Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida
Physical Description:
vii, 257 p., 117 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher:
The Service
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C.?
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 159-160.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Shipping list no.: 85-889 P.
General Note:
"Issued August 1985"--P. iii.
General Note:
Index to map sheets.
General Note:
Item 102-B-9
Funding:
U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000528218
notis - ACV0391
oclc - 12756083
lccn - 85602940
Classification:
System ID:
UF00025129:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
        General nature of the county
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        How this survey was made
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Soil descriptions
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
    Detailed soil map units
        Soil descriptions
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Prime farmland
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Use and management of the soils
        Crops and pasture
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 97
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 98
        Recreation
            Page 98
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 99
            Page 100
        Engineering
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
    Soil properties
        Engineering index properties
            Page 107
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 108
        Soil and water features
            Page 109
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
        Engineering index test data
            Page 113
            Page 114
    Classification of the soils
        Page 115
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Formation of the soils
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    References
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Glossary
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Tables
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
    General soil map
        Page 259
        Page 260
    Index to map
        Page 261
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
Full Text



Department of University of Florida O il survey o
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment Alachua County
Conservation Stations and Soil Science A lach a
Service Department, and Florida. F lo
Department of Agriculture l ri
and Consumer Services


































-4






HOW TO USE


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets:'
* i '** )




6 9

SNote the number of the map
iL. ---- ..--.-- .--- 2 sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
Son the map sheet.


I i i" -.7C
," I ,

L\ ., i ,-^.t'--


?O .1.-. -





List the map unit symbols
4. Inat are in ,ouw area Symbols


151C / 27C
56B
A " 256B\- 131B

134A
6B 1148B

134A. 148B- 151C







rHIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -.























6. Contents) for location of additional data ----'---_
on a specific soil use. -






-" ~ -L-..- --.-
I--













Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7, agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1982. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1982. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1982. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Soil Science Department; the Alachua County Board of Commissioners;
and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of
the technical assistance furnished to the Alachua Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Alachua County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to
the acceleration of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: McCarty Hall, the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, on the campus of
the University of Florida. The Soil Science Department and Soil Characterization Laboratory
are in McCarty Hall. The soil Is Urban land-Millhopper complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes.


















ii
















Contents


Index to m ap units...................................................... iv W wildlife habitat ............................................................. 99
Sum m ary of tables..................................................... v Engineering .................................................................. 101
Forew ord......................................................................... vii Soil properties ............................................................... 107
G general nature of the county............................ ........... 1 Engineering index properties........................ ............ 107
How this survey was m ade ............................................ 9 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 108
G general soil m ap units................................................. 11 Soil and w ater features........................................ ..... 109
Soil descriptions ........................................................ 11 Physical, chem ical, and m ineralogical analyses of
Detailed soil m ap units ................................................ 25 selected soils...................................................... 110
Soil descriptions ........................................................ 25 Engineering index test data..................... ............... 113
Prim e farm land ............................................................ 91 Classification of the soils............................................ 115
Use and m anagem ent of the soils ............................ 93 Soil series and their m orphology................................... 115
Crops and pasture..................................................... 93 Form ation of the soils................................................ 155
W oodland m anagem ent and productivity ............. 97 References ................................................................... 159
W indbreaks and environm ental plantings................ 98 G lossary ..................................................................... 161
Recreation ............................. ........................................ 98 Tables .............................................................................. 169


Soil Series

Apopka series.................................................................. 115 M ulat series................................ .................................. 134
Arents ................................ ............................................... 116 M yakka series........................................................... 135
Arredondo series...................................................... 116 New nan series.................................................. ........ 136
Bivans series.................. .................................................... 117 Norfolk series.......... ..... ......................... ........... .......... 137
Blichton series .............................................................. 118 O keechobee series................................................ ... 138
Boardm an series ............................................................. 119 O leno series....................................................... ....... 139
Bonneau series........................................................ 120 Pedro series..................................................................... 139
Cadillac series.................................................................. 121 Pelham series ....................................... .......... ......... 140
Candler series.................................................................. 122 Placid series..................................................................... 141
Chipley series................................................................. 122 Plum m er series......................................................... 141
Em eralda series........................................................ 123 Pom ona series......... ........ .............................. ......... 142
Floridana series.......................................................... 124 Pom pano series................................... ................... 143
Fort M eade series...................................................... 124 Pottsburg series............................................................... 144
G ainesville series ..................................................... 125 Riviera series ................................................................... 145
Jonesville series .................... ........................................ 126 Sam sula series ................................................................ 145
Kanapaha series....................................................... 126 Shenks series .................................................................. 146
Kendrick series ...................... ........................................ 127 Sparr series...................................................................... 147
Lake series................................................................ 128 Surrency series.......................................... ......... 147
Ledw ith series.................................................................... 128 Tavares series ................................................................. 148
Lochloosa series ........................................................... 129 Terra Ceia series................................................ ...... 149
Lynne series..................................................................... 130 Udorthents series ............................................................ 149
M artel series ................... ................................................. 131 W acahoota series............................................................ 150
M canopy series........................................................ 131 W auberg series........................................... .............. 151
M illhopper series .......................................................... 133 W auchula series.............................................................. 152
M onteocha series................ .......................................... 133 Zolfo series ...................................................................... 153
Issued August 1985



iii



















Index to Map Units


2B-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 25 33C-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
2C-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 26 slopes........................................................................ 59
3B-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 27 34-Placid sand, depressional .................................... 60
3C-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ....... 28 35B-Gainesville sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 61
4B-Arredondo-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 35C-Gainesville sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 61
slopes........................................................................ 30 36-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes................................ 62
5B-Fort Meade fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...... 30 37-Zolfo sand....................... ........................ 62
6B-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 31 38-Pits and Dumps................................... ........... 63
6C-Ap6pka sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .................. 31 39B-Bonneau fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes........ 64
7B-Kanapaha sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 32 41 B-Pedro fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 65
8B-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 33 42B-Pedro-Jonesville complex, 0 to 5 percent
8C-Millhopper sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 34 slopes....................... ........................................ 65
9B-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 44B-Blichton-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.................................................................... 35 slopes...................................... .................................. 67
11-Riviera sand........................................................... 35 45-Urban land-Millhopper complex, 0 to 2 percent
13- Pelham sand ......................... .................................. 36 slopes........................................................................ 68
14-Pomona sand........................................................... 37 46B-Jonesville-Cadillac-Bonneau complex, 0 to 5
15-Pompano sand .................................................... 38 percent slopes ......................................................... 68
16-Surrency sand...................................................... 39 47B-Candler-Apopka complex, 0 to 5 percent
17- W auchula sand ...... ................................................. 40 slopes...................................... .................................. 70
18-Wauchula-Urban land complex............................ 41 48-Myakka sand....................................................... 71
19-Monteocha loamy sand....................................... 41 49A-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...... 71
20-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ................... 42 50-Sparr fine sand................................................... 72
21-- Newnan sand........................................................... 43 51-Plummer fine sand .................................................. 73
22-Floridana sand, depressional............................... 44 52-Ledwith muck..................................... ......... 74
23-Mulat sand ............................................................... 45 53-Shenks muck.................................................... 75
25-Pomona sand, depressional ................................ 45 54-Emeralda fine sandy loam ..................................... 76
26-Samsula muck .................................................... 46 55B-Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....................... 76
27-Urban land............................................................... 47 56-Wauberg sand ......................................................... 77
28-Chipley sand ....................................................... 47 57B-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
29B-Lochloosa fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes...... 48 slopes................................................................. 78
29C-Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...... 49 58B-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 78
30B-Kendrick sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes............... 50 59-Pottsburg sand ................................................... 80
30C-Kendrick sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............... 51 60-Udorthents, 0 to 2 percent slopes........................ 82
31A-Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes............... 52 61-Oleno clay, occasionally flooded........................... 82
31B--Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes............... 53 62C-Boardman loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 83
31C-Blichton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............... 54 63-Terra Ceia muck................................... .......... 85
32B-Bivans sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes................... 55 64-Okeechobee muck............................................. 86
32C-Bivans sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ................... 56 65-Martel sandy clay loam ......................................... 86
32D-Bivans sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ............... 57 66-Lynne sand ....................................... ........... .. 87
33B-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 58 67C-Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 88









iv



















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 170
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) ........................................................ 171
Probability. Temperature.
Potentials and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 3)... 172
Extent of area. Cultivated crops. Specialty crops.
Woodland. Urban uses. Intensive recreation areas.
Extensive recreation areas.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .............................. 178
Acres. Percent.
Capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5)..................... 180
Capability subclass. Corn. Soybeans. Peanuts. Tobacco.
Watermelons. Improved bermudagrass. Bahiagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................... 184
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 185
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................................. 190
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 195
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 199
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 204
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 209
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13)........................................................................... 213
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

v




















Engineering index properties (table 14) ........................................................... 219
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................. 228
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)...................................... 234
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17)........................................... 238
Particle size distribution. Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk
density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18)............................................. 244
Extractable bases. Extractable acidity Sum of cations.
Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical conductivity
pH. Pyrophosphate extractable. Citrate dithionite
extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19)............................................. 250
Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index properties (table 20) ......................................................... 253
Classification. Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 21)....................................................... 257
Family or higher taxonomic class.














vi


















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Alachua County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





SJames W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service






vii


















-ALA SEE























Location of Alachua County in Florida.












Soil Survey of

Alachua County, Florida

By B. P. Thomas, Eddie Cummings, and William H. Wittstruck,
Soil Conservation Service


Others participating in the fieldwork were Joseph P. Ross,
Marvin Weeks, Roger White, Jerry Rosenberg, Robert Weatherspoon, and W. Jeffers Allen,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department;
the Alachua County Board of Commissioners; and
the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services





ALACHUA COUNTY is in north-central Florida. It is enterprise in the county. About 44 percent of the total
bordered on the north by Columbia, Union, and Bradford work force is engaged in government-oriented jobs.
Counties; on the east by Putnam County; on the south Almost one-half of this group is employed by the
by Marion and Levy Counties; and on the west by Levy University of Florida. A number of industries and
and Gilchrist Counties. The Santa Fe River forms the businesses are in the county, but most are relatively
boundary line between Alachua and Union Counties. It small in size and employ fewer than 400 persons. The
also forms the boundary between parts of Alachua and economy is enhanced by the readily accessible technical
Columbia Counties and Alachua and Bradford Counties. and scientific consulting services available and the
The first soil survey of Alachua County was published vocational and technical training centers in the county.
in 1954 (20). This survey updates the first soil survey
and provides additional information.
The county is about 615,000 acres, or 961 square General Nature of the County
miles. The land area of the county is 570,880 acres, or This section gives general information about the
892 square miles. Bodies of water less than 40 acres hissecton gad vels en liae eolormatgn about the
make up 2,913 acres. About 31,000 acres is state owned history and development; climate; geology, physiography,
makThe coup 2,913 acres. About 31,0006 mies wide and about 33 and drainage; natural resources; farming; recreation;
land. The county is about 36 miles wide and about 33 education and medical facilities; and transportation of
miles long. Gainesville, the county seat, is in the central the county.
part of the county. According to the 1980 census, the
county has a population of 151,143. More than 50
percent of the population is within the greater Gainesville History and Development
area. The remainder is about evenly distributed
throughout the rest of the county. The Alachua County Historical Society prepared this section.
The economy is one of agribusiness, trade and Alachua County was created December 19, 1824, the
service, and education (5). Agriculture is the largest ninth county in what was then the Territory of Florida.






2 Soi Survey


The county extended from the Georgia border to the Alachua, Archer, Newberry, High Springs, La Crosse,
Suwannee River and over to the Gulf of Mexico in the Waldo, and Hawthorne.
west. Its southern limit was Charlotte Harbor, and, in the Social, cultural, religious, and professional
east, it was bordered by Indian Territory. organizations are numerous in Gainesville. A regional
Spanish explorers traveled through the region as early transportation system is in the urban area. The city and
as 1529. After the establishment of St. Augustine in county provide utilities, health services, and police and
1565, missions were built throughout the county. The fire protection county-wide.
fertile land was used to produce food and cattle for the Lakes and streams provide opportunities for water
Spanish and Indians. sports and recreation, while woods and fields abound for
The British acquired Florida in 1763 and governed it enjoying the outdoors. State and county parks are
until 1783. During that time, William Bartram traveled in numerous. Several U.S. highways and one interstate
the county, visiting an Indian village near present highway cross the county, supplemented by many paved
Micanopy. His book, Travels, gives a good description of state roads. Gainesville's solar-powered regional airport,
Paynes Prairie and other parts of the county. Paynes which opened in 1979, provides jet service to several
Prairie, now one of Florida's largest state preserves, was major cities.
once Alachua Lake, on which steamboats carried
produce from the south side of the lake to Gainesville for Climate
shipment by rail.
Spain reoccupied Florida in 1783 and governed it until The climate of Alachua County is characterized by
it became a possession of the United States in 1821. A long, warm summers and mild winters. The Atlantic
land grant from the King of Spain to Don Fernando de la Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the inland lakes have a
Maza Arredondo encompassed much of present day moderating effect on summer and winter temperatures.
Alachua County and brought early settlers. Florida Summer temperatures are fairly uniform from year to
became a state in 1845. year and show little day-to-day variation. Afternoon
The building of the Cross-Florida Railroad resulted in temperatures reach 90 degrees Fahrenheit or higher with
the removal of the county seat from Newnansville to the great regularity during the summer months; however,
new town of Gainesville, laid out by the county temperatures are seldom 100 degrees or higher. Winter
commissioners in 1854. During the Civil War, local militia temperatures vary considerably from day to day, largely
fought two battles in Gainesville, which deterred Federal because periodic cold, dry air masses invade from the
occupation of northern Florida. After the war, many new north Frost and freezeng temperatures normally occur
settlers came to the county, and Gainesville was several times a year. Temperatures are 32 degrees
incorporated in 1869. Yellow fever was epidemic in the Fahrenheit or less about 24 to 28 times during an
city in 1888. Freezes in 1886, 1894-95, and 1899 average winter. Temperatures are 28 degrees Fahrenheit
brought the end of citrus fruit as a major crop, but the or less about8 to 10 times. Temperatures of less than
county has continued to be primarily agricultural. Light 20 degrees Fahrenhei t are ra The average date of the
industry has been introduced in the last two decades. d first killing frost is about November 20th. The average
Education has been the chief business in Gainesville date of the last killing frost is about March 10th (5).
Education has been the chief business in Gainesville Freeze data representative of the county are shown in
since the Buckman Act of 1905 created the University of table 2. Temperature and precipitation data (9) are
Florida and located it there. Classes began in Gainesville shown in table 1.
in 1906. The University replaced East Florida Seminary, Mean annual precipitation for Alachua County for the
an earlier state college. The University has grown period 1951-1980 was about 53 inches (9). About 52
steadily and rapidly since it became coeducational in percent of the total rain falls during the months of June,
1947. The addition of a medical school in 1956 has July, August, and September. Rainfall is also most
resulted in Gainesville's becoming a medical center, variable during these months. October and November
which includes the Veterans' Administration Hospital, are the driest months.
North Florida Regional Hospital, and Alachua General Most of the summer rain falls as local thundershowers
Hospital. in the afternoon or early evening. Summer showers are
Santa Fe Community College has also experienced sometimes heavy; 2 to 3 inches of rain can fall in 1 to 2
steady growth since its opening in 1965. It operates hours. Daylong rains in the summer are rare and are
three campuses in Gainesville and one in Starke, with mostly associated with a tropical storm. Winter and
more than 7,000 students enrolled for credit. spring rains are usually a part of large-scale, continental
Sunland Training Center, a state institution, is also weather. A 24-hour rainfall of 7 inches or more can be
located in Gainesville. Other health-related and expected in about 1 year in 10.
correctional institutions are located in the county. Tropical storms can affect the area anytime from early
The town of Micanopy dates from 1821 and is the June through mid-November. Hurricane force winds
oldest town in the county. Other incorporated towns are rarely develop because of the county's inland location.








Alachua County, Florida 3



Copious rains associated with these storms, however, chert are common near the top. The formation as
can cause considerable damage to crops and fields. reported by Clark et al. (1964) (3) is thinnest beneath the
Extended dry periods or droughts can occur in any crest and flank of the Ocala uplift, where a thickness of
season, but they are most common in spring and fall. A 80 feet is reported in a well near Newberry. It is 220 feet
drought occurs when the soil does not have enough thick in eastern Alachua County and is considerably
available water for plants to maintain normal growth. In a deeper where it is overlain by the Hawthorne Formation
normal year, there are periods when rainfall does not and the Plio-Pleistocene Terrace Deposits.
supply as much water as is needed by most crops. The Hawthorne Formation of Middle Miocene age
Supplementary irrigation is needed in most years for crops out in isolated areas around the town of Micanopy
maximum crop production. A drought or dry period in and in an irregular pattern from Lochloosa Lake
April or May, although generally of shorter duration than northwestward through Gainesville and into the north-
those in the fall, tends to be intensified by higher central and northwestern part of the county (fig. 1). Much
temperatures. of the outcrop area is relatively rugged hill and valley
Hail can be a part of some thundershowers. Individual terrain and is covered by a thin veneer of loose sands of
hailstones are generally small and seldom cause the older Plio-Pleistocene Terrace Deposits. The
extensive damage. Snow is very rare, and, if it falls, Hawthorne Formation, as noted by Pirkle (14), consists
melts when it touches the ground. of quartz sand, clay, carbonate, and pebbles and grains
Heavy fog forms on 30 to 40 days per year, of which of phosphate laid down on an irregular, solution-pitted
about 65 percent occur between November and March. Ocala surface. The formation as a whole is highly
Fog usually clears by 10 a.m. There is an average of variable in its composition, both vertically and laterally,
about 2,800 hours of sunshine each year, or 62 percent and ranges in color from green to yellow and gray to
of the possible sunshine (5). Relative humidity ranges blue. Thickness ranges from a few feet where the
from early-morning averages near 90 percent in all Hawthorne Formation is at the surface and merges with
seasons to afternoon averages of 40 to 50 percent in the Ocala outcrop, west of Gainesville, to as much as
late spring and near 60 percent in the summer. 160 feet in the vicinity of Gainesville and to about 200
Prevailing winds are generally southerly in spring and feet (3) in the northeastern part of the county, near
summer and northerly in fall and winter. Waldo. Because of soil erosion, the outcrop in the
Micanopy area appears to be approximately 40 to 70
Geology, Physiography, and Drainage feet thick (12).
The Alachua Formation, as noted in figure 1, is
By Daniel P. Spangler, associate professor, Department of Geology, exposed in the southwestern part of the county, where it
University of Florida. forms low and rolling sandhills. The materials, according
Alachua County is part of the Central Florida Ridge or to Pirkle (14), represent the residuum of post-Eocene
Central Highlands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It has formations (mostly Hawthorne and Ocala) and in places
four major geologic formations at or near the surface. contain fossils of land vertebrates. Hard rock phosphate
These formations have influenced soil development, within the formation has been quarried extensively.
They are, in order of decreasing age, the Ocala Group, Cooke (1945) noted the accumulations of many bones of
the Hawthorne Formation, the Alachua Formation, and Pliocene animals (4). According to Clark et al. (1964) (3),
the Plio-Pleistocene Terrace Deposits. the Alachua Formation ranges in thickness from 25 to 35
Figure 1 (12) is a geologic map of the county that feet. This range was determined by well logs and quarry
shows the outcrop pattern of the four formations; the exposures.
geologic formations along the line A-A' are shown by the The most recent formation is a surface mantle of fine
cross section in figure 2 (12). Also shown here in the to medium sand, silt, and clay that formed at Pliocene
subsurface, but not discussed in detail, are two older and Pleistocene sea level. Major outcrop patterns are
units underlying the Ocala Group, the Lake City noted in figures 1 and 2 as the Plio-Pleistocene Terrace
Limestone and the Avon Park Limestone. Deposits. Primarily the formation overlies the Hawthorne
Although the limestones of the Ocila Group have Formation and is exposed in the central and eastern
been subdivided and renamed by several authors in the parts of the county (10). It has been divided (by Clark et
recent past (Puri and Vernon, 1964) (16), they are al., 1964) into two lithologic parts-one predominantly
undifferentiated in this report. While this Eocene sand and one predominantly clay (3). The sand is usually
formation underlies the entire county, exposures are dark gray, brown, or black because of the organic
possible in the southern and western parts (fig. 1). Here matter, but may be tan or yellow where exposed. This
a limestone plain is formed and in most places is sand occasionally grades downward to darker colored,
covered by a veneer of loose sand. The Ocala Group clayey sand. North of Gainesville, the sand and clayey
consists of soft, white to cream colored, chalky, sand have a composite range in thickness of 20 to 45
cavernous limestone that is approximately 98 percent feet. The clay part consists of mottled, red, yellow, and
calcium carbonate. Boulders and irregular masses of gray clay and sandy clay, which range in thickness from








4 Soil Survey















A'


























Miles



Al IA' Line of Geologic Section

Plio-Pleistocene Terrace Deposits

1Alachua Formation

SHawthorne Formation

SOcala Group

Figure 1.-Geologic map of Alachua County, Florida.
Hawthorne FormationxfI5r:~~ :~:
Ocala Group~
Fiue .Golgc a f lcuaCuny loia








Alachua County, Florida 5








u- Plio-Pleistocene
A Terrace Deposits A'

2001 0 .

100
S Hawthorne Formation
0
Ocala Group
-100-

200 --
o Avon Park Limestone
% -300

-400
--- __ Scale
Lake City Limestone 0 2 4
-500 0 2 4
Miles




Figure 2.-Geologic cross section of Alachua County, Florida, from Lake Wauberg to the Santa Fe River.



5 to 12 feet and which overlie tan to pink sand and The western plains region has low relief. Elevation
clayey sand. ranges from about 50 to 80 feet above sea level. The
The physiography of Alachua County may be divided plain is devoid of stream channels, but it is dotted with
into three provinces as was first indicated by Sellards sinks and limerock pits. While the Ocala Limestone is
(1912) (17). More recently, authors such as Girard (1968) essentially near the surface in this region, many of the
(8), White (1970) (23), and Williams (1977) (24) have old sinks have become filled (some to a depth of 250
subdivided these areas. The three provinces are: a feet) with sand, clayey sand, and sandy clay. These soil
plateau-like region, which is north of Gainesville and materials come from marine submergence, slumpage,
includes most of northeastern Alachua County; a and rainwash. These fillings tend to mask the
western plains region; and a south-central and irregularities of the Ocala surface.
southeastern transitional area. In the south-central and southeastern parts of the
The upland plateau is nearly level, sloping gently to county are flat-bottom lakes, prairies, disappearing
the west, north, and east. Elevation ranges from about streams, and erosional remnants of the plateau. These
150 to 200 feet above sea level. The plateau, originally land forms appear to be a transitional stage from the
extending completely across the county, has many high plateau to the low western plains (17). Much of the
swamps, a few of which were noted by Spangler (1982) level prairie and many lakes, most of which are near or
(18) in a study of cypress domes in north-central Florida. below 60 feet, are associated with ground water levels
Sinkholes are not common within the plateau, but as (15). Paynes Prairie, the largest, takes up 18,000 acres.
noted by Pirkle (13), a few are found near its margin. It has a flat floor generally corresponding to the upper
The most notable is Devil's Millhopper, now a State surface of the Ocala Limestone and the ground water
Geological Site. level.








6 Soi Survey









35
40
45
50
55 60
60
S\70 /
75
80

Gainesville










1 -55
Scale 1 50 --- 55
0 4 8
Equipotential Line on
Miles -the Floridan Aquifer


Figure 3.-Potentiometric map of the Floridan Aquifer in Alachua County, Florida.


Essentially there are three aquifer systems in Alachua The secondary artesian aquifer is limited vertically and
County. They are the water table aquifer, the secondary laterally in extent and is primarily in a few limestone
artesian aquifer, and the Floridan Aquifer. layers and sandy layers within the Hawthorne Formation.
The water table aquifer is primarily near the surface It is possibly in shell beds of the Choctawatchee
and consists cf a few feet of sand of the older Formation in northeastern and north-central Alachua
Pleistocene Terrace Deposits that overlie the Hawthorne County. Many wells are drawing water from this aquifer
Formation. This aquifer is absent in western Alachua system. The yield is generally low because the aquifer is
County. It ranges from a depth of 100 feet above mean recharged from the overlying water table or from the
sea level near the escarpment to more than 150 feet underlying Floridan Aquifer, where it is under higher
above sea level, northwest of Highway 24, between pressure.
Gainesville and Waldo. In many places the water table is The Floridan Aquifer is within the upper several
less than 10 feet below the surface and is recharged hundred feet of limestone and underlies the entire
directly by rainfall, county. This aquifer is the most productive because it






Alachua County, Florida 7



transmits and stores water more easily. Figure 3 (12) and pulpwood production, but also as a habitat for many
shows that the potentiometric surface of the aquifer is game animals and other wildlife.
more than 80 feet above sea level in the eastern part of In some areas in the western part of the county, good
the county and decreases to less than 35 feet above quality limestone is near enough to the surface to be
sea level northwest of High Springs where some mined successfully. Most is used as a base material in
discharge flows into the Santa Fe River. The circular low road construction, but some is also used for agricultural
of 40 feet in Gainesville is caused by the pumping of the purposes. Limited amounts of kaolin and fuller's earth
city's water supply. The aquifer is confined where it is are also mined.
overlain by the Hawthorne Formation; therefore, it is
under artesian conditions in the eastern part of the Farming
county (the plateau region). The Floridan Aquifer is
unconfined where the Ocala Limestone is near the Farming has always been important in Alachua
surface. This is primarily in the western plains region. County. The Indians were raising horses and cattle,
which the Spanish colonial missions had introduced,
Natural Resources before the latter part of the 17th century. Before the
opening of the Bellamy Road in 1826, indigo, potatoes,
The soil is the most important resource of Alachua sugar-cane, cotton, and tobacco were grown, but mostly
County. It and the underlying parent material are the for home use. The opening of Bellamy Road greatly
source and basis of all the important natural resources improved transportation in the area, and more crops
and agricultural commodities produced in the county. were grown for market. By the time of the Seminole War,
Alachua County is one of the richest, most diversified the main exports were cattle, timber (chiefly live oak for
agricultural counties in the state. A variety of crops and boat building), and some indigo. During the late 1800's,
livestock are produced. The climate is favorable, and the the major crops grown were cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane,
growing season is long. and truck crops.
Water for home and urban uses and for most Agriculture is still a major enterprise in the county. The
agricultural uses is supplied by wells. The source of major crops are corn, tobacco, soybeans, peanuts, hay,
water for the wells is the Floridan Aquifer, a very large small grains, and vegetables. Vegetable crops are mostly
ground water storage area. The aquifer is a layered watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, squash,
sequence of porous limestone and dolomite which snapbeans, eggplants, sweet corn, and green peppers.
ranges in age from the middle Eocene to the middle Beef cattle and forest products are also major
Miocene and underlies much of central Florida. A good enterprises. Blueberries, grapes, peaches, pecans, hogs,
supply of water is obtained by digging wells into the and dairy and poultry products are produced to a lesser
underlying limestone to the aquifer. The wells are then extent.
cased to the limestone. They vary in depth but average According to the 1978 Census of Agriculture, about
about 80 to 100 feet. 200,000 acres, or 35 percent of the county, is in crops
The Santa Fe River is the largest permanent stream in and improved pasture. About 100,000 acres, or 17
the county. One interesting fact about this river is that at percent, is in general field crops; about 85,000 acres, or
one point it goes underground, travels through a maze of 15 percent, is improved pasture; and 15,000 acres, or 3
underground channels, and resurfaces at a distance of percent, is in special crops.
about 4 miles. Only a very few other streams are in the
county. These streams are in the central and eastern Recreation
parts of the county, and all are very small. These
streams, including the Santa Fe River, only flow Many types of recreation are available in Alachua
permanently along their lower reaches. During dry County. Various kinds of fishing are very popular on
periods, the headwaters of these streams receive little or Orange, Lochloosa, Santa Fe, and Newnan Lakes. The
no runoff. The upper part of the stream channels then Santa Fe River and Lake Wauberg are used for fishing,
becomes dry. canoeing, and boating (fig. 4), and adjacent areas are
Most of the lakes are also in the eastern half of the good for hiking and camping. A number of springs and
county. The four largest and most prominent of these underground caves within the immediate area of Alachua
are Orange, Newnan, Santa Fe, and Lochloosa Lakes. County furnish excellent sites for swimming, scuba
Their combined area is 31,694 acres. diving, and exploring for fossils and Indian artifacts. San
Woodland is also a major resource. Forestry and Felasco Hammock and Oleno State Park are excellent
forest products are important to the county's economy. for hikers and nature study enthusiasts. Devils
Although most native trees have been harvested, Millhopper, a huge sinkhole 500 feet wide by 120 feet
landowners are following a program of reforestation in deep, is a natural marvel that has attracted visitors,
most areas. About 2,500,000 pine seedlings are planted geologists, botanists, and other researchers for a
annually. The forests are valuable not only for lumber century.






8 Soil Survey


































Figure 4.-The Santa Fe River is used for boating, canoeing, and fishing. The flood plain adjacent to the river, which is dominantly Oleno
clay, is used as habitat for wildlife.



Educational and Medical Facilities in private practice in the county or are on the staff of
Shands Teaching Hospital (5).
The educational facilities of the county are very good.
There are six public high schools and numerous
elementary schools. There are also a number of private
and parochial schools. Transportation
The University of Florida, a coeducational state Alachua County has a good transportaon system.
university and land-grant college, is located in Alachua is served by four U.S. highways which extem.
Gainesville. The area is served by four U.S. highways which extend
Santa Fe Community College, a fully accredited junior across the county, generally in a north-south direction.
college, offers an undergraduate curriculum and adult U.S. Highways 27 and 41 are in the western part of the
education programs. It is located in Gainesville and in county. U.S. Highway 441 is in the central part, and U.S.
Starke. Highway 301 is in the eastern part. Interstate Highway
A number of top quality medical facilities and services 75 enters the county from the north near High Springs. It
are in the county. Gainesville is the center of medical extends through the county in a southeasterly direction
activities for a large multi-county area. Four well-staffed to Micanopy and continues into the southwestern part of
hospitals include the Shands Teaching Hospital of the the state. Numerous good state and county roads criss-
University of Florida, the J. Hillis Miller Health Center, cross the area in all directions.
and a Veterans' Administration Hospital. More than 400 Several trucking firms that have facilities to handle
physicians and surgeons and more than 100 dentists are interstate freight serve the area. Good rail and bus





Alachua County, Florida 9


systems also serve the county. Scheduled airline service same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
is available at the Gainesville Regional Airport. confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
How This Survey Was Made the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
soils in the survey area. The information includes a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biologic activity. experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Map Unit Composition
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and identified and named according to the taxonomic
other features that enable them to identify soils. After classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
describing the soils in the survey area and determining taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.





10



Most inclusions have properties and behavioral descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in complex that it was impractical to make enough
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) landscape.
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soi data.
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
or require different management. These are contrasting taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas landscape into segments that have similar use and
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps management requirements. The delineation of such
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit information for the development of resource plans, but
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the in small areas.

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map, following page 23 at the end of 1. Candler-Apopka
this section, shows broad areas that have a distinctive
pattern of soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and well
the general soil map is a unique natural landscape. drained soils; some are sandy throughout and have thin
Typically, a map unit consists of one or more major soils lamellae of loamy sand and sandy loam below a depth
and some minor soils. It is named for the major soils. of 50 inches, and some are sandy to 40 inches or more
The soils making up one unit can occur in other units but and are loamy below
in a different pattern. This map unit is on broad, rolling sandy uplands that
The general soil map can be used to compare the are interspersed with some small, grassy marshes and
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of ponds. Several small, isolated areas are in the central
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise; and eastern parts of the county. Two relatively large
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified, areas are near the town of Archer in the southwestern
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for part of the county. The individual areas are mostly
planning the management of a farm or field or for irregular or somewhat circular in shape.
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. This map unit makes up about 35,540 acres, or about
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place 6.2 percent of the county. It is about 70 percent Candler
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that soils, about 14 percent Apopka soils, and about 16
affect management. percent soils of minor extent.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to gentle
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent slopes. Intermixed are some sharp breaking, relatively
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists long but narrow, steeper slopes. Some landlocked,
the potential of each, in relation to that of the other map grassy marshes and ponds are mostly in small, saucer-
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that shaped depressions. They are interspersed throughout
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the most areas. Drainage is subterranean. The water level of
practices commonly used in the survey area to the ponds fluctuates considerably with the season. The
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease level depends on the rainfall and seepage from the
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the surrounding deep sandy soils.
problems that will persist even if such practices are .e The natural vegetation is longleaf pine and turkey,
used. bluejack, post, and sand live oak. The understory is
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops and pineland threeawn, low panicum, lopsided indiangrass,
pasture, woodland, and urban uses. Cultivated crops are and lichens. The marshes and ponds mostly have
those grown extensively in the survey area. Woodland vegetation of water-tolerant grasses and sedges, and a
refers to areas of native or introduced trees. Urban uses few cypress, bay, and gum trees.
include residential, commercial, and industrial Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
developments, surface layer is grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches
thick. Below this is fine sand to a depth of more than 82
Soil Descriptions inches. The upper 10 inches is pale brown, the next 12
inches is light yellowish brown, the next 29 inches is
il o an ride yellow, the next 13 inches is very pale brown, and the
Soils on sand ridges lower 12 inches is very pale brown and has thin bands of
The map unit in this group consists of excessively brownish yellow lamellae.
drained and well drained, nearly level to sloping soils on Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
uplands. Most are sandy throughout. Some are sandy to layer is dark grayish brown sand about 5 inches thick.
a depth of 40 to 80 inches and loamy below. The map The subsurface layer is sand and extends to a depth of
unit is mainly in the southwestern part of the county. 61 inches. The upper 16 inches is brown, the next 31
Small areas are in the central and eastern parts, inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 9 inches is







12 Soi Survey



very pale brown. Between depths of 61 and 82 inches, distances, into steeper slopes and hillsides. Small areas
the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. of somewhat poorly drained soils are in some areas of
Of minor extent are Arredondo, Chipley, Lake, this unit. Occasional small sinkholes and depressions are
Pompano, and Tavares soils. The Arredondo and Lake in most areas. Some depressional areas are well drained
soils are gently rolling and on uplands. Tavares soils are or moderately well drained, and the surface layer is
along the lower slopes and in slightly higher positions of sandy colluvium. A few small, isolated ponds are in some
the depressions. The Chipley and Pompano soils are areas. Drainage is subterranean. The few small,
within the depressional areas, intermittent drainageways that intersect some parts of
Most of this unit is in woodland. Most of the remaining this unit are short and drain into sinkholes or small
acreage is in pasture; however, some is cropland. ponds.
Watermelons are the main crop. A small acreage is in The natural vegetation is a woods of slash, loblolly
urban uses. .. and longleaf pine; live, laurel, post, and water oak; and
Cropland is severely limited by the low soil fertility and hickory, dogwood, and holly. The understory is a growth
droughtiness. The map unit is only moderately suited to of panicum, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, briars, wild
potential for seepage, the loose sandy texture, grape, and sedges. Sweetgum and waxmyrtle grow in
The potential for seepage, the loose sandy texture,
and wind erosion are the major hazards for most urban the more poorly drained areas.
uses. The soils have slight limitations for use as Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
homesites or for small commercial buildings. Lawns, layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches
however, require a liberal amount of water and frequent thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 49
applications of fertilizer. Unpaved streets and roads may inches. The upper 23 inches is yellowish brown, and the
become difficult to travel because of the loose, dry lower 18 inches is brownish yellow. The subsoil extends
sandy texture. Wind erosion is a severe hazard on sites to a depth of 86 inches. The upper 5 inches is yellowish
where the surface is unprotected. brown loamy sand, the next 10 inches is yellowish brown
sandy clay loam, and the lower 22 inches is dark
Soils on uplands yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
The five map units in this group consist of excessively Gainesville soils are well drained. Typically, the
drained to poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches
soils. Some soils are sandy to a depth of less than 20 thick. The underlying layers extend to a depth of more
inches and are clayey below. Some are sandy to a depth than 82 inches. The upper 22 inches is yellowish brown
of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below. Some are sand, and the lower 53 inches is strong brown loamy
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy sand.
below. Some are sandy throughout. These soils are Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
predominantly in the western half of the county. Some the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
areas are scattered throughout the county. inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
58 inches. The upper 17 inches is yellowish brown, the
2. Arredondo-Gainesville-Millhopper next 22 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 10
Nearly level to sloping, well drained and moderately well inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a
drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of 50 inches or depth of 89 inches. The upper 6 inches is yellowish
more and are loamy below, and some are sandy to a brown loamy sand that has grayish and yellow mottles;
depth of more than 80 inches the next 22 inches is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam;
This map unit is on the rolling uplands. It is and the lower 3 inches is gray, mottled sandy loam.
concentrated mostly near the towns of Alachua and High Of minor extent are Apopka, Bonneau, Fort Meade,
Springs in the northwestern part of the county. Some Kanapaha, Kendrick, Lake, and Lochloosa soils. The
small isolated areas are within the urbanized greater Apopka and Lake soils usually are in small, isolated
Gainesville. One small area is in the extreme eastern drought areas within the map unit The Bonneau, Fort
part of the county, near the town of Hawthorne. Much of Meade, and Kendrick soils are on the upland slopes and
the acreage of the unit consists of one very large are intermixed with major soils of the unit. The Kanapaha
irregularly shaped area that begins a few miles south of and Lochloosa soils are both along seepy hillsides in the
Alachua and extends north to the Santa Fe River. higher positions of uplands and in and along the
This map unit makes up about 38,920 acres, or about drainageways.
6.8 percent of the county. It is about 41 percent Most of this unit is in crops and pasture. The
Arredondo soils, about 19 percent Gainesville soils, remaining acreage is woodland or in urban use.
about 15 percent Millhopper soils, and about 25 percent This map unit is moderately well suited to crops and is
soils of minor extent, well suited to improved pasture if it is well managed.
The landscape is one of nearly level to gentle slopes. Most locally grown crops and deep rooting pasture
Occasionally, it breaks rather sharply, for short plants are adapted.







