Title: Certain river mounds of Duval County, Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024748/00001
 Material Information
Title: Certain river mounds of Duval County, Florida Two sand mounds on Murphy Island, Florida. Certain sand mounds of the Ocklawaha River, Florida
Series Title: Certain river mounds of Duval County, Florida
Physical Description: 106, 2 p. incl. illus., maps. : front., pl. ; 36 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, Clarence B ( Clarence Bloomfield ), 1852-1936
Publisher: Levytype Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1895
Subject: Mounds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: By Clarence B. Moore ...
General Note: From advance sheets of the Journal of the Academy of natural sciences of Philadelphia, vol. X. 1895.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024748
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB6288
ltuf - ADB7147
oclc - 01542892
alephbibnum - 000588396
lccn - 02012829
lccn - 02012829

Full Text




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Certain River Mounds of Duval County, Florida.

TWO Sand Mounds on Murphy Island, Florida.

Certain Sand Mounds of the Ocklawaha River, Florida.




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The three succeeding papers give the results of our work in Florida, from

January 16th to June 16th, 1895. These results, though mainly cumulative,

having been arrived at with great care, are, we think, worthy of publication.

We wish to return thanks for valuable assistance to Professor Cope, to

Professor Putnam, to Dr. E. Goldsmith, and to Mr. H. A. Pilsbry for identification

of numerous shells.

Again we express our indebtedness to Dr. M. G. Miller for continuous assist-

ance in the field and in the preparation of these papers.
C. B. M.

August, 1895.



x Fulton.

JohnsonM Md.



oH or.seshoe L

0 xDentonMound.

Iro *'Janiels

xlndicotes Sand Mound.
Scale in ;(es.
I 895.

ill Cove.

/ x Gillert Mound.
x ShieldsMound.



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Such mounds of Duval County as are considered in this paper, border that
portion of the river between Jacksonville' and the sea, a distance of about twenty
miles by water. The large mounds of this territory have been noticed in Part II
of our previous report.2 the smaller, often slight elevations, frequently covered with
underbrush and unknown to the inhabitants of the neighborhood, escaped our
notice during our previous work in this section, which was not so thorough as that
on the upper portion of the river where the territory has been gone over literally
dozens of times.
It is evident that this part of the river sustained a considerable population in
former times, rendered possible, perhaps, by the great abundance of oysters in the
waters near the river's mouth, where the low marshes are still studded with shell-
heaps and a few years back contained deposits of great size.3
It will be noticed that the great mounds of this portion of the river resemble
Mt. Royal, near Lake George, as to contents, while on the other hand. the low.
irregular ridges which seem characteristic of the extreme lower portion of the
river, differ considerably in the nature of the objects inhumed, from the mounds
of the St. Johns farther south. Mica, so abundant in these low mounds and ridges,
was rarely met with and in but small quantities on the river south of Jackson-
ville.4 Again, deposits of numerous pebbles and pebble hammers together, almost
unknown on the upper river, were found in great abundance in the low mounds
near the sea. The same may be said of numbers of mussel shells buried in associa-
One point characterizing this whole region, the low mounds in common with
the great, was the comparative abundance of tobacco pipes. From all the sand
mounds south of Jacksonville but seven tobacco pipes rewarded our labors, while
over double this number were taken from a circumscribed district between Jack-
sonville and the sea.

1 The reader will bear in mind that the St. Johns, whose general course above is south to north,
turns abruptly to the east at Jacksonville.
2 "Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida," Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. X.
SStowe Island, in the Sisters Creek, when first visited by us, had a deposit of oyster shells thirty
feet in height. Since that time the mass has been reduced by shipments to the jetties.
4 Abundance of mica was present in one mound of the Ocklawaha.


The grooved axe, present in Georgia and farther north, was absent from the
mounds of this section in common with those of other portions of Florida investi-
gated by us.
Mounds Described in this Paper.

Johnson Mound. Broward Mound.
Shields Mound. Reddie Point (2).
Gilbert Mound. Daniel's Landing.
Monroe Mound. Denton Mound.
Grant Mound. Chaseville (2).
Low Mounds South of Grant Mound (5). Alicia (2).
Horseshoe Landing (3). Floral Bluff.


This symmetrical and previously uninvestigated mound lay in the pine woods
about one-half mile in a northerly direction from the first landing on St. Charles
Creek, a stream emptying into the St. Johns just east of the town of New Berlin.
The mound, which had a height of 7 feet 4 inches and a diameter at the base
of 65 feet, was totally destroyed with the courteous consent of the owner, William
A. Johnson, Esq., of Wilmington, N. C.
The mound was composed of a peculiarly dry sand of a light yellow shade,
with occasional bits of charcoal scattered throughout and a limited number of fire-
places. Pockets of sand tinged cherry color by the artificial use of the red oxide
of iron, increasing in number and in size toward the center, were encountered
throughout the mound.
In all, human remains were met with at eleven points. In one case the burial
was in anatomical order. In the remainder but limited portions of the skeleton
were represented. The bones were past all possibility of preservation-a some-
what peculiar fact in view of the dry condition of the sand.
Sherds were very limited in number, the majority being undecorated, though
three or four bore a complicated stamped pattern. No vessels or considerable
portions of vessels were encountered.
Singly, loose in the sand, were: three arrowheads; one bit of mica; a small
"celt" and several pebbles.
With human remains was a portion of a conch (Fulgur).
Three feet from the surface, with a few decaying fragments of human bones,
were two flat pieces of fine-grained sandstone,1 one roughly given the shape of a
hatchet, the other resembling a keystone- a form sometimes met with in Florida

I The rocks from which were made the various objects of stone, described in this paper and the two
succeeding ones, have been determined with care by Dr. E. Goldsmith of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia. Exact determination has not been possible as, fearing to mutilate specimens,
we have not furnished material for microscopic slides and for chemical analysis, which the careful petrol-
ogist requires.


mounds. With these were: a pebble about two inches in diameter; a coarse sand-
stone hone; seventeen chips of chert; two columellke of marine univalves with part
of another; a portion of the body whorl of a conch; one incisor of a large rodent,
and several masses of certain fresh-water mussels-three to four dozen in all-laid
one within the other. These mussels, Unio Shepardianus, Lea,1 are not reported
farther south than Georgia nor are any fresh-water mussels present in the tide
water of this portion of the St. Johns or of its tributary creeks. Moreover, the
mussels of the St. Johns are distinctive. These shells were doubtless an importa-

FIG. 1.-Mussel shell used as knife. Johnson Mound. (Full size.)

tion, and, as Fig. 1 shows, were peculiarly adapted for use as knives, for which we
know mussel shells to have been employed by the later Indians.2
Almost in the immediate center of the mound, separately, were: a tubular
bead of sheet copper; a fragment of sheet copper about 1 inch by 1.5 inches; a
minute bit of the same material, and a portion of a sheet copper ornament about 5
inches long with an average width of 2.5 inches. This fragment lay with human
remains about 4.5 feet from the surface and was too badly decayed for determina-
tion as to its original shape.
Nothing in the Johnson mound gave any evidence of intercourse with the

The Shields mound, near Newcastle, in section 35, township 1, has been briefly
noticed by us in our report on the mounds of the St. Johns,3 where it is described
as a mound near Mill Cove. As all our readers may not have access to the work in
question, at the risk of repetition, we give certain details as to size and shape of the
About 150 yards from the river's bank, which at this point forms a bluff com-
manding the stream for miles, is a great platform mound entirely unlike in form

S" Observations on Unio," I, Plate XIII, Fig. 38
2 A pair of mussel shells sharpened on a gritty stone." Heckewelder's Indian Nations," page
205. Cited by Holmes.
: Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida," Part II, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. X.



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any aboriginal earthwork on the river. Its shape is not circular, as we have
stated in our report, but slightly oblong with rounded corners; its base diameter,
about 214 feet; the diameter of its summit plateau, 115 feet by 133 feet. Situate
upon rolling ground, its height depends upon the point from which the measure-
ment is taken, a fair average being 18 feet. A graded way leads up to the summit
plateau on the side toward the river, while certain curious ridges, one running
directly from the mound, extend in a southerly direction for a considerable distance
in the rear until lost in the surrounding level. Investigation indicated these ridges
to have been made for some purpose other than sepulture. We are largely
indebted to F. W. Bruce, Esq., engineer in the employ of the United States Govern-
ment at the jetty at the mouth of the St. Johns, for the accompanying plan and ele-
vation of the Shields mound and its adjuncts (Fig. 2). We have requested Dr.
M. G. Miller, who assisted at the survey, to notice these curious ridges in detail.
From the southern margin of the mound a long ridge (see plan) runs in a
southerly direction for a distance of about 500 feet. With a height of about one
foot where it joins the mound, the ridge gradually rises until at C it attains an
altitude of 8 feet 10 inches above the level to the east. Beyond C is a marked
depression from which the ridge again rises, reaching its greatest altitude, 13 feet
8 inches, at D, from which, making an abrupt turn northward, it descends gradually
to the point E. The southern slope at D is so abrupt as to be difficult of ascent.
"From C a narrow terrace leads down the eastern side of the main ridge
and continues, with gradually decreasing altitude to F from where a low ridge,
varying in height from ten inches to six inches, extends a distance of about 350
feet, to be lost in the surrounding territory.
"About eighty-five feet to the west of this is a similar low ridge, G, leading
northward along the margin of a well marked terrace, H.
Limited by this terrace and the main ridge is a basin, I, which has two
outlets, one at E leading to the space between the two low ridges, and the other
at J, between the mound and the terrace H as it turns to the west.
"About 600 yards southwest of the mound lies a small lake, to which the
space between the low ridges F and G may have served as a covered way.
Unfortunately, the territory in which these ridges lie has been under cultivation
and it is impossible to decide as to their original extent and character.
"At ab, ed, ef, gh, ij, are given the contours between corresponding points
on the plan, while at XY is given the sectional elevation of the mound and main

Seventeen days of seven hours each during parts of April and May, 1895,
with an average force of thirty-one men, exclusive of those engaged in directing the
work, were devoted to the investigation of the Shields mound.
The entire mound was encircled somewhat above the margin of the base and


work prosecuted for about two days, the discovery of a few interments, none over
three feet from the surface, being the only result.

I Til-- r I II

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FIG. 3. Diagram of excavations in Shields mound.
Clear space represents portion excavated to base ;
section lines, portion excavated to depth of seven

Next, the entire eastern slope, com-
mencing a little in from the margin, was
removed for a distance of twenty-seven
feet, where the trench, at this point 175
feet in breadth, had approached to with-
in eleven feet in a horizontal line of the
edge of the summit plateau. From this
point the trench, reduced to a breadth
of 115 feet, was carried along the base,
as before, a farther distance of twenty
one feet, or ten feet beyond the margin
of the plateau, as shown by accompany-
ing diagram (Fig. 3).
In this considerable portion of the
mound comparatively few interments
were found-possibly two dozen-none
at a greater depth than three feet, nor
were there any accompanying relics,
with the exception of a few shell beads.

Next, the entire plateau, with about five feet of adjacent slope was dug
through to a depth of from six to eight feet from the surface.


No uniform stratification is apparent in the Shields mound. The base
is not absolutely determinable, though a streak of sand from two to six inches
in thickness, discolored by charcoal, was taken as indicating it, the light yellow
sand beneath it being free from admixture of any foreign substance. Above this
was a stratum of dark yellow sand from three to five feet in thickness, contain-
ing considerable charcoal in scattered particles, and this stratum continued to
the point where the investigation ceased. Above it the composition of the
mound varied at every stage of the digging. Yellow sand, yellowish brown sand
streaked with small layers of white sand, pockets of gray sand calcined by fire
with abundant charcoal, small pockets of brick red sand and layers and pockets
of oyster shells and midden refuse containing sherds and fragmentary bones of
lower animals, made up an almost indescribable whole. In the central portion
of the broad summit plateau, extending to the eastern margin, was a very irreg-
ular layer, at places five feet in thickness, though this was exceptional. This
layer, varying in shade from light chocolate to brick red, was due to'intentional
admixture of the red oxide of iron with the sand-a practice whose occurrence
is frequently noted in our report on the mounds of the St. Johns.


We append a description of a fairly representative section of the mound taken
at the junction of the eastern slope with the summit plateau, going down:
2 feet, 8 inches-Sand of brick red and of chocolate color.
11 feet, 8 inches-Irregular and local strata; pockets of gray sand showing effects
of fire, with much charcoal; occasional pockets of shell;
pockets of yellow sand darkened by plentiful admixture of
2 feet, 8 inches-To base. Pure yellow sand with occasional particles of charcoal.


In that portion of the mound beneath the plateau, interments were, as a rule, in
the last stage of decay, frequently marked by a few crumbling fragments, isolated
teeth, or even a line of small disintegrating particles of bone-hardly more than a
yellowish stain. It was, therefore, impossible to give the exact number of inter-
ments met with, or, in many cases, to determine the form of burial. At not less
than 150 points human remains were encountered, presenting both methods of
sepulture-the bunched variety and the burial in anatomical order. In most cases,
careful examination showed an unnatural juxtaposition indicating the interment of
the remains when denuded of flesh.
With four exceptions, when the burials were encountered at a depth of six
feet, all human remains lay within four feet of the surface.
In the western portion of the plateau, six feet from the surface, virtually in
contact, were six crania associated with but one
vertebra and two clavicles. This burial, how-
.-, ever, was entirely exceptional.
In the central portion of the summit plateau,
;1 3.5 feet from the surface, was a quantity of small
S fragments of human bones and of bones of lower
L 11 animals, charred and calcined. With them were
i a number of human bones entirely unaffected by
iPr (Ij fire.
S"Two pathological specimens and a number
w-'IIIljI of platycnemic tibi- were sent to the United
lL "States Army Medical Museum at Washington.
One of these tibia had an index of fifty; that
FIG. 4. Sherd with stamped decoration, is to say, its lateral diameter was but one-half
Shields Mound. (Full size.) of the diameter taken antero-posteriorly at the
point of entrance of the nutrient artery. This
is the lowest index ever met with by us in Florida or recorded by anyone as from
that State. Most of our readers will recall, however, that platycnemia is no longer
regarded as a racial characteristic.
No crania were recovered save in fragments.



Occasional sherds were met with in all parts of the mound, especially with the
midden refuse. In the material beneath the summit plateau, so far as explored
by us, they were, however, infrequently encountered, though at times oblong pieces
and triangular bits, doubtless intentionally given the outline of the arrow point,
were encountered in close association with human remains. Undecorated earthen-
ware predominated. The square and the diamond-shaped stamps were represented
with the occasional occurrence of the complicated stamped decoration, though not
of the patterns found so abundantly in several neighboring low mounds, but want-
ing in the great Grant mound less than one mile distant. Fig. 4 shows a com-
plicated stamped decoration from the Shields mound.
Portions of two vessels in fragments, with cord-marked decoration, were

FIG. 5. Toy vessel of earthen-
ware. Shields mound. (Full
FIG. 6. Bird-shaped vessel of earthenware.
Shields Mound. (Full size.)

colored inside and out with crimson pigment. Margins corresponding to missing
parts gave evidence of ancient fracture, and it was clear that here, as in many
other mounds demolished by us, broken, and consequently otherwise useless, vessels
had been utilized for mortuary purposes.
During the investigation, nine entire vessels, none of so much as one quart
capacity, were met with, including three unfortunately badly broken at the time of
discovery. None were of special interest as to shape or decoration, and all were
imperforate as to the base, if we except a toy vessel shown in Fig. 5.
A diminutive vessel, representing a sitting bird and to a certain extent recall-
ing Tennessee forms of earthenware, was the only variation from common types
(Fig. 6). Height, 2 inches; length, 3 inches; depth of bowl, .8 of one inch.
Two tobacco pipes of earthenware were found during the investigation. One,
of ordinary type, somewhat broken, had an encircling line of indentations just be-
neath the outer margin of the bowl.

FIG. 7. Tobacco pipe of earthenware. Shields Mound.
(Full size.)

FIG. 9. "Celt" of slate, with double groove. Shields
Mound. (Full size.)

r I. 8. Polished hatchet of igneous r6ck. FIG. 10. Implement of sedimentary rock. Shields Mound.
Shields Mound. (Full size.) (Full size.)


The other, an interesting specimen, was decorated as shown in Fig. 7. Maxi-
mum length, 1.7 inches; height, 1.5 inches.


Polished Halchets.-Twelve polished hatchets, or "celts," were taken from
the Shields mound. Their material has not been exactly determined. One, of
fine-grained, compact rock of igneous origin, was within a small fraction of 13
inches in length, which is considerably more than that of any hatchet heretofore
met with by us in Florida, and close to the limit of length attained by any other
so far reported from any section (Fig. 8).
We are indebted to Mr. E. P. Upham, of the National Museum, for the infor-
mation that a polished "celt" from Alabama, 13.5 inches in length, is probably the
longest in that institution.
One small celt" of slate, 3 inches in length, has two deep transverse parallel
grooves on one side and a single one on the other (Fig. 9). These grooves may
have been made by the sharpening of implements. If not, and the grooves were
made for purposes of attachment to a handle, this is the nearest approach to the
grooved axe ever, we believe, reported from Florida.
A chisel of sedimentary clay rock, 8.6 inches in length, was the only imple-
ment of the type discovered in the mound.
A handsome cutting implement of fine-grained sedimentary rock differed some-
what in form from any Florida implement we have seen (Fig. 10).
Arrow and Lance Points.- In the Grant mound, less than one mile away, as
we shall presently see, arrow and lance points were of comparative rarity. In the
Shields mound, on the contrary, they formed an important feature among the
mortuary inhumations. In all, one hundred and fourteen were taken from the
mound, the great majority of chert, a few of hornstone and of chalcedony. Numer-
ous types and sizes are represented, none offering any unusual feature. On the
tangs of some, considerable bitumen adheres showing the method of attachment to
the shaft.
It is possible that some of the points classed by us as arrow heads may
have served as knives, fastened into short handles for the purpose. Fig. 11
shows a number of selected lance and arrow points from the Shields mound.
Tubes of natural formation.-These objects, probably natural formations
around some perishable material, such as wood, are occasionally found in the
Florida mounds and were no doubt utilized as ornaments, though the larger may
have served in lieu of tobacco pipes. Twenty-six of these objects, from 1 inch to
4.5 inches in length, were taken from the mound, and in every case, where deter-
mination was possible, they were found with human remains. One of these curi-
ous objects is figured in Part I of our Report as coming from Mt. Royal.1
Spade-shaped implements.-This curious type, discussed at some length in
Part I, has been reported from Florida we believe, by us alone, three specimens
Op. cit.

