• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Business methods important
 How the dairy cow uses feed
 Type of dairying influences kind...
 Farm-grown feeds
 Feeding according to cow-unit...
 The characteristics of feeds
 Composition of feeds
 The commercial feed tag
 Productive value of feeds
 Things to look for in a dairy...
 How feeds affect digestion
 Effect of feeds on milk produc...
 Two principal classes of feeds
 Roughages
 Concentrates
 What is a balanced ration?
 Poor feeding shown by feeding...
 Practical suggestions on feedi...
 Grain mixtures for different...
 Calf feeding schedule
 The dry cow
 Feeding the bull
 Minerals for dairy cows
 Water is essential














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division ; no. 53
Title: Feeding the dairy cow
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025527/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feeding the dairy cow
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 40 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Hamlin L., 1914-
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Hamlin L. Brown.
General Note: "June, 1929".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025527
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570480
oclc - 47284710
notis - AMT6791

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Business methods important
        Page 3
    How the dairy cow uses feed
        Page 4
    Type of dairying influences kind of ration
        Page 5
    Farm-grown feeds
        Page 5
    Feeding according to cow-unit basis
        Page 6
    The characteristics of feeds
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Composition of feeds
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The commercial feed tag
        Page 14
    Productive value of feeds
        Page 14
    Things to look for in a dairy ration
        Page 15
    How feeds affect digestion
        Page 16
    Effect of feeds on milk products
        Page 17
    Two principal classes of feeds
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Roughages
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Concentrates
        Page 24
    What is a balanced ration?
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Poor feeding shown by feeding standard
        Page 27
    Practical suggestions on feeding
        Page 28
    Grain mixtures for different roughages
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Calf feeding schedule
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The dry cow
        Page 34
    Feeding the bull
        Page 34
    Minerals for dairy cows
        Page 35
    Water is essential
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 53


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING

WILMON NEWELL, Director




FEEDING THE DAIRY COW

BY HAMLIN L. BROWN


Courtesy Milam Farm
Fig. 1.-A promising young herd on pasture.


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Agricultural Extension
Division, Gainesville, Florida


June, 1929


- I











BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc.. Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent








FEEDING THE DAIRY COW


BY HAMLIN L. BROWN

Florida dairymen who expect to make the most profits from
their herds will give careful attention to the question of feeding.
It is easily possible that an excellent herd of cows may be un-
profitable with improper feeding, while another herd not as good
may return worth while profits because of good feeding.
Feed cost usually represents about one-half of the total cost
of operating a dairy. Feeding, therefore, is a major problem in
the business of dairying.

BUSINESS METHODS IMPORTANT

To be most successful, a dairyman must use good business
methods in his feeding as well as in the other operations con-
nected with his dairy. He must have good cows and feed them
well. Good feeding cannot make a good cow out of a poor one,
but poor feeding can make a poor producer out of a good cow.
The cow may be considered as a factory for the manufacture
of milk from feed and water. Unless she gets the raw materials
in the right proportions and quantities, she cannot turn out the
finished product in the right quantities. Feeding is an art as well
as a science. The practical ability or "knack" of feeding to best
advantage is as important as a scientific knowledge of the dif-
ferent feed constituents and their uses.
To know how to feed to best advantage, the dairyman should
know his cows. A skillful dairyman will study the physical
make-up of each animal in his herd to find out individual peculiar-
ities. He will know the feed and milk capacity of each animal.
Each cow is a unit in dairy operations.
While experience, observation, and "knack" will be of great
help to a dairyman in his feeding, an accurate check is almost
indispensable. The milk from each cow should be weighed and
tested. Her feed cost should then be carefully checked to see if
she is returning a profit or if she has to be classed with the
"boarders" or "robber cows".
With a knowledge of what each animal produces, it is possible
to regulate the feeding intelligently. Cows with large feed and
milk capacities afford the greatest opportunity for profit when






Florida Cooperative Extension


properly managed. It pays to feed them liberally while it is good
business to dispose of the "boarders".
High-producing cows should be fed liberally. The successful
feeder who knows the capacity of his cows will furnish them the
best and most economical feeds available to supply a full ration
to each animal. Any well-managed factory usually pays the
largest dividends when operated near the maximum capacity,
provided there is a ready market for the finished product.

HOW THE DAIRY COW USES FEED

There are five main ways in which the feed eaten is used by
cows-growth, body maintenance, manufacture of milk, increase
in body weight, and growth of calf.
Bodv MAINTEiANC.E MI-\LKProduc.ToN S ToRVdTA








chives. Dairymen should strive to feed each cow just enough for bodyuh
FEEd
Fig. 2.-This chart illustrates the use the cow makes of the feed she re-
ceives. Dairymen should strive to feed each cow just enough for body
maintenance and maximum milk production. More feed makes the
cow fat; less feed decreases milk production.

A dairy cow is not fully matured until she is four to five years
old. From 40 to 60 percent of the total ration is used to maintain
the body without loss or gain. This represents a fixed charge for
feed throughout the life of the cow.
Forty to 60 percent of a ration is used for the manufacture of
milk and butterfat in the mature cow. Fresh cows may draw on
the body for a short time to produce milk with a high percent
fat, but in doing so are drawing on stored energy that should
be carefully conserved.
Dairymen should strive to feed producing cows just enough to
take care of all these needs. We should remember that the dairy
cow requires at all times enough feed for body maintenance.
Any feed above that is used for milk production or the storing of







Feeding the Dairy Cow


fat. The use of the feed is brought out in the chart shown in
Fig. 2.
Successful dairymen use the latter end of the lactation period
and the dry period to repair the physical condition of the cow.
Cows should be in good flesh at freshening time. The develop-
ment of the fetus requires feed, although not in large quantities.

TYPE OF DAIRYING INFLUENCES KIND OF RATION

There is no one ration or kind of ration which is best for all
classes of dairying. The kind of dairying in which a person is en-
gaged will exert considerable influence in determining the ration
for the cows in the herd.
Purebred breeding herds kept to supply foundation stock at
fancy prices can be fed higher priced rations than are practical
for the grade herd. Certified dairies putting out a high-priced
product may profitably use the very best rations without much
regard to prices. The farmer who sells milk to the condensery
or cheese factory or sells cream to the creamery or butter factory
has an entirely different condition. He must grow the larger
part of his feeds to make it profitable.
Some dairymen who sell whole milk in the larger towns and
cities of the state do not grow many of their concentrated feeds.
Many of them grow very little or no roughages. Some have
fenced pastures while others use only free range pasture to
supply the only feeds not purchased. This is an expensive
method of feeding dairy cows, and one following this method
should expect high prices for his dairy products.

FARM-GROWN FEEDS

Ordinarily, the more feed produced on the farm where used,
the more profitable is the dairy business. Especially should
dairymen endeavor to produce their own roughage feeds, such as
hays, silage, root crops, etc.
Corn is one of the best and cheapest sources of grain carbohy-
drates for this state. Cottonseed and peanut meals, by-products
in the manufacture of oil, provide our cheapest sources of protein
concentrates.
Our long growing seasons afford opportunity for the produc-
tion of green feeds. Soil-building leguminous crops may be
grown and marketed through the dairy cow.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


fat. The use of the feed is brought out in the chart shown in
Fig. 2.
Successful dairymen use the latter end of the lactation period
and the dry period to repair the physical condition of the cow.
Cows should be in good flesh at freshening time. The develop-
ment of the fetus requires feed, although not in large quantities.

TYPE OF DAIRYING INFLUENCES KIND OF RATION

There is no one ration or kind of ration which is best for all
classes of dairying. The kind of dairying in which a person is en-
gaged will exert considerable influence in determining the ration
for the cows in the herd.
Purebred breeding herds kept to supply foundation stock at
fancy prices can be fed higher priced rations than are practical
for the grade herd. Certified dairies putting out a high-priced
product may profitably use the very best rations without much
regard to prices. The farmer who sells milk to the condensery
or cheese factory or sells cream to the creamery or butter factory
has an entirely different condition. He must grow the larger
part of his feeds to make it profitable.
Some dairymen who sell whole milk in the larger towns and
cities of the state do not grow many of their concentrated feeds.
Many of them grow very little or no roughages. Some have
fenced pastures while others use only free range pasture to
supply the only feeds not purchased. This is an expensive
method of feeding dairy cows, and one following this method
should expect high prices for his dairy products.

FARM-GROWN FEEDS

Ordinarily, the more feed produced on the farm where used,
the more profitable is the dairy business. Especially should
dairymen endeavor to produce their own roughage feeds, such as
hays, silage, root crops, etc.
Corn is one of the best and cheapest sources of grain carbohy-
drates for this state. Cottonseed and peanut meals, by-products
in the manufacture of oil, provide our cheapest sources of protein
concentrates.
Our long growing seasons afford opportunity for the produc-
tion of green feeds. Soil-building leguminous crops may be
grown and marketed through the dairy cow.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The farm-grown feeds are practically limited to pastures,
forage crops, root crops, corn in some areas for grain and the by-
products from cotton, peanuts, and other such crops. The pulp
that is a by-product in the canning of citrus may have a com-
mercial value as a dairy feed, when the canning industry is more
extensively organized in the state.

FEEDING ACCORDING TO COW-UNIT BASIS

Feed should be supplied on the cow-unit basis. A cow-unit is
represented by one 800-pound cow, giving 4,000 pounds of 4 per-
cent milk, or one bull, or two yearlings, or four calves under one
year.
Two acres permanent pasture, two tons silage, or three tons
root crops, one ton cowpea hay, or its equivalent, and 13 bushels
of corn should be furnished for each unit. With this much home-
grown feed, it will be necessary to buy only 500 pounds cotton-
seed meal and 300 pounds of wheat bran to provide a balanced
ration.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDS

HAY
Due to rainy weather during the summer months, the curing
of fodders and hays is difficult. However, the production of
many kinds of pasture grasses and green forage is practical
during most of the year in most sections of the state. This all
tends to lessen the importance of hay as a dairy feed in the state.
The method for artificially curing hays may be made practical
for Florida conditions at some future date.

