<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Cover
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Mission San Luis de Apalachee
 Land of the Apalachee
 New faces, new ways
 Stronghold at the top
 Mission San Luis
 Trade bolsters San Luis' econo...
 Mission San Luis hours and map
 Friars' daily life
 Cemetary at San Luis
 Community gathers at the plaza
 Apalachee life
 Apalachee civic center
 Christianity and the Apalachee
 Black drink : a southeastern native...
 Daring and dangerous game
 Comfortable life on the Spanish...
 Apalachee Militia in a Spanish...
 Married life in Spanish Americ...
 Spanish fort at San Luis
 Missions abandoned
 Epilogue
 Suggested Reading
PALMM UFSPEC
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025127/00028
 Material Information
Title: Mission San Luis de Apalachee : a visitor guide
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida. Department of State
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: readings
Temporal Coverage: Common Era ( 1200 - 3000 )
Spatial Coverage: Florida
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00025127:00028
 Related Items
Related Items: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version


This item has the following downloads:

UF00025127 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Mission San Luis de Apalachee
        Page 2
    Land of the Apalachee
        Page 3
    New faces, new ways
        Page 4
    Stronghold at the top
        Page 5
    Mission San Luis
        Page 24
    Trade bolsters San Luis' economy
        Page 6
    Mission San Luis hours and map
        Page 25
    Friars' daily life
        Page 8
    Cemetary at San Luis
        Page 9
    Community gathers at the plaza
        Page 10
    Apalachee life
        Page 12
    Apalachee civic center
        Page 13
    Christianity and the Apalachee
        Page 7
    Black drink : a southeastern native tea
        Page 14
    Daring and dangerous game
        Page 11
    Comfortable life on the Spanish frontier
        Page 15
    Apalachee Militia in a Spanish Fort
        Page 18
    Married life in Spanish America
        Page 16
    Spanish fort at San Luis
        Page 17
    Missions abandoned
        Page 19
    Epilogue
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Suggested Reading
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text



A


SbeaM :


'N

A 4


*. -r


jttoo 9


MISSION


SAN


LUIS DE APALACHEE


A Visitor Guide


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


4vr7 a
--ErA


-"

#1


\I'




























Mission San Luis de Apalachee
A Visitor Guide






Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright





FLORIDA
HERITAGE

TTT

A Florida Heritage Publication








Copyright 1998 Florida Department of State
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
All rights reserved

Acknowledgments
This booklet is part of a comprehensive interpretive project made possible with support from the
National Endowment for the Humanities (GM-24665-92 & GM-25295-95), the Florida Legislature, and
Florida's Conservation and Recreation Lands Program. George W. Percy, Director of the Florida
Department of State's Division of Historical Resources, was a constant source of encouragement
throughout the four years of project development and implementation.
We are particularly grateful to Museum of Florida History staff members Steven Little, Jan Wiley and
Steve Oakley who designed the layout of this booklet. Synergy Design Group, under the direction of
John LoCastro and Mary Frances Weathington, designed and produced the original panel layouts and
digital art. Edward Jonas produced five spectacular paintings for the project and Museum of Florida
History artists Robert Deaton, Lynn Rogers and Bill Celander created many of the complex graphics and
design elements. The principal authors of the text were Bonnie G. McEwan, John H. Hann and James J.
Miller, with significant contributions by Richard L. Ehrlich and Jane G. Landers. We thank all of the pro-
ject participants for their time and enthusiasm.
Bonnie G. McEwan and James J. Miller
Project Directors





Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright





Table of Contents


Mission San Luis de Apalachee
The Land of the Apalachee
New Faces, New Ways
A Stronghold at the Top
Trade Bolsters San Luis' Economy
Christianity and the Apalachee
The Friars' Daily Life
The Cemetery at San Luis
The Community Gathers at the Plaza
A Daring and Dangerous Game
Apalachee Life
The Apalachee Civic Center
The Black Drink: A Southeastern Native Tea
A Comfortable Life on the Spanish Frontier
Married Life in Spanish America
The Spanish Fort at San Luis
Apalachee Militia in a Spanish Fort
Missions Abandoned
Epilogue
Suggested Reading
Mission San Luis Site Map
Mission San Luis Locator Map


2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
24
Back Cover


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright






Mission San Luis de Apalachee


Mission San Luis was one of more than 100 mission settlements
established in Spanish Florida between the 1560s and 1690s.