Alachua County, Florida 13


The potential seepage caused by the deep sandy Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
texture is the major restrictive feature for most urban layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches
uses. Limitations for homesites, small commercial thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 49
buildings, and roads and streets are slight. Wind erosion inches. The upper 23 inches is yellowish brown, and the
can become a problem on sites that have been cleared lower 18 inches is brownish yellow. The subsoil extends
of all protective vegetation. The soils mostly have slight to a depth of 86 inches. The upper 5 inches is yellowish
limitations for septic tank absorption fields; however, brown loamy sand, the next 10 inches is yellowish brown
limitations vary from moderate to severe in areas where sandy clay loam, and the lower 22 inches is dark
the water table is close enough to the surface during wet yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
seasons to prevent good drainage. The Bonneau soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9
3. Kendrick-Arredondo-Bonneau inches thick. The subsurface layer is brownish yellow
fine sand to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil extends to
Nearly level to sloping, well drained and moderately well a depth of 84 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is
drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the next 22 inches is
inches and are loamy below, and some are sandy to a
depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy below mottled gray and brownish yellow sandy clay loam; the
Next 15 inches is gray and yellowish brown sandy clay
This map unit is on the uplands. Total acreage is loam; and the lower 9 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay
small. It consists of several small, relatively elongated or loam.
irregularly shaped areas in the northwestern part of the Of minor extent in this map unit are Bivans, Blichton,
county. The areas are within a long, narrow, 8- to 12- Fort Meade, Gainesville, Lochloosa, Micanopy,
mile section. The southern boundary is along State Road Millhopper, and Norfolk soils. These soils normally are
26, and the section extends northwest along thehore
2, inters e sehighwy about to the Santa Fe Rver along the same slopes as the major soils of this unit.
interstate highway about to the Santa Fe River. Most of this unit is in crops and improved pasture (fig.
This map unit makes up about 26,660 acres, or about Most of this unit is in crops and improved pasture (fig.
This map unit makes up about 26,660 acres, or about 5). A small acreage is woodland or in urban uses.
4.7 percent of the county. It is about 35 percent 5). small acreage is woodland or in urban uses.
Kendrick soils, about 30 percent Arredondo soils, about Most soils of this unit are well suited to locally grown
15 percent Bonneau soils, and about 20 percent soils of crops. The remaining acreage is moderately well suited
minor extent. to crops. The soils are well suited to improved varieties
The landscape is one of gentle slopes on rolling of bermudagrass for pasture and hay.
uplands intermixed with short, sharp breaking, steeper Much of this unit has only slight limitations for
slopes and relatively long, narrow hillsides. Small areas homesites, small commercial buildings, and roads and
of somewhat poorly drained soils are in this map unit. streets. Limitations vary from moderate to slight for
These somewhat poorly drained soils are generally along septic tank absorption fields. Because of the wide range
the sides, at the crest, and at the base of the slopes and in limitations of the minor soils and the variability of the
are mixed with the better drained soils. The areas are soils of this unit for other urban uses, detailed soil maps
interspersed with small sinkholes. Drainage is should be consulted and onsite investigations made for
subterranean. specific uses.
The natural vegetation of this unit is chiefly slash,
loblobby, and longleaf pine; red, laurel, water, and live 4. Arredondo-Jonesville-Lake
oak; and hickory, magnolia, and dogwood. The
understory consists of several species of bluestem, Nearly level to gently sloping, well drained and
indiangrass, hairy panicum, fringeleaf paspalum, briars, excessively drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of
eastern bracken, dwarf huckleberry, and sedges. The 20 to 40 inches, have a thin, loamy subsoil, and are
more poorly drained areas have a similar mixture of pine underlain by limestone; some are sandy to a depth of 40
and hardwood trees, but sweetgum is also present. The to 80 inches and are loamy below; some are sandy
understory in the poorly drained areas is chiefly throughout
waxmyrtle and other native shrubs and herbs. This map unit is on uplands. It is within the highly
Kendrick soils are well drained. Typically, the surface complex limestone plain area in the western part of the
layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. county. It consists of two areas. One is a very large, 3-
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand to a to 7-mile wide area along the county line. It extends from
depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown or the Santa Fe River, north of the town of High Springs, to
dark yellowish brown and extends to a depth of 90 the Levy County line south of the town of Archer. The
inches or more. The upper 5 inches is fine sandy loam, other is a small area about 3 miles southeast of Archer.
the next 42 inches is sandy clay loam, the next 10 This map unit makes up about 47,140 acres, or about
inches is fine sandy loam, and the lower 7 inches is 8.3 percent of the county. It is about 35 percent
sandy clay loam. Arredondo soils, about 25 percent Jonesville soils, about








14 Soil Survey

































Figure 5.-Good quality bahiagrass pasture in the Kendrlck-Arredondo-Bonneau general soil map unit.


20 percent Lake soils, and about 20 percent soils of inches. The upper 23 inches is yellowish brown, and the
minor extent. lower 18 inches is brownish yellow. The subsoil extends
The landscape is nearly level to gently rolling uplands, to a depth of 86 inches. The upper 5 inches is yellowish
which are interspersed with few to numerous sinkholes brown loamy sand, the next 10 inches is yellowish brown
and limestone boulders (fig. 6). Depth to underlying sandy clay loam, and the lower 22 inches is dark
limestone is variable. In some places, there are outcrops yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
of limestone, and in other places the limestone is several Jonesville soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
feet below the surface. Drainage is subterranean, layer is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The
The natural vegetation of this unit consists of a woods subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand to a depth of 29
of longleaf pine and post, bluejack, laurel, and live oak. inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 33 inches. It is
Scattered slash pine, red oak, and hickory also are in brownish yellow sandy clay loam. Below this to a depth
many areas. The understory is chiefly a mixture of of 80 inches or more is white limestone, which is soft
bluestem, panicum, dwarf huckleberry, dayflower, enough to be dug with light power equipment.
eastern bracken, pineland threeawn, wild grape, sedges, Lake soils are excessively drained Typically, the
and scattered palmetto. Only a small acreage of thiske aerdas y thi
map unit remains in its natural wooded state. Most sue nen layer is fine sand abt 7 d inches 82 inc
wooded areas are former fields that have been planted The underlying layer is fine sand to a depth of 82 inches
to slash pine. or more. The upper 4 inches s pale brown, the next 49
Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface inches is very pale brown, and the lower 22 inches is
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches very pale brown and contains bands of brownish yellow
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 49 lamellae of loamy sand.





Alachua County, Florida 15

































. 1W
W' "



















Figure 6.-Sinkholes similar to this are common throughout the central and western parts of the county, but they are generally most
abundant in areas of the Arredondo-Jonesville-Lake general soil map unit.



Of minor extent in this unit are Cadillac, Bonneau, and this unit and the thick sandy texture of others are the
Pedro soils and Udorthents. These minor soils normally major restrictive features for most urban uses.
are in small areas intermixed with the major soils. Limitations for building onsites and for roads and streets
are mostly slight. For other uses they are variable.
Most of this unit is in crops and improved pasture. Detailed soil maps should be consulted and onsite
Most of the remaining acreage is woodland. investigations made for specific uses.
This map unit has severe limitations for crops because
of the drought conditions. If good management 5. Millhopper-Bonneau-Arredondo
practices are used, however, fair to good yields of locally
grown farm crops can be produced. The unit is well Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and well
suited to growing deep rooting Coastal bermudagrass drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80
and bahiagrass for pasture. inches and are loamy below, and some are sandy to a
The shallow depth to the limestone in some soils of depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below






16 Sol Survey


This map unit is on the broad, rolling uplands of the inches is dark yellowish brown sandy cay loam.
western part of the county and on the smaller, nearly Of minor extent in this unit are Kanapaha. Kendrick,
level to gently sloping uplands in the flatwoods of the Lochloosa, Sparr, and Tavares soils. The Kanapaha soils
east-central part. Areas of this unit are throughout the are on wet slopes and in lower depressions. Kendrick
county. They are mostly elongated or irregular in shape soils are in the gently rolling areas and are along the
and small. same slope gradient as the major soils. In the southern
This map unit makes up about 50,100 acres, or about part of the county, the Lochloosa and Sparr soils are
8.8 percent of the county. It is about 40 percent mostly along the seepy slopes, but, in the eastern part,
Millhopper soils, about 20 percent Bonneau soils, about they are in slightly lower parts of the gently rolling
15 percent Arredondo soils, and about 25 percent soils landscape. Tavares soils are in this unit in the eastern
of minor extent. part of the county.
In the western part of the county, the landscape is one Most of this unit is in crops and pasture. Most of the
of broad, nearly level to gently sloping uplands, which remaining acreage is in woodland or is used for urban
are interspersed with sinkholes. In the northern, central, development.
and southern parts, the topography is one of nearly level This unit is moderately well suited or well suited to
to gentle slopes and occasionally sharp-breaking, crops. It is well suited to improved pasture of
steeper slopes that grade into sinks and depressional bermudagrass and bahiagrasses.
areas. Wetness on the slopes is caused by seepage. In For much of this unit, limitations are slight for
the eastern part of the county, the topography is one of dwellings, small commercial buildings, and roads and
nearly level to gently rolling uplands. The uplands are streets. Limitations are severe to slight for most other
throughout the broad reaches of the flatwoods. Drainage urban uses because of the variability of the depth to the
is dominantly subterranean, but the eastern part of the water table, the surface texture, and the thickness of the
county has a few poorly defined, narrow drainageways. sandy material. Detailed soil maps should be consulted
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash and longleaf and onsite investigations should be made where needed.
pine; live, water, laurel, red, and post oak; and hickory,
dogwood, and sweetgum. The understory consists of
waxmyrtlle, dwarf huckleberry, eastern bracken, briars, 6. Blichton-Lochloosa-Bivans
pineland threeawn, and several varieties of bluestem and
panicum. Nearly level to strongly sloping, poorly drained and
Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically, somewhat poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a
Millhopperdepth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below, and
the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inhes and
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of are clayey below
58 inches. The upper 17 inches is yellowish brown, the
next 22 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 10 This map unit is on the rolling uplands. Several areas
inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a are in the central part of the county and run in a
depth of 89 inches. The upper 6 inches is yellowish northwest-southeast direction. They are along Interstate
brown loamy sand that has gray and brown mottles; the Highway 75 and U.S. Highway 441 from the town of
next 22 inches is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam; Alachua to the Marion County line. Although the areas
and the lower 3 inches is gray, mottled sandy loam. are relatively small in size, some are narrow and
elongated and meander over long distances.
Bonneau soils are moderately well drained. Typically, This map unit makes up about 1,325 acres, or about
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9 inches This map unit makes unbt 13ese or about
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9 inches 5.4 percent of the county. It is about 37 percent Blichton
thick. The subsurface layer is brownish yellow fine sand soils, about 25 percent ohsa sis, abut 14
to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth p t Bvas a nd about 24 percent sons of minor
percent Bivans soils, and about 24 percent soils of minor
of 84 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is yellowish extent.
brown fine sandy loam, the next 22 inches is mottled s
ry brown sandy clay loam, the next 22 inches is mottled The landscape is one of rolling to strongly sloping
inches is gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and uplands interspersed with sinkholes, depressions, a few
inches is gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and lakes, and wet prairies. The slopes vary from small,
the lower 9 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam.
the lower 9 inches a gray, mottled sandy clay loam. sharp breaks to long, seepy hillsides. Some well drained
Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface and moderately well drained soils are closely intermixed
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches with the major soils of this unit. These better drained
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 49 soils'are across the landscape with no predictable
inches. The upper 23 inches is yellowish brown, and the position along the slopes. Drainage is subterranean.
lower 18 inches is brownish yellow. The subsoil extends Wetness on the slopes is from seepage. During long
to a depth of 86 inches or more. The upper 5 inches is periods of high rainfall, some areas at the base of the
yellowish brown loamy sand, the next 10 inches is slopes may have water standing on the surface for bief
yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 22 periods because of the high rate of runoff on the slopes,








Alachua County, Florida 17


the slow internal drainage, and the lack of drainage steeper slopes are not recommended for cropland. The
outlets. / high water table during wet seasons and the potential
The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf : hazard of erosion are the major limiting factors. The unit
pine; laurel, live, and water oaks; and maple, sweetgum, is well suited to improved pasture.
hickory, and magnolia. The understory is chiefly Limitations for urban uses are severe for much of the
waxmyrtle, greenbrier, wild grape, bluestem, dwarf unit. Wetness and the high shrink-swell potential of some
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and low panicum. soils are major problems. Corrective measures should be
Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface taken before urban development is undertaken.
layer is dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. It
is about 3 percent nodules of ironstone and fragments Soils on the flatwoods, on slight knolls, and in
and nodules of phosphatic limestone. The subsurface transitional areas between the upland and the
layer extends to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 7 flatwoods
inches is grayish brown sand and has about 2 percent The four map units in this group consist of moderately
nodules of ironstone and fragments of phosphatic well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently
limestone. The next 15 inches is light brownish gray sloping soils. Some soils are sandy to a depth of 20 to
loamy sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches 40 inches and are loamy below. Some are sandy to a
or more. The upper 6 inches is dark gray sandy clay depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy below. Some are
loam. It is about 4 percent nodules of ironstone and sandy throughout. These are throughout the central and
fragments of phosphatic limestone. The next 28 inches eastern parts of the county.
is dark gray sandy clay loam that is about 10 percent
plinthite and about 3 percent nodules of ironstone and 7. Millhopper-Lochloosa-Sparr
weathered phosphatic limestone. The lower 18 inches is
gray sandy clay loam that has dark reddish brown Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
mottles. and somewhat poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a
Lochloosa soils are somewhat poorly drained, depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy below, and
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine loamy below
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 7 inches is pale This map unit is in small areas of nearly level uplands
brown. The lower 20 inches is very pale brown and has in the flatwoods and in the transitional area which grades
grayish and yellowish mottles. The subsoil extends to a from the rolling uplands of the western part of the county
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 10 inches is pale to the flatwoods of the eastern part. The unit consists of
brown, mottled very fine sandy loam; the next 13 inches several small, irregularly shaped areas interspersed with
is light brownish gray, mottled very fine sandy loam; and some poorly drained and very poorly drained soils.
the lower 23 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. This map unit makes up about 70,870 acres, or about
Bivans soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface 12.4 percent of the county. It is about 35 percent
layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The Millhopper soils, about 28 percent Lochloosa soils, about
subsurface layer is gray sand 9 inches thick. It has a few 15 percent Sparr soils, and about 22 percent soils of
nodules of ironstone and fragments of phosphatic minor extent.
limestone. The subsoil extends to a depth of 61 inches. The topography is one of nearly level areas that have
It has a few fine and medium sized nodules and a few gentle slopes. There is only a slight difference in
fragments of ironstone and phosphatic limestone. The elevation from other adjacent areas across the
upper 12 inches is dark gray, mottled sandy clay; the landscape. Some small depressions and ponded areas
next 18 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay; and the lower are typically included. Drainage is both subterranean and
16 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. Between surface. Drainageways are intermittent and poorly
depths of 61 to 81 inches, the underlying material is defined.
gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
Of minor extent in this map unit are Arredondo, pine; water, laurel, live, and post oak; and sweetgum.
Boardman, Kanapaha, Kendrick, Micanopy, Millhopper, The understory is dominantly waxmyrtle, sumac,
Norfolk, and Wacahoota soils. Although drainage is carpetgrass, pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry,
variable in all soils of this unit, the minor soils are panicums, scattered sawpalmetto, and bluestem. In the
generally intermixed with the major soils and are in depressions and narrow drainageways, the vegetation is
similar positions on the landscape. mostly cypress, gum, pond pine, and maple.
This map unit is about equally distributed between Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
improved pasture, woodland, and urban uses. A small the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
percentage is cropland. inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
Much of this unit is only moderately suited to 58 inches. The upper 17 inches is yellowish brown, the
moderately well suited to crops. Some areas on the next 22 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 10








18 Sol Survey


inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a This map unit is on slight knolls in the flatwoods and in
depth of 89 inches. The upper 6 inches is yellowish the transitional area that transects the county in a
brown loamy sand with gray and yellow mottles; the next general north-south direction. This transitional area
22 inches is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam; and the separates the broad rolling uplands of the western part
lower 3 inches is gray, mottled sandy loam. of the county from the flatwoods of the eastern part.
Lochloosa soils are somewhat poorly drained. Two small areas are in the extreme southwestern part of
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine the county. The individual areas of this unit are smal to
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine relatively large and irregular in shape or elongated. They
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 7 inches is pale are throughout the northern, central, and eastern parts of
brown, and the lower 20 inches is very pale brown with the county.
grayish and yellowish mottles. The subsoil extends to a This map unit makes up about 60,540 acres, or about
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 10 inches is pale 10.6 percent of the county. It is about 27 percent Chipey
brown, mottled very fine sandy loam; the next 13 inches soils, about 25 percent Tavares soils, about 16 percent
is light brownish gray, mottled very fine sandy loam; and Sparr soils, and about 32 percent soils of minor extent.
the lower 23 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The landscape is of two kinds. One consists of the
Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the nearly level pine-palmetto type flatwoods that are
surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches thick. The intermixed with slight knolls and gently rolling uplands.
upper 4 inches is dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is The other is relatively broad transitional areas that grade
dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is about 40 from the rolling uplands to the nearly smooth flatwoods.
inches thick. The upper 17 inches is pale brown sand; Small wet depressions and short, weakly defined
the next 7 inches is very pale brown fine sand that has drainageways are scattered throughout most areas.
light yellowish brown and light gray mottles; and the Drainage is mostly subterranean.
lower 16 inches is light gray fine sand that has yellowish \ The natural vegetation of the major soils of this unit is
brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of 84 -a woods of slash and longleaf pine and water, laurel,
inches or more and is light gray. The upper 8 inches is post, turkey, and live oak. The understory consists of
loamy sand, and the lower 28 inches is fine sandy loam. waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry, gallberry, scattered
Of minor extent in this unit are Blichton, Bonneau, sawpalmetto, carpetgrass, pineland threeawn, and other
Chipley, Monteocha, Newnan, Plummer, Pomona, native weeds and grasses. The vegetation of the wet
Tavares, and Zolfo soils. The Blichton, Bonneau, depressional areas and drainageways is mostly cypress,
Chipley, Newnan, Tavares, and Zolfo soils are intermixed gum, and bay.
with the major soils of the unit. The Plummer and Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
Pomona soils are in the slightly lower, wetter flats and the surface layer is sand about 12 inches thick. The
poorly defined drainageways. The Monteocha soils are in upper 6 inches is very dark gray, and the lower 6 inches
the wet depressional areas. is dark grayish brown. The underlying layers are sand to
Most of this unit is still in natural vegetation. Most a depth of more than 81 inches. In sequence from the
cleared areas are in improved pasture. Some are used top, the upper 13 inches is grayish brown; the next 24
as cropland, inches is light gray and has yellowish red mottles; and
The periodic wetness and poor soil qualities are the the lower 32 inches is light gray without mottles.
major limitations of the soils in this unit for use as Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
cropland. If good management practices are used, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8 inches thick.
however, much of the acreage is moderately well suited The underlying layers are sand to a depth of 80 inches
to most locally grown crops. It is well suited to improved or more. The upper 11 inches is pale brown, the next 17
pasture, inches is very pale brown, and the lower 44 inches is
The seasonal high water table and the sandy texture very pale brown or white and has mottles.
are the major restrictive features for urban uses. Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
Limitations are variable and range from moderate to surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
severe. For some uses, such as dwellings and roads and upper 4 inches is dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is
streets, limitations vary from slight to moderate. Detailed dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is about 40
soil maps should be consulted before general planning is inches thick. The upper 17 inches is pale brown sand;
undertaken, the next 7 inches is very pale brown fine sand that has
light yellowish brown and light gray mottles; and the
8. Chipley-Tavares-Sparr lower 16 inches is light gray fine sand that has yellowish
brown mottles. The subsoil to a depth of 84 inches or
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and moderately more is light gray. The upper 8 inches is loamy sand,
well drained soils; some are sandy throughout, and some and the lower 28 inches is fine sandy loam.
are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy Of minor extent in this unit are Candler, Lochloosa,
below Millhopper, Monteocha, Myakka, Newnan, Placid,






Alachua County, Florida 19


Pompano, Pottsburg and Zolfo soils. The Lochloosa, and the lower 15 inches is gray. The subsoil extends to
Newnan, and Zolfo soils are in the same positions on a depth of 69 inches. The upper 3 inches is gray sandy
the landscape as those of the major soils. Millhopper loam, and lower 37 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay
soils are in slightly higher positions. The Myakka, loam. Between depths of 69 and 80 inches, the
Pompano, and Pottsburg soils are in slightly lower underlying material is gray, mottled sandy loam.
positions in the flatwoods and along the weakly defined Mulat soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
drainageways. The Monteocha and Placid soils are in layer is sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is
small, wet depressional areas. very dark gray, and the lower 3 inches is dark gray. The
Most of the unit is still in natural vegetation. The subsurface layer is grayish brown to light gray sand to a
cleared areas are about equally distributed between depth of 26 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 54
pasture and cropland. A small percentage is used for inches. It is gray. The upper 4 inches is loamy sand, the
urban development. next 17 inches is fine sandy loam, and the lower 7
The soils of this unit have severe limitations for inches is loamy sand. Between depths of 54 and 80
cultivated crops because of the periodic wetness and inches, the underlying material is light gray loamy sand.
poor soil qualities. If crops are grown, some form of Of minor extent in this unit are Monteocha, Plummer,
water control is needed. The soils are well suited to
merantrl eeded e lse well suited to Pomona, Riviera, Surrency, and Wauchula soils. The
moderately well suited to pasture.
This unit is severely limited for most urban uses. The Plummer, Pomona, Riviera, and Wauchula soils are on
high water table and potential hazard of seepage are the the broad flats and along the narrow drainageways. The
major limiting factors. The major soils have moderate to Monteocha and Surrency soils are in the wet
slight limitations for dwellings without basements and depressional areas.
local roads and streets. Most areas of this unit are still in woodland. Cleared
areas are used mostly for pasture. A small acreage has
9. Pelham-Mulat been developed as cropland.
Without some form of water control, the soils of this
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a unit are poorly suited to crops. If water is properly
depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below unit are poorly suited to crops. If water is properly
controlled, these soils are moderately well suited to such
This map unit is in the broad, nearly smooth, wet crops as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. If a water
flatwoods. This unit is in the north-central and control system and good management practices are
northeastern parts of the county. One area, however, is used, this unit is well suited to improved pasture.
along Hogtown Creek in the western part of Gainesville. This unit has severe limitations for urban uses.
This area is subject to occasional flooding. The individual Wetness is the major limiting factor. If used for urban
areas are relatively small in size and are variable in
shape. Total acreage is not extensive. development, a good drainage system is needed to
This map unit is made up of about 15,675 acres, or is remove excess water during wet periods and adequately
about 2.7 percent of the county. It is about 53 percent co e water tale
Pelham soils, about 22 percent Mulat soils, and about 25
percent soils of minor extent. 10. Pomona-Wauchula-Newnan
The landscape is one of broad, nearly smooth
flatwoods intermixed with small cypress ponds and Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
scattered grassy depressions. Drainage is both drained soils that have a sandy, organic coated subsoil
at a depth of less than 30 inches and a loamy subsoil
subterranean and surface. Small, weakly defined between a depth of about 28 to 80 inches
drainageways connect some of the ponded areas and
furnish partial drainage during periods of high rainfall. This map unit is in the flatwoods. Several areas are
Other areas are isolated and have no outlet. throughout the eastern, south-central, and north-central
The natural vegetation is a woods of slash and parts of the county. This map unit comprises the largest
longleaf pine or a mixed pine-hardwood growth. The acreage of any units associated with the flatwoods
hardwoods are mostly sweetgum and red maple. The section. The individual areas vary in shape and size.
understory consists chiefly of waxmyrtle, gallberries, This map unit makes up about 135,755 acres, or about
briars, dwarf huckleberry, various bluestems, panicum, 23.8 percent of the county. It is about 45 percent
fetterbush, and pineland threeawn. The vegetation in the Pomona soils, about 14 percent Wauchula soils, about
ponds and intermittent drainageways is cypress, bay, 12 percent Newnan soils, and about 29 percent soils of
and gum. minor extent.
Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface The landscape is one of nearly level pine and
layer is sand about 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is palmetto flatwoods interspersed with cypress ponds,
very dark gray, and the lower 3 inches is dark gray. The swamps, and small, grassy, wet depressions. Some of
subsurface layer is sand about 22 inches thick. The the depressional areas are connected by narrow, poorly
upper 7 inches is light brownish gray with gray mottles, defined drainageways.






20 Soil Survey


- -The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is a woods of and are intermixed with the major soils. Newnan and
longleaf and slash pine. The understory consists chiefly Sparr soils are on the slight knolls of the flatwoods. The
of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, running oak, Monteocha, Samsula, and Surrency soils are in the wet
pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, bluestem, and depressions, cypress ponds, and swamps.
lichens. The vegetation of the ponds, swamps, and Most of this unit is still in natural vegetation. Most
drainageways is chiefly cypress, bay, and gum. The wet cleared areas are in pasture. Some are used as cropland
depressions are in water-tolerant grasses. or for urban development.
Pomona soils are normally poorly drained. Some are in This unit has severe limitations for cropland. Wetness
very poorly drained depressional areas. Typically, the and poor soil quality are the major limiting factors. If the
surface layer is very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. soil and water are well managed, many of the locally
The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 16 inches. grown crops are suited. Most soils in the unit are suited
The upper 4 inches is gray, and the lower 7 inches is to pasture.
light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is 4 inches of Limitations for most urban uses are severe. The major
very dark gray sand and 4 inches of dark reddish brown limiting factor is wetness or the seasonal high water
sand. Many of the sand grains are coated with organic table. This problem should be overcome before urban
material. A leached layer is next. It is 8 inches of pale development is undertaken. In places, corrective
brown sand with mottles and 11 inches of very pale measures may be impractical because of lack of
brown sand. Below this, the lower part of the subsoil is drainage outlets and the cost of proper development.
loamy to a depth of 69 inches. The upper 4 inches is
light gray fine sandy loam, and the lower 22 inches is Soils on wet prairies and in marshes, swamps, and
gray, mottled sandy clay loam. Between depths of 49 flood plains
and 84 inches, the underlying material is light gray, The four map units in this group consist of poorly
mottled fine sandy loam. drained and very poorly drained, nearly level, mineral
Wauchula soils are poorly drained. Typically, the and organic soils that are subject to flooding or ponding.
surface layer is sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5 These units are in the south-central and eastern parts of
inches is black, and the lower 3 inches is dark gray. The the county and are along the Santa Fe River, in the
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand about 6 extreme northern part
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is 4 inches of
dark reddish brown loamy sand, in which many sand 11. Monteocha-Surrency
grains are coated with organic material, and 5 inches of
dark brown sand. Below this is a leached layer of pale Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are sandy
brown, mottled sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part to a depth of 40 to 80 inches, have an organic coated
of the subsoil is loamy and extends to a depth of 62 layer at a depth of 30 inches or less and are loamy
inches. The upper 9 inches is gray, mottled fine sandy below; and some are sandy to a depth of less than 40
loam; the next 19 inches is light brownish gray, mottled inches and are loamy below
loamy sand; and the lower 6 inches is light gray, mottled This map unit is in large swamps and cypress ponds in
fine sandy loam. Between depths of 62 and 80 inches, the flatwoods. The individual areas are small in size and
the underlying material is light gray, mottled sandy clay are usually somewhat circular or elongated in shape.
loam. They are scattered throughout the eastern half of the
Newnan soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, county.
the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. This map unit makes up about 27,130 acres, or about
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand to a 4.8 percent of the county. It is about 40 percent
depth of 12 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is 4 Monteocha soils, about 25 percent Surrency soils, and
inches of dark brown sand, in which the sand grains are about 35 percent soils of minor extent
well coated with organic material; the next 4 inches is The landscape is one of large, slightly concave, wet
dark brown and mottled. Below this is a leached layer of cypress ponds and swamps. The ponds and swamps are
light gray to white sand to a depth of 56 inches. The throughout the broad expanse of the flatwoods. They
lower part of the subsoil is loamy, light gray, and mottled. generally are isolated and do not have good natural
The upper 3 inches is loamy sand, the next 16 inches is drainage. Only a few weakly defined, intermittent
fine sandy loam, and the lower 7 inches is sandy clay drainageways are in these areas. These depressional
loam. areas are usually covered by water for about 6 months
Of minor extent in this unit are the Lynne, Monteocha, or longer in most years.
Mulat, Myakka, Pelham, Samsula, Sparr, and Surrency The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress. Some
soils. The Lynne soils are dominant in only one small swamp tupelo, pond pine, bay, and other water-tolerant
area. This area is three-fourths of a mile east of the hardwoods are in some areas. A few areas have
junction of the Alachua, Levy, and Marion County lines, vegetation of water-tolerant grasses. The nearly smooth,
Mulat, Myakka, and Pelham soils are on the broad flats adjacent flatwoods are usually mixed pine-hardwoods






Alachua County, Florida 21



and a dense understory of gallberry, fetterbush, Natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses,
waxmyrtle, palmetto, and wetland herbs and grasses. herbs, and shrubs, which include bulrush, goldenrod,
Monteocha soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the maidencane, cordgrass, cattails, waxmyrtle, carpetgrass,
surface layer is black loamy sand about 12 inches thick. panicum, and buttonbush. The amount of wetness
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand to a governs the plant species. Several different groupings of
depth of 18 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark plants can be found as one moves from the drier prairie
brown and brown sand to a depth of 34 inches. Below edge to the wetter central areas.
this is a leached layer of brown sand to a depth of 48 Ledwith soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is fine sandy loam surface layer is about 15 inches thick. The upper 9
to a depth of 85 inches. The upper 11 inches is grayish inches is dark brown muck, and the lower 6 inches is
brown, and the lower 26 inches is light brownish gray. black sandy loam. The subsurface layer is gray loamy
Between 85 and 94 inches the underlying material is sand about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay to a
light gray sand. depth of 62 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is very
Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer, is black sand about 15 inches thick. The dark gray, the middle part is dark gray, and the lower
subsurface layer is light gray sand to a depth of 28 part is gray. Between depths of 62 and 93 inches, the
inches. Between 28 and 80 inches, the subsoil is sandy underlying material is gray sandy clay.
clay loam. The upper 27 inches is gray, and the lower 25 Wauberg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
inches is light gray. surface layer is sand about 9 inches thick. The upper 5
Of minor extent in this unit are Floridana, Mulat, inches is black, and the lower 4 inches is very dark gray.
Pelham, Placid, Plummer, Pomona, Samsula, Wauberg, The subsurface layer is about 15 inches thick. The upper
and Wauchula soils. The Mulat, Pelham, Plummer, 10 inches of this layer is grayish brown sand, and the
Pomona, Wauberg, and Wauchula soils are on the flats lower 5 inches is light brownish gray sand. The subsoil is
that surround the wet depressional areas. Small areas of sandy clay loam to a depth of 63 inches. The upper 26
Floridana and Placid soils are within the swamps and are inches is dark gray, and the lower 13 inches is gray.
intermixed with the Monteocha soils. Samsula soils are Between depths of 63 and 81 inches, the underlying
in the center part of some larger swamps. The material is gray, mottled clay.
Monteocha and Surrency soils are along the outer edges Of minor extent in this unit are the Emeralda,
of the larger swamps. Floridana, Shenks, Surrency, and Terra Ceia soils. The
All of this unit is woodland. The major soils are not Emeralda soils are poorly drained. They are more closely
suited to crops, pasture, or urban uses, unless they are associated with the Wauberg soils in the drier parts of
properly drained and have a continuing water control the prairie. The Floridana, Shenks, Surrency, and Terra
system. In many areas drainage is impractical because Ceia soils are very poorly drained. They are in the wetter
of lack of adequate outlets and the cost of development, parts where water normally is on the surface for much of
The best use is as habitat for wetland wildlife, the year. Emeralda is the most extensive of the minor
12. Ledwith-Wauberg soils.
The areas of this unit are still in native vegetation.
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained Most of the unit is used as a wildlife refuge. Some parts
soils; some have thin organic and loamy layers less than are used as rangeland.
20 inches thick and are clayey below, and some are The areas ar not suited to cross because of the
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy The areas are not scuit to acrop because od the
below excessive wetness. The cost of adequately draining the
This map unit is on wet prairies of uplands in the areas would be extensive because of the lack of good
This map unit is on wet prairies of uplands in the drainage outlets, the network of lateral ditches required
south-central part of the county. One area of this unit is drainage outlets, the network of lateral ditches required
Paynes Prairie, south of Gainesville. to drain the slowly permeable soils, and the extent of
This map unit makes up about 12,685 acres, or about major canals needed to reach adequate outlets. Where
2.2 percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Ledwith underdrained, most soils of the unit are not suited to
soils, about 35 percent Wauberg soils, and about 25 pasture. The very poorly drained soils require an
percent soils of minor extent. extensive water control system. The poorly drained soils
The landscape is one of old lake basins in the rolling are capable of producing good pasture if a simple
uplands. These basins formed as a result of the solution, drainage system removes excess water during periods of
or dissolving, of the Ocala limestone into the ground high rainfall.
water. In recent history, they have been alternately lakes This unit has severe limitations for urban uses. The
or prairies, depending upon the amount of rainfall, the wetness, slow internal drainage, ponding, and high
degree that underground drainage for sinkholes is shrink-swell potential of the clayey subsoil are some of
stopped, and the elevation of the ground water that the major limiting factors.
receives drainage through the sinkholes.






22 Soil Surey


13. Shenks-Terra Cela-Okeechobee adequate drainage outlets. Without drainage and water
control, the soils are not suited to improved pasture.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils of organic origin; The soils in this unit have severe limitations for ban
some have organic material 16 to 50 inches deep to
clayey material, and some have organic material more uses. Water stands on the surface during much of the
than 51 inches thick time unless the soils are drained. A good drainage
This map unit is in marshes, low wet flats, and prairies, system is very expensive to establish and maintain.
Areas of the map unit are in the south-central and Some areas cannot be adequately drained because of
southeastern parts of the county. Most areas are lack of good outlets. Even if drained, the organic material
relatively small and somewhat circular or elongated. The is subject to oxidation and the soils gradually subside, or
two largest areas are Levy Lake and an area south of settle.
the town of Island Grove, along the Marion County line.
This map unit makes up about 15,820 acres, or about 14. Oleno-Pompano
2.8 percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Shenks
soils, 24 percent Terra Ceia soils, 10 percent Nearly level, poorly drained soils subject to occasional
Okeechobee soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. flooding; some have clayey fluvial material about 26 to
The landscape is one of large, wet prairies, or old lake 47 inches deep to sandy, loamy, and clayey material,
basins, in rolling uplands and of low-lying marshes in the and some are sandy throughout
nearly level pine-palmetto flatwoods. Drainage in the wet This map unit consists of long, narrow flood plains
prairies of the south-central part of the county is along the Santa Fe River, in the northern part of the
subterranean. Drainage of the marshes and low flats in county. The areas extend from the river just north of the
the southeastern part of the county is both subterranean town of High Springs to about the Bradford County line.
and by weakly defined drainageways. Total acreage is not extensive.
The natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses, The landscape is one of nearly smooth to sightly
herbs, and shrubs, which include maidencane, cattail, undulating flood plains. The areas are interspersed with
cordgrass, bulrush, buttonbush, elderberry, water small depressions, sinks, water-holes, slight knolls, and
hyacinth, arrowhead, pennywort, and dollarwort. weakly defined drainageways. Extreme variations in the
Shenks soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the water level of the river affect the water table of the soils.
surface tier is muck about 21 inches thick. The upper 18 The natural vegetation is chiefly black tupelo, cypress,
inches is dark brown, and the lower 3 inches is black. elm, red maple, holly, sweetgum, sweetbay magnolia,
The underlying material extends to a depth of 82 inches water oak, and scattered pine. The understory includes
or more. The upper 7 inches is black clay loam, the next poison ivy, longleaf uniola, greenbrier, dollarweed,
23 inches is gray clay, the next 10 inches is dark gray smilax, panicum, and a few palmetto.
clay, and the lower 21 inches is gray mottled clay. This map unit makes up about 2,730 acres, or about
Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the Ths utmakes u about
surface tier is muck about 68 inches thick. The upper 12 0.5 percent of the county. It is about 60 percent Oleno
inches is black, and the lower 56 inches is dark reddish soils, 10 percent Pompano soils, and 30 percent soils of
inches is black, and the lower minor extent.
brown. The underlying material is very dark gray clay tonor exen
a depth of 75 inches or more. Oleno soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Okeechobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, layer is dark gray clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
the organic material extends to a depth of 80 inches. is about 26 inches thick. It is dark gray or gray day. The
The upper 7 inches is black muck; the next 14 inches is underlying material extends to 82 inches or more. The
dark brown muck; the next 14 inches is dark reddish upper 10 inches is grayish brown fine sandy loam, the
brown peaty muck; the next 13 inches is black muck; next 13 inches is gray fine sandy loam, the next 16
and the lower 32 inches is very dark brown muck. inches is dark gray fine sandy loam, the next 6 inches is
Of minor extent in this unit are Ledwith, Martel, gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 5 inches is greenish
Samsula, and Surrency soils. All of these soils are very gray clay.
poorly drained and are intermixed with the major soils. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Ledwith, Martel, and Surrency soils are mineral soils, and surface layer is very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick.
Samsula soils are organic. The underlying layer is sand to a depth of more than 82
Most of this unit is still in native vegetation. About 700 inches. The upper 20 inches is light brownish gray and
acres of the area southeast of Island Grove has been has pale brown mottles, the next 45 inches is gray and
drained and is used for crops. Part of Levy Lake has mottled, and the lower 12 inches is gray and has no
been drained and is used for grazing. mottles.
The soils are not suited to crops unless they are Of minor extent in this unit are Chipley, Floridana,
adequately drained and a good water control system is Jonesville, Millhopper, Newnan, Plummer, Pomona, and
developed and maintained. This requires an extensive Tavares soils. These soils are not normally on the flood
system of dikes and canals. Some areas do not have plains. A few small areas, however, are within the narrow








Alachua County, Florida 23



flood plain of the Santa Fe River and are subject to Limitations for urban uses are severe. The hazard of
occasional flooding. flooding, the high water table, the slow internal drainage,
All of this unit is still in natural vegetation, the sticky clayey surface layer, and the high shrink-swell
This unit is not suitable for cultivation because of the potential are some of the restrictive features of the major
hazard of flooding; the high water table, and the clayey soils.
surface layer. Where flooding is controlled and drainage
is installed, the unit is suitable for improved pasture.