LEGUME HAYS
It is practical to cure legume hay around poles fixed with
cross bars near the bottom to insure the complete circulation
of air.
Cowpeas are well adapted to all parts of the state, especially
in the general farming area, and the hay makes a valuable pro-
tein for the dairy cows' roughage.
Soybean Hay-On soil suited to the growing of soybeans, they
make a good quality of hay. Soybean hay is more easily har-
vested and cured than cowpea hay.
Beggarweed Hay-This crop comes on as a catch crop after
spring crops have been harvested. It is ready for hay in the







Florida Cooperative Extension


The farm-grown feeds are practically limited to pastures,
forage crops, root crops, corn in some areas for grain and the by-
products from cotton, peanuts, and other such crops. The pulp
that is a by-product in the canning of citrus may have a com-
mercial value as a dairy feed, when the canning industry is more
extensively organized in the state.

FEEDING ACCORDING TO COW-UNIT BASIS

Feed should be supplied on the cow-unit basis. A cow-unit is
represented by one 800-pound cow, giving 4,000 pounds of 4 per-
cent milk, or one bull, or two yearlings, or four calves under one
year.
Two acres permanent pasture, two tons silage, or three tons
root crops, one ton cowpea hay, or its equivalent, and 13 bushels
of corn should be furnished for each unit. With this much home-
grown feed, it will be necessary to buy only 500 pounds cotton-
seed meal and 300 pounds of wheat bran to provide a balanced
ration.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDS

HAY
Due to rainy weather during the summer months, the curing
of fodders and hays is difficult. However, the production of
many kinds of pasture grasses and green forage is practical
during most of the year in most sections of the state. This all
tends to lessen the importance of hay as a dairy feed in the state.
The method for artificially curing hays may be made practical
for Florida conditions at some future date.

LEGUME HAYS
It is practical to cure legume hay around poles fixed with
cross bars near the bottom to insure the complete circulation
of air.
Cowpeas are well adapted to all parts of the state, especially
in the general farming area, and the hay makes a valuable pro-
tein for the dairy cows' roughage.
Soybean Hay-On soil suited to the growing of soybeans, they
make a good quality of hay. Soybean hay is more easily har-
vested and cured than cowpea hay.
Beggarweed Hay-This crop comes on as a catch crop after
spring crops have been harvested. It is ready for hay in the







Feeding the Dairy Cow 7

fall after the rainy season, at a time when hay making conditions
are more favorable. If harvested before the plants become too
coarse and woody, beggarweeds make a good quality legume
hay.
Kudzu Hay-This crop makes a good quality hay, on the
heavier rolling clay soils of North and West Florida. It is a
perennial crop, and on soils suited to growing the crop, two to
four cuttings of a high protein hay may be harvested in a single
year. Kudzu hay shows an analysis even better than afalfa. It
is difficult to get the stand sufficiently thick to get a fine-texture,
leafy hay.
NON-LEGUME HAYS
Oats, millet, sorghum and sudan, para, carib, crab, and napier
grasses are sometimes harvested for hays. On account of the
lower protein content, these hays are less nutritious than legume
hays but are equal to good timothy hay. Carib and para grasses
are perennials and do not require annual re-seeding; they often


..




- -* r I l .
- .. "
,-.. .. .*. ,. .' ,"-,' .- *. -. .'*

"- "- .- ,' .: .'" .
Courtesy State Dept. of Agr.
Fig. 3.-Oat hay makes good home-grown feed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


produce two or three cuttings per year. Winter oats with Aus-
trian peas, or vetch, mature at a time when hay curing is prac-
tical in all the northern half of the state. March and April are
the best hay curing months.

SILAGE
Corn Silage--Corn is one of the best crops for silage. It is high
in carbohydrates and serves well to balance up high protein feeds
such as cottonseed meal and peanut meal. Corn silage also com-
bines well with the legume hays.
Sorghum Silage-Sorghum produces a larger tonnage of silage
than corn on higher, drier, sandy soils. The feeding value is not
as good as corn, but when allowed to reach the proper stage of
maturity, it makes a fair grade of feed. Sorghum is better suited
to late summer planting than corn.
Cat-Tail (Pearl) Millet Silage-Pearl millet silage is not as
good for feeding as corn silage. It is a quick growing catch
crop adapted to early and late planting. It will produce a larger
tonnage than corn and is better adapted to poorer, sandy soils.
Japanese Cane Silage-Japanese cane is a perennial. It does
not require planting each year. Japanese cane makes large yields
of a silage which is somewhat inferior to sorghum silage.
Napier Grass Silage-Napier grass is a perennial plant that
produces well on the sandy soils. The silage produced is in-
ferior to corn or sorghum silage.
Cowpeas and Soybean Silage-These crops increase the protein
content and add to the feeding value of the silage made from
non-legume crops. Use one load of cowpeas or soybeans to each
three or four loads of corn, sorghum, Japanese cane, napier grass,
or cat-tail millet. These crops may be interplanted with corn.

ROOT CROPS
All root crops have a high water content, and will respond to
application of stable manure and commercial fertilizers.
Rutabaga Turnips planted with the first favorable moisture
condition, in early September for North Florida and October for
South Florida, will give valuable succulent feed for late Decem-
ber and January. They should be fed after milking at the rate
of about 40 pounds a day.
Mangels (Stock Beets) and Half and Half Sugar Beets-These
crops should be planted about one month later than rutabagas.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


They will give a high yield of better feed than turnips. Beet tops
make good feed.
Sweet Potatoes-Sweet potatoes have good feeding value, and
are recommended for dairy feeding; their use, however, for
dairy feeding depends on their selling price. It is doubtful if this
crop can be profitably used as a feed if the selling price is 50
cents or more per bushel.
Cassava-The total dry matter and the feeding value of the
cassava are very nearly the same as of sweet potatoes. However,
the sweet potato is more generally grown.
CONCENTRATE FEEDS
Cottonseed Meal is one of the best protein feeds and is exten-
sively used as a dairy feed in the United States and European
countries. It should be mixed with other concentrates high in
carbohydrates. When fed alone and in excess it may cause pro-
tein poisoning.
It is usually best and cheapest to buy high grade meal that
contains 42 to 46 percent protein in preference to low grade meal.
It is priced according to the protein analysis.
Cottonseed meal keeps well in a moist atmosphere. If pur-
chased in carlots there will be a saving in the price also, for it
is shipped at fertilizer freight rates.
Cotton Seed-One pound of cottonseed meal is equal to about
1.7 pounds of cotton seed as a cow feed; therefore, it pays to
exchange cotton seed for meal on a pound for pound basis. Most
cotton oil mills will make this exchange.
Peanut Meal-This is the product left after extracting peanut
oil from shelled peanuts. It is a high protein feed-the pure
meal should test above 44 percent protein. Added hulls reduce
the feeding value. It should be mixed with carbohydrate feed
on account of its high protein content. Peanut meal soon be-
comes rancid on exposure in Florida and precautions should be
taken to see that it is fresh. It is used extensively by European
dairymen.
Peanut Feed Meal-This is the product left after extracting
the oil from the unshelled peanuts. The best grades contain
about 24 percent digestible protein and are inferior to peanut
meal.
Dried Beet Pulp-The pulp of the beet after the sugar is ex-
tracted is a carbohydrate feed quite variable in quality. It gives







Florida Cooperative Extension


best results when soaked in four to five times its weight of water
for 12 hours. It is a valuable supplemental feed and is exten-
sively used for cows on official test. Beet pulp is more expensive
than pasture, green feeds, silage, or root crops wherever these
crops can be successfully grown.
Gluten Meal is a by-product in the manufacture of starch and
glucose sugar from corn. The gluten is the heavy part of the
corn, and is extracted by soaking the corn in weak sulphurous
acid and coarsely grinding it. Gluten meal is rich in protein,
having 30 percent digestible protein, but is poor in carbohydrates
and minerals. When possible, it should be fed with other feeds
not obtained from corn.
Gluten Feed Meal is gluten meal with the corn bran added.
It has an average of about 21.6 percent digestible crude protein.
Its composition is variable.
Corn Germ Meal is a by-product in the manufacture of starch
and glucose. It is the product left after the oil is extracted from
the corn germ. It has less protein than gluten meal, carrying
only 16.5 percent digestible protein.
Long freight hauls make all by-products of starch and glucose
factories expensive for southern dairymen.
Corn Meal-This term as generally applied to feedingstuff
means the whole grain ground and containing the bran or hulls.
For human food the bran and hulls are removed.
Corn Feed Meal is the by-product obtained in the manufacture
of cracked corn and also of table meal from the whole grain by
the non-degerminating process. It is of similar composition to
corn meal but has a lower percentage of available nutrients.
Corn-There is no carbohydrate superior to corn when prop-
erly balanced with protein feeds. Ground corn and cob is a good
bulky concentrate feed to combine with other grains in making
a ration. On account of the weevils it is better to shuck the corn
and feed the shucks separately. In this way one keeps the weevil
dust out of the grain ration. One can usually purchase fresh,
pure corn meal in all parts of the state.
With the new information about vitamins, a preference is
shown for yellow corn.
Oats and Oat Products-The quality of ground oats found on
the markets of the state is usually low and the price generally
high. When one considers the high fiber content with the high
freight rates into Florida, oats are not usually an economical