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FIG. 11. Arrow and lance points. Shields mound. (Full size.)


having been taken by us from
Mt. Royal. Two of these im-
plements, about fourteen inches
and eight inches in length re-
pectively, were taken from the
Shields mound, associated with
human remains. They are
probably of saussurite, though
for obvious reasons we have
not permitted mutilation for
microscopic examination. In type they differ
somewhat from the Mt. Royal specimens. The
end of the shaft is neither tapered nor squared
but left rough and unfinished. The wings are
much broader, those of the larger specimen being
about 3.75 inches across. Each has four nicks,
or tally marks, on each wing. The larger is
shown in Fig. 12.
Gorgets.-With a small earthenware vessel
and human remains was a pebble of sedimentary
origin, pierced through the center. A little to
one side of the perforation another had been
attempted and abandoned.
A fragment of clear quartz crystal, 1.4
inches in length, found loose in the sand, forms
part of what must have been a beautiful pendant,
flat on one side, convex on the other. It is
grooved for suspension.
A gorget, in the form of a double bladed
axe, of the type figured by us' in Part II as
coming from the smaller mound at Thornhill
Lake, Volusia County, was found at a depth of
one foot, where it lay with two arrowheads.
The material is of dark chocolate claystone
beautifully banded. Height, two inches; breadth,
about 2.5 inches; maximum thickness, about .7
of one inch.
Another graceful ornament of a schistose
rock of slaty texture, lay at a depth of three
feet, with human remains. It is doubly perforated

Op. cit.

FIG. 12. Spade-shaped implement. Shields mound.
(Two inches removed from handle.)


and has many notches at either end. Length, 4.5 inches; breadth, 1.7 inches;
thickness, .4 of one inch (Fig. 13).

FIG. 13.-Pendant of schistose rock. Shields mound.
(Full size.)
Four feet from the surface, with the small earthenware pipe already figured
and two arrowheads, was a gorget, probably of soft claystone, shown in Fig. 14.

FIG. 14. Gorget of soft claystone. Shields mound. (Full size.)

Breadth, about 3.4 inches; height, 1.7 inches; maximum thickness, .9 of one inch.
A curious little boat-shaped pendant, presumably of soft claystone, of a form
new to us, was found with human re-
mains and numerous shell beads, three
feet from the surface. A perforation
at either end serves for suspension. A
deep groove not possible to show in ,
the cut is on the base. A perforation
at either end served for suspension.
Height, 1.3 inches; width, 2.7 inches;
maximum thickness, 1.1 inches (Fig.
15)A Tsra 1 Tseihonentr e bnbonlt hilo snnn.

I~u.v. UVl~- ULr~r~lU~YWLP 11IYU~U
(Full size.)

A small sedimentary pebble evi-


dently split during perforation, lay beneath a cranium, three feet below the surface.
With the two parts were an arrowhead and a chip of chert.
Tobacco pipe.-But one tobacco pipe of stone came from the Shields mound.
The material was Steatite and the type that of other stone pipes of the neighbor-
hood. It was associated with human remains at a depth of three feet, and with
it were an arrowhead and a few shell beads. Height, 3.7 inches; maximum
length, 3.8 inches; orifice of bowl, 1.4 inches by 1.5 inches; orifice of stem, 1.2
inches by 1.3 inches (Fig. 16).

FIG. 16. Tobacco pipe of soapstone. Shields mound.
(Full size.) Section of Fig. 17.

FIG. 17. Weapon of chipped chert. Shields mound.
(Full size.)


Miscellaneous.-Two and one half feet from the surface, in a mass of crimson
pigment, with human remains, was a double pointed implement-possibly a weapon-
of chipped chert, about seven inches in length with a maximum thickness of .8 of
one inch. The section is triangular. The cut fails clearly to represent the two
sides of the triangle. This type, so far as our experience extends, has not hereto-
fore been discovered in Florida mounds (Fig. 17).
Together, with human remains, 1.5 feet from the surface, were: a leaf-shaped
implement of chipped chert, one end unfortunately missing, with a length of 6.5
inches, and a maximum thickness of about .4 of one inch; a portion of a dagger

FIG. 18. FIG. 19.
Portions of bone pins.
Shields mound.
(Full size.)

or lance head about 4.5 inches in length, probably ofcrystalized
sandstone; a sandstone hone, and a part of the lower jaw of
a bear.
One implement of chert was rudely chipped to serve as
a hammer.
One bit of sandstone, about the size of half of a closed
hand, had a considerable cavity worked for some unknown
Two cylindrical beads of undetermined rock were found
together, while from another portion of the mound came a
part of what had been a beautiful bead or small pendant of
red jasper, oblong with rounded corners.
Three small cubes of galena came from various depths.
Throughout that portion of the mound beneath the
summit plateau were broken arrowheads, chips and spalls of
chert, bits of sandstone and quartz pebbles, found singly.
But one or two small sheets of mica were encountered.


Bone pins in considerable numbers were present in the
Shields mound, often six or more with one interment. Their
condition, as a rule, was fragmentary, none being so well pre-
served or so artistically carved as those we have figured in
another report as coming from the Tick Island mound,
Volusia County, Florida. Some show certain attempts at
decoration (Figs. 18 and 19), while others have rudely
carved heads. In other cases a shank projecting from the
upper end shows traces of bitumen, indicating the former
presence of a head of some perishable material, probably
In close proximity to human remains was a section1 of
a leg of a turkey-doubtless a wild turkey, though determi-
nation is impossible-with the core of a spur. It is not
1 Tarso-metatarsal.


unlikely that this portion of a turkey leg and spur may have been used as a
decoration for the lobe of the ear. At the time of the occupation of the
mouth of the St. Johns by the French protestants, in the third quarter of the
sixteenth century, it was customary for the aborigines to wear ornaments of
considerable size buttoned into or thrust through, the lobe of the ear. In Fig. 20
we reproduce a portrait of an In-
dian warrior decorated with the
leg and claws of some large bird,
from Plate XIV of the Brevis
Narratio." 1 The artist, Jaques
Le Moyne, was one of the few
survivors of the ill-fated garrison
of Fort Caroline, massacred in
time of peace by the Spaniards,
not as Frenchmen, but as
S Lutherans." Fort Caroline can-
not have been much over one
league distant from the Shields
Considering the interesting
types in stone taken from the
iShields mound, one would look
t' for more varied forms in copper.
S'In addition to a number of frag-
ments of sheet copper five small
Sii sheets of familiar type were taken
l separately from various depths.
A portion of a large undeco-
rated ornament of sheet copper,
centrally perforated, 6.5 inches
by 7 inches, lay near the surface.
With it were fragments of vege-
table fabric.
A curiously shaped object of
-_- wood with circular section, bent
somewhat at one end, has a pin
FIG. 20. Indian Warrior of Sixteenth Century. fitted into it evidently to con-
nect with a missing portion containing a socket. The wood has been overlaid
with copper which remains at places. This fragment is too imperfect for identi-
"Brevis Narratio," published by DaBry, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1591.


A handsome double-pointed pin or piercing implement, a fraction over 12
inches in length, completes the meager list of copper from the Shields mound.


Large beads of shell were represented by few specimens, and the usual small
discoidal beads were of by no means such frequent occurrence as in some other
mounds. As usual, when found, they lay with human remains.
A few small shells (Olivella), longitudinally perforated, also were present with
one burial.
One interesting feature of the Shields mound has not been noticed by us else-
where. It was an aboriginal custom from Canada to Florida to inter with the dead,
canine teeth of large carnivores, usually pier( 1 for suspension. In the Shields
mound were many such canines, the majority probably belonging to the bear, though
a smaller one, submitted to Professor Cope, proved to be of the gray wolf. Some-
times with these teeth and sometimes alone, invariably with human remains, we
believe, were a considerable number of pendants of shell, shaped and perforated in
what seems to be a close imitation of the animal teeth also used as pendants. In
Fig. 21 we show a canine of some large carnivore, the prototype of the form in
shell given in Fig. 22.
One columella of a marine uni-
valve and a portion of a body whorl,
probably of Fulgur, worked to a
certain extent, were found together.
A conch (Fulgur carica) from -
which a considerable portion of the
body whorl had been cut, probably
to furnish material for beads or for
gouges, lay loose in the sand.
Near human remains, several
feet from the surface, were three
conchs (Fulgur perversum). Two
have no unusual marks. The third, FIG. 21. Tooth of large
however, in addition to the regular carnivore, used as pendant. FIG. 22. Pendant of shell.
hole so often found in the body Shields mound. Shields mound.
e o e f u n th e b (F ul size.) (F ull size.)
whorl opposite the aperture, had
three small perforations evenly made by some tool, at various points on the body
With one burial were twenty conch shells (Fulgur).

Associated with skeletal remains was a tooth, probably of a drum fish.
The enamel covering of four teeth of the man-eating shark, were found


during the investigation. Two of these lay together, three feet from the surface,
associated with human remains.
Upon the surface of the mound were bits of concrete indicating its occupation
as a place of abode at a period previous to that of the existence of the frame house
of the present owner, Mr. Shields, destroyed by fire some years since. Nails, bits
of glass and the like, were found at a certain depth in the mound in excavations
made and filled by ourselves the year previous. In addition, in excavations of limited
area, possibly post-holes, and in one case, perhaps the foundation of a chimney,
filled with disturbed material and debris, were bits of rusty iron, buttons, a glass
bottle, bits of china, a brass bolt, a half-penny of William IV of England, and
other articles of White origin. These relics of a late occupation of the mound were
sometimes not far removed from purely aboriginal objects and brought forcibly to
our mind how readily a careless or inexperienced investigator, or one drawing con-
clusions from incomplete reports, might formulate erroneous deductions as to the
period of the origin of the mound.

Before proceeding to base conclusions upon the results of the somewhat incom-
plete investigation of the Shields mound, several facts must be borne in mind,
which, though previously noted, for emphasis are referred to here.
The few burials discovered toward the margin of the mound were at no great
depth, the maximum being about three feet. The great bulk of sand beneath
the eastern slope, lying between the point at which some of these burials were
discovered and the margin of the summit plateau, contained no interments what-
ever. In this mass of material, as we have stated, were strata of midden refuse
with oyster shells, bones of lower animals, fire places and all the marks of
prolonged occupation. It is probable that these strata extend through the mound.
In fact, a large bed of oyster shells was discovered in a central position about seven
feet from the surface of the summit plateau. In this bed was a circular hole 8 to
10 inches in diameter, and about 4.5 feet in depth, which may have contained a pole
or post during a period when that level was used for domiciliary purposes.
No burials were found in that part of the mound dug down by us at a greater
depth than six feet, and those at that depth were very exceptional. While we
freely admit the slight dependence to be placed upon conclusions in respect to
a mound which has not been totally demolished, we are inclined to believe that
the great Shields platform mound was gradually built,. and during this period
used as a place of domicile; subsequently being utilized on the summit plateau for
mortuary purposes.
That the burials in the summit plateau were not intrusive was clearly shown
by the unbroken layer of colored sand above.
With undisturbed interments were no objects save those of purely aboriginal
origin, though, as we have stated, and as might be expected in ground beneath a
site used for residence in recent times and most probably during the English and


Spanish occupation, at various points superficially were a number of objects found
in use among the Whites. Under these circumstances there would seem to be no
reason to assign to the burials beneath the summit plateau of the Shields mound
a period other than one antedating the coming of Europeans.


The Gilbert mound stood in the pine woods, in full view of the road, about
one quarter of a mile southeast of the Shields mound. Its outline was that of an
egg, its greatest height 4 feet 9 inches, being at the broadest portion from where it
sloped gradually to the level of the surrounding territory. It was 86 feet in length,
its maximum lateral diameter being 53 feet.
It was completely demolished, with the cordial consent of the owner, Mr. W.
A. Gilbert, of Jacksonville, Florida.
The mound, unstratified, was composed of yellowish sand with occasional
pockets of red sand in connection with some of the deposits of relics.
Human remains were encountered at various depths, superficially, in the body
of the mound and below the level of the surrounding territory. In all, human
remains were noted at twenty-seven points in the mound, though it is possible that
a trench dug by a former investigator may have removed a certain number in
addition. In no case did interments noted by us, which were of the bunched
variety, include the entire skeleton. In a number of cases isolated crania were
found and once, two skulls associated with no other bones. Again, the cranium
was accompanied by the shaft of a long bone, while in one instance nothing was
found but a portion of a tibia, curiously enough accompanied by art relics.
Virtually no sherds lay scattered loose throughout the sand, though numbers
of fragments of vessels were found, usually with human remains. When put
together, these fragments did not represent complete vessels. They belonged to
vessels of ordinary type, of small or medium size and undecorated. In no case
was stamped pottery met with, neither the stamped decoration of squares and
diamonds so frequently found on the sherds of the two great neighboring mounds
nor the complicated stamp of various intricate patterns so plentiful in the low
mounds in the immediate vicinity.
Five and one-half feet below the surface, with an isolated cranium, was a
globular bowl with inverted rim surrounded by an interesting raised decoration.
The base is without perforation. Its height is 4.5 inches; its maximum diameter
6.5 inches; diameter of orifice, 2.8 inches (Plate LXXI, Fig. 1).
About two feet from the surface, associated with human remains, were two
graceful vessels entirely intact. The larger (Plate LXXI, Fig. 2) of less than one
pint capacity, is of fairly good material carefully smoothed. Its height is 3.6
inches; its maximum diameter, 3.9 inches, while the aperture, from which the rim
turns out slightly, has a diameter of 2.9 inches. There are two perforations for


The smaller vessel, with a height of 3.3 inches, a maximum diameter of 3.3
inches, and a diameter at opening of 2.6 inches, has a perforation at either side for
suspension. The rim is slightly scalloped and to a small extent everted. The
body of the bowl is decorated as shown in Plate LXXI, Fig. 3. The material is of
good quality.
In the southern margin of the mound, three feet below the surface,
considerably below the level of the surrounding territory, near human remains,
was a vessel of about one pint capacity, from which portions of the rim, old breaks,
were missing. Height, 3 9 inches; maximum diameter, 4.4 inches. The base is
imperforate. Its incised decoration lacks uniformity. The most interesting portion
is shown in Plate LXXII, Fig. 1.
In caved sand was a toy vessel about two inches in height with imperforate
base and flaring rim which was unfortunately damaged by contact with a spade.
A number of additional vessels of ordinary type and size, without decoration,
were recovered during the investigation. Some were in-
tact, while others had been intentionally mutilated as to
the base.
Loose in the sand, near the base, was a mass of
cherty material about 5 inches by 3.5 inches by 2.75
inches. Its shape was ovoid. It was doubtless fashioned
i to do duty as a hammer. A somewhat smaller mass of
coralline limestone, not so regularly shaped. lay unasso_
I cited, about 3 feet from the surface.
SSheets of mica, of somewhat irregular shape, some
i' so large as 7 inches square, came from various depths.
S Some had perforations for suspension or for fastening to
;' garments. These sheets of mica, as a rule, were associ-
i, ated with pebble hammers, chips of chert, bits of shell
and of sandstone.
Two and one half feet from the surface, probably on
Sthe base, as the mound sloped considerably at that point,
with part of the shaft of one human long bone, were one
rounded piece of sandstone, one bit of chert, two pebbles,
S'--' one small fragment of earthenware, and many marine
mussel shells (Modiola plicatzla). These shells lay in
Fro. 23.--Chisel of shell, Gil-
bert Mound. (Full size.) bunches, one within the other, showing them to have been
inhumed without the fish, and therefore not as food.
About 18 inches below this curious medley was an undecorated bowl, imperforate
as to base, of about one quart capacity.
A chisel or gouge, of shell, found alone, had two incised parallel grooves ex-
tending the length of one side (Fig. 23).
In the central portion of the mound, about 6 feet from the surface, with


human remains, including a tibia of considerable pathological interest,1 were: five
arrow heads of chert; two chisels neatly wrought from the lip of Strombus;
one Fulgur,; bits of sandstone; various fragmentary portions from columellae of
marine univalves, also sections from the lips of large univalves, showing grooves,
probably the initial step in the manufacture of some ornament.
Near the base, with human remains, were a piercing implement of bone,
the articular portion remaining; a bit of coquina; part of a cannon bone of a deer,
a fragment of buck-horn, and a considerable number of marine mussel shells.
In various other parts of the mound, curious collections, somewhat similar
to those described, were met with. With one lot was a small chisel of stone,
polished at one end and roughened at the other.
Nothing in any way indicating intercourse with the Whites was discovered
in the Gilbert mound.

The Monroe mound lay about one quarter of a mile southeast of the Grant
mound (see map), in a peach orchard, the property of Mr. George J. Monroe, of
Joliet, Illinois. Its height had been reduced by cultivation. Its shape was
somewhat irregular. Its length was about 63 feet; its breadth about 5 feet less.
At the center of the broader portion, the maximum height of the mound was
3 feet 2 inches. A deep depression on the west showed whence the material of
the mound had been derived.
There had been no previous investigation.
The mound was completely destroyed, being dug through at a depth of
about 3 feet below the level of the surrounding territory.
It was evident that the mound had been constructed in the following man-
ner. First, a fire was built on the surface, possibly to destroy the underbrush.
Next, a pit of the area of the intended mound was dug to a depth of about 3
feet. In a central portion of this pit was made a deposit of human remains with
certain artifacts to be described later. Then the pit was filled with the sand
previously thrown out, through which was plentifully mingled charcoal from the
surface fire. During the process of filling, various relics, but no human remains,
were deposited, and covered by the sand. When the pit was filled to the general
level, a great fire was made over its entire area as was evidenced by a well marked
stratum of sand discolored by fire and containing particles of charcoal, extending
entirely through the mound at the level of the surrounding territory. Upon
this the mound proper was constructed and various bunched burials and art relics
In all, human remains were encountered eleven times, once at the base of
the pit, the remainder in the body of the mound. The burials were of the
bunched variety, but small portions remaining.

