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HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Fig. 2
 Business methods important
 How the dairy cow uses feed
 Characteristics of a good dairy...
 What is a balanced ration?
 Poor feeding shown by feeding...
 Composition of feeds
 The commercial feed tag
 Productive value of feeds
 The characteristics of feeds
 How much roughage to feed
 Concentrates
 How much protein for the grain...
 Grain mixtures for different...
 Raising dairy calves
 The dry cow
 Feeding the bull
 Mineral supplements
 Water is essential














Feeding for milk production
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025526/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feeding for milk production
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 40 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Hamlin L., 1914-
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1936>
Copyright Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Milk yield -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "April, 1936."
General Note: "A revision of bulletin 53".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
Statement of Responsibility: by Hamlin L. Brown.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570789
oclc - 44792119
notis - AMT7103
System ID: UF00025526:00001

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Fig. 2
        Page 4
    Business methods important
        Page 5
    How the dairy cow uses feed
        Page 6
    Characteristics of a good dairy ration
        Page 7
        Page 8
    What is a balanced ration?
        Page 9
    Poor feeding shown by feeding standard
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Composition of feeds
        Page 12
    The commercial feed tag
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Productive value of feeds
        Page 15
    The characteristics of feeds
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    How much roughage to feed
        Page 29
    Concentrates
        Page 29
    How much protein for the grain mixture
        Page 30
    Grain mixtures for different roughages
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Raising dairy calves
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The dry cow
        Page 36
    Feeding the bull
        Page 36
    Mineral supplements
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Water is essential
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






April, 1936


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



FEEDING FOR MILK PRODUCTION

By HAMLIN L. BROWN


Fig. 1.-Winter pasture helps reduce feed costs and keep up milk production.
Oats furnish good grazing on some Florida lands.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



ps'low


Bulletin 82


(A Revision of Bulletin 53)


.- *







BOARD OF CONTROL


GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
AUBREY DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialists
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry1
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MERCKER, M.S., Cooperative Marketing Specialist1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

SIn cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.
















CONTENTS


Business methods important...................-......... .....................
How the dairy cow uses feed------........ --..--..--. --.--
Characteristics of a good dairy ration.............-.............
What is a balanced ration? .--.---..... .... ---..--.. -
Poor feeding shown by feeding standard-....................
Composition of feeds............. ----............... ...........
The commercial feed tag.............. .........- ..............
Productive value of feeds...............................
The characteristics of feeds ....... ............ ......- .....
Pasture grasses................................. .. ....-- .... .
Soiling crops....................... ................... .......
Silages .............. ....... ........
Hay........-- .....-.. .. ........ ...
R oot crops ............... .. ............ ..... ..... ... .. .....
Concentrate feeds .-.. --- ....
farm grains ....... ............................................... ..... ...... ..
high oil seeds-----............ .............. ...... .........
milling and industrial by-products.......................-.....
Proprietary feeds ............................... -
How much roughage to feed.................................
Concentrates..............................................
How much protein for the grain mixture .....................
Grain mixtures for different roughages-........--...........
Raising dairy calves-..................................-----
Calf feeding schedule ..... ............... ---- -................
T he dry cow .. .. ............. -.... .................. ..............
Feeding the bull -- -----..... ----
M ineral supplements .. ................. ............................
Iodine ..............--. ..-...-...-.. ... --...... .--
Water is essential..... ..... .......... ..............
Silage and soiling crops schedule--.. .....................................


Page
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-.-.-.. -....--. 6.
-..-- -.......- 7
................ 9
.-...-. ..-- ..- .. 10
.... .. 12
..... 13
....-......- 15
..---....... -. 15
.-.......- ..- 16
.. ...... 16
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.. .......... 20
.. 22
.......... 23
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...... 25
... ......... 25
...... 28
..-...- -. 29
.. 29
-....- ..... 30
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..-..-..... ... 33
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-......... 36
...-......- .. 36
.....-.- 37
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- ........... 40


































Fig. 2.-Cowpeas are a practical soil conservation crop that furnishes supplemental grazing during the late sum-
mer and fall. Cows shown above are grazing cowpeas which are growing on land that has grown a crop of silage corn.








FEEDING FOR MILK PRODUCTION

By HAMLIN L. BROWN

Florida dairymen who expect to make the most profit from
their herds will give careful attention to the question of feed-
ing. It is easily possible that a herd of excellent cows may be
unprofitable with improper feeding, while another herd of poorer
cows may return a reasonable profit because of good feeding.
Feed cost usually represents about one-half of the total cost
of producing whole milk. Feeding, therefore, is a major prob-
lem in the business of dairying.

BUSINESS METHODS IMPORTANT
To be most successful, a dairyman must use good business
methods in selecting feeds, and in the feeding practices followed,
as well as in the other operations connected with his dairy. He
must have good cows and feed them in proportion to their re-
quirements. Good feeding cannot make a high-producing cow
out of a poor one, but poor feeding can make a low producer out
of a good cow.
The cow may be considered as a factory for the manufacture
of milk from feed and water. Unless she is given raw materials
in right proportions and quantities she cannot turn out the
finished product in satisfactory quantities. Feeding is an art
as well as a science. The practical ability or "knack" of feeding
to best advantage is as important as a practical knowledge of
the different feed constituents and their uses.
A skillful dairyman studies each cow in his herd and finds
out her individual peculiarities. He knows the feed and milk
capacity of each animal and tries to supply palatable feeds in
proportion to milk production, and condition of the cow.
While experience, observation, and "knack" are a great help
to a dairyman in his feeding, a knowledge of body weight, milk
and butterfat yields, and feed consumed aid in efficient feeding
and management of the herd. The milk from each cow should
be weighed regularly and tested monthly or bi-monthly. Her
feed requirements can be based on these weights and the recent

Acknowledgments.-Valuable assistance has been rendered by Dr.
R. B. Becker, Dr. A. L. Shealy, and Assistant Director H. Harold Hume
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in checking the manuscript
and making suggestions for its improvement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


butterfat test. The entire production and feed records for the
year determine whether a cow has returned a profit or was
among the "boarder" cows.
With a knowledge of what each animal produces, it is possible
to regulate the feed to meet the requirements. Cows with large
feed and milk capacities afford the greatest opportunity for
profit when properly managed. It pays to feed good cows liber-
ally and to dispose of the "boarders".
High producing cows should be fed generously. The success-
ful feeder who knows the capacity of his cows will furnish them
the best and most economical feeds available. Any well-managed
factory usually pays the largest dividends when operated near
the maximum capacity, provided there is a ready market for
the finished product.

HOW THE DAIRY COW USES FEED
There are five main ways in which the feed is used by cows,
namely: for growth, body maintenance, manufacture of milk,
increase in body weight, and development of a calf.
A dairy cow is not fully mature until she is 41/2 to six years
old. From 40 to 60 percent of the total ration is used to main-
tain a cow's weight without loss or gain. Maintenance represents
a fixed charge for feed throughout the life of the cow. The
remaining 60 to 40 percent of a ration is available for the
manufacture of milk and butterfat. Cows normally draw on
nutrients stored in the body for a short time after calving. How-
ever, this stored energy should be conserved carefully.
Dairymen should strive to feed producing cows just enough

F BodV MAtTE ANC.E V>iLKProduc.T1oN STor dTAT

FEEd






Ewouqh
Y lE d
Fig. 3.-This chart illustrates the use the cow makes of the feed she
receives. Dairymen should strive to feed each cow just enough for body
maintenance and maximum milk production. More feed makes the cow
fat; less feed decreases milk production.






Feeding for Milk Production 7

to take care of all these needs. The dairy cow requires at all
times enough feed for body maintenance. Any feed above the
maintenance requirement is used by the mature cow for milk
production, reproduction, or the storing of body tissue. The
use of feed is brought out in the chart shown in Fig. 3.
Successful dairymen feed the cow extra during the latter end
of the lactation period and during the dry period to restore
her physical condition. Cows should be in good flesh at freshen-
ing time. The development of the fetus also requires feed, al-
though not in large quantities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD DAIRY RATION
Dairy rations are formulated with the purpose of getting
the largest production at the most economical cost. The type
of dairying, market for milk products, quality of cows, price
and quality of feeds are important factors that govern the
selection of feeds.
Important qualities sought in feeds are palatability, variety,
bulk, succulence, physiological effects on digestive system, and
effect on the milk products, chemically and physically.
Cost.-When feeds are equal in feeding value, it is good busi-
ness to select the one lower in cost. Home-grown feeds fre-
quently are more economical to use.
Palatability.-A ration should be relished by the animals.
Fresh feeds usually are more palatable than dry feeds. Palata-
bility of certain feeds decreases while in storage, due to develop-
ment of rancidity, growth of molds, or absorption of moisture.
Variety.-Variety in a ration is dependent on the number of
different kinds of plants represented in the mixture of feeds.
Animals thrive better on a variety of feeds. The mistake of
putting several different by-products of the same grain in a
ration and assuming that variety was obtained thereby is made
often. An example of this is a grain mixture which may in-
clude wheat bran, shorts, middlings, corn gluten feed and corn
feed meal, to be fed with corn silage. This ration contains a
roughage and a concentrate mixture of five mill feeds, but lacks
variety because all feeds are derived from only two plants,
wheat and corn.
Bulk.-The stomach of a 1,000 pound cow has a capacity of
50 to 60 gallons, while a horse of the same weight would prob-
ably have a stomach capacity of three to four gallons. The
digestive system of a dairy cow can handle large amounts of