Between 1656 and 1704, more than 1400
Apalachee Indians and Spaniards lived
at the mission. San Luis was a principal
village of the Apalachee Indians and
home of one of their most powerful
leaders. San Luis was also the Spaniards'
westernmost military, religious, and
administrative headquarters.


Admirl Antonio de
Landesde conducted
a survey of Apalachee
Province in 1705, one
year after the mission
were abandoned. This
map, dawn during
Landeche's visit is the
only cmtgphic
evidence of San Luis
and the sounding
areL


2


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


Fi (P11 'I
~HLurnM; -






The Land of the Apalachee


The agricultural wealth of Apalachee Province
made the native inhabitants one of the most
powerful and prosperous tribes in Florida.
SThe fertile soils and dense population were
S' also what attracted Spaniards to the region
and led to the economic success of the
Mission community.


The most important foods in the
Apalachee diet were corn, beans, -
and squash supplemented by
fish and wild game, along
with maypop, sunflower,
acorn, wild grapes, black-
Sberries, and hickory nuts.










-''- K A- "



Apalachee men and women did different kinds of work. Men cleared
the fields, hunted and fished, constructed buildings, and made tools and
other objects. Women tended kitchen gardens and field crops, collected
wild foods, and did many other tasks such as rearing children, cooking
making pottery, grinding corn, and preparing skins.





3


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright






New Faces, New Ways


1


FLORJNI
Wwi


Apalachee rulers requested Spanish friars as early
as 1607 when epidemics and the threat of foreign
attacks brought about a loss of faith in their
traditional customs and leadership. From 1633 to
1635 at least 5,000 Apalachee were baptized by two
friars, Pedro Mufioz and Francisco Martinez

Both Spaniards and the Apalachee were forced to
alter some of their customs in order to coexist.
Some traditions were more easily changed than
others.


A
This quartz crystal cr was found in the church at San Lula Photomicrography
reveal how the crw was made and suggests dht it was the work of a native
artisan. This may be evidence of the Apalachee's religious aonverton and their
adoption of Christian symbols.


4


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


---- ------ -


I






A Stronghold at the Top


In 1656, the Spaniards chose this hilltop because of its clear view of the
countryside. A powerful Apalachee chief offered to build a blockhouse
for the Spanish military garrison and moved his village to San Luis.
The blockhouse added a formal military component to the mission
and preceded settlement of the province by Spanish civilians.


Fit1
tli I u,[
Tit


A
A bird's-eye view of San Luis looking east,
circa 1700, more than four decades after it
was first established at this location.


5


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright













































lap legend


LOCATION OF 17TH CENTURY
FEATURE
'1ll RESTROOMS

V NATURE TRAIL ENTRANCE


To ensure a pleasant visit for all, we ask you to remember
a few rules:

* Deposit trash in appropriate receptacles.
* Pets must be restrained on a six-foot, hand-held leash.
P Intoxicants are not permitted on the grounds.
* Gates to property are locked promptly at 4:30 p.m.


Mission San Luis


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


Mission Period San Luis

1608 Friars make first friendly visit to
Apalachee.
1633 Spanish friars arrive in Apalachee,
where they establish the mission
of San Luis de Jinayca.
1645 The first deputy governor of
Apalachee is appointed.
1647 Non-Christian Indians stage an
uprising in which seven of the
eight existing churches are
destroyed and the deputy
governor, his family, and three
friars are killed.
1656 San Luis de Jinayca and a large
native population move to the
present location of Mission San
Luis. By this time, San Luis is
recognized as the provincial
capital.
1670 The British establish Charles
Town and become an active
threat to Spanish Florida. The
Spaniards respond by building
the Castillo de San Marcos in
St. Augustine.
1675 With a population of more than
1500 people, San Luis is the
largest community in the
province. A new name, San Luis
de Talimali, first appears in
Spanish documents.
1702 The outbreak of war in Europe
gives Britain a plausible reason
for open hostilities against
Spaniards in Florida.
1704 Facing imminent raids from
British and Creek Indian
forces, Mission San Luis is
burned and abandoned.