1 Sent to the United States Army Medical Museum, Washington, D. C.


Sherds were fairly numerous, some of superior quality with lined decoration
artistically executed. Others of less excellent material were undecorated or bore
complicated stamped decoration of the type seen in neighboring low mounds
(Plate LXXII, Fig. 2). The common square and diamond shaped stamp was
present but twice in the mound and then superficially.
At a depth of 1.5 feet, apparently unassociated, was an undecorated bowl of
about three quarts capacity, with a perforation of base made subsequent to manu-
facture, which afterwards fell into pieces too small for restoration.
At the same depth, in a different portion of the mound, was a vessel of
heavy ware of much better quality than usual. Its outline is elliptical. Small
handles, one of which is partly missing, extend horizontally from either end. On
the rim, which is .7 of one inch in breadth, and on the handles, is incised decora-
tion. Height, 2 inches; present length, 5.7 inches; width, 4.5 inches. The
base shows perforation after manufacture (Plate LXXIII, Fig. 1).
With a burial about 1 foot from the surface, though no doubt at a greater
depth before long continued cultivation of the mound, were one polished hatchet
and a fragment of a marine shell. With these were great numbers of fragments of
various vessels, though in no case was the entire vessel represented.
About 1 foot down was a vessel with intricate stamped decoration of about
one quart capacity. Its base was intact. No human remains were noticed in its
Four feet from the surface, unassociated, was a mass of graphite about 2
inches by 1.5 inches by 1 inch. One side was slightly pitted, the other deeply so.
Apparently unassociated with human remains, 4 feet from the surface,
together, were: five arrow points of chert; one flake of the same material, used as
a cutting instrument; one sheet of mica, and four worked masses of sandstone and
of chert. One foot farther in, on the same plane, together, were : one pebble; one
small mass of chert; one bit of coquina; two drinking cups wrought from Fudgur
perversum, with perforated bases, one within the other, containing a number of
marine mussel shells. With these lay an interesting little vessel, undecorated,
with three compartments intact save a small portion missing from the base of one.
The nature of this fracture would indicate the result of accident rather than an
intentional perforation of the base. Length, 5.8 inches; maximum width, 3 inches;
depth, 1 inch (Plate LXXIII, Fig. 2).
Almost in the center of the bottom of the pit of which we have already made
mention, about 4 feet from the surface, were several decaying fragments of a
cranium and a portion of the shaft of a long bone. With these was a boss of sheet
copper with deep central indentation through the middle of which is a perforation
for attachment. On the outside a knot of the original cord still remains. With
this ornament was a lance head of copper, 7.6 inches in length, with a maximum
breadth of 1.8 inches. This interesting piece, unlike anything else in copper we
have seen in Florida, has almost a cutting edge at the sides with slightly increasing
thickness to a maximum of .1 of one inch in the middle. A notch is at either


side of the base by which
it was doubtless fastened
to the shaft. One would
hardly expect a weapon
of copper of this thick-
ness to be of much effect
against any but unpro-
tected bodies. Highly
polished, it would have
an attractive appearance,
and may have been used
for ceremonial purposes
(Fig. 24).
With one burial were
two shell beads each
about .75 of one inch in
Several vessels of me-
dium size and uninterest-
ing as to type, were taken
from various depths, as
were a number of peb-
bles, always several to-

It may be well to note
here that pebbles which
seem of so little value to
us, and whose presence in
these low mounds must
strike many of our readers
as curious, were to be had
in this section of Florida
by importation alone, and
were distinctly of value
either for use as small
hammers or as raw mate-
rial for the manufacture
of pendants and the

FIG. 24.-Lance-head of copper. Monroe mound. (Full size.)

Nothing discovered
in the Monroe mound points to an origin other than aboriginal.




The Grant Mound,2 near New Castle, Duval County, Florida, in Section 35,
Township 1, stood on the southern bank of the St. John's River, on a bluff 25
feet in height. Its situation is noted on the Government chart relating to this
portion of the river. It lay about one mile in a westerly direction from the Shields
The height of the mound, taken from the present level of the bluff on the
west, was 26 feet 8 inches. On the eastern side is an abrupt dip of the land and a
measurement from this quarter would have given an exaggerated idea of its alti-
tude. The base of the mound, as we shall see later, was marked by a layer of
oyster shells. From this base line, taken on the western side where no natural
depression exists, the height of the mound was 30 feet 9 inches and even
this considerable altitude must be increased by at least one foot to allow for material
removed by us at a previous investigation, as was shown by trees growing on the
summit. It is evident, then, that the territory around the margin of the mound,
which was composed to a depth of several feet of dark loamy sand and scattered
oyster shells, either was a deposit belonging to a period subsequent to the erection
of the mound and had consequently lessened its height by about four feet, or
previously existing, had been dug into to a depth of four feet.
Fully one-third of the mound on the north, undermined by the river previous
to our investigation, had fallen into the stream, and it is probable that had not
the hand of man anticipated its destruction, a limited term of years would have
seen the mound entirely absorbed by the river-to a certain extent a consolation
for the loss of so notable a landmark.
In shape the mound was the usual truncated cone. Its base diameter was 216
feet and that of the summit plateau but 24 feet. The western slope was
at an angle of 280, the others somewhat less steep, though, taken as a whole, the
mound was one of the most symmetrical we have met with.
Two low ridges, one somewhat better marked than the other, almost parallel,
start a short distance from the southernmost portion of the mound, and, after a
time, merge in the surrounding level. Investigation failed to reveal either inter-
ments or art relics in them, and it is presumable that these causeways were used
as approaches, like others found in connection with Florida mounds.
The mound was totally demolished by an average force of forty-three men,
exclusive of those supervising the work, digging seven hours per day during a
period of five weeks of March and April, 1895.

SA short account of a former investigation of this mound was given in our Certain Sand Mounds
of the St. John's River, Florida," Part II, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. X.
2 See frontispiece.



No uniformity of stratification was observed in the construction of the Grant
Mound. The bluff on which it was built had previously served as a place of abode
for the aborigines whose kitchen refuse, in the shape of oyster shells, fragments of
bone, and of earthenware, mingled with black loamy sand and charcoal, formed
an irregular layer sometimes five feet in thickness.
This layer constituted the base of the mound.
Upon this base, through the outer portions of the mound, ran a layer of sand
intentionally given a cherry color by the use of hematite, from twelve to eighteen
inches in thickness, which, gradually ascending, was lost, its place being taken, at
certain points, by an irregular stratum of pure white sand with a maximum thick-
ness of about two feet.
While the great bulk of the mound was composed of yellowish sand, there
were very numerous pockets and local layers of considerable size of white sand,
fine and again coarse and angular; of brown sand; of gray sand; of sand dyed a
beautiful cherry, and of oyster shells mingled with black loam and midden refuse.
A superficial layer of rich brown loam had a varying thickness of from two to three
feet. The usual particles of charcoal were encountered throughout the mound.
At one point of the western side of the central portion of the mound was
a striking combination of shades. Above the shell base was a layer of sand black
in color through admixture of loam, six inches in thickness. This was surmounted
by a band of white sand about ten inches through, above which was a stratum of
sand of a chocolate tint, about three-quarters of a foot in breadth. Next came a
layer one foot in thickness of sand of stone color, which was surmounted by seven
inches of sand tinged a bright cherry. Above these layers were masses of yel-
lowish sand with occasional strata of brown sand and of blackish sand containing
oyster shells. This conformation, it must be borne in mind, was not representa-
tive of other portions of the mound.
Water-worn sherds, some from central portions of the mound, gave evidence
that a portion of the material had been brought from the river front below.
Scattered oyster shells were frequently met with throughout the entire mound
and to such an extent was their distribution that, by constant contact with the
spade and thus exciting vain hopes of the discovery of more valuable articles, they
considerably interfered with the interest of the search.


Skeletal remains in the Grant mound were singularly disproportionate in
number to the vast bulk of material present, and emphasized more clearly than
ever before in our experience how much needless labor was sometimes undertaken
by the aborigines for their dead. Many men in our employ dug for days without
encountering a vestige of human remains and in the entire eastern and southeast-


ern portion of the mound virtually none was present while in no part (excluding
the side bordering the river, as to which we are not in a position to speak) had any
interments been made within nineteen feet from the margin of the base.
During our first investigation, which included a superficial portion of the
mound containing but few skeletal remains, no burials in anatomical order were
met with, such as were encountered being of the bunched variety exclusively.
In point of fact, however, as was demonstrated by the demolition of the mound,
the burial in anatomical order largely predominated, though both foims were met
with. On the base, especially, few, if any, bunched burials were brought to our
More forcibly than ever before was brought to our attention the opposite state
of preservation of bones presumably of approximately the same age. At times, in
various portions of the mound, the skeleton was represented by remains with hardly
a greater consistence than putty, while again, often at no great distance from the
base, the bones were fairly well preserved. Such remains lay near oyster shells
from which, doubtless, the infiltration of lime was a potent factor in preservation.
In the Grant mound, as in all other mounds we have investigated, the great
majority of skeletal remains was unaccompanied by relics of any sort.
No crania were preserved, the facial bones being in all cases crushed or wanting
through decay and the vaults usually to a certain extent broken in.
Marked examples of platycnemia1 and of the pilastered femur were noted, and
these, with specimens bearing evidence of inflammation and others showing frac-
ture, were sent to the United States Army Medical Museum at Washington.
After a careful examination of the bones from the Grant mound we were
impressed, as has been the case during all our mound work in Florida, with the
exceedingly limited number of fractures present among them, probably much less
than would be encountered among modern skeletal remains. Presumably the
level country, the sandy soil, the absence of ice and of horses and of vehicles, of
scaffolding and of machinery, and of many other things incidental to civilization,
militated against accidents to the human structure.


The proceeds of the demolition of the Grant mound were disappointing in so
much as, contrary to our expectation, few new types or specimens of remarkable
interest, were encountered. In fact, the eastern and southeastern portions of the
mound were virtually barren, as was that part 25 feet in all directions from the

1 The reader will recall that this flattening of the tibia is no longer regarded as a racial characteristic
but rather the result of muscular traction upon the bone, in running and climbing. Memoire sur la Pla-
tycnemie chez I'Honmme et chez les Anthropoides. Dr. Mlanouvrier Mimoires de la Societ6 d'Anthropologie
de Paris. Tdme troisieme, deuxime S'rie Paris, 1883-1888, page 469 et seq.
2 The reader of our Certain Sand Mounds of the St.Johns River," Part II, will recall that at the
previous investigation of the Grant mound we found one sheet-copper ornament, a number of beads of
the same material, two small vessels of earthenware and a number of celts of polished stone.


margin of the base, save on the north where the encroachment of the river, to
which we have referred, prevented determination. The objects discovered, com-
paratively few, when we consider the enormous mass of sand removed, were mainly
confined to the north and northwest portions of the mound surrounding the summit
plateau. Beneath the plateau itself the discovery of relics was comparatively
infrequent. All the tobacco pipes found by us and five previously taken out by
persons well known to us, were from the northern, or river, side of the mound.
So great was the height of the mound that frequent slides of masses of sand
were unavoidable, and thus exact depths of objects found were often unobtainable,
though at times close estimates were to be had since sections of the mound, sliding
down a few feet as a whole, retained their integrity, holding undisturbed human
remains and associated objects.
In describing various articles from the Grant mound we shall not give in all
cases exact details as to objects found in association, but shall content ourselves
with a few representative examples of finds" of various relics encountered
together and in the immediate neighborhood of skeletal remains, stating at the
same time that, as we have said, most burials were without accompanying relics
when found ; that shell beads, usually unassociated with other objects, were the
most frequent tribute to the departed; that beads and sometimes ornaments, of
sheet copper, were occasionally found with the beads of shell and that stone hatchets,
singly, in pairs or very rarely three at one time, occasionally lay with the bones,
sometimes associated with other objects.
About four feet from the surface, in the northern slope, a short distance apart,
were two drinking cups wrought from Fulgurperzersum. Into each a skull had
been crushed to fragments by weight of sand. With one were a number of large
shell beads and several ellipsoidal objects of shell. About one foot above was a
large fossil shark's tooth.
Beneath the cranium of a skeleton in anatomical order, 20.5 feet from the
surface, in a mass of crimson pigment, were a tobacco pipe of sandstone and several
shell beads.
Together, with human remains, in contact with, and partially enclosed in, a
mass of red pigment, were many shell beads; several small sheets of mica, one cut
square with central perforation, doubtless for attachment; small beads of sheet
copper; numerous fragments of sheet copper, a large tobacco pipe of Steatite,
and one human molar with incised line around the crown and a central perfora-
tion for suspension.
In the eastern side of the mound, with human remains, were: a shell drink-
ing cup; many shell beads; small beads and very fragmentary ornaments of sheet
copper; a mass of red pigment about the size of a cocoanut; a tobacco pipe of
undecorated earthenware of the usual type found in the mound, and a disc of lime-
SIt is possible that objects of wood, fur, vegetable fabric and other perishable materials, when not
in contact with copper, may have, in some cases, disappeared without leaving a trace.


stone 1.5 inches in diameter and .2 of one inch in thickness, centrally perforated
and overlaid with sheet copper on one side. These objects were about six feet
from the surface.

With shell beads, near human remains, were two symmetrical pearls perfor-
ated as is the case in the mounds. The larger pearl is .35 of one inch by .25 of
one inch.

Beads.-Shell beads in great abundance, always with human remains, were
present in the Grant mound. Though great numbers of the smaller forms were
not recovered, nevertheless a box 14 inches by 10.25 inches by 5.75 inches, was
entirely filled. The beads were of every shape, discoidal, spherical, barrel-shaped,
tubular, of various sizes. One discoidal bead of shell, of about one inch diameter,
had been overlaid with copper.
Two beads found 10 feet down in the northern slope, with other beads and
associated with human remains,were
of graceful and unusual pattern;
the larger, with a length of 1.2
inches and a maximum diameter of
FIG. 25.-Beads of shell. Grant Mound. (Full size.) .5 of one inch; the other somewhat
smaller (Fig. 25).
In a few instances, numbers of small elongated marine shells (Olivella and
Mlarginella) longitudinally perforated, lay in lieu of beads with human remains
These little shells were in use for a like purpose in post-Columbian times.
Drinking cups.-The reader will recall that the conch (Fulgur perversum)
was utilized by the aborigines as a drinking cup by the removal of the columella
and a portion of the body whorl.
Nine such drinking cups were met with during our last investigation, usually
associated with other objects. Some of these were perforate as to the base; others
were intact.
Pendants.-A number of pendent ornaments of shell, mostly resembling in
type others described and figured by us before, were found throughout the mound.
One, cylindrical in shape (Fig. 26) is of somewhat unusual design for Florida. Its
length is 3.2 inches. The perforation begins at one side, meeting one from the top.
Another pendant, found with a long tubular bead of shell, is of a somewhat
elongated pear shape with one side flattened.
A graceful ellipsoidal ornament of shell from the mound is shown in Fig. 27.
Miscellaneous.-Four columellae of marine univalves were found during the
SThe reader is referred to Holmes' exhaustive memoir "Art in Shell," Second Annual Report,
Bureau of Ethnology. 1880-1881.


A cockle shell (Cardium) con-
tained a certain amount of crimson
pigment, but whether it had been used
as a receptacle for paint, an aborigi-
nal use for certain shells in Califor-
nia, or whether the pigment was ac-
cidentally obtained through prox-
imity to one of these masses present
throughout the mound, we are unable
to say.

Thirty-five vessels of earthen- i
ware were taken from the Grant
mound, none of so much as one quart '
capacity. Some had the base intact; /
others a hole knocked through after
baking, though the great majority FIG.26. Pendantofshell. '
were of the "freak" style of mortuary Grant mound. (Full
pottery with perforation in the base
made prior to baking. None bore any
traces of soot or evidence of use over
fires. These vessels, as a rule, didi
not seem to be associated with human
remains, though, as many came from FIG. 27. Ellipsoidal object of
sand caved from above, absolute de- shell. Grant mound. (Full
termination in all cases was impossi- size.)
ble. The material of all was of the usual flimsy sort used for vessels made in ad-
vance for mortuary purposes.
In Plate LXXIII, Fig. 3, is shown a bowl 1.8 inches in depth with a maximum
diameter of 5.3 inches. In common with all other vessels in the Grant mound, it
shows no sign of use over fire and is probably of the mortuary variety.
In Plate LXXIV, Fig. 1, we have a vessel doubtless of a similar type, though
in both cases the base has been perforated after completion. Height, 2 inches;
length, 6.9 inches; maximum breadth, 4.8 inches.
A specimen of the pure "freak" variety is shown in Plate LXXIV, Fig. 2. The
perforation at its base was made previous to baking. The form is entirely new to
us. Height, 4.2 inches; maximum diameter, at rim, 3 inches.
Plate LXXIV, Fig. 3, represents a portion of'a vessel with perforations of side
and base. The motive for constructing a vessel of this sort is not apparent.
Very recently vessels each with numerous perforations at the base have been found


FIG. 28. Tobacco pipe of earthenware Grant mound.
(Full size.)

ware. The larger has a perforation at base
made prior to baking; the smaller, imperforate
as to the base, has two small holes for sus-
A bowl of about one quart capacity, with
incised and stamped decoration beneath the
margin, has but one of the two holes, one on
either side, usually made for suspension. As
the base has a large perforation made previous
to baking, it is probable the potter was not
over-careful as to the bestowal of details not
likely to be called into requisition.
One small vessel with perforation of base
made prior to completion, has a small hole on

in certain Kentucky mounds.
These are supposed to have served
as colanders or sieves, like those
in use in southern Mexico for
straining the cactus fruit. In the
case of our vessel, however, such
cannot have been the case, as a
perforation at the base, made pre-
vious to baking, has a maximum
diameter of almost 1 inch. It is,
perhaps, an emphasized form of
"freak" mortuary ware.
A vessel of a type entirely
new to us was recovered in a some-
what fragmentary condition. The
form calls to mind certain tobacco
pipes, but in this specimen the per-
foration is wanting. Two small
holes, one on either side of the
rim, served for suspension (Plate
LXXV, Fig. 1). Length of base,
5.3 inches; width of base, 2.2
inches; full height, 3.1 inches;
maximum diameter of bowl, 2.7
inches; diameter of orifice, 1.7
Plate LXXV, Figs. 2 and 3,
are doubtless types of mortuary

FIG. 29. Bead or pendant of earthenware.
Grant mound. (Full size.)


either side of this perforation and none beneath the rim. We have never before
seen this proceeding and are at a loss to account for its motive.
Another bowl with the usual small perforations beneath the margin on either
side, has, about one inch below the rim in the other two sides, holes about three-
quarters of an inch in diameter, carefully cut.
A number of other vessels from the Grant mound, though of considerable
interest, will not be particularly described here, since, to a certain extent, they
resemble vessels from other mounds referred to, and figured in, our previous reports.
Sherds were of infrequent occurrence in the Grant mound. Some bore the
usual stamped squares and diamonds but in one instance only was there brought to
our notice the complicated stamp of such frequent occurrence in many low neigh-
boring mounds.
But two tobacco pipes of earthenware were recovered. The larger, with length
of stem 2.8 inches, height of bowl 3 inches, orifice of bowl 1.7 inches by 2.8
inches, had, when found, a small ornament of sheet copper fastened beneath the
margin of the orifice facing the smoker by an encircling cord which crumbled into
dust (Fig. 28).
A somewhat smaller tobacco pipe of ordinary type came from a depth of 6
feet, with human remains and many associated objects.
A large bead or pendant, of earthenware, was of equal proportions in height
and in length, 2.3 inches (Fig. 29).
lHatchets or "celts".-In all, 117 hatchets, or "celts," were taken by us from
the Grant mound during the second investigation. Their material has not been
separately determined, the majority, however, being from rocks of igneous origin,
while an occasional sedimentary or metamorphic rock is represented. None of
these rocks is found in Florida.
Twelve feet from the surface, just beneath a skeleton with which were beads
of shell, was the most perfectly symmetrical and beautiful celt" it has been
our good fortune to find. The material, light green in color, is believed to be an
altered Felsite. The semi-circular outline of the cutting edge has been conferred
with wonderful precision. This implement is of the pure Santo Domingo type.
The cuts by no means convey a fair idea of the appearance of the original. Length,
about 5.5 inches; maximum-breadth, about 2.6 inches; maximum thickness,
about 1.5 inches (Figs. 30 and 31).
Arrow andlance heads.-The interment of arrow and lance points with the
dead was largely a matter of fashion. In the Shields mound, less than one mile
distant, they were very abundant, as was the case in Mt. Royal which closely
resembled the Grant mound in many particulars. In the Grant mound but fifteen
were taken out by us. None was of unusual size or of especial interest.
Tobacco pipes.-Three pipes of soapstone, variously associated, came from the
Grant mound. One of these was about the size and form of the one figured from


the Shields mound. The others were somewhat smaller though of the same type.
One had two lines rudely incised on one side and one on the other.
A tobacco pipe of sandstone came from a depth of 20.5 feet, beneath a cra-
nium with a mass of red pigment and shell beads. Length of bowl and stem, 3.4
inches; diameter of bowl, about 1.7 inches (Fig. 32).

i, '

I / ;K if

FIG. 30. "Celt" of altered Felsite. Grant mound. FIG. 31. Same, side view. (Full size.)
(Full size.)