Florida Cooperative Extension


bulky feeds such as grasses, hays and silages. Bulky feeds are
essential for the proper working of the digestive organs.
TABLE 1.-APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF A QUART OF SOME COMMON DAIRY
FEEDS.
Pounds per Pounds per
Bulky Feeds quart Compact Feeds quart
Corn bran................................. .5 Linseed meal, 0. P............... 1.1
Wheat bran.............................. .5 Gluten feed...........-- ............. ...... 1.3
Alfalfa meal............................ .6 Corn and cob meal.................... 1.4
Brewers' dried grains.................. .6 Corn germ meal...................... 1.4
Distillers' dried grains............. 6 Cornmeal ............. ........... 1.5
Dry beet pulp................................ .6 Cottonseed meal.................... 1.5
Oats, ground ...................... .7 Cowpeas ..................................... 1.7
Dried grapefruit refuse............. 8 Gluten meal............................ 1.7
Oats, whole......-- ............. ... 1.0 Shelled corn............................... 1.7
Hom iny feed .................................. 1.1

Succulence.-Succulent feeds are very desirable for dairy cows.
Nothing surpasses green grasses in supplying succulence to the
ration. Good pasture will stimulate milk flow no matter how
perfect the dry feeds in the ration may be. Soiling crops, root
crops and silage help to provide a substitute for grass. Beet
pulp sometimes is soaked, and fed as a succulent feed.
Physiological Effect.-There is a wide variation in the phys-
iological effect of feeds on the cow. Some hays and concentrates


Fig. 4.-Florida dairymen give careful attention to sanitation and
ventilation in their dairy barns. The barn shown above has concrete
floors and walls and is well ventilated.






Feeding for Milk Production


are binding on the digestive organs. A ration entirely of dry
feeds may tend to cause constipation and digestive disorders.
Timothy hay, wheat straw and sorghum grain are classed as
constipating feeds. Alfalfa, cowpea, soybean and most clover
hays, root crops, wheat bran, linseed meal, dried grapefruit and
orange cannery refuse, molasses feed and some others are
relatively laxative in their physiological effect.
It is important in combining a ration of various feeds to
consider their physiological effect on the cow, since this has
a direct bearing on the health of the animal.
Effect on Milk Products.-Feeds have many different kinds
of constituents in them. From these feeds animals produce fats
that have different melting points. Linseed and peanut meals
tend to produce butter that is soft and oily, while cottonseed
meal produces firm butter. The texture of farm butter may
be improved by selecting the proper concentrates. Some feeds
as grass, pea-green clover and other leafy legume hays, carrots,
and certain other feeds contain carotin, a substance that gives
the yellow color and contributes vitamin A to butterfat.
WHAT IS A BALANCED RATION?
A balanced ration furnishes protein and total digestible nu-
trients (T. D. N.) in the proper proportions. To calculate the
nutrients required, the cow's weight, pounds of milk produced
in a day, and a recent butterfat test of milk are needed.
TABLE 2.-REQUIREMENTS OF DIGESTIBLE CRUDE PROTEIN AND TOTAL DI-
GESTIBLE NUTRIENTS FOR MAINTENANCE AND PRODUCTION OF MILK WITH
VARIOUS FAT PERCENTAGES, AS CALCULATED BY HAECKER. CALCIUM
AND PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE AND MILK PRO-
DUCTION, AS DETERMINED BY KELLNER AND STOHMANN.





pounds pounds pounds pounds
Maintenance, 1000 bs. live weight ........ .700 7.925 .0716 .0218
For each pound of milk produced, add:-
Per pound of milk with 3.5% butterfat .049 | .312
Per pound of milk with 4.0% butterfat .054 .341
Per pound of milk with 4.5% butterfat .057 .369 .0018 .0011
Per pound of milk with 5.0% butterfat .060 .394
Per pound of milk with 5.5% butterfat .064 .422
Per pound of milk with 6.0% butterfat .067 .450__

:A mature cow of average temperament requires .07 pounds
of: digestible crude protein and .7925 pounds of total digestible






10 Florida Cooperative Extension

nutrients for each 100 pounds live weight, to maintain her body.
Each pound of milk testing 4 percent butterfat requires .054
pounds of digestible protein and .341 pounds of total digestible
nutrients, as seen in Table 2. Additional feed would be needed
by an immature cow to allow for growth.
An 800-pound mature cow giving 20 pounds of 4 percent milk
would have the following requirements, according to Haecker's
work:

Digestible Total
crude digestible Nutritive
protein nutrients ratio
pounds pounds
Maintenance 800-lb. mature cow .56 6.34 1 10.3
20 pounds of 4 percent milk........... 1.08 6.82 1: 5.3
Total.......................................... ...1.64 I 13.16 1 : 7.0

The ration to be balanced should contain an adequate supply
of digestible protein and total digestible nutrients. The main-
tenance ration would require more than 10 times as much car-
bohydrate as digestible protein. Milk, however, requires a dif-
ferent proportion of these, so the total ration for this cow would
be the sum of these two requirements. Below is a calculated
ration to meet these requirements, the common Florida practise
of allowing about 1 pound of mixed grain for 1 to 2 pounds
of Jersey milk being followed, using feeds from Table 3.
Digestible Total
Proposed ration Amount crude digestible
protein nutrients
pounds pounds pounds
Corn silage................................ 25 .275 4.43
Alfalfa meal.......................... 3 .318 1.55
Cornmeal ................................ 4 .284 3.27
W heat bran.............................. 2 .250 1.22
Cottonseed meal, 36%............ 2 .632 1.50
Total .................................. 36- 1.759 11.97
Nutritive ratio 1 :5.7
This ration is a little low in total digestible nutrients. An
800-pound cow getting no green feed or hay, other than the
limited amount of alfalfa meal, should consume 32 pounds of
silage a day. An additional 7 pounds of silage would provide
the necessary nutrients.

POOR FEEDING SHOWN BY FEEDING STANDARD
The old "rule of thumb" often followed in estimating the
grain requirement assumed that the cow was getting sufficient
silage and hay or green roughage. The roughages provided a






Feeding for Milk Production 11

large share of the total digestible nutrients, and when the hay
was from legumes, the protein was sufficient for the average
cow.
It is a common practise among many Florida dairymen to
buy most of the dairy feeds in sacks. These purchased feeds
consist mostly of concentrates or grains intended to be fed with
a full ration of silage or other succulent roughage, and a legume
hay. Such grain rations have protein in excess of the require-
ments. They lack bulk and succulence, and are out of balance
for feeding alone.
An 800-pound cow giving 20 pounds of 4 percent milk may
be given a simple ration largely home-grown, and the more
expensive mixture fed to high producing cows. Another and
perhaps better ration is proposed in the following:
Digestible Total
Proposed home-grown Amount crude digestible
ration I protein nutrients
pounds pounds pounds
Corn silage................................ 30 .33 5.31
Cowpea hay........ ........... 10 1.31 4.80
Ground snapped corn........... 3 .15 2.15
Cottonseed meal..................... 1 .32 .75
Total .................................... 44 | 2.11 | 13.11
Nutritive ratio 1 :5.2
This ration provides about the required amount of digestible
nutrients. With the home-grown feeds, it is better to provide
a liberal supply and do less grinding of the roughages. Feeds


"- :.- : -- "-- -"

Fig. 5.-This combination hay barn and sheds is equipped for feeding
home-grown roughages and the conservation of stable manure.