f SITE DIRECTORIES

... INTERPRETIVE PATHWAY
N- NATURE TRAIL






Trade Bolsters San Luis' Economy


Relatively easy access to the St. Marks River port of call
enhanced San Luis' trading industry. Supplies could be
unloaded at St. Marks River and, using small boats,
could be brought to within 15 miles of the mission.
Similarly, surplus goods produced at the mission were
transported by boat or over land to St Marks for export.
Imported goods found at San Luis originated from
Europe, Mexico, South America, and the Orient.





Artifacts found at San Luis provide dues to the daily lives
and adivities of the mission residents. Large amphoa-
shaped containers stoed olive oil and other Mediteanean
foods such as wine and olives Other frequently
found artifacts include European-tradition
utensils, pottery, and
various iron tools
and hardware.
11 AH A 1


I s
lIii-mui i
S.
STT?


DIEGO DE FLORENCIA
Diego de Florenda was one of the wealthiest traders at
San Lui. He owned several ships which transported
hides, beef, corn, allow, lard, hams and chickens to
Havana in exchange or goods coming in from the
Orient, Europe, and other parts of the New World.


0,


6


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright












Mission San Luis
2020 West Mission Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32304 F\XIT :
(850) 487-3711

Hours of Operation z 2/
San Luis Mission Park
Open Tuesday-Sunday, 10:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m. C corr T e.ass
Closed Mondays. Closed Thanksgiving Day
and Christmas Day. Admission is free. Mission San Luis
^-a ^. J de Apalachee / N
Tour Information --
Tours for large groups can be arranged by reservation. onda Sa~
School groups must have at least one adult for every ST -3 ~ L c apnI V,
seven students. Picnic tables are available. For-- Ta l27
information about archaeological activities, call i io ae civic .1'
(850) 487-3655. An, C'nler Flola
6 Hist y
San Luis offers a natural setting in which history and
archaeology can be discovered. We invite you to
contact us about future programs and events, or ways
in which you can become involved in site activities.



S1Road R- ee St


HERmE U.S.
Secretary of State X St:
Florida Department of State
Din Ilon of Historical Resources
Mission San Luis is jointly administered by the Bureau of
Archat.nlogical Research and the Museum of Florida History.
http://www.dos.state.fl.us/dhrlbar/san_luis ISBN 0-9642289-3-9



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright






The Friars' Daily Life


The friars lived in the convento (friary) where they used their time away from the church to
read and improve their knowledge of the Apalachee language through native interpreters.
They also traveled to outlying villages that had no friars in residence.


I .


In keeping with their vws of poverty, fias
lived spartan lives in sparsely fumished
ro105


! t'
-'t



.9
! itl ":

*- L'f~ '1


The friary compound probably included
storage areas for foods, a detached kitchen,
gardens, and corralled animals. It is likely
that Apalachee women did most of the
cooking and laundry for the friars.


FRAY MARZELO DE SAN JOSEPH
Pastor at San Luis in the 1680, Fray Marzeo de San Joseph
translated a letter written by the chief from Apalachee to
Spanish. It was sent to King Oudes UL the King of Spain.
The letter dedared the chief loyalty to the king and the
governor of Florida and acknowledged that the new
over righted the wrong of his predeoes


8


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


:Y
.,






The Cemetery at San Luis


The cemetery at San Luis is located beneath the floor
of the church. Since al the residents of San Luis
wee Christians, a great number of them were
buried in the church cemetery As in other aspects of
life, rank had its privileges. Important or wealthy
people were buried closest to the altar


.4,-


4 At 0 by 11 fee, the dunch at San Luis was 4
equalin size to the dmrc in
St Augustine Its design followed
a proportional system known as the
Golden Redangle which can be traced "a
baekas eadyas 300 B.C


4r


The baptistry at
San Luis was
located immediately
inside the entrance on
the left or gospel side of
the church near the entrance.


a nha 3
*tI p


Residents at San Luis
recited the rosary nightly.