25








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The a special symbol on the soil maps.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and have little or no soil material and support little or no
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be vegetation. Pits and Dumps is an example.
used to plan the management needed for those uses. Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given that are too small to be shown are identified by a special
under "Use and Management of the Soils." symbol on the soil maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named, give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses. Soil Descriptions
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the 2B-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
a series have major horizons that are similar in in the deep, sandy uplands. Slopes are nearly smooth to
composition, thickness, and arrangement. convex. The areas are mostly irregular in shape and
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface range from about 15 to 300 acres.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying layers are
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the fine sand to a depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 10
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil inches is pale brown, the next 12 inches is light yellowish
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil brown, the next 29 inches is yellow, the next 13 inches
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil is very pale brown, and the lower 12 inches is very pale
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or brown and has thin bands of brownish yellow loamy
management. For example, Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent sand lamellae.
slopes, is one of several phases in the Blichton series. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Some map units are made up of two or more major Apopka, Arredondo, Chipley, and Tavares soils. Also
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil included are small areas of excessively drained soils that
associations, or undifferentiated groups. have a sandy texture to 80 inches or more. These
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such excessively drained soils do not have thin bands of
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they lamellae. A few areas of Candler soils that have slopes
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The of 5 to 8 percent are included. Total included areas are
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar about 15 percent or less.
in all areas. Jonesville-Cadillac-Bonneau complex, 0 to 5 This Candler soil has low available water capacity.
percent slopes, is an example. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility of the soil is low.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils Organic matter content of the surface layer is low to very
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some low. Surface runoff is very slow. The water table is at a
of these included soils have properties that differ depth of more than 72 inches.
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such Natural vegetation is mostly turkey, bluejack, post, and
differences could significantly affect use and scrub live oak and longleaf pine. The understory is
management of the soils in the map unit. The included chiefly a sparse growth of pineland threeawn,
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum. Most areas







26 Soil Survey



are still in native vegetation. Most cleared areas are in establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative
pasture. cover or windbreaks and the addition of suitable topsoil
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated or some form of hard surface can alleviate or overcome
crops. It cannot retain sufficient moisture during drier these problems.
periods because of its coarse texture. Plant nutrients This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs and has
applied to the soil leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, a woodland ordination symbol of 4s.
soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons are grown on this
soil but require intensive management practices. These 2C-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
practices include a close-growing, soil-improving cover sloping, excessively drained soil is in small areas on
crop, crop rotation, the return of all crop residue to the sharp breaking slopes and in relatively large areas on
soil, and proper fertilization. Irrigation is needed during long, narrow slopes. The deep, sandy soil is on uplands.
drought periods. In years that have extended dry The areas vary from about 10 to 125 acres.
periods during the growing season, yields are very low Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
unless the crops are irrigated. Wind erosion is a serious about 5 inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand
problem where the surface is not protected by a good to a depth of 85 inches or more. The upper 57 inches is
vegetative cover or windbreaks. yellow, and the lower 23 inches is pale brown. The lower
The soil is moderately suited to improved pasture. It is part has thin lamellae of yellowish brown loamy sand
well suited to deep rooting grasses, such as bahiagrass and some thin streaks of clean sand grains that are light
and bermudagrass, but yields are usually reduced by gray in color.
periodic droughts. To maintain good pasture for grazing, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
careful management is required. This includes proper Apopka and Tavares soils. Also included are small areas
establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and of an excessively drained soil which has sandy texture to
controlled grazing. Irrigation helps improve the quality of a depth of more than 80 inches and does not have thin
the pasture and hay. It may be economically justifiable lamellae streaks or bands. A few small spots of Candler
during long dry periods. This soil is not suited to shallow soils which have slopes of 0 to 5 or 8 to 12 percent are
rooting pasture plants because it cannot retain sufficient included. Total included areas are about 12 percent or
moisture in the root zone. less.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine In this Candler soil, the available water capacity is low.
trees. Scattered stands of longleaf pine are in most Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low, and organic
undisturbed areas; however, slash or sand pine are the matter content is usually very low. Surface runoff is slow.
best species to plant. The loose, sandy surface layer The water table is more than 72 inches below the
causes moderate restrictions for normal equipment use surface.
during harvesting. The mortality of young pine seedlings Native vegetation is mostly turkey, bluejack, and post
is moderate. It is caused principally by the drought oak and scattered longleaf pine. The understory is a
conditions of the surface and underlying layers. Plant sparse growth of pineland threeawn, indiangrass,
competition is also moderate, bluestems, and some panicums. Most areas are still in
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings, small native vegetation. The cleared areas are mostly used for
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and septic improved pasture.
tank absorption fields. Because the soil has poor This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
filtration, ground water contamination is a hazard in the poor soil quality, the steepness of slope, the possible
areas where homes with septic tanks are concentrated. hazard of erosion, and droughtiness. The coarse texture
The soil is severely limited for sewage lagoons and cannot retain sufficient moisture or applied plant
trench landfills because of seepage of the liquid waste nutrients for normal plant growth. Some special crops,
material through the sidewalls and floor of the pits. The such as watermelons, are sometimes grown, but a very
sidewalls cave when the pits are dug. If the soil has to high level of management is needed. Irrigation is
be used for these purposes, the floor and the sidewalls required during dry periods. The slopes cause a problem
should be lined and sealed. Trafficability is a problem in the application of irrigation water.
around landfills. Wind erosion of the loose sandy surface This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
is a potential hazard where sites are cleared of Deep rooting pasture plants, such as bahiagrass and
vegetation for building construction. bermudagrass, grow fairly well with high level
Potential of these areas for openland and woodland management. Practices include good fertilization, liming,
wildlife is poor. Potential of the soil as wetland wildlife and controlled grazing that allows plants to grow to their
sites is very poor. These areas do not have the water or fullest. Supplemental irrigation is beneficial during dry
suitable sources of food for this type of wildlife, periods.
This Candler soil has severe limitations for recreational Potential productivity of pine trees is moderate. The
uses. Wind erosion of the loose sandy surface and low to very low organic matter content, the low natural
maintaining good trafficability are severe limitations. The fertility, and the drought conditions of the soil cause a







Alachua County, Florida 27



moderate mortality of young pine seedlings. Plant In this Arredondo soil, the available water capacity is
competition is moderate. The loose sandy texture and low in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and low
slopes are moderate limitations for normal woodland to medium in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
equipment use. the surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow
This soil has slight limitations as sites for dwellings, for to moderate in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is low in
local roads and streets, and for septic tank absorption the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium in
fields. Ground water contamination is a hazard in areas the finer textured subsoil. Organic matter content is low.
where homes or other facilities that use septic tanks are The water table in this soil is at a depth of more than 72
concentrated. Limitations are severe for sewage lagoons inches. Surface runoff is slow.
and trench landfills. Contamination of ground water by Natural vegetation of this soil is slash, loblolly, and
seepage is possible. To prevent this, the sidewalls and longleaf pine; live, laurel, and water oaks; hickory; and
floor of the pits should be lined and sealed. The sandy dogwood. The understory is made up chiefly of several
sidewalls of the pits cave, and trafficability is a problem varieties of panicum, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and
around the landfill. The surface of unprotected fringeleaf paspalum.
construction sites is subject to wind erosion. This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
This soil has poor potential for openland and crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife are the main limitations. It is moderately well suited to
is very poor because of the absence of any water areas. the production of such crops as corn, tobacco, peanuts,
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. soybeans, watermelons, squash, cucumbers, and
Wind erosion and maintaining good trafficability are tomatoes (fig. 7). Good yields can be attained with high
severe limitations. The establishment and maintenance level management practices, which include regular
of a good vegetative cover and windbreaks and the applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed
addition of suitable topsoil or some form of hard surface during drought periods because of the low available
can improve or overcome these problems. water capacity of the thick, sandy surface and
This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIs and has subsurface layers (fig. 8). Wind erosion is active,
a woodland ordination symbol of 4s. especially during dry periods, and the surface needs

3B-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, protection at all times. Good management includes using
This nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in close growing, soil improving crops in rotation with row
both small and large areas of uplands. Slopes are crops and leaving all crop residue on the surface.
smooth to convex. The areas are irregular in shape and This soil is well suited to improved pasture of deep
range from about 10 to 160 acres in size. rooting grasses and legumes if good management
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine practices are used. To maintain a good vegetative cover
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine and reach maximum productivity, careful management is
sand to a depth of 49 inches. The upper 23 inches is required. This includes proper establishment of plants,
yellowish brown, and the lower 18 inches is brownish fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. Yields are
yellow. The subsoil extends to a depth of 86 inches or occasionally restricted by extended droughts. This soil is
more. The upper 5 inches is yellowish brown loamy not suited to improved pasture of shallow rooted
sand; the next 10 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay legumes and grasses because of lack of sufficient water
loam, and the lower 22 inches is dark yellowish brown in the root zone.
sandy clay and sandy clay loam. This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
Included with this soil in mapping are small pine trees. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the
depressional areas of soils that have a very dark gray or best adapted species. Plant competition is moderate.
black surface layer 8 to 24 inches thick. This layer The sandy surface and subsurface layers cause
overlies gray sandy material. These areas are shown by moderate restrictions for use of equipment during drier
wet spot symbols. Also included are small areas of Fort periods.
Meade, Gainesville, Kendrick, and Millhopper soils. A few This soil has only slight limitations as sites for homes,
areas of this soil include Arredondo soils that have 5 to small commercial buildings, absorption fields for septic
8 percent slopes. Some areas of this soil in the western tanks, and local roads and streets and as a source of
part of the county have small spots of strongly acid to material for roadfill. Limitations are severe for sewage
medium acid soil material 40 to 70 inches deep to lagoons because of possible contamination of ground
calcareous limestone. Limestone boulders, fragments of water by seepage. The sidewalls should be lined and
limestone, and sinkholes are in some areas of this soil, sealed. The sandy surface and subsurface layers may
mainly in the limestone plain sections of the western part cave when the sidewalls are dug.
of the county. Most of these boulders are siliceous. The This soil has fair potential for openland and woodland
sinkholes and the boulders are shown by appropriate wildlife; however, potential for wetland wildlife is very
map symbols. Total included areas are about 15 percent. poor.






28 Soil Survey


This Arredondo soil has severe limitations for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
recreational areas because of the sandy surface layer. Gainesville, Kendrick, and Millhopper soils. In a few
Trafficability is a problem, and wind erosion is a hazard mapped areas are small depressions where the soils
during drier periods. The maintenance of a good have a black surface layer 8 to 24 inches thick over a
vegetative cover, windbreaks, or some other form of yellowish brown to grayish brown sandy or loamy
surface protection is needed. subsurface layer and subsoil. A few areas include
This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass Ills and Arredondo soils that have slopes of 0 to 5 percent or 8
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. to 12 percent. Siliceous limestone boulders and
sinkholes are in some places and are shown by the
3C-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, appropriate map symbol. Total included areas are about
This sloping, well drained soil is in small areas on sharp 20 percent.
breaking slopes and in relatively large areas on long In this Arredondo soil, the available water capacity is
slopes of the uplands. The areas vary from about 5 to 40 low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in
acres. the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine and subsurface layers and moderately slow in the loamy
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is subsoil. Natural fertility is low in the sandy upper 65
yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 65 inches. The inches and medium in the finer textured layers below.
yellowish brown subsoil extends to a depth of 88 inches Organic matter content is low. The water table is more
yellowish brown subsoil extends to a depth of 88 inches than 72 inches below the surface. Surface runoff is slow.
or more. The upper 6 inches is sandy loam, and the than 72 inches below the surface. Surface runoff is slow.
or 6 inches is sandy loam, Natural vegetation of this soil includes slash and
lower 17 inches is sandy clay loam.
lower 17 inhes is s y cy l longleaf pine; live and water oaks; and hickory and

































Figure 7.-Tobacco grown under high leve. management, Including Irrigation, on Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.






Alachua County, Florida 29




































Figure 8.-Tobacco grown under high level management, but without irrigation, on Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Irrigation is
necessary for this high value crop.



dogwood. The understory is shrubs and native grasses. quality pasture. This includes proper establishment of
Lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and several plants, fertilization, and controlled grazing. Yields are
varieties of panicum are some of the most common of occasionally restricted by extended dry periods. The soil
the native grasses. is not suited to shallow rooting pasture grasses and
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated legumes.
crops because of the poor soil qualities and slope. It is This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
susceptible to wind erosion and to some water erosion. slash and longleaf pines. Plant competition is moderate
The surface should be protected by a good vegetative because of the low natural fertility and available water
cover. Good management measures, needed to improve capacity of the sandy surface and subsurface layers. The
the soil quality and reach maximum production potential, sandy surface layers and the slope cause moderate
include crop rotations that keep the soil under close restrictions for use of equipment, especially during dry
growing, soil improving crops at least three-fourths of the seasons.
time. Crop residue should be left on the surface, crops This Arredondo soil has slight limitations for homes,
should be fertilized and limed, and irrigation is needed septic tank absorption fields, and for local roads and
for high value crops during drought periods. streets. Limitations as sites for small commercial
The soil is moderately well suited to growing improved buildings are moderate. The soil has severe limitations
pasture of deep rooting grasses adapted to the area. for use as sewage lagoons and trench landfills because
Good management is necessary, however, for good of the possible contamination by seepage through the







30 Soil Survey



sandy subsurface layer. Trench sanitary landfills are also The soils in this complex are generally well suited to
severely limited by slope, lawn grasses and ornamental plants. They are also
This soil has fair potential for openland and woodland suited to most recreational uses.
wildlife; however, it has poor potential for wetland For the foreseeable future, the use of this complex is
wildlife, urban-related.
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. This unit is not assigned to a capability subclass or a
The sandy surface is a problem for trafficability. During woodland ordination symbol.
dry periods, wind erosion is a hazard. The maintenance
of a good vegetative cover, windbreaks, or some other 5B-Fort Meade fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
form of surface protection is needed. If the soil is to be This nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in
used for playground areas, it needs land shaping. both small and large areas on the gently rolling uplands.
This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass IVw and The areas are mostly irregular in shape and range from
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. about 10 to 400 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 14
4B-Arredondo-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 inches thick. The upper 10 inches is very dark brown,
percent slopes. This complex consists of well drained, and the lower 4 inches is very dark grayish brown. The
nearly level to gently sloping Arredondo soils and Urban underlying layer is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
land. The areas are irregular in shape and range from more. In sequence from the top, the upper 20 inches is
about 25 to 150 acres. This complex is within urbanized dark brown; the next 9 inches is dark yellowish brown;
areas of the county, the next 28 inches is yellowish brown; and the lower 14
About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open inches is dark brown.
areas of Arredondo soils. These open areas are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
gardens, vacant lots, lawns, or playgrounds. The areas Arredondo, Gainesville, Kendrick, and Millhopper soils.
are so small or so intermingled with areas of Urban land Also included are small areas of soils which are similar
that it is impractical to map them separately. About 15 to to the Fort Meade soil but which have only 6 to 10
25 percent of the soils in these open areas have been inches of a very dark gray or very dark grayish brown
modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil surface layer over a fine sand or loamy sand underlying
material during urban-related construction and layer. Total included areas are less than 15 percent
development. In this Fort Meade soil, the available water capacity is
About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban low to medium. The permeability is rapid. The natural
land. Urban land consists of areas covered with fertility is low. Organic matter content of the surface
buildings, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and other layer is moderately low to high. Surface runoff is slow.
structures. The Urban land of this map unit is generally The water table is more than 72 inches below the
developed on Arredondo sand or fine sand. surface.
Typically, the surface layer of Arredondo soils is dark Natural vegetation of this soil consists of live, water,
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The and laurel oaks; slash, loblolly, and longleaf pine; and
subsurface layer is brownish yellow to yellowish brown hickory, dogwood, holly, and magnolia. The understory is
fine sand to a depth of 47 inches. Between depths of 47 made up chiefly of several varieties of panicum,
and 86 inches, the subsoil is yellowish brown. The upper bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, paspalum, and sedges.
5 inches is loamy sand, and the lower 32 inches is sandy Most areas of this soil have been cleared and are in
clay loam. crops or improved pasture.
Included in mapping with this complex are minor areas Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
of other soils closely associated with the Arredondo place severe limitations on the use of this soil for
soils, such as Candler, Gainesville, and Kendrick soils. cultivated crops. If high level management practices are
Small areas of Arredondo soils that have 5 to 8 percent used, the soil is well suited to growing such crops as
slopes are in some areas, corn, tobacco, peanuts, watermelons, squash,
The available water capacity of Arredondo soils is low cucumbers, and tomatoes. It is moderately well suited to
in the surface and subsurface layers and low to medium soybeans. High level management includes the use of
in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and close growing, soil improving cover crops, the return of
subsurface layers and is moderately slow to moderate in crop residue to the soil, and proper fertilization and
the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content and natural liming. Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind
fertility are low. The water table is more than 72 inches erosion is active on this soil, especially during dry
below the surface. periods. The surface needs protection at all times.
Natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf pine; This soil is well suited to improved pasture of deep
live, laurel, and water oak, and hickory and dogwood. rooting grasses and legumes if good management is
The understory consists of a cover of adapted, low used. To maintain a good vegetative cover and reach
growing herbs and shrubs. maximum potential of productivity, careful management







Alachua County, Florida 31



is required. This includes proper establishment of plants, panicum, and brackenfern. Some areas are cleared and
fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. The soil is not are in pasture. Most of the acreage is still in natural
suited to improved pasture of shallow rooting legumes vegetation.
and grasses because of the lack of sufficient water. This soil is severely limited for most cultivated crops
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for because of the droughtiness and low fertility. If high level
woodland. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are management is used, corn and peanuts have moderate
adapted. Plant competition is moderate. Problems in yields. The soil produces good yields of watermelons.
equipment use and seedling mortality are slight. Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Good
This soil has slight limitations for use as sites for management includes soil improving cover crops planted
dwellings, for local roads and streets, and for septic tank in rotation, leaving all crop residue on the surface, and
absorption fields. In areas where homes or other regular applications of fertilizers and lime.
facilities that use septic tanks are concentrated, ground This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
water contamination is a hazard. This soil is severely of deep rooting grasses and legumes, if good
limited as a site for sewage lagoons because management is used. Production is restricted by periodic
contamination of ground water by seepage is possible. droughts. If grazing is controlled, plants remain vigorous.
To prevent this, the sidewalls and floor of the pits should The soil is not suited to shallow rooting legumes and
be lined and sealed. The sandy surface is a problem for grasses because of the lack of sufficient water.
trafficability when the soil is used for trench landfills. Potential productivity for pine trees is moderately high.
This soil has fair potential for openland and woodland Although under natural conditions longleaf pine is
wildlife; however, potential for wetland wildlife is very normally the dominant species growing on this soil, slash
poor. pine is the recommended species for planting. The
This Fort Meade soil has moderate limitations for use loose, sandy surface layer causes moderate restrictions
as recreational areas. The sandy surface causes a in normal equipment use during harvesting. Seedling
problem in trafficability. Wind blowing is a hazard in mortality is moderate because of the drought conditions
areas where the surface is unprotected. The of the soil.
maintenance of a good vegetative cover, windbreaks, or This soil has only slight limitations as sites for
some other form of surface stabilization and protection is dwellings, small commercial buildings, absorption fields
needed. for septic tanks, and for local roads and streets.
This Fort Meade soil is in capability subclass Ills and Limitations as sites for trench sanitary landfills and
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. sewage lagoons are severe because of possible
contamination of ground water by seepage through the
6B-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This thick, sandy subsurface layer.
nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland
relatively small areas of the deep, sandy uplands. Slopes wildlife and poor potential for woodland wildlife. Potential
are nearly smooth or slightly convex. The areas are as habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor because the
irregular in shape and range from about 15 to 60 acres. areas do not have the needed water. The soil does not
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand produce a good supply of food for most types of wildlife.
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a This Apopka soil has severe limitations for recreational
depth of 61 inches. The upper 16 inches is brown, the uses. Wind blowing and maintaining good trafficability
next 31 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 9 are severe problems. The establishment and
inches is very pale brown. Between depths of 61 and 82 maintenance of a good vegetative cover, windbreaks,
inches, the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. and the addition of suitable topsoil or some form of hard
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of surface can help overcome these problems.
Arredondo, Candler, Jonesville, and Tavares soils. A few This Apopka soil is in capability subclass Ills and has a
areas of Apopka soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
are also included. Total included areas are about 15
percent. 6C-Apopka sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
In this Apopka soil, the available water capacity is very sloping, well drained soil is mostly in small areas on
low to a depth of about 61 inches and is medium below, relatively sharp breaking slopes in the sandy uplands.
Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface The areas vary from about 10 to 45 acres.
layers and moderate in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
of the soil is low. The organic matter content of the about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown to
surface layer is usually low. The water table is more than light yellowish brown sand about 56 inches thick.
72 inches below the surface. Surface runoff is slow. Between depths of 61 and 82 inches, the subsoil is
Natural vegetation is turkey, bluejack, post, and sand yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
live oak and longleaf pine. The understory is mostly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pineland threeawn, indiangrass, some bluestem, Candler soils. A few small spots of Apopka soils that








32 Soil Survey


have 0 to 5 percent slopes are also included. Total The loose, sandy surface layer of this soil presents
included areas are about 15 percent or less. severe limitations for most recreational uses. Wind
The Apopka soil has very low available water capacity erosion, poor trafficability because of the loose sandy
in the sandy surface and subsurface layers, and medium surface, and slope are limitations. Windbreaks,
available water capacity in the loamy subsoil. establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover,
Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface and the addition of suitable topsoil or some other form of
layers and moderate in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility surface protection are needed.
and organic matter content are low. The water table is This Apopka soil is in capability subclass IVs and has
more than 72 inches below the surface. Surface runoff is a woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
slow.
Natural vegetation is chiefly a mixture of post, turkey, 7B-Kanapaha sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
and bluejack oak and scattered longleaf pine. The nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil is in
understory consists mostly of a sparse growth of small to relatively large areas on uplands. Slopes are
bluestem, panicum, brackenfern, and pineland threeawn, nearly smooth to slightly convex. The areas are irregular
Most areas of this soil are still in natural vegetation, in shape and range from about 10 to 200 acres.
This soil has very severe limitations for general farm Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8
crops because of the low fertility, droughtiness, and inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 36
steepness of slope. Applied plant nutrients leach rapidly inches thick. The upper 5 inches is light brownish gray,
through the sandy layers of the soil. Some crops, such and the lower 31 inches is light gray. The subsoil is
as corn, peanuts, and watermelons, can be grown, but a sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
high level of management, including irrigation, is needed. upper 6 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 30
The loose sandy surface is susceptible to wind erosion, inches is gray.
It can be protected by a good vegetative cover and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
windbreaks; by crop rotations that keep the soil under Blichton, Bivans, Lochloosa, and Wacahoota soils. Also
close growing, soil improving cover crops at least three- included are small areas of soils which are similar to the
fourths of the time; and by leaving crop residue on the Kanapaha soils except that the weighted average is
surface, more than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. subsoil. Small areas of Kanapaha soils which have 5 to
Fair yields can be produced from deep rooting plants, 8 percent slopes are included. Also included are about
such as bahiagrass and bermudagrass, with good 20 acres along the Santa Fe River that are occasionally
management practices. Good management includes flooded. Total included areas are about 20 percent or
fertilization, liming, and a rotation grazing program, less.
Supplemental irrigation is beneficial during dry periods. This Kanapaha soil has a water table that is less than
The soil is not suited to shallow rooting pasture plants. 10 inches below the surface for 1 to 3 months during
Potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is most years. Surface runoff is slow. The available water
moderately high. Slash pine is the recommended species capacity is very low to low in the sandy surface and
to use in reforestation. The low natural fertility and subsurface layers, and it is low to medium in the subsoil.
organic matter content and droughtiness cause a Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and
moderate mortality of young pine seedlings. The loose subsurface layers and is slow to moderately slow in the
sandy texture and slope are moderate limitations in use subsoil. Natural fertility is low to medium. Organic matter
of equipment. content of the surface layer ranges from moderately low
This Apopka soil has slight limitations as sites for to moderate.
dwellings, septic tank absorption fields, and local roads The natural vegetation is chiefly slash and loblolly
and streets. Limitation for small commercial buildings is pine; water, live, and laurel oak, sweetgum, and holly.
moderate because of the slope. Limitation as sites for The understory is mostly waxmyrtle, low paspalum,
sewage lagoons is severe because of potential pineland threeawn, longleaf uniola, hairy panicum,
contamination of ground water by seepage through the fringeleaf paspalum, huckleberry, and some bluestem.
thick sandy layers. If the soil is to be used for sewage The soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
lagoons, the walls of the pits need to be lined and because of the wetness and poor soil qualities. The
sealed. If it is used for landfill areas, the loose sandy number of adapted crops are somewhat limited. If good
surface layer is a limitation for vehicular use. The management practices are used, including water control
sidewalls cave when trenches and pits are dug in the and soil improving measures, the soil is moderately well
coarse textured material. suited to a number of special crops, such as snap
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland beans, squash, cucumbers, cabbage, eggplant, and
wildlife. Potential is poor as habitat for woodland wildlife peppers and for such general farm crops as corn and
and very poor for wetland wildlife. The areas do not have soybeans. Good management includes rotating row
the water needed for wetland wildlife, crops with the close growing, soil improving crops;







Alachua County, Florida 33



maintaining cover crops on the soil at least half of the subsoil extends to a depth of 89 inches. The upper 6
time; and leaving all crop residue on the soil. The soil inches is yellowish brown loamy sand that has grayish
requires good seedbed preparation and proper and brownish mottles; the next 22 inches is light gray,
application of fertilizer and lime. mottled sandy clay loam; and the lower 3 inches is light
This soil is well suited to pasture. Improved gray, mottled sandy loam.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well if good Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management practices are used. Shallow rooted pasture Arredondo, Bonneau, Fort Meade, Gainesville,
plants, such as white clover, can be grown but need Kanapaha, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils. Siliceous
irrigating during dry periods. Water control measures are limestone boulders and small sinks are within some
needed to remove excess surface water after long rainy delineations. Small areas of Millhopper soils that have 5
periods. Proper fertilization and liming and controlled to 8 percent slopes are also included. About 25 acres
grazing are necessary to maintain vigorous plant growth. mapped as this Millhopper soil along the Santa Fe River
This soil has moderately high potential for commercial is occasionally flooded. Total included areas are about
woodland production. The soil has moderate limitations 20 percent or less.
for normal woodland equipment operations during This Millhopper soil has a water table that is at a
harvesting. Plant competition is moderate. The mortality depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a
of young pine seedlings is slight, depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months during most
This Kanapaha soil has severe limitations for urban years. The available water capacity is low in the surface
uses, including absorption fields for septic tanks, and subsurface layers and is low to medium in the
dwellings, small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, subsoil, Permeability is rapid in the surface and
trench landfills, and local roads and streets. Wetness subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the upper 6
and the sandy texture are the major problems. A good inches of the subsoil, and slow to moderately slow below
drainage system is needed to remove the excess water this depth. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content
during wet periods and to adequately control the water is low to moderately low.
table. If used as sites for sewage lagoons, a potential Natural vegetation of this soil consists chiefly of live,
hazard is contamination of ground water by seepage of laurel, post, and water oaks and sweetgum, cherry laurel,
liquid waste through the sandy sidewalls of the pits. The a few hickory, and slash and longleaf pines. The
sidewalls need to be lined and sealed to prevent this. understory is chiefly lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum,
The soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife paspalum, hoary tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky
is poor because the areas do not have the desirable and creeping bluestems, and pineland threeawn.
water areas. This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
This soil has severe limitations as sites for recreational crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
areas. The high water table, which is at or near the are the principal limitations. The soil is moderately well
surface during wet periods, and the sandy texture of the suited to the production of such crops as corn, tobacco,
surface layer are the major limitations. Some form of peanuts, soybeans, watermelons, squash, cucumbers,
water control is needed to quickly remove the excess and tomatoes. These crops produce good yields if high
water during rainy periods. During drier periods, when the level management practices are used. These practices
surface layer is somewhat loose, trafficability and wind include using close growing, soil improving crops in a
erosion are limitations. A good vegetative cover and crop rotation system; returning all crop residue to the
windbreaks, or some other form of surface stabilization, soil; and fertilization and liming as needed. Irrigation is
helps overcome these problems. needed and feasible, where irrigation water is available,
This Kanapaha soil is in capability subclass IIIw and for high value crops. Wind erosion is active, especially
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3w. during dry periods, where the surface is not protected.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture of deep
8B-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This rooting grasses and legumes if good management
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained practices are used. Careful management is needed to
soil is in small and large irregularly shaped areas on maintain a good vegetative cover and to reach maximum
uplands and on slightly rolling knolls in the broad potential in productivity. This includes proper
flatwoods. Slopes are mostly nearly smooth or convex, establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and
The areas are variable in size. They range from about 10 controlled grazing. Yields are occasionally restricted by
to 250 acres. extended droughts. This soil is not suited to improved
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand pasture of shallow rooting legumes and grasses because
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand or of insufficient moisture during much of the growing
fine sand about 49 inches thick. The upper 17 inches is seasons.
yellowish brown, the next 22 inches is light yellowish Potential productivity of this soil for slash and loblolly
brown, and the lower 10 inches is very pale brown. The pines is moderately high. It is moderate for longleaf pine.







34 Soil Survey


Slash pine is the recommended species for planting. The and subsurface layers, and it is low to medium in the
sandy surface and subsurface layers are somewhat subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
loose during drier periods and moderately restrict use of subsurface layers. It is moderate in the upper part of the
equipment. The low content of organic matter and the subsoil and slow to moderately slow in the lower part
drought conditions of the surface layer and upper part The natural soil fertility and the organic matter content
of the subsurface layer cause moderate loss of young are low.
pine seedlings. The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly live, water,
This soil has only slight limitations as sites for homes and post oaks and sweetgum, slash and longleaf pines,
without basements, small commercial buildings, and for cherry laurel, and a few hickory. The understory consists
local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations for of lopsided indiangrass, hairy and low panicum,
septic tank absorption fields because of the depth of the greenbrier, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum,
water table during wet seasons. The limitation as sites chalky and creeping bluestems, and pineland threeawn.
for sewage lagoons is severe because of possible Most of the cleared areas are in improved pasture.
contamination of ground water by seepage. If the soil is Some are in cultivated crops.
used for sewage lagoons, the sidewalls need to be lined This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
and sealed. Sidewalls of the sandy surface and crops because of the poor soil quality and slope. It is
subsurface layers can cave when the pits are dug. susceptible to both wind erosion and to some water
Limitations for use as sites for trench landfill are also erosion. The surface needs protection by a good
severe. vegetative cover. Management needed to improve the
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and soil quality and reach maximum production potential
woodland wildlife; however, potential for wetland wildlife includes using a crop rotation system that keeps the soil
is very poor. under close growing, soil improving crops at least three-
This Milhopper soil has severe limitations for fourths of the time; returning all crop residue to the soil;
recreational areas. Trafficability and wind erosion are and properly fertilizing and liming all crops: Irrigation is
limitations during drier periods because of the loose usually feasible for high value crops during drought
sandy surface. The maintenance of a good vegetative usually feasible for high value crops during drought
sandy surface. The maintenance of a good vegetative periods.
cover, windbreaks, or some other form of surface is si is o e e s o i
protection is needed. This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass Ills and of deep rooting grasses adapted to the area. A good sod
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. established as soon as possible after land preparation
helps control erosion. Good pasture management is
8C-Millhopper sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This necessary for good plant growth. This includes proper
sloping, moderately well drained soil is in small areas on establishment, fertilization, and controlled grazing. Yields
narrow breaks and on long slopes of rolling uplands. are occasionally restricted by extended dry periods. The
These areas are mostly irregular or elongated and range soil is not suited to shallow rooting grasses and legumes.
from about 10 to 40 acres. Potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand moderately high; for longleaf pine it is moderate.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
47 inches thick. The upper 37 inches is yellowish brown, competition are moderate. The sandy surface layer,
and the lower 10 inches is pale brown. Mottles of brown which is somewhat loose during dry periods; the slope;
and yellow range from none to common. The subsoil the drought conditions of the surface layer and upper
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 part of the subsurface layer; and low fertility are the
inches is yellowish brown sandy loam that has light gray major problems.
and strong brown mottles, and the lower 22 inches is The Millhopper soil has slight limitations for dwellings
light gray sandy clay loam that has gray, strong brown, without basements and for local roads and streets. It is
and very pale brown mottles, moderately limited as sites for small commercial
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a buildings because of the slope. The soil has moderate
soil which is similar to this Millhopper soil but which has limitations as sites for septic tank absorption fields
loamy sand surface and subsurface layers. Small areas because of the depth to the water table during wet
of Apopka, Arredondo, Gainesville, Kanapaha, and periods. Limitations are severe for sewage lagoons
Lochloosa soils are included. Small areas of Millhopper because of the possible contamination by seepage
soils that have 0 to 5 percent slopes are also included, through the sandy subsurface layers. The soil is severely
Total included areas are about 20 percent or less. limited for trench sanitary landfills because it is too
This Millhopper soil has a water table that is at a sandy.
depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 2 months and at a Potential is fair for habitat of openland and woodland
depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 3 months during most wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is very
years. The available water capacity is low in the surface low.







Alachua County, Florida 35


This Millhopper soil has severe limitations for improve the trafficability, the areas are also well suited to
recreational uses. The sandy surface layer is a problem recreational uses.
for trafficability. During dry periods wind erosion is a This complex is not in a capability subclass, and a
hazard. Maintaining a good vegetative cover, use of woodland ordination symbol is not assigned.
windbreaks, or some other form of surface protection is
needed. Because of the slope, the soil needs land 11-Riviera sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
shaping if it is used as playgrounds. drained soil that formed in stratified, unconsolidated
This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass IVs and sandy and loamy materials. This soil is in the broad
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. flatwoods. Slopes are nearly smooth and are less than 2
percent. Areas are small and irregularly shaped. They
9B-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent range from about 15 to 35 acres.
slopes. This complex consists of moderately well Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
drained, nearly level to gently sloping Millhopper soils about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about
and Urban land. The areas are irregular in shape and 27 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is grayish brown,
range from about 15 to 250 acres. This complex is within and the lower 19 inches is gray. The subsoil extends to
most urbanized areas of the county. a depth of 53 inches. It is gray sandy clay loam. The
About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open upper 10 inches has large streaks of gray sand. Between
areas of Millhopper soils. These open areas are vacant depths of 53 and 80 inches, the underlying material is
lots or are used for gardens, lawns, parks, or gray, mixed sandy loam, loamy sand, and sand.
playgrounds. They are either too small or so intermingled Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils which are similar to Riviera soils but which have a
with areas of Urban land that it is impractical to map soils which are similar to Riviera soils but which have a
them separately. About 20 to 30 percent of the soils in loamy sand surface layer. Small areas of Floridana,
Pelham, Pomona, and Wauchula soils are also included.
these open areas have been modified by cutting, Total included areas are less than 20 percent.
grading, and spreading of soil material during urban Total included areas are less than 20 percent.
grading, and spreading of soil material during urban In this Riviera soil, the water table is less than 10
related construction and development. inches below the surface for 2 to 4 months during most
About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for much of the
land. Urban land consists of areas covered with remainder of the year. During dry seasons it may recede
buildings, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and other to a depth of more than 40 inches. Surface runoff is
structures. The Urban land of this map unit is generally slow. Available water capacity is low to a depth of about
developed on Millhopper sand or fine sand. 32 inches, medium from 32 to 55 inches, and low below
Typically, the surface layer of Millhopper soils is dark this depth. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 32
grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface inches, slow from 32 to 55 inches, and moderate to
layer is yellowish brown to pale brown sand about 49 moderately rapid from 55 to 62 inches. Natural fertility is
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches low in the sandy upper 32 inches and medium below this
or more. The upper 6 inches is yellowish brown, mottled depth. Organic matter content is low.
loamy sand, and the lower 16 inches is gray, mottled Natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash pine,
sandy clay loam. sweetgum, maple, oak, waxmyrtle, and native grasses.
The Millhopper soils have a water table that is 40 to Almost all of this soil is still woodland.
60 inches below the surface for 1 to 4 months and is at This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months during most because of wetness. The number of adapted crops are
years. The available water capacity is low in the surface very limited unless good water control measures are
and subsurface layers and low to medium in the subsoil. used. If a good water control system and good
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface management practices are used, the soil is well suited to
layers, and it is slow to moderate in the subsoil. Natural a number of special crops, including squash, beans,
fertility is low. Organic matter content is low to eggplant, pepper, cabbage, and sweet corn. Good
moderately low. management practices include a water control system
Natural vegetation of this unit consists chiefly of live, that quickly removes the excess water during wet
laurel, post, and water oaks and sweetgum, cherry laurel, seasons; row crops rotated with close growing, soil
a few hickory, and slash and longleaf pines. The improving crops; leaving all crop residue on the soil; and
understory is chiefly lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, seedbed preparation that includes bedding the rows.
low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf Applications of fertilizers need to be added according to
paspalum, hoary tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky the type of crop grown.
and creeping bluestems, and pineland threeawn. This soil is well suited to pasture. Improved bahiagrass
The soils of this complex are generally well suited to and white clover produce top quality pasture if well
most lawn grasses and ornamental plants adapted to the managed. Water control measures are needed to
area. If some form of surface stabilization is used to remove excess surface water after long rainy periods.