Florida Cooperative Extension


that are combined for a proposed balanced ration may need
some changes to make them more palatable, and to improve the
physiological effect. These changes can be determined by a
practical feeding test.
After all, a balanced ration may be impractical unless the
feeds are chosen and combined with good judgment.
Some cows have particular likes or dislikes for certain feeds.
These exceptions make it impossible to offer a single ration
that is ideal in every way.
COMPOSITION OF FEEDS
The chemist, in making an analysis of feeds, determines the
amount of water, protein, ash, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract
(carbohydrates), and fats.
Water.-All feeds, even bran and hays which appear dry,
contain water, usually mentioned as moisture. The amount
of water in dry feeds may vary from 8 to 15 percent. Roots,
such as turnips, beets, or carrots, contain 75 to 85 percent, and
silage from 65 to 75 percent water. This water serves the same
purpose as other water consumed by animals. Special care
should be taken in buying mill feeds with a high moisture con-
tent.' They spoil quickly in warm moist climates.
Ash.-Ash is the mineral or inorganic part remaining after
the organic or vegetative elements have been burned away. The
mineral elements are important in building bones, in minerals
of the milk, and for many other purposes in the body. Ash
contains mineral elements such as calcium, phosphorus, mag-
nesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper, etc., depending upon
the kind of feed, fertilizing treatment of growing plants, and
the soil on which the feeds are grown.
Protein.-Protein is important because of the nitrogen and
some other elements associated with nitrogen such as phosphorus
and sulphur, that are so important in growth and building of
tissues in the body, such as muscle, skin, nerves, blood, etc.;
it constitutes the curd of the milk. All feeds contain some pro-
tein. Of the roughages, cowpea, soybean, beggarweed, lespedeza,
alfalfa and clover hays have the largest amounts. Among the
concentrated feeds, the most protein is in cottonseed meal, pea-
nut meal, linseed meal, and relatively large quantities in wheat
bran. Protein is one of the important substances in feeds which
cannot be replaced by anything else. Surplus protein may re-
place some of the carbohydrates for production of fat and energy.






Feeding for Milk Production 13

Crude Fiber.-Crude fiber is the woody part of the plant which
does not dissolve in weak acids and alkalies. This material
gives bulk to the ration, but little of it is digestible. Hays,
fodders and other roughages contain more fiber than do con-
centrates. An increased fiber content in mature plants de-
creases their feeding value.
Crude Fat or Ether Extract.-Ether extract includes true fats
and other substances of similar solubility. Since fats have
high energy value, the total digestible nutrients is obtained by
multiplying the percent of digestible fat by 21/4, and adding
to this the digestible nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber and
protein. They serve the same purpose in supplying the body
fuel for warmth and energy for work. Excess energy is stored
as animal fat.
Ground feeds containing a high percentage of fat soon become
rancid in warm moist climates.
Nitrogen-Free Extract.-That portion of the dry matter dis-
solved out with weak acids and alkalies is called nitrogen-free
extract. It is determined by substracting the moisture, ash,
protein, fiber and crude fat from the total feed, rather than by
direct analysis. It is commonly thought of as sugars and
starches, and is classed as carbohydrates. This group is easily
digested. The grains are usually high in carbohydrates, corn
being an excellent source of this nutrient.
Vitamins.-Some feeds possess certain organic compounds
called vitamins. Presence of vitamins is the reason for valuing
pea-green color in legume hays more highly, and why fresh
green feeds have greater feeding value than dry feeds. Pasture
grasses and green succulent soiling crops contribute their vita-
mins through the cow into milk, making it superior as a human
food to milk produced from dry feeds that are lower in content
of vitamins. The feed a cow eats governs the vitamin content
of the milk. Experiments show that milk produced from green
feeds produces more growth in young animals than does milk
from dry feeds. Research work on vitamins has contributed much
valuable information about fresh milk as a protective food.

THE COMMERCIAL FEED TAG
State feed inspection laws and regulations require that each
bag of commercial feed carry a tag giving the guaranteed analy-
sis of the feed contained in the bag. The manufacturer en-
deavors to live up to this guarantee, so that the analysis tag






Florida Cooperative Extension


serves as a guide to the buyer. Buyers of feed should study the
analysis on the tag of each bag.

TABLE 3.-MOISTURE AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SOME FLORIDA FEEDS.*


4 0


& 3u 0. 1 AE-o |
0 El p .Q S 0 .. pn 8 ,.
percent percent percent percent percent percent
Legume hays
Alfalfa hay.......................... 8.35 14.9 10.6 51.6 1.116 .222
Beggarweed hay.................. 8.98 15.4 11.6 49.4 1.054 .267
Cowpea hay.......................... 9.70 19.3 13.1 49.0 1.816 .419
Peanut hay, nuts removed 9.50 9.6 6.9 57.8 1.065 .109
Soybean hay....................... 9.00 16.0 11.7 53.6 1.037 .363
Grass hays
Crab grass hay.................... 9.50 8.0 3.5 45.7 .393
Johnson grass hay.............. 10.10 6.6 2.9 50.1 .183
Natal grass hay.................. 7.46 7.4 .3 48.3 .542 .263
Timothy hay....................... 11.60 6.2 3.0 48.5 .179 .135
Wire grass (dry matter) .167 .160
Grass silages
Corn silage............................ 68.82 2.1 1.1 17.7 .088 .083
Napier grass silage.......... 67.46 1.2 .3 14.4 .095 .097
Sorghum silage.................... 72.76 1.5 .6 13.3 .079 .035
Sugarcane silage................ 76.32 .8 .084 .041
Legume silages
C. intermedia silage 72.87 3.3 2.1 10.7 .214 .065
Soybean silage.................... 75.43 3.1 2.8 15.6 .289 .100
Roots
Mangels ................................ 90.60 1.4 .8 7.4 .014 .029
Sweet potato........................ 68.80 1.8 .9 25.8 .039
White potato........................ 79.80 2.2 1.1 17.1 .052
High protein concentrates
Cottonseed meal, 36%........ 7.9 37.6 31.6 74.8 -
Cottonseed meal, 41%........ 7.8 44.1 37.0 78.2 .215 1.052
Linseed meal........................ 9.1 33.9 30.2 77.9 .360 .740
Peanut oil meal.................... 6.2 44.8 40.3 83.5 .116 .529
Velvet bean feed meal........ 9.7 18.4 13.6 72.8 .223 .332
Wheat bran.......................... 10.8 16.0 12.5 60.9 .060 1.290
Carbohydrate concentrates
Cornmeal (No. 2 corn)...... 14.8 9.6 7.1 81.7 .013 .312
Ground snapped corn
from dent corn................ 7.4 5.1 71.8 -
from flint corn................ 7.8 5.3 73.2 -
Dried beet pulp.................... 8.2 8.9 4.6 71.6 .656 .105
**Dried grapefruit
cannery refuse................ 9.3 4.9 1.2 76.0 .680 .093
**Dried orange
cannery refuse................ 13.9 5.8 2.1 69.6 .624 .092
Oats, light weight................ 8.7 12.3 9.6 68.3 .100 .354

Compiled from "Feeds and Feeding", 18th edition, by Henry & Mor-
rison, and publications of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
** Feeding value is being compared with other feeds for milk production
with dairy cows at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
*** Total crude protein is used in calculating protein content of com-
mercial grain mixtures. Digestible crude protein and total digestible
nutrients are used in calculating specific balanced rations.






Feeding for Milk Production 15

PRODUCTIVE VALUE OF FEEDS
It is not enough to know simply the amounts of protein and
carbohydrates contained in a feed. Not all of these substances
contained in the feed are digestible. Digestion trials have been
conducted with many of the most common feeds to determine
what proportion of the nutrients was digested by cows. The
results are reported in textbooks and other references as digesti-
ble proteins and total digestible nutrients. The digestible nu-
trients in some common feeds are given in Table 3. Another way
of expressing the results of digestion trials is to give the amounts
of digestible crude protein, the digestible true protein, and
the net energy value expressed in therms.
The common practice in the commercial feed business is to
give the chemist's analysis of total protein, nitrogen-free ex-
tract, fat, and crude fiber. The term "total carbohydrates" in-
dicates the sum of the crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDS
For general discussion, feeds may be grouped in several classes
and sub-classes. Roughages generally are bulky in nature,
contain a higher proportion of crude fiber and consequently are
lower in digestibility and in net energy value than are the con-
centrates. Roughages include fresh pasturage, soiling crops,


Uourtesy linsmore airy Co.
Fig. 6.-Annual grazing crops of summer legumes are important
pasture supplements in the fall, after the rainy season has passed.