Another tobacco pipe of sandstone, with bowl nearly at right angles to the
stem, lay in caved sand. Height of bowl, 2.5 inches; length of stem, including base
of bowl, 2 inches; diameter of bowl, about 1.7 inches (Fig. 33).
Gorgets.-A pendant, probably of fine-grained Diorite, 2.5 inches long with
maximum diameter of 1.2 inches, lay in caved sand (Fig. 34).
A pear-shaped pendant of quartz, grooved at the neck for suspension, about 2
inches in length, has a maximum diameter of about 1.6 inches.


Tubes.-During the excavation several tubes of sandstone and of coquina,
were met with. In addition, six curious natural formations, such as we have
referred to in our account of the Shields Mound, were recovered separately.
Miscellaneous.-Several sandstone hones and a few loose pebbles and chips of

FIG. 32. Tobacco pipe of sandstone. Grant FIG. 33. Tobacco pipe of sandstone. Grant
mound. (Full size.) mound. (Full size.)

chert were encountered separately. Mica was noted but twice, in each case thin
sheets perforated for attachment. Fifteen masses of galena, some about one half
the size of the closed hand, came from various depths.


A feature of the Grant Mound was the great quantity of bone piercing imple-
ments and pins interred with human remains, sometimes a considerable number at
one spot. Most, in a very fragmentary condition, were not preserved. None
showed unusual or artistic forms. Fig. 35 represents a fragment with incised
decoration. A considerable number, entire or but slightly fragmentary, are pre-
served in our collection with all the contents of the St. John's and Ocklawaha
River Mounds at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.


The yield of copper from the Grant Mound was somewhat disappointing,
being as a rule a repetition, on no very large scale, of the usual types of orna-
ments of sheet copper and of other materials overlaid with sheet copper.


In many places in the mound mere traces of the copper remained and at times
a discoloration of bones or of beads was the only evidence of the former presence
of the metal.
Upon a number of occasions a single bead of sheet copper, not over one-third
of an inch in length, lay with many beads of shell, showing the scarcity of the
As in other mounds, no two ornaments of sheet copper were alike and
the sheets were slightly irregular in length, in breadth, and in thickness.
What we have before noted, namely, the almost entire absence of copper
implements of any sort in Florida,' was emphasized in the Grant Mound, where no
object of that character was present
save pins or piercing implements
and even these may have done duty
in the hair.
As in other mounds, the copper
of the Grant Mound was at times
wrapped in bark or in vegetable
fabric, a custom, as we have before
stated, prevailing in other parts of
the United States and in Canada,
and, curiously enough, the occur-
rence of the same custom is noted
in England where, upon one occa-
sion at least, prehistoric bronze was
wrapped in linen.2
In addition to a considerable
number of sheet copper ornaments
FIG. 34. Pendent orna- in a fragmentary condition, nine of
ment. Grant mound. .
(Full size.) the usual type consisting of re-
pousse bosses and beaded lines, were
FIG. 3. recovered entire or nearly so from
FIG. 35. Fragment of bone pin.
Grant mound. (Full size.) the Grant Mound, two of which we
show, full size, in Figs. 36 and 37.
One ellipsoidal bead of sheet copper, of the same shape though somewhat
smaller than the one recovered during the previous investigation of the mound and
figured' in Part II, came, with human remains, from the western slope of the
mound. In addition, four beads of the same material, though more elongated in
shape, were met with, the largest being 2.75 inches in length with a maximum

1 From the interesting "Notes on Primitive Man in Ontario," by David Boyle, we learn that the
reverse of this is true in Ontario where such specimens of copper as are found are almost invariably tools
or weapons.
2 Cited by Clodd. "The Story of Primitive Man," page 165.
3 Op. cit.


FIG. 36.

FIG. 37.
Ornaments of sheet copper. Grant mound. (Full size.)


diameter of .75 of one inch. Smaller beads of copper were found in considerable
A large bead of wood, 1.6 inches by 1.3 inches, spheroidal in shape, had been
overlaid with sheet copper, portions of which still adhere.
Seven pins or piercing implements of copper, the longest 13 inches in length,
were found variously associated at different depths. All seem to have been made
by hammering sheet copper into the required shape.
A disc of limestone, 2 inches in diameter, with a central perforation, overlaid
with sheet copper on one side, and a somewhat smaller disc of shell or of limestone
of the same type, came from different portions of the
mound. With the smaller was an earthenware pipe.
Two discs, probably of limestone, overlaid with
sheet copper, with shanks extending from the lower
central portions, were found together near human re-
mains and were doubtless used as earplugs. A some-
what similar ornament is figured by us' in Part I as
coming from Mt. Royal.
About 13.5 feet from the surface, near together,
associated with human remains and a mass of red pig-
nment, were two cones of wood, 3.2 inches and 1.7
inches in height, respectively, each with base diam-
eter of 1 inch. These cones had been overlaid with
thin sheet copper which had preserved the wood.
Portions of the coating were still adherent. From
the base of the larger cone projected a pin .9 of one
inch in length, exactly fitting into a socket having a
depth of .6 of one inch in the base of the smaller
cone. This pin was not an integral portion of the
cone from which it projected, but had been let into a
small socket and secured with bitumen.
These interesting specimens, unique so far as we
know, were carefully allowed to dry and then treated
with shellac.
It is not unlikely that these objects form two
parts of an ear ornament, one worn on either side of
the lobe, the pin passing through the perforated por-
tion (Fig. 38). The difference between the length of
the pin and the depth of the socket would be about
Fig. 38. Ornament of wood over- made up by the thickness of the lobe of the ear.
laid with sheet copper. Grant During the investigation an ornament, or, more
mound. (Full size.) .
probably, two somewhat similar ornaments, of sheet
copper, were laid bare at a depth from the surface of about 20 feet. Before this
SOp. cit.


copper could be removed, a section of the mound fell from above, burying the ob-
jects beneath tons of sand and breaking them to a certain extent, as we learned
hours later when they were recovered. It was apparent at the same time, how-
ever, by the carbonated edges of certain fractures that the ornaments had under-
gone some breakage previous to the caving of the sand.
The larger ornament consists of a shield, or escutcheon, shaped concavo-con-
vex sheet of copper, with a maximum length of 2.6 inches and a maximum width
of 2.2 inches. This shield has repousse decoration probably intended to represent
the human face, the raised portion of the decoration being on the concave side of
the shield. Near the margin, about .7 of one inch from the upper edge, is a small
perforation on either side as shown in Fig. 39. From the convex side of the shield,
where the design is depressed, the remaining portion of a band of copper,
about 1.3 inches broad, projects (see section, Fig. 40). It is slightly bent,
but has the appearance of having at one
time been at right angles to the shield and
having been bent by weight of sand. Near the
shield lay a band of copper, 3.5 inches in
length, and of the same breadth as the portion
fastened to the shield. The ragged edge at
either end, however, is carbonated, showing an
early fracture. One portion of this band, which

FIG. 39. Ornament of sheet copper.
Grant mound. (Full size.) FIG. 40. Transverse section of same.

is heavily carbonated, being cleared by acid, shows a straight line of rivets,
running transversely, where it had probably been joined to the tongue projecting
from the shield.
The shield-like portion of the second ornament is somewhat smaller, having a
maximum length of 2.3 inches, and a maximum width of 1.9 inches. It is thinner
than the larger shield from which it differs in that it has repousse decoration on
the convex side alone, the concave side being undecorated and the excised portion
from the upper part in the concave side does not end squarely but has its base in
the form of an upright wedge. Vegetable fabric, not shown in the cut (Fig. 41),
adheres to the convex side which shows considerably less convexity than the larger
shield. From the convex side as in the case of the other specimen, a band of sheet
copper, irregularly bent over, probably by weight of sand, projects as represented
in section (Fig. 42a). Near the shield lay a band of copper about 2.5 inches in


length, of the same breadth as that portion projecting from the shield. The line
of fracture shows a recent break as does that of the band on the ornament. As the
two portions do not join, it is probable an intervening portion is missing. This
band of copper differs from that probably belong-
ing to the larger shield, which is made of but one
thickness of copper, in that it is constructed of
one sheet bent upon itself to give double thickness,
the edges meeting at the margin.
Dr. M. G. Miller, who has made a careful
examination of the method of construction of
these ornaments, writes as follows:
The surfaces of both shields were obscured
by a thick coating of carbonate, the removal of
S which required the use of acid.
"The smaller ornament consists of two plates.
That on the concave side, smooth, undecorated
and showing no fissure in the median line, was
FIG. 41. Ornament of sheet copper. made from a solid sheet. The plate of the con-
Grant mound. (Full size.)
Grant mound. (Fullsize.) vex surface is composed of two sheets each cut
according to the pattern shown in Fig. 42c and united in the following manner:
First, the tongue, D, was
bent to a right angle with ------ ----- ..-.- ---- I
the remaining portion. Then
the sheet of the other side

FIG. 42a. Transverse section.

ponding fashion, the two
were brought together in *
such a way that the tongues
were in apposition and the
were in opposition and the FIG 42b. Convex surface. FIG. 42c. Pattern of one-half
margins overlapped at E and of convex sheet.
F, Fig. 42b. Rivets along
these margins, as indicated at E, F, in Fig. 42b united the sheets, while the edges of
one tongue were bent around those of the other as shown by the dotted lines. The
plate thus formed was decorated as represented in the cut, and attached to its
companion by applying it against the convex surface and turning its edges around
the margin of that plate and pressing them tightly against the other side (Fig. 42a
and dotted lines on 42b). More rivets than those represented in the cut may have
been used in the formation and union of the plates, but fear of serious injury to the


specimen restricted the search. At G and H are indicated places where the convex
plate has fallen away exposing the plate beyond.
The larger ornament was examined on both surfaces as carefully as its con-
dition would allow but no rivets were discovered. It was, however, apparently
constructed after the fashion of the convex sheet of the smaller ornament, as shown
by the overlapping at the point, by the fissure along the median line of the concave
surface and by the apposed tongues projecting from the convex surface."


It is probable that the demolition of the Grant mound was a work as extensive
and as carefully conducted as anything of the kind ever undertaken in this country,
During the entire investigation not one object in any way connecting the mound
with a period subsequent to White contact, was discovered. Under the circum-
stances, we think the mound and its contents may safely be assigned to a period
prior to the arrival of Europeans.


About 500 yards in a southerly direction from the Grant mound, in dense
underbrush, was a series of low elevations of irregular shape, which had been
considered of natural formation, by persons who knew of their existence.


curved ridge with occasional depressions, or a number of low intersecting mounds.
For purposes of description we shall treat them as a series of mounds as figure( d
in accompanying plan (Fig. 43). The mounds were totally demolished by per-
mission of James B. Grant, Esq., the owner.
Mound A. Height, 4 feet; diameter of base, 36 feet. But two burials were
discovered in this mound, both of the bunched variety, one representing portions


of two skeletons. In addition, two bones were found separately. All skeletal
remains and, with trifling exceptions, all artifacts were deposited near the margin.
In the southern margin, about 1 foot below the surface, was a small vase,
imperforate as to the base, with interesting decoration as shown in Plate LXXV,
Fig. 4. A portion of the rim is wanting. This vase was apparently unassoci-
ated with human remains.
Two feet down in the S. S. W. margin, unassociated with human remains,
were two bowls, each of about three quarts capacity. The material is inferior.
Traces of red pigment are visible exteriorly.
With a bunched burial in the southern margin, 3.5 feet from the surface,
were : one pebble-hammer; one rounded mass of stone about 2 75 inches in diam-
eter, flattened on one side and slightly pitted at places; one columella of a large
marine univalve, considerably affected by decay.
A polished stone celt" lay 3.5 feet from the surface, about 1 foot above
a bunched burial.
With no human remains in association, or, at least, with none remaining,
4 feet from the surface, were: one small "celt;" one slab of bituminous slate,
5 inches by 6.25 inches by .75 of one inch, rudely cut in the form of a keystone;
three sheets of mica.
One and one half feet down was a bowl with inverted brim, of about one
quart capacity, bearing traces of red pigment. Immediately beneath were: three
incomplete arrow-heads; a portion of another; ten fragments of chert and of
sandstone, showing workmanship to a certain extent. No human remains were
encountered near these relics.
Several other vessels of ordinary type, crushed by weight of sand, were met
with in the mound and numerous sherds of good material, with the complicated
stamp of Georgia and of Carolina, lay loose in the sand. This intricate stamped
decoration is not met with on the St. John's river farther south than Dunn's
Creek, ten miles above Palatka.
Mound B. Height, 2 feet; diameter of base, 28 feet. With the exception
of one fire place, no evidence of human origin was encountered.
Mound C. Height, 3 feet; diameter of base, 30 feet. One small sherd alone
was recovered from this mound.
Mound D. Height, 3 feet 4 inches; major and minor axes respectively 36
feet and 17 feet.
Together, toward the center, with a few fragments of human remains, in
sand dyed with red hematite, 4 feet from the surface, were: eleven conchs
(Fulgur carica) ; numerous shells of salt-water mussels; many sections of colu-
mellae of marine univalves; several small bits of stone.
In the margin, about 3 feet down, was a pocket of cherry colored sand
leading to a mass of crimson pigment, followed, on the same plane, by a seam of
cherry sand, about 1 foot in length, connecting with another *mass of pigment.


No human remains were discovered in association, nor were there apparently
any farther traces of skeletal remains in any other portion of the mound.
iMound E. Five feet eight inches in height; major and minor axes 91 feet
and 78 feet respectively.
This mound was dug through with great care at a level considerably below
that of the surrounding territory.
At but four points in the mound were skeletal remains encountered. All
interments were of the bunched variety, in no case representing the full comple-
ment of bones.

FIG. 44. Sherd with complicated stamped decoration. Low
I I, I'I

in Fig. 44. Another had a pinched decoration (Fig. 45).c
_Low mounds south of G;rant mound.

With an isolated cranium, 2 feet 8 inches from the surface, lay a piercing
implement of bone, badly decayed, with a number of large fresh-water mussel shells
Mound (Ful siz.0


