












CONTENTS
PAGE
THE N AM E .................... .......... ......................... ....... 5
LANDSCAPE USES FOR CAMELLIAS .............................. ...... ... 5
Comm unity Plantings -..... ........... ...... ....... .................. 7
Companion Plants --......... --- ...................-...-. -........ 9
SELECTION OF VARIETIES -.........- ....-- ........................................ 9
Beginner's List of Camellias for Florida ............................ 10-11
SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE ........... ..... ........ .. ..... 12
S oils ..- ----.... ....-- ................. ..................... 13
P protection ..... ... .................... ..................... .. ..... ... .. .. 13
D rainage ........ .... .................. ............. ...................... .............. 13
PREPARATION OF SOIL ........................... .. ..... ........................ ............... 14
Importance of Organic Matter .... ........ ............. .. ........... 14
PLANTING .............. .............................................. 15
W hen to Transplant ................. ...................... 15
Spacing and Depth of Planting -.... ..... ...... ... .. ........ 15
Transplanting from Clay or Muck ... ....................... ....... ...... 15
The Planting Operation ................ .. ......- 17
FERTILIZATION ....---....... ..... ......... .................. 17
Soil Reaction --..... .... ......... ..... ......-...-... ...... 18
Materials for changing the reaction of the soil ........................ 18
Fertilizers .. ........ ........................................ ............. 23
W hen and how to apply .................................... ..-... ....... .. 24
Fertilizer m fixtures -....... ........... ............ 24
What about aluminum sulfate? ... ... ......... .. .. 25
Nutritional Deficiencies ...... ..... .... 25
MULCHING --.......-- .. ... ..- .... ..... .. ..--- ..-.-...... ............. -. 26
W ATERING .---...... ..--....-.......--......... ... 27
W INTER PROTECTION .. .....- ......- ..... -. ............- ... .......... ...... 27
B UD D ROP ................ ..... .. ............. ......... ...... ........ ... .. 28
P RU N IN G ...... ....... ....... .... .. ......... ...... ..... 29
PROPAGATION ............. .. .- 29
S eed ............. ............... .. ..... .. .. ..... ...... .... .. 30
Harvesting, storage and planting .. .................. .. .... ... 30
Transplanting ................................... ..... ... ... ... 30
Cuttings ..................... ..... .. --... ..... ... ....... ....... .. 31
Preparing the propagation bed ............................... ....... 31
M making the cuttings ............ .......................................... 32
Care .....--------... .. ....... --.................-......... ........... 32
Layering ..-------..- --- .. ...... ........- ......... .......... .. 32
G rafting .... ........................................... .... ... ... .. 33
The grafting procedure .... .. ................................. .. ....... ..... 33
PEST CONTROL .-- .....- ..-..... .............. ....................... ... 35
Insects ...... ...-.. .. ...... .. 35
Precautions ...-.....- ...- ... .......-...... ............... ...... .. 36
CONTROL MEASURES ......... .. ...... ...... ........... 37
DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL .... ... .... .. ...-.-...-.-.............. .... 38















BOARD OF CONTROL


J. Lee Ballard, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello


Geo. W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Mrs. Jessie B. duPont, Jacksonville
R. L. Miller, Ph.D., Orlando
J. Broward Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., President of the
University 1
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for
Agriculture *
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
M. O. Watkins, Ph.D., Asst. Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Asst. to Driector
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Mgr.l

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head
F. B. Borries, Jr., A.B., Associate Editor 1
H. L. Moreland, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant
Editor '
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., B.S.A., District Agent
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer,
ASC Office I
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Hush.
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Asst. An. Industrialist
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S.A., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
C. M. Hampson, M.S., Agr. Economist, Farm
Management I
E. W. Cake, Ph.D.. Marketing Economist
W. E. Block, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Asst. Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Hort.
Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Asst. Ornamental Hort.
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' 4-H Club Agent
G. M. Godwin, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent
T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agr. Engineer


A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification
Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Veg. Crops Specialist
S. E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crops
Specialist
F. E. Myers, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crops Splst.
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Veg. Crops Splst.
James E. Brogdon, M.S.A., Entomologist
J. D. Norton, M.S., Asst. Veg. Crops Spelst.
J. H. Herbert, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Soils Cons.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
Helen D. Holstein, M.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edyth Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agt.
Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club
Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, B.S.H.E., Assistant
Girls' 4-H Club Agent2
Martha Burdine, B.S., Interim Asst. Girls'
Club Agent
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Nutritionist
Lena Sturges, M.S., Asst. Food Cons.
Specialist
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Asst. Food Cons.
Specialist
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing Specialist
Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Editor and
Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent


1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F. On leave. In cooperation with U. S.








Growing Camellias in Florida

E. W. MCELWEE 1
Ornamental Horticulturist
Camellias are grown throughout northern Florida, to some
extent in the central sections, and to a very limited extent in the
southern portion of the state. Most varieties will require special
care to grow and flower successfully under the climatic and soil
conditions of lower central and southern Florida. The high
summer temperatures, periodic freezes during warm winters,
sandy soil, salt spray and a high water table present many prob-
lems to challenge the Florida gardener.
These may seem more than a challenge to the new resident
who is gardening in Florida for the first time, but this excellent
plant can be grown successfully in Florida if a few basic cultural
requirements are satisfied.

THE NAME
The pronunciation of the word camellia is confused and varies
between and within areas where camellias are grown. Some
prefer ca-mell'-ia, others use ca-me'-lia, and still others say
ca-may'-lia. Either of the first two pronunciations is correct.
The camellia was named after the Jesuit priest, George Joseph
Kamel, camellia being the Latinized form of Kamel's name.
Some varieties may be listed under several names because they
have been given American, English, European and Japanese
names.
The accepted common name for Camellia japonica is common
camellia. The name camellia technically should also include va-
rieties of C. sasanqua, C. reticulata and other species. Because
of popular usage, camellia will be used in this bulletin instead
of common camellia. The prefix "common" to a plant name
does not mean that it is cheap, plentiful or uninteresting.

LANDSCAPE USES FOR CAMELLIAS
Camellias are outstanding for their mass color effect during
the flowering period; however, the effect of the foliage and
branch pattern during the other seasons of the year should not
be overlooked. Camellias are excellent and versatile landscape
plants. They are ideal for this purpose because they are ever-
1This is a revision of Bulletin 142, Camellia Growing, by R. J. Wilmot.
Appreciation is expressed to the other members of the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station who assisted in
preparing the material for this bulletin. Line drawings by Marion Ruff
Sheehan.








Growing Camellias in Florida

E. W. MCELWEE 1
Ornamental Horticulturist
Camellias are grown throughout northern Florida, to some
extent in the central sections, and to a very limited extent in the
southern portion of the state. Most varieties will require special
care to grow and flower successfully under the climatic and soil
conditions of lower central and southern Florida. The high
summer temperatures, periodic freezes during warm winters,
sandy soil, salt spray and a high water table present many prob-
lems to challenge the Florida gardener.
These may seem more than a challenge to the new resident
who is gardening in Florida for the first time, but this excellent
plant can be grown successfully in Florida if a few basic cultural
requirements are satisfied.

THE NAME
The pronunciation of the word camellia is confused and varies
between and within areas where camellias are grown. Some
prefer ca-mell'-ia, others use ca-me'-lia, and still others say
ca-may'-lia. Either of the first two pronunciations is correct.
The camellia was named after the Jesuit priest, George Joseph
Kamel, camellia being the Latinized form of Kamel's name.
Some varieties may be listed under several names because they
have been given American, English, European and Japanese
names.
The accepted common name for Camellia japonica is common
camellia. The name camellia technically should also include va-
rieties of C. sasanqua, C. reticulata and other species. Because
of popular usage, camellia will be used in this bulletin instead
of common camellia. The prefix "common" to a plant name
does not mean that it is cheap, plentiful or uninteresting.