36 Soil Suvey



Regular applications of fertilizer and controlled grazing occasionally flooded. Total included areas are less than
are necessary to maintain vigorous plant growth. 15 percent.
Potential productivity of this soil for woodland is This Pelham soil, has a water table that is less than 10
moderately high. Slash pine is the best adapted species inches below the surface for 1 to 4 months during most
for planting. The conditions of the soil during periods of years. The water table recedes below a depth of 40
high rainfall cause moderate limitations for normal inches during dry seasons. Surface runoff is slow. The
woodland harvesting and management equipment. The available water capacity is low in the surface and
mortality and plant competition are moderate for the subsurface layers and medium in the loamy subsoil.
young pine seedlings. Wetness and low natural fertility Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
are the major problems in reproduction. and moderate in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is low
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, in the upper 29 inches and medium below 29 inches.
including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings, The organic matter content is moderately low.
small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench Natural vegetation includes maple, slash pine, and
landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major sweetgum. The understory is chiefly gallberry, waxmyrtle,
limitation. A good drainage system is needed to remove briers, holly, and native grasses.
the excess water during wet periods and to adequately This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
control the water table. This soil has a severe limitation crops because of wetness and low fertility in the sandy
for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. Ground water surface and subsurface layers. If a good water control
can be contaminated by seepage of liquid waste material system and good management practices are used, the
through the sandy sidewalls and floor of the pits. The soil is moderately well suited to corn, soybeans, and
sidewalls and floor of these pits need to be lined and most special crops adapted to the area. Management
sealed to prevent this problem. practices consist of a water control system that removes
This soil has fair potential for habitat of oenland, excess water rapidly during wet seasons, a crop rotation
woThis soil has fair potential for habitat of openland, system that includes close growing crops, and the return
woodland, and wetland wildlife.
woodland, an wetan of all crop residue to the soil. Other important
This Riviera soil has severe limitations as sites for management practices include good seedbed
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or management practices include good seedbed
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or preparation, bedding the rows, and proper fertilization
near the surface during wet periods, and the loose sandy and liming.
surface texture are the main limitations. Some form of If a water control system and ood management are
water control system that quickly removes the water used, the soil is well suited to improved grass and grass-
during rainy periods needs to be installed and clover pasture. Water control measures are needed to
maintained. The sandy surface layer is a problem for remove excess water quickly after heavy rains. Good
trafficability. A good vegetative cover, the addition of management includes proper fertilization, liming, and
good topsoil material, or some other form of surface controlled grazing.
stabilization can overcome this problem. Potential productivity of this soil is high for commercial
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Illw and has a woodland. Slash pine is the recommended species when
woodland ordination symbol of 3w. planting. This soil has severe restrictions for use of
equipment during wet seasons. The drought conditions
13-Pelham sand. This nearly level, poorly drained of the sandy surface and subsurface layers during
soil is in small and large areas in the flatwoods. Slopes periods of low rainfall and the low natural fertility are
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. The severe limitations that cause seedling mortality.
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 50 This Pelham soil has severe limitations for urban uses,
acres. including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings,
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 7 inches small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench
thick. The upper 4 inches is very dark gray, and the landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major
lower 3 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is sand limitation. A good drainage system is needed to remove
about 22 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is light the excess water during wet periods and to adequately
brownish gray and has gray mottles, and the lower 15 control the water table. If this soil is used for sewage
inches is gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of 69 lagoons, contamination of ground water by seepage of
inches. The upper 3 inches is gray sandy loam, and the liquid waste material through the sandy sidewalls of the
lower 37 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. pits is a potential hazard. The sidewalls can be lined and
Between depths of 69 and 80 inches, the underlying sealed to prevent this problem.
material is gray, mottled sandy loam. The soil has fair potential as habitat for wetland and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of woodland wildlife and has poor potential as habitat for
Mulat, Pomona, Riviera, Surrency, and Wauchula soils. openland wildlife.
Some mapped areas of this soil along Hogtown Creek The soil has severe limitations for use as sites for
and its tributaries in the western part of Gainesville are recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or







Alachua County, Florida 37


near the surface during wet periods, is the main problem. This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
Some form of water control is needed. The sandy crops because of wetness and poor soil qualities. The
surface layer also is a problem for trafficability. The number of adapted crops is very limited unless good
establishment of a good vegetative cover, the addition of water control measures are used. If a good water control
suitable topsoil, or some form of surface stabilization can system and good management are used, the soil
help overcome this problem, produces fair to good yields of such crops as corn,
This Pelham soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has soybeans, squash, beans, eggplant, watermelons,
a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. pepper, cabbage, and sweet corn. A good water control
system is one that removes excess water during wet
14-Pomona sand. This nearly level, poorly drained seasons and provides subsurface irrigation during dry
soil is in small and large areas in the flatwoods. Slopes seasons. In many areas wetness is difficult to overcome
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. The sufficiently because of the lack of suitable drainage
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to outlets. Management practices include row crops rotated
350 acres. with close growing, soil improving crops. Good
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand management practices also include the leaving of all
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a crop residue on the soil and the application of fertilizer
depth of 16 inches. The upper 4 inches is gray, and the and lime to the soil according to the need of the crop
lower 7 inches is light gray. The upper 4 inches of the being grown.
subsoil is very dark gray sand in which many sand grains If a wrter control system and good management are
are coated with organic material, and the next 4 inches used, the soil is well suited to improved grass and grass-
is dark reddish brown sand. The next 8 inches is pale clover pasture (fig. 9). Water control measures are
brown sand that has mottles, and the lower 11 inches is needed to remove excess surface water during long
very pale brown sand. Below this a loamy subsoil rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for best yields of white
extends to a depth of 69 inches. The upper 4 inches is clover or other adapted, shallow rooting pasture plants
light gray fine sandy loam, and the lower 22 inches is during drought periods. Good management includes
gray, mottled sandy clay loam. Between depths of 69 proper fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing.
and 84 inches, the underlying material is light gray, Potential productivity of this soil is moderately high for
mottled fine sandy loam. slash and longleaf pines. Slash pine is the recommended
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of species for planting. This soil has moderate limitations
soils which are similar to Pomona soils but which have a for use of equipment during wet seasons. The slightly
brown, organically stained layer. Many of the sand grains drought conditions of the sandy surface and subsurface
are uncoated. Also included are small areas of soils layers during periods of low rainfall and the low natural
which are similar to this Pomona soil but which have fertility are moderate problems that cause seedling
weakly cemented layers at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. mortality. The soil is moderately limited by competition of
Small areas of Myakka, Newnan, Pelham, Sparr, and other plants with young pine seedlings.
Wauchula soils are in some areas. About 60 acres This Pomona soil has several limitations for urban
mapped as Pomona soil along the Santa Fe River is uses, including absorption fields for septic tanks,
occasionally flooded. Total included areas are about 20 dwellings, small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons,
percent. trench landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the
In this Pomona soil, the water table is within 10 inches major problem. A good drainage system is needed to
of the surface for 1 to 3 months during most years. remove the excess water during wet periods and to
During dry seasons, the water table recedes to a depth adequately control the water table. If used for sewage
of more than 40 inches. Surface runoff is slow. The lagoons, this soil has a potential hazard of contamination
available water capacity is low to medium in the surface of ground water by seepage of liquid waste material
and subsurface layers, and it ranges from low to high in through the sandy sidewalls of the pits. The pits need to
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the be well lined and sealed.
surface and subsurface layers, moderate to rapid in the The soil has poor potential as habitat for openland,
upper part of the subsoil, and moderately slow to woodland, and wetland wildlife.
moderate in the lower part. The soil has severe limitations as sites for recreational
Natural vegetation of this soil is a forest of longleaf areas. The high water table, which is at or near the
and slash pine. The understory is sawpalmetto, surface during wet periods, is a major problem. Some
waxmyrtle, gallberry, brackenfern, pineland threeawn, form of good water control is needed to improve this
blueberry, huckleberry, bluestem, and running oak. Most condition. Trafficability and wind erosion, especially
areas are still in natural vegetation. A few areas are during drier periods, are limitations because of the loose
cleared and are used for improved pasture or some sandy surface layer. A good vegetative cover, the
special crops. addition of good topsoil material, or some form of





38 Soil Survey






































Figure 9.-Improved pasture In an area of Pomona sand. Water Is controlled by field ditches.


surface stabilization could be used to help overcome depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 20 inches is light
these problems. brownish gray and has pale brown mottles, the next 45
This Pomona soil is in capability subclass IVs and has inches is gray and has mottles, and the lower 12 inches
a woodland ordination symbol of 3w. is gray and has no mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
15-Pompano sand. This nearly level, poorly drained areas of soils that have a black or very dark gray, sandy
soil is on poorly defined flats in the broad flatwoods and surface layer 6 to 10 inches thick. In a few areas are
in shallow depressions in the sandy, rolling uplands. small inclusions of Chipley, Placid, Plummer, and Myakka
Slopes are nearly smooth on the broad flats and are soils. A few small areas of Pompano soils have 2 to 5
slightly concave in the shallow depressions. They range percent slopes. About 250 acres mapped as Pompano
from 0 to 2 percent. The shape of the areas is variable, soil adjacent to the Santa Fe River along the northern
They are usually relatively small in size and range from boundary of the county is occasionally flooded for
about 10 to 45 acres, periods of about 1 to 3 weeks. Total included areas are
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand about 15 percent or less.
about 5 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a







Alachua County, Florida 39


This Pompano soil has a water table that is less than table can prevent adequate filtration of effluent through
10 inches from the surface for 2 to 6 months during the thick sandy texture, which could result in
most years. Surface runoff is slow. The available water contamination of ground water supplies. If used as sites
capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid. The for sewage lagoons and trench landfills, this soil has a
natural fertililty is low. Organic matter content of the potential hazard of contamination of ground water by
surface layer is moderately low to moderate. seepage of liquid waste material through the sandy
The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash pine. sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be lined and
The understory is gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland sealed.
threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, brackenfern, bluestem, and The soil has poor potential as habitat for openland and
panicum. The vegetation of the slightly depressional woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife
areas in the sandy uplands is mostly wetland grasses. is fair.
Most areas are.still in native vegetation. A few small The Pompano soil has severe limitations as sites for
areas have been cleared and are in improved pasture. recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated near the surface during wet periods, and the loose,
crops because of wetness and poor soil qualities. The sandy surface texture are the main limitations. Some
water table is hard to control. Adapted crops are limited form of water control to rapidly remove the water during
to special crops which usually are more tolerant of wet rainy periods is needed. When the soil is drained, the
conditions, require less space for root development, and surface layer becomes dry and loose. This causes
a shorter period to reach maturity. They are generally severe problems in trafficability and in wind erosion.
better adapted than most field crops grown in the Windbreaks and a good vegetative cover, the addition of
county. Many areas do not have good drainage outlets. If good topsoil, or some form of surface stabilization can
a good water control system and intensive management help overcome these problems.
practices are used, the soil produces fair to good yields This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw and
of such special crops as beans, squash, cabbage,
lettuce, and tomatoes. Fair yields of corn and soybeans has a woodland ordination symbol of 4w.
can also be produced under these conditions. A good 16-Surrency sand. This nearly level, very poorly
type of water control system is one that adequately
typremoves excessof water control system is eason and provides drained soil is in ponds and depressional areas in the
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Management broad flatwoods and in areas of wet prairie on uplands.
practices include row crops rotated with close growing, Slopes are less than 1 percent. The areas are relatively
soil improving crops; returning all crop residue to the soil; small and range from about 10 to 40 acres.
and bedding of row crops. Proper amounts of fertilizer Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 15
and lime need to be added in accordance to the need of inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand to a
the crop grown. Areas of this soil on the flood plain depth of 28 inches. Between 28 and 80 inches, the
along the Santa Fe River are poorly suited to crops. subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 27 inches is gray,
If a water control system and good management are and the lower 25 inches is light gray.
used, the soil is moderately well suited to improved Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
grass and grass-clover pasture. Water control measures Monteocha, Pomona, Samsula, and Wauberg soils. Also
are needed to remove excess water after heavy rains, included are small areas of soils that have a 10- to 24-
Irrigation is needed during drought periods for shallow inch, black or very dark gray sand or loamy sand surface
rooted pasture plants, such as white clover. During these layer over a gray sandy clay loam subsoil. In some
drought periods, the water table falls below the rooting delineations are small areas of soils which are similar to
zone of the plants, and the soil cannot retain sufficient this Surrency soil but which have 3 to 10 inches of well-
moisture for best growth. Good management includes decomposed organic material covering the surface. In
proper fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. some small areas the subsoil decreases in clay content
Potential productivity of this soil for woodland is by 20 percent or more at a depth of about 55 to 60
moderate. Slash pine is the best adapted species for inches. Total included areas are about 20 percent or
planting. The soil is wet during much of the year. less.
Equipment use and seedling mortality are severe This Surrency soil has a water table that is within 10
limitations. Plant competition is moderate. inches of the surface for about 6 months or more during
This Pompano soil has severe limitations for urban most years. Water is on the surface for 4 months or
uses, including absorption fields for septic tanks, more. The available water capacity ranges from low to
dwellings, small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, high in the surface and subsurface layers and from low
trench landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the to medium in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately
major limitation. A good drainage system is needed to rapid to rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface layers
rapidly remove the excess water during wet periods and and slow to moderately slow in the loamy subsoil.
to adequately control the water table. The high water Natural fertility is medium in the surface layer and is low






40 Soil survey


in the subsurface layer and subsoil. Organic matter small and large, irregularly shaped or meandering areas
content is high to very high in the surface layer, that range from about 20 to 800 acres.
The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress. Swamp Typically, the surface layer is sand about 8 inches
tupelo, pond pine, bay, and other water-tolerant thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower 3
hardwoods are in some areas. In a few areas water- inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is light
tolerant grasses grow. Most of the areas are still in brownish gray sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part
natural vegetation. A few areas have been cleared and of the subsoil is 4 inches of dark reddish brown loamy
are used for vegetable crops or have been filled and sand, in which many sand grains have an organic
used for urban development, coating, and 5 inches of dark brown sand. Below this is
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to a leached layer of pale brown, mottled fine sand about 5
cultivated crops or improved pasture. Not only is there a inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil is a loamy
very severe problem of wetness caused by ponding, but layer that extends to a depth of 62 inches. The upper 9
drainage and water control are also a severe problem. inches is gray, mottled fine sandy loam; the.next 19
Adequate water control systems are difficult to establish inches is light brownish gray, mottled loamy sand; and
because of a lack of suitable drainage outlets in many the lower 6 inches is light gray, mottled fine sandy loam.
areas. If a good water control system can be developed Between depths of 62 and 80 inches, the underlying
and maintained and if good management practices are material is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam.
used, most locally adapted vegetable crops and grass or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
grass-clover pasture plants can be successfully grown. Mulat, Newnan, Pelham, Pomona, Riviera, and Sparr
grass-clover pasture antan e susslly gow soils. Also included are small areas of poorly drained
This soil is not recommended for slash, loblolly, or soils that have a brownish stain in the subsurface layer.
longleaf pines under natural conditions because of the soils that have a brownish stain in the subsurface layer.
longleaf pines under natural conditions because of the The sand grain are uncoated or only thinly coated.
excessive wetness and ponding. Use of equipment, plant Total included areas are 15 percent or less.
competition, and seedling mortality are severe The Wauchula spil has a water table that is at a depth
limitations. of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and is at a
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months. During
ponding and slow internal drainage are the dominant driest seasons, the water table recedes to a depth of
features that severely restrict its use. Water is on or near more than 40 inches The available water capacity is ow
the surface much of the time. Drainage systems that to medium in the surface layer, very low to low in the
adequately remove the water and effectively regulate the subsurface layer, low to high in the upper part of the
water table are expensive and hard to establish and subsoil, and medium to high in the lower part
Maintain. Most areas lack good water outlets. Even Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the surface
where good drainage systems can be installed, keeping and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately rapid in
the areas adequately drained is a continuing concern, the upper part of the subsoil, and slow to moderately
Sufficient fill material can be added to alleviate surface slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low in the sandy
wetness. A major water control system is required to surface and subsurface layers and low to medium in the
lower and maintain the water table at a depth needed to subsoil. Organic matter content is low.
use this soil for sewage lagoons and trench landfill. The natural vegetation of this soil is slash and longleaf
This soil has poor potential as habitat for openland pines. The understory is waxmyrtle, palmetto, gallberry,
and woodland wildlife. The ponded areas are not briars, pineland threeawn, and other low-growing shrubs
desirable for this type of wildlife, and attempts to and grasses. Most areas are still in woodland. Some
improve these conditions effectively would probably be areas have been cleared, however, and are in improved
unsatisfactory. The potential as habitat for wetland pasture or small areas of special crops.
wildlife is fair. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
The Surrency soil has severe limitations as sites for because of wetness. The number of adapted crops is
recreational areas. The ponding and sandy texture are very limited unless good water control measures are
the major problems. Before the soil can be used, used. If a good water control system and good
drainage and a good water control system are management are used, the soil is suited to a number of
necessary. The addition of sufficient good fill material is crops, including corn, soybeans, squash, beans,
needed to raise the surface enough to prevent eggplant, pepper, cabbage, and sweet corn. A good
continuing wetness. water control system is the type that removes excess
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass VIw. There water during wet seasons and provides subsurface
is no woodland ordination symbol. irrigation during dry seasons. Management practices
include row crops rotated with close growing, soil
17-Wauchula sand. This nearly level, poorly drained improving crops; leaving all crop residue on the soil; and
soil is in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are nearly applying fertilizer and lime according to the need of the
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is in crop being grown.






Alachua County, Florida 41



If a water control system and good management are About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban
used, the soil is well suited to improved grass or grass- land. Urban land consists of areas covered with houses,
clover pasture. Water control measures are needed to streets, parking lots, sidewalks, industrial buildings,
remove excess,surface water during long rainy periods, airports, and other structures. The Urban land of this
Irrigation is needed for best yields of white clover or map unit is generally developed on Wauchula sand.
other adapted, shallow rooting pasture plants during Typically, the surface layer of Wauchula soils is black
drought periods. Good management includes proper to dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. layer is sand about 20 inches thick. The upper 6 inches
Potential productivity of this soil is moderately high for is light brownish gray; the next 4 inches, in which many
slash pine. Potential productivity for longleaf pine is sand grains have organic coatings, is dark reddish
moderate. Slash pine is the recommended species for brown; the next 5 inches is dark brown, and the lower 5
planting. This soil has moderate restrictions for use of inches is pale brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
equipment during wet seasons. It has moderate seedling 62 inches. The upper 9 inches is gray fine sandy loam;
mortality because of the slightly drought condition of the next 19 inches is light brownish gray loamy sand;
the sandy surface and subsurface layers during periods and the lower 6 inches is light gray fine sandy loam.
of low rainfall and the low natural fertility. Competition of Between depths of 62 and 80 inches, the underlying
other plants with young pine seedlings is also a material is light gray sandy clay loam.
moderate limitation. Included with the unit in mapping are small areas of
This Wauchula soil has severe limitations for urban Pomona, Pelham, Mulat, Newnan, Sparr, and Surrency
uses, including absorption fields for septic tanks, soilt. These included areas make up about 10 to 20
dwellings, small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, percent of the open areas in some delineations.
trench landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the In the Wauchula soils, the water table is within 10
major problem. A good drainage system is needed to inches of the surface for about 1 to 3 months during
remove the excess water during wet periods and to most years. During dry periods, it recedes to a depth of
adequately control the water table. If this soil is used for more than 40 inches. Natural fertility and organic matter
sewage lagoons, contamination of ground water is a content are low. Permeability of the sandy surface and
potential hazard. Liquid waste material can seep through subsurface layers is rapid. It is slow to moderately slow
the sandy sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be in the loamy subsoil. Available water capacity is low to
lined and sealed. medium in the surface layer, very low to low in the
This soil has poor potential as habitat for openland, subsurface layer, and low to high in the subsoil.
woodland, and wetland wildlife. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pines. The
The soil has severe limitations as sites for recreational understory is palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland
areas. The high water table, which is at or near the threeawn, and other adapted shrubs and herbs.
surface during wet periods, is a major problem. Some Open areas are suited to most lawn grasses and many
form of good water control is needed. Trafficability and kinds of ornamental plants adapted to this area. These
wind erosion are problems, especially during drier open areas have severe limitations for most recreational
periods, because of the sandy surface layer. A good uses because of wetness during periods of high rainfall.
vegetative cover or some other form of surface Some form of good drainage system helps overcome the
stabilization can help overcome this problem. wetness. Some areas of this complex, however, do not
This Wauchula soil is in capability subclass IIIw and have good water outlets, which prevents the
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3w. establishment of a good drainage system.
For the foreseeable future, the use of this complex is
18-Wauchula-Urban land complex. This complex urban related.
consists of poorly drained, nearly level Wauchula soils This unit is not assigned to a capability subclass or
and Urban land. It is in irregularly shaped, relatively small woodland ordination symbol.
to large areas. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Most
of this complex is within the eastern and northern parts 19-Monteocha loamy sand. This nearly level, very
of Gainesville. Small acreages are in the urban sections poorly drained soil is in wet ponds and shallow
of Micanopy, Waldo, and Hawthorne. depressional areas in the flatwoods. Slopes are less
About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open than 2 percent. It is in relatively small areas that range
areas of Wauchula soils. These open areas are gardens, from about 8 to 35 acres.
vacant lots, lawns, and playgrounds. They are so small Typically, the surface layer is black loamy sand about
or so intermingled with areas of Urban land that it is 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish
impractical to map them separately. About 10 to 20 gray sand to a depth of 18 inches. The upper part of'the
percent of the soils in these open areas have been subsoil is brown sand to a depth of 48 inches. Below this
modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil a subsoil of fine sandy loam extends to a depth of 85
materials during urban construction. inches. The upper 11 inches is grayish brown, and the






i-'






42 Soil Survey



lower 26 inches is light brownish gray. Between 85 and of the trenches and pits need lining and sealing to
94 inches the underlying material is light gray sand. prevent contamination of the ground water by seepage.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has very poor potential as habitat for
Placid, Samsula, and Surrency soils. Included are soils openland wildlife. The ponds are not desirable for this
that have characteristics which are similar to Monteocha type of wildlife, and attempts to improve these conditions
soils but which have the dark brown subsoil layer below effectively would probably be unsatisfactory. Potential for
a depth of 30 inches. In the center of some mapped woodland wildlife habitat is also very poor. The potential
areas there is a thin 1- to 5-inch covering of well as habitat for wetland wildlife is good because of the
decomposed organic material on the surface. Total excessive wet conditions of the soil.
included areas are 20 percent or less. The Monteocha soil has severe limitations as sites for
This Monteocha soil has a water table that is within 10 recreational areas. The ponding is the major problem.
inches of the surface for more than 6 months during Before the soil can be used, drainage and a good water
most years. Most areas are covered with water for more control system are necessary. The addition of sufficient
than 4 months. Available water capacity is high to very good fill material is needed to raise the surface enough
high in the surface layer and medium in the subsurface to prevent continuing wetness.
layer and subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface This Monteocha soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is
layer, moderately rapid to rapid in the subsurface layer not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
and upper part of the subsoil, and moderately slow to
moderate in the lower part. Natural fertility is medium in 20-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
the surface layer and low in the subsurface layer and nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
subsoil. Organic matter content is high to very high in the soil. This soil is deep and sandy. It is on slightly convex
surface layer. slopes in broad areas of the flatwoods and along gentle
The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress. Some slopes of the rolling uplands. The areas are mainly
swamp tupelo, pond pine, bay, and other water-tolerant irregular in shape and range from about 10 to 125 acres.
hardwoods are in some areas. Water-tolerant grasses Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8
grow in a few areas. Most of the areas are still in native inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth
vegetation. A few areas have been cleared and filled. of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is pale
Housing and industrial developments are in these areas. brown, the next 17 inches is very pale brown, and the
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to lower 44 inches is very pale brown or white and has
cultivated crops or improved pasture. Not only is ponding mottles.
a very severe problem but drainage and water control is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
also. Adequate water control systems are difficult to Tavares soils that have 5 to 8 percent slopes. Also
establish. Most areas are isolated ponds that do not included are small areas of Chipley, Candler, Apopka,
have suitable drainage outlets. A good water control Pompano, and Zolfo soils. About 120 acres of this soil
system normally requires an extensive system of canals mapped along the Santa Fe River is occasionally
and ditches. If the areas can be adequately drained, if a flooded. Total included areas are about 15 percent
good water control system can be maintained, and if In this Tavares soil, the water table is at a depth of 40
good management practices are used, adapted grass or to 72 inches for a cumulative period of 6 months or more
grass-clover pasture can be grown. during most years. It recedes to more than 72 inches
This soil is not recommended for slash, loblolly, or below the surface during drought periods. Surface
longleaf pine under natural conditions because of the runoff is slow. The available water capacity is very low to
excess wetness and ponding. Equipment use, plant low. Permeability is rapid to very rapid. Natural fertility is
competition, and seedling mortality are severe low, and organic matter content is low to moderate in
limitations. the surface layer.
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
ponding and the thick sandy texture severely restrict the longleaf pines; turkey, post, bluejack, live, and water
soil for this use. Water is on or near the surface during oaks; and native grasses. Most areas are still in natural
much of the time. A good drainage system that vegetation. Most of the cleared areas are in improved
adequately removes the water and effectively regulates pasture. Some are in cultivated crops.
the water table is expensive and hard to establish and This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
maintain. Most areas lack good water outlets. Even crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of applied plant
where drainage systems are installed, keeping the areas nutrients are the major limiting factors. Most crops,
adequately drained is a continuing problem. Sufficient fill including corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco, and
material can be added to prevent ponding. A major water watermelons, can be grown. Good management is
control system is required to lower and maintain the required to reach maximum yields. Good management
water table below the depth needed for sewage lagoons includes alternating row crops with strips of close
and trench landfills. In addition, the sidewalls and floors growing crops; using close growing, soil improving cover







Alachua County, Florida 43



crops at least two thirds of the time; returning all crop a leached layer of light gray to white sand to a depth of
residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer and lime 56 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is loamy, light
according to the need of the crops being grown. gray, and mottled. The upper 3 inches is loamy sand, the
Because of the very low available water capacity of the next 16 inches is fine sandy loam, and the lower 7
soil, droughtiness in the root zone is a problem during inches is sandy clay loam.
drier periods. If a source of water is available, irrigation is Included with this soil in some areas are Mulat,
usually feasible for high value crops. Pomona, Sparr, and Wauchula soils. In some areas are
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture soils that have characteristics similar to Newnan soils
of deep rooted grasses and legumes if the pasture is except that they have a brown, organically stained layer
well managed. The soil is drought and has very low to directly below the surface layer or have only 1 to 3
low available water capacity to a depth of 40 inches or inches of leached, light gray or white material between
more below the surface. Irrigation is usually necessary the surface layer and the stained layer. About 65 acres
during the dry seasons for the production of shallow mapped as Newnan soil is within the flood plain of the
rooted pasture plants. Santa Fe River and is occasionally flooded. Total
Potential productivity of this soil for slash and longleaf included areas are about 20 percent or less.
pines is moderately high. The low organic matter content This Newnan soil has a water table that is at a depth
and drought conditions of the surface and upper part of of 18 to 30 inches for 1 to 2 months during most years
the underlying layers cause moderate seedling mortality, and at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 2 to 5 months.
Competition of other plants is also moderate. Except for During drier periods, it is at a depth of more than 60
short periods after rain, the coarse textured surface layer inches. The available water capacity is very low to low to
is loose. This loose sandy texture moderately restricts a depth of about 12 inches and low to medium from 12
the use of normal woodland equipment during harvesting to 82 inches. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 12
operations. inches, moderately rapid to rapid from 12 to 16 inches,
This Tavares soil has moderate limitations for septic rapid from 16 to 56 inches, moderately rapid from 56 to
tank absorption fields. The potentially high water table 59 inches, and slow to moderately slow from 59 to 82
during wet seasons and the thick sandy texture can inches. Natural fertility is low in the sandy upper 56
prevent adequate filtration of effluent, which could result inches and medium in the loamy subsoil below. Organic
in contamination of ground water supplies. Limitations for matter content is moderately low.
sewage lagoons and trench landfills are severe because Most areas of this soil are still in natural vegetation,
of wetness and the possibility of contamination of ground which is chiefly longleaf and slash pines and water oak.
water by seepage. Where trenches or pits are dug, The understory is running oak, palmetto, waxmyrtle,
sidewalls can cave. This soil has slight limitations for huckleberry, brackenfern, blueberry, briars, gallberry,
dwellings without basements, small commercial bluestem, and pineland threeawn. A few areas are
buildings, and local road and streets. cleared and are in improved pasture or special crops.
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife because of the poor soil qualities and periodic wetness.
is very poor because of the absence of water areas. Applied plant nutrients leach rapidly through the sandy
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. subsurface layer. Root retardation of some crops is
The sandy surface layer causes problems in trafficability caused by the high water table during wet periods.
and in wind erosion. Establishing and maintaining good Subsurface drainage or some other form of water control
vegetative cover, windbreaks, addition of suitable topsoil, may be needed.
or some form of surface stabilization can be used to help This soil is best adapted to vegetable crops and such
overcome these problems. general farm crops as corn and soybeans. Good
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills and has management is necessary for best yields. This includes
a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. growing crops in rotation with close growing, soil
improving cover crops; returning all crop residue to the
21-Newnan sand. This nearly level, somewhat poorly soil; and proper seedbed preparation, fertilization, and
drained soil is in small to relatively large areas in the liming. The upper part of the sandy subsurface layer
flatwoods. Slopes are nearly level to slightly convex and during dry periods is drought. Irrigation of high value
range from 0 to 2 percent. The areas generally range crops generally is feasible where a source of water is
from about 10 to 250 acres. available.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 The soil is well suited to pasture of improved
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray bahiagrass. High level management is needed for good
sand to a depth of 12 inches. The upper part of the yields. This includes good fertilization, liming as needed,
subsoil is 4 inches of dark brown sand, in which the and a good grazing rotation program. If shallow rooted
sand grains are well coated with organic material, and 4 plants are grown, irrigation is normally needed for
inches of dark brown sand that is mottled. Below this is persisting, good quality pasture.







44 Sol Survey



Potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is soil along the Santa Fe River is occasionally flooded.
moderately high. Potential productivity for longleaf pine is Total included areas are less than 20 percent.
moderate. The loose, sandy surface and subsurface This depressional Floridana soil has water standing on
layers moderately limit the use of normal woodland the surface for about 6 months or more during most
equipment. Because of the drought conditions during years. For much of the year, the water table is less than
dry seasons and other poor qualities, the degree of 10 inches below the surface. Available water capacity is
seedling mortality is moderate. Plant competition is also medium to a depth of about 14 inches, low from 14 to
moderate. about 30 inches, and medium below 30 inches.
This Newnan soil has severe limitations for septic tank Permeability is rapid to 30 inches and slow between 30
absorption fields. The high water table during wet to 74 inches. Natural fertility and organic matter content
seasons prevents good downward drainage of the are high to about 14 inches and low below this depth.
effluent. The effluent may be mixed with the ground Natural vegetation is chiefly cypress, gum, maple,
water as the water table moves laterally and upward, the scattered slash pine, and water-tolerant grasses. The
surface and upper part of the subsurface layer can areas are still in natural vegetation.
become contaminated. Limitations as sites for sewage Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
lagoons and trench landfills are severe because of the cultivated crops and improved pasture. The excess
wetness and possibility of contamination of ground water wetness and the problem of water control are the main
by seepage. The sandy texture causes some problems in limitations. Water is on the surface for much of the year.
trafficability if the soil is used for landfills. Limitations for Adequate water control systems are difficult to establish
dwellings without basements, small commercial because of the lack of suitable outlets. If a good water
buildings, and local roads and streets are moderate control system can be developed and maintained and if
because of the wetness problem. the pasture is well managed, some grass or a
This soil has poor potential as habitat for openland combination of grass and clover can be grown.
wildlife. It has fair potential for woodland wildlife. This soil has low potential for pine trees because of
Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor water on or near the surface during much of the year.
because this soil lacks the ponds and wetland vegetation The excess wetness presents severe problems in most
that are desirable for this type of wildlife woodland management, including seedling mortality,
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. l
The sandy surface layer causes problems in trafficability. plant competition and use o equipment
Some wind erosion is a problem during dry periods This soil has severe limitations for all urban uses,
where the surface is unprotected. The establishment and including use as sites for septic tank absorption fies,
maintenance of a good vegetative cover or windbreaks dwellings, small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons,
and the addition of suitable topsoil or some form of trench landfill, and roads and streets. Areas are pounded,
surface stabilization could be used to overcome these and water stands on the surface during much of the
problems. year. Before use, these areas must be filled with suitable
This Newnan soil is in capability subclass Ills and has material, have a good drainage system to adequately
a woodland ordination symbol of 3w. control the high water table, and have protection from
ponding. Efficient drainage systems are hard to develop.
22-Floridana sand, depressional. This nearly level, Even where drainage systems are installed, keeping the
very poorly drained soil is in seasonally ponded, areas adequately drained is normally a continuing
depressional areas and swamps. Slopes are less than 2 problem. Mounding is needed for septic tank absorption
percent. The areas are variable in shape and range from fields.
about 15 to 75 acres. This soil has very poor potential as habitat for
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 14 openland and woodland wildlife. The potential as habitat
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand to a for wetland wildlife is good. Shallow water areas, which
depth of 30 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 65 are desirable for this type of wildlife, can be easily
inches. It is gray sandy clay loam. Between depths of 65 developed or may occur naturally.
and 74 inches, the underlying material is light gray sandy The Floridana soil has severe limitations as sites for
loam. recreational areas. The ponding is the major problem.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Before the soil can be used, drainage and a good water
Riviera and Wauchula soils. Also included are some control system are necessary. The addition of a good fill
small areas of soils which are similar to the Floridana material is needed to help improve trafficability and raise
soils except that the loamy subsoil is at a depth of 40 to the surface sufficiently to prevent continuing wetness.
80 inches. In the center of some depressions are small This depressional Floridana soil is in capability
areas where the surface is covered with 3 to 8 inches of subclass Vllw. It is not assigned a woodland ordination
organic material. About 80 acres mapped as Floridana symbol.







Alachua County, Florida 45



23-Mulat sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil rains. For best yields of shallow rooting pasture plants,
is in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are nearly irrigation is needed during dry seasons. Good
smooth to slightly concave and range from 0 to 2 management includes proper fertilization, liming, and
percent. The soil usually is in irregularly shaped small controlled grazing.
areas and ranges from about 15 to 60 acres. Potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is high.
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 8 inches It is moderately high for longleaf pine. Slash pine is the
thick. The upper 5 inches is very dark gray, and the species recommended for planting. The wet condition of
lower 3 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is the soil in periods of high rainfall severely limits the use
grayish brown to light gray sand to a depth of 26 inches. of normal woodland harvesting and management
The subsoil extends to a depth of 54 inches and is gray. equipment. The mortality of young pine seedlings is
The upper 4 inches is loamy sand, the next 17 inches is severe. Wetness and low fertility are the major problems
fine sandy loam, and the lower 7 inches is loamy sand. in natural regeneration in pine plantations. Plant
Between depths of 54 and 80 inches, the underlying competition is moderate.
material is light gray loamy sand. This Mulat soil has severe limitations for urban uses,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings,
Pelham, Plummer, Pomona, and Wauchula soils. Also small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench
included are a few small areas of soils which are similar landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major
to the Mulat soil but which have a loamy sand surface limitation. A good drainage system is needed to remove
layer. Total included areas are about 20 percent or less. the excess water during wet periods and to adequately
This Mulat soil has a water table that is at a depth of control the water table. If used for sewage lagoons or
10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 30 trench landfills, this soil has a potential hazard of the
inches for about 2 to 4 months during most years. During contamination of ground water by seepage of liquid
drier seasons, the water table recedes to a depth of waste material through the sandy sidewalls of the pits.
more than 30 inches. Surface runoff is slow. The The sidewalls need to be well lined and sealed to
available water capacity is low to medium. Permeability is prevent this problem.
moderately rapid to rapid in the surface and subsurface This soil has fair potential as habitat for wetland and
layers and slow to moderately slow in the subsoil. openland wildlife and poor potential as habitat for
Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the woodland wildlife.
underlying material. Natural fertility is low, and organic The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
matter content of the surface layer ranges from The water table is at or very near the surface during wet
moderate to moderately low. seasons. The areas need some form of water control
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine. Some that rapidly removes excess water and regulates the
areas have a mixed stand of slash and longleaf pines water table. Where areas are drained to keep the water
and some sweetgum, red maple, and water oak. The table at a depth low enough for the best use, the sandy
understory is dominantly gallberry, waxmyrtle, briars, surface layer becomes dry and has a tendency to be
pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, brackenfern, and loose. The loose, dry sand causes problems in
various bluestems and panicums. Most areas are still in trafficability and of wind erosion. The maintenance of a
natural vegetation. Most cleared areas are in improved good vegetative cover and windbreaks and the addition
pasture. A few are in cultivated crops. of good fill material or some other form of surface
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops stabilization help overcome these problems.
because of wetness and low fertility. If a good water This Mulat soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has a
control system and good management practices are woodland ordination symbol of 2w.
used, the soil is moderately well suited to well suited to
such crops as corn, soybeans, watermelons, tomatoes, 25-Pomona sand, depressional. This nearly level,
squash, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, sweet corn, and very poorly drained soil is in shallow depressional areas
beans. Tobacco and peanuts are not recommended. A and along narrow drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes
good water control system is one that removes excess are nearly smooth or slightly concave and range from 0
water rapidly during wet seasons. Management practices to 2 percent. These areas are relatively small and
are a crop rotation system that includes close growing, irregularly shaped or elongated. They range from about
soil improving crops and returning all crop residue to the 10 to 35 acres.
soil. Other important management practices include Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
good seedbed preparation, bedding the rows, and proper about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fertilization and liming. sand to a depth of 25 inches. The upper part of the
If a water control system and good management subsoil is dark brown sand to a depth of 32 inches;
practices are used, this soil is well suited to improved many of the sand grains are coated with organic
grass and grass-clover pasture. Water control measures material. The next layer is grayish brown sand to a depth
are needed to remove the excess water after heavy of 52 inches. Below this, the lower part of the subsoil is







46 Soil Surey



gray sandy loam to a depth of 73 inches. Between unsatisfactory. The soil has good potential as habitat for
depths of 73 and 80 inches, the underlying material is wetland wildlife.
gray sandy loam and loamy sand. The Pomona soil has severe limitations as sites for
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of recreational areas. The ponding and sandy surface
Monteocha, Plummer, Pompano, and Surrency soils, texture are the major problems. Before the soil can be
Total included areas are about 15 percent. used, drainage and a good water control system are
In this Pomona soil, the water table is less than 10 necessary. The addition of a good fill material is needed
inches below the surface for about 6 months or more. to help improve the trafficability and to raise the surface
Water is on the surface for about 4 months or more sufficiently to prevent continuing wetness.
during most years. The available water capacity is low in This Pomona soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is
the surface and subsurface layers and low to high in the not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
subsoil. Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the surface n ,
and subsurface layers, moderate to rapid in the upper 26-Samsula muck This nearly level, very poorly
part of the subsoil, and moderately slow to moderate in drained organic soil is in large and small swamps,
the lower part. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter marches, and ponded areas in the broad flatwoods.
content in the surface layer is moderately low. Slopes are usually slightly concave and range from 0 to
1 percent. Areas are either circular, irregular in shape, or
The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress, swamp elongated. They are both large and small in size and
maple, tupelo, bay, and some scattered pond pine. In a range from about 20 to 300 acres.
few areas vegetation is water-tolerant grasses and Typically, the surface layer is muck about 35 inches
shrubs or a mixture of hardwoods and grasses. The thick. The upper 8 inches is very dark brown, and the
areas are still in natural vegetation, lower 27 inches is very dark gray. Between depths of 35
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or improved and 75 inches, the underlying layer is sand. The upper 7
pasture. The excess wetness, ponding, and poor soil inches is dark gray, the next 11 inches is light brownish
qualities are major limitations that are hard to overcome, gray, and the lower 17 inches is light gray.
Water is on the surface for much of the year. Adequate Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water control systems are difficult to establish. Many Monteocha, Okeechobee, Placid, Surrency, and Terra
areas are isolated ponds or wet depressions that do not Ceia soils. A few areas have small inclusions of soils
have suitable drainage outlets. A good water control that have organic material 40 to 60 inches thick over
system would require an extensive system of canals and sandy or loamy material. Total included areas are about
ditches. 20 percent or less.
This soil is not recommended for slash or longleaf This Samsula soil has water at or on the surface for
pine under natural conditions because of the excess more than 6 months during most years. The water table
wetness and ponding. Use of equipment, seedling is within 10 inches of the surface for most of the
mortality, and plant competition are severe, remainder of the year, except during long, extended dry
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The periods. The available water capacity is very high in the
ponding conditions and thick sandy texture are the organic layer. It is very low in the underlying sandy layer.
dominant features that severely restrict the soil for this Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is medium. Organic
use. Water is on or near the surface during much of the matter content in the surface layer is very high.
time. Good drainage systems that adequately remove The natural vegetation of the soil is chiefly cypress.
the water and effectively regulate the water table are Bay, black gum, and swamp maple are in some areas.
expensive and hard to establish and maintain. Most Water-tolerant grasses are in a few areas. Most areas of
areas lack good water outlets. Even where drainage this soil are still in natural vegetation.
systems are installed, keeping the areas adequately This soil has severe limitations for crops. The
drained is a continuing problem. Before using this soil as excessive wetness caused by ponding is the major
sites for homes, small commercial buildings, and septic problem and is very difficult to overcome. Many areas of
tank absorption fields, the surface needs to be raised this soil do not have adequate drainage outlets. A good
with suitable fill material. The water table needs to be drainage system is one that adequately removes the
maintained below sewage lagoons and trench landfills. excess water when crops are on the soil but keeps the
This requires a major water control system. In addition, soil saturated with water at other times. If good
the sidewalls and floors of the trenches and pits need management practices and a good water control system
lining and sealing to prevent contamination of the ground are maintained, the soil is suited to crops that are
water by seepage. somewhat tolerant of wet conditions. Most locally grown
This soil has very poor potential for use as habitat for vegetable crops are adapted. Management practices
openland and woodland wildlife. The ponded areas are include good seedbed preparation, growing water-
not desirable for this type of wildlife, and attempts to tolerant cover crops when regular crops are not being
improve these conditions effectively would probably be grown, returning all crop residue to the soil, and prope'







Alachua County, Florida 47



fertilizing and liming in accordance with the needs of the The few small open areas, mostly parks and vacant lots,
crops, are soils of the Arredondo, Blichton, Millhopper, Sparr,
Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for and Wauchula series. Many of these open areas have
improved pasture. Drainage and good water control are been altered by cutting and shaping or by having fill
necessary before pasture plants can be grown. In many material spread on the surface. Slopes range from 0 to 2
areas good drainage outlets are not available, or if they percent.
are available, an extensive system of ditches is needed Included with this Urban land in mapping are small
to reach the outlets so the water can be adequately areas that are only about 55 to 85 percent covered with
removed. If a good water control system and good urban facilities. Total included areas are about 15
pasture management practices are used, high quality percent.
pastures can be grown. A good water control system is This urban unit is not assigned to a capability subclass
one that not only adequately removes the ponded water, or assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
but maintains the water table near the surface in order to
decrease subsidence as much as possible. Good 28-Chipley sand. This nearly level, somewhat poorly
fertilization is necessary. Lime can be added as needed. drained soil is in relatively small areas of the broad
Controlled grazing permits maximum growth of pasture. flatwoods and in both small and large areas on the
This soil is not recommended for commercial transition between the broad flatwoods and rolling
woodland production of slash, loblolly, or longleaf pines, uplands. Slopes are nearly level to slightly concave and
The very wet conditions of the soil, the problems of range from 0 to 2 percent. The areas are irregular in
regulating the water table at a depth desirable for good shape and range from about 15 to 150 acres.
root development, and the unstable conditions of the Typically, the surface layer is sand about 12 inches
organic soil material cause severe problems in woodland thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark gray, and the
management, lower 6 inches is dark grayish brown. The underlying
This Samsula soil has severe limitations for urban layers are sand to a depth of more than 81 inches. In
uses. The high water table, ponding, excess humus, low sequence from the top, the upper 13 inches is grayish
soil strength, and potential seepage are major limitations brown; the next 24 inches is light gray and has yellowish
that are hard to overcome. Good drainage and water red mottles; and the lower 32 inches is light gray but has
control systems require a major network of canals and no mottles.
ditches. Keeping the areas adequately drained is a Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
continuing problem. Many areas do not have suitable Myakka, Pompano, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Also
drainage outlets. The organic material is unstable, and it included are a few small areas of somewhat poorly
subsides when drained. This organic material needs to drained and poorly drained soils that have a very dark
be removed and replaced with suitable fill material gray surface layer 10 to 16 inches thick over a grayish
before an area is developed for urban uses. underlying layer. The underlying layer is sandy to a depth
These areas have good potential as habitat for of 80 inches or more and has less than 5 percent silt
wetland wildlife. These shallow water areas are desired and clay in the control section. About 15 acres mapped
by this type of wildlife. Potential is very poor for as Chipley soil along the Santa Fe River is occasionally
openland wildlife and is poor for woodland wildlife. The flooded. Total included areas are about 15 percent.
areas are too wet to produce a good source of food and This Chipley soil has a water table that is 20 to 40
cover for these types of wildlife. inches below the surface for 2 to 4 months during most
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. years. During extremely wet seasons, the water table
The excessive wetness and excess humus are the major rises to a depth of 15 to 20 inches for brief periods of
limitations. Good drainage systems that adequately less than 2 weeks. It recedes to a depth of more than 40
remove the water are expensive to establish and inches during dry periods. Surface runoff is slow. The
maintain. When the soil is drained, the exposed dry available water capacity is low, and the permeability is
surface layer becomes dusty. This condition, along with rapid to a depth of more than 80 inches. Natural fertility
the unstable conditions of the soil, causes severe is low, and organic matter content is moderate to
problems in trafficability. If areas of this soil have to be moderately low in the-surface layer.
used for recreation, the organic material needs to be Natural vegetation of this soil is slash and longleaf
removed and replaced with suitable material, pine and water, laurel, and live oak. The understory
This Samsula soil is in capability subclass IVw. It is not consists of waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry, gallberry,
assigned a woodland ordination symbol. scattered sawpalmetto, carpetgrass, and pineland
threeawn and other native weeds and grasses. Most
27-Urban land. In areas mapped as Urban land, 85 areas are still in natural vegetation. Most cleared areas
percent or more of the surface is covered with shopping are in improved pasture. Some are used for crops.
centers, parking lots, buildings, streets, sidewalks, and This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
related facilities. The natural soil cannot be observed, because of periodic wetness and poor soil qualities. The