Feeding the Dairy Cow


commercial grain feed for this state. They may be used to ad-
vantage in high-producing registered herds and for growing
calves.
Wheat Bran combines well with corn meal and cottonseed
meal in a grain ration. Wheat bran holds up well in a moist
atmosphere. It helps to lighten up the heavier concentrated
feeds. Its laxative quality makes it desirable for combining
with cottonseed meal.
Wheat Middlings or shorts are usually very finely ground and
generally carry a high percentage of mill screenings and re-
ground bran. The finely ground condition and high cost of
middlings make them an undesirable dairy feed here.
Velvet Beans-The practical method for feeding velvet beans
is to graze them during the winter months in preference to feed-
ing velvet bean meal. Velvet beans are better suited for fatten-
ing beef cattle than as a dairy feed. Dairymen have not found
the meal satisfactory for breeding animals.
Hominy Feed or Meal is a kiln-dried mixture of the corn bran,
the germ with or without the extraction of the oil, and a part of
the starchy portion of the corn kernel obtained in the manu-
facture of hominy, hominy grits, and corn meal by the degermi-
nating process.
All corn by-products carrying a high moisture content become
rancid and spoil quickly in this humid climate. There are wide
variations of the same feeds in these by-products. Freshly ground
meals, even though higher in price, are to be preferred. The
greater carbohydrate content offsets the difference in price.
Linseed Meal-This is obtained in the manufacture of linseed
oil from flax seed. The old and the new processes differ in the
method of extracting the oil. In the old process the oil is ex-
tracted by crushing and pressing out the oil; in the new process
the oil is dissolved out by naptha.
The old process is more commonly used and the meal thus
obtained is to be preferred. Linseed meal is one of our best high
protein feeds. It combines splendidly with cottonseed meal,
to add the laxative qualities to a ration. It is a wonderful feed
in conditioning animals. It puts on a smooth glossy coat.
Brewers' Dried Grain is the dried residue of grains, chiefly
barley, obtained in the manufacture of beer. High freight rates
with the wide variation in composition make it an expensive
feed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Distillers' Dried Grain is the by-product in the manufacture of
alcohol and distilled liquors from the grains. Corn and rye are
grains most used. The feeding value of the corn products is the
best. They are all expensive feeds for practical dairymen, and
both of these products have a limited production.
Molasses-Blackstrap or cane molasses and beet molasses are
carbohydrate feeds. They have a feeding value equal to corn,
pound for pound. They are often used as appetizers on off-grade
feeds by diluting with water and spraying over the feed while
mixing. They do fairly well in limited quantities during the
season when flies are absent.
PROPRIETARY FEEDS
In this class we include manufactured dairy concentrates or
branded feeds.
The Open Formula Feeds: These are concentrate mixtures
with the name of the ingredients and amounts of each kind in the
ration. These mixtures are usually compiled from feeds of uni-
form analyses from which we may get the digestible coefficient.
This is a help to the dairyman in balancing his other feeds with
them. The dairyman can check on the analysis and kinds of
grain.
The Closed Formula Feeds: These feeds are usually manu-
factured by companies engaged in the manufacture of human
foods, such as breakfast foods. That portion of the grains un-
suited for human food are mixed with other mill feeds to make a
ration of the formula desired.

COMPOSITION OF FEEDS

The chemist, in making an analysis of feeds, determines the
amount of water, protein, ash, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract
(carbohydrates), fats, and vitamins. This last element is not
considered in the official analysis for commercial purposes.
Water-All feeds, even those that appear dry, such as bran
and hays, contain water, usually classed as moisture. The
amount of water in dry feeds may vary from 10 to 18 percent.
Roots, such as turnips, beets, or carrots, contain about 80 per-
cent water. The water here serves the same purpose as other
water consumed by animals. Special care should be taken in
buying mill feeds with high moisture content. They spoil quickly
in warm, moist climates.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


Ash is the mineral, or inorganic, part remaining after the
organic or vegetative elements have been burned. It is of im-
portance in the bones, minerals of the milk, and for other pur-
poses in the body.
Protein is important because of the nitrogen and some other
elements associated with nitrogen, as phosphorus and sulphur,
that are so important in growth and the building of tissues in
the body, such as muscle, skin, nerves, etc.; it constitutes the
curd of the milk. All feeds have some proteins. Of the rough-
ages, cowpea, soybean, beggarweed, alfalfa, and clover hays have
the largest amounts. Among the concentrated feeds we get
the most protein in cottonseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal,
with relatively large quantities in wheat bran. Protein is one of
the important substances in feeds and cannot be replaced by any-
thing else. Protein may replace some of the carbohydrates.
Crude Fiber-This is the woody part of the plant. It is more
common in the hays and fodders. This substance gives bulk to
the ration but is of little value as a feed, very little being
digested. Concentrates with a high fiber content have a low feed
value. Fiber is the residue the chemist is unable to dissolve with
weak acids and alkalies.
Nitrogen-Free Extract-That portion of the dry matter dis-
solved out with weak acids and alkalies, less the ash, fat and
crude protein, is called nitrogen-free extract. It is determined
by difference, not by direct analysis. It is what we commonly
think of as the sugars and starches, and is usually classed as
the carbohydrates. This group is easily digested. The grains
are usually high in carbohydrates. Corn is our best source of
carbohydrates.
Fat, otherwise known as the ether extract, is another form
of carbohydrates. There are usually some other substances in
this besides fat. Total carbohydrates are obtained by multiply-
ing the percent fat by 21/4, and adding to this the nitrogen-free
extract and crude fiber. They all have the same function in
supplying the body fuel for warmth and energy for work. Ex-
cess energy is stored as animal fat.
Ground feeds carrying a high percent fat easily become rancid
in warm climates.
Vitamins-With recent years scientists have discovered that
some foods possess certain organic compounds called vitamins,
the composition of which is unknown. This is serving to help







Florida Cooperative Extension


unravel some of the mysteries of feeding and the problems of
nutrition. The vitamins help to explain the value of the pea
green color in legume hays and why green fresh feeds have
greater feeding value than dry sun-baked feeds. The new dis-
coveries about vitamins have given some clue to the wonderful
value of pastures and green succulent feeds in producing milk
that is superior as a human food to milk produced from some of
the dry feeds that are almost void of vitamins and many of the
other elements that are contained in milk. The feed a cow eats
undoubtedly governs, to some extent, the value of the milk for
human food.
Experiments show that milk produced from green feeds pro-
duces more growth in young animals than milk from dry feeds.
Research work on vitamins has contributed much valuable in-
formation about food value of dairy products.

THE COMMERCIAL FEED TAG

Federal and state inspection laws require that each bag of
commercial feed carry a tag giving the analysis of the feed con-
tained in the bag. This prevents the adulteration of feeds and
assures a buyer that he is getting what he pays for. Buyers of
feed should study the anaylsis on the tag of each bag.

PRODUCTIVE VALUE OF FEEDS
It is not enough to know simply the amounts of protein and
carbohydrates contained in a feed. We should know the amount
of digestible proteins and carbohydrates, since not all of these
substances contained in the feed will be digestible. Also we
should know what the terms digestible proteins and digestible
carbohydrates mean when we see them.
Skilled investigators have made digestion tests of many of the
most common feeds to determine what proportion of the
nutrients contained in these feeds was digested by the cows. The
results are reported as digestible proteins and digestible carbo-
hydrates. Others state the amount of digestible protein with the
total digestible nutrients. Another and perhaps better way of
expressing the results of digestion trials is to give the amounts
of digestible crude protein, the digestible true protein, and the
net energy value expressed in therms.







Florida Cooperative Extension


unravel some of the mysteries of feeding and the problems of
nutrition. The vitamins help to explain the value of the pea
green color in legume hays and why green fresh feeds have
greater feeding value than dry sun-baked feeds. The new dis-
coveries about vitamins have given some clue to the wonderful
value of pastures and green succulent feeds in producing milk
that is superior as a human food to milk produced from some of
the dry feeds that are almost void of vitamins and many of the
other elements that are contained in milk. The feed a cow eats
undoubtedly governs, to some extent, the value of the milk for
human food.
Experiments show that milk produced from green feeds pro-
duces more growth in young animals than milk from dry feeds.
Research work on vitamins has contributed much valuable in-
formation about food value of dairy products.

THE COMMERCIAL FEED TAG

Federal and state inspection laws require that each bag of
commercial feed carry a tag giving the analysis of the feed con-
tained in the bag. This prevents the adulteration of feeds and
assures a buyer that he is getting what he pays for. Buyers of
feed should study the anaylsis on the tag of each bag.

PRODUCTIVE VALUE OF FEEDS
It is not enough to know simply the amounts of protein and
carbohydrates contained in a feed. We should know the amount
of digestible proteins and carbohydrates, since not all of these
substances contained in the feed will be digestible. Also we
should know what the terms digestible proteins and digestible
carbohydrates mean when we see them.
Skilled investigators have made digestion tests of many of the
most common feeds to determine what proportion of the
nutrients contained in these feeds was digested by the cows. The
results are reported as digestible proteins and digestible carbo-
hydrates. Others state the amount of digestible protein with the
total digestible nutrients. Another and perhaps better way of
expressing the results of digestion trials is to give the amounts
of digestible crude protein, the digestible true protein, and the
net energy value expressed in therms.






Feeding the Dairy Cow


The common practice in the commercial feed business is to
give the chemist's analysis of total protein, carbohydrates, fat,
and fiber.