LANDSCAPE USES FOR CAMELLIAS
Camellias are outstanding for their mass color effect during
the flowering period; however, the effect of the foliage and
branch pattern during the other seasons of the year should not
be overlooked. Camellias are excellent and versatile landscape
plants. They are ideal for this purpose because they are ever-
1This is a revision of Bulletin 142, Camellia Growing, by R. J. Wilmot.
Appreciation is expressed to the other members of the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station who assisted in
preparing the material for this bulletin. Line drawings by Marion Ruff
Sheehan.








Florida Cooperative Extension


green, have interesting shapes and textures, are relatively slow-
growing, and flower during fall and winter when their display
of color is most welcome. They are more difficult to grow and
cost a little more than some commonly used ornamental plants,
but are worth the expense and trouble. Imagine the striking
plantings that would result from using or replacing other plants
used as hedges with camellias!
It is difficult to form a satisfactory landscape picture when
many specimen plants are scattered over the lawn with little
relation to the overall landscape plan. This type of arrange-
ment seldom forms a pleasing landscape picture because it
features plants rather than the home and its surroundings. An
enclosed garden is a logical arrangement for specimen plants
such as camellias. This area may then become a part of the
landscape development without clashing with the interests of
adjacent areas.
Camellias are adapted to many landscape uses, including base

Fig. 1.-The Alba Plena is a long-time favorite white variety. It has
double Blossoms.










1 .- i-







Growing Camellias in Florida


or foundation plants, mass, screen, and accent plantings, lawn
and background groupings, clipped and unclipped hedges, and
as tubbed specimens for use on the patio or in sun rooms. Sasan-
qua camellias are useful as espaliers for creating foliage patterns
on otherwise uninteresting fences and wall spaces. The slow
but strong-growing varieties should be selected for base, accent
and hedge plantings. Varieties having a globose, sub-globose
or irregular and spreading habit of growth are adapted to mass,
group and unclipped hedge plantings. Varieties having a pyra-
midal or upright habit of growth are better suited for accent
and formal plantings and clipped hedges (Fig. 2).
The single and semi-double varieties usually will produce more
pleasing effects in base plantings than those with massive flowers.
Strong or striking colors and color combinations usually should
not be used in the base planting. The base planting should
complement the building and should not attract undue atten-
tion to plants.
The texture of a plant-size, color and density of leaves and
branches-is particularly useful in effecting space and distance
relationships. Fine-textured plants appear farther away and
coarse-textured plants appear closer when both are the same
distance from the observer. The coarse-textured plants are
usually better as background plantings while the fine-textured
selections are excellent for use with the accent colors in the front
of the border.
Landscape plantings give the camellia fan an outlet for many
less spectacular seedlings and plants that accumulate around the
home of the average camellia enthusiast. In other words, it
seems worth while to use some of these seedlings and selections
for landscape purposes rather than to graft all of them to the
more expensive varieties for specimen plants. What better com-
panion plant for the expensive plants could one find than a
single-flowered seedling?

COMMUNITY PLANTINGS
Community-wide planting of camellias will usually present a
better picture if the home owners will cooperate and unify their
individual plantings into an overall street development rather
than to have unrelated plantings on each property. In this type
of street development, camellias usually will appear best when
used as mass plantings and singularly in the plantings bordering
the front area, against a background of other shrubs rather
than as specimen plants in the lawn area.



























1 2 3 4
Fig. 2.-Different shapes of Camellia plants: (1) Upright-spreading; (2) globose or round-headed; (3) irregular-
spreading; and (4) upright.







Growing Camellias in Florida


COMPANION PLANTS
Plants of similar characteristics and habits that can be used to
enhance the appearance of camellias include the following species:
Azalea Hollies, most species
Banana-shrub Japanese Cleyra
Blueberry Japanese Photinia
Common Sweet-shrub Japanese Stewartia
Florida Anistree Laurustinus
Gardenia Mountain-laurel
Osmanthus, all species

SELECTION OF VARIETIES
There are thousands of named varieties offered by commer-
cial nurseries. More are being introduced each year which come
from seedlings and sports. Plants can be selected to give flower
types from single to tiered or double, in colors of white, pink,
red and combinations of these colors in numerous patterns. They
can be selected also for forms and shapes ranging from formal
and upright to irregular and spreading. Within these, one can
secure several degrees of texture from fine to coarse and several
shades of green foliage color. An important point to insure
success in growing camellias is to select adaptable varieties and
to buy only healthy, well-branched plants, free of insects and
diseases and with well-developed root systems.
In selecting for a succession of blooms, the midseason varieties
that bloom from November through January are better adapted
to Florida conditions than early and late varieties. The earlies
may not develop properly under the high fall temperatures.
Frequently, the late selections begin vegetative growth before
the end of the flowering season, which results in "bullheads",
poor quality, or shedding, and seriously limits their adaptability
for Florida gardens. Some may be injured and still present an
acceptable landscape effect, but such an effect is not the objective
of a good gardener.
A long list of varieties in this bulletin would only serve to
confuse the gardener in selecting varieties for his first venture
into growing camellias. There is little doubt that the beginner
who is successful in growing his first camellia will get the "bug"
and progress to a wider selection of varieties, including those
that are difficult to grow. More complete listings and descrip-
tions of varieties are available in other publications. It is
realized that personal preferences and experience would cause












BEGINNER'S LIST OF CAMELLIAS FOR FLORIDA


No. Variety


WHITE
1. Alba Plena* ...................-..-
2. Purity ............................. -

3. White Empress* ................


LIGHT PINK
4. Debutante* ..........................
5. Pink Perfection* ...........


DARK PINK

6. Elegans Pink ...............

7. Lady Clare (Empress)* ....
8. Rose Dawn .....................

Flowers over a long period.
t Injured by 18F. temperature.


Season
of Boom


E
M-L
M



E-M
E-M



M
E
M-L


Ir
I]
S



I:
I:


I

I
I


Type of Shape of
Flower Plant


mbr. Dbl. Globose
mbr. Dbl. Upright
emi-Dbl. Globose



rr. Dbl. Globose
mbr. Dbl. Upright



ncomp. Dbl. Spreading
emi-Dbl. Spreading
mbr. Dbl. Irregular


Rate of
SGrowth


Slow
Rapid
Rapid



Rapid
Slow



Slow
Rapid
Medium


Bud
Damage
From Cold t


Severe
Slight

Medium



Slight to
medium
Medium


Slight
Medium


Remarks



Adapted to S. Fla. Slow to
start
Young plants flower





Adapted to S. Fla.
Carnation-flowered
Favorite for many years



Often spotted with white
Fls. fall soon after opening


Slight


i









No. Variety


RED

Kimberley ............................

Mathiotiana* .................

Prof. C. S. Sargent* ........

Prince Eugene Napoleon ..

Victor Emmanuel* ............


VARIEGATED

Adolphe Audusson Varieg.*

Elegans Varieg.* ............

Gigantea ................ ...... ......

Governor Mouton ..............

Herme ............ ..............

Sweeti Vera .......................


Flowers over a long period.
t Injured by 18F. temperature.


Season
of Boom



M


E-M-S

M-S

L-M-S

M-L

M-S

M


Type of Shape of Rate of
Flower Plant Growth


Single

Imbr. Dbl.

Irr. Dbl.

Imbr. Dbl.

Incomp. Dbl.