Feeding for Milk Production 15

PRODUCTIVE VALUE OF FEEDS
It is not enough to know simply the amounts of protein and
carbohydrates contained in a feed. Not all of these substances
contained in the feed are digestible. Digestion trials have been
conducted with many of the most common feeds to determine
what proportion of the nutrients was digested by cows. The
results are reported in textbooks and other references as digesti-
ble proteins and total digestible nutrients. The digestible nu-
trients in some common feeds are given in Table 3. Another way
of expressing the results of digestion trials is to give the amounts
of digestible crude protein, the digestible true protein, and
the net energy value expressed in therms.
The common practice in the commercial feed business is to
give the chemist's analysis of total protein, nitrogen-free ex-
tract, fat, and crude fiber. The term "total carbohydrates" in-
dicates the sum of the crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDS
For general discussion, feeds may be grouped in several classes
and sub-classes. Roughages generally are bulky in nature,
contain a higher proportion of crude fiber and consequently are
lower in digestibility and in net energy value than are the con-
centrates. Roughages include fresh pasturage, soiling crops,


Uourtesy linsmore airy Co.
Fig. 6.-Annual grazing crops of summer legumes are important
pasture supplements in the fall, after the rainy season has passed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


silages, legume and non-legume hays. The freshly-cut green
roughages are high in water content. Roots, sweet potatoes,
pumpkins and similar feeds often are grouped with roughages
because of their bulky nature. These feeds are high in water
content, but low in fiber and consequently their dry matter
approaches more nearly the feeding value of the dry matter in
certain concentrates.
Concentrates, on the other hand, usually contain little crude
fiber, are highly digestible, and consequently yield more net
energy to the animal. Concentrates likewise may be grouped
as farm grains, oil seeds, milling and industrial by-products..
PASTURES AND SOILING CROPS
Pasture Grasses.-All grasses are high in water content. The
fiber content of many grasses is low during early stages of
growth, and increases as these plants mature. Wire grass is
an exception to this general rule. Young succulent grasses
contain more digestible nutrients, vitamins and phosphorus per
100 pounds of dry matter than do the same grasses when mature.
Some of the native grasses provide good grazing early in
the year. Young tender wire grass on burned areas has a pro-
tein content as high as 10.7 percent in the dry matter in early
spring, which drops to less than 4.0 percent by July. Wire grass
becomes unpalatable early in the summer.
Improved grasses, such as carpet grass, Bermuda, Bahia, cen-
tipede and others contain more protein in the dry matter, and
can be maintained in the vegetative stage of growth by close
grazing or by mowing off the seed stalks once or twice during
the summer. These improved grasses yield more green forage
and have a greater carrying capacity per acre than do most
native grasses. The grazing season on a given area sometimes
can be extended by using a mixture of grasses.
Soiling Crops.-On some dairy farms it is practical to grow
and feed soiling crops to supplement the pasture in furnishing
succulent green feed. Sudan, napier, vasey, and merker grasses,
Pearl millet, cowpeas, soybeans, and Japanese cane are used
as summer and fall soiling crops to supplement the pastures.
Oats and vetch may be used in the early spring. Napier grass,
the sorghums, Japanese cane, and corn furnish the largest ton-
nage of green feeds per acre. The sorghums, sudan and Johnson
grass, however, build up a high glucoside content when their
growth is retarded by drouth, rust, severe insect attack or cold







, c, **


Fig. 7.-Napier grass makes a good soiling crop to cut and feed green, or is good for silage.


Otl r -l
i .ix 1






Florida Cooperative Extension


weather. The glucoside of these plants liberates prussic acid,
which is extremely toxic when eaten by livestock. The wilted
plants are more dangerous than the fresh forage. Cayana sugar-
cane has proven quite satisfactory as a soiling crop during
the autumn, and is not subject to the objection mentioned above.
A suggested schedule for planting soiling crops is included
near the close of this publication (Table 8).
SILAGES
The character of silage varies, depending upon the crops pre-
served in the silo. A good quality of silage made from corn,
sorghum or sugarcane has a clean sharp acid aroma, and should
be free from moldy or musty odor. The best quality of silage
is made from corn when the grain is well in the hard dough
stage. If too many of the lower leaves are dry when filling the
silo, a small stream of water may be turned into the blower.
The sorghums are ready to ensile when the seeds are hard,
and the stalks barely drip sap when twisted firmly between the
hands. The fodder packs best when cut finely. Silage furnishes
one of the cheapest forms of carbohydrate feeds. Two and one-
half times as much dry matter can be stored per cubic foot
of space in the silo as can be stored dry in a hay mow, and it
is safe from damage by weevils, rats and weather.


Fig. 8.-A pit silo provided with hand hoist, track and feed truck
simplifies feeding operations.






Feeding for Milk Production


Fig. 9.-Corn is an ideal silage crop on good grade soils that have
been highly fertilized.

Corn Silage.-Corn is one of the best crops for silage. It is
high in carbohydrates and serves to balance high protein feeds
such as cottonseed meal and peanut meal. Corn silage also
combines well with the legume hays and concentrates to make
an excellent ration.
Sorghum Silage.-Sorghum produces a larger tonnage of silage
than corn on higher, drier, sandy soils. It ranks next to corn
silage in feeding value, and is best when allowed to reach the
proper stage of maturity at harvest. Sorghum is better suited
to late summer planting than corn.
Cat-tail (Pearl) Millet Silage.-Pearl millet silage is less nu-
tritious than corn silage. It is a quick-growing catch crop
adapted to early and late planting. It will produce a larger
tonnage than corn and will grow on poorer, sandy soils.
Sugarcane Silage.-Japanese, Cayana 10, and other canes are
good forage crops and make satisfactory silages. They will
grow from stubble and do not require planting each year. Large
yields of silage are obtained, but the silage is somewhat inferior
to cane or sorghum silage.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 10.-A trench silo with dirt floor, walls and ceiling provides in-
expensive but satisfactory storage for silage.
Napier Grass Silage.-Napier grass is a perennial plant that
produces well on sandy soils. The silage produced is inferior to
corn or sorghum silage in feeding value, but it is possible to
produce much greater yields that may justify planting this crop
on sandy soils. Two cuttings may be made annually.
Cowpea and Soybean Silage.-Legumes contain more protein
and add to the feeding value of the silage when mixed with non-
legume crops in the silo. One load of cowpeas or soybeans may
be added to each three or four loads of corn, sorghum, Japanese
cane,.Napier grass, or cat-tail millet. These crops may be inter-
planted with corn. When used in this manner, varieties must
be selected that mature for harvest at the same time. Legumes
may be ensiled when mature enough for hay. Loss of leaves
is to be avoided.
HAYS
.Rainy weather during the summer months makes the curing
of fodders and hay difficult. This necessitates planting hay
crops at a time that they will be ready for harvest at the close
of the summer rainy season, during the winter, or in the spring.
However, the production of many kinds of pasture grasses and





Feeding for Milk Production


green forages is practical during most of the year in most sec-
tions of the state. This reduces the amount of hay desired for
use as dairy feed in this state. Methods for artificially curing
hays may be made practical at some future date. It is practical
in Florida to use a combination of pasture, soiling and silage
crops and to reduce the amount of hay required. Rations con-
taining only small amounts of legume hays frequently require
supplementing with a source of calcium.
















Fig. 11.-Forage cane is adapted to Florida soils and climate and
produces large yields of roughage when fertilized. It is valuable for
feeding green during the fall, or the cane may be stored in silos or
banks for winter feeding.

Legume Hays.-In Florida, legume hays are cured around
poles, fixed with cross bars near the bottom so as to insure com-
plete circulation of air.
Cowpeas.-Cowpeas are well adapted to all parts of Florida,
especially in the general farm area. When the leaves have been
preserved, this hay makes a valuable protein roughage for dairy
cows.
Soybean Hay.-Soybeans require richer soils to grow suc-
cessfully than do cowpeas. However, soybean hay is more easily
harvested and cured than cowpea hay. Soybeans are quite
subject to damage by leaf-eating insects. The Otootan and
Biloxi varieties have been grown in this latitude.
Beggarweed Hay.-Beggarweed comes on as a catch crop in
many fields, after spring crops have been harvested. It is
ready to harvest in the fall, after the rainy season, at a time
when hay making conditions.are favorable. If harvested before





Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 12.-Feed racks provided with troughs conserve the leaves, the most
valuable part of hay.
the plants become too coarse and woody, beggarweed makes
a good quality of legume hay.
Kudzu Hay.-Kudzu makes a good quality of hay on the
rolling clay soils of northern and western Florida. It is a
perennial crop from which two to four cuttings may be harvested
in a year on soils suited to its production. It compares favor-
ably with alfalfa in composition. It is difficult to establish a
stand sufficiently thick to obtain a leafy hay of fine texture.
Non-Legume Hays.-Oats, millet, sorghum, Sudan, Para, carib,
crab and napier grasses are sometimes harvested for hays.
The coarse-stemmed grasses dry slowly and are subject to mold.
Owing to their lower protein and mineral contents, grass hays
are less nutritious than legume hays. Carib, napier, and Para
grasses are perennials, which often produce two or three cuttings
per year. Winter oats, with Austrian peas or vetch, mature at
a time when hay curing is practical in the northern part of the
state. October, March and April are the best months for cur-
ing hay.
ROOT CROPS
Root crops have a high water content but are low in fiber.
The dry matter in most roots has a feeding value equal to that


~cc~b~;h~l?~%v~~rC
~7~0~L~FLC- ~ ~c~
IL~C~ __ .,-~'R ~J"