THINGS TO LOOK FOR IN A DAIRY RATION

Dairy rations are formulated with the purpose of getting the
largest production at the most economical cost. The type of
dairying, the market for milk products, the quality of cows, and
the price of feeds are important factors that govern in selecting
feeds.
Important among the qualities to look for are palatability,
variety, bulk, succulence, physiological effects on digestive
system, and the effect on the milk products, chemically and
physically.
Palatability-A ration should be relished by the animals. A
palatable ration stimulates all of the digestive juices and gives
the largest milk yields for each pound of feed.
Variety-The variety of a ration is dependent on the number
of different kinds of plants represented in the mixture of feeds.
Animals thrive better on a variety of feeds.
The mistake is often made of putting several different by-
products of the same grain in a ration, as a pretense to giving
variety to the ration. An example of this is to have a grain
mixture including wheat bran, shorts, middlings, corn gluten
feed meal, and corn feed meal, to be fed with corn silage. In
this ration there is a roughage with a concentrate mixture of
five mill feeds. This feed lacks variety because all of the ration
is derived from two plants, corn and wheat.
Bulk-The stomach of a 1,000-pound cow has a capacity of 50
to 60 gallons, while a horse of the same weight would probably
have a stomach capacity of three to four gallons. The digestive
system of a dairy cow can handle large amounts of bulky feeds
like grass, the hays, and silages. These feeds are essential for
the proper working of the digestive organs.
There are four divisions of the cow's stomach. The paunch or
first stomach is a storage compartment for holding the feeds as
the cow grazes the grass or eats her feed in the barn. It re-
quires bulky feeds to open the door to the storage compartment.
When the cow has filled the paunch she stops feeding while the
feed is being masticated. This is known as "chewing the cud".







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

This process grinds the feed and passes it on into the second
stomach to pass through further stages of digestion. The grind-
ing process is a very important part in the cow's digestion. The
mixing of the saliva in the process of chewing is essential and
aids in preparing feed for digestion.
It is possible to supply all of the food elements necessary in a
ration in a very finely ground, compact form. Compaction and
other digestive troubles attended with very low milk production
usually follow when such rations are used. It is important to
have light bulky feeds in the grain mixtures, to insure the pass-
age of all feed into the storage part of the stomach.
The sick cow that stops eating naturally ceases to chew her
cud. The greasy dish rag or fat piece of meat holds no miraculous
power to restore the cow. A pound of epsom salts or a quart of
raw linseed oil would likely serve a better purpose.

TABLE I. Approximate weight of a quart of some common dairy feeds.

Bulky Pounds Compact Pounds
Feedingstuff per quart Feedingstuff per quart

W heat bran .................--- .-.......... .5 Shelled corn ................................ 1.7
Corn bran .................................... .5 Corn m eal ................................. 1.5
Alfalfa meal .............................. .6 Corn and cob meal .................... 1.4
Oats ground ....-.......................... .7 Cottonseed meal ....................... 1.5
Dry beet pulp ............................ .6 Linseed meal O. P. ................ 1.1
Distillers' dried grains....-......... .6 Cowpeas ----.........---------------.. ......... 1.7
Brewers' dried grains................ .6 Gluten meal ................................ 1.7
H om iny feed .............................. .1 Gluten feed .................................. 1.3
Oats whole ................................. 1.0 Corn germ meal ........................ 1.4

Succulence-Succulent feeds are very desirable for the dairy
cow. Nothing surpasses green grasses in supplying succulence
to the ration. Good pasture will stimulate the milk flow no
matter how perfect the dry feeds in the ration may be. Soiling
crops, root crops, and silage help to provide a substitute for
grass. Soaked hay meals and beet pulp are used to good ad-
vantage on very high producing cows on official test.

HOW FEEDS AFFECT DIGESTION

There is a wide variation in the physiological effect of feeds on
the cow. Some hays and concentrates are very binding on the
digestive organs. Excessive use of these feeds may result in







Feeding the Dairy Cow


constipation and digestive disorders. Timothy hay, wheat straw,
cottonseed meal, sorghum grain, and some other feeds are
constipating feeds.
Alfalfa, cowpea, soybean, and most clover hays, root crops,
wheat bran, linseed oil meal, molasses feed, and some others are
quite laxative in their physiological effect. Many feeds are
neutral.
It is quite important in combining a ration of various feeds to
consider this quality. It has a direct bearing on the health of the
animal. One of the most valuable dairy feeds in the South, cot-
tonseed meal, has been carelessly handled by some feeders, and
condemned because it was thought poisonous. There is little to
be feared from cottonseed meal when properly combined with
feeds that are laxative, if the protein carbohydrate balance is
maintained.

EFFECT OF FEEDS ON MILK PRODUCTS

Feeds have many different kinds of elements in them. Animals
produce fats from these feeds that are affected differently by
heat. Linseed meal or peanut meal has a tendency to produce
butter that is soft and oily, while cottonseed meal produces
butter that will be firm. The texture of farm butter may be
improved by selecting the proper concentrates. Some feeds as
grass, pea green clover and other legume hays, bran, carrots, and
certain other feeds, carry carotin, a substance that gives the
yellow color to cream and butter.

TWO PRINCIPAL CLASSES OF FEEDS

Feeds are classed as roughages and concentrates, according to
the physical composition and characteristics.
Roughages include the hays, fodders, grasses, silages, and
roots. These feeds are bulky and contain a considerable quantity
of fiber, or woody material. The green feeds have a high per-
centage of water.
Concentrates include the farm grains and mill by-products.
They are heavier and contain less fiber. Concentrates are some-
times classed as grain feeds.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


constipation and digestive disorders. Timothy hay, wheat straw,
cottonseed meal, sorghum grain, and some other feeds are
constipating feeds.
Alfalfa, cowpea, soybean, and most clover hays, root crops,
wheat bran, linseed oil meal, molasses feed, and some others are
quite laxative in their physiological effect. Many feeds are
neutral.
It is quite important in combining a ration of various feeds to
consider this quality. It has a direct bearing on the health of the
animal. One of the most valuable dairy feeds in the South, cot-
tonseed meal, has been carelessly handled by some feeders, and
condemned because it was thought poisonous. There is little to
be feared from cottonseed meal when properly combined with
feeds that are laxative, if the protein carbohydrate balance is
maintained.

EFFECT OF FEEDS ON MILK PRODUCTS

Feeds have many different kinds of elements in them. Animals
produce fats from these feeds that are affected differently by
heat. Linseed meal or peanut meal has a tendency to produce
butter that is soft and oily, while cottonseed meal produces
butter that will be firm. The texture of farm butter may be
improved by selecting the proper concentrates. Some feeds as
grass, pea green clover and other legume hays, bran, carrots, and
certain other feeds, carry carotin, a substance that gives the
yellow color to cream and butter.

TWO PRINCIPAL CLASSES OF FEEDS

Feeds are classed as roughages and concentrates, according to
the physical composition and characteristics.
Roughages include the hays, fodders, grasses, silages, and
roots. These feeds are bulky and contain a considerable quantity
of fiber, or woody material. The green feeds have a high per-
centage of water.
Concentrates include the farm grains and mill by-products.
They are heavier and contain less fiber. Concentrates are some-
times classed as grain feeds.







































Fig. 4.-Florida has a long growing season for pastures, and consequently dairymen can cut down their expenses for
roughage feeds by making full use of pastures.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


ROUGHAGES
SUCCULENT ROUGHAGES

Rughages containing large amounts of water are known as
succulent roughages. Silage, pastures, and root crops are ex-
amples. These feeds exert a marked influence in stimulating
milk flow, and cows should always have access to one or more
of them. Flush green pastures of mixed grasses offer one of the
best sources for bulky feeds and protein.
Florida's soil and climatic conditions make it possible to have
a year-round grazing season. There are many varieties of pas-
ture crops growing in this state that are adapted to the various
soil types, such as carpet, dallis, Bermuda, bahia, para, guate-
mala, maiden cane, and carib grasses. Lespedeza makes a good
addition to permanent pastures for summer grazing. A pasture
with many varieties of grass is more valuable, because of the
greater feeding value, and longer grazing season.

COST OF PASTURES
Permanent Pasture-Permanent pastures are pasture lands
seeded to grasses and devoted exclusively to pasture purposes.
In estimating the cost of such lands, a charge of 10 percent
against the market value will nominally take care of the interest,
taxes, and fence repair. In some instances this will also cover
mowing the weeds. Thus, if it takes one acre of land worth $10
an acre to graze one cow for 9 months, the pasture charge would
be $1. If it took two acres of this land, or if it took one acre of
$20 land, the charge would be $2, etc.
Another way of determining the value of pasture is to esti-
mate the amount of feed equivalent of an acre of pasture. Cows
on flush green pastures will get all the roughage needed, and
sufficient feed to maintain cows producing less than two gallons
of milk a day. To buy all the roughage required for an 800-
pound cow, if alfalfa or peavine hay, would require 20 to 30
pounds at a cost of 10 to 15 cents a day. It would require 30 to
40 pounds of silage a day to replace the grass at a cost of 10 to
20 cents a day. It would be advisable to add some grain to the
alfalfa and silage for all cows. Rich moist pasture land sodded
to the proper grasses may easily pay returns.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 5.-Winter pasture helps reduce feed costs and keep up milk production.