Upright

Upright

Upright

Upright

Compact


Semi-Dbl. Upright

Irr. Dbl. Upright

Incomp. Dbl. Irregular

Irr. Dbl. Upright

Incomp. Dbl. Upright

Incomp. Dbl. Irregular


Rapid

Rapid

Rapid

Medium

Slow




Weak

Slow

Rapid

Rapid

Slow

Rapid


Remarks


Bud
Damage
from Cold



Slight

Heavy

Slight

Medium

Severe


Medium Very striking flowers

Slight Young plants flower

Heavy Very large flowers.
Adapated to S. Fla.
Medium First class variety. Some
solid red flowers
Heavy Adapted to S. Fla. Young
plants flower, fragrant
Slight Large white and pale pink
flowers. Adapted to S. Fla.


Very hardy

Very popular

Adapted to S. Fla. Grows in
sun. Free-flowering
Free-flowering, good keeper








Florida Cooperative Extension


one to change or add to almost any list. However, based on the
experience of more than 25 camellia growers and commercial
nurserymen and the experience of many more home owners, those
listed in the Beginner's List are generally adapted to Florida con-
ditions and will produce flowers in different colors and forms,
more consistently than many of the selections used in other
sections of the South.
Several growers and home owners have included the following
in their selection of varieties for Florida conditions:


C. M. Hovey
C. M. Wilson
Colletti
Daikagura
Donckelari
Gloire de Nantes (S. Fla.)


Lady Marion
Lallarook (S. Fla.)
Lady Mary Cromartie
Mrs. Charles Cobb
Rev. John Drayton
Semi-double Blush


The following varieties are suggested for some of the many
landscape uses for which camellias are adapted:
Unclipped Hedge
Base Plantings Clipped Hedge and Screens
Alba Plena Appleblossom (S) Appleblossom (S)
Appleblossom (S) Cheerful Cheerful
Cleopatra (S) Cleopatra (S) Cleopatra (S)
Colletti Dawn (S) Dawn (S)
Dawn (S) Prof. C. S. Sargent Herme
Elegans Pink Tricolor Tricolor
Informal Plantings Mass and Background
Elegans Pink Debutante
Gigantea Gigantea
Jarvis Red Governor Mouton
Lady Clare Lady Clare
Leucantha Mrs. Charles Cobb
Prince Eugene Napoleon Victor Emmanuel
Sweeti Vera White Empress

SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE
Another step in growing camellias is the selection of a site
that will supply as nearly ideal conditions as possible for their
growth. A location that provides these basic cultural needs
will enable the plant to withstand some adverse conditions. The
(S)-Variety of sasanqua camellia.







Growing Camellias in Florida


selection of a good planting site will save time and expense in
artificially preparing the area and will aid in producing healthy
plants and flowers.
Cultural factors that should be considered are the selection
of a partially shaded area, protected from cold winds and with
good water and air drainage. If the soil is naturally fertile,
high in organic matter and acid in reaction, so much the better,
but if not, it should be so prepared to provide these important
requirements.
SOILS
Camellias are being grown successfully on a wide range of
soils, which vary from sands to clays, mucks and peats. Many
of the cultural problems can be attributed to failure to properly
prepare the soil or an unsatisfactory location. The soil may
require the addition of liberal amounts of organic matter. The
reaction of the soil may need adjusting if not within the range
of pH 5.0-6.0, the ideal range being pH 5.0 to 5.5.

PROTECTION
The site should have good air drainage; it should not be so
low that cold air settles in the area but cold air should drain
away from it. However, the area should be protected from
cold winds. Trees, such as pines, that give a light shade or
shade early in the morning will aid in reducing cold damage.
Locations on the north or west of a house or shaded area usually
will show less cold damage because they are usually shaded
early in the morning and thaw or warm gradually before being
exposed to full sunlight. Plants in these locations usually go
dormant earlier and remain dormant later than plantings in
more exposed positions on the south side of buildings.
Too much shade may result in sparse foliage and poor growth
and flowering. Plants in full sunlight usually have light or
yellow-green color, but may produce more flowers than those
grown in full shade.
DRAINAGE
The site should be well drained. Poor drainage not only may
cause severe root damage during wet weather but may result
in a shallow root system which causes the plant to be more
subject to injury during dry weather than one with a well-
developed root system. If a hardpan is close to the surface,
it is important either to break through the hardpan or to provide
artificially some means of drainage. It is a poor practice to








Florida Cooperative Extension


plant camellias so that they are growing on a mound. These
plants are difficult to water and are more subject to injury dur-
ing dry weather.

PREPARATION OF SOIL
The time to prepare for the extensive spread of the root sys-
tem is before planting. It is better to prepare the entire bed
where several camellias are to be grouped than to prepare a
restricted hole for each plant. The bed should be prepared by
first removing poor or packed soil and soil that contains cement,
sand or other debris left from construction work. The second
step is to add up to 6 inches of organic matter and superphos-
phate; a complete fertilizer and acidifying agent should be added
as needed. These materials should then be mixed thoroughly
with the top 12 to 18 inches of soil.
The holes for individual plants should be dug about twice as
wide as the ball of soil or spread of the root system. Soil used
for filling should be prepared in bulk before planting begins.
This soil mixture can be prepared by adding to a good garden
soil 1/% to peat or other organic matter by volume, complete
fertilizer and acidifying agent as required by the particular soil.

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER
Select the most inexpensive organic material available and
use more of it. Peat, leafmold, peanut hulls, well-rotted saw-
dust, well-rotted manure and decomposed ramie, grass and straw
have all been used successfully in soils for camellias. The organic
material or combination of materials should not pack and should
add humus to hold water and fertilizer nutrients. At the same
time, this organic matter should contain enough coarse material
to promote aeration of this soil and movement of water into
the soil.
The question may arise as to the possible detrimental effects
of resin in pine sawdust and the beneficial effects of tannic acid
in oak sawdust on the growth of camellias. The usual amounts
of pine sawdust do not add enough resin to be harmful, and the
amount of tannic acid added by oak sawdust does not materially
affect the acidity of the soil. The sawdust may be partially de-
composed to reduce nitrogen deficiency in plants grown in
sawdust mixtures. Bacterial decomposition of the sawdust tem-
porarily uses up the nitrogen. This condition can be remedied
by light but frequent applications of a nitrogenous fertilizer,







Growing Camellias in Florida


about 1/4 pound of ammonium nitrate or 1/2 pound of ammonium
sulfate every 2 to 3 weeks per 100 square feet of area or 2
tablespoonfuls for a 3 to 4 foot plant.

PLANTING
This detailed procedure is intended more for the beginner
than for the experienced camellia fancier. Care in preparation
of the soil and in the transplanting operation will result in better
plant growth.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT
It is better to transplant during the dormant season, Novem-
ber to February, as root growth during the dormant season
enables the plant to become better established and make better
growth during the first year than would be possible from late
planting. Camellias can be transplanted in late spring, summer
or fall if the gardener will give extra care and protection neces-
sary to compensate for the more unfavorable conditions. Con-
tainer-grown plants can be transplanted at any time of the year.
One should handle the plants carefully to retain as many roots
as possible and to reduce the loss of water from the plant. An-
other important point in transplanting is to prune the top to
reduce it in proportion to the reduced root system. Spraying
with a wax emulsion before transplanting, use of mist, shade,
mulch and water after transplanting all help to reduce the shock
to the plant.
SPACING AND DEPTH OF PLANTING
Camellias should be spaced according to their size and rate of
growth to allow the full and natural development of the plant,
usually at least five or more feet apart.
Camellias should be planted so that the root system will be
no deeper than it was in the container or nursery row. The soil
mixture used under the plants should contain less organic mat-
ter than the soil used around the plant. The decomposition of
an organic matter may allow the plant to settle, resulting in
poor growth. Some gardeners leave a cone of undisturbed earth
in the center of the hole on which to set the plant to prevent
settling (Fig. 3).