(Unio Yayanus, Lea), pierced through the impression of the anterior adductor
muscle, to enable them to be worn strung as a necklace. These large shells with
the nacreous portion in evidence, must have made an effective showing. In addi-
tion, were portions of columellae of marine univalves and a vessel of earthenware.
This vessel, 12.2 inches in height, has a maximum diameter of 8 inches. It is
centrally constricted and decorated and has decoration below the margin. It is
imperforate as to the base and absolutely intact and is by far the finest specimen
of earthenware recovered by us from any Florida mound. Considerable soot remain-
ing upon it shows it to have been in actual use (Plate LXXVI).
With a small earthenware pot was a graceful ovoid vessel of good material,
handsomely decorated beneath the rim (Plate LXXVII). Its height is 7.2 inches;
its maximum diameter, 5 inches. Considerable soot still remains upon it, showing
culinary use for so ornamental a vessel. A portion of.the rim and body is wanting
through a fracture previous to inhumation as the missing portions were not present
with the remainder of the vessel. Below the line of the fracture is a perforation
with a semi-perforation a short distance away. It is evident that the intention
was, by boring holes in the broken portion, to attach it to the remainder, a purpose
for some reason abandoned.
A small bowl with two compartments, somewhat crushed, of a type already
noticed by us, lay about 1 foot down with many fragments of various vessels. It
has been entirely restored. Length, 5.1 inches; width, 3 inches; height, 1.3
In the northern slope, 5 feet down, were two vessels together, unaccompanied
by skeletal remains. One, a bowl of ordinary type but of good material, holding
about three quarts, has traces of red pigment inside and out. The rim projects.
It is imperforate as to base and otherwise intact with the exception of several
cracks produced by pressure.
The other, gourd-shape, of yellow ware, absolutely intact save a slight chip-
ping at the mouth, lay on its side. It is unornamented save for traces of red
pigment. Height, 9.6 inches; maximum diameter, 7.7 inches; diameter of aper-
ture, 2 inches (Plate LXXVIII). About 1 foot above these vessels was a layer of
charcoal nearly 4 feet in length.
About 1 foot below the surface, with fragments of various vessels, was a vessel
with two compartments, and a handle somewhat resembling a third, though much
shallower. Small holes had been broken through the bottom of each compartment.
In Plate LXXIX, Fig. 1 the vessel is shown, the handle to the front. Length
across compartments, 6 inches; across handle and partition, 5.1 inches; height,
1.5 inches.
About 2.5 feet below the surface, with a mass of crimson pigment about the
size of a cocoanut, and apparently not in proximity to human remains, were:
sheets of mica; two pebble hammers; two chips of chert; a bit of clayey substance
about the size of a chestnut; the head of a shell pin with shank missing through


decay; a mass of bituminous clay about 2.5 inches by 3 inches, evenly pitted on
one side to the size of about the first joint of a human thumb.
In a central portion of the mound, 3 feet down, together, each resting on its
base which showed intentional perforation after manufacture, with no traces of
human remains apparent, were five vessels of ordinary type, each of about two
quarts capacity. The material was very inferior, several dropping to pieces after
discovery. The only decoration was traces of red pigment exteriorly.
Surmounted by crimson sand, 3 feet 9 inches down, together, were : one large
tobacco pipe of earthenware of ordinary pattern; one thick sheet of mica, 3 inches
by 4 inches, and a bit of marine shell. Here again no skeletal remains were
In the E. N. E. margin of the mound, 2 feet down, were two vessels together, one
in somewhat fragmentary condition, in addition to the loss of a portion of its basel
This vessel, of medium size, offered no novelty as to type. Its decoration is parallel.
lines running diagonally. The second vessel, of ware fully equal to any found by us
in the Florida mounds, has a capacity of about five quarts. Bowl-shaped in form, its
rim, 1.5 inches in breadth, is inverted horizontally. It is interiorly decorated with
crimson pigment. Portions of the vessel, broken but not detached, by pressure of
sand, were readily fastened into place. Within it were seven pebbles and two
chips of chert. Nearby, on the outside, were two pebble hammers and one small
bit of chert. No human remains were evident in association.
In the margin of the mound, unassociated with human remains, together,
were two small undecorated vessels, rude and of ordinary type. Their bases
were intact.
About 4 feet down was an isolated cranium, badly decayed, lying in cherry
sand. One foot distant, in the same plane, lay a pebble
hammer of considerable size, showing use, and pitted
on one side.
Together, in ile southern margin, were many frag-
ments of a small bowl and a globular bowl of about one
quart capacity, the bottom of which had been knocked
out and, with the exception of a small portion, placed
within the vessel.
Two and one half feet from the surface, in the
southern margin, apparently apart from human re-
mains, together, were: three small undecorated vessels of
ordinary type and poor material, imperforate as to bases;
two curious toy vessels, unbroken, with side perforations FIG. 46. Toy vessel of earth-
of suspension, one showing decoration (Fig. 46). In enware. Low mounds south
of Grant mound. Mound E.
addition was a cylindrical .vessel with slightly round im- (Fun size.)
perforate base, the rim somewhat flaring. The decoration
is of the complicated stamp variety. This vessel was slightly broken by contact
with the spade. With all these were a number of pebbles, chips of chert, and pieces


of marine shell which probably at one
time had some definite shape. Again,
human remains were wanting.
In the northwest slope, together, un-
associated with human remains, were two
rough undecorated bowls, one imperforate
S -^- as to base, the other showing perforation
intentionally conferred. With these
jC Iwere: one "celt" of polished stone; one
small boss of sheet copper; bits of sand-
stone and a number of pieces of chert
__ resembling small rude arrowheads.
Four feet from the surface, with-
-- out association, in red sand, was a
:::pendant of polished banded slate, 5.5
i inches by 2.5 inches, with maximum
-thickness of about 1 inch (Fig. 47).
Two feet down, apart from human
remains, were a polished hatchet of stone
and a fragmentary ornament of sheet
copper with central double perforation.
A small vessel of ordinary type lay
3.5 feet from the surface. With it was
_=_ an undecorated cylindrical vessel with
rounded imperforate base and slightly
flaring rim. Height, 7.25 inches; maxi-
\ mum diameter, 4 inches; aperture, 3.75
inches. With these, placed one within
the other, were several cockle shells
FIG. 47. Pendant of banded slate. Low mounds (Cardium).
south of Grant mound. Mound E. (Fullsize.) Occupying a central position in the
Occupying a central position in the
mound, 5 feet from the surface, in pale cherry sand, was a curious medley of
objects with fragmentary remains of an adolescent at one extremity and probably
the entire skeleton of a young child at the other. Included in the deposit were:
bits of charcoal; a large clay tobacco pipe of the usual type; a curious object of
polished sedimentary rock (Fig. 48) ; a slab of syenitic rock, entirely smooth and
slightly concave on one side, probably a sharpening stone; several phalanges
of the deer; part of the core of a buck horn; two "celts;" hammer stones;
pebble hammers; pebbles; a small fragment of bitumen; many worked portions
of columellae of marine univalves; numerous chips of chert, some very diminutive;
one arrowhead; bits of coquina; sheets of mica; a small bit of clayey substance;
one small undecorated earthenware bowl; one cutting implement of chipped chert;
many large and small beads of shell; a circular ornament of sheet copper.


Throughout the mound were various other bowls
of ordinary types, some imperforate; pebbles; bits of
marine shells and the like, variously associated and often
in pockets of cherry or reddish sand.
At various points were considerable deposits of bits
of earthenware representing parts of different bowls, but
in no case sufficient for restoration.


These low mounds offer, so far as the earthenware
is concerned, a striking contrast with their near neighbor,
the great Grant mound. In that mound the earthen-
ware, almost entirely of the "freak mortuary variety,
showed no marks of domestic use, while the vessels in
the low mounds were in many cases evidently originally
intended for culinary purposes and bore on their bases and
sides, the soot received during domestic use. Earthen-
ware of complicated stamped decoration,virtually absent
from the Grant mound, abounded in these low neighbor-
ing mounds.
As we have stated, human remains were encountered
at but four points in the largest mound. That so great
a heap of sand should have been thrown up for so few
interments seems unlikely, in view of the number of art
relics found in every portion. In mounds where relics FIG. 48. Unidentified ob-
are inhumed in a general way, they are found in a central ject of sedimentary rock. Low
position and somewhat superficially. We deem it not mounds south of Grant
mound. Mound E. (Full
unlikely that all traces of other interments in this mound size.)
have entirely disappeared.
Nothing was discovered in these low mounds in any way connecting them with
a period other than pre-Columbian.


These low mounds and ridges lie about 500 yards in a southerly direction
from the landing. Theywere thickly covered with scrub and had sustained no
previous examination. Our investigation was conducted with the kind permission
of J. B. Parsons, Esq., the owner.
Mound A, the easternmost, was somewhat irregular in shape, and had an
average'diameter of base of 50 feet. Its maximum height was 3 feet 7 inches. It
was completely demolished.
Human remains were encountered but four times, in each case but a small
portion of the skeleton being represented.


Sherds were infrequently met with. Several bore the complicated stamp of
the type encountered in neighboring low mounds. Three undecorated vessels of
medium size and of poor material came from various depths. One of these, on four
sides, about equidistant, showed careful chipping away of material without perfora-
tion. The base had been treated in a similar manner over an extent about 2.5
inches in diameter. We have before met with chipping of this nature at one or pos-
sibly two points on the surface of certain vessels, but never before have we noticed
it executed with such evident intent.
Three feet down was a small hatchet of stone and two arrow heads, in a
pocket of sand blackened by fire. No skeletal remains were in association.
Together, unassociated with human remains, 3 feet down, were eleven frag-
ments of stone including four
partially completed arrowheads,
the end of a polished chisel, and
S. six bits of chert. In addition,
J c % variously associated, were small
li \"celts," mussel shells, smoothing
.../iZi / stones, pebbles and arrowheads.
ON c Several of these arrowheads were
coated as to the tangs, with
//i!/! -l bitumen which bore the impress
`W of some long-fibred wood, prob-
.' "i' ably reed or cane.
I Y/j//i'\ \ Certain other smaller mounds
in the immediate neighborhood
sCALEOF EET were partially investigated with
0 negative results.
FIG. 49. Plan of Brutus mound. About one quarter of a mile
in a southerly direction from the
low mounds was a mound on the property of an old colored man named Brutus.
Its shape was somewhat unusual (Fig. 49).
A careful investigation, not, however, carried to complete demolition, indi-
cated its erection for other than sepulchral purposes.


This symmetrical mound, in the pine woods, about one quarter of a mile
northwest from Cedar Creek Landing, had a height of 8 feet, a breadth of 60 feet
across the base.
It was totally demolished with the courteous permission of its owner, Napoleon
Broward, Esq., of Jacksonville.
Above the level of the surrounding territory was an irregular layer, from
6 inches to 14 inches in thickness, of pure white sand often containing beds and


pieces of charcoal. The remainder of the mound was of yellowish sand with local
streaks and pockets of white sand throughout and several small seams of cherry
colored sand in the northeastern portion.
Human remains were not present in the marginal portion of the mound but
were encountered toward the center at twelve different places. The usual
bunched burial of fragmentary portions of the skeleton prevailed. Four times,
isolated crania were encountered. Again, shafts of a femur and tibia lay with a
pelvis and a single vertebra. In one case two long bones represented an entire
burial and again, a single humerus was found unassociated. The bones, in the last
stage of decay, were encountered at different depths, from the base to within a
short distance of the surface.
Sherds were infrequently met with.
Two and one-half feet from the surface, near no human remains, was an
interesting cylindrical cup 4.4 inches in height, with a diameter of 2.8 inches. It
is absolutely intact. The base is flat, permitting the maintenance of an upright
position. There are two holes for suspension at opposite sides of the rim. It has
interesting incised and punctate decoration (Plate LXXIX, Fig. 2).
Chippings, flakes, and cores, of chert, so abundant in some mounds, were want-
ing in this one.
In all, five polished stone hatchets were met with, four separately in caved sand,
one about 2 feet from the surface. None seemed to be in the neighborhood of
human remains.
A serrated arrowhead of chert lay, unassociated, 1 foot from the surface.
A pebble about 2 inches long, showing use at either end, completed the list of
art relics taken from the mound.


The Broward mound is typical of a certain class of sand mounds met with on
the St. Johns in that the considerable amount of material was wholly dispro-
portionate to the small number of interments.
In another respect also it was typical of certain mounds of the river. All
relics were comparatively centrally located, and, so nearly as could be determined,
at no great distance from the surface and unassociated with skeletal remains,
showing the inhumation of art relics to have been made toward the completion of
the mound, in common. There were, however, it must be remembered, many
mounds on the St. Johns, not embraced in this class, where artifacts were dis-
covered from the margin throughout and associated with human remains. Of this
class of mounds were that at Tick Island, Thursby mound, the mound at Blue
Creek, and others.
Nothing in the Broward mound gave evidence of White contact.



About one-quarter of a mile in from



'-' .'

the landing at Reddie Point were two
low mounds on the property of
Dr. Anita Tyng.
The larger mound had a base
diameter of 80 feet. The terri-
tory is reported to have been in
use for years as a cotton field,
and the mound had been virtu-
ally levelled. At three points
near the margin were deep de-
pressions from which the material
had been taken. The mound
was dug through at a depth vary-
ing from 4 feet to 6 feet below
the surface. It was composed of
yellowish sand, unstratified, with
the usual charcoal and fire places.
Human remains, infrequently
met with and fragmentary, were
found so far down as 4 feet.
Earthenware was repre-
S sented by several vessels of ordi-
nary type and size, undecorated
and of poor quality. All showed
portions missing from the base
through intentional fracture.
Other pots had important por-
tions missing and evidently had
been utilized for mortuary pur-

Sherds were mainly undeco-
rated, some, however, bearing an
intricate stamped design (Plate
FIG. 50. Sheet of mica given the outline of a lance-point. LXXIX, Fig. 3).
Larger mound near Reddie Point. (Full size.) Two celts" and two arrow-
heads were found separately, and numbers of pebbles and pebble hammers variously
associated. Mica was in comparative abundance. One sheet had been rudely
given the outline of a lance point (Fig. 50).
Four feet from the surface, with human remains and shell beads, some over
one inch in length, was a neatly made ornament elliptical in shape, with central



perforation. The material is of sedimentary origin, composed mainly of iron
pyrites. Length, 1.3 inches; breadth, 1.2 inches (Fig. 51).
Apparently unassociated was a mass of somewhat deteriorated Iematite, about
the size of a clenched hand.
A small fragment of sheet copper lay with human remains.
Near an isolated lower jaw were three small ornaments of sheet copper, of

FIG. 52. Ornament of sheet copper.
FIG. 51. Pendent ornament. Larger mound near Reddie Larger mound near Reddie Point. (Full
Point. (Full size.) size.)

about the same size, oblong with rounded corners (Fig. 52) and a portion of an-
other. At the end on one side of each of the three unbroken ones was a flat circular
deposit of bitumen, used for purposes of attachment.

About 25 yards east of this mound was another with a height of about 1.5 feet
and a diameter of base of 60 feet.
It was completely dug through.
No copper was present in this mound. In other respects it resembled many
mounds of the neighborhood as to deposits of mica, pebble hammers, arrowheads,
and the like.

This mound, about one-quarter of a mile in a northerly direction from the
landing, had long been under cultivation, and had previously been dug into to a
considerable extent.
Its height was 2.5 feet; its diameter of base, 60 feet. It, was virtually
The usual fragments of shell, mica, etc., were present with fragmentary human

On the property of John G. Driggs, Esq., of Jacksonville, to whom our thanks
are tendered for permission to investigate, at Alicia, about 400 yards in from the
landing, were four low mounds.
Mound A. Height, 3.5 feet; diameter of base, 45 feet. This mound was
about two-thirds demolished by us, human remains in small fragments being en-
countered at three points. Near the center was a mass of sandstone pitted on


either side, weighing about ten pounds. Nothing else of interest was encountered.
Joining mounds A and B was a causeway about 28 feet long, 1 foot 4 inches
in height, with an average width of 12 feet at the base.
Mound B. A considerable portion of this mound had been carted away for
use on the neighboring orange grove. The discovery of many art relics is said to
have been made at the time. The height of the remainder of the mound was
about 18 inches. Judging from trees still remaining, the original maximum alti-
tude was from 3 feet to 4 feet. The diameter of the base was 86 feet.
The mound was carefully dug through by twenty men during two and one-
half days.
The sand was of a brownish color, apparently from effects of fire and a con-
siderable intermingling of particles of charcoal. This combination extended about
2 feet below the level of the surrounding territory. Relics were found from the
margin in, both above and below a dark line showing a large percentage of charcoal,
which ran through the mound at the level of the surrounding territory and seem-
ingly marked where a fire had been built after the filling of an excavation.
Human remains were represented by small fragments in the last stage of
As much of the contents of this mound suggest those of many low neighboring
mounds, we shall not give in detail the various associations of pebbles, pebble-
hammers, mica, chips of chert, hones of sandstone, marine shells, and fragments
of shell contained therein.
Three "celts" were met with, several arrowheads, small pendants of shell,
and at one point a large mass of crimson pigment.
Near the base, that is to say about 2 feet below the general level, or 3.5 feet
down, together, were: two pebbles; a toy pot; a shark's tooth, and 142 minute
chippings of chert.
Earthenware constituted the feature of the mound, and was encountered in
great abundance, though, with two or three exceptions, so poor was the material
that vessels were recovered in a very fragmentary condition. Certain large vessels
and numerous smaller ones, inhumed with portions missing and badly crushed by
weight of sand, were abandoned.
Sherds were abundant and, in common with fragmentary vessels, presented
various intricate stamped designs shown in Plate LXXX, and Plate LXXXI, Figs.
1 and 2.
Lined and punctate decoration also was represented on fragmentary vessels
and sherds, while in one case the use of a small tubular stamp was apparent, show-
ing a circular prominence surrounded by a depression.
Of the larger vessels, some of so much as about four gallons capacity, none
was capable of restoration. Four vessels were recovered intact, and nine in a more
or less imperfect condition. Four vessels were imperforate as to the base; the
remainder, and apparently all others interred in the mound, had suffered intentional
mutilation of the base after completion.


Two small bowls lay together, one containing the other. A vessel of good
material, thick and heavy, somewhat globular, with sloping rim, is decorated with
red pigment inside and out. A portion of the base is missing. Maximum
diameter, 5.8 inches; depth, 3.4 inches; diameter of orifice, 3.6 inches (Plate
LXXXI, Fig 3).
An interesting vase was recovered virtually intact. Its height is 9 inches;
maximum diameter of body, 4 inches; diameter of aperture, 4.2 inches. The
imperforate base is flat with a diameter of about 1.75 inches. Interesting incised
and punctate decoration surrounds the rim to a depth of about 2.5 inches. On one
side are two perforations about 1.5 inches apart, nearly three inches below the rim.
Their use is not apparent (Plate LXXXII).
One tobacco pipe of earthenware came from the mound. The type is the
same as that found in the neighboring mounds with the exception that, on the
part facing the smoker, two raised parallel lines, one at either side, run the entire
length of the pipe.
The two remaining mounds at Alicia, each about the size of Mound A, were
not investigated. One had been utilized as a place of burial within recent years.
About one-half mile east of Chaseville, in thick undergrowth, was a ridge or
possibly three intersecting mounds of irregular shape, the largest to the east, two
smaller side by side to the west. The. length of the ridge was 77 feet. The
eastern end was 40 feet across; the western, 30 feet. The maximum height,
which was near the eastern extremity, was 2.5 feet. These low mounds were not
before supposed to be aboriginal remains, and had undergone no previous
They were completely dug through with the consent of the owner, James L.
Denton, Esq., of Jamaica, N. Y.
The usual yellow sand and charcoal were present.
Human remains were few and very fragmentary.
Sherds were infrequently met with. One small bowl, undecorated, was broken
by contact with a spade. An undecorated globular vessel, perforated through the
base after completion, had a height of about 2.5 inches, and a diameter of 3.75
inches approximately.
Three feet from the surface, in numerous fragments, crushed contemporary
with or previous to inhumation and with certain missing portions chipped off by
use of a pointed tool, was a vessel of great interest. This vessel, of excellent
material and graceful design, with incised decoration of straight diagonal and of
curved lines, has on one side, the repouss4 head of a duck, neatly made. The
upper portion of a similar head is on the opposite side. As we have said, this
form of ornamentation, so novel for Florida, is, in this case, repouss4, and was not
modelled previously and fastened on by pressure, as is the case of the human head
from the mound near Old Okahumpka, described in this volume. These two ex-


amples of such use of effigies of heads are the only ones to come under our notice
in Florida. The height of this interesting vessel is 7.75 inches; its maximum
diameter, 10.5 inches; diameter of aperture, 4.5 inches. It is shown, pieced
together, in Plate LXXXIII, while in Plate LXXXIV, Fig. 1, we give a front
view of the head.
We have above alluded to the chipping off of portions of vessels, with pointed
implements. In Part II of our report on the St. Johns mounds we spoke of many
sherds not broken but detached by piercing implements, and stated that this
curious custom seemed to be confined to a limited area bordering the lower portion
of the St. Johns River. Since the publication of that report, we have noted the
occurrence of these peculiar sherds and of vessels intentionally deprived of certain
parts by the aid of pointed implements, at points throughout a wide area, including
a mound on the Econlockhatchee Creek, Orange County, about thirty-five miles by
water south of Sanford, and certain mounds of Crescent Lake, Putnam County.
A sheet of mica and a hand-
some arrow point of jasper were
the only other art relics dis-
covered in the mound.

p u About 10 feet south of the
western extremity of the Denton
mound was a mound about 1 foot
in height and 20 feet across the
/ base. In the center, about 2.5
feet down, was a small layer of
S"charred human bones. Two or
/ ,' three sherds completed the con-
S)' ''' tents of the mound.


