Group Title: Florida : from the beginning to 1992 : a Columbus jubilee commemorative
Title: Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025122/00002
 Material Information
Title: Florida from the beginning to 1992 : a Columbus jubilee commemorative
Physical Description: xii, 204 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Coker, William S
Shofner, Jerrell H., 1929-
Morris, Joan Perry, 1935-
Malone, Myrtle Davidson
Publisher: Pioneer Publications
Place of Publication: Houston Tex. (12345 Jones Rd. Suite 103 Houston 77070-4843)
Publication Date: c1991
 Subjects
Subject: Industries -- Florida   ( lcsh )
History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 201-203) and index.
Statement of Responsibility: by William S. Coker and Jerrell H. Shofner ; Joan Perry Morris, photo editor ; edited by Myrtle D. Malone.
Funding: Funded by a grant from the Florida Humanities Council
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025122
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Board of Trustees of the University of Florida on behalf of authors and contributors. All rights reserved.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001747568
oclc - 25790765
notis - AJG0402
lccn - 91066897

Full Text






Chapter 2
The Narvaez, Soto, Luna and Villafale Expeditions, 1528-1561

The Spanish expeditions to La Florida before 1528 were motivated by a
desire to find slaves, to explore new lands and to discover sources of great
wealth. Narvaez and Soto, the two next Spaniards to arrive in Florida, were
also interested in exploring and locating gold or silver. On the other hand,
Luna's and Villafare's adventures differed significantly from the earlier
expeditions. They were less interested in exploring and more interested in
starting a colony.


Narvcez Comes to Florida, 1528

Panfilo de Narvaez, who knew about Florida from talking with Vazquez de
Ayll6n, obtained a patent in 1526 to conquer, settle and govern the area.
After some difficulty, Narvaez finally departed for Florida on February 22,
1528. Among the 400 colonists that went with him was Alvaro de Nunez y
Cabeca de Vaca, the expedition's constable and treasurer. Cabeca de Vaca
wrote a long account of his journey that is famous even today (see below).


The Ortellius map of Florida (1584).
It shows "La Florida" at the time of the Narvaez and de Soto expeditions in
the 1530s and 1540s. Note how much territory "Florida" covered. Many of
the towns named here are described in the chronicles of the de Soto
expedition.






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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









Landing near Tampa Bay, Narvaez and his colonists almost immediately
ran into natives who tried to attack them. They also found some of the
Indians had gold ornaments. This caused great excitement among the
Spaniards. The natives told them that the gold was not from the local area,
but came from the land of the Apalachee (the Tallahassee area today). The
Spaniards quickly departed overland for Apalachee.

After Narvaez left, another Spaniard named Juan Ortiz came with a small
crew looking for the expedition. Ortiz and three men went ashore and were
captured by the Indians. Only Ortiz survived, and he remained a prisoner with
the Indians for eleven years, learning their language and customs. His was
rescued by the chief's wife and daughters when the warriors tried to kill him.

Meanwhile, Narvaez proceeded to Apalachee. On the journey, Nuiez
Cabeza de Vaca observed an animal that carried its young in a pocket in its
belly. His report is the first to describe the Florida opossum.

The Spaniards did not find any gold at Apalachee and soon headed back
to the coast. There they had to kill their horses for food and leather. This area
became known as the Bahia de los Caballos or the Bay of Horses. Since
Narvaez had no ships, he and his men decided to construct rafts and sail to
Mexico. After drifting along the Florida coast for some days, they reached
what may have been Pensacola Bay. Two members of the party went ashore
for water. Captured and carried off by the Indians, both were later killed at the
village of Piachi on the Alabama River.

Sailing westward, the rest of the expedition encountered a storm that blew
most of the rafts and men out to sea. Some survivors reached the coast, the
Isla de Malhado, the Isle of Misfortune (perhaps today's Galveston Island off
Texas). Eight years later, the expedition's only four survivors, including Nuiez
Cabeza de Vaca, finally reached Mexico. The told tales about their horrible
ordeals and hardships, but they also hinted at the possibility of finding riches
in the interior. Those stories, especially those of Nuiez Cabeza de Vaca,
inspired a number of expeditions, including those of Marcos de Niza,
Coronado, Cabrillo and de Soto. (To find out more about Nuiez Cabeza de
Vaca and his travels, visit the Texas State Library's site about him at
http://www.library.txstate.edu/swwc/cdv/)










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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









Soto's Expedition, 1539-1543


Of all the adventurers
who arrived in Florida,
few have created as
much interest as
Hernan (also
Hernando) de Soto.
The expedition of Soto
proved to be long and
disastrous and took
him all over the
Southeast. This image of de Soto is from
Researchers have Antonio de Herrera's "History"
of Spanish conquest and
devoted much time and settlement in the New World.
effort in trying to It shows de Soto's fleet
arriving in Florida.
identify and to locate arriving in Florida.
Soto's landing site and the route he took from there to his final resting place
on the Mississippi River. Not all experts agree on "exactly" where he landed,
nor where he went on his long entrada.