Feeding for Milk Production 23

of the starchy grains. One pound of hay, 3 pounds of silage,
or 6 pounds of roots are considered to equal each other in feed-
ing value. The large amount of man labor necessary to plant
and harvest root crops makes it advisable to fertilize them
heavily with stable manure and commercial fertilizers. Roots
may be more useful in feeding a family cow than for a com-
mercial dairy herd.
Rutabaga.-Rutabagas planted with the first favorable mois-
ture condition (early September for northern Florida, and Octo-
ber for southern Florida), usually will yield succulent feed for
late December and January. In order not to flavor the milk,
rutabagas should be fed after milking, at the rate of about 40
pounds daily.
Mangels (Stock Beets) and Half-and-Half Sugar Beets.-These
crops should be planted about one month later than rutabagas.
Usually they produce a higher yield 'having better feeding
value than turnips. The tops may be fed with the roots.
Sweetpotatoes.-Sweetpotatoes sometimes are recommended
for dairy feeding; their use, however, depends on their selling
price. It is doubtful if this crop can be used profitably as a
feed, if the selling price is 50 cents or more per bushel.
Cassava.-The feeding value of cassava is very similar to
that of sweetpotatoes. However, sweetpotatoes are grown more
commonly.
CONCENTRATE FEEDS
Concentrates usually are feeds low in fiber, highly digestible,
with a high energy or total digestible nutrient value. Concen-
trates vary even more widely in nutritive characteristics than
do roughages.
FARM GRAINS
Corn.-More corn is grown in Florida than all other grains.
Since dent corn is subject to damage by weevils, the local supply
should be fed out early in the season. Corn grain is low in
protein and high in digestible starchy material. Much local
corn is snapped, and the entire ear ground. This product is
called ground snapped corn, and varies in nutrients depending
upon the proportion of shuck (husk), cob and grain, and upon
the extent of weevil infestation in the grain. Representative
ears of Whatley's Prolific corn having an average shelling per-
centage of 17 percent cob, 14 percent shuck and 69 percent grain
were calculated to provide about 7.5 percent total crude protein
(5.3 percent digestible crude protein) and 71.7 percent total






24 Florida Cooperative Extension

digestible nutrients. Yellow 'corn is preferred to white corn
because of a higher content of vitamin A.
Corn Meal.-Corn grain varies slightly in compositions de-
pending somewhat upon its moisture content. The meal made
by grinding No. 2 corn usually contains about 9.6 percent total
crude protein (7.1 percent digestible crude protein) and 81.7
percent total digestible nutrients. For human consumption,
the corn bran has been removed.
Oats.-A few winter oats are harvested in northern Florida,
the new Victoria variety yielding fairly well in this area. Aver-
age oats should contain 12.4 percent total crude protein (9.7 per-
cent digestible crude protein) and 70.4 percent total digestible
nutrients. The majority of oats on the Southern market are
light in weight, high in fiber content, and high in price as com-
pared with other feeds. Oats are used particularly at calving
time and in calf rations.
Velvet Beans.-An appreciable supply of velvet beans is avail-
able during the fall and winter months from northern Florida
to the Carolinas. The majority of the velvet beans are grazed
in the fields after frost has killed the leaves, but some are picked
and ground into velvet bean feed meal which contains seeds,
pods and some of the stems. The velvet bean caterpillar and
high cost of labor in harvesting are limiting factors in the pro-
duction of velvet beans as a concentrate feed in Florida.


courtesy ulnsmore uairy -ou
Fig. 13.-Cleanliness and neatness feature this milking barn where
cows are fed the grain ration, milked and turned out.






Feeding for Milk Production


HIGH OIL SEEDS
Cottonseed.-One pound of cottonseed meal is equal to about
1.7 pounds of whole cottonseed as a cow feed, therefore, it is
advantageous to exchange cottonseed meal for cotton seed on
a pound for pound basis. Many cotton oil mills will make this
exchange.
Peanuts.-Few peanuts are fed to cattle except when the
unhulled nuts are ground together with the vines. Peanuts
that have been harvested have a higher market value than
can be returned for them as feed.
Soybeans.-Soybeans cannot be relied upon to produce mature
seed in Florida. Ground soybean seeds are high in protein, oil,
and total digestible nutrients.
MILLING AND INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS
Cottonseed Meal.-Cottonseed meal is one of the best pro-
tein concentrates. It is used extensively in dairy feeds in the
United States and Europe when mixed with other concentrates
high in carbohydrates. Two grades of cottonseed meal marketed
in Florida contain 36 and 41 precent, respectively, of total crude
protein. Usually it is best and cheapest in the long run to buy
high grade meal as the lower grade contains more hulls. Cotton-
seed meal keeps well in a moist atmosphere. If purchased in
car-lots or wholesale quantities there will be a saving in the
price.
Peanut Meal.-The product left after extracting peanut oil
from the shelled nuts is called peanut meal. It should analyze
about 44 percent total crude protein. Added hulls reduce the
feeding value. Peanut meal should be mixed with carbohydrate
feed because of its high protein content. Since peanut meal
soon becomes rancid in a warm moist climate, only fresh meal
shouldbe purchased. This meal is used extensively by European
dairymen.
Peanut Feed Meal.-This is the product left after pressing the
oil from unshelled peanuts. This meal contains over 30 per-
cent total crude protein (24 percent digestible protein). Peanut
shells have a lower feeding value than cottonseed hulls.
Linseed Meal.-Linseed meal is the by-product remaining after
linseed oil has been extracted from flax seed. Old and new
process oilmeals differ in the method which has been used for
extracting the oil. Old process linseed meal is obtained by
crushing the flax seed and pressing out the oil, whereas in the






Florida Cooperative Extension


new process oil is dissolved out by naphtha. The old process
is more commonly used and the meal thus obtained is more
palatable. It contains on the average 33.9 percent total crude
protein (30.2 percent digestible crude protein) and 77.9 percent
total digestible nutrients. It is desirable for conditioning ani-
mals, giving them a smooth, glossy coat.
Dried Brewers' Grains.-Dried brewers' grain is the dried
residue of grains, chiefly barley, with some white corn or rice,
obtained in the manufacture of beer. It varies widely in com-
position, depending upon the proportion of different grains used
in the brew.
Wet Brewers' Grains.-The same grains are present in wet
and dried brewers' grains, so that feeding value of the dry mat-
ter is similar. Since wet brewers' grains are perishable, it is
necessary to obtain and feed a fresh supply daily. Sanitation
of the mangers or feed troughs requires especial attention when
wet brewers' grains are fed to dairy cows.
Distillers' Grains.-Both wet and dried distillers' grains are
fed to dairy cows. Rye and corn are the principal grains used
in the distilleries. Corn products are preferred as feed. Distil-
lers' grains usually are less palatable than brewers' grains, but
can be used satisfactorily as a part of the mixed concentrates.
Corn Feed Meal.-Corn feed meal is the by-product obtained
in the manufacture of cracked corn and table meal from the
whole grain by the non-degerminating process. It has a similar
composition to that of corn meal, but has a slightly lower per-
centage of available nutrients.
Hominy Feed or Meal.-Hominy feed or meal is a kiln-dried
mixture of the corn bran, the germ with or without the extrac-
tion of the oil, and a part of the starchy portion of the corn
kernel obtained in the manufacture of hominy, hominy grits,
and corn meal by the degerminating process. All corn by-
products carrying a high moisture content become rancid and
spoil quickly in a humid climate. There are wide variations
among the same feeds in these by-products. Freshly ground
meals, even though higher in price, are to be preferred.
Gluten Meal.-Gluten meal is a by-product in the manufacture
of starch and glucose from corn. The gluten is the protein
part of the kernel outside the germ. It is extracted by soaking
the corn in weak sulphurous acid and coarsely grinding it.
Gluten meal provides 35.5 percent total crude protein (30 per-
cent digestible protein) and 84 percent total digestible nutrients.






Feeding for Milk Production 27

When possible, it should be fed with other more palatable feeds
not obtained from corn.
Corn Gluten Feed.-Corn gluten feed is gluten meal with
corn bran added. On the average, it contains about 25 percent
total crude protein (21.6 percent digestible crude protein) and
80.7 percent total digestible nutrients, but varies considerably
in composition.
Wheat Bran.-Wheat bran is the outer coating of the grain
as removed in the flour mills. It contains over 15 percent of
total crude protein (12.5 percent digestible crude protein) and
60.9 percent total digestible nutrients. Bran ranks highest of
all commercial feeds in phosphorus content. Besides contribut-
ing bulk to the concentrates, it exerts a mildly laxative action
on the digestive tract. Coarse, flaky, pure bran is to be pre-
ferred over "mill run" bran, since the latter contains a propor-
tion of ground screenings and weed seeds removed from the
wheat. Wheat bran combines well with corn meal and cotton-
seed meal in a grain ration, and deteriorates little during stor-
age in a moist climate.
Wheat Middlings.-Wheat middlings or shorts usually are
very finely ground and generally contain more starch, a propor-
tion of mill screenings and re-ground bran. The finely ground
condition and higher cost of middlings usually make them less
desirable than bran as a dairy feed.
Dried Citrus Cannery Refuse.-The peel, rag and seeds of
grapefruit and oranges, dried on a commercial scale, are enter-
ing the field of commercial dairy feeds. These products are
bulky, very palatable, and exert a mildly laxative effect upon
the digestive tract. Both feeds are lower in protein than corn,
and provide from 70 to 75 percent total digestible nutrients,
depending upon moisture content. Cattle fed heavily on these
products have developed glossy coats of hair similar to that
obtained with old process linseed oilmeal.
Dried Beet Pulp.-The pulp of the beet, after the sugar is
extracted, is a carbohydrate feed. Experiments conducted by
the United States Bureau of Dairy Industry and the West Vir-
ginia Experiment Station show that beet pulp may be fed equally
satisfactorily either dry or wet. It is a valuable supplemental
feed and is used extensively as a bulky carbohydrate. Beet
pulp is more expensive than pasture, soiling crops, silage, or
root crops, wherever these crops can be grown successfully. It
contains nearly 9 percent total crude protein (4.6 percent di-