On the property of Mr. I.
/ Harrington, who readily granted
Permission to explore, was the
site of a mound which had been
F Adjacent field. The diameter was
about 30 feet. It probably once
had a height of about 2 feet.
3 It was completely dug
Fig. 53. Lance-head of chert. Mound at Chaseville. t as c petey d
(Full size.) through at a depth of 2.5 feet
below the surface. The usual


mica, chips of chert, fragments of marine shells, variously associated, were present,
and in addition, a noble barbed lance-head of reddish chert, 5 inches in length,
lying with a shell chisel at a depth of 2 feet (Fig. 53). No human remains were
met with.

A few yards from the mound just described, on the property of Mrs. Mary
Bennevis, was a mound one foot in height, with a diameter of base of about 20
About 1.5 feet from the surface was a central deposit of human bones repre-
senting parts of various skeletons. No others were met with.
Loose in the sand and singly were: one undecorated bowl in fragments; one
cube of lead sulphide ; one arrowhead; one bit of pottery intentionally given the
outline of the arrow point and various sherds.


By the roadside, about 300 yards inland from the landing at Floral Bluff, on
the property of Mr. G. H. Shepard, to whom we wish to express our thanks, was
an asymmetrical mound, or, more properly, a V-shaped ridge, having its maximum
height of 4.5 feet in the western arm, about 50 feet from the apex which points
almost due south. The western arm has a length of 170 feet; the eastern, about
30 feet less. The maximum width of the western arm was 46 feet; that of the
eastern, 37 feet.
The most prominent portions of the ridge were dug through at considerable
Human remains-mere fractional portions of the skeleton-were encountered
seven times, all within an area of a few square yards, beneath the highest portion
of the ridge.
With human remains, about 3 feet down, was a large tobacco pipe of earthen-
ware, one portion filled with bitumen and with a considerable quantity near by.
This pipe, somewhat broken, had all portions present. About 1 foot above was a
smaller tobacco pipe of earthenware in many fragments and incapable of
About 3.5 feet from the surface, near human remains, was a vessel of bean-
shaped outline of about one quart capacity. Its base is intact. Traces of red pig-
ment are inside and out (Plate LXXXIV, Fig. 2). With it were many pebbles
and chips of chert.
At various depths were nests of fragments of parts of different vessels laid
away together, and one deposit of many minute chippings of chert.

Two Sand Mounds on Murphy

Island, Florida.




Murphy Island, on the eastern bank of the St. Johns River, by water ten miles
south of Palatka, Putnam County, is separated from the mainland by a small
stream known as Murphy Creek.
Two sand mounds and a considerable shell deposit were briefly noticed by us
in Part I, "Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida."'
Unfortunately, during our investigation of the mounds of the St. Johns, we
were unable to come to terms with the owner of the property, but have, however,
availed ourselves of an arrangement subsequently made.
Neither of the sand mounds on Murphy Island is believed to have sustained
any previous investigation, with the exception of a small hole in one, made by a
party of excursionists from Palatka during part of one day in the early seventies.
The northernmost mound, visible from the steamboat landing, was one of the
most symmetrical earthworks we have encountered in Florida. Its shape was
almost a perfect truncated cone; the slope of the sides being at an angle of thirty
degrees. The diameter of base was 80 feet; that of the summit plateau, 21 feet;
the height 11 feet 9 inches.
Large sweet-orange trees and towering palmettoes grew on the top and sides.
The mound was totally demolished by us during four and one-half days of
June, 1895.
The body of the mound was composed of the whitish sand of the surrounding
territory, with the marginal portions, 4 feet or 5 feet in, dyed a light pink
through intentional admixture of the red oxide of iron. Pockets of pink sand and
of light chocolate colored sand, some of considerable size, were encountered through-
out the mound. The material of the mound was notably cohesive as through a
certain admixture of clay. Although a considerable deposit of Paludine and
Ampullarice with fire places, fragmentary bones of lower animals and all the usual
midden refuse, exists within a short distance of the site of the mound, no shells
were encountered at any depth beneath the immediate surface where cultivation
would not explain their presence. We were informed that superficial shells had
been hauled from the adjacent shell heap to serve as a fertilizer.

Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. X.



Burials were of the bunched variety, which, our readers will recall, consists
of piles of bones previously denuded of flesh by exposure to the elements. In this
case separate interments were often represented by isolated crania or by various
long bones of one skeleton or of several individuals.
Certain burials found near the surface with iron implements and glass beads
had also the appearance of belonging to the bunched variety of interment, though
of these we may not speak positively as they had possibly been subjected to dis-
turbance by subsequent cultivation of the mound and the setting out and removal
of orange trees.
In that portion of the mound included in the slope and not covered by the
summit plateau, human remains were noted at forty-eight different points, many
of these deposits, however, including the remains of a number of individuals.
In that portion of the mound beneath the summit plateau, that is to say, a
mass of material about 12 feet high and 21 feet in diameter, interments were so
numerous at places and so frequently in contact-single crania, bunches of long
bones and great layers of human remains, over one foot in thickness in places-
that all efforts to record the number of individuals represented, were abandoned.
Moreover, in many places-and this applies also to other portions of the mound-
mere discoloration of the sand or at most yellowish powder, marked the former
presence of bones.
No human remains were encountered at a depth greater than 12 feet, though
certain objects of aboriginal design were fully one foot lower.
No skeletal remains were preserved.


The earthenware of this mound was of markedly inferior quality and design.
In the northern portion of the mound, including about one-third of the circum-
ference, beginning near the margin and extending in for about 15 feet, between 2
and 3 feet from the base, was a curious layer of bits of earthenware and consider-
able fragments of vessels. These sherds were not laid in close proximity but at
irregular distances, here and there, as though strewn upon that portion of the
mound during its erection. No human remains were encountered with these
None but comparatively small vessels were recovered intact, though, from a
considerable depth, near the center of the mound, four vessels of several quarts
capacity each, but fragmentary and incomplete, were found in association. Several
large fragments and one complete vessel had basal supports which we have noted
as present in but three or four other mounds of the St. Johns. The use of feet on
early aboriginal earthenware is unusual in any section of the United States, and


we are informed that the clay pots found in Ontario are round bottomed and with-
out supports.1
It has been suggested that feet on aboriginal vessels of earthenware might
possibly be attributed to an imitation of metallic forms obtained fi(m the Whites.
So far as our experience goes, we are strongly inclined to doubt this, since we have
always obtained earthenware with basal supports from depths to guarantee original
deposit in mounds where evidence of European influence, if present at all, was
superficial. Moreover, the European kettle with feet, if we mistake not, had three
supports, while the pottery of the Florida mounds, when supplied with feet, has
While the bases of a majority of the vessels of the mound showed perforation
after manufacture, some were entire, and a few samples of the "freak" variety of
ready made mortuary pottery, with perforation of base previous to baking, also
were present. This perforation of the base of earthenware by the aborigines of
the Peninsula was done, it is believed, to free the soul of the vessel to accompany
the spirit of the dead to the land beyond.
As a rule, though with occasional exceptions, vessels seemed to be unassociated
with human remains, though taking into consideration the advanced state of decay
of some of the bones, exact determination was impossible. It is not unlikely,
however, that most of the earthenware was put into the mound in a general way,
and not to accompany individual interments.
In all, twenty-five vessels of earthenware were found in the Murphy Island
mound in a condition to justify removal. These, in common with vessels in frag-
ments and isolated sherds, were almost invariably at considerable depth-some so
low as 13 feet from the surface. None bore stamped, punctate, or incised super-
ficial ornamentation. One small vessel of the "freak" mortuary variety, 2.5 inches
in height with a diameter of 2.7 inches across its laterally extending rim, and 1.65
inches through the body, was covered with crimson pigment inside and out. The
base showed perforation prior to baking.
One vessel, 4.4 inches in height with a diameter of 3.5 inches, had a rude
fluting around the body surmounted by the remains of an encircling projecting
band 1.5 inches below the aperture. The entire bottom had been knocked out.
This vessel lay 12 feet down with another broken vessel.
About 7 feet down were three bowls, the largest with a diameter of 14 inches,
containing the other two, one within the other. Near by lay a fourth. These
vessels, incomplete at the discovery, later fell into pieces, rendering restoration
impossible-no great loss, so poor was their quality and so ordinary their type.
We have already made reference to them.
Ten feet from the surface was an imperforate pot resembling a crucible in
shape. Height, 3 inches; diameter at mouth, 2.2 inches; diameter at base. 1 inch.

I Notes on Primitive Man in Ontario," by David Boyle, Toronto, 1895, page 31.


With it was a toy vessel also intact as to the base, having a height of 1.5 inches;
a diameter at aperture of 1.4 inches, and .9 of one inch across the base (Fig. 54).
A spool-shaped object of earthenware, with edges slightly broken, has a height
of 3 inches; a diameter at each expanded end of 2 inches; a diameter through the
body of 1.5 inches. These spool-shaped objects of earthenware probably belong to
the "freak" variety. We have figured one' from the mound at Davenport on the
Ocklawaha, and found a somewhat similar specimen in the mound in the pine
woods near Duval's, Lake County.

FIG. 54. Toy vessel of earth-
enware. Northernmost
mound, Murphy Island. (Full

FIG. 55. Tobacco pipe of earthenware. Northernmost mound,
Murphy Island. (Full size.)

The remaining vessels from the mound at Murphy Island offered no feature
worthy of remark.
But two tobacco pipes of earthenware were recovered from the mound. One,
of the usual type found on the lower river, was in fragments, with several con-
siderable portions missing; the other (length, 3.5 inches; orifice of bowl, 1.6 inches
by 1.2 inches; orifice of stem, .7 of an inch by 1 inch) is of especial interest, having
a rude projecting animal head below the distal margin of the bowl as shown in
Fig. 55.
A curious pendant of earthenware, rude and of poor material, came from 11
feet from the surface. Length, 1.8 inches; maximum diameter, .7 of one inch
(Fig. 56).
An earthenware pendant or bead, with transverse perforation, found loose in
the sand, is shown in Fig. 57. Length, 1.5 inches; diameter, .6 of one inch.

Op. cit., Part II, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 1.


Near human remains, was a ring of earthen-
ware, 1.6 inches in diameter, .7 of one inch across

Fri. 56. Pendant of earthenware. Northernmost
mound, Murphy Island. (Full size.)

the opening, and .3 of one inch in thickness. It was
found 7 feet from the surface (Fig. 58).


The reader of our report on the mounds of the
St. Johns may recall that between Jacksonville and
Lake Washington-the end of navigation-aborigina
copper was met with in but four mounds. It was,
therefore, especially gratifying to find a variety of
objects of this metal in the principal mound on
Murphy Island.
Well in toward the center, in the northern

FIG. 57. Pendant of earthen-
ware. Northernmost mound,
Murphy Island. (Full size.)

FIG. 58. Ring of earthen-
ware. Northernmost mound,
Murphy Island. (Full size.)
portion of the mound, at no great distance apart,
but each with a separate interment, 12 feet from the
surface, were: (1) fragmentary remains of an orna-
ment of wood overlaid with very thin sheet copper.
One side is flat, the other repousse. The breadth is
about 2.2 inches; its original length is undetermin-
able. With it was a large sheet of mica. (2) An
ornament of sheet copper, bent over and repousse as
shown in Fig. 59. A part of one side is missing

FiN. 59. Ornamentof sheet copper.
Northernmost mound, Murphy Is-
land. (Full size.)

FIG. 60. Crescent of copper. Northernmost mound, Murphy Island. (Full size.)


through corrosion. At one end of the broken side are two perforations. Length,
about 7 inches; width, about 2 inches. (3) An ornament of thin sheet copper
apparently at one time coating a tube of some long-fibered substance like cane. It
was recovered in several fragments, but probably when entire had a length of
about 8 inches, with a slightly irregular diameter averaging 1.5 inches. (4) A fine
specimen of sheet copper, entirely unbroken, and not materially affected by cor-
rosion, representing the crescent moon. Distance between horns, 10.3 inches;
maximum width, 1.7 inches; thickness, .04 of one inch. About one-half inch from
the central part of the convex margin of the body, 1.7 inches apart, are two per-
forations by the aid of which this ornament, in early times doubtless highly polished,
could be fastened to the chest or suspended from the neck, the horns pointing
down (Fig. 60).
Toward the center, in the eastern portion of the mound, 12 feet from the sur-
face, with human remains, together, associated with a pendant of shell, were : (1)
apparently a number of separate discs, each about 1.8 inches in diameter, of sheet
copper firmly cemented together through corrosion and too greatly carbonated to
permit any successful attempt at separation. (2) A disc of sheet copper, centrally
concavo convex, about 2 inches
in diameter. (3) A much cor-
roded object of sheet copper, ap-
parently of the sort known as
spool-shaped, supposed by some
to have served as an ear-plug,
by others, as a button or stud
for garments. Similar objects
have frequently been figured as
m FIG. 61. Ornament o sheet copper. Northernmost
coming from Ohio mounds and mound, Murphy Island. (Full size.)
elsewhere. Diameter of upper
and lower portions, about 1.8 inches. (4) An ornament, of sheet copper con-
sisting of a disc centrally perforated and symmetrically bent and repouss6, as
shown in Fig. 61 with section. Maximum diameter about 2.1 inches,
Loose in caved sand was a small disc 1 inch in diameter. Within its slight
concavity lay remains of wood.


Twenty-two specimens of shell drinking cups wrought from Fulgzur per-
versum by the removal of the columella and a part of the body whorl, were taken
from the mound. Some were intact; others showed an intentional perforation of
the bottom. So far as we could determine, these drinking cups, though coming
from different points, were all from within a few feet of the surface.
The quantities of' small beads so often found with interments were not met
with in this mound. At two points, beads from .5 of one inch to one inch in


diameter-thirty in all -were encountered with human remains, while perhaps
one dozen others were gathered from various portions of the mound.
Two feet from the surface, with human remains, were two shell discs with
diameter of about 3 inches and 2.5 inches respectively, probably cut from the body
whorl of Fulgur. The smaller had near the margin a double perforation for sus-
pension. In neither was any decoration apparent.
A somewhat smaller disc was found loose in the sand.
Two shell pins, the larger 5 inches in length, lay together, near human
remains, 2.5 feet from the surface. Two others, somewhat smaller, also with
skeletal remains, were about 2 feet down. A fifth pin was recovered loose in the
sand. These pins were all of types previously figured
by Mr. Holmes in his exhaustive Art in Shell," by
others, and by ourselves in our account of the mound
',. at East Palatka, Putnam County.
":": '" An interesting ornament, as shown in Fig. 62,
,''l, .is a pendant probably cut from the lip of the great
.. marine Strombus. Its length is a little less than 2
inches; its breadth, about 1.3 inches. It had evi-
dently formed a central ornament in a string of little
shells (Olivella) longitudinally perforated, as one of
FIG. 62. Pendant of shell. North- these still lay in its perforation.
ernmost mound, Murphy Island. With a layer of human bones, 8 feet down,
(Full size.)
were four chisels of shell, probably cut from the lip
of Strombus, approximately from 2 inches to 4 inches in length. With them were
two stone "celts" and a columella of some large marine univalve. These columellae,
as we have pointed out elsewhere, were probably removed from the shell for ship-
ment, to be manufactured into beads and ornaments.
Several other chisels of shell were found variously associated.


During the demolition of the mound, sixty-six hatchets, or "celts," of smooth
or polished stone, from about 2 inches to 12 inches in length, were taken from the
mound. These hatchets-mainly of igneous rock-presenting no points of differ-
ence from other mound specimens, were not separately determined as to material.
A cutting implement of chipped chert, about 3 inches by 6 inches, flat on one
side, lay 3 feet from the surface with human remains and several pebbles.
A pitted hammerstone, about 2.6 inches by 4 inches, was apparently un-
Mica was found in but three places.
Twenty-six arrow and lance points of chert and of chert breccia were found
separately, at various depths and a number of others associated with various objects.
None presented anything unusual as to type.


Ten feet down, in a pocket of red Hematite, near human remains, together,
were: twelve arrow and lance points; a sharpening stone of claystone, almost
rectangular, about 6.3 inches by 3 inches, with an average thickness of about .3 of
one inch; one "celt;" a heart-shaped bit of rock, apparently claystone, 3.8 inches
by about 2.5 inches, used for sharpening pointed tools, grinding beads, or both, as
shown by grooves on either side across its widest part; a small bit of sandstone;
one flake of chert, and twenty-two chips of the same material. We have frequently
remarked the inhumation of great numbers of fragments, chips, and flakes, of chert,
especially in the smaller river mounds between Jacksonville and the sea, while
from Mt. Royal, near Lake George, Putnam County, we took 951 associated masses
of chert averaging about the size of a hen's egg. Lieutenant-General Pitt Rivers,
in his monumental work,' speaks of great numbers of flakes, chips, and cores, of
flint (which is almost the same as our chert) found by him in the barrows.
Four quartz pebbles; one core of chert; three fragments of fossil bone, shaped
to a certain extent, the largest rectangular, about 1.6 inches by 2.5 inches, with an
average thickness of .5 of one inch, were found in association. Fossil bcnes are
not infrequently met with in Florida in the clay and in the bottom of streams.
Two and one-half feet from the surface, in immediate association, were: a
pebble hammer of quartz, 5 inches long; fifteen smaller pebbles and pebble ham-
mers; three small bits of sandstone; one fragment of an apparently clayey sub-
stance; four arrow heads of chert; a small natural formation, tubular in shape;
ten bits of fossil bone, some worked to a certain extent one unidentified object of
the same material, about 3 inches long, 1.5 inches high, with an average thickness
of 1.6 inches; a portion of a tooth of a fossil shark; an astragalus of a fossil llama,2
and a small fragment of striated rock.
Three feet from the surface was another curious medley consistinng of: one bit
of fossil bone; two rude arrow heads of chert; one pebble hammer; four small
pebbles; one chip of chert; four bits of sandstone; two pieces of coquina, and one
small fragment of Steatite.
All together, 4 feet down, were: sixteen bits of fossil bone from .5 of one inch
to 3 inches in length, some by their even edges showing a certain amount of work;
ten pebble hammers; thirty small pebbles, one pebble partially ground for suspen-
sion, an incipient pendant; seven fragments of sandstone and of other rocks; two
chert arrow heads; one tubular bead of soapstone, about .75 of one inch in length.
In addition to these curious deposits there lay separately throughout. the
mound, pebble hammers, sharpening stones, and certain natural formations in the
form of tubes, largely used by the aborigines, similar to one figured by us in Part I
of our Report on the St. Johns mounds as coming from Mt. Royal, and found in
such numbers in the Shields Mound, Duval County.