In his contract with the crown, Soto acquired the rights to the Florida grants
and territory that had been given to his predecessors: Ponce de Le6n, Garay,
Narvaez and Vazquez de Ayll6n. Thus Soto's American empire encompassed
the entire southeastern United States, Louisiana, Texas and northeastern
Mexico. Although local names applied, such as Chicora and Panuco, this
entire area was called La Florida.


Soto Arrives in La Florida

After departing Spain, Soto spent nearly a year in Cuba preparing for his
Florida adventure. Finally, on May 18, 1539, Soto and his fleet with well over
600 people left Cuba. They reached the Florida coast on May 25, the festival
of Espiritu Santo, the Holy Spirit, and thus gave the name Bahia de Espiritu
Santo to their landing site. Precisely where did they land? The exact site is
still a matter of controversy. Some Soto scholars believe he landed in Tampa
Bay, others choose points farther south.

Soto sent a patrol to reconnoiter the area and they came upon a much
tattooed "Indian" who spoke Spanish. This person was not an Indian at all,
but the Spaniard Juan Ortiz, who had been captured by Indians and left
behind by the Narvaez expedition. He had been living among the natives.
Soto now had a Spaniard who could speak the local language. The natives


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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications, @
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









near the landing place had no gold or silver. In order to get rid of Soto, they
told him the same story they had told Narvaez, that gold could be found
among the Indians living some distance to the north. Naturally Soto went in
search of those Indians only to discover that they had none.

Indians as Hostages

Soto did not endear himself to the natives he encountered on his long trek
across the southeastern United States. He often took the local chief and
perhaps a few others, including some women, as hostages. He then
demanded that the chief furnish tribesmen as bearers. He also demanded
that Indian women be furnished as
servants and concubines for the
Spaniards.

Weddle, in Spanish Sea, tells
one story about a woman captured
in Apalachee. She grabbed her
guard, a Spaniard by the name of
Herrera, by the groin and rendered
him helpless. She and others
would have killed him had not
some Spaniards rushed to
Herrera's rescue. This reveals what
lengths the Indian women would go
to in order to free themselves of
their Spanish guards.

When the expedition finally
reached Apalachee on October 6, In this romanticized picture from Harper's
1539, like Narvaez's, they found no Weekly, de Soto lands his men and supplies
metals. ut the n in Florida and prepares to march inland.
precious metals. But they soon Although not accurate in any of its details,
rediscovered Narvaez's Bay of this image does give some idea of the size of
Horses. the de Soto expedition.


Maldonado to Ochuse

Soto waited at the Bay of Horses for his ships to come and meet him.
When they arrived, he put Capt. Francisco Maldonado in command and sent
him to explore westward.

Maldonado discovered a very large and pleasant bay some 60 leagues
west of the Bay of Horses. The native people called this place "Ochuse,"
undoubtedly today's Pensacola Bay. Maldonado traded with the natives of


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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications, @
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









Ochuse and, among other things, secured a "good blanket of sable fur." He
also took the local chief prisoner and brought him to Soto at Apalachee.

Sotos March Inland

Soto broke camp on March 3, 1540, and taking the Pensacola chief with
him, headed north, still in search of fabled riches. He arrived in early May at
the Indian village of Cofitachequi on the Wateree River. The chieftainess of
Cofitachequi crossed the river to greet Soto and gave him the string of pearls
that she was wearing. The Spaniards soon found a large quantity of the
pearls (perhaps 200 pounds) in the local burial sites. Leaving Cofitachequi,
the expedition headed north, then west and finally south. They also stopped
at the chiefdom of Coosa and were impressed by its farmlands. Could this be
Vazquez de Ayll6n's "New" Andalusia? Later, Juan de la Vandera called the
Coosa country the "Land of Angels."

The Baffle of Mabila

Soto continued on west and
south, finally reaching the village S -'-"
of Mabila on the Alabama River.
There the Spaniards fought a ., i
fierce battle with the natives. The
chief of Mabila, Tascaluca or
"Black Warrior," had been one of
Soto's hostages. During the fight
the Spaniards lost their pearls as
well as the jars and wine for their
religious services. Thereafter, the
Spaniards, who held religious
services every Sunday, were
forced to celebrate the misa
seca, or the dry mass.