Florida Cooperative Extension


gestible crude protein), and 71.6 percent total digestible nu-
trients. Beet pulp is low in vitamin content.
Molasses.-Blackstrap or cane molasses and beet molasses are
carbohydrate feeds. Dry matter in molasses has an energy
value equal to corn, pound for pound. Molasses often is used
as an appetizer on less palatable feeds by diluting with water
and spraying over the feed. It is a good feed in limited quan-
tities when priced in proportion to corn feed meal and used
during the season when flies are absent.
PROPRIETARY FEEDS
Open Formula Feeds.-Open formula feeds are concentrate
mixtures with name and amount of each ingredient in the
ration. These mixtures usually are composed of feeds of uni-
form analyses from which the digestible nutrients per ton may
be calculated. This helps a dairyman to balance his other feeds
with them.
Closed Formula Feeds.-These feeds usually are made by com-
panies engaged in the manufacture of human foods, such as
breakfast foods. That portion of the grains unsuited for human
consumption is mixed with other mill feeds to make a ration
of the formula desired.


lam *.aym


Fig. 14.-A promising young herd on pasture.






Feeding for Milk Production


HOW MUCH ROUGHAGE TO FEED
Average amounts of roughages which a cow will consume
from a liberal offering, are as follows:
Dry Hays.-Cows fed dry hay as the only roughage usually
will consume two pounds a day for each 100 pounds live weight.
Hay and Silage.-A cow will consume one pound of hay and
three pounds of silage daily per 100 pounds of live weight. When
either roughage is restricted, the other one may replace it at
approximately this ratio.
Silage.-Cows hesitate to consume quite six pounds of silage
daily per 100 pounds live weight, but five to five and one-half
pounds palatable silages have been consumed.
Hay and Roots.-One pound of hay and five pounds of roots
daily per 100 pounds live weight are eaten regularly.
Beet Pulp.-Dry beet pulp has been soaked and used as a
bulky succulent roughage. Because of its cost, the daily allow-
ance usually has been restricted to about one pound per 100
pounds live weight.
Soiling Crops.-Consumption of soiling crops varies greatly
depending upon the palatability, moisture content and relative
bulk of the forage. Many soiling crops vary in moisture con-
tent between that of silage and roots, and can be fed propor-
tionately.
When good roughages are plentiful, they may provide all
of the total digestible nutrients required for maintenance and
for a low level of milk production. The type of roughage-grass,
legume or silage-affects the amount of protein and necessary
mineral elements provided by it. Legume roughages yield more
protein and calcium than do the grasses. Silages that contain
grain (corn or sorghums) are slightly richer in protein than
are the grass silages devoid of grain (sugarcane or Napier
grass). Because of these facts, the roughage supply determines
the amount and character of the mixed concentrates needed to
meet the daily requirements of dairy cows.
CONCENTRATES
In earlier years, cows were fed whole or ground corn, oats,
wheat and barley. Many valuable concentrates used now are
by-products from the manufacture of human foods and com-
mercial extraction of vegetable oils. These by-products now re-
place, a large part of the farm grains in dairy rations; com-






Feeding for Milk Production


HOW MUCH ROUGHAGE TO FEED
Average amounts of roughages which a cow will consume
from a liberal offering, are as follows:
Dry Hays.-Cows fed dry hay as the only roughage usually
will consume two pounds a day for each 100 pounds live weight.
Hay and Silage.-A cow will consume one pound of hay and
three pounds of silage daily per 100 pounds of live weight. When
either roughage is restricted, the other one may replace it at
approximately this ratio.
Silage.-Cows hesitate to consume quite six pounds of silage
daily per 100 pounds live weight, but five to five and one-half
pounds palatable silages have been consumed.
Hay and Roots.-One pound of hay and five pounds of roots
daily per 100 pounds live weight are eaten regularly.
Beet Pulp.-Dry beet pulp has been soaked and used as a
bulky succulent roughage. Because of its cost, the daily allow-
ance usually has been restricted to about one pound per 100
pounds live weight.
Soiling Crops.-Consumption of soiling crops varies greatly
depending upon the palatability, moisture content and relative
bulk of the forage. Many soiling crops vary in moisture con-
tent between that of silage and roots, and can be fed propor-
tionately.
When good roughages are plentiful, they may provide all
of the total digestible nutrients required for maintenance and
for a low level of milk production. The type of roughage-grass,
legume or silage-affects the amount of protein and necessary
mineral elements provided by it. Legume roughages yield more
protein and calcium than do the grasses. Silages that contain
grain (corn or sorghums) are slightly richer in protein than
are the grass silages devoid of grain (sugarcane or Napier
grass). Because of these facts, the roughage supply determines
the amount and character of the mixed concentrates needed to
meet the daily requirements of dairy cows.
CONCENTRATES
In earlier years, cows were fed whole or ground corn, oats,
wheat and barley. Many valuable concentrates used now are
by-products from the manufacture of human foods and com-
mercial extraction of vegetable oils. These by-products now re-
place, a large part of the farm grains in dairy rations; com-






30 Florida Cooperative Extension

mon by-products are wheat bran, hominy and gluten feeds, corn
feed meal, rice bran, peanut, cottonseed, soybean and linseed
meals. In cereal producing regious, whole grains are ground to
supply the carbohydrate part of the grain, and only enough
protein concentrates are purchased to balance the rations. Flor-
ida practices differ in that the majority of concentrates are
purchased, largely as milling and industrial by-products. Prox-
imity to regions producing cotton and peanuts and distance from
centers that mill corn and wheat tend to reduce the difference
in cost between protein and carbohydrate concentrates.

HOW MUCH PROTEIN FOR THE GRAIN MIXTURE
Protein is popularly considered the most important constituent
in feeds, since a shortage of it soon affects milk production.
However, the intake of total digestible nutrients is equally im-
portant. For the mature cow giving milk, the ratio of protein
to carbohydrates usually is one part of the former to not less
than 4.0 or 5.5 parts of the latter. Any excess of protein is
broken down by the cow and used to replace carbohydrates. A
definite amount of protein is required for maintenance, and
to make the proteins in milk. Protein is provided by both rough-
ages and concentrates. The proportion of protein in the grain
mixture increases as the amount provided by the roughages
decreases. Grain mixtures with protein contents to supplement
the several classes of roughages are given in Tables 4 to 7. Each
table heading states the desirable protein content of these grain
mixtures.
The protein content of the various grain mixtures should be
approximately as follows:
1. For use with young succulent grasses...... 10 to 15 percent protein.
2. For use with grasses in bloom................... 15 to 17 percent protein.
3. For use with mature grasses...................... 18 to 20 percent protein.
4. For use with legume hays.................... 12 to 16 percent protein.
5. For use with legume hays and corn silage 16 percent protein.
6. For use with grass hays and silages........ 20 to 22 percent protein.
The amount of grain required daily depends upon the nutri-
ents provided by the roughage as well as upon the weight of
the cow, amount and richness of milk produced, age and physical
condition of the cow. In general, a mature Jersey cow yielding
three gallons (25 pounds) of milk daily will need from 8 to 10
pounds of grain daily. The lower amount of grain may be fed
when there is abundant pasturage, or when legume hay and
corn silage are fed. Even more than 10 pounds of grain may






Feeding for Milk Production 31

be required with scanty grazing, a grass hay, or silage as the
only roughage. Refer to the section on "What Is a Balanced
Ration" in order to compute the rate of concentrate feeding
according to the class of roughages being fed.