9



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


i--] i






The Community Gathers at the Plaza


The plaza was the central hub of commerce
and activities for the mission. Traditionally,
both Spainards and Apalachee built large,
central plazas in their communities.


At 410 feet in diameter the rcular plaza
was about the size of a modern football
field. An open and expansive area, the
treeless, packed-cay plaza was the site of
many community activities.


I JUAN DE PAIVA
Juan de Palva pat a San Ia wre a description of
he ball gme and his pepti of its evls a pat of his
mpan to stop the game. To native I ntprets
pvided many of e details about the igins and
religious pratis ma iated with the hall gag.


A
On any given day, the plaza might have been
filled with people and activities: soldiers marching,
merchants trading, and children playing.


10


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


r II ril
'Ti






Apalachee Life


Living on the hilltop where the plaza and
public buildings were located was an
honor most likely reserved for the village's
leaders. They attended daily meetings in
the council house where community affairs
were discussed and planned.
By contrast, most Apalachee lived and .
worked in outlying areas near their fields ,,
and only came to the mission center for
Saturday evening prayers, Sunday mass, '7 I
evening dances, ball games and other
special events.
Apalachee living at San Luis ate a variety '
of foods introduced by the Spaniards
including peaches, sugar, and beef. They
also adopted European agricultural
practices and enjoyed limited access to
imported goods such as firearms, cloth,
and j ewey.


hatI


At 120 feet in diameter the council Second in size were leade'hoes, A typical Apalachee
house could accommodate up to generally about one-half the size (65 home was only 18-24
3000 people, feet in diameter) of the council house. feet in diameter




12



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


ouseholds at San Luis
r in small hamlets
Aided for several
pmroun the
cenbmtrt






The Apalachee Civic Center


Bird's eye view of the Apalachee council house.
A Major support post and beam E Palm thatch
B Purlins (thatch support) F Roof opening
C Bench support posts G Roof rafters
D Central hearth H Benches


A
On the night before the ball game, specific rituals had to be
performed in the council house. An elevated bench was reserved
for the chief behind the players. New fires were started between
the chief's and players' benches that were to be used only for
lighting the chief's tobacco. In order to be ritually purified, the
chief fasted from food and spent the night smoking tobacco and
drinking cassina to the point of nausea.


13



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright







Christianity and the Apalachee


The introduction of Catholicism to the Apalachee at San Luis brought
fundamental changes. From marriage to funeral practices, holidays to
education, the church influenced nearly every aspect of daily life


Throughout the day, the church bells
tolled to mark many activities. Spaniards
and Apalachee alike attended Saturday
evening prayers, 11 a.n Mass on
Sunday, services on religious holidays,
choir practices, baptisms, marriages, and
funeral rites in the church.



The base of the Limestone baptismal
font was found inside the church
at San Luis. It is the only
baptimal font ever
located at a mission
in Spanish Florida.


k'
; .... ..


i.


ct


Baptisms began at the door of the church with the priest
addressing questions to the child who was held by a godparent
The group then moved inside the church to the front where the
priest completed the ceremony.




7



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


SFlRIIY\
HII I -'' i

Tffi


SP





The Black Drink: A Southeastern Native Tea


FlRIrx\
TiDim
HtRil~


Cassina, commonly called black drink, was a dark brew loaded with caffeine. It was popular with
Spaniards and Apalachee alike. One friar was allegedly experiencing cassina-nerves or caffeine
withdrawal when he stormed into the council house and broke some pottery jugs because he was
not given his black drink on time.


Black drink could only be
served in the council house
unless the chief granted
special permission to serve
it elsewhere.


BIP BENTURA
As inija, or town manager, Bip Bentura
was responsible for overseeing the preparation
of the black drink. He was also in charge
of native sentries and supervised the planting
of the San Luis fields.


The leaves of Ber vomitoria, or yaupon holly, were
used to make cassina. They were first roasted, then
ground before being used to brew the black drink.


14


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


-----------------


I'


i






A Daring and Dangerous Game


The Apalachee ball game was an
integral part of native life. The game was
dedicated to the native gods of rain and
thunder and was played to ensure rain
for crops.