Maldonado's Search for Soto

Somewhere on the trip down
the Alabama River, Soto freed
the Ochuse chief, who returned 4l .&dozro_a,- ,am
to Pensacola Bay. When
From Herrera's "History." De Soto's men
Maldonado reached Pensacola in
battle the "Alibamas" at the Indian town of
late October 1540, he learned, Mabila.


5
From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications, @
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









undoubtedly through the chief, that Soto was at Mabila. Maldonado sent word
to Soto that he was waiting for him with the ships, but Soto declined to come.
He had lost his pearls, the only valuable treasure he had discovered, and did
not want to return to Cuba empty-handed. During the next several years,
Maldonado made a number of trips to Ochuse and cruised the coast in search
of Soto, but by this time Soto was far away, and Maldonado never found him.


The March Westward and the Expedition's End

A month or so after the battle at Mabila Soto continued his westward
march, eventually reaching the Mississippi River. The party crossed into what
is now Arkansas and went as far west as the Ouchita Mountains. While in the
area, Juan Ortiz died. After returning to the Mississippi, Soto also died (May
21, 1542). The great river would be his final resting place. Luis de Moscoso
led the survivors, about 300 in number, to Panuco, now Tampico (Mexico),
which they did not reach until September 1543. It had been one long and
disastrous expedition for Soto and his followers, but some of the survivors
would, in due time, return to La Florida.


Shipwrecks near Padre Island, 1554

It was several years before a serious disaster again struck the "Florida"
coast. It actually occurred off the present-day Texas coast, although that area
was referred to as La Florida at the time. The incident involved four ships that
departed Veracruz in 1554 headed for Spain. Three of the ships wrecked on
or near Padre Island, and the fate of the crew and passengers paralleled that
of several of the earlier Florida disasters.


Advocates for a Florida Settlement

Beginning about 1555, both military and religious officials in the Spanish
colonies spoke out for a settlement in La Florida. The military wanted to
establish a fort on the Florida coast for the protection of anyone shipwrecked
there. Most of the survivors who made it to Florida's shores were taken
prisoner and sometimes tortured at the hands of the local natives.
Additionally, church officials in New Spain and Cuba expressed concern that
natives in Florida were pagans and knew nothing about Christianity. Because
of a shortage of native women in Cuba, the bishop there even thought it might
be a good idea to go to Florida and bring groups of women back. They would
be taught Christianity and become wives for Indians on Cuba.





6
From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









Other people in Europe also had an interest in occupying La Florida. The
French advanced claims to the Atlantic coast based in part upon Giovanni de
Verrazzano's expedition there in 1523-1524. Published accounts of the Soto
expedition also revived interest and curiosity about Florida.


Ochuse (Pensacola) Considered

Surprisingly, in view of their terrible experiences, a number of followers of
de Soto joined the next expedition to Florida. The advocates for a Florida
settlement recommended several places along the gulf coast as possible
settlement sites. The place that stood out most prominently was Ochuse
(Pensacola). Its supporters pointed out that it had a very good harbor where
ships could take refuge. Rodrigo Ranjel, a survivor and chronicler of the Soto
expedition, claimed it was an excellent port by which to enter Florida.

Before a final decision about the Florida destination was approved,
however, authorities in Mexico dispatched two scouting expeditions. Guido de
Lavazares in 1558 took three ships and examined a portion of the gulf coast
between Veracruz and present-day Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. He
inspected Mobile Bay in some detail and named it Bahia Filipino. He never
entered Ochuse, but noted its existence. He preferred Mobile Bay as the site
for the new settlement.


PORT d- SANC TA [IA L ./ G.\ LLE .. /-PEN 5.1 COULLA. ,a ep. f, L, LattiiJc
1" 'I e.' l ,-i. 1P, 01 0,. t .-, 1.,," yrttl opiel'ht pitt.'tneni, na1, "eo 1,, A.'tn Ae l e' e tr.v e i. Y Ayaot


A setch of Penacola Bay fm a F .,renh mp Tristan de Lna failed















map shows the later town of Pensacola that was established in 1698.
1,... .. *,p t .11 ,r.- gu, o,,, -" I,**J ni .0,, ,

1 d..,., ,- % .. t .. ,. .... "A I -








Coker, William S., et al. Florida from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX: Pioneer Publications,












1991.
All tights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









The second scouting expedition was headed by Capt. Juan de Renteria
and his chief pilot, Gonzalo Gayon. They departed Mexico, in December
1558, shortly after Lavazares returned there. They also examined Mobile and
Pensacola Bays. Renteria and Gayon called particular attention to the latter.
Thus as those in Mexico prepared for the trip to Florida, they picked
Pensacola Bay.