GRAIN MIXTURES FOR DIFFERENT ROUGHAGES

TABLE 4.-RATIONS SUGGESTED FOR USE WHEN COWs ARE ON PASTURE
THAT FURNISHES THE NECESSARY ROUGHAGE.
S Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration
Concentrate 1 2 3 4 51 6
Pounds

Corn meal................. 100 100 100 50 -
Corn and cob meal........ 100 100
Ground oats................. 100 100 -
Wheat bran................... 100 100 100 100 -
Alfalfa meal........... 100 100
Cottonseed meal 36%.. 50 50 100 -
Linseed meal............. 50 -
24% Pro. mixed feed.... 100

Percent

Total crude protein...... 17.1 17.0 17.4 13.2 18.2 15.6
Dig. crude protein........ 13.2 13.9 14.2 10.2 14.9 -
Total dig. nutrients...... 67.9 | 72.6 72.0 68.0 70.5 -


TABLE 5.-SUGGESTED RATIONS FOR USE WHEN COws ARE ON LIMrrED
PASTURE SUPPLEMENTED WITH SILAGE TO SUPPLY ROUGHAGE.
Ccntrate Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration
Concentrate 1 2 3 4 5 -6
Pounds

Corn meal ......... .... 100 100 -
Corn and cob meal........ 100 200 200 200
Ground oats........... 100 100 100
Wheat bran............. 100 100 100 100 100
Alfalfa meal.................. 1 100 100 100 -
Cottonseed meal 36%.. 100 50 100 100 100
Peanut meal 42%....... 50 -
Linseed meal........... 100 -
24% Pro. mixed feed.... 300
20% Pro. mixed feed... 300 -

Percent

Total crude protein...... 20.1 19.3 19.6 17.8 16.6 16.9
Dig. crude protein........ 15.7 16.2 14.3 13.2 -
Total dig. nutrients...... 70.4 70.2 67.5 72.0 -







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 6.-RATIONS SUGGESTED FOR USE WHEN EACH Cow Is GIVING FROM
20 TO 35 POUNDS MILK A DAY, AND WHEN THE ROUGHAGE IS SUPPLIED
FROM SILAGE OR SUCH SOILING CROPS AS CORN, NAPIER OR SUDAN GRASS.
Concentrate Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration
Concentrate 1 2 3 4 5 6
Pounds

Corn meal...................... 200 200 -
Corn and cob meal........I 200 200 100 -
Ground oats..................I 100 100 -
Wheat bran.................... 200 100 300 200 -
Alfalfa meal...........| 100 100 100 -
Cottonseed meal............ 200 200 200 200 -
Peanut meal-...............-.. 100 -
Linseed meal ........... 100 100 -
24% Pro. mixed feed... 500 300 straight
20% Pro. mixed feed.... -

Percent

Total crude protein...... 21.5 20.8 21.4 21.7 20.1 24.0
Dig. crude protein........ 17.9 17.3 18.1 -
Total dig. nutrients...... 70.5 70.6 72.0 -


TABLE 7.-RATIONS SUGGESTED FOR USE WHEN COws ARE GRAZING OATS
AND RYE AND ARE SUPPLIED WITH LEGUME HAY TO SUPPLEMENT HOME-
GROWN FEEDS.
Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration Ration
Concentrate 1 2 3 4 5 6
Pounds

Corn meal.................... 200 -
Corn and cob meal........ 900 1000 100 200 400
Ground oats................ 100 -
Wheat bran............. 300 200 100 300 300
Cottonseed meal.......... 500 200 600
Peanut meal.................. 500 -
24% Pro. mixed feed.... 100 300 -
Blackstrap molasses.... 500

Percent

Total crude protein...... 17.8 20.1 16.2 17.5 18.8 16.3
Dig. crude protein........ 14.7 17.7 15.6 13.2
Total dig. nutrients.... 74.5 78.1 71.7 68.8


When much blackstrap molasses is used, cut or ground hay
such as peavine, crab grass or other mixed hay can be Used to
good advantage by mixing it with the grain ration. Corn and
cob meal, bran, and cottonseed meal are poured over the cut






Feeding for Milk Production


hay in the feed trough. The molasses is mixed with equal parts
of water, sprinkled over the feed, and mixed thoroughly. This
ration is intended for use when the farmer may be short on
corn and has low grade hay. Molasses makes a good appetizer
and is rich in carbohydrates.
When cows graze on limited native pasture with no other
roughage, use rations in Table 5, supplementing with beet pulp
either dry or soaked 12 hours in three times its weight in water.

RAISING DAIRY CALVES
The majority of dairy cows in a herd are replaced every four
to five years. Little improvement in average production of a
dairy herd can be expected when cows are replaced only by
purchasing heifers or cows. Disease and parasites also may be
introduced into the herd with the new individuals. On the other
hand, if proved bulls are used and heifer calves are raised from
the better cows, it is possible to build up a dairy herd with a
producing capacity above that of average cows and heifers pur-
chased for replacement purposes.


















Fig. 15.-Transportable individual calf pens provided with shade,
.shelter and sunshine compose a cheap practical nursery for raising
'healthy calves.
The supply of surplus milk available for calves on commercial
dairies usually is limited. Calves grow best when whole milk
is. supplied for at least six weeks, and skimmilk is fed in the





34 Florida Cooperative Extension
proportion of one pound of milk daily for each 10 pounds that
the calf weighs. When the supply of milk is limited, the daily
offering is allowed over a shorter period and an attempt is made
to get the calf onto other feeds as early as possible. A calf
feeding schedule based on a limited supply of milk is given
below. Liquid skimmilk may be prepared from skimmilk pow-
der, using two ounces of skimmilk powder to a pound (1 pint)
of warm water. Heat the water to body temperature (100 de-
grees F.). One pound of powder is sufficient to make a gallon
of skimmilk which may be substituted for equal amounts of
fresh skimmilk. Calves should be fed from buckets that are
washed and scalded.
CALF FEEDING SCHEDULE
1st day.-Leave with mother 24 hours.
2nd day.-Put the calf in a clean well-bedded shed away from
the milking barn for 24 hours without feed. The pen should
be kept clean and well bedded each day.
3rd day.-Feed 2 pounds (1 quart) of mother's milk three
times a day. It is important that the calf get the mother's milk
for the first two weeks. This milk is laxative and easily digested.
To teach the calf to drink from a bucket.-Put finger in calf's
mouth and immerse hand in milk; gradually ease finger out until
calf learns to drink. If the calf is not hungry do not try to
force it to drink. Give it time and it will soon learn.
Amount to feed.-In feeding the calf the first 14 days, grad-
ually increase the amount of milk until the calf is getting 1
pound (or 1 pint) whole milk a day for each 10 pounds of weight.
The average weight of Jersey calves at birth is 55 pounds,
Guernsey 71 pounds, and Holstein 89 pounds.
14th day.-Twice-a-day feeding is sufficient from now on.
Begin adding a pint of skimmilk a day to replace a like amount
of whole milk until the entire ration is skimmilk. This will
require a week or 10 days. At this time the calf should be
getting a pound of skimmilk for each 10 pounds of weight.
A tablespoonful of grain mixture, as suggested below, placed
in a bucket while calf is still licking it, will teach the calf to
begin eating. Then gradually give it all the grain it will eat
up to one-half pound a day, also some fresh legume hay each
day. Young calves prefer whole grains.
25th day.-Calves at this age should be eating grain regularly
in addition to a little hay. They should always be supplied daily






Feeding for Milk Production 35

with fresh water. The calf that has an appetite for more milk
than it receives usually is in better health than one overfed.
Shade and a limited amount of exercise will help to keep it
thrifty.
After 45 days.-The milk can be gradually reduced for all
thrifty calves that are eating grain and hay.
60th day.-On farms selling cream, continue to feed skimmilk
up to 150 days, using grain mixture No. 1 (see below).
For dairies producing whole milk for the retail trade where
skimmilk powder is used, one may substitute grain mixture No.
2 or No. 3 for skimmilk powder, up to six months. Mixed calf
meals also are available on the market.
All milk should be fed fresh and as near body temperature as
possible. Calves should be fed regularly, and the amount of
feed weighed or accurately measured each time. The foam
should be skimmed from separated milk. Where there are sev-
eral calves running together, they should be placed in stanchions
when fed and kept tied until they are through drinking the milk
and eating the grain. This prevents them from sucking each
other. Fall calves are raised more easily than spring calves.
By the use of skimmilk powder they may be raised as cheaply.
Calves under six months old should never be grazed on short
permanent pastures. Intestinal parasites often infest permanent
pasture fields. Cultivated fields are more desirable places to
pasture young calves.
Grain mixture for calves:
No.--30 pounds yellow cornmeal No.3-25 pounds yellow cornmeal
30 pounds ground oats 22 pounds red dog flour
30 pounds wheat bran 15 pounds oat flour
10 pounds linseed meal 15 pounds linseed meal
or cottonseed meal 10 pounds malted barley
10 pounds soluble blood flour
No.2-40 pounds yellow cornmeal 1 pound calcium carbonate
30 pounds ground oats 1 pound steamed bonemeal
30 pounds wheat bran 1 pound salt
10 pounds linseed meal
10 pounds skimmilk powder
2 pounds salt
1 pound bonemeal
Grain mixtures No. 2 and No. 3 may be used where milk is
not available, after calves learn to eat. However, milk is better,
when available. Mineral matter in limited amounts may be
supplied, as will be discussed later.
Calves Over Six Months.-Heifer calves should receive a grain
ration and plenty of roughage when six months old; silage,






Florida Cooperative Extension


and legume hays until they are 12 months old. Grain mixtures
used for cows on pasture may be used for heifers.
Bull Calf.-The feeding schedule for the bull calf is the same
as for the heifer up to six months. After six months the bulls
should be separated from the heifers and fed more grain but
less silage and roughages. The bull should receive firm manage-
ment after this time. With proper management the bull should
be ready for light service when a year old. At this age, a bull
should have a ring in his nose to facilitate safe handling.*

THE DRY COW
A dry cow usually is the most neglected animal in the herd.
All cows should have a rest period of six to eight weeks before
calving in order to build up a reserve supply of nutrients in
the body.
A good pasture is one of the best places to put a cow during
the dry period. If the pasture is poor she will need some grain.
She should have access to mineral matter at all times.
At Freshening Time.-Cows about ready to freshen should
be kept near the barn where they may be watched and cared
for. Equal parts ground oats and bran, or 2 parts bran and 1
part cornmeal, are good grain feeds for the last two weeks prior
to calving. Cows should freshen in good condition. The grain
should be cut down just before calving.
Cows after calving should get plenty of water and green
feed with a laxative grain ration. If no pasture, green feed or
silage is available, use beet pulp soaked in three or four times
its weight in water. The grain mixture should be increased
gradually, but grain should be fed sparingly until the cow's
udder is completely free of congestion.