Temporary Pastures-Annual crops such as oats, rye, rape,
cowpeas, velvet beans and beggarweed, are used for temporary
pastures. It is customary to charge crop rental for land in
temporary pastures. This rental plus the cost of seed and labor
would give the cost of this pasture, which ordinarily should not
exceed $5.00 to $10.00 per acre per year.
GRAIN SUPPLEMENTS FOR PASTURE
Pasture is Nature's ideal feed for the cow. However, pasture
alone may not supply the cow with sufficient feeds or in the







Feeding the Dairy Cow


proper proportions, and it may be necessary to feed some grain.
The size and condition of the animal, the amount of milk pro-
duced, the condition of the pasture, and the market price for
milk will determine the amount of grain to feed. With flush
green pastures "two-gallon cows" in thrifty condition, giving one
pound or less of butterfat a day, should not need any grain.
Tender, rapidly-growing pastures are usually high in protein
content.
The grain schedule suggested by C. H. Eckles, Professor of
Dairying at the Minnesota Experiment Station, is extensively
used by practical dairymen.

Jersey or Guernsey Cow
Producing Needs
20 lbs. milk daily........3 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 7 lbs. milk
25 lbs. milk daily........4 Ibs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 6Y4 lbs. milk
30 lbs. milk daily ........5% bs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 5 lbs. milk
35 lbs. milk daily........ 7 bs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 5 Ibs. milk
40 lbs. milk daily ........8 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 5 lbs. milk
Holstein, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss or Shorthorn Cow
Producing Needs
25 lbs. milk daily........3 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 8 lbs. milk
30 lbs. milk daily........4 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 7% Ibs. milk
35 lbs. milk daily........5% lbs. grain or 1 Ib. feed to 6% lbs. milk
40 lbs. milk daily........7 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 6 lbs. milk
50 Ibs. milk daily........9 lbs. grain or 1 lb. feed to 5 lbs. milk

A grain mixture containing 10 to 12 percent digestible protein
and 50 to 60 percent digestible carbohydrates makes a good sup-
plement for flush pastures.

GRAIN MIXTURES FOR COWS ON PASTURES
Following are some suggested grain mixtures suitable for cows
on pasture.
Mixture No. 1: 100 pounds corn meal, 25 pounds of cotton-
seed meal, 100 pounds alfalfa meal. This analyzes 11.3 percent
digestible protein and 55.8 percent digestible carbohydrates.
Mixture No. 2: 100 pounds corn meal, 100 pounds wheat bran,
25 pounds linseed meal. This analyzes 11.6 percent digestible
protein, and 58.8 percent digestible carbohydrates.
Mixture No. 3: 100 pounds corn meal, 100 pounds wheat
bran, 25 pounds cottonseed meal. This analyzes 12.3 percent
digestible protein, and 59.3 percent digestible carbohydrates.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Mixture No. 4: 100 pounds ground oats, 100 pounds wheat
bran, 50 pounds corn meal, analyzing 10.2 percent digestible pro-
tein and 68.8 percent digestible carbohydrates.
When the pastures have more mature grasses, heavy producing
cows will need a higher percentage protein in the concentrates.
Mixtures with 15 to 16 percent digestible protein with 50 to 60
percent digestible carbohydrates should prove better.

GRAZING CROPS TO SUPPLEMENT PASTURES
When the pasture is not furnishing sufficient grazing, it is
possible to have special crops for grazing. Rye and oats, les-
pedeza and sweet clover, the vetches, and Austrian peas may be
used for grazing during the winter in northern counties of
Florida.
Cowpeas, kudzu, and soybeans are leguminous crops used
for summer grazing. Velvet beans planted with corn are grazed
during winter months after the corn is gathered.

SOILING CROPS
On some dairy farms, it is practical to grow and feed soiling
crops to supplement the pasture in furnishing succulent green
feed.
Sudan, napier, vasey, and merker grasses, pearl millet, cowpeas
and soybeans, and Japanese cane are used for summer and fall
soiling crops to supplement the pastures. Oats and vetch may be
used in the early spring. Napier grass, the sorghums, Japanese
cane, and corn furnish the largest tonnage of green feeds per
acre.
ROOT CROPS
Mangels or stock beets, rutabaga turnips, and stock carrots
make good winter root crops since these furnish succulent feeds
that improve the dairy ration.

SILAGE
Silage furnishes one of the cheapest forms of carbohydrate
feeds. Dairymen spend many thousands of dollars each year
for carbohydrates in commercial feed; it would be better if these
were grown on their farms.
Dairymen with 20 or more cows will find silage of great ad-
vantage at all times, especially when there is a scarcity of other
succulent feeds. Corn, sorghum, and cane fodders may be stored








SIL7 v f
V V (


ii;?;71..


Fig. 6.-Napier grass makes a good soiling crop to cut and feed green, or is good for silage.


4t e






Florida Cooperative Extension


without loss in the silo. Two and one half times as much dry
matter can be stored in a cubic foot of space in the silo as can
be stored dry in the hay mow. A crop of corn stored in a concrete
silo is safe against weevils, rats, and weather. Silage is an excel-
lent supplement to dry pastures and is usually cheaper than beet
pulp.
DRIED ROUGHAGES AND HAY
Dried roughages are indispensable in sections with a long
winter season. However, in a semi-tropical climate with a long
growing season, hays are not so important.
By using concentrates to supplement pastures together with
succulent grazing crops, or soiling crops, hay is not always
necessary.
HOW MUCH ROUGHAGE TO USE
Each cow should be given all the roughages she will consume.
Dry Hays-Cows fed legume hays alone, would consume about
2 to 2 pounds a day for each 100 pounds live weight.
Hay and Succulent Roughages-When hay and silage are fed
with grain, a cow will consume 1/2 to 1/2 pounds of hay and 2 to
4 pounds of silage a day for each 100 pounds of live weight.
Silage and Grain-Where silage is fed with grain the average
cow will consume 4 to 6 pounds a day per 100 pounds live weight.
Roots Alone-Cows fed roots alone will eat 5 to 7 pounds per
day for each 100 pounds live weight.

CONCENTRATES

The concentrate feed in a dairy ration years ago was made up
of unmixed farm grains, principally corn, oats, and wheat fed
whole or ground. Modern methods of feeding indicated this to
be a wasteful practice. At the present time very little whole or
unmixed grains are fed to dairy animals. Modern milling
methods for the manufacture of human foods and the extrac-
tion of oils have furnished valuable by-products that are suitable
for feeds. A large supply of mill by-products, such as wheat
bran, hominy feed, gluten feed, corn feed meal, rice bran, peanut
meal, cottonseed meal, and linseed meal largely take the place
of the whole grains in dairy rations.
In the principal grain growing sections of the United States
farmers grind the whole grains to supply the carbohydrate part
of the grain ration, and buy these by-product proteins to balance






Feeding the Dairy Cow


the concentrate mixture. In these sections, protein feeds are the
most costly part of the concentrates. Florida conditions are
very different. Florida farmers will buy most of their con-
centrates. The difference in the price of carbohydrates and
protein is not so great. On many farms where there is a shortage
of carbohydrate roughages, the tendency is to feed concentrates
too high in proteins.
Many Florida dairymen are using western feeding standards
that are not adapted to their conditions. These errors in feed-
ing are quite noticeable in the appearance of the herds. The
cattle have a rough coat of hair. The skin is dry and often scaly.
The animals are thin in flesh, and show evidences of digestion
ailments and udder troubles, yet they may be eating a pound of
grain for each pound of milk. In many cases where such animals
have been placed on proper feeds, they gain in flesh and the un-
thrifty condition and appearances give way to a bright, glossy
appearance which goes with good health.
HOW MUCH PROTEIN FOR THE GRAIN MIXTURE
Protein is usually considered the most important element in
feeds. Not enough consideration is given to the other elements
of the ration. We should consider the balance between the
protein and carbohydrates in a feed. For the mature cow giving
milk the ratio of protein to carbohydrates should not run much '
below about 1:4. In other words, there should be 1 part protein
to 4 parts carbohydrates in the ration. The percent of protein
needed in the grain ration will depend on the supply of pasture
or roughage.
Recent experiments tend to indicate that a slightly lower per-
cent of proteins in feeds is as satisfactory as the higher protein
content formerly recommended.

WHAT IS A BALANCED RATION?

A balanced ration furnishes protein and carbohydrates in the
proper proportions. The first pre-requisite to the feeding of a
balanced ration is to know the pounds of milk produced daily and
the butterfat content and from this determine the feed require-
ments.
Theoretically, a mature cow requires .07 pounds digestible
crude protein and .7925 pounds total digestible nutrients for each






Florida Cooperative Extension


100 pounds live weight for maintenance, 0.054 to 0.065 pounds
of digestible protein, and 0.311 to 0.346 pounds total digestible
nutrients for each pound of 4 percent milk produced. An 800-
pound mature cow giving 20 pounds of 4 percent milk should
receive nutrients in the proportions given. Standards of feeding
taken from C. H. Eckles' table and Henry and Morrison's Feeds
and Feeding, 18th Edition, follow:





*-*1 ^1 a|i ".o
U 0 nc
U, $1, Eflzo, $ Z44

Maintenance 800-pound mature cow... 56 5.78 6.34 1:10.3
20 lbs. 4% milk ...................................... 1.18 5.38 6.56 1:4.
Total ..................................... ......... 1.74 11.16 12.90 1: 6.6
Maintenance 800-pound growing cow.... 1.5 I 9.9 11.4 1: 6.6

The ration to be balanced should contain the digestible protein
and carbohydrates in a definite ratio. The maintenance ration
given here requires more than 10 times as much digestible car-
bohydrates as digestible protein.
The practice more common in Florida of using 1 pound of grain
mixture for 1 to 2 pounds of Jersey milk will be our basis for
making calculation.

Nutritive Ratio 1:5.8

Digestible Protein Total Digestible
Proposed Ration Lbs. Lbs. Nutrients-Lbs.