48 Soil Surve



high water table, which is at a depth of about 20 to 40 has light gray and yellowish brown mottles below a
inches during wet seasons, can cause some retardation depth of 21 inches. The subsoil extends to 76 inches.
of root development. If good management practices and The upper 4 inches is dark gray, mottled fine sandy
a water control system are used, the soil produces good loam; the next 19 inches is gray sandy loam; and the
yields of such crops as corn, soybeans, squash, beans, lower 22 inches is gray sandy clay loam. Between
peppers, eggplant, and cucumbers. A good water control depths of 76 and 83 inches, the underlying material is
system is one that quickly removes the excess water mixed light gray and greenish gray sandy clay loam.
during wet periods and provides subsurface irrigation Included with this soil are small areas of Blichton,
during drought periods. Good management includes Bonneau, Kendrick, Micanopy, and Millhopper soils. Also
crop rotation with close growing, soil improving cover included in some delineations are small areas of soils
crops; the return of all crop residue to the soil; and the that are similar to Lochloosa soils except that the clay
proper application of fertilizer and lime. content of the subsoil decreases by more than 20
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. percent of its maximum within a depth of 60 inches. Also
Bahiagrass and bermudagrass produce good quality included are small areas of soils that are similar to
grazing under high level management. This includes Lochloosa soils but have 5 to 20 percent weathered rock
proper establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and fragments in the subsoil. The rock fragments are 2 to 76
controlled grazing, millimeters in diameter. A few areas have small
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. inclusions of Lochloosa soils that have 5 to 8 percent
Slash pine is the best adapted species. The loose sandy slopes. Siliceous limestone boulders and sinkholes are in
surface layer causes moderate restrictions for use of some areas and are shown by appropriate symbols.
normal woodland equipment. Plant competition is Total included areas are about 15 percent
moderate because of the drought conditions in the This Lochloosa soil has a water table that is about 30
upper 15 to 25 inches of the soil during dry periods and to 40 inches below the surface for 1 to 4 months during
because of the low fertility, most years. The water table rises to a depth of 20 to 30
This Chipley soil has severe limitations for septic tank inches for 1 to 3 weeks. Surface runoff is slow. The
absorption fields. The high water table during wet available water capacity is low to medium in the sandy
seasons prevents good downward absorption of the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
effluent. The high, fluctuating water table and thick sandy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
texture can also prevent adequate filtration of the subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
effluent. This could result in contamination of ground subsoil, and slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low
water supplies. The soil has severe limitations as sites in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and low to
for sewage lagoons and trench landfills because of the medium in the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is
wetness and possibilization of contamination of ground low to moderately low in the surface layer.
water by seepage. It has moderate limitations for The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
dwellings without basements, small commercial loblolly pine, oak, dogwood, hickory, magnolia, and
buildings, and local roads and streets, sweetgum. The understory consists chiefly of waxmyrtle,
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and wild grape, dwarf huckleberry, toothachegrass, several
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife varieties of bluestems, low panicums, and creeping
is very poor. beggarweed.
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
The sandy surface layer causes problems in trafficability The major limitation is wetness, but erosion is also a
and, during dry periods, of wind erosion. The hazard. The crops best adapted to this soil are those
establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative that are tolerant of slightly wet conditions. Such crops as
cover and windbreaks, or the addition of suitable topsoil corn, watermelons, tobacco, and peanuts are adapted,
or some other form of surface stabilization can help but the soil may need some drainage during extended
overcome these problems. wet seasons for best yields. Soybeans are generally well
This Chipley soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has suited to this soil. Tobacco can be drowned during
a woodland ordination symbol of 2s. periods of high rainfall. Irrigation may be needed. It is
cost-effective for some high value crops during
29B-Lochloosa fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, prolonged drought periods. Good management
This gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil is in practices are a crop rotation that includes close growing
small and large areas on the rolling uplands. Slopes are crops on the soil at least half the time, soil improving
slightly convex. The areas are irregular in shape and cover crops, and all crop residue left on the soil. Best
range from about 10 to 100 acres. yields require good seedbed preparation, proper
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand fertilization, and liming.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish This soil is well suited to pasture. Such grasses as
brown loamy sand or sand to a depth of 31 inches. It coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses







Alachua County, Florida 49



produce high quality grazing when the pasture is well that have 2 to 5 percent slopes are included. Small
managed. These plants require good fertilization, liming, moderately eroded spots are in some areas. Rock
and controlled grazing for highest yields. Shallow rooted outcrops and sinkholes are in some areas and are
grasses are not generally well suited to this soil. These shown by appropriate symbols. Total included areas are
plants cannot produce good quality grazing during dry about 20 percent.
seasons because of the drought conditions of the soil, This Lochloosa soil has a water table that is about 30
unless it is adequately irrigated, to 40 inches below the surface for 1 to 3 months during
Potential productivity of this soil for slash and loblolly most years. The water table may be at a depth of 20 to
pine is high. Woodland management has no significant 30 inches for 1 to 3 weeks. Wetness is caused by
limitations, hillside seepage. Surface runoff is medium on this soil.
This Lochloosa soil has severe limitations for septic The available water capacity is low in the sandy surface
tank absorption fields. The high water table during wet layer and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
seasons prevents good absorption of effluent, the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
Limitations of the soil as sites for sewage lagoons and upper part of the subsoil, and slow in the lower part.
trench landfills are severe because of the wetness and Natural fertility is low in the sandy surface and
possibility of contamination of ground water by seepage. subsurface layers and low to medium in the loamy
Limitations for dwellings without basements, small subsoil. Organic matter content is low in the surface
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets are layer.
slight. The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland loblolly pines, oak, dogwood, hickory, and sweetgum.
wildlife. Potential is good for woodland wildlife. The soil The understory is native shrubs and grasses. Although
has very poor potential as habitat for wetland wildlife. It many areas of this soil are still in native vegetation, a
does not have the ponded areas and wetland vegetation large acreage has been cleared and is in improved
desired by this type of wildlife, pasture of deep rooted grasses and legumes adapted to
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses in the soil. A few areas are in cultivated crops.
areas where the surface texture is sand or fine sand. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
The loose sandy surface layer causes problems in because of the hazard of erosion and periodic wetness.
trafficability and, during dry periods, of wind erosion. The The soil needs some form of water control system
establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative designed to remove the surface water slowly to prevent
cover and windbreaks or the addition of suitable topsoil erosion and to provide good internal drainage. If good
or some other form of surface stabilization can help management practices are used, the soil is moderately
overcome these problems, well suited to such crops as corn, soybeans, peanuts,
This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass IIw and watermelons, cucumbers, tobacco, squash, and peppers.
has a woodland ordination symbol of 20. Good management includes rotating crops, keeping
close growing crops on the land at least two-thirds of the
29C-Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, time, planting soil improving cover crops, returning all
This sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil is in relatively crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime
small areas on sharp breaking slopes and along long, as needed.
narrow slopes of the upland. The areas are mostly This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Bahiagrass
irregular or elongated in shape and range from about 10 and improved bermudagrass are well adapted to this
to 50 acres, soil. Productivity potential is high if they are properly
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand established, fertilized, limed, and managed. A good sod
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light needs to be established as soon as possible after land
yellowish brown, mottled fine sand to a depth of 25 preparation to prevent erosion. Shallow rooting pasture
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 67 inches. The plants, such as white clover, are poorly adapted because
upper 5 inches is yellowish brown, mottled sandy loam; of the low available water capacity and slightly drought
the next 5 inches is mottled light yellowish brown and conditions within the root zone of these plants during
gray sandy clay loam; and the lower 32 inches is gray, drier periods.
mottled sandy clay loam. Between depths of 67 to 80 Potential productivity of the soil for woodland is high.
inches, the underlying material is gray, mottled sandy Good stands of slash or loblolly pines can be grown if
clay and fine pockets of sandy loam and sandy clay good woodland management practices are used.
loam. Woodland management problems are slight.
Included with this soil are small areas of Blichton, This soil has slight limitatid as soon as possible after
Kendrick, Micanopy, and Norfolk soils. Also included are land preparation to prevent erosion. Shallow rooting
small areas of soils that are similar to Lochloosa soils in pasture plants, such as white clover, are poorte because
drainage and texture but have a subsoil less than 20 of slope. Limitations for use as septic tank absorption
inches below the surface. Small areas of Lochloosa soils fields are severe because of the water table, which







50 Soil Survey



restricts drainage during wet periods. The effluent can be this depth. Permeabiity is rapid in the surface and
forced to the surface by hillside seepage as it moves subsurface layers. Permeability is moderate to
upward and laterally through the upper layers of the soil. moderately rapid in the upper 5 inches of the subsoil,
Limitations for sewage lagoons are severe because of moderately slow to moderate in the next 42 inches, and
the periodic wetness, the slope, and possible slow in the lower 17 inches. Natural fertility is low in the
contamination of ground water by seepage. If this soil is sandy surface layer and medium in the loamy subsoil.
used for sewage lagoons, the sandy sidewalls need to Organic matter content is low to moderately low in the
be lined and sealed. Limitations for use as sites for surface layer. The water table is more than 72 inches
landfill are severe because of the high water table during below the surface. Surface runoff is moderately slow.
wet periods. Natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash, loblolly,
This soil has fair potential for use as habitat for and longleaf pines, oak, dogwood, hickory, magnolia,
openland wildlife. Potential is good for woodland wildlife, and sweetgum. The understory consists of several
The soil has very poor potential for wetland wildlife varieties of bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
habitat because it does not have water areas needed for toothachegrass, hairy panicum, fringeleaf paspalum,
this type of wildlife. briers, creeping beggarweed, eastern bracken,
This sandy Lochloosa soil has problems in trafficability huckleberry, blueberry, greenbrier, and sedges. Most
that severely limit it for recreational areas. During dry areas, however, are cleared and are used for crops and
periods, wind erosion is a hazard. The establishment of improved pasture.
some form of surface stability is needed. Slope is also a This soil has moderate limitations for crops because of
severe limitation for playgrounds. The soil needs to be the hazard of erosion. It is well suited to such crops as
shaped and leveled for this use. corn, soybeans, peanuts, tobacco, watermelons,
This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass Ille and cucumbers, cantaloupes, and most vegetable crops
has a woodland ordination symbol of 20. grown in the county. Moderate erosion control measures
are needed. Management practices are crop rotations
30B-Kendrick sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This that include soil improving cover crops on the soil at
gently sloping, well drained soil is in both small and large least half the time and leaving all crop residue on the
areas on the gently rolling uplands. These areas are soil. Good management also includes correct seedbed
mostly irregularly shaped or elongated and range from preparation, good fertilization, and liming as needed.
about 20 to 200 acres. During long drought periods, irrigation is needed for
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand maximum yields and may be feasible for high value
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish crops (fig. 10).
brown loamy sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil This soil is well suited to improved pasture of deep
extends to a depth of 90 inches or more. The upper 5 rooted grasses and legumes. High quality grazing and
inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the next 20 hay yields can be produced if good pasture management
inches is dark yellowish brown, mottled sandy clay loam; practices are used. This includes proper establishment of
the next 22 inches is dark yellowish brown sandy clay plants, fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing.
loam; the next 10 inches is yellowish brown, mottled fine Because of the drought conditions of the sandy surface
sandy loam; and the lower 7 inches is yellowish brown and subsurface layers during periods of low rainfall, good
sandy clay loam. yields of shallow rooted pasture plants cannot normally
Included with this soil in mapping are some small be produced without supplemental irrigation.
areas of soils that have similar characteristics to the The potential productivity of this soil for slash and
Kendrick soils except that they have loamy sand surface loblolly pine is high. Potential productivity for longleaf
and subsurface layers less than 20 inches thick over a pine is moderately high. There are moderate limitations
sandy clay loam subsoil. Small areas of soils that are to use of normal woodland equipment Seedling mortality
similar to the Kendrick soils but have fine sand surface and plant competition are moderate.
and subsurface layers or have a subsoil that is sandy This soil has only slight limitations as sites for septic
clay throughout are included. Also included are small tank absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial
areas of Arredondo, Blichton, Bonneau, Lochloosa, and buildings, trench landfills, and local roads and streets.
Norfolk soils. A few areas of Kendrick soils have 0 to 2 Limitations of the soil as sites for sewage lagoons are
percent slopes or 5 to 8 percent slopes. Small severe because of possible contamination of ground
moderately eroded spots are in a few areas. Sinkholes water by seepage through the sandy subsurface layer.
and limestone boulders are in some areas and are The sandy part of the sidewalls needs to be lined and
shown by appropriate symbols. Total included areas are sealed.
about 15 percent. This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland
In this Kendrick soil, the available water capacity is low wildlife. Potential for woodland wildlife is good. Potential
in the surface and subsurface layers, medium in the for wetland wildlife habitat is very poor because of lack
upper 5 inches of the subsoil, and medium to high below of water areas.







Alachua County, Florida 51







































Figure 10.-Corn being irrigated on Kendrick sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Irrigation is needed during extended dry periods.


This Kendrick soil has severe limitations for Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
recreational areas because of the sandy surface. about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish
Trafficability is a problem. Wind erosion is a hazard brown sand to a depth of 24 inches. The subsoil extends
during drier periods. The maintenance of a good to a depth of 76 inches or more. The upper 5 inches of
vegetative cover, windbreaks, or some other form of the subsoil is yellowish brown, mottled sandy loam; the
surface protection is needed, next 27 inches is strong brown sandy clay loam; and the
This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass lie and has lower 20 inches is yellowish brown, mottled sandy clay
a woodland ordination symbol of 2s. loam.
Included with this soil are small areas of soils that are
similar to Kendrick soils but have a brownish yellow or
30C-Kendrick sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This yellowish brown loamy subsoil less than 20 inches below
sloping, well drained soil is usually in elongated areas on the surface or have fine sand surface and subsurface
long slopes of uplands. The areas are small to relatively layers. Also included are a few areas of soils that are
large and range from about 10 to 125 acres. sandy clay at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Small areas of







52 Sod Survey


Arredondo, Blichton, Gainesville, and Lochloosa soils are This soil has medium potential as habitat for openland
in some areas. A few areas of Kendrick soils have 2 to 5 wildlife. Potential for woodland wildlife habitat is good
percent slopes or 8 to 12 percent slopes. Small and for wetland wildlife habitat is very poor.
moderately eroded spots are included in some areas. This Kendrick soil has severe limitations for
Limestone boulders and sinkholes are in some areas recreational uses because of the sandy surface. During
and are shown by appropriate symbols. Total included dry periods wind erosion is a hazard. The maintenance
areas are about 20 percent. of a good vegetative cover, windbreaks, or some form of
In this Kendrick soil, the available water capacity is low surface protection is needed. The slope is a moderate
in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium limitation for playground areas. Before the soil can be
to high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy used for this purpose, land shaping is necessary.
surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the upper This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass Ille and has
part of the subsoil, and slow to moderately slow in the a woodland ordination symbol of 2s.
lower part. Natural fertility is low in the sandy layers and 31A-Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
medium in the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil is on
low. The water table is more than 72 inches below the relatively broad flats and at the base of slopes of the
surface. Surface runoff is medium. gently rolling uplands. Areas are irregular in shape and
The natural vegetation includes slash, loblolly, and range from about 10 to 50 acres.
longleaf pines and oak, dogwood, and hickory. The Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
understory is chiefly a mixture of bluestem, panicum, about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
paspalum, toothachegrass, creeping beggarweed, brownish gray sand to a depth of 24 inches and has
huckleberry, eastern bracken, and briers. Most areas are about 2 percent nodules of ironstone and fragments of
cleared and are in improved pasture of deep rooting phosphatic limestone. The subsoil extends to a depth of
grasses and legumes. Some are in cultivated crops. 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is gray sandy
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops loam; the next 33 inches is gray sandy clay loam that is
because of the hazard of erosion. It is moderately well 7 percent plinthite, by volume; and the lower 14 inches is
suited to most crops grown in the county. It produces mixed gray and olive gray sandy clay loam that has
good yields if management is at a high level. Intensive mottles of brown, red, and yellow.
erosion control measures are needed. These include Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
contour cultivation of row crops and crop rotation that Bivans, Lochloosa, and Lynne soils. Small areas of soils
keeps close growing crops on the soil at least two-thirds that are similar to this Blichton soil but that have a 10- to
of the time. Other practices are returning all crop residue 18-inch, black or very dark gray loamy sand surface layer
to the soil and properly fertilizing and liming as needed. over a sandy clay subsoil are in some areas. Small areas
Although irrigation is needed during long drought of Blichton soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent are
periods for maximum yields, it may not be a practical included. Total included areas are less than 20 percent.
option for most crops. This Blichton soil has a water table that is less than 10
This soil is well suited to such improved pasture inches below the surface for 1 to 4 months during most
grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses. years. Surface runoff is slow. The available water
Good quality grazing and hay yields can be produced capacity is low in the sandy surface and subsurface
with good management measures, which include proper layers and low to medium in the loamy subsoil.
with good management measures, which include proper Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface
establishment, fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. layers and slow to moderately slow in the loamy subsoil.
Establishing good vegetative cover as rapidly as possible Natural fertility is low to medium, and organic matter
protects the surface and prevents excess erosion. content is moderately low to moderate.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash and Natural vegetation includes hickory; magnolia; slash,
loblolly pines is high. Potential for the production of longleaf and loblolly pines; sweetgum; and pineland
longleaf pine is moderately high. Limitations to use of threeawn, bluestems, and sawpalmetto.
normal woodland equipment are moderate. Seedling This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
mortality and plant competition are moderate. because of wetness. The number of adapted crops is
This soil has slight limitations as sites for septic tank limited. If a good water control system and soil improving
absorption fields, dwellings, trench type sanitary landfills, measures are used, the soil is well suited to a number of
and local roads and streets. Limitations for use as sites special crops, such as snapbeans, squash, cucumbers,
for small commercial buildings are moderate because of cabbage, eggplant, and peppers. Good management
the slope. The soil has severe limitations as sites for practices include rotating row crops with close growing,
sewage lagoons because of potential contamination of soil improving crops; leaving all crop residue on the soil;
ground water by seepage of effluent through the sandy seedbed preparation that includes bedding the rows; and
subsurface layer. proper application of fertilizer and lime as needed.







Alachua County, Florida 53


This soil is well suited to pasture. Improved loam that is about 10 percent plinthite and about 3
bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and white clover produce top percent nodules of ironstone and weathered phosphatic
quality pasture if good management practices are used. limestone. The lower 18 inches is gray sandy clay loam
Water control measures are needed to remove excess that has dark reddish brown mottles.
surface water after long rainy periods. Proper fertilization Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and liming and controlled grazing are necessary to Bivans and Lochloosa soils. Small areas of poorly
maintain vigorous plant growth. drained soils that have a 10- to 18-inch, black or very
Potential productivity of the soil for pine trees is high. dark gray sandy surface layer over a sandy clay subsoil
The soil has moderate limitations for normal woodland are also included. Small areas of Blichton soils that have
equipment operations during harvesting. Plant slopes of 0 to 2 percent or 5 to 8 percent are included in
competition is moderate, a few areas. A few areas mapped as Blichton soils
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, contain less than 5 percent plinthite. Total included
including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings, areas are about 12 percent or less.
small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench In this Blichton soil, the subsurface layer and the
landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major upper part of the subsoil are saturated by a perched
problem. A good drainage system is needed to remove water table for 1 to 4 months during most years. Surface
the excess water during wet periods and to adequately runoff is medium. The available water capacity is low in
control the water table. If used as sewage lagoons, this the sandy surface and subsurface layers and low to
soil has a potential hazard of contamination of ground medium in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
water by seepage of liquid waste material through the sandy surface and subsurface layers and slow to
sandy sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be moderately slow in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is
lined and sealed to prevent this seepage. The moderate low to medium, and organic matter content is moderately
shrink-swell potential can cause an additional problem low to moderate.
for walls and foundations and local roads and streets if Natural vegetation consists of mostly hickory,
corrective measures are not taken during construction. magnolia, and pineland threeawn; slash, longleaf, and
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and loblolly pines; and sweetgum and bluestem.
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
is only fair because the areas do not have water areas. Wetness is the major limitation; however, erosion is a
The Blichton soil has severe limitations as sites for hazard where the surface is not protected. If a water
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or control system and good management practices are
near the surface during wet periods, is the main used, the soil is well suited to a number of special crops
limitation. Some form of water control is needed which and is moderately well suited to such crops as corn and
quickly removes the excess water during rainy periods, peanuts. Management practices are a crop rotation
Intensively used recreational areas have problems in system that includes soil improving cover crops on the
trafficability and wind erosion during drier periods, soil at least half the time; leaving all crop residue on the
Maintaining good vegetative cover or some other form of soil; and a water control system that intercepts seepage
surface stabilization helps overcome these problems. water from adjacent higher elevations and also removes
This Blichton soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has excess internal water. Good seedbed preparation,
a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. fertilization, and liming are also needed for best yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Improved varieties of
31B-Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This grasses, such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well
gently sloping, poorly drained soil is on gently rolling adapted. White clover is also adapted when properly
uplands. Slopes are slightly convex. The areas are managed. Good management is required for top quality
mostly irregular in shape and elongated and range from yields. This includes proper fertilization, liming, and
about 10 to 40 acres. controlled grazing.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
about 6 inches thick. It is about 3 percent nodules of Limitations for equipment use during harvesting and
ironstone and fragments and nodules of phosphatic plant competition are moderate.
limestone. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of This soil has severe limitations for urban uses,
28 inches. The upper 7 inches is grayish brown sand, including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings,
and it has about 2 percent nodules of ironstone and small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench
fragments of phosphatic limestone. The next 15 inches landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness, which is mainly
is light brownish gray loamy sand. The subsoil extends to caused by hillside seepage,:is the major problem. A
a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is good drainage system is needed to remove the excess
dark gray sandy clay loam and is about 4 percent water during wet periods and to adequately control the
nodules of ironstone and fragments of phosphatic water table. If used for sewage lagoons and landfills, the
limestone. The next 28 inches is dark gray sandy clay soil has a potential hazard of contamination of ground








54 Soil Suvey



water by seepage of liquid waste material through the low in the sandy surface and subsurface layers, and it is
sandy sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be low to medium in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid
lined and sealed. The shrink-swell potential is a in the sandy surface and subsurface layers. It is slow to
moderate limitation for building foundations and walls moderately slow in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is
and road or street construction if corrective measures low to medium, and organic matter content is moderately
are not taken, low.
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and Natural vegetation consists mostly of hickory,
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife magnolia, and pineland threeawn; slash, longleaf, and
is very poor because there are no water areas. loblolly pines; and sweetgum.
This Blichton soil has severe limitations as sites for This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or crops because of the wetness and the severe hazard of
near the surface during wet periods, is the main problem. erosion. Hillside seepage is a severe problem during wet
If this soil is used for athletic fields and playground seasons and is difficult to control. The soil is only
areas, the surface needs to be leveled and shaped and moderately suited to such crops as corn, peanuts, and
some form of water control, such as subsurface certain vegetable crops if it is well managed. Intensive
drainage, needs to be used to quickly remove the erosion control measures are needed. These include
excess water during wet periods. Trafficability and wind water control measures which intercept and remove the
erosion are problems during drier periods. The surface water slowly; planting row crops on the contour;
establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative and rotating row crops with cover crops that are on the
cover, the addition of good topsoil, windbreaks, or some soil at least two-thirds of the time. All crop residue needs
other form of surface stabilization can help overcome to be returned to the soil. Good seedbed preparation,
these problems, fertilization, and liming are also necessary for good
This Blichton soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has yields.
a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. This soil is well suited to improved pasture and
produces good quality grazing if good pasture
31C-Blichton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This management practices are used. This includes good
sloping, poorly drained soil is on the rolling uplands. The fertilization and liming and controlled grazing. Erosion is
areas are irregular in shape and elongated and range a severe hazard if the surface is not well protected.
from about 5 to 45 acres. Ground cover must be established as rapidly as possible
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 to minimize the problem.
inches thick. It is about 2 percent nodules of ironstone Potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is high.
and fragments of phosphatic limestone. The subsurface The soil has moderate limitations for equipment use
layer is sand to a depth of 31 inches. The upper 21 during harvesting operations because of the slope,
inches is gray. The lower 5 inches is light gray. It is wetness, and the sandy surface layer. Plant competition
about 2 percent nodules of ironstone and fragments of is also moderate.
phosphatic limestone. The subsoil extends to a depth of This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses,
78 inches. The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray including sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings,
sandy loam. It is about 4 percent nodules of ironstone absorption fields for septic tanks, trench landfills,
and fragments of phosphatic limestone. The next 12 sewage lagoons, and local roads and streets. Wetness
inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam and is caused by hillside seepage is the major limitation (fig.
about 2 percent nodules of ironstone and fragments of 11). Some form of water control, such as subsurface
phosphatic limestone. It is about 6 percent plinthite, by drainage, is needed to remove the excess water during
volume. The next 17 inches is light gray sandy clay loam wet periods. The shrink-swell potential is a moderate
and is about 1 percent nodules of ironstone and limitation for building foundations and walls and in road
weathered fragments of phosphatic limestone. About 8 or street construction if corrective measures are not
percent is plinthite, by volume. The lower 12 inches is taken.
light gray sandy clay loam. Between depths of 78 and 80 This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and
inches, the underlying material is gray sandy clay loam. woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of is very poor because shallow water areas, which are
Bivans, Boardman, Lochloosa, and Wacahoota soils, essential for this type of wildlife, are difficult to develop
Small areas of Blichton soils that have 2 to 5 percent on these hillsides.
slopes or have less than 5 percent plinthite are included. This Blichton soil has severe limitations for such
Total included areas are about 15 percent or less. recreational uses as athletic fields, playgrounds, camp
This Blichton soil is saturated by a perched water table sites, and picnic areas because of wetness, the sandy
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during surface texture, and slope. Some form of water control is
most years. Wetness is caused by hillside seepage. needed to remove the excess water and control the
Surface runoff is rapid. The available water capacity is hillside seepage during rainy periods. Land shaping,







Alachua County, Florida 55










































Figure 11.-An area of Bllchton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, under construction for urban development. Severe erosion on this slope is
due to wetness from hillside seepage.



which is necessary before the soil can be used for flats and at the base of slopes of the rolling uplands.
playground areas, exposes and intermixes some areas of The areas are irregular in shape and range from about
the subsoil. This could cause additional problems in 10 to 55 acres.
trafficability during rainy periods. The addition of suitable Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
topsoil or some other form of surface improvement is inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand 9 inches
needed, thick. It has a few nodules of ironstone and fragments of
This Blichton soil is in capability subclass IVw and has phosphatic limestone. The subsoil extends to a depth of
a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. 61 inches. It has a few fine and medium sized nodules
and fragments of ironstone and phosphatic limestone.
32B-gently sloping, poorly drained soil is on relatively broad
gently sloping, poorly drained soil is on relatively broad T d ga mled sandy cy;








56 Soi Survey



the next 18 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay; and the trench landfills, dwellings, small commercial buildings,
lower 16 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. and local roads and streets. The perched water table
Between depths of 61 to 81 inches, the underlying during wet seasons and slow internal movement of water
material is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. through the clayey subsoil are the major problems for
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of septic tank absorption fields. Wetness is the major
Blichton, Boardman, Lochloosa, and Micanopy soils, problem for sewage lagoons. The perched water table
Small areas of soils which are similar to Bivans soils but and shallow, clayey subsoil are the major limitations for
which have a very dark gray or black surface layer 7 to trench landfills. The high shrink-swell potential of the
14 inches thick over a sandy clay subsoil are also clayey subsoil and wetness are the major limitations for
included. Small areas of Bivans soils that have 0 to 2 dwellings or small commercial buildings. The low
percent slopes are included in a few areas. Total strength, wetness, and high shrink-swell potential of the
included areas are less than 20 percent, clayey subsoil are major limitations for constructing local
This Bivans soil has a perched water table that is in roads and streets.
the surface and subsurface layers and the upper part of This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and
the subsoil for 1 to 4 months during most years. Surface woodland wildlife. Potential for wetland wildlife is very
runoff is moderate. The available water capacity is low to poor because of the lack of shallow water areas.
medium. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in This Bivans soil has severe limitations for use as sites
the surface and subsurface layers. It is very slow to slow for recreational areas. The high water table, which is at
in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low to medium. Organic or near the surface during wet periods, and the sandy
matter content of the surface layer is moderately low to surface texture are the major limiting factors. If used for
moderate. athletic fields and playgrounds, the soil needs leveling
Natural vegetation is slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines; and shaping and some form of water control, such as
live, laurel, and water oaks; and sweetgum, hickory, subsurface drainage, to quickly remove the excess water
holly, and magnolia. The understory is chiefly waxmyrtle, during wet periods. Trafficability and a hazard of wind
blackberry, greenbrier, bluestem, low paspalum, pineland erosion during drier periods are limitations. The
threeawn, and dwarf huckleberry. establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. cover, the addition of good topsoil, windbreaks, or some
The major limitations are wetness caused by a perched other form of surface stabilization can be used to
water table during wet seasons; the shallow, clayey overcome these problems.
subsoil; and susceptibility to erosion. Vegetable crops This Bivans soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has a
are generally better suited to this soil than general farm woodland ordination symbol of 2w.
crops. If good management practices and a water
control system are used, the soil is well suited to most 32C-Bivans sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
locally grown vegetable crops and moderately suited to sloping, poorly drained soil on short breaking slopes and
such general farm crops as corn, soybeans, and along hillsides of the uplands. The areas are irregular
watermelons. Water control is needed to intercept and and elongated in shape. They range from about 5 to 40
slowly remove excess surface water and seepage. Good acres.
management also includes contour cultivation, crop Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5
rotations that include a close growing cover crop at least inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
two-thirds of the time, returning all other crop residue to sand about 5 inches thick. It has a few nodules of
the soil, proper seedbed preparation, and fertilizing and ironstone and fragments of phosphatic limestone. The
liming according to the needs of the crop being grown. subsoil extends to a depth of 59 inches. The upper 20
This soil is well suited to improved pasture and inches is gray sandy clay and a few nodules of ironstone
produces high quality grazing if pasture is well managed, and fragments of phosphatic limestone. The next 29
Improved varieties of grasses, such as bahiagrass and inches is gray, mottled sandy clay. Between depths of 59
Coastal bermudagrass, are well adapted. Clover is also and 80 inches, the underlying material is gray, mottled
adapted when properly managed. Good management sandy clay.
includes proper fertilization and liming and controlled Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
grazing, which is needed to maintain vigorous plant Blichton, Boardman, Lochloosa, and Wacahoota soils.
growth. Small areas of soils that are similar to Bivans soils but
This soil has high potential productivity for slash, that have a very dark gray or black loamy sand surface
longleaf, and loblolly pines. The soil has moderate layer 8 to 12 inches thick over a sandy clay loam subsoil
limitations for normal woodland equipment uses during are also included in some areas. Small areas of Bivans
harvesting because of wetness. Plant competition is also soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent are included.
moderate. Total included areas are about 15 percent or less.
This soil has severe limitations for such urban uses as In this Bivans soil, the subsurface layer and upper part
sites for septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, of the subsoil are saturated by a perched water table for








Alachua County, Florida 57



1 to 3 months during most years. Wetness is caused roads and streets. The low soil strength also is a severe
mainly by hillside seepage. Surface runoff is rapid. The problem that needs to be corrected before construction
available water capacity is low to medium. Permeability is of local roads and streets.
moderate to moderately rapid in the surface and This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and
subsurface layers. It is very slow to slow in the subsoil. woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife
Natural fertility is low to medium, and the organic matter is very poor because this soil does not have the water
content is moderately low to moderate in the surface areas desired by this type of wildlife.
layer. This Bivans soil has severe limitations for recreational
Natural vegetation is slash and loblolly pines; live, uses because of the wetness and texture. If this soil is
laurel, and water oaks; and sweetgum, hickory, and used intensively for playgrounds and athletic fields, land
magnolia. The understory is mostly waxmyrtle, briers, shaping is required to smooth the slopes. This exposes
native grasses, and herbs. and intermixes much of the underlying clayey subsoil and
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated causes additional problems in trafficability. The addition
crops. Wetness caused by hillside seepage and of suitable topsoil or some form of hard surfacing and
susceptibility to erosion are the major limitations. Erosion water control are needed if this soil is to be developed
is a severe hazard because of the slow internal for recreational uses.
movement of water and the rapid surface runoff. The This Bivans soil is in capability subclass IVw and has a
shallow, clayey subsoil also causes some problems in woodland ordination symbol of 2w.
workability during cultivation. If a water control system
and other very good management practices to reduce 32D-Bivans sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
potential erosion are used, the soil is moderately suited strongly sloping, poorly drained soil is on uplands. The
to special crops and such general farm crops as corn, areas are on small, sharp-breaking slopes and long,
soybeans, and watermelons. Water control is needed to irregularly shaped, seepy hillsides. The areas range from
remove surface water slowly and to intercept seepage about 5 to 25 acres.
water. Good management includes contour cultivation, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5
close growing cover crops on the soil at least three- inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown
fourths of the time, returning all crop residue to the soil, sand about 6 inches thick. Both layers are about 2
proper seedbed preparation, regular applications of percent nodules of ironstone and fragments of
fertilizers, and liming as needed, phosphatic limestone. The subsoil is gray sandy clay to a
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Erosion is depth of 56 inches. It is about 3 percent nodules of
a severe limitation where the surface is not protected ironstone and fragments of phosphatic limestone.
during rainy periods. A good cover needs to be Between depths of 56 and 80 inches, the underlying
established as rapidly as possible. Proper management material is light gray, mottled sandy clay.
is needed to produce good quality pasture. This includes Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
correct fertilization and liming and controlled grazing to Blichton, Boardman, Lochloosa, and Wacahoota soils. A
maintain a good cover and to produce the highest yields. few included areas are soils that are similar to Bivans
Potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is high. soils but have 5 to 10 percent nodules of ironstone and
The soil has moderate limitations for equipment use fragments of phosphatic limestone in the surface layer
during harvesting operations because of the wetness and subsoil. Also included are small areas of soils similar
and the sandy surface layer. In areas where trees are to Bivans soils except that they have a very dark gray or
cut and the soil is denuded of protective vegetative black loamy sand surface layer 7 to 12 inches thick over
cover, some erosion is a hazard. This soil is moderately a sandy clay subsoil. Small areas of Bivans soils have
limited by plant competition and has slight limitations of slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Total included areas are about
seedling mortality. 15 percent or less.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses, This Bivans soil is saturated with a perched water
including sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, table caused mainly by hillside seepage. The water table
absorption fields for septic tanks, trench landfills, is less than 10 inches below the surface for 1 to 3
sewage lagoons, and local roads and streets. Wetness months during most years. Surface runoff is rapid. The
caused by hillside seepage, slow permeability, high available water capacity is low to medium. Permeability is
shrink-swell potential, clayey subsoil, soil strength, and moderate to moderately rapid in the sandy surface and
slope are the major limitations. Some form of water subsurface layers. It is very slow to slow in the subsoil.
control, such as subsurface drainage, is needed to Natural fertility is medium. Organic matter content is
remove the excess water during wet periods. Wetness is moderately low in the surface layer.
a severe limitation for dwellings and small commercial Natural vegetation is a mixture of slash and loblolly
buildings. The high shrink-swell potential of the clayey pine, oaks, hickory, sweetgum, and magnolia. The
subsoil is a major problem which needs to be overcome understory consists of waxmyrtle and native grasses and
before and during construction of buildings and local herbs.








58 Soil Survey


This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Major limiting yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the next 26 inches is
factors are wetness caused by hillside seepage and the dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 14
severe hazard of erosion caused by rapid surface runoff inches is dark yellowish brown sandy clay; and the lower
and slow internal drainage. The shallow, clayey subsoil, 7 inches is dark yellowish brown clay that has gray
which is sticky and plastic, causes problems in mottles. Between depths of 62 and 80 inches, the
workability when the soil is cultivated, underlying material is light gray, mottled clay.
This soil is suited to improved pasture but needs Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
intensive management. A good sod should be Bivans, Kendrick, Lochloosa, and Micanopy soils.
established as quickly as possible after land preparation Included in some areas are small areas of Norfolk soils
because of the hazard of erosion on unprotected slopes, that have slopes of 0 to 2 percent and 5 to 8 percent.
Proper applications of fertilizers and lime and controlled Limestone boulders and sinkholes are in some areas
grazing are needed to produce good quality pasture and and are shown by appropriate symbols. Total included
to assure a good protective cover at all times, areas are bout 15 percent.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash, This Norfolk soil has a water table that is at a depth of
loblolly, and longleaf pines. Slash pine is the best about 48 to 72 inchesfor 1 to 3 months during most
species for planting. The soil has moderate limitations years. Surface runoff is medium. The available water
for equipment use and of plant competition. During capacity is low in the surface layer and medium to high
logging operations, if the surface is denuded of all in the subsoil. Permeabililty is rapid in the surface layer,
vegetative cover, erosion is a hazard. moderately slow to moderate in the upper part of the
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The subsoil, and very slow to slow in the lower part. Natural
hillside seepage caused by the perched water table and fertility is low in the sandy surface and subsurface layers
the slow permeability are the major limitations for septic and medium in the sandy clay loam and sandy clay
tank absorption fields. Wetness is the major limitation for subsoil. Organic matter content is low to moderately low.
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfill sites. The clayey The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
subsoil is not a good source of material to use as cover l oblolly pines, oak, hickory, dogwood, and swe
for landfills because of the problem of workability and loblolly pines, oak, hickory dogwood, and sweetgum.
compaction. The wetness, high shrink-swell potential of The understory consists chiefly of toothachegrass, hairy
the clayey subsoil, and slope are the major limitations panicum, fringeleaf paspalum, low panicum, blackberry,
when dwellings or small commercial buildings are to be greenbrier, creeping beggarweed, dwarf huckleberry, and
constructed. The high shrink-swell potential, low various bluestems. Most areas of this soil have been
strength, and wetness are the major problems for cleared and are in cultivated crops or improved pasture.
construction of local roads and streets. This soil has moderate limitations for crops because of
This soil has fair potential as habitat for openland and the hazard of erosion. It is well suited to such crops as
woodland wildlife. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife corn, soybeans, peanuts, tobacco, watermelons,
is very poor because of the absence of shallow water cucumbers, cantaloupes, and most vegetable crops
areas, grown in the county (fig. 12). Moderate erosion control
This Bivans soil has severe limitations for recreational measures are needed. Management practices include
uses because of the wetness and texture. If it is used alternating row crops with strips of a cover crop, crop
intensively for playgrounds-and athletic fields, land rotations that include cover crops on the soil at least half
shaping is needed to smooth the slopes. This exposes the time, and returning residue from all crops to the soil.
and intermixes the underlying clayey subsoil and causes Good management also includes correct seedbed
additional problems in trafficability and water ponding on preparation, good fertilization, and liming as needed.
the surface. Ponding during rainy periods is caused by During long drought periods, irrigation is needed to
the slow infiltration. The addition of suitable topsoil or produce maximum yields and is practical for high value
some form of hard surface and water control are needed crops.
if this soil is developed for recreation. This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Improved
This Bivans soil is in capability subclass Vlw and has a bahiagrasses and coastal bermudagrasses are well
woodland ordination symbol of 2w. adapted. High quality grazing and hay yields can be
produced if good management practices are used. This
33B-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent includes proper establishment of plants, fertilization,
slopes. This gently sloping, well drained soil is in liming, and controlled grazing. Deep rooted plants are
relatively small areas on the rolling uplands. Slopes are not usually adversely affected by drought conditions. If
slightly convex. The areas are irregular in shape and shallow rooted plants are grown, irrigation is needed
range from about 10 to 50 acres. during the drought periods to produce good yields.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown Potential productivity of the soil for slash and loblolly
loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil pines is high. Potential productivity for longleaf pine is
extends to a depth of 62 inches. The upper 6 inches is moderately high. Limitations are slight for use of normal






Alachua County, Florida 59



woodland equipment and seedling mortality. Plant
competition is moderate.
This soil has moderate limitations as sites for septic
tank absorption fields because of wetness. Limitations
for trench sanitary landfills are also slight. The soil has
moderate limitations as sites for sewage lagoons. It has
only slight limitations as sites for dwellings without "
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets.
Potential of this soil as habitat for openland wildlife
and woodland wildlife is good. Potential as habitat for
wetland wildlife is very poor because of the lack of
shallow water areas.
This Norfolk soil has slight limitations for recreational
uses. During long dry periods, however, some wind
erosion is a hazard in areas where the surface is not
protected.
This Norfolk soil is in capability subclass lie and has a
woodland ordination symbol of 2o.