TRANSPLANTING FROM CLAY OR MUCK
Camellias grown in muck or clay soil may grow poorly when
transplanted into a sandy soil. Once clay or muck is dry, it
is difficult to wet. The water usually follows the line of least


































Fig. 3.-Planting camellias. Settling can be reduced by: (1) Leaving an undisturbed mound of soil under the plant; or
(2) firmly compacting soil low in organic matter under it. (3) To facilitate wetting the clay or muck, the tops can be
flattened and edges of the ball loosened. (4) In some cases the soil can be removed and the plant set "bare-root". (5) The
proper steps in transplanting are: (a) partially fill and firm the soil at sufficient height to place the plant at the proper
depth, (b and c) repeat partial filling, settling with water, and (d) leave saucer-shaped depression on top and mulch.







Growing Camellias in Florida


resistance and flows off into the sandy soil rather than into the
soil around the roots. Some practice should be followed that
will facilitate getting water to the roots. One method is to care-
fully wash the muck or soil off the roots and transplant "bare
root" into prepared soil. A second method is to place the plant
in the hole at the proper depth and carefully loosen the com-
pacted edge of the ball and remove the rounded top of the ball
to improve the chances of wetting the soil. A third method
is to loosen the compacted soil by forcing a stream of water
into it. This may be a poor practice, as the stream of water
may destroy many small roots as it breaks the soil away from
the larger roots.
THE PLANTING OPERATION
In setting the plant the hole should be partially filled with
the soil mixture, which is then settled among the roots or around
the ball by soaking with water rather than by packing. The
same procedure may be used for planting "bare root" plants
except that the soil should be carefully worked between the
roots with the hands or by gently shaking the plant up and
down before the soil is finally settled by watering. Repeat the
filling and watering process until the hole is filled and the top
shaped to a saucer-like depression to facilitate watering the
plant. The mulch should be applied before the final watering
to retain the loose soil surface and to promote better aeration
and water penetration into the soil (Fig. 3).

FERTILIZATION
The fertilization recommendations for camellias, in many cases,
have been unduly complicated with special azalea and camellia
mixtures. These fertilizers have been widely used and have
given good results but they are often quite expensive as com-
pared to the same grades of garden fertilizers. If the reaction
of the soil is at the desired level, or if it is corrected, the cheaper
grades of acid-forming fertilizer such as 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 can be
used effectively. The nitrogen of a fertilizer high in organic
may be more slowly available than the nitrogen from chemical
sources, but it is usually more expensive. The relative merits
of an organic fertilizer as compared to a chemical fertilizer is
whether or not the slow availability and less frequent applica-
tion of the organic fertilizer can justify the extra cost.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL REACTION
The ideal soil reaction or pH for camellias, as far as the avail-
ability of nutrients and plant growth is concerned, lies between
pH 5.0 and 5.5. They will grow in soils with a reaction from
pH 3.5 to pH 6.0 without undue detrimental effects if other
conditions are satisfactory. There is little reason for the gar-
dener to worry about the soil reaction until it drops below pH
4.5 or rises much above pH 6.0.
There are several chemicals and mixtures of these chemicals
used for changing the soil reaction. The choice of material
depends on the gardener's preference, the care used in applying
them and how rapidly he wishes to change the condition of the
soil. In many instances only a slight reduction in reaction is
needed. In such cases the use of acid peat in the soil and as a
mulch and adding acid-forming fertilizers usually will do the
trick. If the soil or water-or both-is alkaline or "sweet",
above pH 7.0, repeated applications of an acidifying agent will
be required to obtain the desired reaction.
Materials for Changing the Reaction of the Soil.-Sulfur as
an acidifying agent is about three times as strong in acidifying
properties as aluminum sulfate. It does not change the reaction
of the soil as rapidly, but it is effective for a longer time. Sulfur
does not tie up nutrients as completely as does aluminum sulfate.
It will cause root injury, however, if too much is applied or it
is not properly mixed with and watered into the soil. The coarse
grade, flowers of sulfur, may be used, but the finely-ground
dusting (325-mesh) or wettable grades of sulfur are more satis-
factory, as they act more quickly and are more easily incor-
porated into the soil.
A mixture of 3 parts of dusting sulfur and 1 part of finely-
ground iron sulfate is a good acidifying agent for camellias.
This mixture not only acidifies the soil but supplies iron that
is deficient in some Florida soils. A variation of this mixture
that may be used when the plants need additional nitrogen
consists of substituting 1 part of ammonium sulfate for 1 part
of sulfur in the above mixture, or by mixing 2 parts of sulfur,
1 part of iron sulfate and 1 part of ammonium sulfate.
Sulfur and mixtures containing sulfur should not be used
more often than two or three times per year, and at least 6 to 8
weeks should elapse between applications. It is not safe to use
more than 1 to 2 pounds per 100 square feet of area per applica-
tion. When possible, the material should be thoroughly mixed

















































PLATE IV. Lady Clare, a semi-double form.
















































PLATE V. Elegans Variegated, an incomplete double form with
prominent stamens.
























































PLATE VI. Sweeti Vera, an incomplete double form without
prominent stamens.


:it:


~ .u-r:



























'.,.v'







PLATE VII. Pink Perfection, a regular imbricated form.








Growing Camellias in Florida


with the soil. For growing plants, water before and after apply-
ing the acidifying agent.
The table below shows the amounts of sulfur, acidifying mix-
ture and dolomite required to change the reaction of an average
Florida soil:

APPROXIMATE AMOUNT OF MATERIALS REQUIRED TO CHANGE
THE REACTION OF SOME SOILS

Pounds per 100 Square Feet* to Change
pH of the Soil i Acidity to pH 5.2 for

Sandy Soil Loam Soil Muck or Peat
Add sulfur or acidifying mixture to lower pH

7.0 2 3 6
6.5 1 2 5

6.0 1 2 4

Add dolomitic lime to raise pH

4.5 2 3 7
4.0 4 7 15
3.5 7 10 23

For a wheelbarrow of soil (21 bu.) add 1/15 of above amounts.
For a square yard of area (9 sq. ft.) add 1/10 of above amounts.
For a cubic yard of soil (27 cu. ft.) add 1/2 of above amounts.

APPROXIMATE MEASURES OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS


M material ...................

Sulfur ........ ............ .. I
6-6-6


Ammonium sulfate
Iror sulfate ................
Dolomite


1 pint


% lb.



1 lb.


1 pound


114 pints



1 pint


1 ounce


3 tablespoons



2 tablespoons


Leaching of some fertilizer nutrients, particularly nitrogen
and potash, may be quite rapid in sandy soils. As compared to
the heavier soils of other sections, sandy soils have less ability
to retain fertilizer nutrients. This indicates that light but fre-