Corn silage ................--- 25 .275 4.43
Alfalfa meal ..................... 3 .306 1.52
Corn meal ......................... 4 .244 3.27
Wheat bran ........................ 2 .250 1.21
Cottonseed meal ................ 2 .668 1.51
Total --------------------36 1.743 11.94
Total .................................. 36 1.743 11.94

This ration is a little low in total carbohydrates and total
digestible nutrients. An 800-pound cow getting no green feed or
hay other than alfalfa meal should consume 30 pounds of silage







Feeding the Dairy Cow


a day. The additional 5 pounds of silage would provide the
necessary nutrients.

POOR FEEDING SHOWN BY FEEDING STANDARD

Feeding standards recommended by Henry and Morrison's
Feeds and Feeding assume that the cow is getting sufficient
ensilage and hay or green roughage. This roughage provides a
large share of the digestible carbohydrate nutrients, and where
the hay is from legumes the protein is sufficient for the average
cow.
It is a common practice for dairymen to buy most of their
dairy feeds in sacks. The feeds usually purchased consist mostly
of concentrates or grains that were intended to be fed with a
full ration of ensilage or other succulent roughage and a legume
hay. Such grain rations have too much protein. They lack bulk
and succulence and are out of balance for feeding alone.
An 800-pound cow giving 20 pounds of 4 percent milk may be
given a simple farm-grown ration, and the more expensive mix-
ture fed to high producing cows.
Another and perhaps better ration is proposed in the following:


Proposed Digestible Total
Farm Grown Potein Digestible Nutrients
Ration Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.

Corn silage ................... 30 0.33 5.31
Cowpea hay ............ 10 1.26 5.01
Corn and cob meal .... 3 .18 2.34
Cottonseed meal ......... 1 .33 .75

Total .............................. 2.10 13.41
Nutritive ratio 1:6.4

This ration provides more than the required amount of di-
gestible nutrients. However, with the home-grown feeds, it is
better to provide a liberal supply and do less grinding of the
roughages. Feeds that are combined for a proposed balanced
ration may need some changes to make them more palatable,
and to improve the physiological effect. These changes can be
determined by a practical feeding test.






Florida Cooperative Extension


After all, the balanced ration cannot mean much unless it is
combined with good judgment in the feeding and management
of cows. The dairy herd is made up of individual cows quite
different in temperament that respond differently to feed and
care. The most valuable cow in the herd may be made worthless
by bad treatment and abuse. The nervous cow with the ravenous
appetite may need more energy feed. She takes many more steps
than the cow with a quiet disposition.
Some cows have digestive irregularities; some feeds do not
agree with them. These exceptions make it impossible to offer
a single ration that is ideal in every way.

PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS ON FEEDING
Climatic conditions affect feeding standards:
Weather conditions make it advisable to vary from the feeding
standards recommended for northern states. Practically all
grain concentrate mixtures in cold climates are formulated on
the basis that hay or some dried roughage is to form an im-
portant part of the dairy ration. Long winters with a relatively
short growing season for pastures make the feeding of dried
roughages a necessity.
Florida winters are mild and short. Permanent pastures are
possible throughout the year in a large area of Florida. Cotton-
seed meal is one of the cheapest sources of protein and supplies
highly digestible forms of protein. It is a safe source for pro-
tein when the protein-carbohydrate balance is kept in the right
proportion. The mineral content of cottonseed meal contributes
some valuable elements to the grain mixture.
Corn meal or ground corn and cob meal are the best sources
for the carbohydrates. Good quality corn meal has a high per-
centage of digestible material. Corn can be readily secured at
prices below many other forms of carbohydrates. There are
some 65 pounds of digestible carbohydrates, and 82 pounds of
total digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of corn meal.
Wheat bran is one of the best kinds of bulky concentrates to
combine with cottonseed meal and corn meal. Its laxative
qualities, its high mineral content, its good keeping quality, with
a large source of supply makes it a very desirable food for the
dairy ration.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


There is nothing in good quality cottonseed meal, corn meal, or
wheat bran that will injure Southern cattle. The improper feed-
ing of any kind of feed may damage a cow. Excess amounts of
proteins from any source will damage high producing cows. Too
large a proportion of a carbohydrate feed will produce fat at
the expense of milk production.
Home Mixing:
The home mixing of feeds is practical. In order to mix feeds
properly one should have sufficient floor space to allow room to
thoroughly turn the feeds over several times by working from
one side of the pile to the other until the feed is completely
mixed. Spreading the concentrates in layers on the floor with-
out mixing and turning does not give a good mixture.
In order to economize on time and labor one should mix enough
feed to last a week or more. It is usually false economy to hunt
for bargains in feeds. A dairyman should consider quality in
feeds all important in feeding high producing cows. When a
change in the grain ration is to be made, the new ration should
be mixed with the old, for 10 or more days. Moldy or damaged
feeds should always be avoided. Low analysis feeds are usually
expensive.

GRAIN MIXTURES FOR DIFFERENT ROUGHAGES

TABLE II-Rations suggested for use when cows are on pasture that fur-
nishes the necessary roughage. Protein 10 to 15 percent, and carbohy-
drates 55 to 70 percent.

Concentrate Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4 Ration Ron Ran 5 Ration 6

Corn meal ................ 100 100 100 50
Corn and cob meal ..1 .... ...... ..... ...... 100 100
Ground oats ............ ...... I ...... ...... 100 100
Wheat bran .............I ...... 100 100 100 100
Alfalfa meal .... ..... 100 ...... ...... ...... ...... 100
Cottonseed meal 36% 50 ...... 50 ...... 100
Linseed meal ........ ...... 50 ..... ..... .
24% Pro. mixed feedl ...... ...... .... 100







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE III-Suggested rations for use when cows are on pasture supple-
mented with silage to supply roughage. Protein 16 to 20 percent, car-
bohydrates 50 to 65 percent.

Concentrate Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4 Ration 5 Ration 6


Corn meal ..... ....... ...... 100 ...... 100 ....
Corn and cob meal.... 100 ...... 200 ...... 200 200
Ground oats ........... ...... 100 ..... 100 100
Wheat bran .............. 100 .... 100 100 100 100
Alfalfa meal .......... ...... 100 100 100
Cottonseed meal 36% 100 50 100 100 100
Peanut meal 42% ...... 50 ...... ............
Linseed m eal ..........[ ..... ...... 100 ...... ......
24% Pro. mixed feed --- ...... ...... ...... .. 300
20% Pro. mixed feed 300


TABLE IV-Rations suggested for use when each cow is getting from 20
to 35 pounds a day, and when the roughage is supplied from silage or
such soiling crops as corn, napier or Sudan grass. Protein 20 to 22 per-
cent, carbohydrates 50 to 55 percent.

Concentrate Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4 Ration 5 Ration 6


Corn meal ............... 200 ...... ...... 200
Corn and cob meal.... ...... 200 200 ..... 100 ....
Ground oats .-......... ...... 100 ...... 100 ......
Wheat bran .............. 200 100 300 200
Alfalfa meal ............ 100 100 ..... 100
Cottonseed meal .... 200 200 200 200
Peanut m eal ............ .... ...... ...... 100 .....
Linseed meal ............ 100 100 --- ..
24% Pro. mixed ...... ...... ...... 500 ...... 300 straight
20% Pro. mixed ......


TABLE V-Rations suggested for use when cows are grazing oats and rye
and are supplied with legume hay to supplement home-grown feeds,
where cream is sold. Protein 16 to 18 percent, carbohydrates 55 to 60
percent.


Concentrate


Corn meal ..............
Corn and cob meal....
Ground oats ............
Wheat bran .........
Cottonseed meal ......
Peanut meal ............
24% Pro. mixed feed
Blackstrap molasses


Ration


900

300
500


1 Ration 2


1000

200

500


Ration 3 Ration 4


Ration 5 Ration 6







Feeding the Dairy Cow


In ration 6, Table V, peavine, crab grass or other mixed hay
that might be off grade, if ground with a feed grinder, can be
used to good advantage by mixing it with the grain ration. Corn
and cob meal, bran, and cottonseed meal are poured over the
ground hay in the feed trough. The molasses is mixed with
equal parts of water and sprinkled over the feed, and mixed
thoroughly. This ration is intended for the farmer that may be
short on corn and has off-grade hay. Molasses makes a good
appetizer and is rich in carbohydrates.
When cows graze on native pasture with no roughage, use
rations in Table III, supplementing with beet pulp soaked 12
hours in 3 times its weight in water.
Developing the Heifer:
Through dairy herd improvement associations we can rid our
herds of unprofitable cows, develop proven sires, and through the
right methods of feeding, build up profitable herds. Dairymen
who buy high producing cows must pay big prices for them.
Raising dairy calves with a nurse cow has ruined many good
dairy heifers. The fat, sleek show calf is too often the "robber"
cow of the future herd. The development of a paunch is es-
sential in growing out a dairy heifer.
Feeding rations for dairy calves:
The calf should be fed mostly on whole milk for about three
weeks. After three weeks, skimmilk may be gradually substi-
tuted. Where whole milk is sold for more than 25 cents a gallon,
skimmilk powders may be fed in place of the milk. Use at the
rate of 2 ounces of skimmilk powders to a pound (1 pint) of
warm water. Heat the water above blood temperature (100 de-
grees F.). One pound of powders is sufficient to make a gallon
of skimmilk and may be substituted for equal amounts of fresh
skimmilk. Calves should be fed from buckets that are washed
and scalded.

CALF FEEDING SCHEDULE

1st day-Leave with mother 24 hours.
2nd day-Put the calf in a clean well bedded shed away from
the milking barn for 24 hours without feed. The pen should be
kept clean and well bedded each day.