33C-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This sloping, well drained soil is in irregularly
shaped areas on small, sharp-breaking slopes and in
irregularly shaped and elongated areas on the long
hillsides of the rolling uplands. These areas range from
about 8 to 35 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light yellowish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 75 inches or more.
The upper 35 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam;
the next 16 inches is yellowish brown, mottled sandy
clay loam; and the lower 13 inches is mottled, yellowish
brown and gray sandy clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kendrick, Lochloosa, and Bivans soils. Also included are
small areas of soils that have a yellowish brown, clayey
subsoil at a depth of less than 20 inches and have gray
mottles within 30 inches of the surface. In a few small
areas, the subsoil extends to a depth of less than 60
inches. Also included are small areas of soils that are
similar to Norfolk soils but have more than 5 percent, by
volume, nodules and fragments of ironstone. Limestone
boulders and sinkholes are included in some areas and
Figure 12.-Top quality corn on Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
are shown by appropriate symbols. Total included areas percent slopes. This soil is classed as prime farmland.
are about 20 percent.
This Norfolk soil has a water table that is at a depth of
48 to 72 inches for 1 to 2 months during most years.
Wetness is caused by hillside seepage. Surface runoff is The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
rapid. The available moisture capacity is low in the sandy loblolly pines; laurel, live, red, and water oaks; and
surface and subsurface layers and medium to high in the hickory, magnolia, dogwood, and sweetgum. The
loamy and clayey subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the understory is briers, greenbrier, huckleberry, creeping
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderately slow in beggarweed, and various bluestems, panicums, and
the upper part of the subsoil and very slow to slow in the paspalums. Most areas of this soil are cleared and are in
lower part. Natural fertility is low in the sandy surface improved pasture. Some areas are in cultivated crops.
and subsurface layers and medium in the underlying
subsoil. Organic matter content is low to moderately low.







60 Soil Survey


This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops inches is very dark gray. The underlying layers are sand
because of the hazard of erosion. It is well suited to to a depth of more than 82 inches. The upper 6 inches is
most crops grown in the county and produces good grayish brown, the next 26 inches is light brownish gray,
yields if a high level of management is used. Intensive and the lower 35 inches is light gray.
erosion control measures are needed. These include Included in some areas are small areas of Pompano
contour cultivation of row crops alternating with strips of and Samsula soils. Total included areas are less than 15
cover crops and crop rotations that include close percent.
growing crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. This Placid soil has a water table that is within 10
Other management practices are returning all crop inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months of the year. The
residue to the soil, proper fertilization and liming, and surface is usually covered with water for 6 months or
irrigation. Irrigation may be practical for high value crops. more. The available water capacity is high to a depth of
The irrigation system should be carefully designed and about 15 inches and low below this depth. Permeability
operated to avoid excess application rates that could is rapid throughout. Internal drainage is slow because it
cause runoff and erosion, is impeded by the water table. Natural fertility and
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Coastal organic matter content are high to a depth of about 15
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses produce high quality inches and very low below this depth.
grazing and hay yields if well managed. Good Natural vegetation is chiefly cypress, gum, and bay
management includes proper establishment of plants, trees with an understory of water-tolerant grasses.
fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. A good Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
vegetative cover needs to be established as rapidly as cultivated crops and improved pasture. The excessive
possible to protect the surface and control erosion.
possible to protect the surface and control erosion. wetness and the problem of water control are the main
Shallow rooted pasture plants are not well adapted to limitations. Water is on the surface for much of the year.
this soil. f Adequate water control systems are difficult to establish.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash and Most areas are in isolated ponds or wet depressions that
loblolly pines is high. The potential productivity for do not have suitable drainage outlets. A good water
longleaf pine is moderately high. The soil has slight control system normally requires an extensive system of
limitations for use of normal woodland equipment,
limitations for use of normal woodland equipment, canals and ditches. If a good drainage system can be
seedling mortality, and plant competition, installed and pasture is well managed, adapted grass or
This soil has slight limitations as sites for dwellings installed and pasture is well managed, adapted grass
without basements and for local roads and streets, grass-clover pasture can be grown.
Limitations are moderate for septic tank absorption fields This soil is not recommended for slash or longleaf
because of wetness. The soil has slight limitations for pines under natural conditions because of the excessive
trench landfills. It is moderately limited for sewage wetness and ponding. The soil does have a thick surface
lagoons. Seepage is the main limitation. The soil has layer with good organic content, which is normally
moderate limitations as sites for small commercial favorable for young seedling growth. Establishing an
buildings because of the slope, adequate rooting system for the young trees is very
This soil has good potential as habitat for openland hard, however, and seedling mortality is severe. The soil
and woodland wildlife. Potential for wetland wildlife use has severe limitations for the use of normal woodland
is very poor because this soil does not have the shallow equipment and plant competition.
water areas needed for this type of wildlife. This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The
This Norfolk soil has slight limitations for most ponding and the thick sandy texture are the dominant
recreational uses. In drought periods soil blowing may features that severely restrict the soil for this use. Water
be a problem on windy days unless the surface is is on or near the surface during much of the time. Good
protected. This soil has moderate limitations for use as drainage systems that adequately remove the water and
playgrounds because of the slope. Land shaping is effectively regulate the water table are expensive and
needed before the soil is used for playgrounds, hard to establish and maintain. Most areas lack good
This Norfolk soil is in capability subclass Ille and has a water outlets. Even where drainage systems are
woodland ordination symbol of 20. installed, keeping the areas adequately drained is a
continuing problem. Before this soil is used as sites for
34-Placid sand, depressional. This nearly level, homes, small commercial buildings, and septic tank
very poorly drained soil is along poorly defined absorption fields, the areas need to be filled with suitable
drainageways and in wet depressional areas both in the soil material. The water table needs to be maintained
flatwoods and on sandy ridges. Slopes range from 0 to 2 below sewage lagoons and trench landfills. This requires
percent. The areas are circular, elongated, or irregularly a major water control system. In addition, the sidewalls
shaped and are about 10 to 50 acres, and floors of the trenches and pits need lining and
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 15 inches sealing to prevent contamination of the ground water by
thick. The upper 8 inches is black, and the lower 7 seepage.







Alachua County, Florida 61



Potential of the soil for use as habitat for openland periods, and the surface needs to be protected at all
wildlife is very poor. The ponded areas are not suited to times.
this type of wildlife, and attempts to improve these This soil is well suited to improved pasture of deep
conditions effectively would probably be unsatisfactory. rooted grasses and legumes if good management
Potential for woodland wildlife is also very poor. This soil practices are used. To maintain a good vegetative cover
has good potential as habitat for wetland wildlife, and reach maximum potential in productivity, careful
The Placid soil has severe limitations as sites for management is required. This includes proper
recreational areas. The ponding and sandy texture are establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and proper
the major limitations. Before the soil can be used, grazing. This soil is not suited to improved pasture of
drainage and a good water control system are shallow rooting legumes and grasses because of
necessary. The addition of a good fill material is needed droughtiness.
to improve trafficability and to raise the surface The potential productivity of the soil for pine trees is
sufficiently to prevent continuing wetness. moderately high. Although seedling mortality and
This Placid sand, depressional, is in capability limitations to equipment use are slight, the soil is
subclass Vllw; it is not assigned a woodland ordination moderately limited by competition of other plants with
symbol. young pine seedlings.
This soil has slight limitations as sites for dwellings,
35B-Gainesville sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This absorption fields for septic tanks, and roads and streets.
nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil has sandy It has severe limitations as sites for sewage lagoons.
texture to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is in both Contamination of ground water by seepage is a
small and large, irregularly shaped areas on the gently possibility. If the soil is to be used for sewage lagoons,
rolling uplands. Most areas range from about 10 to 250 the sidewalls and floors of the pits need to be well lined
acres. and sealed.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand Potential of this soil for openland and woodland
about 7 inches thick. The underlying layer extends to a wildlife is fair. Potential for use as wetland wildlife is very
depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 22 inches is poor because areas of this soil do not have suitable
yellowish brown sand, and the lower 53 inches is strong habitat.
brown loamy sand. The Gainesville soil has severe limitations for
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of recreational uses because the sandy surface is a
Arredondo, Fort Meade, Kendrick, and Lake soils. A few limitation for trafficability. During dry periods wind erosion
small areas of Gainesville soils that have 5 to 8 percent is a hazard. Protecting the surface by maintaining a good
slopes are included. Total included areas are less than vegetative cover, by windbreaks, or by some form of
15 percent, surface cover is needed.
In this Gainesville soil, the available water capacity is This Gainesville soil is in capability subclass Ills and
low, and the permeability is rapid. Organic matter content has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
ranges from low to moderately low, and natural fertility is
low. Surface runoff is slow. The water table is more than 35C-Gainesville sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
72 inches below the surface, sloping, well drained soil has sandy texture to a depth of
Natural vegetation of this soil consists of slash, 80 inches or more. It is in irregularly shaped areas on
loblolly, and longleaf pines; laurel, live, and water oaks; small, sharp breaking slopes and in relatively small
and dogwood, magnolia, hickory, and maple trees. The elongated areas along long slopes of uplands. The size
understory consists chiefly of several varieties of of the areas vary from about 8 to 40 acres.
panicum, bluestem, paspalum, lopsided indiangrass, and Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
sedges. Most areas are cleared and used for crops and about 5 inches thick. The underlying layer is sand to a
improved pasture, depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 37 inches is
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops, yellowish brown, and the lower 38 inches is strong
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are brown.
the principal limitations. Good yields of such crops as Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
corn, tobacco, peanuts, tomatoes, cucumbers, and areas of Arredondo, Kendrick, and Lake soils. A few
watermelons, however, can be produced with high level areas of this soil include small spots of Gainesville soils
management. Management practices are a crop rotation that have 0 to 5 percent slopes. Total included areas are
system that includes close growing, soil improving cover about 15 percent.
crops; the return of all crop residue to the soil; proper This Gainesville soil has low available water capacity
fertilization; and liming as needed. Irrigation is needed and rapid permeability. Organic matter content is low to
during drought periods because the soil has low moderately low, and natural fertility is low. Surface runoff
available water capacity in the root zone of plants. Wind is slow. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
erosion is active on this soil, especially during dry inches.







62 Soil Survey



Natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf surfaces of these areas usually have slope gradients of
pines; live and water oaks; and magnolia, hickory, and less than 2 percent; however, in places some mounds
dogwood trees. The understory is briers, bluestem, have slopes of more than 2 percent
pineland threeawn, panicum, and sedges. Most areas These are sanitary landfills that range from about 10
are cleared and are in improved pasture, to 125 acres. The landfills consist of a series of
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated excavated pits, the floors of which are normally kept
crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, about 1 foot or more above the water table. The size
and a moderate hazard of erosion are the principal and shape of these pits are determined, to a large
limitations. The surface of this soil is also susceptible to extent, by the depth to the water table. Average width of
wind erosion. Corn, peanuts, tomatoes, cucumbers, and the pits is about 50 to 100 feet, and the average depth is
watermelons are some of the better adapted crops and about 6 to 16 feet. The floors of the pits have a gradual
produce moderately good yields with high level grade toward one end to trap and remove surface
management. Special soil improving and erosion control drainage.
measures are needed. Management practices are a crop These areas are made up of alternating layers of
rotation system that includes close growing, soil refuse and garbage and mineral soil material. The areas
improving cover crops; returning all crop residue to the receive daily deposits of refuse and garbage that are
soil; and proper fertilization and liming. Irrigation is spread and packed into layers about 3 to 5 feet thick.
needed during dry periods and can be practical for high These layers then receive a daily cover of about 6
value crops. inches of the mineral soil material that was originally
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture excavated and piled adjacent to the pits. After the pits
of deep-rooted grasses and legumes. Good pasture has been filled with layers of daily deposited refuse and
management is necessary for good quality pasture. This soil material, a final top cover of about 3 feet of soil
includes proper establishment of plants, fertilization, and material is placed over the surface and is well packed.
controlled grazing. This soil is not suited to improved Included with this unit are areas of mixed soil material
pasture of shallow-rooted legumes and grasses, that has been excavated and piled adjacent to the pits
The potential productivity of this soil for longleaf and for use as cover material. This cover material is less
slash pine is moderately high. The soil has only slight than 20 percent of the area.
limitations for normal woodland equipment use. Mortality In the Arent soils, the natural fertility varies from low to
of young seedlings is slight. Competition of other plants medium, and permeability usually varies from rapid to
with young pine seedlings is moderate. moderate. Organic matter content is usually low in the
This soil has slight limitations as sites for dwellings, layers of mineral soil material. The depth to the water
local roads and streets, and septic tank absorption fields. table varies, but is usually 6 feet or more below the
Where homes or other facilities that use septic tanks are surface.
concentrated, ground water contamination is a hazard. This map unit is not suitable for cultivated crops. It is
The soil has moderate limitations as sites for small too variable and unpredictable to give any degree of
commercial buildings because of the slope. It has severe suitability for improved pasture. Seedbed preparation and
limitations as sites for sewage lagoons because of the crop cultivation are a problem because of the variability
possibility of contamination of ground water by seepage. in thickness and unevenness of the mineral soil material.
To prevent this, the sidewalls and floor of the pits need Settling and decomposition may cause voids to form,
to be lined and sealed. The sandy surface presents making cultivation and grazing difficult. Predicting
some problems in trafficability in areas where the soil is potential productivity is not possible because of the
used for trench landfills. Areas cleared of vegetation are variability of the inherent factors of the mixed material.
subject to wind erosion. This unit is too variable to give an accurate potential
This soil has fair potential for use as openland and for woodland production. Most woodland management
woodland wildlife habitat. It has very poor potential for problems would range from severe to moderate if the
use as wetland wildlife habitat. unit were to be used for this purpose.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses This unit has very low potential for most urban uses.
because the sandy surface is a problem for trafficability. The main limitations are the potential settling, the health
During dry periods, wind erosion is a hazard. The hazards, and highly variable soil material for any
maintenance of a good vegetative cover, windbreaks, or construction.
some other form of protection is needed. Arents are not placed in a capability subclass and are
This Gainesville soil is in capability subclass IVs and not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
37-Zolfo sand. This nearly level, somewhat poorly
36-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Arents are areas drained soil is on slight rises of the flatwoods and in the
which have been excavated and backfilled with rather broad transitional area between the rolling uplands
alternating layers of refuse and mixed soil material. The of the western part of the county and the flatwoods of








Alachua County, Florida 63



the eastern part. Slopes are nearly level and range from buildings, and local roads and streets. Limitations are
0 to 2 percent. The areas are irregular in shape and severe for septic tank absorption fields. The high water
range from 25 to 75 acres. table during wet seasons prevents good absorption of
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8 the effluent. The high, fluctuating water table and thick
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand and extends sandy texture also prevent adequate filtration of the
to a depth of 60 inches. The upper 6 inches is grayish effluent. This results in contamination of ground water
brown; the next 20 inches is pale brown with mottles; supplies. The soil has severe limitations as sites for
and the lower 26 inches is very pale brown and has sewage lagoons and trench landfills because of the
mottles. The subsoil is dark brown to dark reddish brown wetness and possibility of contamination of ground water
sand to a depth of 82 inches or more. by seepage.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has poor potential as habitat for openland
Chipley, Pottsburg, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also wildlife and wetland wildlife. Potential as habitat for
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the woodland wildlife is fair.
Zolfo soil but have a water table at a depth of 40 to 72 This Zolfo soil has severe limitations for recreational
inches during wet periods. Total included areas are uses. The sandy surface causes problems in trafficability,
about 15 percent or less. and, during dry periods, wind erosion is a hazard. The
This Zolfo soil has a water table that is at a depth of establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative
24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years and cover, using windbreaks, or the addition of suitable
may be at a depth of 10 to 24 inches for periods of topsoil or some other form of surface stabilization can
about 2 weeks or less during very wet periods. Surface overcome these problems.
runoff is slow. The available water capacity is low to This Zolfo soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has a
medium to a depth of 60 inches and medium to high woodland ordination symbol of 3w.
below this depth. Permeability is rapid to a depth of 60
inches and moderate below. Natural fertility is low. 38-Pits and Dumps. This map unit consists of pits
Organic matter content of the surface layer is low. from which limestone has been or is being removed
Natural vegetation of this soil is slash and longleaf during surface mining operations and dumps where the
pines and water, laurel, and live oak. The understory excavated overburden material has been piled adjacent
consists of waxmyrtle, sumac, gallberry, palmetto, to the pits. Individual areas of pits and dumps are usually
pineland threeawn, bluestem, carpetgrass, and panicum. impractical to separate at the scale in which they are
The acreage is about evenly divided between cropland, mapped.
improved pasture, and woodland. The pits vary from about 5 to 75 acres in size and
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops about 30 to 70 feet in depth. They are quite variable in
because of periodic wetness and poor soil qualities. The age, ranging from pits that are currently being mined to
high water table, which is at a depth of about 24 to 40 old abandoned ones that are approximately 65 to 75
inches during wet seasons, can cause some retardation years old.
of root development. If good management practices and The dumps mostly consist of large areas of
a water control system are used, the soil produces good heterogeneous soil material that has been excavated
yields of such crops as corn, soybeans, squash, beans, from the surface of the limestone and piled adjacent to
peppers, eggplant, and cucumbers. Good management the pits. This mixed soil material commonly is about 1 to
practices are a crop rotation system that includes close 15 percent, by volume, fragments and boulders of
growing, soil improving cover crops; the return of all crop limestone, which are intermixed with the soil material.
residue to the soil; and proper fertilization and liming. This material is in relatively narrow piles which are about
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. 6 to 30 feet high and are around the perimeter of the
Bahiagrass and bermudagrass produce good quality pits.
grazing if high level management is used. This includes Included with this map unit are some pits in which the
proper establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and soil has been excavated for use in road construction and
controlled grazing. for fill material on sites for buildings. These pits, locally
Potential productivity of the soil for woodland is known as borrow pits, are about 4 to 20 acres in size
moderately high. Slash pine is the best adapted species and about 5 to 10 feet in depth. Small piles of limestone
for planting. The loose, sandy surface texture causes that has been excavated and stored on the floor of
moderate restrictions for use of equipment. The low some of the pits for future use are also included. Pits too
natural fertility, low available water capacity, and low small to delineate are shown by the standard pick and
organic matter content of the sandy surface and shovel symbol.
subsurface layers cause moderate limitations of seedling Most of these pits and dumps are in the western part
mortality and plant competition. of the county, where several are presently being mined.
This soil has moderate limitations for such urban uses Many abandoned pits, however, are throughout most
as dwellings without basements, small commercial areas of the county. They are at varying stages of








64 Soil Survey


natural revegetation. The type of vegetation depends hickory, dogwood, and sweetgum. The understory
upon the site location and the kind of original overburden consists of wild grape, American beautyberry, and
material. waxmyrtle. The most common forbs and grasses include
Many of these pits contain water and have high huckleberry, blueberry, eastern bracken, creeping
potential for fish if stocked and managed properly. These beggarweed, toothachegrass, hairy panicum, and several
water areas are mapped separately on the soil map. varieties of bluestems. Most areas of this soil have been
Areas of this map unit have fair to good potential for cleared and are used for improved pasture or crops.
most wildlife habitat. Under the present conditions they This soil has moderate limitations for crops because of
are not suited to crops, improved pasture, commercial the soil quality. Most locally grown crops, including corn,
woodland, and urban or most recreation uses. If they soybeans, peanuts, tobacco, watermelons, cucumbers,
were reshaped and revegetated to conform with the cantaloupes, and vegetables, are adapted to this soil but
existing landscape, the potential for these uses would require high level management for maximum yields.
vary in accordance with the site location and kinds of Management practices are a crop rotation system that
soil material used to reshape the areas. includes cover crops on the soil at least half the time
This Pits and Dumps unit is not placed in a capability and leaving all crop residue on the soil. Good
subclass and is not assigned a woodland ordination management also includes correct seedbed preparation,
symbol, good fertilization, and liming as needed. The sandy
surface and subsurface layers are drought during long
39B-Bonneau fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, periods of low rainfall. During these periods, irrigation is
This gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is in needed and may be practical for high value crops, such
small to relatively large areas on uplands. Slopes are as tobacco and watermelons.
generally slightly convex. The areas are irregular in Ths soil w te o os ss n
shape and range from about 10 to 40 acres. This soil is well suted to Coastal bermudagrass and
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand improved bahiagrass pasture. High quality grazing and
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brownish hay yields can be obtained if pasture is well managed.
yellow fine sand to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil Practices include proper establishment of plants,
extends to a depth of 84 inches or more. The upper 9 fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. Because of
inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the next 22 the drought conditions of the sandy surface and
inches is mottled gray and brownish yellow sandy clay subsurface layers during periods of low rainfall, the soil
loam; the next 15 inches is gray and yellowish brown is not well suited to shallow rooting pasture plants, such
"sandy clay loam; and the lower 9 inches is gray, mottled as white clover.
sandy clay loam. This soil has high potential productivity for slash and
Included with this soil are small areas of Arredondo, loblolly pines. Potential is moderately high for the
Kendrick, Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Millhopper soils. production of longleaf pine. The sandy surface and
Some areas include Bonneau soils that have slopes of 0 subsurface texture is a moderate limitation for use of
to 2 percent or 5 to 8 percent. Also included in the equipment during drier periods. Seedling mortality is
Orange Heights area are about 50 acres of soils that are moderate, and plant competition is slight.
similar to the Bonneau soil but are more than 5 percent This soil has only slight limitations as sites for
plinthite. Limestone boulders and sinkholes are in some dwellings without basements and small commercial
areas and are shown by appropriate symbols. Total buildings and for local roads and streets. Limitations for
included areas are about 20 percent or less. septic tank absorption fields are moderate because of
This Bonneau soil has a water table that is at a depth the water table. The water table restricts drainage during
of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of wet periods. The soil has severe limitations for sewage
60 to 72 inches for 2 to 3 months during most years. lagoons because of possible contamination of ground
The water table may be perched at a depth of about 36 water by seepage of effluent through the sandy
to 40 inches for less than 1 month during some years. subsurface layer. If used for sewage lagoons, the sandy
Surface runoff is slow. Permeability is moderately rapid sidewalls need to be lined and sealed. The soil has
to rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface layers. severe limitations for trench landfills and moderate
Permeability is moderately slow to moderate in the upper limitations for area landfills. Wetness in the lower part of
part of the subsoil and very slow to slow in the lower the subsoil and underlying material is the main limitation.
part. The available water capacity is low in the sandy This soil has good potential as habitat for openland
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the and woodland wildlife. Potential for wetland wildlife
subsoil. Natural fertility is low in the sandy layers and habitat is poor because of lack of water areas.
medium in the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is This Bonneau soil has severe limitations for
low to moderately low in the surface layer, recreational areas because of the sandy surface layer.
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash, longleaf, and Trafficability is a problem and wind erosion is a hazard
loblolly pines; laurel, live, water, and red oaks; and during drier periods. The maintenance of a good







Alachua County, Florida 65



vegetative cover, using windbreaks, or adding some form This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Deep
of surface protection is needed. rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
The Bonneau soil is in capability subclass Ils and has bahiagrasses, are well adapted, but yields are reduced
a woodland ordination symbol of 2s. by prolonged droughts. The soil is not suited to shallow
rooted pasture plants because of lack of sufficient water
41B-Pedro fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This in the rooting zone. Rock outcrops are a hazard for
nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in mowing unless they are removed. Good fertilization is
relatively small areas on the broad plains of uplands, needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit plants to
Slopes are smooth to slightly convex. The areas are maintain vigorous growth for best yields.
irregular in shape and range from about 5 to 35 acres. Potential productivity of the soil for slash and longleaf
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand pines is moderately high. The loose sandy surface and
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light the frequent rock outcrops are moderate limitations to
yellowish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The the use of equipment. Seedling mortality is moderate.
subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam about 5 inches The lack of a good, deep root system is caused by the
thick. The underlying material to a depth of 72 inches or shallow depth to underlying limestone. Windthrow hazard
more is white limestone soft enough to be dug with light is moderate.
power equipment. This soil has severe limitations as sites for dwellings,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
soils that are similar to this Pedro soil in drainage, color, Digging in the underlying limestone and removing large
and thickness but have a sandy clay subsoil. Apopka, limestone boulders are limitations for excavating building
Candler, and Jonesville soils are included in some areas. foundations and construction sites. The underlying
Limestone boulders and sinkholes are common in areas limestone usually contains some small solution holes
of this soil and are shown by appropriate symbols. Total that have been filled with the overlying soil material.
of this soil and are shown by appropriate symbols. Total Additional solution holes can form and cause settlement.
included areas are about 20 percent or less. .
included areas are about 20 percent or less. Limitations for sewage lagoons and trench landfills are
In this Pedro soil, the available water capacity is low in severe. The excessive seepage through the sandy
the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium in surface layers and porous underlying limestone can
the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy cause contamination of ground water. When areas of
surface and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in this soil have to be used for lagoons or landfills, the
the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is low in the sandy sidewalls and floor of the pits need to be well lined and
surface layer and medium in the loamy subsoil. Organic sealed to prevent seepage. The soil has severe
matter content is low. Surface runoff is slow. The water limitations as absorption fields for septic tanks because
table is moe than 72 inches below the surface, of the shallow depth to the underlying limestone. This
The natural vegetation of this soil is slash and longleaf limestone is somewhat porous and, in places, cavernous,
pines and post, live, laurel, and red oaks. The understory which can cause contamination of the ground water by
is made up chiefly of several varieties of bluestem, hairy seepage.
panicum, huckleberry, blackberry, dog fennel, scattered Potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
palmetto, and pineland threeawn. Most areas are cleared woodland wildlife is fair. Potential for wetland wildlife is
and are in crops or improved pasture. very poor.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated This Pedro soil has severe limitations for recreational
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients uses. The shallow depth to limestone and sandy surface
are the principal limitations. Limestone boulders and texture are the major limitations. Wind erosion is a
shallow depth to the underlying limestone are hazards hazard, and trafficability is difficult in areas where the
for equipment use when cultivating crops and preparing surface is not protected by a good vegetative cover or
the land. Wind erosion is active on this soil. Peanuts and some other form of surface stabilization. The limestone
watermelons are the best adapted, locally grown crops, boulders should be removed before the soil is used for
but moderate to good yields of tobacco, corn, active recreation.
cucumbers, cantaloupes, and soybeans can also be This Pedro soil is in capability subclass IVs and has a
produced if high level management is used. woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
Management practices are planting crops on the contour
with alternating strips of close-growing crops, a crop 42B-Pedro-Jonesville complex, 0 to 5 percent
rotation system that includes close-growing plants on the slopes. This complex consists of small areas of nearly
soil at least three-fourths of the time, and fertilizing and level to gently sloping, well drained Pedro and Jonesville
liming all crops well. All crop residue should be returned soils that are so intermixed that they cannot be
to the soil. Crops need irrigation during dry periods to separated at the scale of mapping. Slopes are smooth to
produce good yields. Where water is available, irrigation slightly convex. Mapped areas of this complex are
is usually practical for the adapted high value crops, irregular in shape and range from about 10 to 50 acres.






66 Soil Survey


These soils are intermixed across the landscape. pineland threeawn. Most areas are cleared and are in
Individual areas of each soil range from about 1/10 of crops or improved pasture.
an acre to 3 acres. The soils of this complex have severe limitations for
Pedro fine sand makes up about 40 to 55 percent of cultivated crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
each mapped area. Typically, the soil has a dark gray nutrients, and shallow depth to limestone are the major
fine sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The limitations (fig. 13). Wind erosion is also active unless
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand about 7 the surface is well protected. With high level
inches thick. The subsoil is strong brown sandy clay management practices, moderate to good yields of most
loam about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a locally grown crops can be produced. Peanuts, tobacco,
depth of 72 inches or more is white, partially and watermelons are the best adapted crops.
decomposed limestone soft enough to be dug with light
power equipment, such as a backhoe.
In the Pedro soil, the available water capacity is low in
the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium in
the thin, loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy ..
surface and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in .
the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is low, and
natural fertility is low to medium. Surface runoff is slow.
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
Jonesville sand makes up about 35 to 45 percent of
each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is dark
gray sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
pale brown sand to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 33 inches. It is brownish yellow
sandy clay loam. Below this is limestone to a depth of 80
inches or more. This limestone is partially weathered and
soft enough to be dug with light power equipment.
In the Jonesville soil, the available watercapacity is
low in the surface layer and very low to low in the
subsurface layer. It is low in the subsoil. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderately slow in the subsoil. Organic matter content is
moderately low. Natural fertility is low to medium.
Surface runoff is slow. The water table is more than 72
inches below the surface.
Included with these soils in mapping are soils that
have pedon characteristics similar to the Cadillac soils.
Also included in some areas are soils that have sandy
surface and subsurface layers less than 20 inches thick,
a yellowish brown or strong brown sandy clay subsoil,
and soft limestone at a depth of 20 to 50 inches.
Included in a few areas are included soils that are sandy
to a depth of less than 20 inches and have a loamy or
clayey, yellowish brown subsoil that has gray mottles at
a depth of 25 to 40 inches. These included soils are
strongly acid to slightly acid in the surface layer and
strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the subsoil. Limestone
boulders and sinkholes are common in areas of this
complex. About 12 acres mapped as this complex is
within the flood plain of the Santa Fe River and is
occasionally flooded. Included areas make up 5 to 25
percent of each mapped area.
The natural vegetation of this complex is longleaf pine;
scattered slash pine; and live, laurel, and post oaks. The
understory is chiefly a mixture of bluestem, panicum, Figure 13.-Pedro-Jonesville complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The
huckleberry, blackberry, dog fennel, sedges, and underlying limestone crops out on the shallow Pedro soil.







Alachua County, Florida 67



Management practices are planting crops on the contour This Pedro-Jonesville complex is in capability subclass
in alternating strips with close-growing crops; a crop IVs and has a woodland ordination sybmol of 3s.
rotation system that includes close-growing plants on the
soil at least three-fourths of the time; and fertilizing and 44B-Blichton-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
liming all crops. Residue from soil improving crops and slopes. This complex consists of poorly drained, nearly
other crops can be returned to the soil. Irrigation of level to gently sloping Blichton soils and Urban land. It is
crops is needed during dry periods to produce good in irregularly shaped, relatively small areas in the
yields. Where water is available, irrigation is usually southern and western parts of urbanized Gainesville.
practical for the adapted, high value crops. About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open
Soils of this complex are well suited to pasture. Deep areas of Blichton soils. These open areas are gardens,
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and vacant lots, lawns, and playgrounds. They are so small
bahiagrasses, are well adapted, but yields are reduced or so intermingled with areas of Urban land that it is
by prolonged droughts. The soils are not suited to impractical to map them separately. About 20 to 30
shallow rooted pasture plants. Rock outcrops are a percent of the soils in these open areas have been
hazard during mowing and land preparation and need to modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil
be removed if possible. Good fertilization is needed. materials during urban related construction and
Controlled grazing permits plants to maintain growth. development.
Potential productivity of the soils for woodland is About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban
moderately high. This complex has moderate limitations land. Urban land consists of areas covered with houses,
for use of equipment because of the rock outcrop and streets, parking lots, sidewalks, industrial buildings, and
loose, sandy surface layer. Plant competition is moderate other structures. The Urban land of this map unit is
on the Jonesville soil. Seedling mortality is moderate. generally developed on Blichton sand or fine sand.
Windthrow is moderate on the Pedro soil. Typically, the surface layer of Blichton soils is dark
The Pedro soil of this complex has severe limitations grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
as sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and layer is grayish brown to light brownish gray sand to a
local roads and streets. Digging in the underlying, depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a
shallow limestone and removing large limestone depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is dark
boulders are limitations for excavating building gray loamy sand, and the lower 46 inches is dark gray or
foundations. The Jonesville soil of this complex has gray sandy clay loam.
slight limitations for buildings without basements, small Bivans, Kanapaha, and Sparr soils make up about 10
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The to 20 percent of the open areas in some delineations. A
underlying limestone usually contains some small few small areas of Blichton soils that have 5 to 8 percent
solution holes that have been filled with the overlying soil slopes are also included.
material. Additional solution holes can form and cause In the Blichton soils, the water table is within 10
settlement. Limitations for sewage lagoons and trench inches of the surface for about 1 to 4 months during
landfills are severe. Seepage through the sandy surface most years. During dry periods it recedes to a depth of
layer and porous underlying limestone can cause more than 40 inches. Natural fertility is low. Organic
contamination of ground water. When areas of this matter content is low to moderate. Permeability of the
complex have to be used for these purposes, the sandy surface and subsurface layers is rapid, and it is
sidewalls and floors of the pits need to be well lined and slow to moderately slow in the loamy subsoil. Available
sealed. These soils have severe limitations for water capacity is low in the sandy surface and
absorption fields for septic tanks because of the shallow subsurface layers and low to medium in the subsoil.
depth to the underlying limestone. This limestone is Natural vegetation is slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines,
somewhat porous and, in places, cavernous, which can sweetgum, magnolia, hickory, maple, waxmyrtle, pineland
cause contamination of ground watei by seepage. threeawn, and other adapted shrubs and herbs.
Potential of these soils as habitat for openland and Open areas are suited to most lawn grasses and many
woodland wildlife is fair. Potential for wetland wildlife is kinds of ornamental plants adapted to this area. These
very poor. Water areas suitable for this type of wildlife open areas have severe limitations for most recreational
are not within this complex. uses because of wetness during periods of high rainfall.
This complex has severe limitations for recreational Some form of a good drainage system helps overcome
uses. The shallow depth to limestone and sandy surface wetness. Some areas of this complex lack good water
texture are the major limitations. Wind erosion and outlets, however, which can prevent the establishment of
trafficability are limitations in areas where the surface is good drainage systems.
not protected by a good vegetative cover or some other For the foreseeable future, the use of this complex is
form of surface stabilization. The limestone boulders urban-related. This complex is not assigned to a
need to be removed before the soils are used for active capability subclass. It does not have a woodland
recreation, ordination symbol.