The game involved 50 or more players
and was quite violent, sometimes
resulting in death. Superior ball players
became pampered celebrities in their
villages, much like athletic stars today.
L



This historical during shows
the goal poat used in the ball V
game. It was crowned by an
eagle's nest inside of which
were shells and a stuffed
eagle. Five sassafras
pepg were attached
to each side of
i ethetriagui5


a -


*15


epl~Yt


A
The Apalachee ball game held much religious and
sodal significance. The ball, about the size of a
golf ball, wa made of hardened clay covered with
buckskdn.


11


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


'CI~-_, z





A Comfortable Life on the Spanish Frontier


1


Daily life for Spaniards at San Luis was not unlike that in other
Hispanic communities. Shoemakers and tailors plied their
trades. Off-duty soldiers drank wine, played at cards or dice,
and strummed guitars or similar stringed instruments known
as vihuelas.


--Spaniards heir taebl with dishes from
Mexico and the Orient and adorned themselves
with fine European clothing and jewely.



15


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


TRLUrjr
HEIrnF4 W
Lm_






Apalachee Militia in a Spanish Fort


Apalachee militias provided the bulk of the province's
military power Apalachee received training in the use of
firearms from Spaniards. They served as sentries, some
held military titles, and they always outnumbered
Spanish soldiers on raids.



The Apalachee formed at least one native religious
brftherhood, or confratenit, at San Lua, Our
Lady of the Rosary. They cared their banner
(with Our Lady of the Rosary on one side and a
ncrifix on the other) with them into wa.


HIERITA

TTI!



After completion of a new, two-ermy blockhouse
In the 1690t, sp wbd with four diamond-
shaped bastion wu built It was sumounded by
a dry moat filled with cactus


peL*


a.
*-i,


18



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright






Married Life in Spanish America


By outward appearances, life in the
Spanish village was European in
nature However, since Spanish sol-
diers comunmonly married Apalachee
women, native wives continued
some Indian traditions in their
homes Aalachee women perceived
marriage to Spaniards as a form of
upward mobility for them and
their children


Frl)uR4
Hri-i Ku '


Large amounu of
imported jewelry
made ofgla,
pxdon m etam and
stioe were found in
the Spanih vilge .
San Lui&


JUANA CATERINA
Only a few Spanish women lived at San Lis, mot of
wham probably had Apalachee servm Juana Cateina
wa married to the deputy governor and ley had ten
dchidan. She wa a bad-ampend woman who once
slapped a leader in ae fa far not bingin her fih.
Her action wer typical ofthe atutde of mny
Spaniards towant he Apalade.


In the Spanish village, Apalachee wives tended
gardens, prepared foods, washed their families'
clothes, and reared their children.


16



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


[


1






The Spanish Fort at San Luis


From the 1650s when San Luis was fist
established, its military garrison had some
type of casa fuete or blockhouse. However,
a ful-scale fort was not constructed until the
1690s when the threat of British attack
became imminent

The number of Spanish soldiers stationed at
San Luis ranged from 12 to 45. There wee
also an unknown number of reormados or
civilians who remained on call in the event
of a military strike.

V
A variety of military and architects artficts, found
beneath layem of red day, pride critical dues to the
daily life in and around the military complex.
A bigger Guard E Nails
B Knife Blade F Gmnflint
C Window Laith G Musketbal
D Flintlock Mechaniam H Seententh-Centuiy
Spnish Flintlock


A B'Dq 1


F *
GP""""""""""C


-a-c


* a


S. .,


-*-
p~~*


*--"


A team of o and handle approach the entrme to the fort
with their heavy but nmpotant burden a new six-pond cannon.


17



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


5r


'1"''
..






Missions Abandoned


Beginning in 1702, British Carolina
Governor James Moore began a full-
scale attack on Spanish Florida aimed at
St Augustine and the missions along the
Atlantic coast Early in 1704, Moore and
his Creek allies mounted a campaign
against Apalachee.


TTT


The strongly fortified San Luis was not a
target of the initial raids of 1704. On July
31, just two days before the final strike
force reached San Luis, the Spaniards
and Apalachee burned and evacuated
the mission.


fl r-Y _w


A
Women and children were the first to be evacuated
from San Luis. Men stayed behind to burn the
mission in order to prevent British forces from
occupying it.