Florida Cooperative Extension


3rd day-Feed 2 pounds (1 quart) of mother's milk 3 times a
day. It is important that the calf get the mother's milk for the
first two weeks. This milk is laxative and easily digested.
To teach the calf to drink from a bucket: Put finger in calf's
mouth and immerse hand in milk; gradually ease finger out until
calf learns to drink. If the calf is not hungry do not try to
force it to drink. Give it time and it will soon learn to drink.
Amount to feed:
In feeding the calf the first 14 days, gradually increase the
amount of milk until the calf is getting 1 pound (or 1 pint)
whole milk a day for each 10 pounds of weight. The average
weight of Jersey calves at birth is 55 pounds, Guernsey 71
pounds, Holstein 89 pounds.
14th day-Twice a day feeding is sufficient from now on. Begin
adding a pint of skimmilk a day to replace a like amount of whole
milk until the entire ration is skimmilk. This will require a week
or 10 days. At this time the calf should be getting a pound of
skimmilk for each 10 pounds of weight.
A tablespoonful of grain mixture as suggested below placed
in a bucket while calf is still licking it, will teach the calf to begin
eating. Then gradually give it all the grain it will eat up to /V2
pound a day, also some fresh legume hay each day.
25th day-Calves at this age should be eating grain regularly
in addition to a little hay. They should always be supplied daily
with fresh water. The calf that has an appetite for more milk
than it receives is usually in better health than when over fed.
Shade with a limited amount of exercise will help to keep it
thrifty.
After 45 days-The milk can be gradually reduced for all the
thrifty calves that are eating grain and hay.
60th day-On farms selling cream, continue to feed skimmilk
up to 150 days, using grain mixture No. 1 (see next page).
For dairies producing whole milk for the retail trade where
skimmilk powders are used, one may substitute grain mixtures
No. 2 and No. 3 for skimmilk powders, up to 6 months.
All milk should be fed fresh and as near blood temperature as
possible. Calves should be fed regularly, and the amount of
feed weighed each time or accurately measured. The foam
should be skimmed from separated milk. Where there are







Feeding the Dairy Cow


several calves running together, they should be placed in
stanchions when fed and kept tied until they are through drink-
ing the milk and eating the grain. This prevents them sucking
each other's ears and other forming bad habits that are formed
by calves where turned loose together immediately after drinking
milk. Fall calves are more easily raised than spring calves. By
the use of skimmilk powders they may be raised as cheaply.
Calves under 6 months old should never be grazed on short
permanent pastures. By putting them in a dry lot or on culti-
vated fields they can be kept more free from intestinal parasites
that often infest permanent pastures.
Grain mixture for calves:
No. 1-30 pounds yellow corn meal No. 3-25 pounds yellow corn meal
30 pounds ground oats 22 pounds red dog flour
30 pounds wheat bran 15 pounds oat flour
10 pounds linseed oil meal 15 pounds linseed oil meal
or cottonseed meal 10 pounds malted barley
No. 2-40 pounds yellow corn meal 10 pounds soluble blood
30 pounds ground oats flour
30 pounds wheat bran 1 pound calcium carbonate
10 pounds linseed oil meal 1 pound steamed bone meal
10 pounds skimmilk powder 1 pound salt
2 pounds salt
1 pound bone meal
Grain mixtures number 2 and 3 may be used where milk is
not available after calves learn to eat. However, milk is better,
when available. To get the variety, the grain rations offered
practically always contain some finely ground feed; for this
reason, it seems best to use all meals.
Calves over six months:
Heifer calves should receive a grain ration and plenty of
roughage when six months old; silage, and legume hays until
they are 12 months old. Grain mixtures used for cows on pas-
ture may be used for heifers.
Bull calf:
The feeding schedule for the bull calf is the same as for the
heifer up to six months. After six months the bulls should be
separated from the heifers and fed heavier grain, with less silage
and roughages. The bull should receive firm management after
this time. With proper management the bull should be ready
for light service when a year old-a good time to put a ring in
his nose and teach him who is master.







Florida Cooperative Extension


THE DRY COW

The dry cow is usually the most neglected animal in the herd.
All cows should have a rest period of 60 days before calving.
A good pasture is one of the best places to put a cow during the
dry period. If the pasture is poor she will need some grain. She
should have access to a mineral mixture of 2 parts bone meal to
1 part salt.
At freshening time:
Cows about ready to freshen should be kept handy to the barn
where they may be watched and cared for. Equal parts ground
oats and bran or 2 parts bran to 1 part corn meal are good grain
feeds for the last two weeks. Cows should freshen in good flesh.
The grain should be cut down just before calving.
Cows after calving should get plenty of water and green feed
with the laxative grain ration. If no pasture or green feed is
available, use beet pulp soaked in 3 or 4 times its weight in water.
The main grain mixture should be increased gradually, but
grain should be fed sparingly until the cow is completely free
of fever.
FEEDING THE BULL

It is generally accepted that a proven bull represents more
than half the herd in dairy development. Nothing definite is
known of the value of the bull until the production of his daugh-
ters has been compared with the production of the dams. This
may take five years. Careless feeding may have developed a
non-breeder by this time.
Mature bull:
The bull in breeding season should receive about the same
grain ration as producing cows. Grain rations 4, 5, and 6 in
Table II, are well suited where legume hays are not available.
Rations 1, 2 and 3, Table II, may be substituted if legume hays
can be fed. The amount of concentrate to feed varies with the
size of the animal and temperament. A bull in service will need
more grain with less roughage, than when idle, say 4 to 8 pounds
concentrates a day for a bull in service.
Silage and hay are good roughages. The silage should be fed
in limited quantities, not over 10 pounds a day, with probably
half that amount during the heavy breeding season.







Florida Cooperative Extension


THE DRY COW

The dry cow is usually the most neglected animal in the herd.
All cows should have a rest period of 60 days before calving.
A good pasture is one of the best places to put a cow during the
dry period. If the pasture is poor she will need some grain. She
should have access to a mineral mixture of 2 parts bone meal to
1 part salt.
At freshening time:
Cows about ready to freshen should be kept handy to the barn
where they may be watched and cared for. Equal parts ground
oats and bran or 2 parts bran to 1 part corn meal are good grain
feeds for the last two weeks. Cows should freshen in good flesh.
The grain should be cut down just before calving.
Cows after calving should get plenty of water and green feed
with the laxative grain ration. If no pasture or green feed is
available, use beet pulp soaked in 3 or 4 times its weight in water.
The main grain mixture should be increased gradually, but
grain should be fed sparingly until the cow is completely free
of fever.
FEEDING THE BULL

It is generally accepted that a proven bull represents more
than half the herd in dairy development. Nothing definite is
known of the value of the bull until the production of his daugh-
ters has been compared with the production of the dams. This
may take five years. Careless feeding may have developed a
non-breeder by this time.
Mature bull:
The bull in breeding season should receive about the same
grain ration as producing cows. Grain rations 4, 5, and 6 in
Table II, are well suited where legume hays are not available.
Rations 1, 2 and 3, Table II, may be substituted if legume hays
can be fed. The amount of concentrate to feed varies with the
size of the animal and temperament. A bull in service will need
more grain with less roughage, than when idle, say 4 to 8 pounds
concentrates a day for a bull in service.
Silage and hay are good roughages. The silage should be fed
in limited quantities, not over 10 pounds a day, with probably
half that amount during the heavy breeding season.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


MINERALS FOR DAIRY COWS

Minerals supplied in feeds that are of the most importance in
the dairy cow's ration include calcium, phosphorus, and iron.
Cows that are fed a well-balanced ration of green roughages and
the proper grain feeds get these minerals in sufficient quantities
and in the best form.
Some experiments indicate that there is danger in the improper
feeding of minerals. Our best source of minerals is from leg-
uminous plants like clovers, alfalfa, cowpeas, and soybeans. Con-
centrates, such as bran, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, and alfalfa
meal contain these minerals. When these feeds are used with
pastures, green forage or silage crops, the minerals needed are
fully supplied for average cows. However, persistent milkers
that produce an average of 5 gallons a day for 300 days may
need some added minerals.
Calcium and phosphorus are the two minerals added in most
mineral mixtures. These minerals are closely associated in
animal nutrition. They make up more than 90 percent of the
mineral matter in the body of a cow and over 50 percent of the
minerals in milk. The best sources of minerals for dairy cows
are found in the feeds. The bones of animals offer the next
best source for phosphorus. Precipitated bone meal or other
specially prepared feed meal should be used. Finely ground
high grade limestone rock (CaCOs) may be used in mineral mix-
tures to supply calcium. Limestone carrying much dolomite or
magnesium carbonate should not be used. Recent experiments in
the use of raw rock phosphates as a source of phosphorus indicate
it is injurious to the health of cattle on account of the presence
of fluorine and possibly some other elements. The wide variation
in composition is also a disadvantage.
Iodine: Potassium iodide is fed to farm animals in western
areas of the United States to correct certain malnutrition
troubles that are not common to Florida.
Minerals in pasture: Grasses are usually thought to be rich
in minerals; however, there may be areas in this state where
the grass is deficient in phosphorus for heifers and dry cows
depending on pasture for the sole ration. It is the milking cow
that usually suffers from a deficiency of calcium. A harmless
mineral mixture consists of 2 parts bone meal and 1 part common
salt put in a covered trough where the cattle have access to it at






Florida Cooperative Extension


all times. Florida sunshine is a great aid to the assimilation of
minerals.
Salt: Common salt or sodium chloride should be made ac-
cessible to dairy animals at all times. Cattle grazing on green
feeds require larger quantities of salt than on dry feed. A
covered trough should be provided for the salt.
Prepared Mineral Compounds and Medicated Salts: Feeding
mineral compounds and salts that are recommended to cure all
kinds of ailments is not a good practice. If cows are sick, they
need a specific treatment. Minerals are not cure-alls. Many
times these minerals contain cheap products that are harmful.