68 Soil Survey


45-Urban land-Millhopper complex, 0 to 2 percent capability subclass. It does not have a woodland
slopes. This complex consists of Urban land intermixed ordination symbol.
with nearly level areas of Millhopper soils. The areas are
irregular in shape and range from 15 to 200 acres. This 46B-Jonesville-Cadillac-Bonneau complex, 0 to 5
complex is in urbanized Gainesville. percent slopes. This complex consists of small areas of
About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is Urban nearly level to gently sloping, well drained Jonesville and
land. This Urban land consists of areas covered with Cadillac soils and moderately well drained Bonneau
buildings, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and other soils. These soils are so intermixed that they cannot be
structures. The Urban land of this map unit is generally separated at the scale of mapping. These soils are
developed on Millhopper sand or fine sand. intermixed across the landscape. Individual areas of
About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is open each soil range from about 1/10 of an acre to 5 acres.
areas of Millhopper soils. These open areas are vacant Mapped areas of this complex are irregular in shape and
lots, lawns, parks, or playgrounds. These areas are range from about 25 to 125 acres.
either so small or so intermixed with areas of Urban land Jonesville sand makes up about 45 to 55 percent of
that it is impractical to map them separately. About 30 to each mapped area. Typically, the soil has a dark gray
45 percent of the soils in these open areas have been sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil layer is pale brown fine sand to a depth of 29 inches.
materials during urban related construction and The subsoil extends to a depth of 33 inches and is
development brownish yellow sandy clay loam. Below this is white
Typically, the surface layer of Millhopper soils is dark limestone to a depth of 80 inches or more. This
grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface limestone is soft enough to be dug with light power
layer is yellowish brown to very pale brown sand to a equipment, such as a backhoe.
depth of 58 inches. The subsoil extends to 89 inches or In the Jonesville soil, the available water capacity is
more. The upper s inhs this yellowish brow, mottled low in the sandy surface layer, low to very low in the
more. The upper 6 inches is ra yellowishsandy subsurface layer, and medium in the loamy
loamy sl and the next 22 inches is li gray, mottled subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and
clay loam; and the lower 3 inches is light gray, mottled subsurface layers and moderately slow to moderate in
sadla.subsurface layers and moderately slow to moderate in
sandy loam. the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is moderately
Included with this complex in mapping are other soils low. Natural fertility is low to medium. Surface runoff is
closely associated with the Millhopper soils, such as slow. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
Arredondo, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils. Small included inches.
areas of Millhopper soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 Cadillac fine sand makes up about 25 to 35 percent of
percent are in a few areas. each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is dark
The Millhopper soils of this complex have a water gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months layer is fine sand to a depth of 52 inches. The upper 22
and at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 33 inches
during most years. The available water capacity is low in is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of 76
the surface and subsurface layers and low to medium in inches. The upper 7 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and loam, and the lower 17 inches is strong brown sandy
subsurface layers, and it is slow to moderate in the clay loam. Between a depth of 76 and 118 inches, the
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content is underlying material is clay. The upper 22 inches is
low to moderately low in the surface layer. yellowish brown and has mottles, and the lower 20
Natural vegetation of Millhopper soils consists chiefly inches is gray and has some limestone fragments.
of live, laurel, post, and water oaks; slash and longleaf In the Cadillac soil, the available water capacity is low
pines; sweetgum; and cherry laurel. A few hickory trees in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium
are in these areas. The understory is chiefly lopsided in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy
indiangrass, hairy panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, layers and slow to moderate in the loamy subsoil.
hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hoary Organic matter content is low to moderately low. Natural
tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky and creeping fertility is low in the sandy surface and subsurface layers
bluestems, and pineland threeawn. and medium in the loamy subsoil. The water table in this
The open areas of this complex are generally well soil is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Surface runoff
suited to most lawn grasses and ornamental plants is slow.
adapted to the area. With some form of surface Bonneau fine sand makes up about 5 to 10-percent of
stabilization to improve the trafficability, the areas are each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is dark
also well suited to recreational uses. gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
For the foreseeable future, the use of this complex is layer is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 29
urban-related. This complex is not assigned to a inches. The subsoil is sandy clay loam that extends to a







Alachua County, Florida 69



depth of 84 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is these drought periods if maximum yields are expected.
yellowish brown, and the lower 47 inches is gray and has Wind erosion is active on these soils, and the surface
yellowish and brownish mottles. needs to be protected at all times. Limestone boulders
In this Bonneau soil, the water table is about 40 to 72 are hazards to cultivation.
inches below the surface for 1 to 3 months during most This complex is well suited to improved pasture of
years. During dry seasons, it is more than 72 inches deep rooting grasses and legumes if good management
below the surface. Permeability is moderately rapid to practices are used. To maintain a good vegetative cover
rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface layers. It is and reach maximum potential in productivity, careful
moderately slow to moderate in the upper part of the management is required. This includes proper
subsoil and very slow to slow in the lower part. The establishment of plants, fertilization and liming, and
available water capacity and the natural fertility are low controlled grazing. The soils are not suited to improved
in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium pasture of shallow rooted legumes and grasses because
in the subsoil. Organic matter content is low to of the droughtiness. Limestone boulders are a hazard to
moderately low. mowing unless they are removed.
Included with these soils in mapping are many areas The potential productivity of the soils for commercial
of soils that have pedon characteristics similar to the woodland is moderately high. Although both longleaf and
Pedro soils. Also included are some soils that have a slash pine normally are natural species, slash pine is
grayish brown, sandy surface layer; a pale brown, sandy recommended for planting. The sandy surface layer is a
subsurface layer that extends a depth of 20 to 40 moderate restriction for equipment use. Young pine
inches; and a yellowish brown or strong brown sandy seedlings normally have moderate mortality because of
clay loam subsoil that reaches a depth of more than 60 the drought conditions and low fertility of the sandy
inches. Some soils have sandy surface and subsurface surface and subsurface layers. Plant competition is also
layers 40 to 50 inches thick, a subsoil 4 to 10 inches moderate for the Jonesville and Bonneau soils and slight
thick that is yellowish brown or strong brown sandy loam for Cadillac soil.
or sandy clay loam, and soft, white limestone at a depth These soils have slight limitations as sites for
of about 45 to 60 inches. Included in some areas are dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local roads
soils that have fine sand surface and subsurface layers and streets. During excavation for building foundations,
less than 20 inches thick, a yellowish brown or strong large boulders may have to be removed. Limitations for
brown sandy clay subsoil, and soft limestone at a depth sewage lagoons and trench landfills are severe because
of about 30 to 50 inches. Some areas have included of the excessive seepage through the sandy layers and
soils that have pedon characteristics similar to the porous underlying limestone. This seepage can cause
Arredondo and Candler soils. Limestone boulders and contamination of ground water. When areas of this
sinkholes are common. About 12 acres mapped as this complex are used for lagoons and landfills, the sidewalls
complex along the Santa Fe River is occasionally and floors of the pits need to be well lined and sealed to
flooded. Total included areas are 5 to 15 percent of prevent seepage. The Jonesville soil has severe
each mapped area. limitations for use as absorption fields for septic tanks
Natural vegetation of this complex is longleaf pine and because of the shallow depth to the underlying
post, bluejack, laurel, and live oaks. Scattered slash limestone. This limestone is somewhat porous and, in
pine, red oak, and hickory are in many areas. The places, cavernous. Contamination of ground water by
hickory trees are usually relatively small in size. The seepage is a possibility. Areas of Cadillac soil in this
understory is chiefly a mixture of chalky bluestem and complex have slight limitations for septic tank absorption
other bluestems, panicums, huckleberry, blackberry, fields. The Bonneau soil in this complex has moderate
blueberry, sedges, pineland threeawn, wild grape, limitations for this use because of the depth to the water
honeysuckle, dayflower, eastern bracken, and scattered table during wet seasons.
palmettos. Many areas are cleared and are in improved These soils have fair potential for openland and
pasture or cultivated crops. woodland wildlife. Potential for wetland wildlife is very
The soils of this complex have severe limitations for poor because of the lack of ponds and wetland
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of vegetation that is desirable as a habitat for this type of
plant nutrients are the principal limitations. Good yields wildlife.
of such crops as corn, tobacco, peanuts, soybeans, This complex has severe limitations for recreational
tomatoes, cucumbers, and watermelons can usually be uses. Wind erosion and maintaining good trafficability are
produced if high level management practices are used. severe problems. The establishment and maintenance of
Some management practices are a crop rotation system a good vegetative cover and windbreaks, the addition of
that includes close growing, soil improving cover crops; suitable topsoil, or some form of hard surfacing can be
returning all crop residue to the soil; and proper used to alleviate or overcome these problems.
fertilization and liming as needed. Yields are sometimes This complex is in capability subclass Ills. The
restricted by drought periods. Irrigation is needed during Jonesville and Cadillac soils have a woodland ordination







70 Soil Survey



symbol of 3s, and the Bonneau soil has a woodland layers are sand instead of fine sand. Included areas
ordination symbol of 2s. make up about 5 to 25 percent of each delineation.
Natural vegetation of this complex is longleaf pine and
47B-Candler-Apopka complex, 0 to 5 percent post, bluejack, turkey, live, and laurel oaks. The
slopes. This complex consists of relatively small areas understory is a mixture of eastern bracken, bluestem,
of nearly level to gently sloping, well drained to blackberry, dwarf huckleberry, low panicum, and sedges.
excessively drained Candler and Apopka soils. These Many areas have been cleared and are in cultivated
soils are so intermixed that they cannot be separated at crops or improved pasture or are used for urban
the scale at which they are mapped. The areas are development.
irregular in shape and range from about 20 to 80 acres. This complex has severe limitations for most cultivated
In places, the soils of this complex are in long, narrow crops because of the droughtiness and low fertility. If
areas. The Candler soil is mostly in slightly concave high level management practices are used, moderate
areas about 25 to 50 feet wide, and the Apopka soil is yields of corn and peanuts can be grown. The soils
mostly on slightly convex ridges about 20 to 40 feet produce good yields of watermelons. Yields are
wide. The difference in elevation is only about 6 to 18 restricted by drought periods, and irrigation is needed to
inches between the ridges or bulges and the slight attain good yields. Management practices are soil
depressions. The slight depressions of Candler soil improving cover crops included in a crop rotation system;
generally contain fewer areas of other soils than the returning all crop residue to the soil; and regular
adjacent slight ridges of Apopka soil. In places, these applications of fertilizer and lime. Wind erosion is a
soils are in small, irregularly shaped areas intermixed hazard where the surface is not protected.
with each other. These areas are about 1/12 acre to 2 The soils of this complex are moderately well suited to
acres and have no noticeable difference in elevation, improved pasture of deep rooted grasses if good
Candler fine sand makes up about 40 to 50 percent of management practices are used. Production is usually
each mapped area. Typically, the soil has a dark gray restricted by periodic droughts. If grazing is controlled,
fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. In the plants remain vigorous. The soils are not suited to the
underlying material, the upper 54 inches is brownish production of shallow rooted legumes and grasses
yellow fine sand, and the lower 24 inches is very pale because of the lack of sufficient moisture.
brown fine sand and thin, discontinuous, yellowish brown Potential productivity of these soils for pine trees is
loamy sand lamellae. The lamellae are about 1/32 to moderate. Even though slash pine is not normally part of
1/16 inch thick, the native vegetation, it is the recommended species of
In the Candler soil, the available water capacity is low. pine to plant. The loose, sandy surface layer causes
Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and organic matter moderate limitations for normal equipment use during
content are low. Surface runoff is very slow. The water harvesting operations. Seedling mortality and plant
table is more than 72 inches below the surface. competition are moderate because of the drought
Apopka sand makes up about 35 to 45 percent of conditions.
each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is dark The soils of this complex have only slight limitations as
grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, local
layer is fine sand about 57 inches thick. The upper 41 roads and streets, and absorption fields for septic tanks.
inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 16 inches Limitations as sites for trench sanitary landfills and
is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 sewage lagoons are severe because of possible
inches. It is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. contamination of ground water by seepage through the
In the Apopka soil, the available water capacity is very sidewalls and floor of the pits. If areas of this complex
low to a depth of about 63 inches and medium below are to be used for these purposes, the pits should be
this depth. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 63 well lined and sealed. Trafficability is a problem around
inches and moderate between 63 and 80 inches. Natural the landfills.
fertility and organic matter content are low. Surface These soils have fair potential as habitat for openland
runoff is very slow. The water table is more than 72 wildlife. Potential for woodland wildlife is poor. Potential
inches below the surface, as habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor because the
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of areas do not have the needed water areas desired by
soils that have pedon characteristics similar to this type of wildlife. These soils do not produce a good
Arredondo, Kendrick, and Millhopper soils. Some areas supply of food for most types of wildlife.
of this unit have soils that have pedon characteristics This complex has severe limitations for recreational
similar to Jonesville and Pedro soils. Fragments and uses. Wind erosion and maintaining good trafficability are
boulders of limestone, which range from about 15 to 76 severe problems. The establishment and maintenance of
centimeters in diameter, occur at random in some of the a good vegetative cover and windbreaks, or the addition
soils and make up 5 percent or less of the volume. In of suitable topsoil or some form of hard surface can be
some areas of this complex, surface and subsurface used to alleviate or overcome these problems.







Alachua County, Florida 71



This complex is in capability subclass IVs. Candler soil and bedding of rows. Proper amounts of fertilizer and
has a woodland ordination symbol of 4s, and Apopka lime need to be added in accordance to the need of the
soil has a woodland ordination symbol of 3s. crop grown.
If water control and good management are used, the
48-Myakka sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil is well suited to improved grass and grass-clover
soil is in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are nearly pasture. Water control measures are needed to remove
smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. excess water after heavy rains. Irrigation is needed
The areas are irregular or elongated in shape and range during drought periods for shallow rooted pasture
from about 10 to 100 acres. plants, such as white clover. Good management includes
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand proper fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing.
about 8 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a Potential productivity of this soil for woodland use is
depth of 82 inches or more. In sequence from the top, moderate. Slash and longleaf pines are both adapted to
the upper 16 inches is light gray, the next 6 inches is the soil. The soil has moderate limitations for the use of
very dark brown and has sand grains well coated with normal woodland equipment. Seedling mortality is
organic materials; the next 5 inches is dark brown; the moderate because of the low available water in the
next 18 inches is very pale brown and has mottles; and sandy surface and subsurface layers during periods of
the next 29 inches is light brownish gray. low rainfall and the low natural fertility. Competition of
Included with this soil are small areas of Pomona, other plants with young pine seedlings is moderate.
Sparr, and Pompano soils. Included are small areas of The soil has severe limitations for urban uses,
poorly drained soils that have a stained layer that does including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings,
not meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. Also small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench
included are a few areas of soils that are similar to the landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major
Myakka soil except that they have a well coated, limitation. A good drainage system is needed which
organic-stained layer 14 to 19 inches below the surface. rapidly removes the excess water during wet periods and
Total included areas are about 20 percent, adequately controls the water table. If used as sites for
This Myakka soil has a water table that is at a depth sewage lagoons and trench landfills, the soil has a
of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a depth potential hazard of contamination of ground water by
of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. seepage of liquid waste material through the sandy
The water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be lined and
inches during drier seasons. Surface runoff is slow. The sealed.
available water capacity is very low from 0 to 24 inches, The soil has fair potential as habitat for openland
medium to high from 24 to 30 inches, and very low to wildlife and poor potential for woodland wildlife habitat.
low below a depth of 30 inches. Permeability is rapid to Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is poor.
a depth of about 24 inches, moderate to moderately The Myakka soil has severe limitations as sites for
rapid from 24 to 30 inches, and rapid below a depth of recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or
30 inches. Natural fertility and organic matter content are near the surface during wet periods, and the loose sandy
low. surface texture are the main limitations. Some form of
The natural vegetation of this soil is longleaf and slash good water control is needed to rapidly remove the
pines. The understory is sawpalmetto, running oak, water during rainy periods. The loose sandy surface layer
gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, is a problem for trafficability. During dry seasons, it is
bluestem, briers, brackenfern, and other native forbs and subject to wind erosion. Windbreaks, a good vegetative
grasses. Most areas are still in natural vegetation. Some cover, the addition of good topsoil material, or some
are cleared and are in improved pasture. A few areas other form of surface stabilization can be used to help
are used for special crops. overcome these problems.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw and has
crops because of wetness and poor soil qualities, a woodland ordination symbol of 4w.
Adapted crops are limited. Special crops are generally
better adapted than the general farm crops grown in the 49A-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
county. If good water control measures and intensive This nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is in
management practices are used, the soil produces fair to relatively small to large areas in the broad flatwoods and
good yields of such crops as corn, soybeans, beans, the gentle, rolling uplands that border the flatwoods.
squash, cabbage, lettuce, and tomatoes. A good type of Slopes are nearly smooth to slightly convex. The areas
water control system is one that adequately removes are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to 200
excess water in wet seasons and provides water through acres.
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Management Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
practices are rotating row crops with close growing, soil about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
improving crops, returning all crop residue to the soil, to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 7 inches is brown,







72 Soil Suvey



and the lower 20 inches is very pale brown and has one recommended for planting. Limitations are not
grayish and yellowish mottles. The subsoil extends to a significant for woodland use or management
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 10 inches is pale This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
brown, mottled very fine sandy loam; the next 13 inches absorption fields. The high water table during wet
is light brownish gray, mottled very fine sandy loam; and seasons prevents good drainage of the effluent. This soil
the lower 23 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. has severe limitations as sites for sewage lagoons and
Included with this soil are small areas of Bonneau, trench landfills because of the wetness and the
Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Also included are a few possibility of contamination of ground water by seepage.
small areas of somewhat poorly drained soils that have a Limitations for dwellings without basements, small
sandy surface and subsurface layer 10 to 18 inches thick commercial buildings, and local roads and streets are
over a mottled, yellowish brown and gray sandy clay slight.
loam subsoil. In the Orange Heights area there are about Potential of the soil as habitat for openland wildlife is
250 acres of soils that are similar to Lochloosa soils but fair. It is good for woodland wildlife habitat Potential as
have about 5 to 10 percent plinthite in the subsoil. A few habitat for wetland wildlife is poor because these areas
small areas of Lochloosa soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 lack the ponds and wetland vegetation that are desirable
percent are included. Total included areas are about 15 for this type of wildlife.
percent or less. This Lochloosa soil has severe limitations for
This Lochloosa soil has a water table that is 30 to 40 recreational uses. The sandy surface layer causes
inches below the surface for 2 to 4 months during most problems in trafficability during dry periods. Wind erosion
years. It rises to 15 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 weeks during of the sandy surface is a hazard during these periods.
most years. Surface runoff is slow. The available water The establishment and maintenance of a good
capacity is medium to high in the sandy surface and vegetative cover, windbreaks, the addition of suitable
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. topsoil, or some other form of surface stabilization can
Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the surface and be used to overcome these problems.
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass lIw and
subsoil, and slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low has a woodland ordination symbol of 2o.
in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and medium
in the loamy subsoil. Organic matter content is low to 50-Sparr fine sand. This nearly level, somewhat
moderately low in the surface layer, poorly drained soil is in relatively small areas on slight
The natural vegetation consists chiefly of slash and rises of the flatwoods and on nearly smooth to slightly
longleaf pines and water oak. Post, laurel, and live oaks convex slopes of the gently rolling uplands. Slope ranges
also are in some areas. The understory is mostly from 0 to 2 percent. The areas are irregular in shape and
waxmyrtle, huckleberry, blueberry, various types of range from about 10 to 75 acres.
bluestem, low panicum, pineland threeawn, brackenfern, Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
baccharis, and some scattered sawpalmetto. Most areas thick. The upper 4 inches is dark gray, and the lower 4
of this soil are still in native vegetation. Some areas are inches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is
cleared and are in improved pasture or crops. about 40 inches thick. The upper 17 inches is pale
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops. brown sand, the next 7 inches is very pale brown fine
The major limitations are wetness and soil qualities, sand that has light yellowish brown and light gray
Damage to some crops, such as tobacco, during wet mottles, and the lower 16 inches is light gray fine sand
seasons is caused by the high water table and retarded that has yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil extends to
drainage. Irrigation is needed, and feasible, for some a depth of 84 inches or more and is light gray. The
high value crops during extended drought periods, upper 8 inches is loamy sand, and the lower 28 inches is
Good management includes use of soil improving cover fine sandy loam.
crops, the return of all crop residue to the soil, proper Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
fertilization, liming, and water control where needed. This Lochloosa, Kanapaha, Newnan, Millhopper, and Zolfo
produces maximum yields. soils. Also included are a few small areas of soils that
The soil is well suited to improved pasture. Such are similar to Sparr soils but have a surface layer of
grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses loamy sand. A few areas are Sparr soils that have slopes
produce good quality grazing if good management of 2 to 5 percent. Total included areas are 15 percent or
practices are used. Practices include good seedbed less.
preparation, proper fertilization, liming, and controlled This Sparr soil has a water table that is at a depth of
grazing. Shallow rooted pasture plants, such as white 20 to 30 inches for about 1 to 2 months and at a depth
clover, need irrigation during drought periods in order to of 30 to 40 inches for about 2 to 3 months during most
maintain good quality grazing. years. During dry seasons it recedes to a depth of more
Potential productivity of the soil for woodland is high. than 40 inches. Surface runoff is slow. The available
Slash pine is the best adapted species of pine and is the water capacity is medium in the sandy surface layer, low







Alachua County, Florida 73



in the sandy subsurface layer, and medium in the loamy subsurface layer. The soil has moderate limitations for
subsoil. Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the sandy dwellings without basements, small commercial
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the buildings, and local roads and streets.
upper part of the subsoil and slow to moderately slow in Potential of this soil for use as habitat for openland
the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is low to a and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for
depth of about 48 inches and medium below this depth, wetland wildlife, however, is poor because the soil does
Organic matter content is low to moderately low. not have the desirable water areas and wetland
The natural vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf and vegetation.
slash pines and water, laurel, and live oaks. The This Sparr soil has severe limitations for recreational
understory consists of waxmyrtle, sumac, carpetgrass, uses. The sandy surface layer causes problems in
pineland threeawn, a few scattered sawpalmetto, dwarf trafficability and, during dry periods, of wind erosion. The
huckleberry, baccharis, low panicum, bluestem, running establishment and maintenance of a good vegetative
oak, and brackenfern. Most areas of this soil are still in cover and windbreaks or the addition of suitable topsoil
native vegetation. Some areas are cleared, however, and or some other form of surface stabilization can be used
are mostly in improved pasture, to overcome these problems.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops This Sparr soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has a
because of periodic wetness and poor soil qualities. The woodland ordination symbol of 3w.
high water table, which is at a depth of about 20 to 40
inches during wet seasons, can cause some retardation 51-Plummer fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
of root development. A well designed, simple drainage drained soil is in the broad areas of the flatwoods.
system can help eliminate this problem. If good Slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
management practices and a water control system are Areas are relatively small and irregular in shape and are
used, the soil is adapted to such crops as corn, about 10 to 50 acres.
soybeans, peanuts, squash, beans, peppers, eggplant, Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
and cucumbers. Good management practices are a crop inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
rotation system that includes close growing, soil depth of 42 inches. The upper 8 inches is light brownish
improving cover crops on the soil at least two-thirds of gray, the next 18 inches is gray, and the lower 10 inches
the time; the return of all crop residue to the soil; and is light gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of 81 inches
proper fertilization and liming, or more. The upper 8 inches is light gray, mottled very
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. fine sandy loam, and the lower 31 inches is light gray
Bahiagrass and bermudagrass produce good quality sandy clay loam.
pasture under high level management. This includes Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
proper establishment of plants, fertilization, liming, and Mulat, Pomona, Pompano, and Sparr soils. Also included
controlled grazing. If shallow rooted pasture plants such are a few areas in which the surface and subsurface
as white clover are grown, irrigation is needed for layers are sand. About 15 acres mapped as this soil
continued good quality pasture, along the Santa Fe River is occasionally flooded. Total
Potential productivity of this soil for woodland is included areas in any one delineation are about 15
moderately high. Slash pine is the best adapted species percent.
for this soil. The loose, sandy surface texture causes This Plummer soil has a water table that is at a depth
moderate restrictions to the use of equipment. Seedling of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and is at a
mortality is moderate because of the low natural fertility, depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 3 to 4 months during
available water capacity, and organic matter content of most years. It recedes to more than 40 inches during
the sandy surface and subsurface layers. Plant drier seasons. The available water capacity is medium to
competition is moderate. high in the surface and subsurface layers and low to
This soil has moderate to severe limitations for most medium in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid
urban uses. Limitation for septic tank absorption fields is to rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
severe. The high water table during wet seasons moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Organic
prevents good downward absorption of the effluent. The matter content is moderately low.
high fluctuating water table and thick sandy layers can The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly longleaf
also prevent adequate filtration of the effluent, resulting and slash pines. The understory is dominantly gallberry,
in contamination of ground water supplies. The soil has waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry,
severe limitations as sites for sewage lagoons because brackenfern, bluestem, and panicum. Most areas are still
of the wetness and possibility of contamination of ground in native vegetation, but some areas have been cleared
water by seepage. If it is used for this purpose, the and are in pasture.
lagoon walls need to be well lined and sealed. This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
Limitations are severe as sites for trench landfills crops because of wetness and low fertility in the sandy
because of the high water table and thick, sandy surface and subsurface layers. If a good water control







74 Soil Survey



system and good management practices are used, the The areas are irregular or elongated in shape and range
soil is moderately well suited to corn, soybeans, and from about 15 to 100 acres.
most special crops adapted to the area. The water Typically, the surface layer is about 15 inches thick.
control system needs to remove excess water rapidly The upper 9 inches is dark brown muck, and the lower 6
during wet seasons. Management practices are a crop inches is black sandy loam. The subsurface layer is gray
rotation system that includes close growing, soil loamy sand about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy
improving crops and returning all crop residue to the soil. clay to a depth of 62 inches. The upper 8 inches of the
Other important management practices include good subsoil is very dark gray, the next 19 inches is dark gray,
seedbed preparation, bedding rows, and proper and the lower 18 inches is gray. Between depths of 62
fertilization and liming, and 84 inches the underlying material is gray sandy clay.
If a water control system and good management Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
practices are used, the soil is well suited to improved Shenks and Surrency soils. Total included areas are
grass and grass-clover pasture. Water control measures about 15 percent or less.
are needed to remove excess water after heavy rains. This Ledwith soil has a water table that is within 10
Irrigation is needed during drought periods for shallow inches of the surface for more than 6 months during
rooted pasture plants, such as white clover. Good most years. Most areas have water ponded on the
management includes proper fertilization, and liming and surface for 4 months or more. The available water
controlled grazing, capacity is very high in the upper, 9-inch-thick organic
Potential productivity of this soil as woodland is high. surface layer, medium to high in the mineral surface and
Slash pine is the recommended species for planting. The subsurface layers, and low to medium in the clayey
soil is severely restricted for the use of equipment during subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the organic surface layer,
wet seasons. The drought conditions of the sandy moderate to rapid in the mineral surface and subsurface
surface and subsurface layers during periods of low layers, and slow to very slow in the clayey subsoil.
rainfall and the low natural fertility are severe limitations Natural fertility is medium. Organic matter content in the
contributing to seedling mortality. Plant competition is upper 9 inches is very high.
moderate. Natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses,
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, herbs, and shrubs. These include bulrush, goldenrod,
including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings, maidencane, cordgrass, cattails, and buttonbush. The
small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench areas are mostly in natural vegetation. A few areas have
landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major been drained and are used for grazing.
limitation. A good drainage system is needed to rapidly This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. It
remove the excess water during wet periods and to is not suited to cultivated crops unless drained. The
adequately control the water table. If the soil is used for excessive wetness is a major problem. Water stands on
sewage lagoons, contamination of ground water is a the surface for much of the time. Most areas do not
potential hazard. Liquid waste can seep through the have suitable outlets for drainage. In areas where outlets
sandy sidewalls of the pits. The sidewalls need to be are available, an extensive system of canals and ditches
well lined and sealed to prevent this problem. is required to adequately remove the excess water. The
Potential of the soil for use as habitat for openland, slow movement of water through the clayey subsoil
woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. requires an extensive network of lateral ditches. If a
The Plummer soil has severe limitations as sites for good water control system and good management are
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or used, the soil is well suited to most vegetable crops
near the surface during wet periods, and the loose sandy adapted to the area. A well designed and maintained
surface texture are the main limitations. Some form of water control system provides rapid removal of excess
good water control is needed to rapidly remove the water during long rainy periods. Good management is
water during rainy periods. The loose, sandy surface necessary for best yields. This includes good seedbed
layer causes problems in trafficability, and, during dry preparation, returning all crop residue to the soil, a crop
seasons, it is subject to wind erosion. Windbreaks, a rotation system that uses soil improving cover crops, and
good vegetative cover, the addition of good topsoil good fertilization.
material, or some other form of surface stabilization can The soil is too wet for improved pasture under natural
help overcome these problems. conditions. If an adequate water control system is used,
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw and has this soil is well suited to most grasses and clovers
a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. adapted to the area. A good drainage system adequately
removes the excess water after heavy rains. Good
52-Ledwith muck. This nearly level, very poorly management includes proper fertilization and controlled
drained soil is in small to relatively large areas of grazing.
freshwater marshes and wet prairies. Slopes are nearly This soil generally is in wet marshes and prairies of
smooth to slightly concave and are less than 2 percent. the county. Trees do not normally grow in these areas.







Alachua County, Florida 75


Because of the excess wetness and drainage problems, underlying material. Permeability is rapid or very rapid in
the soil is not generally recommended for commercial the surface layer and very slow or slow in the clayey
woodland. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, material below. Natural fertility is high. Organic matter
and plant competition are severe, content of the surface layer is very high.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. The natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses,
The ponded condition and slow internal movement of herbs, and shrubs. It includes maidencane, cordgrass,
water through the clayey subsoil are severe hazards for cattails, bulrush, goldenrod, cutgrass, buttonbush, and
absorption fields for septic tanks. The ponding and high other aquatic plants. Most areas are still in native
water table are a potential cause of pollution if this soil is vegetation. Some have been drained and used for the
used for trench sanitary landfills or for sewage lagoons. production of vegetable crops.
Some form of good water control system and protection This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
from ponding are needed to prevent this hazard. The because of the excessive wetness. The soil is not
clayey subsoil is not good cover material for landfills. naturally suited to crops. If an adequate water control
The ponding and high shrink-swell potential of the soil system and good management practices are used, the
severely restrict its use as sites for dwellings and small soil is well suited to such crops as corn, soybeans,
commercial buildings and for local roads and streets. squash, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, cabbage, eggplant,
Even where site conditions are improved sufficiently to sweet corn, and snap beans. A well designed water
overcome most of these problems, keeping the areas control system is necessary before these crops can be
adequately drained is a continuing problem. grown. A well designed system is one that adequately
Potential of the soil as habitat for wetland wildlife is removes the excess water when crops are on the soil
good. This soil, however, has poor potential for use as. but keeps the soil saturated with water at all other times
habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. The soil is to decrease subsidence as much as possible.
too wet and does not produce good cover and food for Management practices are growing water-tolerant cover
these types of wildlife, crops on the soil when regular crops are not being
The Ledwith soil has severe limitations for use as grown, returning all crop residue to the soil, good
recreational areas. The ponding, the unstable surface seedbed preparation, and proper fertilization. Some
layer, and the slow internal movement of water are major areas do not have adequate drainage outlets for a water
problems. Before the soil can be developed as control system.
recreational areas, a good water control system is This soil is not suited to pasture under natural
necessary. The organic material needs to be removed conditions. Water is at the surface ortands on the
and replaced with enough good fill material to stabilize surface for much of the year. An extensive system of
the surface and raise it sufficiently to help prevent dikes and canals, along with good outlets, is necessary
continuing wetness, for adequate drainage. In areas where a good water
This Ledwith soil is in capability subclass Illw. It is not control system can be reasonably installed, the soil is
assigned a woodland ordination symbol. well suited to improved pasture. Both deep rooted and
shallow rooted plants can be grown with proper water
53-Shenks muck. This nearly level, very poorly control. A good water control system is one that not only
drained organic soil is in the wetter parts of the large removes the excess water from the soil but maintains
prairies and marshes in the southern and eastern parts the water table near the surface in order to decrease
of the county. Slopes are nearly smooth to slightly subsidence as much as possible. Controlled grazing
concave and are less than 2 percent. The areas are permits maximum yields.
usually irregular or elongated in shape and range from This soil is in wet areas of prairies and in freshwater
about 200 acres to more than 500 acres. marshes. Trees do not normally grow in these areas.
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 21 inches Because of the excessive wetness and poor drainage,
thick. The upper 18 inches is dark brown, and the lower this soil is not recommended for commercial woodland.
3 inches is black. The underlying material extends to a Most woodland management problems are severe.
depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is black The soil has severe limitations for urban uses.
clay loam, the next 23 inches is gray clay, the next 10 Excessive wetness caused by the high water table,
inches is dark gray clay, and the lower 21 inches is gray, ponding, the high humus content, high shrink-swell
mottled clay. potential, and low strength of the underlying clayey
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of material are major limitations that are hard to overcome.
Ledwith, Martel, Okeechobee, and Terra Ceia soils. Total Good water control systems require a major network of
included areas are less than 20 percent, canals and ditches. After a system has been installed,
This Shenks soil has a water table that is at or above maintaining the system and keeping the areas
the surface except during extended dry periods. The adequately drained are continuing problems. When the
available water capacity of the organic surface layer is soil is drained, subsidence of the organic layers is a
very high, and it is medium to very high in the clayey problem. Because of the subsidence and the unstable








76 Soil Survey



condition, the organic layer needs to be removed and systems are hard to establish and maintain. Many areas
replaced with suitable fill material before any do not have adequate drainage outlets. The soil has a
development begins, tendency to become waterlogged during wet seasons
Potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife is because of the slow intemal movement of water through
good. The areas contain shallow ponds, which are the shallow, clayey subsoil. The clayey subsoil causes
desirable for this type of wildlife. Potential as habitat for problems in workability where the soil is cultivated. If a
openlandl and woodland wildlife is poor. The areas are good water control system can be established and good
too wet for these types of wildlife, management practices used, some vegetables can be
This Shenks soil has severe limitations for recreational grown.
uses. The ponding, the excess humus, and the slow This soil is suited to improved pasture, but intensive
internal movement of water through the clayey management is needed. Drainage is needed to remove
underlying material are the major limitations. Good water excess internal water during wet seasons. Because of
control systems that adequately remove the water are the slow internal movement of water through the clayey
expensive to establish and maintain. When the soil is subsoil and the lack of good outlets of many areas, good
drained, the exposed humus surface layer becomes water control systems are difficult to establish. Pasture
dusty. This dusty surface and the unstable conditions of management includes proper establishment of plants,
the soil cause severe problems in trafficability. fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing.
This Shenks soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It is not Mapped areas of this soil are in grassy wetlands
assigned a woodland ordination symbol. where trees do not normally grow. Potential for
commercial woodland production of slash pine is high,
54-Emeralda fine sandy loam. This nearly level, however, if drainage can be installed and maintained
poorly drained soil is in relatively small areas on rolling The soil has severe limitations for use of normal
uplands of the prairies and in broad wet areas of the woodland equipment during harvesting because of the
flatwoods. Slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to wetness. Plant competition is also severe. Seedling
2 percent. The areas are irregular in shape and range mortality is moderate.
from about 15 to 100 acres. This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses,
Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches thick. including septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons,
The upper 5 inches is black fine sandy loam, and the trench landfills, dwellings, small commercial buildings,
lower 5 inches is very dark gray sand. The subsurface and local roads and streets. The high water table and
layer is light brownish gray sand about 8 inches thick, slow internal movement of water through the clayey
The subsoil is gray and extends to a depth of 56 inches, subsoil are the major problems where areas are to be
The upper 19 inches is sandy clay, and the lower 19 used for septic tank absorption fields. Wetness is the
inches is sandy clay loam. Between depths of 56 and 80 major problem for sewage lagoons. Trench landfills are
inches, the underlying material is light gray sandy clay limited by the high water table and the shallow, clayey
loam; the upper 10 inches of the underlying material has subsoil. The clay compacts when used as cover material.
thin, discontinuous streaks of light gray sandy material The high shrink-swell potential of the clayey subsoil and
that make up about 45 percent of its volume, the wetness are major limitations for dwellings or small
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of commercial buildings. The low strength, wetness, and
Ledwith and Wauberg soils. Total included areas are high shrink-swell potential of the clayey subsoil are major
about 15 percent, limitations for local roads and streets.
This Emeralda soil has a water table that is less than Potential of this soil as habitat of wetland wildlife is
10 inches below the surface for 4 to 6 months during good. Shallow water areas for use by wetland wildlife
most years. The available water capacity is high in the can be developed in these areas. Potential as habitat for
surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, and medium to openland wildlife is poor. It is fair for woodland wildlife.
high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface This Emeralda soil has severe limitations as sites for
and subsurface layers and very slow to slow in the recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or
subsoil. Natural fertility is medium, and organic matter near the surface during wet periods, and the slow
content is moderate to high in the surface layer. internal movement of water through the clayey subsoil
The natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses, are the major limiting factors. Areas of this soil are hard
herbs, and shrubs. It includes bulrush, carpetgrass, to adequately drain because of the slow internal
goldenrod, dwarf huckleberry, waxmyrtle, cordgrass, drainage and lack of good drainage outlets.
cutgrass, panicum, and some bluestems. Most areas are This Emeralda soil is in capability subclass VIw. It is
still in native vegetation, but a few have been cleared, not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. Wetness, a restricted root zone, slow internal 55B-Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes This is a
drainage, and difficulty in drainage are major limitations nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil
that are very hard to overcome. Good water control that has sandy texture to a depth of more than 80








Alachua County, Florida 77



inches. Slopes are nearly smooth to convex. The soil is seasons the loose sandy surface layer causes moderate
in irregularly shaped areas on the gently rolling uplands, limitations for the use of equipment. Seedling mortality is
The individual areas are both small and large in size and moderate because of the drought conditions of the
range from about 20 to 300 acres, sandy surface and underlying layers. Plant competition is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand also moderate.
about 8 inches thick. The underlying layer is sand to a This soil has slight limitations for dwellings, small
depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 33 inches is commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
yellowish brown, the next 28 inches is strong brown, and Limitation for septic tank absorption fields is normally
the lower 13 inches is yellowish brown and has thin slight. Ground water contamination is a hazard, however,
streaks of light gray, clean sand grains, in areas where homes are concentrated. The soil is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of unable to adequately filter large quantities of effluent.
Arredondo, Candler, Gainesville, and Tavares soils. Also The soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons and
included are a few small areas of Lake soils that have 5 trench landfills because of possible seepage of the liquid
to 8 percent slopes. About 10 acres mapped as this soil waste through the sidewalls and floor of the pits. If the
along the Santa Fe River is occasionally flooded. Total soil has to be used for these purposes, the floor and
included areas are about 15 percent or less. sidewalls of these pits need to be lined and sealed.
Available water capacity in this Lake soil is very low to Trafficability is a problem around landfills. The loose,
low. Permeability is rapid to very rapid. Organic matter sandy surface causes wind erosion where sites are
content and natural fertility are low. Surface runoff is cleared of vegetation for building construction.
very slow. The water table is more than 72 inches below Potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
the surface. woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for
The natural vegetation of this soil consists chiefly of wetland wildlife is very poor. The shallow water areas
longleaf pine, scattered slash pine, and water, laurel, essential to this type of habitat are not present, nor can
live, post, and bluejack oaks. The understory is chiefly they be developed and maintained on this soil under
bluestem, paspalum, panicum, switchgrass, lopsided normal conditions.
indiangrass, and pineland threeawn. Many of the areas This Lake soil has severe limitations for recreational
have been cleared and are in improved pasture. A few uses. It has a severe hazard of wind erosion. Maintaining
cleared areas are in crops. good trafficability is difficult because of the loose sandy
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated surface. The establishment and maintenance of a good
crops. Plant nutrients applied to the soil leach rapidly vegetative cover, and windbreaks, or the addition of
because of the loose sandy texture. The soil is unable to suitable topsoil or some form of hard surface can be
retain sufficient moisture during drier periods for good used to improve or overcome these problems.
plant growth. Corn, peanuts, tobacco, soybeans, and This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs and has a
watermelons are grown on this soil, but they require woodland ordination symbol of 3s.
good management practices to obtain fair to good yields.
Management practices are a crop rotation system that 56-Wauberg sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
includes soil improving cover crops at least three-fourths soil is mostly in large areas on prairie in the southern
of the time, the return of all crop residue to the soil, and part of the county. Slopes are nearly smooth to slightly
proper fertilization and liming. Irrigation is needed during concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. The areas are
drought periods. Wind erosion is a hazard where the irregular and elongated in shape. They range from about
surface is not protected by a good vegetative cover or 40 to 500 acres.
by windbreaks. Typically, the surface layer is sand about 9 inches
The soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower 4
Deep rooting grasses, such as bahiagrass and inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is about
bermudagrass, are well suited to the soil, but yields are 15 inches thick. The upper 10 inches of this layer is
reduced by periodic droughts. To maintain pasture for grayish brown sand, and the lower 5 inches is light
good grazing, careful management is required. This brownish gray sand. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a
includes proper establishment of plants, fertilization, depth of 63 inches. The upper 26 inches is dark gray,
liming, and controlled grazing. Irrigation helps improve and the lower 23 inches is gray. Between depths of 63
the quality of the grazing and hay crops. It may be and 81 inches, the underlying material is gray, mottled
economically justifiable during long dry periods. This soil clay.
is not suited to shallow rooted pasture plants because it Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cannot retain sufficient moisture in the root zone. Emeralda, Ledwith, Shenks, and Surrency soils. Also
Potential productivity of the soil is moderate to included are a few small areas of soils that have
moderately high for commercial woodland. Longleaf and characteristics similar to those of the Wauberg soil
slash pines are the best adapted species. Slash pine is except that they have a thinner, lighter colored surface
the recommended species for planting. During dry layer or that the upper 4 to 8 inches of the subsurface