19



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright






Epilogue


A A


The residents of San Luis probably took their most
valuable possession with them when they abandoned
the mission. But heavy objec, nsch as the church bell,
were buried with the intent of reclaiming them someday.
Since only one bell fragment has been found at San Luie
so fi many more may sdll be buried.


The map depicts the various
evacuation routes used by the
Apalachee and Spaniards.


20



Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright


HilTTl.

UTf






















































Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright





Suggested Reading


Boyd, Mark F., Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin
1951 Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions. University of
Florida Press, Gainesville.
Bushnell, Amy Turner
1994 Situado and Sabana: Spain's Support System for the Presidio and Mission Provinces
of Florida. Anthropologcal Papers of the American N usuem of Natural -listory, No. 74.

Deagan, Kathleen
1987 Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, 1500-1800. Vol. 1.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Ewen, Charles, R. and John H. Hann
1997 Hernando de Soto Among the Apalachee: The Archaeology of the First Winter
Encampment. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Gannon, Michael V.
1965 The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida, 1513-1870. University
of Florida Press, Gainesville.

Hann, John H.
1988 Apalachee: The Land Betwen the Rivers. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

1996 The Missions of Spanish Florida. In The New History of Florida, edited by M. Gannon,
pp. 78-99. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

1996 A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville.

Hann, John H. (translator)
1986 Translation of Governor Rebolledo's 1657 Visitation of Three Florida Provinces and
Related Documents. Florida Archaeology 2. Florida Bureau of Archaeological
Research, Tallahassee.

1986 Church Furnishings, Sacred Vessels, and Vestments. Florida Archaeology 2. Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

1993 Visitations and Revolts in Florida, 1656-1695. Florida Archaeology 7. Florida Bureau
of Archaeological Research, Tallahasee.
Hann, John H. and Bonnie G. McEwan
1998 The Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis. University Press of Florida. Gainesville.

Jones, B. Calvin, John Hann, and John F Scarry
1991 San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale: A Seventeenth-Century Spanish Mission in Leon
County, Florida. Florida Archaeology 5. Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Tallahassee.

22


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright





Suggested Reading, cant;


McEwan, Bonmre G.
1991 San Luis de Talimali: The Archaeology of Spanish-Indian Relations at a Florida
Mission. Historical Archaeology 25(3):36-60.

McEwan, Bonnie G. (editor)
1993 The Spanish Missions of La Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

McEwan, Bonnie G. and Charles B. Poe
1994 Excavations at Fort San Luis. The Florida Anthropologist 47(2):90-106.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville.

Paync, Claudine
1994 Fifty Years of Archaeological Research at the Lake Jackson Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 47(2):10/-119.

Scary, John E and Bonnie G. McEwan
1995 Domestic Architecture in Apalachee Province: Apalachee and Spanish Residential
Styles in the Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Period Southeast American
Antiquity 6001:482-495.
Shapiro, Gar-
19.Jd Archlaeologv at San Luis: Broad-Scale Testing, 1934-1985. Florida Archaeology 3.
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Shapirn, Gary and Bonnie G. MclFwan
1992 Archaeology at San Luis: The Apalachee Council House. Florida Archaeology 6.
Florida Bureau of Archaeolugical Research, Tallaha-swe.

Shapiro, Gary and Richard Vernon
1992 Archaeology at San Luis: The Church Complex. Florida Archaeology 6. Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Thomas, David Hurst (editor)
1990 Columbian Consequences. Vol. 2. Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the
Spanish Borderlands East. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Weber, David J.
1992 The Spanish Frontier in North America. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Worth, John E.
1998 The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida. Vol. 1: Assimilation, Vol. 2: Resistance
and Destruction. University Press of Florida, Gainesville



23


Provided courtesy of the Florida Department of State and Mission San Luis de Apalachee.
A Florida Heritage Publication. Copyright 1988 by the Florida Department of State. All rights reserved.
Intended for educational use only. Reproduction for sale or for commercial purposes is a violation of copyright