FEEDING THE BULL
A proven bull represents more than half the herd in dairy
development. Nothing definite is known concerning the value
of a bull until the production of his daughters has been com-
pared with the production of their dams. This may take five
years. Careless feeding may render the bull useless by this
time.
Mature Bull.-The bull in breeding season should receive about
the same grain ration as producing cows. Grain rations 4, 5,
A safety bull pen is described in Florida Experiment Station Bulletin
274.






Florida Cooperative Extension


and legume hays until they are 12 months old. Grain mixtures
used for cows on pasture may be used for heifers.
Bull Calf.-The feeding schedule for the bull calf is the same
as for the heifer up to six months. After six months the bulls
should be separated from the heifers and fed more grain but
less silage and roughages. The bull should receive firm manage-
ment after this time. With proper management the bull should
be ready for light service when a year old. At this age, a bull
should have a ring in his nose to facilitate safe handling.*

THE DRY COW
A dry cow usually is the most neglected animal in the herd.
All cows should have a rest period of six to eight weeks before
calving in order to build up a reserve supply of nutrients in
the body.
A good pasture is one of the best places to put a cow during
the dry period. If the pasture is poor she will need some grain.
She should have access to mineral matter at all times.
At Freshening Time.-Cows about ready to freshen should
be kept near the barn where they may be watched and cared
for. Equal parts ground oats and bran, or 2 parts bran and 1
part cornmeal, are good grain feeds for the last two weeks prior
to calving. Cows should freshen in good condition. The grain
should be cut down just before calving.
Cows after calving should get plenty of water and green
feed with a laxative grain ration. If no pasture, green feed or
silage is available, use beet pulp soaked in three or four times
its weight in water. The grain mixture should be increased
gradually, but grain should be fed sparingly until the cow's
udder is completely free of congestion.

FEEDING THE BULL
A proven bull represents more than half the herd in dairy
development. Nothing definite is known concerning the value
of a bull until the production of his daughters has been com-
pared with the production of their dams. This may take five
years. Careless feeding may render the bull useless by this
time.
Mature Bull.-The bull in breeding season should receive about
the same grain ration as producing cows. Grain rations 4, 5,
A safety bull pen is described in Florida Experiment Station Bulletin
274.






Feeding for Milk Production


and 6 in Table 4, are well suited where legume hays are not
available. Rations 1, 2, and 3, Table 4, may be substituted if
legume hays are fed. The amount of concentrates to feed varies
with the size of the animal and his temperament. A bull in
service will need more grain (4 to 8 pounds a day) with less
roughage than when idle.
















Fig. 16.-The proper feeding of herd sires is an important part of dairy
herd management.

Silage and hay are good roughages. The silage should be fed
in limited quantities during the heavy breeding season.

MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS
Grasses in the succulent tender vegetative stage, grown on
soils well supplied with all of the important elements of plant
food, are rich in minerals. However, many soils are deficient
in one or more elements of plant food. Unless these elements
are supplied in fertilizers, forage crops may be deficient in cer-
tain ones such as calcium, phosphorus, iron and copper. It is
possible to supply these elements directly to the animals in a
covered mineral box located at a convenient place in the pasture
where it is accessible to dairy animals of all ages.
Calcium and phosphorus are the two minerals contained most
frequently in commercial mineral mixtures. These minerals
are closely associated in animal nutrition. They make up more
than 90 percent of the mineral matter in the body of a cow,
and over 50 percent of the minerals in milk. The best sources
of minerals for dairy cows are found in a careful selection of






38 Florida Cooperative Extension

natural feeds. Sterile protein-free bones of animals (as offered
in feeding bonemeal) are the next best source of calcium and
phosphorus. Finely ground high grade ledge limestone, marble
dust and clean oyster shell flour (calcium carbonate) also may
be used in mineral mixtures to supply a safe form of calcium.
Limestones containing much silicate, or dolomite, are not fitted
for use with livestock. Recent experiments in the use of raw
rock phosphate as a source of phosphorus and calcium indicate
that it is injurious to the health of cattle on account of the
presence of fluorine.



















Courtesy Dinsmore Dairy Co.
Fig. 17.-A herd of cows in good physical condition is practical
advertising on a dairy farm.

Common salt always should be supplied to dairy cattle, except
on areas naturally high in salt. Finely ground feeding bone-
meal may be used separately, or it may be mixed in a 2 to 1
proportion with common salt. Iron and copper may be supplied
in either of two mixtures which have been tested in this state.


No. 1
Common salt.................... 100 pounds
Red oxide of iron.............. 25 pounds
Pulverized copper sulfate 1 pound


No. 2
Common salt.................... 50 pounds
Bonemeal...................... 50 pounds
Red oxide of iron----........... 25 pounds
Pulverized copper sulfate 1 pound


The iron-copper mineral No. 1 is for general use with cattle
on light sand and muck soils. The No. 2 mineral is adapted for
use on areas near tidewater, or where the drinking water is






Feeding for Milk Production


brackish. It is particularly desirable that the iron-copper supple-
ment be available to calves, heifers and pregnant cows at all
times on areas that are marginal, or where nutritional anemia
("salt sick") has been known to occur. Many commercial dairy
feeds contain 1 percent each of common salt, finely ground lime-
stone (CaCOa) and feeding bonemeal.
Green succulent forage and sunshine are great aids to the
dairy animal in utilizing calcium and phosphorus from feeds
and mineral supplements.
Iodine.-In regions where goitre occurs, potassium iodide or
calcium iodide is used in limited amounts with farm animals.
Since goitre does not occur with livestock on soils where iodine
is adequate, such as the Coastal Plains, there is no necessity
for its use in Florida.

WATER IS ESSENTIAL
Plenty of pure fresh water should be accessible to the dairy
herd at all times. An average size cow consumes from 50 to
100 pounds of water a day when dry. She will need 3 to 4
times this amount, or 150 to 350 pounds of water a day, when
in full flow of milk. Water supplies 87 percent of the total con-
tent of milk and 56 percent of the total body weight. Stagnant
pools in the pasture should be filled or drained-dangerous in-
testinal parasites flourish around pond holes. Concrete water
troughs provided with drain pipes and floating valves, are
practical.











Crops

CORN



SORGHUM



NAPIER GRASS

CAT TAIL MILLET

JAPANESE CANE

COWPEAS OR SOY-
BEANS (May be fed
with corn or sor-
ghum, harvested at
same time.)
OATS AND VETCH


OATS AND
AUSTRIAN
PEAS


TABLE 8.-SILAGE AND SOILING CROPS SCHEDULE.

Amount seed to
Time to Plant Time to Harvest Varieties Amouper reto
use per acre
Feb. to June 90 to 100 days Hastings or What- 2-3 qts.
leys Prolific or
adopted Florida
varieties
Feb. to July 75 to 110 days Amber, sumac, or- 1 peck
ange, Texas seed-
ed ribbon, and
Japanese honey
Spring and 60-day
Summer Intervals
Feb. to July 60-day 10 lbs.
Intervals
Jan., Feb. and 7 to 8 mos. 3,000 stalks aver-
March age length
Feb. to 90 to 110 days Brabham or Iron
August cowpeas; Otootan,
Laredo, or Biloxi
soys

Sept. to Dec. 150 to 200 days Fulghum or Texas 1 bu. oats
Rust-Proof Oats; 25 lbs. vetch
Hairy Vetch


Sept. to Dec.


140 to 190 days


Approx. yield per
acre (tons green
weight)
4 to 10



5 to 18



8 to 20

8 to 20

8 to 20

5 to 20




2 to 8


Oats same as 1 bu. oats; 2 to 8
above; Austrian 30 to 40 lbs. peas
or grey winter field
pea


(Table prepared with aid of W. E. Stokes, Agronomist, Florida Experiment Station.)