1 Excavations in Cranborne Chase, near Rushmore. Printed privately. Three volumes, 1887-1892.
2 Identified by Professor Cope. Three species of fossil llama from Florida have been described by


Loose in the sand was a cuboidal mass of carbonate of lime, with rounded
corners, about the size of an English walnut, while apparently unassociated was a
mass of undetermined rock about the same size, spheroidal, with depressed poles.
A flat pebble of clayey material, about 2 inches by 4 inches, with a maximum
thickness of .8 of one inch, has four perforations apparently of natural formation
around twigs. These perforations, doubtless, the aborigines had been quick to
Two small pendants, one of crystalline granular rock, possibly of igneous
origin, the smaller of Agalmatolite, lay with human remains, 8 feet from the sur-
face, with a small shell chisel. Their shape is triangular and each hf's a counter-
sunk perforation for suspension. In addition, the
Larger, 1.1 inches in length with a maximum width
of.6 of one inch and a thickness of .2 of one inch,
has a curved groove extending across one side (Figs.
63 and 64).
Nine feet down, with human remains, was a
handsome pendant of a crystalline rock in which the
silica projects while the felspathic material is much
Fmns. 63 and 64. Pendent orna- decomposed-possibly a Granmlyle. It isl aterally
ments. Northernmost mound, Mur-
phy Island. (Full size.) and longitudinally perforated. Two shoulders with
median grooves encircle it. A small portion is broken
from one side. Length, 3.4 inches; minimum diameter of shaft, .6 of one inch;
maximum diameter of shaft, .8 of one inch; diameter of smaller shoulder, 1 inch;
of larger, 1.1 inches (Fig. 65).
A graceful pendant of a crystalline granular rock, probably syenitic, came
from a depth of 5 feet with a "celt." Human remains were in association. At

FIG. 65. Gorget of stone. Northernmost mound, Murphy
Island. (Full size.)

either end is a rim, while from one end is a small projection as shown in Fig. 66.
Length 2.6 inches; diameter of body, 1.3 inches; diameter of larger rim, 1 inch;
of smaller rim, .7 of one inch.
A fusiform pendant, probably of steatitic material, grooved at one end for sus-
pension. strongly resembles in shape pendants of shell found by us in the mound
on Tick Island and figured in Part II of our report. Length, 3.7 inches; maxi-
mum diameter, 1 inch (Fig. 67).


A curiously shaped pendant of steatitic rock, having a length of .9 of one inch
and a maximum diameter of 1.2 inches, lay with a burial 6 feet from the surface
(Fig. 68).
Two pendants of quartz were found separately in the mound. One, a rough
fragment about 1 inch in length, is rudely grooved at one end. The other, a
crystal, 1.9 inches in length with a maximum diameter of .5 of one inch, is neatly
grooved and shows considerable wear (Fig. 69).

Fia. 66. Pendant of syenitic rock.
Northernmost mound, Murphy
Island. (Full size.)

FIG. 67. Pendant of steatitic ma-
terial. Northernmost mound,
Murphy Island. (Full size.)

FIG. 68. Pendant of
steatitic rock. North-
ernmost mound, Mur-
phy Island. (Full size.)

FIG. 69. Pendant of quartz
crystal. Northernmost
mound, Murphy Island.
(Full size.)

We have, in a former report, quoted LaudonniBre's statement as to presents of
fine crystal, made by southern Indians.
At various depths, though at no great distance from the surface, singly, were
seven beads of soapstone, some cylindrical, others oblong, varying in length
between 1.1 inches and 2.2 inches.


Two and one-half feet from the surface, with a burial and a chisel of stone,
was a comb apparently made of leather, with scroll decoration on either side.
With a burial three feet down, were an iron or steel axe with long narrow
blade, and an unidentified tool of the same material. With these implements, of
10 JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA.. VOL. X.


necessity obtained from the Whites, were a number of long blue cylindrical beads of
glass and spherical polychrome beads of the same material.
Together, accompanying a burial, 1.5 feet from the surface, were a long knife,
two chisels, a triangular chisel or tomahawk, and an unidentified tool, all of iron
or of steel.
An implement resembling a modern grubbing hoe, and a narrow bladed axe,
both of steel or of iron, lay together with fragmentary human remains about 2 feet
from the surface. Near by was a hatchet of polished stone. It is not unlikely
that these implements of metal were placed in the neighborhood of a pre-existing
deposit of stone, nor is it unlikely that all belonged to the same period, since imple-
ments derived from White contact did not at once supplant all products of
aboriginal art.

Twelve feet from the surface, toward the central portion of the mound, in
association with human remains, was taken out, in our immediate presence, an
object resembling the lower portion of a small nail (Fig.
70). Its length is .8 of one inch. It is affected by the
magnet, and is therefore iron or steel or iron ore.
It may be well to explain to the general reader that
the aborigines were unable to reduce iron from its ores
and that this metal in a native state, if it exists at all
on this earth, is of extreme rarity, and that the only iron
FIG. 70. Unidentified ob- in aboriginal use in pre-Columbian times was that ob-
ject. Northernmost mound,
Murphy Island. (Full size.) trained from meteorites, as is shown by the high percent-
age of nickel present when analytically tested. There
is no reason why the aborigines of Florida should not have been possessed of some
small piercing implements of meteoric iron. Unfortunately, the original material
of this specimen cannot be determined by analysis, as it weighs but 215 milligrams
and is corroded through and through.
It seems unlikely that aborigines in a way to obtain iron and other products
of White contact such as lead, pewter, brass, bronze, glass, china, glazed earthen-
ware, etc., should have scrupulously kept them from the body of the mound wherein
lay the great majority of the burials and then place upon the base a portion of a
single nail.
It may be well, moreover, to state in this connection that not one spadeful of
sand was thrown back from this mound save in our presence, and that, in addition,
three persons trained to careful mound work for years, were present at all times to
aid us. Furthermore, after the discovery of superficial iron, if possible, greater
vigilance than ordinary was exercised by all, no part of the mound being left with-
out constant inspection. In addition, the work at this mound was done at the
close of the season by picked men mostly for many months in our employ. It is,
therefore, unlikely that any deposit in the mound escaped us.



The contents of the northernmost mound on Murphy Island are of consider-
ably above the average interest. The numerous fragments of fossil bone are new
to us, while the collections of pebble hammers, chips of stone, and the like, buried
together, have not been met with before above Jacksonville, though in low mounds
between that point and the sea, they are common enough. The period when the
mound was built depends upon the nature of the small piece of iron discovered at
the base, and of this we have already spoken


About two hundred yards in a southerly direction from the mound we have
just described is another in full view of the river, did not a thick growth of sour
orange trees intervene. The height of the mound is 10 feet; its diameter of base
70 feet. A number of large forest trees grew upon it. Irregular ridges, evidently
artificial, not directly connected with the mound, ran in an easterly direction
from it.
Owing to the presence of many orange trees around a portion of the margin,
the entire mound was not demolished.
A trench 103 feet wide at the beginning, including the south, southeast and
southwest parts of the circumference, was carried in until over one-half the mound
had been removed.
The mound proved structurally of great interest. From the start, with its
base at about the level of the surrounding territory, was a black layer of midden
refuse surmounted by a stratum of sand artificially colored by the use of the red
oxide of iron, sometimes pink, and again a bright cherry. Above this was mottled
sand containing various local streaks and layers. As the work progressed a second
layer of midden refuse was observed.
At the center of the mound, the strata, though somewhat irregular in thick-
ness, were about as follows:
Superficial 4 feet.-Mottled sand, pink, white, and gray at places.
1.5 feet.-Black loam, solidly packed, containing midden refuse, sherds, bones of
lower animals, charcoal, and very occasional shells.
6 inches.-Cherry colored sand with pockets, extending into the layer below.
2 feet 10 inches.-Mottled sand.
1.5 feet.-Black loam-midden refuse.
7 inches-Sand brownish in color, resembling a stain.

Beneath this was pure white sand showing occasional signs of mottling and
containing scattered particles of charcoal and at least one worked fragment of
chert. There was no definite base line, and how much of this white sand may
have been filled into a previous excavation there was no method to determine.


During the entire investigation but seven burials were encountered, all of the
bunched variety and none deeper than 5 feet from the surface. In association
were several small bits of pottery, a chipping of chert, and, together, two pins of
Occasional sherds were in the midden refuse, and two small imperforate bowls
were found separately in the same material. A few arrow heads lay loose in the
sand and in the loam.
This curious mound, evidently a place of abode during two extended periods,
had been subsequently used to a small extent in the upper portion, for sepulchral
In default of total demolition we do not feel justified in drawing conclusions
as to this mound.

Certain Sand Mounds of the

Ocklawaha River, Florida.




o re's ,5

Graehamu il e.
x Delks Ln'd


ra Ln'cl'

Lake VVQrx'L0 Mors5BIrcJJ-
L'12 .

Sta rk 's l'd'.



X Jndicaes Sand Mound.
Scole in niles.

Silver SPgs.








The Ocklawaha river, whose narrow, winding and rapid current enters the St.
Johns from the western side of that river, about twenty-five miles above Palatka,
has its source in Lake Apopka (see map) though the head of navigation is at the
channel between Lakes Eustis and Dora.2 From Lake Apopka, running in a north-
erly direction, it traverses Lake Dora, Lake Eustis and Lake Griffin and continuing
first through marsh and then through swamp land and joining Orange Creek, an
unnavigable stream, it turns abruptly to the east, pursuing this course until its
union with the St. Johns.
Passing through a portion of Lake County, traversing the county of Marion
and skirting on the south about one-half of Putnam County, the Ocklawaha, irres-
pective of curves, has a length of about seventy-five miles. So tortuous, however,
is the stream that these figures convey not the faintest idea of the distance to be
travelled by water in a journey from the outlet of the river to its source.3
In comparison with the St. Johns, the Ocklawaha had little to offer the abori-
gines as a place of abode. From the mouth to the union with the stream from
Silver Springs (where the acquaintance of the tourist with the river usually comes
to an end) the Ocklawaha runs between cypress swamps with very occasional bits
of solid land; while above, the course of the stream is through saw-grass marshes
offering an equal paucity of landing places.
It is therefore evident that the archeologist exploring this stream, fully /cog-
nizant of the fact that the aborigines were no mean judges of living sites, must set
out with a less sanguine spirit than would be 'justified on the St. Johns, especially
as it is doubtful whether the lower Ocklawaha obstructed at every turn as it must
have been by huge trunks of fallen cypresses, offered in early times a channel of
communication. In point of fact, the paucity of shell-heaps and their restricted
SThe mound on Bear Island and that at Davenport, within a few miles of the mouth of the Ockla-
waha river, have been described in Part II of our "Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida."
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Vol. X.
2The channel between Lakes Eustis and Dora has, at places, scarcely two feet of water. In addition,
two immovable bridges bar the way.
3 A table of distances used on the line of steamers plying on the river, gives as 101 miles the distance
by water between the point of union with the St. Johns and the entrance into Silver Springs Run, some-
what less than one half the length of the Ocklawaha, and this, be it remembered, is a less tortuous por-
tion of the stream than that farther south. Between Alligator Landing and Moss Bluff on the upper
river, the distance by land is given as three miles by those in a position to know, and as five times that
number when the journey is made by water.
11 JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.


size, insignificant if compared with the great shell deposits of the St. Johns, testify
to a scanty population.
From the mouth to the end of navigation, the territory bordering the Ockla-
waha was found to contain no mound over eight feet in height and very few
approaching even that altitude. It has been, therefore, in the power of the ignor-
ant treasure seeker, or of the relic hunter," even with his limited time and means,
seriously to impair the archeological value of many of these mounds by the removal
of central portions-an impossibility in the case of the greater earthworks of the
St. Johns.
As the reader will see, the mounds of the river proper were virtually barren,
while no rich harvest was yielded by those of the lake country beyond.
This investigation was conducted with steam motive power and an abundant
force of men during portions of January and March and all of February, 1895.
We append a list of mounds investigated on the Ocklawaha River, to be follow-
ed by a detailed account of those offering any interest either structurally or as to
human remains or relics of aboriginal art.
Ditch Creek (2). Near Umatilla.
Indian Bluff. Near Fort Mason.
Palmetto Landing (7). Lake Griffin (3).
Delk's Landing. Lake Eustis.
Silver Springs. Near Tavares.
Electra Landing. Barclay's.
Lake Weir Landing. Near Yallaha.
Moss Bluff (3). Richmond Mound.
Stark's Landing (2). Near Helena.
Hopson Mound. Okahumpka.
Near Higley.


Ditch Creek enters the Ocklawaha from the left going down, about eighteen
miles by water from the river's mouth. About one mile up the creek is a landing
and from this landing, about four hundred yards W. N. W., was a mound 1.5 feet
in height and 45 feet in diameter of base. It had apparently lost somewhat in
height by the trampling of cattle.
It was totally demolished.
It consisted of gray, loamy sand with the usual admixture of charcoal. At
one point were two bits of human femur; at another, charred fragments of human
bones. Numerous chips, flakes, and two cores, of chert were found and one bit of
plain undecorated earthenware.

i The mounds of Lake Harris, though not properly belonging to the Ocklawaha River, are included
in this paper. The territory bordering this lake had one mound of an altitude greater than the limit
given above.


About one mile north of the landing at Ditch Creek was a mound 4 feet 9
inches in height and 60 feet through the base. It was much spread out, probably
by trampling of cattle and bore marks of previous superficial investigation.
It was completely dug through with the kind permission of J. J. Cummings,
Esq., of Beaufort, S. C.
Bunched burials were comparatively numerous, and all or nearly all within 1
or 2 feet of the surface, though, of course, at greater depth when the height of the
mound was unimpaired. With one burial were charred turtle bones, while with
several were associated calcined fragments of human remains.
About 2 feet down, not far from the center of the mound, was a considerable
mass of calcined fragments of human bones mixed with those of lower animals in
similar condition. These apparently were in proximity to no interment.
Throughout the mound were sherds of fairly good quality for Florida, some
decorated with red pigment, others with incised lines, etc.
With the exception of the sherds and of a rude and somewhat fragmentary
cutting implement chipped from chert, no relics were met with.


Palmetto Landing on the Ocklawaha river is said to be about seventy-seven
miles by water from the river's mouth. About one mile in an easterly direction
from the landing were five mounds at no great distance apart, while about one half
mile and one mile respectively farther in the same direction were two others.
Nearest the landing were two symmetrical mounds with base margins almost
in contact at one point. The northernmost had a height of about 5 feet with a
base diameter of about 52 feet; the southernmost, a height of 6 feet 3 inches and
a diameter of base of 57 feet.
These mounds were completely demolished.
They consisted of coarse yellow sand, unstratified and almost, if not entirely,
devoid of the usual intermingled charcoal.
No human remains nor indications of burial nor, with one exception, sherds of
any description were encountered.
A number of cores and chippings, of chert with two rude chipped cutting im-
plements of the same material, lay loose in the sand. No other relics of any sort
were found.
Fifty-five paces in an easterly direction from the northernmost of the twin
mounds was another, with a height of 4 feet 4 inches and 48 feet across the base.
The entire central portion of this mound was dug out with no return.
Eighty-five paces northeast of the preceding mound was another, 4 feet 3 inches
high with a diameter of base of 55 feet. Absolutely nothing was obtained from
this mound.
About 20 paces farther was a fifth mound 3.5 feet high. The base had a dia-
meter of 53 feet. Again careful investigation was absolutely unrewarded.


On the property of Mr. R. D. MacDonald, about one half mile farther to the
east, was an unsymmetrical mound of yellow sand. 7.5 feet high and 71 feet through
the base. This mound was not demolished. A certain amount of investigation yield-
ed nothing.
Still farther on, about one half mile in the same direction, was a beautiful
little mound 4 feet in height with a diameter of base of 68 feet. It was built on
the edge of a small lake which bordered a portion of its margin, while the remain-
der was surrounded by a trench about 24 feet wide and 1 foot in depth, which, in
the wet season makes an island of the mound.
It was totally demolished, the task being a very difficult one owing to the
presence of great quantities of scrub palmetto roots.
The mound was unstratified. Its material was coarse white sand. The usual
charcoal was not noticed. A few sherds, undecorated save one which showed
marks of red pigment, were scattered through the sand as were a few flakes of chert
and a fragmentary lance head.
Almost centrally situated in the mound, at three separate points, each about
18 inches from the surface, were fragmentary human remains, while a small exca-
vation made by a previous visitor showed fragments of human bones in the sand.
This mound illustrates the amount of work at times undertaken by the abori-
gines to make a limited number of interments.
We can form no conclusion as to the five mounds nearest the landing. They
may have been erected for domiciliary purposes, but it is worthy of remark that no
village site refuse was found upon them. But, for that matter, we have never in
Florida found any marks of habitation upon any mound which, through absence of
human remains and products of aboriginal industry, we have been inclined to assign
to the domiciliary class.


This mound, about one mile in an easterly direction from Silver Springs, had
a height of 4 feet 2 inches, with a base diameter of 50 feet. A trench surrounding
it, from which its material had been taken, gave an appearance of considerably
greater altitude to the mound.
The mound had undergone much previous exploration. A trench had been
dug on one side from the margin to the center, and the upper central portion had
been excavated to a depth of about 2 feet.
The mound was totally demolished, being dug through, as is our habit, at a
level considerably below that of the surrounding territory. Its material was yellow
sand without stratification, but with the usual intermingling of particles of char-
coal. In various parts of the mound, especially on the base, were small pockets of
sand showing marks of fire.
Burials were of the bunched variety, but human remains, when found, were


in the last stage of decay. At one point on the base was a layer of intermingled
bones representing a number of individuals. No human remains were saved.