Florida Cooperative Extension


quent applications of fertilizers should be made to ornamental
plants in most sections of Florida. Experimental work in Ala-
bama has shown that camellias can utilize rather heavy rates
of fertilizer when it is split into several applications. The best
results were obtained from the use of 4 pounds of a complete
fertilizer divided in 4 applications of about 1 pound per 100
square feet of area for each application. This is equivalent to
using about 2,000 pounds per acre.
When and How to Apply.-In preparing soil for planting, the
fertilizer should be added and mixed along with the peat or other
organic matter. In new, fertile soil only superphosphate may
be required. For other soils a complete fertilizer, such as 6-6-6
or 8-8-8, should be added. Both of these materials may be
used at the rate of 3 to 4 pounds per 100 square feet of area,
11/2 to 2 pounds per cubic yard, or 1/4 pint per wheelbarrow of soil.
During the growing season a complete fertilizer, such as
6-6-6 or 8-8-8, should be used at the rate of about 1 to 11/2
pounds per 100 square feet of area, 2 to 3 ounces per square
yard of area, or 2 to 3 tablespoonfuls for a 3 to 4 foot plant for
each of 4 applications. It is recommended that the applications
be timed as follows: (1) before growth starts in the spring to
supply the first flush of growth, (2) after the first flush of
growth has begun to harden, in April or May, to supply the
second flush of growth, (3) in mid-summer to replace fertilizer
leached by the summer rains and to maintain growth, and (4)
in early winter after the danger of late growth is past to en-
courage root growth during the dormant season.
The fertilizer should be applied uniformly to the area under
and slightly beyond the spread of the branches of the plant. The
effectiveness of the fertilizer for large or old plants can be in-
creased by applying in holes 8 to 12 inches deep scattered uni-
formly over the area under the plant. In either case, water the
plant before and after applying the fertilizer to protect the roots
and aid in getting the fertilizer into the root zone.
Fertilizer Mixtures.-The following fertilizer mixtures are
suggested for those who wish to mix their own fertilizer for
camellias and other plants which grow best in an acid soil. The
components should be thoroughly mixed by rolling the ingredi-
ents back and forth on a tarpaulin or cloth, as it is difficult to do
this with a shovel. These mixtures are composed largely of
acid-forming materials, plus the acidifying agents, so that each
100 pounds will acidify the soil as much as an application of







Growing Camellias in Florida


about 15 to 17 pounds of sulfur. The iron sulfate is included
as an acidifying agent and to supply iron.

SUGGESTED FERTILIZER COMBINATIONS FOR HOME MIXING

Pounds per 100 Pounds
Fertilizer Material of Mix
6-6-6* 8-8-8*
Castor pumice, milorganite or cottonseed meal.. 50 50
Ammonium phosphate (11-48-0) .......................... 9 13
Ammonium sulfate .................................. 7 15/2
Muriate of potash ------------.......... .. ..-- ---............ 8 12
Iron sulfate ..----...-.- ................................ 2% 2
Superfine sulfur ..- ------.......- -...... .................. 7% 7
Peat or peanut hulls (filler) ............................... 15 0

This formula is based on cottonseed meal and will vary slightly with the substitution
of castor pomace or milorganite.

What about Aluminum Sulfate?-Aluminum sulfate has been
widely used to acidify soils for camellias but this material has
several undesirable characteristics. It changes the acidity of
the soil quite rapidly, but the effect is short-lived. A heavy
application or the continued use of this material may tie up
phosphorus and certain other nutrients to the point of reducing
growth. Furthermore, relatively small concentrations of free
aluminum may cause root injury. Excess aluminum in the soil
may be neutralized with superphosphate or gypsum.

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES
Occasionally, chlorotic plants may appear, chiefly on the
coastal soils approaching or alkaline in reaction. This condition
can usually be attributed to a deficiency or unavailability of
one or more of the necessary nutrients or minor elements, iron,
manganese, magnesium or zinc. It is difficult to distinguish or
separate the symptoms of deficiencies of these nutrients. This
chlorosis or condition can be temporarily corrected with a nutri-
tional spray, but the soil also should be treated.
A nutritional spray can be made by using 2 ounces each of
ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate and zinc sulfate in 3 gallons
of water and adding a paste of 3 ounces of hydrated lime. Add
about 1 teaspoonful per gallon of a detergent to increase the
wetting and spreading qualities of the spray.
This spray can be used also for the soil application. A mix-
ture of minor elements for applying dry to the soil may be made







Florida Cooperative Extension


by mixing 4 parts of magnesium sulfate, 1 part of manganese
sulfate, 1 part of iron sulfate and 1 part of sulfur. This material
is used at the rate of about 1 ounce or 2 teaspoonfuls per 3 to 4
foot plant or 1 to 11/ pounds per 100 square feet of area.
There are several commercial mixtures of minor elements on
the market for use as nutritional sprays or for treating the soil.
These should be used as recommended by the manufacturer,
as concentrations of the mixtures and materials differ.
Chelated iron may be used to correct iron deficiency in the soil.
Concentrations of different commercial formulations of this
material vary, and the recommendations of the manufacturer
should be followed. Generally, 1 ounce of 12 percent or 2 ounces
of 6 percent chelated iron per 100 square feet of area or 25
gallons of water is adequate. The EDTA iron chelates have been
effective in correcting this trouble.

MULCHING
There is little doubt that mulching is a worthwhile gardening
practice in Florida. However, a brief summary of some of the
benefits derived from its use may serve to emphasize the im-
portance of this practice.
Ideally, a mulch material should stay in place, break down
slowly, be easy to wet and remain loose. A mulch increases
aeration and water penetration into the soil. It is more effective
if the soil is not compact before it is applied. A mulch reduces
evaporation, moderates soil temperatures and lessens compaction
and weeds. Decomposition of the mulch adds humus to the soil
and improves granulation. A soil that is properly prepared and
mulched does not require cultivation. Cultivation may destroy
many feeder roots. These roots are also more easily injured by
fertilizers than the deeper roots. The water-fertilizer-water
procedure also pays dividends in less root and foliage damage
to the plants.
Many types of material have been used successfully as mulches
for camellias. Such materials as pine straw, shredded cypress
bark, peanut hulls, cane bagasse, straw and leaves that normally
do not lie flat or pack usually are better mulch materials than
peat or fine sawdust. Other materials used include sawdust,
leaves, peat, sawdust-peat mixtures, pine bark and other ma-
terials. Some growers do not like sawdust because they feel that
it encourages termites to attack plants.







Growing Camellias in Florida


WATERING
Florida's climate may be quite dry, especially during winter
months, even with an average annual rainfall of 50 inches. The
sandy nature of many Florida soils further complicates the situ-
ation, and dry weather may be more injurious to plant growth
than the same conditions on the heavier soils. It takes less
water to wet a sandy soil, but sand loses water more quickly
than the heavier soil types.
Each individual should determine for his particular soil how
long it should be irrigated to wet to a depth of 14 to 18 inches.
Moisten the soil to this depth each time water is applied and
then allow the soil to dry out before watering again. Camellias
maintained in this manner usually need watering only every
10 days to two weeks during dry weather. This practice en-
courages the deep roots to grow rather than those near the
surface, which are likely to dry out. Watering lightly and fre-
quently may cause unsatisfactory plant growth in several ways:
(1) The soil in most of the root zone may not be wet at all, and
the plant may suffer for lack of water even though watered
daily. (2) Watering lightly may cause roots near the surface
to develop and to be more subject to drought or adverse condi-
tions. Many cases of drought injury have been noted on plants
handled in this manner. (3) Keeping the surface constantly wet
may reduce the aeration of the soil to the point of causing root
injury.
WINTER PROTECTION
The susceptibility of camellias to cold injury varies with age
and vigor of the plant, variety, stage of maturity of wood and
buds, protection and severity of the cold. Sudden drops in the
temperature to 18-24F. in fall or early winter may injure
camellias worse than the same temperature during January or
early February. Temperatures that drop gradually over a period
of 24 to 48 hours usually cause less damage than rapid drops in
temperature. Hardy varieties will withstand about 20 degrees
lower temperature than will very tender varieties.
Healthy plants are also more resistant to cold than diseased
or unhealthy plants. Older plants are usually not hurt by cold
as much as young plants. Plants making rapid and vigorous
growth may be damaged more than dormant plants. Watering
the plants thoroughly before cold weather may also increase cold
resistance. Mature buds are less likely to become a casualty
of cold weather than young buds. The buds of single and semi-