Ochuse (Pensacola) Chosen

Plans called for a permanent settlement at Ochuse. From there the
colonists would move northward to the Indians towns Soto had called Coosa
and Cofitachequi and on to Santa Elena (in today's South Carolina) on the
Atlantic coast. The favorable reports of the agricultural prospects along this
route as well as the pearls of Cofitachequi caused the Spaniards to consider
establishing a series of colonies between Ochuse and Santa Elena. Vazquez
de Ayll6n's elusive New Andalusia might yet become a reality. There were
also fears in Spain that France might occupy Santa Elena. King Philip II
wanted to establish a Spanish outpost there first. The Spaniards also believed
it was easier to reach Santa Elena overland from Ochuse than to sail all the
way around the Florida peninsula, a distance of some 1,500 miles. Obviously
they did not realize how far it was by land from the Gulf of Mexico to South
Carolina.


Luna to Command the Expedition to Ochuse

The viceroy of Mexico, Luis de Velasco, picked Tristan de Luna y Arellano
to command the expedition to Pensacola Bay. Luna came from a well-placed
and wealthy Spanish family. A colonel in the Spanish army, Luna had
considerable experience on the frontiers of Mexico. As a member of the
Coronado expedition in search of the famed seven cities of Cibola, he had
explored a portion of the northern borderlands. He had also been sent to put
down an Indian uprising near Oaxaca in southern Mexico.

Spaniards and Aztec Warriors

When all was said and done, Luna's company consisted of some 1,500
persons including: 500 soldiers, 900 civilian men, women and children, 100
Indians and six Dominican priests. A number of the veterans of Soto's
expedition made the journey. Little was known about the Indians
accompanying Luna until the publication of the Codice Osuna in Madrid in
1878. It reveals that more than one hundred Aztec warriors accompanied
Luna!


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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.











La Bahia de Santa Maria Filipina


The expedition reached Mobile Bay on August 14, 1559, the Assumption
of the Virgin, but quickly moved to Pensacola Bay. The exact location of
Luna's settlement on Pensacola Bay is still unknown, although the description
in the Luna documents suggests that it was at present-day Gulf Breeze on the
east side of the bay. Luna dispatched several expeditions into the interior in
search of natives, villages and food, but they returned in a few weeks empty-
handed.

Disaster!

The settlers accomplished little during their
first month at Ochuse. Then disaster struck. On
September 19, a hurricane sank all but three of '"-|- H
their ships and destroyed the settlement. Luna ) -...
reported "great loss by many seamen and '
passengers, both of their lives as well as their a'
property." Although Luna requested aid from
Mexico, it took time to find the needed supplies
and to get them to Ochuse. Luna also sent
additional expeditions into the interior hoping to
secure food from the natives. A number of .
persons actually reached the Coosa country,
while one group under Luna moved to the village
of Nanipacana on the Alabama River. But little A ship in trouble near to shore.
relief came from those efforts, which extended Shipwreck was always a danger
to early mariners along the
over a number of months. Florida coast.

On to Santa Elena

Finally, the urgency of reaching Santa Elena provoked the viceroy to order
Luna immediately to move there. But by then, Luna was very depressed.
Confrontations with his officers and even with the priests created strife, but no
solution to their problem. The men refused to march or sail all the way to
Santa Elena. Frustrated by Luna's failure, the viceroy replaced him with Luna
with Angel de Villafane.







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From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.









Villafafe Takes Over


Villafa~e arrived at Ochuse in April 1561 and Luna quickly departed for
Havana and eventually Spain. Villafaie left a detachment of 50 men at
Ochuse and, taking the others with him, sailed for Havana and then on to
Santa Elena. Villafaie reconnoitered the Atlantic coastal area some distance
north and south of Santa Elena, but could not decide upon a site for his
settlement. The final blow came when a storm struck, sinking two ships and
causing the loss of 25 men. Following this disaster, Villafaie decided to
abandon any attempt to establish a settlement on the Atlantic coast.

The four expeditions led by Narvaez, Soto, Luna and Villafaie had
expanded Spain's geographical knowledge of the areas of La Florida. But no
great source of riches had been discovered and no permanent settlements
had been established. A great deal of time and money and hundreds of lives
had been lost on these ventures. Storms and shipwrecks had ruined three of
the expeditions. But where the Spaniards had failed, others were still willing
to try. The French believed it possible to establish a successful settlement on
the Florida coast, and in 1562, they made the attempt.






























10
From:
Coker, William S., et al. Florida : from the beginning to 1992. Houston, TX : Pioneer Publications,
1991.
All rights reserved. Reprinted here with the permission of the authors. Intended for educational use only.




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