Great numbers of sherds, usually undecorated, some, however, bearing traces
of red pigment, and, in two instances at least, ornamented with graceful curves
and lines, were met with. A number of fragmentary vessels were found which had
evidently been interred in an incomplete condition, as careful search failed to reveal
the missing portions. This utilizing of otherwise useless earthenware was very pre-
valent among the makers of the mounds in Florida. Fragments of various vessels
showed perforation of the base subsequent to manufacture.
One small vessel somewhat broken (Plate LXXXV, Fig. 1), with everted
brim and stamped decoration on the body, had four feet for support, a somewhat
uncommon occurrence in Florida, though we have met with it on the St. Johns in

FIG. 71. Diagram of incised delineation. Mound near Silver Springs. (Full size.)

the mound at Racey Point, and seen basal supports on fragments from the mound
at Tick Island and on vessels from Murphy Island.
In a portion of the mound at some distance from previous excavations, so far
as the most careful investigation could determine, at 3 feet from the surface, in
sand where the closest scrutiny could discover no previous disturbance, was found, in
our immediate presence, a portion of a small bowl of earthenware. The remainder
was not discovered, and was probably not present in the mound. The hollow por-
tion of this fragment contained a solid mass of roots probably belonging to scrub
palmettoes on the surface of the mound. Upon examination by us it became


apparent that incised figures were on the fragment, one probably representing a
deer, and that others had been on the missing portion, since incomplete figures were
at the broken margins at either side. A close inspection showed that a certain
amount of soot, gained doubtless during the entirety of the vessel while in use for
culinary purposes, still remained upon the fragment, and that the incised figures
were cut through this soot, or after the abandonment of the vessel for domestic use.
It is, therefore, evident either that the decoration is aboriginal, but made subsequent
to the vessel's final contact with the flames, or that our judgment as to undisturbed
sand, in the absence of stratification, is at fault, and that the fragment was a recent
addition to the mound, left by some previous investigator. It is shown diagram-
matically in Fig. 71.
We have submitted this fragment to Professor Putnam and append the opinion
of this high authority.
"Thanks for allowing me to see the fragment of pottery from the Florida
mound. It is a very interesting piece of incised work, and again shows the rude
character of the art of the people who buried their dead in the sand mounds of
"That the cutting is not recent I think is shown by the edges of the lines,
and also by the fact that in the lines forming the front leg and foot there are little

FIG. 72. Incised delineation of human figure. Shell-heap at Mulberry mound. (Full size.)

particles of mica that seem to be cemented to the bottom of the incised lines. Now
this, it seems to me, could not have happened if the cutting were of recent date
and the bowl put into the mound only a short time ago.
There is every indication, to my mind, that the carving was made by the
people who buried their dead in that mound, and no indication of fraudulent work.
The whole thing is in keeping with what you have found before.
"We took a piece of similar pottery from Florida and cut lines upon it of the
same character, and we found that in making a very slight line we cut into the
black interior of the pottery, and the edges were sharp. Whereas, the edges of


your specimen are smoothed over, as if considerable handling had taken place since
they were cut. If you will try this on a piece of the same kind of pottery you
will at once see the difference between the lines on the bowl and the lines that you
The incised delineation of an animate object on earthenware has never before
been encountered by us in a sand mound, and but once previously in a shell-heap.
In the island shell-heap constituting Mulberry mound, Orange County, Florida,
from a depth of 10 feet, were thrown out, in our presence, two fragments of the
same earthenware vessel, which, upon being fitted together, showed incised delinea-
tion representing a human head and portion of the body, the remainder of the
body having been on parts of the vessel not left in that portion of the shell-heap.
Incised delineation of the human form on early earthenware, it may be inter-
esting to know, is believed to be represented by this specimen alone within the
limits of the United States and probably beyond. We have given in The Ameri-
can Naturalist"1 a full account of our work at Mulberry mound, and have borrowed
from it, for comparison, a representation of the incised figure (Fig. 72). Certain
parts of the delineation, represented in the cut as less distinct than others, are not
of unequal depth, but still contain a certain amount of soot, a relic of pre-historic
fires. This point, of considerable interest, shows the decoration to have been made
during the entirety of the pot, and not to have been scratched on a detached sherd
subsequent to breakage.

Flakes and chippings of chert were present in the mound in unusual numbers.
Four arrowheads and one drill, also of chert were met with separately.
A small polished cutting implement of compact ingneous rock was in caved sand.
On the base, near the margin of the mound, was a small object of sandstone,
probably an ornament, a little short of 2 inches in length. Its shape is ellipsoidal,
flattened on one side. A median groove is confined to the curved portion.
In immediate association, 4.5 feet from the surface, lay eleven masses of chert
showing cleavage, varying in length from 3 to 9 inches, evidently material for im-
plements. Some were several pounds in weight.

At depths showing them to be of original deposit were two chisels probably
from the lip of Strombus and a gouge from the body whorl of Fulgur. One chisel
lay with human remains. The other was with a copper bead.


Three cylindrical beads of copper were found during the excavation, all appar-
ently of original deposit. These differed from beads of the same material found by

1 August, 1893.


us on the St. Johns, on which river all beads are of thin sheet copper or of wood,
limestone, or shell, overlaid with a thin coating of metal. The copper beads from
this mound were more massive and while the method of manufacture by hammering
to overlap the edges was the same, the thickness of copper employed was greater.


The tooth of a fossil shark lay 3 feet from the surface. A notch on either
side had served as a medium of attachment by cord or sinew.


In no portion of the mound was anything found in any way indicating contact
with the Whites.


This mound, about one-quarter mile from Stark's Landing, on property of Mr.
R. Gamble, of Tallahassee, to whom we wish to express our indebtedness, was de-
molished by us during three days in February, 1895. We take occasion here to
return thanks also to Mr. T. J. McKinnon, superintendent of the grove.
The Mound, long under cultivation, had been reduced to a height of 5 feet 8
inches. The diameter of the base, increased by material from summit and sides,
was 76 feet.
The mound was composed of yellow sand, unstratified, with the usual particles
of charcoal intermingled. In the sand were present throughout the mound, pockets
of fire-whitened sand and deposits of charcoal. One at least of these deposits of
charcoal had been made subsequent to the extinction of the fire, as sand unaffected
by the flames was mingled with the charcoal.
Throughout the mound, at about the level of the surrounding territory, was a
layer of an approximate thickness of 3 inches, composed of fire-whitened sand,
mingled with small particles of charcoal. At places in this layer, pockets of sand,
nearly one foot in thickness, showing marks of fire, and containing considerable
charcoal were met with.
No occurrence of human remains was noted until well on toward the central
portion of the mound, when fragmentary bones, indicating the bunched burial,
were found, though by no means in numbers proportionate to the size of the mound.
Sherds, plain and stamped in squares, were met with at every depth; also
several portions of vessels with base supports. In the eastern margin of the
mound, on the base, 2 feet from the surface, was an undecorated bowl 4.5 inches
in diameter at aperture and about three inches high. The base has two perfora-
tions made subsequent to manufacture, one through the agency of a pointed tool.
Six and one-half feet from the surface was an ellipsoidal object of shell with-
out perforation. These objects are not uncommon in the mounds:



Five and one-half feet from the surface was a pendent ornament wrought from
a nodule of chert, globular in shape, with grooved projection for suspension.
Traces of bitumen surround the groove. The ornament lay in a pocket of fire-
whitened sand, though no traces of heat are upon it, and the presence of bitumen

FIc. 73. Pendant made from
chert nodule. Gamble mound.
(Full size.)

Fig. 75. Pendant of sili-
cified fossil bone. Gamble
mound. (Full size.)

Fio. 74. Pendent ornament. Gamble mound.
(About full size.)

shows the deposit to have been made after the extinction of the fire. Length, about
2.5 inches; maximum diameter, 1.7 inches (Fig. 73).
A graceful pendant of slate, of a type not met with by us elsewhere, was
recovered from previously disturbed sand. Former explorers state that from the
small excavation made by them, an exactly similar ornament was recovered. The
shape of the pendant is cylindrical, swelling out somewhat at and below the center
and then tapering to a point. A groove surrounds the upper portion. Length,
3.7 inches; maximum diameter, .5 of one inch (Fig. 74).
A pendant, probably of silicified fossil bone, in shape somewhat suggesting
our "Indian clubs" used for exercise, though thicker at the handle, has a length
of 2.6 inches, a maximum diameter of .75 of one inch. Considerable bitumen sur-
rounds the groove and upper portion of the ornament (Fig. 75).
12 JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. X.

From a depth of 5 feet came a pendant of a sedimentary rock approaching
Agalmatolite, somewhat similar in shape to the preceding. The lower portion is
missing. Its length is 3.5 inches; its maximum diameter, .8 of one inch (Fig. 76).
A pendent ornament of sedimentary rock, elliptical in outline, flattened on

FIG. 78. Pendant of
igneous rock. Gamble
mound. (Full size.)

FIG. 76. Pendent ornament. Gam-
ble mound. (Full size.)

FIG. 77. Pendent ornament. Gam-
ble mound. (Full size.)

one side, with a small portion missing above the groove, has a length of 2.3 inches
with a maximum diameter of .6 of one inch (Fig. 77).
A pear-shaped pendant of some igneous rock, with a length of 1.9 inches and
a maximum thickness of 1 inch, came from a depth of 3.5 feet. This specimen also
has bitumen adhering to the upper portion. A part of one side is missing (Fig. 78).
On the base, in a pocket of fire-whitened sand, was an ovoid pendant of lime-
stone, unfortunately somewhat injured by contact with a spade. Length, 2 inches;
maximum width, 1.4 inches.
So far as careful search would indicate, none of these pendants was associated
with human remains though it is of course possible that all traces of the former
presence of bones may have disappeared. It is worthy of note that the inhumation
of pendants seemed to prevail in this mound and that these pendants were uni-
formly grooved for suspension, bitumen, upon certain occasions at least, having
been used to aid in attaching the cord or sinew. We shall see later how, in the
mound at Tavares, the pendants, as a rule, had perforation, in which case the use
of bitumen would be needless and it w4s apparently not employed.




A sheet of mica, 2 inches by 3 inches, came from a depth showing original
deposit. Sheets of mica, so abundant in the low mounds between Jacksonville and
the sea but scarcely found in the larger ones, are of very rare occurrence and found
only in small quantities in the mounds of the St. Johns river above Jacksonville.
Two and one half feet from the surface was a portion of a superb lance head or
dagger, of chalcedony, 6 inches in length. Judging from the point of fracture, the
weapon may have been of considerably greater size. Weapons of this character
are virtually absent from the mounds of the Ocklawaha and of the St. Johns though
the type is not unknown in Florida. Some years ago a hoard of similar ones was
unearthed by the workmen on a construction train not far from Palatka. The
find, seven in all, if our memory serves, was unfortunately scattered, though one,
which we have seen, is in the possession of Andrew E. Douglass, Esq., of the
Museum of Natural History, New York, and one of the smaller specimens, which
also we have examined, of milk white chert, 11 inches in length, is owned by Mr.
Fry, of Palatka.
An arrow head of chalcedony lay at a depth of 6.5 feet. Throughout the
mound were various chippings of chert.


In caved sand was a bead .25 of one inch in length, of copper somewhat
thicker than the usual sheet copper of the mounds of the St. Johns.
A massive bead, or rather a pendant of copper, has a maxi-
mum diameter of ..86 of one inch; maximum thickness of band, .34
of one inch; maximum width of band, .58 of one inch. A groove
showing continued wear was apparent on the inner surface (Fig.
79). During all our work on the St. Johns river we have found
no ornaments of copper other than those wrought from thin
sheets, and why beads of the Ocklawaha, which are made in the
FIG. 79. Pendant .
of copper. Gamble same manner, as their overlapping margins testify, are more gen-
mound. (Fullsize.) erously supplied with metal, we are unable to decide.


Nothing from the Gamble mound suggested an origin other than pre-Columbian.


At Emeralda, in the orange grove of Robert L. Hopson, Esq. of that place, to
whom we are indebted for cordial permission to investigate, was an interesting
little mound. It had long been under cultivation, and had suffered considerable
diminution in height through the agency of the plow. It had sustained but little
previous examination. Its height was 4 feet 2 inches; its base diameter, 42 feet.
It was carefully dug through at a level considerably below that of the surrounding


territory, since, in nearly all the Florida mounds examined by us, some sort of
excavation seems to have been made previous to the erection of the mound proper.
The upper 3 feet was composed of yellow sand, beneath which was sand of a
dark color to a depth of 2 to 3 feet. Charcoal was abundant, and numerous fire-
places were encountered throughout the mound. Several pockets of sand colored
red with Hematite were at various depths.


Human remains were numerous. The usual bunched burial prevailed, with,
in addition, isolated bones scattered throughout the mound. None was in condition
to justify preservation.
One foot from the surface, though of course originally at a considerably greater
depth, lay a skull in fragments, the shaft of a femur, a large part of a humerus,
and an os innominatum, entirely unaffected by fire, in immediate association with
fragments of charcoal and small portions of calcined bones, some unmistakably
human and others too small for identification.
At various other points in the mound were fragments of human bones affected
by fire.

Six polished "celts," as a rule unassociated, were found separately at from 3
to 6 feet from the surface. None exceeded 4 inches in length.
At various depths in the mound, separately, were twelve arrow points, while
together, about 6 feet down, almost in contact with a fire-place, were four arrow-
heads. These sixteen projectile points, all of chert or of chert breccia, were in
each case in a more or less imperfect condition. We have noticed in many mounds
a strong aboriginal tendency to be rid of imperfect objects through mortuary
deposit and to discharge a duty with as little cost as possible.
Separately, were three pendants of quartz, grooved for suspension, none over
two inches in length, one tapered to a point, somewhat resembling an arrow head.
At at least half a dozen points in the mound, sometimes associated with human
remains and with other objects, were sheets of mica, some so large as 3.5 inches by 5
inches. One had the form of a circle with a diameter of 3.25 inches.
A few chippings of chert were scattered throughout the mound.


At various points, always with human remains, were beads of shell, at times in
considerable numbers. Some were very minute, others nearly 1 inch in length.
As a rule, separately and at all depths, were a number of ellipsoidal objects of
shell, imperforate, none over 1 inch in length.
A considerable number of mussel shells were at one point in the mound.



A small tubular bead of copper lay 3.5 feet from the surface, while, with a
large number of shell beads 1 foot down, were minute fragments of thin sheet
With human remains, 5 feet 2 inches from the surface, lay an ornament of
sheet copper, 1.3 inches by 1.5 inches. Four flutings ran parallel to the lesser
diameter. Unfortunately, this object was badly injured by a blow of a spade.
Five feet from the surface, with human remains and associated with many
shell beads, a thick sheet of mica, a small shark's tooth, three canines of some large
carnivore (one perforated for suspension, the others broken at a point preventing
determination), a pendant of quartz, and a small ellipsoidal object of shell, was a
disc of thin sheet copper, about .66 of one inch in diameter, resembling certain'
ones taken by us from Mt. Royal, and figured in one instance in our account of
that mound.

The chief feature of this interesting little mound was the earthenware with
which it was filled. Sherds were abundant at all points, while vessels in fragments
were numerous, and unbroken ware not uncommon. In the case of one sherd,
interesting raised decoration was noticed around the aperture; another bore incised
ornamentation, but with these two exceptions, the sherds, when ornamented,
showed the use of crimson pigment exclusively, usually consisting of a uniform
No gritty ware was present in the mound, and, as a rule, the pottery was of
very inferior quality.
Three feet from the surface, unassociated, was a small globular pendant of
earthenware, with projecting neck grooved for suspension.
Three neatly made beads of earthenware of about the same size, the dimen-
sions of one being 1.1 inches by 1 inch by .8 of one inch, lay together with a por-
tion of an arrow head, 3.5 feet from the surface.
Many vessels, some evidently of considerable size, were represented by por-
tions only, and these, being in comparatively small fragments, were not preserved.
An interesting vessel, scaphoid in shape, imperforate as to the base, with
inverted rim, had a uniform coat of crimson pigment inside and out. It was found
unassociated, 3 feet from the surface. Length, 2.8 inches; width, 2.3 inches;
average height, 1.4 inches; diameter of aperture, 2 inches by 1.3 inches (Plate
LXXXVI, Fig. .1).
An undecorated circular bowl, with perforation of bottom made after baking,
lay apparently unassociated, 3 feet 8 inches from the surface. Height, 2.2 inches;
diameter of opening, 4.2 inches.
Near a fire-place, with charred human remains, 5 feet 2 inches from the
surface, was a vessel of inferior ware but of interesting design, consisting of two


nearly circular bowls joined, originally with projecting handles 1 inch in length,
one from the outside of each. One handle was missing through breakage. Each
bowl had a portion of the base knocked out after completion. Dimensions of one
bowl, applying to both in the main: height, 1.4 inches; length, 2.8 inches; width,
2.4 inches (Plate LXXXV, Fig. 2). This unusual form of a double bowl, may be
a highly conventionalized form representing the open bivalve. We have seen the
type before, upon one occasion from Mt. Royal, and several times from the low
mounds bordering the St. Johns between Jacksonville and the sea. General
Thruston figures an artistic double vessel much more directly pointing to the shell,
as from Tennessee.
Two and one-half feet from the surface was a globular bowl with perforation
of base after baking. A small hole on either side of the mouth had served for
purposes of suspension. This vessel, with a height of 3.7 inches, a maximum dia-
meter of 4.5 inches and a diameter at aperture of 3 inches, was completely filled
with mussel shells. We do not recall the discovery by us before of any object in
vessels from Florida mounds with the exception of certain pebbles in one instance,
and an occasional vessel of inferior size placed within a larger one.
A globular vessel and a bowl, both undecorated and both wanting a portion of
the bottom through breakage done after manufacture, lay together, 4 feet 8 inches
from the surface.
Six feet down, beneath human remains, was an imperforate bowl with oval
section, decorated with red pigment inside and out. Depth, 2 inches; length, 4.2
inches; breadth, 3.6 inches.
An unassociated vessel, 3 feet, 6 inches down, with oval aperture and with
portion of bottom knocked out, had a coating of red pigment on the outside and on
the inside a band of the same color 3 to 4 inches in width, beginning at the margin.
Height, 8 inches; average diameter of aperture, 10.5 inches. This vessel was
somewhat broken by pressure of sand.
With fragments of a large bowl 1.5 feet from the surface, was an urn with
flaring rim and red pigment decoration on outside and part way down the interior.
Height, 7.7 inches; maximum diameter, 8.8 inches; width of top with rim, 6.8
inches; diameter of aperture, 5.5 inches. A portion of the bottom is missing
through breakage after manufacture. Near this urn lay an undecorated globular
vessel of ordinary type.
One foot three inches from the surface, with human remains immediately
above, were two flaring basins of the same pattern and of approximately the same
size, recalling in shape a basin from Thursby Mound shown in Plate XXVI, Fig. 1,
in Part II of our report on the St. Johns mounds: Traces of red pigment are
apparent on both sides of one and interiorly on the other. Height, 4.5 inches; max-
imum diameter, including the flaring rim, 18 inches. One bowl lay face down
while the other, also inverted, lay upon it, covering about one half its base.

1 "Antiquities of Tennessee."

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