Growing Camellias in Florida


WATERING
Florida's climate may be quite dry, especially during winter
months, even with an average annual rainfall of 50 inches. The
sandy nature of many Florida soils further complicates the situ-
ation, and dry weather may be more injurious to plant growth
than the same conditions on the heavier soils. It takes less
water to wet a sandy soil, but sand loses water more quickly
than the heavier soil types.
Each individual should determine for his particular soil how
long it should be irrigated to wet to a depth of 14 to 18 inches.
Moisten the soil to this depth each time water is applied and
then allow the soil to dry out before watering again. Camellias
maintained in this manner usually need watering only every
10 days to two weeks during dry weather. This practice en-
courages the deep roots to grow rather than those near the
surface, which are likely to dry out. Watering lightly and fre-
quently may cause unsatisfactory plant growth in several ways:
(1) The soil in most of the root zone may not be wet at all, and
the plant may suffer for lack of water even though watered
daily. (2) Watering lightly may cause roots near the surface
to develop and to be more subject to drought or adverse condi-
tions. Many cases of drought injury have been noted on plants
handled in this manner. (3) Keeping the surface constantly wet
may reduce the aeration of the soil to the point of causing root
injury.
WINTER PROTECTION
The susceptibility of camellias to cold injury varies with age
and vigor of the plant, variety, stage of maturity of wood and
buds, protection and severity of the cold. Sudden drops in the
temperature to 18-24F. in fall or early winter may injure
camellias worse than the same temperature during January or
early February. Temperatures that drop gradually over a period
of 24 to 48 hours usually cause less damage than rapid drops in
temperature. Hardy varieties will withstand about 20 degrees
lower temperature than will very tender varieties.
Healthy plants are also more resistant to cold than diseased
or unhealthy plants. Older plants are usually not hurt by cold
as much as young plants. Plants making rapid and vigorous
growth may be damaged more than dormant plants. Watering
the plants thoroughly before cold weather may also increase cold
resistance. Mature buds are less likely to become a casualty
of cold weather than young buds. The buds of single and semi-







Florida Cooperative Extension


double varieties are more hardy than those of incomplete double
and double varieties. In Mississippi it was found that the buds
of some varieties were much more resistant than the twigs and
foliage, while other varieties showed severe bud damage but
little foliage or twig injury. Of the 87 varieties tested, those
that showed most cold resistance in buds, foliage and twigs in-
cluded Brown's Red, Flame, Governor Mouton, Kimberly, Semi-
double Blush, Tricolor and Vedrine.
An important way to reduce winter injury to camellias is to
select a partially shaded planting site that also has other desir-
able characteristics.
Measures that may provide some protection to the camellias
include the use of windbreaks which protect the plants from cold
or dry winds. Covering plants is more a protection against
frost than against extreme cold. The greatest value of the cover
comes from the shading during the thawing period than from
the protection afforded in maintaining a higher temperature.
Most methods of heating the plants will aid in protecting them
from cold, but heating plants growing in the open is rather ex-
pensive and inconvenient.

BUD DROP
Bud drop can be caused by several conditions or factors, any
one of which may have been in operation for some time before
the buds actually dropped. It is, therefore, difficult to trace down
the cause or causes of bud abscission. This condition is the re-
sult of extreme or sudden changes in climatic or growing condi-
tions, unfavorable to the plant as far as flowering is concerned.
Some varieties show an inherent tendency to drop their buds.
Conditions that promote vigorous growth, such as a heavy ap-
plication of fertilizer, may cause it. This is more likely to hap-
pen in late varieties here in Florida, as early growth may begin
before the plants have finished flowering. Other extreme
changes in culture or care may aggravate this response, includ-
ing insufficient watering, overwatering, poor drainage, exposure
to cold or drying winds, spray injury, nematode infestation and
nutrient deficiencies.
The effects of sudden and extreme changes in temperature
should be familiar to all, yet gardeners send in bud samples for
examination which have obviously been injured by the cold.
Buds injured by the cold usually show blackened centers or stems
and the flower pulls away from the central cone.








Growing Camellias in Florida


Buds sometimes swell, show color and drop before fully open,
or "bullhead". This condition is worse on late varieties during
mild winters or when very warm weather early in the spring
follows cold weather, resulting in rapid bud development during
the late stages of growth.
Many of the causes of bud drop can be eliminated by choosing
midseason varieties flowering from November to February, by
avoiding those that are known to have a tendency to shed flower
buds, by selecting a good planting site and by giving more atten-
tion to cultural practices to avoid extreme changes.

PRUNING
Camellias ordinarily require little pruning to maintain accept-
able shape as a landscape plant. Any major pruning should be
done on midseason varieties in very early spring. When large
plants are transplanted the branches and branchlets should be
thinned to reduce the amount of top the reduced root system
must maintain. A large top growth may overtax a limited root
system to the point of retarding the recovery of the plant after
transplanting. The plant may not begin to grow until after a
dormant period and the roots have developed.
Prune by thinning the branches and branchlets to retain a
natural shape and branching habit. Thinning does not affect
the natural shape as does "heading back" or shearing. Plants
with very dense tops, as a result of shearing, should be thinned
so that light will penetrate into the plant to encourage new
growth. To thin a plant, cut branches to a side branch to pre-
vent multiple branching from the cut. Cutting back to a bud
produces many branches and should be used to thicken or fill
in open areas in the plant.
Plants with roots injured by poor drainage, insects or disease
stand a better chance of recovery if the top is thinned rather
severely and permitted to grow back in proportion to what the
roots are able to maintain.

PROPAGATION
Camellias can be propagated by seed, cuttings, grafting and
layering. The choice of the method of propagation depends
quite largely on the gardener's interest, the equipment he has
available, the type of material and the time he wishes to spend
in taking care of the propagation unit. Seed may be used for
producing new plants or varieties which may be totally different
from the parent plants.








Growing Camellias in Florida


Buds sometimes swell, show color and drop before fully open,
or "bullhead". This condition is worse on late varieties during
mild winters or when very warm weather early in the spring
follows cold weather, resulting in rapid bud development during
the late stages of growth.
Many of the causes of bud drop can be eliminated by choosing
midseason varieties flowering from November to February, by
avoiding those that are known to have a tendency to shed flower
buds, by selecting a good planting site and by giving more atten-
tion to cultural practices to avoid extreme changes.

PRUNING
Camellias ordinarily require little pruning to maintain accept-
able shape as a landscape plant. Any major pruning should be
done on midseason varieties in very early spring. When large
plants are transplanted the branches and branchlets should be
thinned to reduce the amount of top the reduced root system
must maintain. A large top growth may overtax a limited root
system to the point of retarding the recovery of the plant after
transplanting. The plant may not begin to grow until after a
dormant period and the roots have developed.
Prune by thinning the branches and branchlets to retain a
natural shape and branching habit. Thinning does not affect
the natural shape as does "heading back" or shearing. Plants
with very dense tops, as a result of shearing, should be thinned
so that light will penetrate into the plant to encourage new
growth. To thin a plant, cut branches to a side branch to pre-
vent multiple branching from the cut. Cutting back to a bud
produces many branches and should be used to thicken or fill
in open areas in the plant.
Plants with roots injured by poor drainage, insects or disease
stand a better chance of recovery if the top is thinned rather
severely and permitted to grow back in proportion to what the
roots are able to maintain.

PROPAGATION
Camellias can be propagated by seed, cuttings, grafting and
layering. The choice of the method of propagation depends
quite largely on the gardener's interest, the equipment he has
available, the type of material and the time he wishes to spend
in taking care of the propagation unit. Seed may be used for
producing new plants or varieties which may be totally different
from the parent plants.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The vegetative means of propagation may be used for produc-
ing plants like the parent plant or for increasing sports which,
like seedlings, may be quite different from the parent plant, but
which occur frequently on certain varieties.