WATER IS ESSENTIAL

Plenty of pure, fresh water should be accessible to the dairy
herd at all times. An average sized cow consumes from 50 to
100 pounds of water a day when dry. She will need four times
this amount, or 200 to 400 pounds of water a day when in full
flow of milk. Water supplies 87 percent of the total content of
milk and 56 percent of the total body weight. Stagnant pools in
the pasture should be filled or drained-dangerous intestinal
parasites flourish around pond holes. Concrete water troughs,
provided with drain pipes and floating valves, are practical.







Feeding the Dairy Cow


TABLE VI-Average digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of low protein
forages common to Florida farms.


Protein
SPounds

Crabgrass hay .............--- ............. 3.5
Oat hay .............- .....-..................... 4.5
Corn husks .----.........--...................... --0.6
Corn cobs ..---............................... 0.4
Cottonseed hulls ............................ 0.3
Para grass .-----...............-......... ....- 2.3
Sudan grass ----........................ .......-- 3.7


Carbohydrates
and Fats
Pounds

42.2
41.9
48.0
47.7
36.7
39.6
47.7


(From Henry and Morrison's Feeds and Feeding, 18th Edition.)


TABLE VII-Average digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of legume hays.


Hay I Protein
Pounds


Carbohydrates
and Fats
Pounds


Cow pea ......................-.....................
Soybean ---....... --....................-----
Kudzu vine ................................
Clover, sweet yellow ..................
Peanut vine mowed ...................
Vetch and oats .........---..........---- .....
Peas and oats ...................-.....--- -I
Alfalfa .........................-...........-
Beggarweed ....-............-.......----------


Total
Pounds


(From Henry and Morrison's Feeds and Feeding.)


TABLE VIII-Average digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of silage and
root crops.


Corn silage .-....-..........................
Sorghum silage ...............................
Japanese cane silage --................-.....
Corn and soybean silage ..............
Sorghum and cowpea silage .....-......
Sudan grass silage .........................
M illet ......... ............. ... .. ......
M angels ....................... .-..............
Rutabaga turnips .-.......................
Carrots ....................... ................
Cassava .--------------....... ...- ..........
Potato (white) ....-------.. ........
Sweet potato ..............................


Protein
Pounds

1.1
0.6
0.6
1.6
0.9
1.1
1.6
0.8
1.0
1.0
0.6
1.1
0.9


Carbohydrates
and Fats
Pounds

16.6
12.7
11.9
15.8
18.0
14.0
17.1
6.6
8.4
9.6
26.8
16.0
24.7


(From Henry and Morrison's Feeds and Feeding.)


Total
Pounds

45.7
46.4
48.6
48.1
37.0
41.9
51.4


Total
Pounds

17.7
13.3
12.5
17.4
18.9
15.1
18.7
7.4
9.4
10.6
27.4
17.1
25.8


~







TABLE IX-Analyses and Characteristics of Feeds.


0)
<.
i W
0)
b'^g
*C 0 e
* p.a0


GRAINS AND
CONCENTRATES
Beet pulp (dried) -. 4.6
Corn meal ...............- 7.1
Corn and Cob meal-... 6.1
Corn bran ............--- 5.8
Hominy feed ........... 7.0
Molasses (cane) .... 1.0
Oats (ground) ........ 9.7

Sorghum grain ........ 7.5
Alfalfa meal ............ 10.2
Bran (wheat) | 12.5


Corn oil cake meal
(germ ) .................. 16.5
Cottonseed meal
(choice) ................ 37.0
Gluten feed ............. 21.6
Gluten meal .......... 30.2
Linseed oil meal
(new process) ... 31.7
Linseed oil meal
(old process ........ 30.2
Soybeans (ground)..1 33.2


2 Cl
ca
om






67.0
74.6
72.0


CO
40)
a
t>


-0)^
toos
n' a


73.1
84.6
S59.5
70.4

79.5
S50.7
60.9


66.0

41.2
S59.1
S53.8

44.2

47.7
S60.9


82.5 4.0 IMedium Good I Neutral

78.2 1.1 Heavy Good Constipating
80.7 2.7 Medium Fair Neutral
84.0 1.8 Heavy I Fair INeutral

75.9 1.4 Heavy Good Laxative

77.9 1.6 Heavy Good Laxative
1 94.1 1.8 Medium I Fair I Produce soft butter


3.6
3.5
x

x

5.1
x


.0

.o0
a E






14.6 Bulky Good Slightly laxative 9.2

10.4 Medium Good Neutral 0.2
11.8 Bulky Good Neutral x
11.6 Bulky Good I .......... x
11.1 Medium Good Neutral [ x
58.5 .............. Good Laxative x
6.3 Bulky Good Slightly laxative 1.4
Tends to dry up
9.6 Medium Poor cows-constipating 0.2
4.0 Bulky Good | Neutral 19.5
3.9 Bulky Good Slightly laxative j 0.9


SCoefficients for
Getting the cost
o of protein and
0 total nutrients in
feeds. Multiply co-
Sr efficient by cost
S per 100 Ibs. of
feed.
0
SQ Total
S Protein nutrients


2.4 21.74 1.396
6.9 14.08| 1.224
S5.8 16.39 1.280
6.2 17.24 j 1.368
S12.4 14.29 1.182
2.4 1100.00 1 1.681
S8.1 1 10.31 1.424

8.2 13.33 1.258
5.4 9.80 1 1.972
29.5 8.001 1.642

13.2 6.06 1.212

26.7 2.70 1.278
6.2 4.63 1.238
5.5 3.31 1.190

x 3.15 1.317

17.0 3.31 1.284
x 2.51 1.183




TABLE IX.-Analyses and Characteristics of Feeds (Continued).


1 a m







Oat and Pea hay ... 8.3 40.5
Sorghum hay ....... 2.8 49.3
Sorghum hay .. 2.8 49.3


Soybean hay ......-.. 11.7

Sudan hay ............. 3.7
Straw oat ............... 1.0
SILAGE
Corn silage
(well matured) 1.1
Corn silage
(immature) ........... 1.0
Sorghum silage ........ 0.6
ROOTS-TUBERS
Beets-common ........ 0.9
Beets-sugar ........... 1.2
Mangels .......... ....... 0.8
Potatoes .................... 1.1


o



0Hm
H-





51.6

47.0

48.8

52.1
52.1


41.9 53.6 3.6

47.7 51.4 12.9
44.6 i 45.6 44.6


16.6 17.7 15.1

12.3 13.3 12.3
12.7 13.3 | 21.2

9.3 10.2 10.3
12.8 14.0 10.7
6.6 7.4 8.2
16.0 1 17.1 14.5


0
O 0



Bulky Good Slightly laxative
I Neutral to slightly
Bulky Fair constipating
y Neutral to slightly
Bulky Fair constipating
S Neutral to slightly
Bulky Fair | constipating


I Neutral t
SBulky Good j constip
Neutral t
Bulky Fair constip
SBulky Fair Constipat


Bulky Good I Laxative

Bulky Good 1 Laxative
Bulky I Good ( Laxative

Bulky Good I Laxative
Bulky Good ) Laxative
SBulky Good I Laxative
SBulky Good Laxative


o slightly
eating
:o slightly
ating
ing


-C
a

op



0U'

19.5

x
X
x

3.9

17.2

x
X

x

x
x


x
x
0.2


S Coefficients for
getting the cost
o of protein and
Uo total nutrients in
cs feeds. Multiply co-
r efficient by cost
per 100 lbs. of
o ^ feed.

Total
Protein nutrients

5.4 9.43 1.938

S x 10.00 2.140

6.6 12.05 2.049

.... 32.14 1.919

6.8 8.55 1.865

.. 27.00 1.945
S2.1 100.00 1 2.193


1.6 90.00 5.649

1.2 100.00 7.518
1.5 1166.66 1 7.518

1.0 1111.11 9.803
S0.8 j 83.33 7.142
S0.4 1125.00 1 13.513
1.2 90.90 1 5.848


Analyses from Henry & Morrison Eighteenth Edition









S oiling Crops Schedule.


Time to Plant

Feb. to June


Time to Harvest

90 to 100 days


Varieties Amount seed to
use per acre

Hastings or What- 2-3 qts.
leys Prolific or
adopted Florida
varieties


Approx. yield per
aci-e (tons green
weight)


4 to 10


SORGHUM Feb. to July 75 to 110 days Amber, sumac, or- 1 peck 5 to 18
ange, Texas seed-
ed ribbon, and
Japanese honey
NAPIER GRASS Spring and 60-day 8 to 20
Summer Intervals

CAT TAIL MILLET Feb. to July 60-day 10 lbs. 8 to 20
intervals

JAPANESE CANE Jan., Feb. and 7 to 8 mos. 3,000 stalks aver- 8 to 20
March age length

COWPEAS OR SOY- Feb. to 90 to 110 days Brabham or Iron 5 to 20
BEANS (May be fed August cowpeas; Otootan,
with corn or sor- Laredo, or Biloxi
ghum, harvested at soys
same time.)

OATS AND VETCH Sept. to Dec. 150 to 200 days Fulghum or Texas 1 bu. oats 2 to 8
Rust-Proof Oats; 25 lbs. vetch
Hairy Vetch


Sept. to Dec.


140 to 190 days


Oats same as
ab o v e; Austrian
or grey winter field
pea


1 bu. oats;
30 to 40 lbs. peas


2 to 8


(Table prepared with aid of W. E. Stokes, Agronomist, Florida Experiment Station.)


Crops


CORN


OATS AND
AUSTRIAN
PEAS


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TABLE X-Silage and




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