78 Soil Svey


layer is brownish sandy material. Total included areas layer is an additional hazard if the soil is used as a site
are less than 20 percent. for sewage lagoons.
This Wauberg soil has a water table that is less than Potential of this soil as habitat for openland, woodland,
10 inches below the surface for 3 to 5 months during and wetland wildlife is fair. Individual areas of this soil do
most years. The available water capacity is low to not have the shallow water areas which are needed for
medium in the surface layer, very low to low in the good wetland wildlife habitat. Areas of this soil, however,
subsurface layer, and low to medium in the subsoil. are commonly closely associated with soils which do
Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the sandy surface have the shallow water areas and cover preferred by this
and subsurface layers and slow to very slow in the type of wildlife.
subsoil. Natural fertility is low in the sandy surface and The Wauberg soil has severe limitations as sites for
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Organic recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or
matter content is moderately low to moderate. near the surface during wet periods, is the main problem.
Natural vegetation is a mixture of grasses, herbs, and Some form of good water control is needed. For
shrubs. It includes bulrush, maidencane, waxmyrtle, sand intensive use of recreational areas, the soil has problems
cordgrass, bluestem, carpetgrass, briers, and panicum. for trafficability and of wind erosion during drier periods.
The areas are still in native vegetation. Maintaining a good vegetative cover or some other form
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops of surface stabilization helps overcome these problems.
because of wetness. If a good drainage system is This Wauberg soil is in capability subclass IIIw and has
installed, the soil is moderately well suited to corn and a woodland ordination symbol of 2w.
soybeans and is well suited to certain special crops, 57B-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
including snap beans, cabbage, squash, and peppers. A slopes. This gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
good drainage system is one that removes excess soil is in small areas on the rolling uplands. Slopes are
surface and subsurface water rapidly. Management slightly convex. The areas are irregular and elongated in
practices are seedbed preparation that includes bedding shape and range from about 10 to 40 acres.
rows, rotating close growing crops with regular crops, Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
returning all crop residue to the soil, and regular loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
applications of fertilizer, extends to a depth of 77 inches. The upper 6 inches is
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Simple yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 6 inches is
drainage measures are needed to remove excess water yellowish brown and gray, mottled sandy clay; the next
during heavy rains. To maintain a good vegetative cover 37 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay; and the lower 22
and reach maximum production, good pasture inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. Between a
management is required. To produce good yields from depth of 77 and 85 inches, the underlying material is
shallow rooting plants, such as white clover, intermixed gray and greenish gray sandy clay loam.
supplemental irrigation is needed during drought Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
periods. A well designed subsurface irrigation system is Kendrick, Lochloosa, Bivans, and Norfolk soils. Also
a good way to remove excess water during wet seasons included are small areas of soils that have
and supply additional water during the drier seasons. characteristics similar to those of the Micanopy soil in
Potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is high. color, drainage, and thickness but have a sandy clay
The shallow water table and slow internal drainage are loam subsoil. Limestone boulders and sinkholes are in
moderate limitations for use of normal woodland some areas and are shown by appropriate symbols.
equipment during wet seasons. The mortality of young Total included areas are less than 20 percent
pine seedlings and competition with other plants are also This Micanopy soil has a perched water table about 20
moderate. Many areas are on wet prairies where trees to 30 inches below the surface for cumulative periods of
do not normally grow. 1 to 3 months during most years. During dry periods the
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses, water table is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
including use as sites for dwellings, small commercial Surface runoff is medium. The available water capacity is
buildings, absorption fields for septic tanks, trench low in the surface layer and medium in the subsoil.
landfills, and local roads and streets. Wetness is the Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
major limitation. Water moves slowly through the slowly upper 6 inches of the subsoil, and very-slow to slow
permeable subsoil. During wet seasons, when the water below this depth. Natural fertility is low in the sandy
table is near the surface, drainage is a severe problem, surface and subsurface layers and medium in the clayey
The moderate shrink-swell potential may cause subsoil. Organic matter content of the surface layer is
additional problems for building foundations and walls for moderately low to high.
construction of roads or streets if corrective measures The natural vegetation of this soil is chiefly slash and
are not taken. Contamination of ground water by loblolly pines; water, live, and laurel oaks; and dogwood.
seepage of waste material through the sandy subsurface sweetgum, and hickory. The understory is mainly chalk







Alachua County, Florida 79


bluestem, waxmyrtle, toothachegrass, lopsided 58B-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
indiangrass, creeping bluestem, American beautyberry, nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
creeping beggarweed, dwarf huckleberry, greenbrier, in small to large areas on gently rolling, limestone plains
blackberry, low panicum, elderberry, pokeberry, and of the western part of the county. Most areas are within
eastern brackenfern. Most areas are in cultivated crops a 1- to 5-mile fringe area adjacent to deep, drought
or improved pasture. sandy ridges. These ridges are along the extreme
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops western boundary of the county. Slopes are nearly
because of a perched water table near the surface smooth to convex. The areas are irregular in shape and
during wet seasons. Erosion is also a hazard. The best range from about 15 to 200 acres.
adapted crops are those that are tolerant of slightly wet Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
conditions. Soybeans, corn, and watermelons normally about 7 inches thick. The underlying layer is fine sand to
produce good yields if good management practices are a depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is pale
used. Tobacco is subject to drowning during periods of brown, the next 49 inches is very pale brown, and the
lower 22 inches is very pale brown and has thin bands of
high rainfall because of the slow internal movement of brownish yellow, loamy sand lamellae.
waterbrownish yellow, loamy sand lamellae.
water through the shallow, clayey subsoil. Good Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management includes growing row crops in rotation with Arredondo, Cadillac, and Jonesville soils. Also included
close growing cover crops, returning all crop residue to are small areas of excessively drained soils that are
the soil, proper seedbed preparation, and use of proper sandy to a depth of 80 or more inches but do not have
amounts of fertilizer and lime. thin bands of lamellae. Small limestone fragments and
This soil is well suited to pasture. Coastal boulders 5 to 60 centimeters in diameter are in some
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses produce high pedons. A few limestone boulders are on the surface in
quality grazing when good management practices are some areas and are shown by the appropriate symbol.
used. These plants require good fertilization, liming, and Total included areas are about 20 percent or less.
controlled grazing for highest yields. Deep rooting plants This Lake soil has low available water capacity.
are little affected by droughts. Shallow rooted pasture Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low. Organic
plants are only moderately suited to this soil because of matter content of the surface layer is low. Surface runoff
the drought condition of the surface layer and upper is slow. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
subsoil during dry seasons. For good yields, irrigation is inches.
needed during these periods. This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
Potential productivity for slash and loblolly pines is crops. Plant nutrients applied to the soil leach rapidly
high. Where young seedlings are to be planted, slash because of the sandy texture. The soil is unable to retain
pine is normally the recommended species. The soil has sufficient moisture during drought periods for good plant
no significant limitations or hazards for woodland growth. In order to improve the soil quality, good
management. management practices are necessary. These practices
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. include a crop rotation system that includes soil
The major limitations for septic tank absorption fields are improving cover crops at least three-fourths of the time,
the perched water table during wet seasons and slow the return of all crop residue to the soil, and proper
internal movement of water through the clayey subsoil, fertilization and liming. Corn, peanuts, soybeans,

The clayey subsoil causes problems in digging trenches tobacco, and watermelons are grown, but irrigation is
or of compaction where the soil s used as cover for needed during drier periods. Wind erosion is a hazard
or of compaction the soil as c where the soilurface is usednot protected by a good vegetativeas cover for
where the surface is not protected by a good vegetative
landfills. The major limitation of the soil as building sites cover or by windbreaks.
for dwellings or small commercial buildings is the high The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture.
shrink-swell potential of the clayey subsoil. The low Deep rooting grasses, such as bahiagrass and
strength and high shrink-swell potential of the clayey bermudagrass, are well suited to this soil, but yields are
subsoil are severe limitations where local roads and usually educed by periodic droughts. To maintain
usually reduced by periodic droughts. To maintain
streets are to be constructed. pasture for good grazing, careful management is
Potential of this soil as habitat for openland wildlife is required. This includes proper establishment of plants,
only fair; however, potential as habitat for woodland fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing. Irrigation helps
wildlife is good. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is improve the quality of the grazing and hay crops. It may
very poor because of the lack of shallow water areas. be economically justifiable during long dry periods.
This Micanopy soil has moderate limitations for most Shallow rooted pasture plants are not suited to this soil.
recreational uses because of the perched water table Potential productivity of this soil is moderately high for
and slow internal drainage during wet periods, slash, longleaf, or loblolly pines (fig. 14). The loose
This Micanopy soil is in capability subclass IIw and has sandy surface layer causes moderate limitations to use
a woodland ordination symbol of 20. of woodland eqt: ment. Seedling mortality is moderate







80 Soil Survey


because of the drought conditions of the soil. Plant inches. It is moderate below this depth. Natural fertility is
competition is moderate. low. Organic matter content of the surface layer is
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings, small moderately low to moderate.
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The natural vegetation is chiefly slash and longleaf
Limitation for septic tank absorption fields is normally pines. The understory is mostly gallberry, palmetto,
slight. Ground water contamination is a hazard, however, running oak, chalky bluestem, dwarf huckleberry,
in areas where homes that have septic tanks are waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, sumac, carpetgrass,
concentrated. The soil has poor filtration. It has severe inkberry, broomsedge bluestem, and panicum. Most
limitations for sewage lagoons and trench landfills areas are still in native vegetation or are planted pine
because of seepage oflthe liquid waste material through plantations. Some areas have been cleared and are in
the sidewalls and floor bf the pits. Sidewalls can cave improved pasture.
when the pits are dug. If the soil has to be used for This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
lagoons or landfills, the floor and sidewalls of these pits crops because of wetness and poor soil qualities.
need to be lined and sealed. Trafficability is a problem Adapted crops are limited. Special crops are generally
around the landfills. Th loose, sandy surface can cause better adapted than the general farm crops grown in the
wind erosion where sits are cleared of vegetation for county. If a good water control system and intensive
building construction. management practices are used, the soil produces fair to
Potential of this soil s openland and woodland wildlife good yields of such crops as corn, soybeans, snap
habitat is fair. Potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is
beans, squash, cabbage, lettuce, sweet corn, and
very poor. Areas of this soil do not have ponds which tomatoes. A good type of water control system is one
are needed for this wet and wildlife, that adequately removes excess water in wet seasons
This Lake soil has severe limitations for recreational and provides water by subsurface irrigation in dry
uses. Maintaining good trafficability is difficult on this

establishment and mai tenance of a good vegetative outlets. Management practices are a crop rotation
cover and windbreaks r the addition of suitable topsoil system that includes close growing, soil improving crops
or some form of hard surface can be used to improve or returning all crop residue to the soil; good seethed
overcome these r b o ro or preparation; and additions of proper amounts of fertilizer
overcome these problem ms. and lime in accordance with the need of the crop grown.
This Lake soil is in c ability subclass IVs and has a ad lime accoance with the need d the crop ge n
woodland ordination sy bol of 3s. If a water control system and good management
practices are used, the soil is well suited to improved
59-Pottsburg sand. This is a nearly level, poorly grass and grass-clover pasture. Water control measures
drained soil in the broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are needed to remove excess water after heavy rains.
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. The Irrigation is needed during drought periods for,shallow
areas are usually irregular in shape and range from rooted pasture plants, such as white clover. Good
about 15 to 250 acres. management includes proper fertilization and liming and
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 8 controlled grazing.
inches thick. The subs rface layer is gray to light gray Potential productivity of this soil as woodland is
sand to a depth of 52 i ches. The subsoil is dark grayish moderate. Slash and longleaf pines are both adapted to
brown to very dark bro n sand to a depth of 86 inches the soil. This soil has moderate limitations for use of
or more. normal woodland equipment Seedling mortality is a
Included with this soi in mapping are small areas of moderate limitation because of the low available water
Chipley, Myakka, Plum er, Pompano, and Zolfo soils. capacity in the sandy surface and subsurface layers and
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to the low natural fertility. Competition of other plants with
this Pottsburg soil except that they have a black or very young pine seedlings is moderate.
dark gray surface layer 8 to 15 inches thick or have a The soil has severe limitations for urban uses,
water table at a depth of 12 to 30 inches for about 1 to including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings,
4 months during most ears. Total included areas are small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench type
about 20 percent or le s. sanitary landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the
This Pottsburg soil h s a water table that is at a depth major limitation. A good drainage system is needed. A
of less than 12 inches lor 1 to 4 months and is at a good drainage system rapidly removes the excess water
depth of 12 to 40 inch s for 4 months or longer during during wet periods and adequately controls the water
most years. During drier periods the water table recedes table. If the soil is used as sites for sewage lagoons and
to more than 40 inches below the surface. Surface runoff trench landfills, ground water can be contaminated by
is slow. The available yater capacity is low to a depth of seepage of liquid waste material through the sandy
about 52 inches and is medium to very high below this sidewalls and floors of the pits. The pits need to be wel
depth. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 52 lined and sealed.







Alachua County, Florida 81

















































Potential of this soil as habitat for openland, woodland, layer is a problem for trafficability, and, during dry
and wetland wildlife is poor. seasons, it is subject to wind erosion. Windbreaks, a
The Pottsburg soil has severe limitations as sites for good vegetative cover, and the addition of good topsoil
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or material or some other form of surface stabilization can
near the surface during wet periods, and the loose sandy be used to help overcome these problems.
surface are the main limitations. Some form of good This Pottsburg soil is in capability subclass IVw and
water control is needed to rapidly remove the excess has a woodland ordination symbol of 4w.
water during rainy periods. The loose, sandy surface








82 Soil Survey



60-Udorthents, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This soil are used, the soil is capable of producing high yields of
consists of stratified soil material washed from limestone top quality hay and pasture for grazing.
aggregates during mining operations and deposited on Potential productivity of the soil for slash and loblolly
nearly level and slightly concave areas of the adjacent pines is moderately high. The mortality of young pine
landscape. The greater part of this material is usually seedlings is moderate because of the problems in site
clayey. Sandy and loamy materials are in pockets and preparation and planting. During wet periods, the
layers to a lesser extent. This overburden material is continual use of heavy equipment across the sticky,
usually about 36 to 80 inches or more thick. The areas clayey overburden material causes moderate problems in
are mostly irregular in shape or elongated and range equipment use. Plant competition is moderate.
from about 15 to 60 acres. This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses.
Typically, this stratified overburden layer is about 72 The problems caused by the clayey overburden are the
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark grayish brown, major limitations for most uses. The perched water table
mixed sandy, loamy, and clayey material and fine also causes problems for some uses. In areas where
nodules of limestone. Below this the remaining septic tank drainpipes are placed within the clayey
overburden consists of intermixed layers and pockets of overburden material, drainage is severely limited by slow
pale yellow, pale brown, light gray, and gray material that percolation. Septic tank absorption fields can be
is clayey, loamy, and sandy. The underlying buried soil is improved by increasing the size of the absorption field,
sandy to a depth of about 90 inches or more. The upper or, if possible, by placing the drainpipe in the underlying
5 inches is grayish brown, and the next 13 inches is pale sand or fine sand. Where homes or other buildings are
brown. to be constructed, plans should include adequate size
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and strength of the foundation footings to overcome the
mixed sandy overburden material that is about 4 to 8 high shrink-swell potential. The soil has severe
feet thick and can have slopes of 0 to 5 percent. A few limitations as sites for local roads and streets because of
small areas of mixed soil material only about 12 to 36 the high shrink-swell potential and low soil strength of
inches thick are included. Total included areas are about the clayey overburden layer. Limitations for sewage
20 percent or less. lagoons are severe. Major limitations are the perched
Water is perched in the overburden material after water table and possible contamination of the ground
heavy rainfall for a length of time and at a depth that are water by seepage if the lagoon floor is dug into the
variable and depend on the content and thickness of the underlying sandy material. The soil has severe limitations
clayey layers within the stratified material. Surface runoff for trench landfills because of possible seepage and the
is slow. The permeability of this overburden material clayey overburden.
varies from moderate to very slow. Permeability of the Potential of the soil for habitat of woodland wildlife is
underlying, sandy buried soil is rapid. Available water good, and for openland wildlife it is fair. This soil has
capacity of the stratified material is variable but is poor potential as habitat for wetland wildlife. Areas of
dominantly medium to high. It is low in the underlying this soil do not have the shallow water sites needed to
sandy soil. Natural fertility of the stratified soil material is attract this type of wildlife.
medium. Organic matter content is low to moderately Udorthents have severe limitations for recreational
low. uses because of the sticky, clayey surface layer. If the
Most areas are in improved pasture. Some small areas soil is used for recreation, suitable soil material needs to
have been left to develop naturally and have scattered be spread over the surface to improve trafficability.
stands of slash and loblolly pines and live, laurel, and This Udorthents soil is in capability subclass Vis and
water oaks. The understory consists of carpetgrass and has a woodland ordination symbol of 3c.
centipedegrass, blackberry, beggarweed, sedges, and
shrubs. 61-Oleno clay, occasionally flooded. This nearly
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated level, poorly drained soil is in small to relatively large
crops in most areas because of the difficulty of land areas on the flood plain of the Santa Fe River. This flood
preparation and cultivation of the sticky and plastic, plain is along the northern boundary of the county.
clayey, mixed overburden material. In a few areas, where Slopes are nearly smooth or slightly concave and are
this overburden material is dominantly a mixture of sandy less than 2 percent. The areas are generally
and loamy materials, the limitations are less severe. The meandering, elongated, or irregular in shape and range
soil produces fair to good yields of such crops as corn from about 25 to 250 acres.
and peanuts if good management practices are used. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray clay about 6
This soil is well suited to improved pasture of inches thick. The subsoil is about 26 inches thick. It is
bermudagrasses and bahiagrasses. Good seedbed dark gray or gray clay. The underlying material extends
preparation has some problems because of the thick, to a depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 10 inches is
clayey surface layer. After the pasture grasses have grayish brown fine sandy loam, the next 13 inches is
become established and if good management practices gray fine sandy loam, the next 16 inches is dark gray







Alachua County, Florida 83


fine sandy loam, the next 6 inches is gray sandy clay swell potential severely restrict this soil for dwellings and
loam, and the lower 5 inches is greenish gray clay. small commercial buildings. The potential hazard of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of flooding, low soil strength, and high shrink-swell potential
Jonesville, Newnan, and Millhopper soils. Also included are major limitations where local roads and streets are to
are small areas of soils that are similar to Oleno soils but be constructed.
have a clayey, fluvial surface layer about 10 to 24 inches The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
thick. Included in a few areas are soils that have 24 to woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair.
47 inches of clayey material overlying sandy material; the The Oleno soil has severe limitations for recreational
sandy material extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. areas. The flooding potential, the high water table, and
Some small areas have limestone within 20 inches of the slow internal movement of water are the major
surface. Total included areas are about 20 percent or limitations. Before the soil can be developed for
less. recreation, a water control system and protection from
This Oleno soil is occasionally flooded for periods of flooding are necessary. The addition of good fill material
about 1 month or less (fig. 15). The water table is at a can raise the surface sufficiently to prevent continuing
depth of 6 to 18 inches for 6 to 8 months during most wetness and to improve surface conditions.
years. Surface runoff is slow. The available water This Oleno soil is in capability subclass Vw and has a
capacity is very high in the clayey surface layer and woodland ordination symbol of 2w.
subsoil, and it is very low to very high in the underlying
material. Permeability is slow in the clayey surface layer 62C-Boardman loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
and subsoil. It ranges from moderately rapid to slow in This sloping, poorly drained soil is on small, short
the underlying material. Natural fertility is medium, and breaking slopes and long hillsides of the uplands. Areas
organic matter content of the clay surface layer is of this soil are predominantly in the southern part of the
moderate. county. They are both irregular and elongated in shape
The natural vegetation is chiefly black tupelo, cypress, and range from about 5 to 50 acres.
elm, red maple, holly, sweetgum, sweetbay magnolia, Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
water oak, and scattered pine. The understory includes sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about
poison ivy, longleaf uniola, greenbrier, dollarwort, smilax, 8 inches thick. It is gray sand and is about 20 percent
panicum, and a few palmetto. nodules and fragments of ironstone and weathered
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of phosphatic limestone. The subsoil extends to a depth of
the hazard of flooding, the high water table, and the 63 inches. The upper 10 inches is gray sandy loam and
clayey surface layer. These are severe limitations which is about 20 percent fragments and nodules of ironstone
are very hard or impractical to overcome. Even if a flood and limestone; the next 14 inches is gray, mottled sandy
control system could be established, the slow internal clay loam and is about 15 percent fragments of
movement of water through the clayey surface layer and weathered phosphatic limestone; the next 12 inches is
subsoil still makes an extensive network of lateral gray sandy clay loam and is about 3 percent fragments
ditches necessary to adequately control the water table, and nodules of limestone; and the lower 13 inches is
Water ponds on the surface after heavy rains because of gray sandy clay. Between depths of 63 and 80 inches,
the slow rate of infiltration. Working the clayey texture of the underlying material is greenish gray clay.
the surface layer is a problem. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is suitable for pasture where good flood and Blichton, Bivans, and Lochloosa soils. Small areas of
water control systems are installed. Good management poorly drained soils that have a 10- to 18-inch surface
includes good seedbed preparation, proper fertilization layer of black or very dark gray loamy sand over a sandy
and liming, and controlled grazing, clay subsoil are also included. Some areas include soils
Potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is high, that have similar characteristics to those of Boardman
but flooding is a hazard. The soil has severe limitations soils but are less than 5 percent fragments and nodules
for normal woodland equipment use and seedling of ironstone and limestone. Rock outcrops and sinkholes
mortality. Plant competition is moderate. are in some areas and are shown by appropriate
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. symbols. Total included areas are about 20 percent or
The hazard of flooding and slow internal movement of less.
water through the clayey subsoil are severe limitations The subsurface layer and upper part of the subsoil are
for absorption fields for septic tanks. Flooding and the saturated by a perched water table for 1 to 4 months
high water table are potential problems for trench during most years. Wetness is caused by hillside
sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons. Sewage lagoons seepage. Surface runoff is rapid, and the hazard of
are also limited by seepage. Some form of good water erosion is severe. The available water capacity is low to
control system and protection from flooding are needed. about 14 inches, medium from 14 to 38 inches, and
The sticky, plastic clayey texture is poor cover material medium to high below 38 inches. Permeability is rapid in
for landfills. The hazard of flooding and the high shrink- the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the







84 Soil Survey






































Figure 15.-Natural vegetation, mainly water-tolerant hardwoods, in an area of poorly drained Oleno clay, occasionally flooded.



upper 10 inches of the subsoil, and slow in the lower at least three-fourths of the time, the return of all crop
part. Natural fertility is medium, and organic matter residue to the soil, and proper fertilization and liming.
content is low to moderately low. This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Erosion is
Natural vegetation on this soil is hickory, loblolly and a severe hazard where the surface is unprotected during
slash pines, magnolia, sweetgum, and laurel, live, and rainy periods. A good cover established as rapidly as
water oaks. The understory includes waxmyrtle and possible minimizes any potential erosion during initial
native grasses. Some areas are cleared and are in growth. Proper management is needed to produce good
pasture. quality pasture. This includes correct fertilization, liming,
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated and controlled grazing.
crops. Wetness and susceptibility to erosion are the This soil has high potential productivity for slash,
major limitations. Hillside seepage is a problem during loblolly, and longleaf pines. The wetness and slope
wet seasons. The soil is moderately suited to corn, cause moderate restrictions and limitations of equipment
soybeans, watermelons, and special crops, if good use, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
management practices are used. These include crop This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses,
rotations that keep the soil in close growing cover crops including use as sites for dwellings, small commercial







Alachua County, Florida 85


buildings, absorption fields for septic tanks, trench practices are used, the soil produces good yields of such
landfills, and local roads and streets. Wetness is the crops as corn, soybeans, squash, lettuce, celery,
major limitation. Water moves slowly through the clayey cabbage, eggplant, snap beans, and sweet corn. A well
subsoil and a perched water table is near the surface designed and properly maintained water control system
during wet periods. The moderate to high shrink-swell is necessary. A good system is one that adequately
potential is an additional problem for construction of removes the excess water when crops are on the soil
building foundations, walls, and roads or streets if and keeps the soil saturated with water at all other times
corrective measures are not taken. This soil has severe to decrease subsidence as much as possible. Good
limitations for sewage lagoons because of seepage and management includes keeping water-tolerant cover
wetness. crops on the soil when regular crops are not grown,
Potential of this soil as habitat for woodland wildlife is returning all crop residue to the soil, good seedbed
good, for openland wildlife it is fair, and for wetland preparation, and proper fertilization.
wildlife it is very poor. Shallow water areas, which are This soil is not suited to pasture under natural
essential for wetland wildlife, are difficult to establish on conditions. Wetness caused by the high water table and
these hillsides.
these hillsides. standing water are the main limitations. These limitations
This Boardman soil has severe limitations for
recreational uses, such as athletic fields and can be overcome only by a well developed drainage and
playgrounds, because of the wetness and slope. Land water control system. If a good water control system and
shaping, which would be required to smooth the sloping good management practices are used, the soil is well
soil, exposes and intermixes much of the underlying suited to improved pasture. A good water control system
clayey subsoil. This causes additional problems in removes the excess water from the soil but maintains
trafficability, especially during rainy periods. The addition water near the surface in order to decrease subsidence.
of suitable topsoil or some form of hard surfacing and Good management includes proper fertilization and
water control are needed, controlled grazing to permit maximum yields.
This Boardman soil is in capability subclass IVw and This is a very wet organic soil, mostly in freshwater
has a woodland ordination symbol of 2w. marsh and on wet prairies. Trees do not normally grow
here. Because of the excessive wetness and very poor
63-Terra Ceia muck. This nearly level, very poorly drainage, the soil is not recommended for commercial
drained organic soil is in freshwater marshes and in large woodland. Most woodland management problems would
areas on wet prairies. This soil is in the southern and be severe.
eastern parts of the county. Slopes are nearly smooth to This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The
slightly concave and are less than 1 percent. The high water table, ponding, excess humus, low soil
individual areas are irregular or elongated in shape and strength, and potential seepage are major limitations that
range from 60 to 300 acres. are hard to overcome. Good drainage and water control
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 68 inches systems require a major network of canals and ditches.
thick. The upper 12 inches is black, and the lower 56 Keeping the areas adequately drained will be a
inches is dark reddish brown. The underlying material is continuing problem. When drained, organic layers
very dark gray clay to a depth of 75 inches or more. subside considerably. Because of the drainage limitation
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and unstable conditions, the organic layer needs to be
Ledwith, Martel, Monteocha, Okeechobee, Pompano, removed and replaced with suitable fill material before
Samsula, and Shenks soils. Total included areas are less any development begins.
than 15 percent. any d o begins.
than 15 percent. Potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife is
This Terra Ceia soil has a water table that is at or on
the surface during most of the year. Available water good. The areas contain shallow water areas which are
capacity of the organic material is very high. Permeability desirable for this type of wildlife. Potential as habitat for
is rapid in the organic material and very slow to slow in openland and woodland wildlife is poor. The areas are
the underlying material. Natural fertility is high. Organic too wet for these types of wildlife.
matter content in the muck is very high. This Terra Ceia soil has severe limitations for
The native vegetation on this soil is a mixture of recreational uses. The excessive wetness and excess
wetland grasses, herbs, and shrubs. It includes humus are the major limitations. A good drainage system
maidencane, cattail, cordgrass, bulrush, buttonbush, that adequately removes the water is expensive to
elderberry, waterhyacinth, arrowhead, pennywort, and establish and maintain. When the soil is drained, the
dollarwort. Most areas are still in native vegetation, exposed, dry surface layer becomes dusty. This
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops condition, along with the unstable condition of the soil,
because of the severe wetness. In its natural condition, causes severe problems in trafficability.
the soil is not suited to crops. If this soil is drained and if This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It is
a good water control system and good management not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.







86 Sol Survey



64-Okeechobee muck. This nearly level, very poorly This soil has severe limitations for urban uses. The
drained organic soil is in large freshwater marshes in the excessive wetness, low strength, excess humus, and
southeastern and eastern parts of the county. Slopes are potential seepage are the major limitations. Good
nearly smooth to slightly concave and are less than 1 drainage systems are hard to establish and maintain.
percent. Areas are irregular or elongated in shape and Even where drainage systems are installed, keeping the
range from 50 to 250 acres. areas adequately drained is a continuing problem. A
Typically, the organic material extends to a depth of good water control system is one that quickly removes
80 inches. The upper 7 inches is black muck; the next excess water but maintains the water table at a depth
14 inches is dark brown muck; the next 14 inches is dark necessary for the selected use. If the soil is drained,
reddish brown peaty muck; the next 13 inches is black organic layers subside considerably. The organic
muck; and the lower 32 inches is very dark brown muck. material needs to be removed and replaced with suitable
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of material before urban development is begun.
Samsula, Shenks, and Terra Ceia soils. Total included Potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife is
areas are less than 15 percent, good. The areas contain ponds, which are desirable for
This Okeechobee soil has a water table that is at or this type of wildlife. Potential for openland and woodland
on the surface during most of the year. The available wildlife is poor. The soil is too wet and does not produce
water capacity of the soil is very high. Permeability is food and cover desirable for these types of wildlife.
rapid. Natural fertility is high. Organic matter content is This Okeechobee soil has severe limitations for
very high. recreational uses. The excessive wetness and excess
The natural vegetation is a mixture of wetland grasses, humus are the major limitations. A good drainage system
herbs, and shrubs. It includes maidencane, cattail, that adequately removes the water is expensive to
cordgrass, bullrush, buttonbush, elderberry, water establish and to maintain. When the soil is drained, the
hyacinth, arrowhead, pennywort, and dollarwort. Most exposed, dry surface layer becomes dusty. The dusty
areas are still in native vegetation, surface, along with the unstable conditions of the soil,
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops causes severe problems for traffic.
because of the excessive wetness. The soil is not This Okeechobee soil is in capability subclass Illw. It
naturally suited to crops. If an adequate water control has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
system is installed, however, it is well suited to such
crops as corn, soybeans, squash, tomatoes, lettuce, 65-Martel sandy clay loam. This nearly level, very
celery, cabbage, eggplant, and snap beans. A well poorly drained soil is in wet depressional areas of the
designed and properly maintained water control system flatwoods and on grassy prairies of the uplands. Slopes
is necessary. It should adequately remove the excess are nearly smooth to slightly concave and range from 0
water when crops are on the soil and should keep the to 1 percent. Areas are irregular or elongated in shape
soil saturated with water at all other times to decrease and range from 5 to 300 acres.
subsidence as much as possible. Good management Typically, the surface layer is sandy clay loam about
includes keeping water-tolerant cover crops on the soil 16 inches thick. The upper 13 inches is black, and the
when regular crops are not grown, returning all crop lower 3 inches is very dark gray. The subsoil is sandy
residue to the soil, good seedbed preparation, and clay to a depth of 54 inches. The upper 19 inches is
proper fertilization, dark gray, and the lower 19 inches is gray and has
This soil is not naturally suited to pasture. Water is at strong brown and yellowish red mottles. Between depths
the surface or standing on it for much of the year. An of 54 and 80 inches, the underlying material is gray
extensive system of dikes and canals, along with good sandy clay.
outlets, is necessary for adequate drainage. In areas Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
where a good water control system can be reasonably Bivans, Blichton, Lynne, Shenks, and Terra Ceia soils.
installed, the soil is well suited to improved pasture. Both Total included areas are less than 15 percent
deep rooted and shallow rooted plants can be grown. A This Martel soil has a water table that is within 10
good water control system is one that not only removes inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most
the excess water from the soil but maintains the water years. Most areas are covered with water for 6 months
table near the surface in order to decrease subsidence or more. Runoff is slow. The available water capacity is
as much as possible. Controlled grazing permits high in the surface layer and medium to high in the
maximum growth of pasture. subsoil. Permeability is moderate in the sandy clay loam
This soil is in wet marshes. It does not normally have surface layer and very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility
trees growing on it. Because of the excessive wetness and organic matter content of this soil are moderate to
and very poor drainage, it is not recommended for high.
commercial woodland. Most woodland management Natural vegetation is chiefly water-tolerant grasses and
problems would be severe, other plants, which include bulrush, maidencane,








Alachua County, Florida 87



cordgrass, cattails, and buttonbush. A few areas have control and protection from ponding are necessary. The
scattered cypress, pond pine, and gum. addition of good fill material can raise the surface
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The sufficiently to prevent continuing wetness.
excessive wetness, very poor drainage and water This Martel soil is in capability subclass Vw. It is not
control, and slow internal drainage are the major assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
limitations. Water stands on the surface during much of
the year. This soil is in areas where good outlets for 66-Lynne sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil
artificial drainage systems are not normally available. If is in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are nearly
outlets are available, an extensive system of canals and smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
ditches is required to remove the excess water and keep Areas are irregular and elongated in shape and are
the water table low enough to establish an adequate about 10 to 100 acres.
rooting system for plants. The slow movement of water Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5
through the'clayey subsoil requires an extensive network inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
of lateral ditches for adequate internal drainage. Even to gray sand to a depth of about 20 inches. The upper
where good water control systems can be established, part of the subsoil is 3 inches of black sand and 6
water continues to puddle on the surface after heavy inches of dark reddish brown sand. Below this is 3
rains. The ponding is caused by the slow rate of inches of brown sand. The lower part of the subsoil is
infiltration and slow internal drainage of the soil. The loamy to clayey and extends to a depth of 80 inches or
texture of the surface layer also causes problems in more. The upper 5 inches is light brownish gray sandy
workability, clay loam, and the lower 43 inches is gray, mottled
If this soil remains undrained, it is not suited to pasture sandy clay.
because of the ponding. The lack of good drainage Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Bivans,
outlets severely restricts the use of this soil for pasture. Blichton, Martel, and Pomona soils. Total included areas
If good drainage and water control systems can be are less than 15 percent.
developed and maintained and good management This Lynne soil has a water table that is at a depth of
practices are used, good quality grass or grass-clover less than 10 inches for 1 to 3 months, at a depth of 10
pasture can be grown, to 40 inches for 3 to 6 months, and at a depth of more
Undrained areas of this soil are not suited to slash, than 40 inches during drier seasons. Surface runoff is
loblolly, or longleaf pines because of the excessive low. The available water capacity is low to a depth of
wetness caused by ponding. Use of woodland equipment about 20 inches, medium from 20 to 29 inches, low from
is severely restricted. Seedling mortality is severe. Plant 29 to 32 inches, and medium to high below a depth of
competition is moderate. 32 inches. Permeability is rapid in the upper 20 inches,
The soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. moderate from 20 to 29 inches, rapid from 20 to 32
The ponding and slow internal movement of water inches, and moderately slow below a depth of 32 inches.
through the clayey subsoil are severe hazards for Natural fertility is low to a depth of about 32 inches and
absorption fields of septic tanks. Ponding and the high medium below this depth. Organic matter content is low
water table can cause pollution if the soil is used for to moderately low.
trench sanitary landfills or for sewage lagoons. Some Natural vegetation of this soil is longleaf and slash
form of good water control and protection from ponding pines. The understory is mostly sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
are needed to prevent this hazard. The sticky, plastic, gallberry, and native grasses. Most areas are still in
clayey subsoil is poor cover material for landfills, natural vegetation. A few areas are cleared and are in
Ponding, the high shrink-swell potential, and the low improved pasture.
strength of the clayey subsoil severely restrict the soil as This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and for because of wetness. The number of adapted crops is
local roads and streets. Even if site conditions could be very limited unless good water control measures are
improved sufficiently to overcome most of these used. If a good water control system and good
problems, keeping the areas adequately drained would management practices are used, the soil is well suited to
be a continuing problem. a number of crops, including squash, beans, eggplant,
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland pepper, cabbage, soybeans, and corn. A good water
wildlife and woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as control system is one that removes excess water during
habitat for wetland wildlife is good. Shallow water areas, wet seasons but provides subsurface irrigation during dry
which are needed for this type of wildlife, either are seasons. Management practices are rotating row crops
natural or can be developed in mapped areas of this soil. with close growing, soil improving crops; leaving all crop
This Martel soil has severe limitations for recreational residue on the soil; and proper applications of fertilizer
areas. Ponding and the slow internal movement of water and lime according to the need of the crop being grown.
through the clayey subsoil are the major limitations. If a water control system and good management
Before the soil can be developed for recreation, water practices are used, the soil is well suited to improved







88 Soil Survey



grass and grass-clover pasture. Water control measures and is about 14 percent nodules of ionstone and
are needed to remove excess water after heavy rains fragments of phosphatic limestone; the next 21 inches is
and to furnish needed water during drought periods, gray sandy clay loam that has light gray and brown
especially where white clover or other adapted, shallow mottles. It is about 6 percent nodules of phosphatic
rooted pasture plants are grown. Good management limestone. The lower 17 inches is dark gray sandy cay
includes proper fertilization, liming, and controlled loam that has olive gray and brownish yellow mottles.
grazing. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Potential productivity of this soil for commercial Bivans, Blichton, Boardman, and Lochloosa soils. Small
woodland production of slash and longleaf pines is areas of soils that are similar to Wacahoota soils but
moderately high. Slash pine is the recommended species have sandy surface and subsurface layers more than 40
for planting. Use of equipment is moderately restricted inches thick over a sandy clay subsoil are included. Also,
during wet seasons. The slightly drought conditions of small areas of Wacahoota soils that have slopes of 2 to
the sandy surface and subsurface layers during periods 5 percent are included. Total included areas are less
of low rainfall and the low natural fertility are limitations than 20 percent.
that cause moderate seedling mortality. Competition of This Wacahoota soil has a water table that is less than
other plants with young pine seedlings is also moderate. 10 inches below the surface for 1 to 4 months during
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, most years. Surface runoff is moderate. The available
including absorption fields for septic tanks, dwellings, water capacity is low to medium in the loamy sand
small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, trench surface layer and low in the subsurface layer. It is low to
landfills, and roads and streets. Wetness is the major medium in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
problem. A good drainage system is needed to remove surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the
the excess water during wet periods and to adequately loamy subsoil. Natural fertility is low to medium. Organic
control the water table. If the soil is used for sewage matter content is moderate in the surface layer.
lagoons, contamination of ground water by seepage is a Natural vegetation is hickory, water oak, sweetgum,
potential hazard. The pits need to be lined and sealed. and slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. The understory is
Potential of this soil for use as habitat for openland, waxmyrtle, briers, and other native grasses and shrubs.
woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. Most areas are still woodland.
The Lynne soil has severe limitations as sites for This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
recreational areas. The high water table, which is at or because of wetness and a severe hazard of erosion.
near the surface during wet periods, is a major problem. These are severe problems during wet seasons and are
Some form of good water control system is needed. difficult to control. The number of adapted crops is
Trafficability and wind erosion are also problems, limited. This soil is only moderately suited to such crops
especially during drier periods, because of the sandy as corn, peanuts, and certain vegetable crops, if good
surface layer. Maintaining good vegetative cover or some management practices are used. Management practices
other form of surface stabilization can overcome this include intensive erosion control measures and water
problem. control measures that intercept and remove the surface
This Lynne soil is in capability subclass Illw and has a water slowly. Other management practices are planting
woodland ordination symbol of 3w. row crops on the contour, rotating row crops and cover
crops, keeping cover crops on the soil at least two-thirds
67C-Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent of the time, leaving all crop residue on the soil, and good
slopes. This sloping, poorly drained soil is in small and seedbed preparation. Fertilization and liming are also
large areas on wet slopes in uplands. The areas are needed to obtain good yields.
irregular or elongated in shape and range from 5 to 50 iThis soil is well suited to improved pasture and
acres, produces good quality grazing if the pasture is well
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown managed. This includes adequate fertilization, liming, and
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. It is about 6 percent controlled grazing. Erosion is a severe hazard when the
nodules of ironstone and fragments of phosphatic surface is left unprotected. During initial growth, a good
limestone. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 32 ground cover established immediately, and maintained,
inches. The upper 5 inches is gray and is about 8 minimizes erosion.
percent nodules of ironstone and fragments of Potential productivity of the soil to pine trees is high.
phosphatic limestone. The next 12 inches is grayish Moderate limitations for normal woodland equipment use
brown and is about 12 percent nodules of ironstone and during harvesting are slope and wetness. The hazard of
fragments of phosphatic limestone. The lower 8 inches is erosion and plant competition are also moderate.
light brownish gray and is about 12 percent nodules of This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses,
ironstone and fragments of phosphatic limestone. The including use as sites for dwellings, small commercial
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The buildings, absorption fields for septic tanks, trench
upper 10 inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam landfills, sewage lagoons, and local roads and streets.








Alachua County, Florida 89



Wetness caused by hillside seepage is the major This Wacahoota soil has severe limitations for such
limitation. Some form of water control, such as recreational uses as athletic fields, playgrounds,
subsurface drainage, is needed to remove the excess campsites, and picnic areas because of wetness and
water during wet periods.,Ground water can be slope. Some system of water control, such as
contaminated by seepage of effluent through the sandy subsurface drainage, is needed to remove excess water
sidewalls if the soil is used for sewage lagoons or and control hillside seepage during rainy periods. Land
landfills. The moderate shrink-swell potential is an shaping is necessary before the soil can be used for
additional limitation for construction of building playgrounds. It will expose and intermix some areas of
foundations and walls or of roads and streets if the subsoil, which could cause additional problems in
corrective measures are not taken. trafficability during rainy periods. The addition of suitable
Potential of this soil as habitat for openland wildlife topsoil or some other form of surface improvement is
and woodland wildlife is fair. Potential as habitat for needed.
wetland wildlife is very poor because the areas do not This Wacahoota soil is in capability subclass IVw and
have the ponds desired by this type of wildlife, has a woodland ordination symbol of 2w.