SEED
Some of the single and semi-double varieties set seed quite
readily, while others do so infrequently. Most of the incomplete
double and all of the double varieties may rarely produce seed.
Many seedlings are being grown by camellia fanciers in an effort
to develop new varieties from natural and controlled crosses.
The method of making controlled crosses is a rather detailed
procedure and will not be covered here. Plant breeding is a slow
process, as only one or two seedlings among a thousand plants
may produce a desirable type of flower, and even this flower may
be similar to named varieties in the trade.
Seed may also be used for producing plants for use as under-
stock for grafting.
Harvesting, Storage and Planting.-The seed should be har-
vested and planted as soon as they are ripe, July to September.
If not convenient to plant as soon as ripe, dry and store in an
air-tight container in a cool place until planted. Germination
may be hastened by scarifying or "nicking" the hard seed coat
to hasten the intake of water. Seed are sown in pots or flats of
peat, sand and peat mixture, vermiculite or leafmold, and covered
to a depth of 1 to 2 inches. They should germinate in 2 to 4
months. Rodents may destroy them, and, if planted in the open,
some provision should be made to protect them.
Transplanting.-At the end of the first growing season the
seedlings should be transplanted, and many growers prune the
taproot at this time. They are again selected and transplanted
during the second year. Those with very strong root systems
may be selected for growing to flower or for understock, discard-
ing those with weak and poorly developed root systems.
Lamert of California has found that small seedlings can be
forced into flower the first year under long-day treatment pro-
duced with electric lights. The author has shown that the long-
day treatment to set buds should be applied during the first
month after growth begins in the spring. The day length dur-
ing the summer is long enough to encourage flower bud initiation
and development on the summer flush of growth.







Growing Camellias in Florida


CUTTINGS
Propagation by tip cuttings is probably the most popular
method for economically producing large numbers of plants.
This method of propagation is also well adapted for home use.
Many different methods of handling camellia cuttings are being
used successfully by gardeners which vary from sticking them
in the ground in a moist, shaded spot to rooting them in elaborate
constructions under interrupted mist under plastic or glass.
Preparing the Propagation Bed.-The propagation unit (Fig.
4) should be set up in a partially shaded spot near a source of
water. It should contain a well-drained, well-aerated medium
and should provide a warm and humid atmosphere for good re-
sults in rooting cuttings. A satisfactory propagation unit can be
constructed from a grape box or similar material. The details of
more elaborate structures and their management are available
in other Extension publications.
Fill the box or bed with 3 to 4 inches of coarse, sharp builder's
sand, a sand and peat mixture, or peat alone and sterilize, if
possible. This can be accomplished by pouring ample quantities
of boiling water over the medium or by baking it in an oven at
1800F. for an hour.
Some type of cover should be provided for the propagating
bench to shade it and aid in maintaining a high humidity around
the cuttings. A covering of burlap, muslin, cheesecloth or plastic
screen can be used during the summer months, and a sheet
plastic or glass cover may be needed during late fall, winter
and early spring months to maintain a higher temperature.


Fig. 4.-Left, commercial type mist propagator. Right, home garden
mist propagator.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Making the Cuttings.-Tip cuttings should be selected from
healthy, maturing or half-ripe shoots from moderately vigorous
plants. Usually by April or May the spring growth will have
hardened sufficiently for use as tip cuttings. Cutting wood
should be kept moist from the time the cuttings are removed
from the plant until they are in the propagating bed. A piece of
wet burlap or a basket lined and covered with wet paper is
adequate for protecting cuttings during the propagating oper-
ation.
It is best to take the cuttings early in the morning, during the
cool part of the day, when the leaves are full of water. They
should be made 4 to 6 inches long and as many leaves as pos-
sible left on the cuttings, removing only the leaves from the
lower 11/ to 2 inches of the cutting. If the leaves do not wilt,
rooting will be approximately in proportion to the amount of
leaf surface on the cuttings. Treatment with a hormone or
rooting compound will usually hasten this process, but these
aids are not a substitute for good propagating wood and good
care.
Care.-The cuttings are "stuck" upright about 1 to 11/2 inches
deep in the medium and spaced so that not more than 1/3 of the
leaves overlap. If possible, the cuttings should be spaced to
allow free circulation of air between the cuttings. Firm the
medium around the cuttings and water thoroughly. Keep the
cutting bed moist but not wet and maintain as high humidity
as possible. The cuttings should root in 6 to 8 weeks and be
ready for potting or transplanting as soon as the roots are about
1 inch long. They should be shaded and the roots kept moist
during transplanting. It usually is not advisable to fertilize
cuttings until the roots are well established and new growth
has begun.
Some of the common sources of trouble that result in poor
rooting of cuttings are: (1) allowing the cuttings to dry out
or wilt after they are removed from the plant and before they
are stuck, (2) removing too many leaves from the cutting,
(3) "sticking" the cuttings too deeply in a fine medium, (4) use
of a fine, poorly aerated medium and overwatering, (5) too
much shade over the cuttings.
LAYERING
Mound, tip and air layering are not commonly used methods
of propagation. Since these methods are covered in detail in
other Extension publications, they will not be covered here.








Growing Camellias in Florida


GRAFTING
Grafting is used extensively by commercial nurserymen and
amateur horticulturists for propagating camellias that have a
weak root system and thus make poor growth, or for changing
less desirable varieties over to more desirable ones. Both the
cleft and bark graft are used. The cleft graft is by far the
more popular method and is the one that will be discussed here.
Camellias may be grafted at any time of the year if given
good care. When C. japonica understock is to be used, grafting
is usually done in January and February. The period may be
extended to later in the season when C. sasanqua understocks
are used. Summer grafting is risky because of the danger of
sunscald and damage to the tender growth. Winter grafts are
slow and require special protection during cold weather.
The Grafting Procedure.-The stock is cut off smoothly above
the surface of the ground, and depending upon the size, is split
once or more with a chisel 1 to 11/, inches deep, or enough to
accommodate the scion. The lower end of the scion, a tip cutting
of vigorous growth of the previous summer, is cut to a long
tapering wedge slightly thicker on the edge under bud above
and inserted into the split stock with the thick edge toward
the outside. A grafting tool or a screwdriver may be used to
open the stock. Sometimes a small wooden wedge may be re-
quired to relieve the pressure of the stock on the scion.
The growing area of a plant, the cambium, is between the
bark and the wood. To form a perfect union, the cambium
layers of the stock and scion must be aligned. If the stump
is small, about 1/ inch in diameter, only one scion should be
inserted, but larger stock, over 1 inch, will accommodate two or
more scions. The stock may be tied with a string or rubber
band or covered with plastic strips to hold the scion firmly in
place. After the graft has been made, the whole is covered with
grafting wax, grafting cloth or pruning compound and then
covered with clean sand, sphagnum moss or soil almost to the
leaves on the scion (Fig. 5).
A wide-mouthed glass jar is then inverted over the graft and
shaded with a piece of burlap or with Spanish moss. Trans-
lucent plastic over a wire frame may be used for this purpose.
When the scion and stock have united, the glass jar is not re-
moved immediately, but should be gradually raised at the bottom
to admit some air. The amount of air admitted should be grad-
ually increased until the wood becomes slightly hardened. After




































1 1


Fig. 5.-Cleft grafting of camellias: (1) Scion, showing long, wedge-
shaped cut and cross-section; (2) scion fitted in understock, (a) cambiums
matched. Scion and understock secured by (3) tying with string or rubber
bands. Point of union can be protected with (4) grafting wax or pruning
compound, (5) plastic wrap, (6) tin can filled with sand, vermiculite, or
similar material, or (7) mound of clean sand. Method of protecting grafts
with (6) wide-mouthed glass jar and burlag or (7) wire frame and opaque
plastics. (8) Young graft shaded with hamper to harden after jar or cover
has been removed.








Growing Camellias in Florida


the glass jar is removed, the graft should be covered with a
hamper or basket until the growth will stand exposure to the
sun. Growth up to 3 feet or more and even flowers may be
expected in one year in a graft from a large understock.

PEST CONTROL 2
Control for the major insect pests and diseases are presented
in outline form in the tables below.
It is important to use a good sprayer that delivers a fine spray
under pressure. Also, for best results with both insecticides and
fungicides, cover thoroughly both the upper and lower surfaces
of the leaves. Many instances of lack of control, charged against
the pesticide, are due to failure to spray thoroughly. It is well
to repeat a spray to clean up any insects or disease spores that
may have escaped the first application. When practicable, water
plants during dry seasons the day before spraying to reduce
the chances of injury.
INSECTS
Scales, red spiders (mites), leaf-eating beetles and aphids are
the most important pests of camellias.
Oil emulsion and malathion sprays are effective against scales
and red spiders (mites), but thorough coverage of the plant is
essential if satisfactory control is to be obtained. A second
application of malathion is recommended 3 to 4 weeks after the
first for scales and 1 to 2 weeks after the first for mites. Mala-
thion kills the adult mites but not the eggs. Oil emulsion sprays
are effective against adult mites and eggs.
Certain leaf-eating beetles and climbing cutworms may feed
on camellia foliage at night and remain in the mulch beneath
the plant during the day. DDT and toxaphene are effective
against these beetles and should be applied to the mulch as well
as on the foliage. These materials, in addition to chlordane and
lindane, are effective against pillbugs and other pests in the
mulch that may attack new grafts. Some formulations of DDT
used as sprays are reported to have caused injury to a few va-
rieties of camellias. Much of this injury has been attributed
to DDT emulsion sprays made from DDT emulsifiable concen-
trates containing xylene as the solvent.

2 Material on insect pests and their control prepared by James E. Brogdon,
Extension Entomologist.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Malathion, nicotine sulfate and Lindane are effective against
aphids. Look for aphids on new growth and apply insecticides
before leaves begin to curl.
Ants do not damage camellia plants directly, but are a nuis-
ance. Ants feed on the sweet, syrupy excretion or "honeydew"
of aphids and transport them from one place to another, thereby
aiding the spread of aphids. Chlordane, dieldrin, Lindane and
malathion will kill ants.
Snails and slugs occasionally feed on camellias. Metaldehyde
is the recommended material, but chlordane will aid in their
control. Grasshoppers and katydids sometimes feed on camellia
foliage, but are not considered to be major pests. Katydids
feed at night. When only small numbers of them are present,
many gardeners hand pick or kill these pests mechanically.
Dieldrin, toxaphene or chlordane may be used.
The insecticides and formulations recommended in the control
chart are not the only ones effective against the pests listed.
Lindane, for instance, is effective against ants and certain other
insects.
Other formulations of most of the pesticides recommended
in the control chart are available and may be used against the
pests listed. However, dusts are not satisfactory against scales.
Dusts and wettable powder sprays are less likely to injure tender
foliage than emulsion sprays.
Precautions.-Do not use oil emulsion sprays when cold (below
40'F.) or hot (above 850F.) temperatures are expected within
two weeks of spraying. Do not mix oil and sulfur or use one
within 3 weeks of the other. Do not apply oil emulsion sprays
to plants that are wilted or near wilt.
Since all insecticides are poisons, they should be handled with
care and stored out of reach of children and pets. They should
not be used in close or confined situations. The gardener should
avoid long exposure to pesticides and should wash off immediately
any spray that gets on the skin.





INSECT CONTROL MEASURES


Insect Mater


es- Malathion, 50'
imellia Malathion, 255
orida Red Oil emulsion (
ea type)


Red Spiders
(mites)



Leaf-eating
beetles
Climbing cut-
worms


Aphids





Grasshoppers
Katydids


'ia



m;


Malathion, 50%
Malathion, 25%
Oil emulsion (m
type)


10% toxaphene
5% DDT* dust



Lindane dust or
Nicotine sulfate

Malathion, 50%
Malathion, 25%


10% toxaphene
11/2% dieldrin d
5 or 10% chlord


Scal
Ca
Fl
Te


NOTE-tbs.= tablespoon, level.
tsp. teaspoon, level.
Add 1 teaspoonful of a good detergent per gallon of spray to increase spreading and wetting.
* Some formulations of DDT used as sprays are reported to have caused injury to a few varieties of camellias. See discussion under leaf-eating beetles.


SAmount Remarks


emulsion 2 teaspoons per gal. Spray both sides of leaves thoroughly after growth
wettable 5-6 tablespoons per gal. hardens. Two or 3 applications of malathion may
ayonnaise 4 tbs. 80% oil per gal. be necessary. See cautions on use of oil emulsion
sprays.


emulsion 2 teaspoons per gal. Mites cause rusty or reddish cast to leaves. Mala-
wettable 4 tablespoons per gal. thion is effective against mites, but not their
mayonnaise 4 tbs. 80% oil per gal. eggs. Repeat malathion spray 1 to 2 weeks after
the first.


dust Ample coverage Watch for holes in leaves. Certain beetles feed at
night. Apply to mulch under plant as well as to
foliage.



spray As recommended on label Cause curling of young leaves. Inspect new growth
40% 1 tsp. per gal. plus 1 tsp. and apply before leaves curl. Ants usually indi-
soap cate the presence of aphids. Chlordane and diel-
emulsion 2 tsp. per gal. drin in addition to materials for aphids will kill
wettable 4 tbs. per gal. ants. Also apply to mulch around plants.


dust IAmple coverage Insects occasionally chew foliage. Katydids feed
ust at night. Hand picking or mechanical control
ane dust is effective for small infestation. Sprays may
be used.








DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL


Disease or Description
Disorder

back or New twigs wilt and die sudden
banker Canker on twigs or branches


Flower blight



Leaf blotch and
twig blight



Leaf and bud gall



Root rot



Scab, Scar tissue
Edema



Yellow mottle leaf


ily.
may girdle stem.


Small brown spots on petals enlarging to cover
flower. Black, hard bodies develop at base of
flower.


Irregular blotches on leaves, with silvery over-
cast. Later, tiny black fruiting bodies on dead
portion of leaf.


Leaves and buds become thickened, fleshy, and
pale-green or white.


Reduced growth, thin and unhealthy appearance,
often wilted. Roots blackened and unhealthy.
Disease favored by wet soil.


White, black, angular, corky or oval raised spots
on the leaves.



Mottled and variegated leaf. Variegation without
definite pattern.


Dieb
Ca


Control


Prune and burn affected twigs. Clean out large
canker and paint with wound paint.


Remove and burn affected flowers. At end of
season remove and burn mulch, old flowers and
leaves from under plant.


Hand pick and burn affected leaves. Prune and
burn affected twigs. Protect plant from cold
and sun.


Pick and burn affected leaves, spray with Bordeaux
or copper spray.


Remove plant and do not replace with a camellia.
Soil can be fumigated or sterilized but may be-
come infected again.


Disease caused by extreme variations in tempera-
ture and moisture. Hand pick and burn affected
leaves. Protect plant from sun, move to well-
drained site.


Virus disease. No control. Do not propagate from
affected plants.























































PLATE VIII. Professor C. S. Sargent, an irregular double form.





All color plates in this bulletin, except Adolphe Audusson, are from the
copyrighted book, Canellias, by G. G. Gerbing. Used by permission of
Mr. Gerbing. Plate III is by courtesy Tom Dodd Nurseries. Semmes. Ala.



























































PLATE IX. Mathotiana, an imbricated double with unopened
center.











COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, Florida State Un:versity and United
States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating. H. G. Clayton, Director




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs