JOURNAL OF THE
INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA.
MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE.
I LIST of those who have
been elected Members of
the Institute since the
publication of the last
ordinary number of the
Journal is given below :-
I. CORRESPONDING MEMBERS.
F. NICHOLAS, New York.
II. LIFE MEMBERS.
J. R. Chenet, Halfway-Tree.
Miss E. C. SALMON, Kingston.
J, D. STRETCI-DOUSE, May Pen.
AV. J. TnoMPsoN, Castleton.
Dr. J. WILLIAMS, Kingston.
Miss BERTHA VEULEY, Kingston.
Col. MORRIS J. FAWOETT, St. Andrew.
LIONEL HUTCIINGS, Kingston.
Rev. C. MELVILLE, Black River.
JOHN D. KERRICI, B.A., Kingston.
FRED. K. BOYD, B.A., York Castle.
T. H. MacDERMOT, York Castle.
Miss MARY WALTER, St. Andrew.
0. A. M. FiURTADO, St. Andrew.
Rev. H. GILLIES CLERK, Guy's Hill.
ERNEST J. MORALES, Kingston.
R, .C. MACCORMACK, Salt River.
W. J. WALKER, Kingston.
ROBEBT C. MITCELL, Four Paths.
Mrs. LESLIE THORNTON, Port Maria
G. M. DUFF, Kingston.
Rev. W. GRAHAM, Kingston.
Miss A. E. BLAKE, Kingstoa.
JOHN STUART, M.A., Kingston.
Hon. Tuos. CAPPER, B.A., Kingston.
Rt. Rev. Bishop GORDON, Kingston.
Rev. Father GREGORY, Kingston.
G. W. ABRA AMS, Kingston.
P. E. AUVRAY, Kingston.
W. L. MUDON, jnr., Kingston.
Mrs. L. GAMM11AGE, Kingston.
Sir FIELDING CLARKE, LL.B., Kingston.
Lady CLARKE, Kingston.
Lt.-Col. A. R. F. DORWARD, D.S.O., Camp.
Rev. GEORGE MONEILL, Shooter's Hill.
Lient. 0. BOGER, R.N., Port Royal.
(HAS. W. DOORLY, Kingston.
JOHN MURRAY, Kingston.
CIIARLES E. JOINSTON, Kingston.
C. P. LAZARUS, Kingston.
A. VAN W. LUCIE-SMITH, Kingston.
JoHN HENRY BARNES, Kingston.
Miss F. A. MACMAHON. Kingston.
Surgeon-Col. E. H. JOYNT, M.D., Up-Park-
Miss SARAH B. MAoDERHOT, Kingston.
Capt. J. DEC. LAFFAN, R.E., Up-Park-Camp,
A. R. BINGIIAM, Kingston.
LoUIs J. BERTRAM; Kingston.
Miss E. MAY, Kingston.
CIIAS. M. MARTIN, B.A., Chapelton.
ALBERT HANSON, Kingston.
W. G. NEWMAN, Belvedere.
At the thirty-ninth meeting held at the
Institute on the 18th of November, 1896, the
Rev. Win. Gillies was in the chair, and Dr.
Henderson and Dr. Strachan were also
present. The Secretary of the Institute
read a paper entitled A Brief Sketch of
the History of Painting in England," in
illustration of the series of Engravings
which had recently been hung in the Lec-
An abstract of the paper will be found
printed further on.
At the fortieth meeting held at the Insti-
tute on the 24th of November, the Rev,
Wm. Gillies was in the chair. Dr. Plaxton.
Dr. Strachan, Mr. Vendryes and the Secre-
tary of the Institute were also present. Miss
Clara Myers read a paper on Handel, the
first of a series of three on "Celebrated
Composers," the first paper read by a lady
at the Institute. The paper will be found
printed further on.
At the forty-first meeting held at the
Institute on the 1st of December, the Rev.
WVm. Gillies presided, and Dr.. Henderson
and Dr. Strachan, and the Secretary of the
Institute were also present. Miss Clara
Myers read a paper on Mozart.
At the forty-second meeting held at the
Institute on the 8th of December, Mr.
Vendryes was in the chair, and the Secre-
tary of the Institute was also present. Miss
Clara Myers read a paper on Mendelssohn.
The following ladies and gentlemen assisted
to illustrate Miss Myers's three lectures :-
Vocalists-Mrs. Duerden, Miss Feurtado,
Rev. H. S. Isaacs and Mr. Noie de Montag.
nac. Violinists-Miss Solomon and Mr.
Eugene Finzi. Pianists-Miss Pet Cork,
Miss Kilburn and Serior Fuentes. Accom-
panists-Mrs. Henry Ford, Mrs. H. J.
Lewis and Mr. Dadd.
At the forty-third meeting held at the
Institute on the 17th of February, 1897,
the Rev. Win. Gillies presided, and Dr.
Strachan and the Secretary of the Institute
were also present.
Miss Donnelly read a paper on "' The
Industrial Arts of India," an abstract of
which will be found further on.
At the forty-fourth meeting held at the
Institute on the 3rd of February, the Rev.
Wmn. Gillies presided, and the Rev. Win.
Simms and the Secretary. of the Institute
were also present.
Mr. Cowper read a paper on "Canterbury,"
the first of a series ori "Celebrated Cities,"
which was illustrated by views shown by
means of the magic lantern.
The following is an abstract of the
Mr. Cowper's paper on Canterbury dealt entirely
with the historic associations of the city: his aim
was to remind his audience of the various episodes
more or less famous in history, with which some of
the buildings in Canterbury are connected. Thus,
the first view shewn on the screen, Canterbury
from Harbledown Hill" served to suggest references
to the well-known story of Colet and Erasmus, and
to the Canterbury Tales. St. Dunstan's Church had
memories of Henry II. and Sir Thomas More, the
West Gate of Simon of Sudbury and Wat Tyler's
rebellion. As was natural, the greater part of the
paper was concerned with the Cathedral, where it
might be said every period of English history finds
some memorial. Ethelbert of Kent, St. Augustine,
St. Dunstan, Lanfranc, Anselm, Henry II., Becket
Stephen Langton, Edward I., Archbishop Winchel.
sey, the Black Prince, Henry IV., the Beauforts,
Edward IV.. Henry VIII. and the Reformation,
Archbishop Warbam, Cardinal Pole, the Huguenots,
the great Civil War, the capture of Gibraltar, the
Peninsular war, Mission Work in the Colonies, the
Crimea,-all these have memorials of one kind or
another within the walls of Canterbury Cathedral.
Aided by views of the Choir, Trinity Chapel, the
Black Prince's Tomb, the M1 artyrdom, and the Crypt,
some attempt was made totell the stories of Becket
and of the Black Prince atgreater length: something
was said of Becket's Shrine, the great glory of the
Cathedral till Reformation Times, and of its destruc-
tion in the days of Henry VIII.
After speaking of the Cathedral, Mr. Cowper, as in
private duty bound, referred to the history of the
King's School,-a royal and ancient foundation
which claims to be the lineal descendant of the
College founded within the precincts of the Cathedral
by Theodore of Tarsus, at the end of the seventh
century. [Mr. A. F. Leach, the iconoclast, who
destroyed men's- faith- in the zeal for education dis-
played by Henry VIII. and Edward VI., assures us
that the School is too modest in being content wit
this antiquity,-" it is much older" he says
To students of architecture the School is specially
interesting owing to the neighbourhood of the
Norman Staircase which in pre-reformation times
led to the Guest Hall of the Monastery.
The subsequent part of the lecture dealt with
the history of St. Augustine's College;-its pre-
reformation grandeur, its gradual destruction and
desecration, its reconstitution as a College for the
training of missionaries. In conclusion, reference
was made to the little Church of St. Martin outside
the wall, where Ethelbert's Queen Bertha is said to
have worshipped before the coming of St. Augustine:
the view from the hill-side on whiich it is built
appealed very strongly to the mind f Dean Stanley
who declared that it was one of the most inspiriting
views in the world.-so vividly did it suggest to him
the wonderful extension of missionary enterprise;
no view" he declared ca, ries us more vividly back
.to the past, nor more hopefully forward to the future.
At the forty-fifth meeting held at the
Institute on the 24th of Feilrnary, the Iev.
Wm. Simms was in the ch;ir, and the Rev.
Win. Gillies and the Secretary of the Insti-
tute were also present.
Mr. J. C. Ford read a paper on Birming-
ham," the second of a series on Cele-
brated Cities," of which the following is an
Mr. Ford began by referring to the early his-
tory of Birmingham, the toy-shop of Europe as
Burke called it. It cannot, he said, lay claim to
the stirring history and legendary fame of the
other remarkable cities upon which papers have
been or will be read at this Institute. Birming-
ham, as a place of great importance, is of a com-
paratively recent date, but its origin as a village
or township dates back to ancient Saxon times.
The old and extensive -forest of Arden occupied
in early British times the whole central portion of
England. So wild and impenetrable were its oak
woods and coverts that the Roman conquerors
penetrated but little into it. and only one great
Roman road, Ickneild Street, or Ryckeneild Way,
crossed its narrowest portion-all the other great
Roman roads merely skirting its edges. It was
near to this Ickneild Street, in the forest of Arden
.on the banks of a nill stream, the Rea, that the
village of Birmingham arose about the middle of
the 17th century, from the settlement of a British
tribe, the Beormingas or Bermings. The letter G
had locally the soft sound. Hence Birmingham
became corrupted into Brummagem. Hutton, the
first historian of the town, traced this corruption
out of Bromwycham or heath dwelling, several
names of places near Birmingham having this ap-
pellation, West Bromwich, Broomsgrove and Cas-
.tle Bromwich. The word Birmingham, itself, how-
ever, is thoroughly Saxon, the final syllable ham
showing this. ,
The first definite allusion to the manufactures
- of Birmingham, which,from such small beginnings,
have grown to the present world-supplying dimen-
sions-is made by John Leland in his Itinerary of
He thus describes it:-" I came through a pret-
ty street or ever I entered into Birmingham town.
This street I remember is called Dirty (Deri-
.tend). In it dwell smiths and cutters. There be.
many smiths in the town that make knives and
all manner of cutting tools and many lorimers
that make bittes and a great many naylors. So
that a great part of the town is maintained by,
smiths who have their iron and coal out of Staf-
fordshire." Johnson paid a visit to the town in
1730. In 1735 the first cotton thread ever spun
by purely mechanical means was prepared by John
Wyatt. In 1741 the first weekly newspaper was
started in Birmingham, and was the forerunner of
the Daily (azette of the present day. John Bas-
kerville, the founder of the famous Baskerville
press raised birmingham to the position of an
important publishing centre, rivalling even the
Baskerville cut and cast his own type, and in
1758 the University of Oxford contracted with
him to supply Greek types to the University press.
He was so pronounced an agnostic that he even
shocked John Wilkesi yet about 1759 he printed
the Bo'k of Common Prayer for the University of
Cambridge. and in 1763 finished his edition of the
Bible. By his own instructions, he was buried on
his own premises in building he had himself pre-
pared for his tomb
The great industrial superstructure of Birming-
ham rests upon the vast industries of coal and
iron. These two products are the very soul and
life-blood of its manufacture. It is smoke and
flame and metal in all its forms, and the variety
and extent of the industries are enormous.
In gold and silver jewellery of all kinds, gold
End silversmiths' work, in thousands of articles for
use and ornament, silver gilt and electroplate,
brass foundry andry stamping in every possible
form, Birmingham is pre-eminent. Iron stamp-
ings and castings, worked into thousands of the
every day utensils, and ornaments in wrought and
stamped iron are among its great industries. Bir-
mingham is the home of that marvellously useful
and yet simple little instrument that has taken
the place of the split reed and the grey goose quill
of our grandfathers, the steelpen. Joseph Gillott's
name is known all over the world. Nearly one
hundred tons of steel in the shape of finished pens
are constantly kept in stock, about twenty-five
millions are made every week; and each one of
them has to go through, at least, twelve different
processes and pass through twenty hands before
they are packed in those neat little card board
boxes with which we are familiar. Thousands of
tons of brass wire are chopped up and despatched
to all the cities of the world in the form of pins
It was in the latter portion of the 18th century
that the famous Soho factory was established by
Matthew Boulton, where, under the names of
Boulton and Watt, the steam engine first took
practical shape, and rendered the name of James
Watt immortal. About this time, too, Henry Clay
invented paper mach6 as a useful substitute for
wood, and snuff-boxes, tea-trays, tables and chairs,
and hundreds of other articles were made of this
new material. In 1792, William Murdock, a young
Scotchman, employed at Boulton & Watt's factory
discovered the use of gas made from coal as an
illuminant, and in 1794 the Soho factory was first
lighted with coal gas; and Dr. Smiles says, that on
the grand illumination which took place on the
celebration of the peace of Amiens in 1802, the
whole front of the Soho factory was brilliantly
illuminated with gas.
It was also about this time that the manufac-
ture of that tiny, but vastly useful article, the
common pin, was introduced, and the manufacture
of cheap, gilt jewellery began to make headway,
so that it became a saying--" give a Birmingham
maker a sovereign and a copper kettle and he will
make you hundred pounds worth of jewellery."
Francis Eginton, the painter of glass, was another
In 1786 Boulton was the first to apply steam
power to the coining of money. He was the
father of the present system of coinage, and from
his time to the present there is scarcely a country
in the world that has not had its gold, silver or
copper coins made at one of the great.mints of
Birmingham, successors of Boulton & Watt.
Everything one can imagine, from buttons. pins
and pens to huge steam engines, and the iron
work for a railway bridge, is made in this temple
of Tubal Cain. The silver rattle of the infant, the
wedding ring of the bride, the furniture of the
coffin are made in this hive of industry.
Tangye Bros., the great hydraulic engineers,
also manufacture gas and steam engines, and en-
gineer s tools. They are the real successors of
Boulton & Watt. Elkington & Co. make electro-
plate, silver ware, and the most beautiful works of
art in bronze, copper, and steel, and electro-
metallurgy. Cycle and cycle fittings form an im-
portant industry. Guns, pistols, rifles, swords and
bayonets are among thestaples of Birmingham.
There are chemical works and scientific instrument
factories, stained glass and ecclesiastical metal
works, and manufactures of glass in all its myriad
forms, from the ordinary window pane to the
huge three-feet diameter object-glass of the
astronomical telescope, and those magnificent
lenses and prisms for the dioptric and catopric
lanterns for ligthouses, for which the name of
Chance Brothers has become famous.
[The process of coal mining, and the manufac-
ture of pig and bar iron were described and illus-
trated by views and diagrams.]
It is from the year 1851 that Birmingham dates
its rise from one of the worst administered towns in
England, to be an example to the world of what
energy, enterprise and integrity can effect in the
self government of a community.
Before that time, Birmingham was governed by
a high and low bailiff, nominees of the lords of
the manor. Then commissioners were appointed
for each parish. There were at one time no less
than thirteen of these Boards of Commissioners,
and as they were appointed for each parish they
were jealous one of the other, and quarrelled like
so many cats.
For years their petty jealousies and want of
public spirit stopped the development of a weal-
thy community-it was each man for himself.
In 1838 the act of incorporation was passed
and Birmingham became a borough. It had a
mayor, 16 aldermen and 47 councillors.
The Boards, however, continued after a fashion,
to exist, fighting with each other and the new
Council, and they battled against every invasion of
their rights and privileges. In 151, however, the
Council became, by law, supreme, and the other
municipal bodies were abolished.
The Birmingham Town Council, now adminis-
ters a city of 500,000 inhabitants, over 250 miles
of streets, 700 police, and a revenue of nearly
500,000. It has a debt of over 7,000,000, and
is even now engaged in works for bringing a fresh
supply of water from a Welsh lake eighty miles
distant, that will probably cost ,.000,000 or
7,000,000 more before the work is finished.
Fifty years ago Birmingham had 180.000 inhabi-
tants. Many of the streets were unpaved and
others paved with cobble stones A few dim oil
lamps were slung across the streets, here and there.
There was no drainage, and drinking water was
delivered in carts by a grasping monopolist com-
pany. The centre of the town was squalid and
disease-stricken, with little air and light. Wretched.
courts, surrounded by tumble-down house, existed,
with heaps of filth and rubbish about the doors.
Epidemic diseases slew the people, and the death
rate was often appalling.
Since this time Birmingham has had to fight its
way for municipal rights. The town council has
continually advanced over destroyed monopolies.
manorial rights, and every obstacle to the free
government of the people
The mayors of Birmingham have for many years
past been men of exceptional ability, energy and
integrity, and one of the most distinguished was
the present Colonial Minister who was three times
To him Birmingham owes a deep debt of grati-
tude. To him is due the initiation of the reconstruc-
tion of the city, the driving of new streets through
the most squalid parts of the town, the erection of
splendid public buildings as the Council House
and the law courts, the purchase by the city of
the water and gas monopolies. Mr. Chamberlain
often carried his ideas to a successful issue in the
face of the opposition of even his political friends
The purchase by the corporation of the gas works
and water supply, has resulted in a great success,
The great revenues obtained have been used to.
reduce the rates, and cheapen the supply of the
two great necessaries of civilized life, Water and
Thus from an ugly, dirty, unhealthy place, Bir-
mingham in the last thirty years has been re-born,
and has become a city of splendid buildings, wide.
well-paved streets, magnificent libraries, excellent
colleges and schools, spacious and numerous pub-
lic baths, beautiful parks for the recreation of the
people, and a system of underground sewerage as
perfect as science and money can make it. In ten
years the death rate fell from 25 to 19 per 1,000.
It is now one of the healthiest towns in England.
The great triennial musical festivals were insti-
tuted in 1768 to aid the general hospital, and since
then these famous gatherings have been continu-
ously held. In 1840 Mendelssohn's master-piece
"Elijah," was first performed there, and many
works of great importance have been brought out,
and have maintained the splendid traditions of
The Education Act was taken up by the munici.
pal authorities with the usual force and energy.
In fifteen years the children attending school have
risen from fifty per cent. to eighty-five per cent. of
the whole number of schoolable age. There is room
for 70,000 in the schools. 'Generous endowments
and bursaries enable a workman's child to reach
the universities if he shows ability, and these
scholarships are numerous. The oldest school, that
of King Edward, was founded in 1552. The value
of endowment is now 25,000 a year, and before
the end of this century it is expected to reach
50,000. Nine secondary schools are supported
from this revenue. Nine pounds a year is the
cost of an education fitting aboy or girl for the
universities, where the numerous scholarships en-
able many to take their degrees at little or no ex-
pense to themselves,
In technical education, Birmingham is ahead of
any other city in England. Mason's College, es-
tablished and endowed by the great penmuaker of
that name, offers every inducement at almost nom-
inal cost, for the study of the arts and sciences.
A quarter of a million has been spent on this
institution. It is thoroughly supplied with libra-
ries, laboratories, lecture rooms, and every requis-
ite for the practical study of the sciences, with
revenues for the support of able professors and lec-
The Midland Institute. another great educa-
tional institution, is a small university in itself,
supported entirely by voluntary contributions and
endowments. Here the middle and working
classes throng to enjoy the benefit of a wide and
popular course of instruction. This course embraces
literature, science and art. Classes are held in the
evening and are largely attended by the working
classes. There are over 5,000 students on-the roll.
Science, languages, arithmetic, music, all have
their earnest votaries of all classes, all ages. and both
sexes. One class-room holds 1,000 pupils, and is
filled every Monday to hear a lecture from some
famous professor brought down from London for
the purpose. At the Midland Institute there is also
a fine art school, at which over 2,000 persons study,
and a beautiful picture gallery forms part of the
establishment. Free public libraries abound.
The central library is frequented by 5,000 people
daily, and the district libraries, each containing, at
least, 10,000 volumes, circulate over 2,000 vol-
umes a day; being visited by over 12,000 readers.
The lecturer concluded by describing the coun-
try lying between Birmingham and Wolverhamp-
ton, called the Black Country," which well de-
served its name.
At the Forty-sixth meeting held at the
Institute on the 17th of March, the Rev.
Wm. Gillies presided, and the Secretary of
the Institute was also present. Mr. Q. 0.
Eckford, United States Consul, read a paper
on New York, the third of a series on
Celebrated Cities," of which the following
is an abstract:-
The History of New York, originally Manhattan,
in its Dutch, British and American periods is of deep
interest. The first recorded visitor to this region
was Verrazano, the Florentine navigator and travel-
ler; but the first practical and undoubted discovery
of the harbour and river of New York was byHenry
Hudson, the English.mariner, in 1609.
After having explored the Hudson river nearly to
the present site of Albany, the explorer returned to
Europe. The very next year some Dutch merchants
sent out a ship to open trade at New York.
In 1614, the States General chartered the United
New Netherland Company, of'Amsterdam, merchants,
to traffic with New York, and under the orders of
this Corporation traders penetrated far inland. The
immigration in 1624 of a colony of Walloons, marks
the first permanent colonization of the new land.
In 1626, Peter linuit, the new Director-General,
arrived, and shortly afterwards purchased Manhattan
Island from the savages.
In that year the village had 200 inhabitants,
which number was increased to270 in 1628. About
this time it assumed the name of Port Amster-
dam in memory of the metropolis of the Dutch Re-
The little colony made much progress under Van
Twiller, the Director-General who came out to Man-
hattan in 1633. His successor, William Kieft, how-
ever, angered the burghers by his unwise policy,
which caused them to unite against him and to
inaugurate popular government. The prosperity of
the colony, which had somewhat declined, owing to
the Indian war of 1645, and other causes, was now
revived by some changes in the administration by
the Home Government.
Many useful institutions came into existence under
Petrus Stuyvesant, the last Director-General, and the
social life of the colonists was much advanced. But
a change was coming
Great Britain had always claimed that the Hudson
River Country belonged to her in virtue of Cabot's
discoveries in 1497. She now sent out a fleet, which
in 1664 appeared before the town and seized it.
As soon as the town had passed under British
rule, it was officially named New York in honour of
the Duke of York, its new lord.
Manhattan was regained by the Dutch in 1673,
but the new government lasted but little more than
a year, and then it was restored, by the States-
General, to Great Britain.
New York journalism and publishing began in
1693 when William Bradford was appointed official
printer. The first bound book appeared in 1694; and
in 1725 began the publication of "The 'New York
In the year 1765 the Stamp Act was passed and
the disruption of America and England begun. A
Congress of delegates from nine Colonies met at the
New York City Hall and passed a Declaration of
rights and an address to the King.
After the War of Independence, the first American
Congress under the Constitution met in 1789 in the
old City Hall. Here in the April of that year, the
oath of office was administered to the first President
of the United States.
New York may be termed the cradle of steam
navigation. In 1807 the Clermont" was built from
the designs of Robert Fulton. and in spite of evil
prognostications she made a triumphant run from
New York to Albany in thirty-two hour.
Illumination by gas was introduced in 1825. After
the war of 1812 the famous packet lines began their
service. The Erie canal was built in 1816-1825.
The horse-railroad was inaugurated in 1832. The
first street car ever built was made by John
The fur-trade was much developed by John Jacob
Astor who came to the New World in 1784; he also
established a rich trade with China.
To-day the City of New York is not only the
Metropolis of the United States, but in population,
in wealth, in influence and in enterprise it is the
rival of the great capitals of the world.
The area actually within the limits of the city
includes Manhattan Island; Governor's Island, in
New York Bay; Blackwall's, Ward's and Randall's
Islands in the East River and a considerable section
of the mainland, north of the Harlem River, and
west of the Bronx.
The population has grown in a phenomenal manner
during the last half-century. In 1830 it was 202,000.
In February, 1892, a State enumeration showed a
population of 1,800,891.
The nationalities represented in New York make
it the most cosmopolitan city in the world. It has
more Irish than Dublin, and more Germans than
any German city except Berlin. There are sections
almost entirely given over to people of foreign birth
or descent, each nationality forming a colony by
The Municipal administration is conducted mainly
by the Mayor, and the Heads of Departments, several
of whom are chosen by popular vote, and the others
appointed by the Mayor. Municipal legislation is
in the hands of the board of Aldermen which con-
sists of one member elected from each of the twenty-
four Assembly districts in the city, and a President
who is elected at large for a term of two years.
There are in New York 575 miles of streets, which
are lighted at night by gas, electric light and naptha
lamps. The city has 144 piers and 13 public markets.
Local traffic is effected by'the elevated railways,
horse-cars and cable-cars, and by the Fifth Avenue
The coastwise and ocean traffic to and from the
Port of New York reaches enormous proportions.
The total tonnage of the shipping at this port is
5,000,000 annually ; through it pours a steady tide of
immigrants into the United States, the number of
which has in no year since 1850 fallen below 300,000.
The educational work of New York is of vast
magnitude. Under the public-school system are
schools to the number 135 and in these are taught
240,000 children, by 4,200 teachers. The college of
the city of New York has a yearly attendance of 900
young men, and the Normal College of 1,600 oung
Amoug the many thoroughfares of interest in New
York may be mentioned The Bowrey and Wall Street,
two of the oldest in the city. St. Patrick's Cathedral
with its stately spires and ghttering white marble,
and Trinity Church, in whose old graveyard, and
under whose quaint, time touched tombstones sleep
the rude forefathers of one of the now most repre-
sentative cities in Christendom, are choice examples
of the architecture of New York.
The Obelisk adorns the pleasure ground of the
city; and rising out of New York Bay and towering
to its lotty height of 306 feet, stands the statue of
Liberty enlightening the world.
At the Forty-seventh meeting held at the
Institute on the 7th of April, the Hon. S. 0.
Burke, F.R.G.S. presided, and there were
also present the Hon. C. B. Mosse, C.B.,
C.M.G., the Rev. Wm. Gillies, and the
Secretary of the Institute.
Mr. Morris, D. Sc., C.M.G., an Honorary
Member, and former Governor of the
Institute, read a paper entitled "The
Romance of Plant Life," of which the
following is an abstract :--
THE ROMANCE OF PLANT LIFE,-A POPULAR EX-
POSITION OF INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE-HISTORY
OF TROPICAL AND OTHER PLANTS.
A good impression of the general aspect of tropi-
cal plant life was first obtained by means of a lan-
tern slide of a photograph of a view from the top
of Stony Hill, Jamaica. The lecturer then dwelt
at considerable length upon the various features
presented by the coco-nut palm, particularly upon
its straight, unbranched method of growth, and the
character of its fruit. Occasionally, examples are
met with, having three branches or main stems,
one such having occurredon the Palisadoes. This
result is probably due to the fact that all the three
ovules originally present in the ovary have devel-
oped and been fertilized, whereas usually only
one ovule reaches perfection, resulting in the fa-
miliar one-celled fruit known as the coco-nut. Mr.
Morris hazarded the opinion that. originally, the
palm grew in clusters of three and that. as in so
many other natural orders of plants, the reduction
to one was an illustration of the survival of the
fittest and adaptation to environment He illus-
trated it by the well-known analogy of the tail
buttons at the back of a gentleman's coat. The
occasional finding of pearls in the hollow inter-
nodes of stems of coco-nut trees was alluded to, the
production being comparable to the familiar depo-
sitions of raphides and lime concretions met with
in many plants, particularly the teak. Very per-
fect pearls are at times obtained from the coco-
nut palm, being produced as a result of the depo-
sition of carbonate of lime in the process of meta-
bolism going on within the plant. A deposition
of silica in a similar manner occurs occasionally in
the bamboo and other grasses, the result being an
opal. The lecturer then went on to refer to kola.
and also to a berry from Africa which had a pecu-
liar property of giving a sweet sensation to any
object tasted, thus enabling the natives to drink
sour wine or brackish water. Such fruits and
others having the opposite properties, are now un-
der investigation. Mr. Morris then referred to the
'information he had lately been collecting and pub-
lishing in reference to the depilatory action of the
wild tamarind upon non-ruminants. The plant is
now ascertained to possess the peculiar property
of causing horses, mules, donkeys and pigs to
lose hair off their bodies, and one horse had lost
even his hoofs. He had just been informed by
Mr. Sewell that the latter had seen three mules
deprived of their tails by eating the tree.
A sedge-like plant growing at the side of
streams in the Blue Mountain, and occasionally
acting as a bird-catcher, was described. It seems
that migratory birds, settling on the Blue Moun-
tains, and going to the streams to drink, carry
away the seeds of the sedge; these being provided
with a hook by which they attach themselves to
the wings of the bird. In this way the plant has
become one of the most widely distributed along
the routes of migratory birds-down the West
Indies and Central and South America. Where
the bird is weak and the plants numerous, it may
be impossible for the former to free itself. An in-
teresting account was given of the manner in
which the strongest of the embryos in the many-
celled brazil-nut fruit feeds and develops at the
expense of the others.
DIscussION-At the close, Dr. Maunsell, Mr.
Rouse, Dr. Grabham, and Mr. Duerdcn made
cognate observations or asked questions.
A vote of thanks was proposed by Mr. Gillies
and seconded by Dr. Mosse.
In replying to the vote. of thanks, Mr. Morris
referred to his former connection with the Insti-
tute of Jamaica and to its aims. It was right for
people to give attention to the bread and but-
ter subjects of life, but, after all, there is another
side to existence, and it is essential that there
should be in our midst an agency devoting itself
to our enlightenment on those things usually over-
looked in the tropics. He trusted that the time
would be long distant when Jamaica would be too
poor to provide the funds necessary to carry on the
work of the Institute, by which ihe refinements
of hterature, art and science are being introduced
into the common life of the community. He had
visited all the similar Institutions in the West
Indies, and he had seen, none so well equipped
for its work, and none that was fulfillingthat work
so well as the Institute of Jamaica. Speaking
of Jamaica. generally, the lecturer said he had not
wavered in the least degree in his faith regarding
the possibilities and future of the country. What
Jamaica most wanted was that every man, woman
and child should rise to the occasion and loyally
endeavour to do everything they possibly could
to benefit it, and to believe, as the inhabitants
of Barbados believe of their island, that there
is not another spot on the earth like it. The
Barbadians taught Jamaica a lesson. We have a
grander island, and we should be proud of it, and
make more use of it. It is one of the brightest spots
tobe foundanywhere. Speaking deliberately. heas-
serted that in spite of drought and dust, and all
other drawbacks, there was hardly a place in the
world that could be made more beautiful and its
inhabitants more happy.
At the forty-eighth meeting held at the
Institute on the 14th of April, the Rev.
Wm. Gillies was in the chair, and the Sec-
retary of the Institute was also present.
Mr. W. P. Livingstone read a paper on
"Edinburgh," the fourth of a series on
Celebrated Cities," of which the follow-
ing is an abstract:-
The first part of the lecture was devoted to a
consideration of the agencies which have made
Edinburgh what it is. Edinburgh, the lecturer
said, is debtor both to Nature and Art for the dis-
tinguishing qualities that support her title to be
one of the most characteristic, one of the most
beautiful, of cities. To nature the larger debt is due.
This indebtedness began long before humanity
appeared on the world-surface, and has, through
ages since, increased with the slow and im-
measurable operation of natural law. The earli-
'est outline of the existing conditions can be de-
tected in the geological period when the carboni-
ferous or coal-system of Scotland was in process
of formation. We see the area now occupied by
Edinburgh and the surrounding district covered
with a stretch of littoral water, under which
thick deposits of sediment, the debris from the
Old Red Sandstone rocks, were being accumu-
lated. Here and there, also, were small volcanoes
emitting showers of ash or streams of basalt and
porphyrite. Larger and more active than the
rest could be seen the cones of what are now
called Arthur's Seat and the Calton Hill. The en.
suing geological age witnessed the deposition of
newer strata, but these had no influence on the
present configuration, as denudation removed
them completely from the surface and brought
to light again the sandstones and shales and
limestones of the earlier carboniferous series.
Later on. in the Permian period, Arthur's Seat
became a new focus of eruption and threw out the
basalts and agglomerates that now form the prin-
cipal features of the hill. Then, in comparatively
recent times, a series of basalt dykes traversed the
rocks of the neighbourhood. and one of the most
prominent of these was destined to be a potent
factor in shaping the destiny of Edinburgh-the
Castle Rock. As a rule. the history of cities has
a close relation to the nature of their sites, and it
is curious to think that the fate of nations and of
peoples has depended to a great extent on the ac-
tion of what we are pleased to term the "blind
forces of nature." The present configuration of
the district, however, is not directly due to the
ejection of igneous matter from below. There is
proof that, latterly, sedimentary deposits covered
the whole area of Edinburgh and buried beneath
their surface the same rocks that form the princi-
palland-marks to-day. The process by which the
existing conditions were brought about is a familiar
one to students of natural science. Among the
inanimate, as among the living, things of the
world, there is a perpetual struggle for the mas-
tery: the principle of the survival of the fittest'
holds good here as elsewhere. The soft sandstones
and shales, and the indurated limestones and
flinty basalts were exposed to the power of water,
and ice and wind. The less resistant wasted and
fell away and sank into valleys, and the harder
came to light and rose up into hill and crag, and
thus, in the course of ages, Arthur's Seat, the Cas-
tle Rock, Calton Crags, Corstorphine Hill and
Blackford Hill came into being. The sculpturing
was at one time accentuated by the passage of an
ice sheet over the land.
After Nature had done her part, man and his art
stepped in. When the early inhabitant pushed
his way through the primeval wood and saw from
some point of advantage the irregular stretch of
ground sloping down from the Pentland Hills to
the river Forth, he was struck, not with the wild
beauty of the landscape, but with the capacity of
the ground as a safe site for settlement. He saw
the Castle Rock rising up like-a watch tower in-
the centre. Round three sides of its base. in the
hollow scooped out by icestream and rain, lay a
sheet of water, forming a natural moat. From the
height a clear view was obtained of the surround-
ing country, of the passes in the hills to the south,
and on-the north of the river and the far mountain
peaks. It was little wonder that the situation
was taken advantage of, first by native bands in
constant warfare with each other, and then by the
dominant race against foreign invaders. The city,
therefore, has not been the result of aesthetic
choice, but of the militant spirit in man, and it
was the ebb and flow of international conflict that
determined its subsequent development.
The lecturer proceeded to describe the first settle-
ments, their gradual evolution into a city, and the
architectural devices for the economical utilization
of space, and then passed on to tell the story of its
modern expansion and growth, and concluded sub-
stantially as follows:-
Looking beneath the changeful surface, into the
deeper life-currents that determine the real posi-
tion of Edinburgh. there is much that causes re-
gret to the patriotic Scot who remember$ the past.
Let us stand some spring morning on Any of the
eminences that overlook the city, and carefully
regard the prospect lying spread before us. Around
are fresh, green slopes; above, white clouds drift
across the clear sky. Somewhere a lark is pouring
out its melody: and the wind sweeps the grass at
our feet. And there is the quiet, million-eyed
city, the irregular outline of hill andcrag, and far-
ther off a gleam of sea and Highland peak. It is
a scene that is carried in thousands of hearts, and
dwelt upon in every corner of the world. But ob-
serve the scene more closely. In the valleys at
our feet, creeping out into the quietude and green-
ness of the country, are rows upon rows of dwel-
lihgs, all built according to a stereotyped plan,
innocent of special characteristic, save that of
angular uniformity to type. We lift our eyes and
see the serrated line from the Castle parapets
down to Holyrood. The contrast speaks for itself.
In the old town there is seen a vigorous individu-
ality, an abundance of local colour and expression.
In-the new the strength is still visible, but the
individuality and distinction are lost. There is
only respectability of the most commonplace or-
der. Ruskin has said that all good architecture
is the expression of national life and character,
and these opposing aspects of Edinburgh streets
seem to denote the change that has come over
Scottish life and ,thought. Scotland has largely
lost its individuality, and the national character
has settled down to a 'dead level of colourless cos-
mopolitanism. It has n'o special political stand-
ing; it has no social life worthy of the past; it is
no longer a centre and influence in literature and
art. The loss is very visible in the capital. There
is now no Edinburgh of intellectual eminence. A
nameless quality has gone from the civic life. It
it is not that the struggle for existence has domin-
ated all other tendencies, for it is the abofle of the
leisured and the affluent. But there is one bright
circumstance which affords strong hope for the fu-
ture. The Cockburn Association has been doing
much to secure the amenity of the city and its
neighbourhood, but its efforts have been mostly
conservative. Lately a new movement has sprung
up which is both conservative and constructive. Its
object is the revival of the old conditions, under
better laws-" a return to local and natural tradi-
tion and living nature." The movement originated
with Professor Patrick Geddes who, with a fewv
kindred spirits, has established himself in Ramsay
Garden, on the Castle Hill, once the residence of
the Gentle Shepherd, They have added to, but
not destroyed, the aspect of the quaint old building,
and they have turned it into a University Settle-
ment where all interested in the life of culture and
in. the regeneration of Edinburgh can 'live and
work. A few weeks ago another settlement was
opened and termed the Blackie House, in memory
of the Greek professor. At present the leaders are
busy among the narrow, evil-smelling closes and
stairs, working like angels of redemption, leaving
the outward appearance, but changing the vital
inner life. The purpose is to re-construct old Edin-
burgh, preserving its' antique features, but intro-
ducing the all-essential sanitary sweetness and
light. A company-the Town and Gown Asso-
ciation-is to be the next development of the move-
ment, and there is every prospect that the dream of
Patrick Geddes and. Colleagheds" of a new and
beautiful street, with all the charm of the 'old,
stretching down from the Castle to Holyrood, will
yet be realized. Every patriotic Scot will wish
them success. Coincident with this movement has
sprung up a desire to ienew the old, friendly con-
nection with Fiance. Last year, forty distinguished
Scotchmen met in Paris and associated for three
days there with the leading Univeisity men. The
result was the establishment of the Franco-Scottish
Society. The circumstance is an earnest that in any
resuscitation of intellectual Scotland, the elegance
of the Frenchnature will again influence the serious
temperament of the Scotch people. There are
other signs, small and inappreciable it may be, but
still susceptible of favourable interpretation, that
lead in to an indulgence of the hope that after its
self-renunciation Scotland will re-assert its individu-
ality and its genius. In the High Street of Edin-
burgh, there can be seen on the street front the
carved head of a boy. The story attached to it has a
moral which may point my remarks. The spirit of
modern commercialism had changed the solid ma-
sonry of the building into a shop with slight sup-
ports and plate glass windows. The structure sub-
sided. Digging into the ruins for traces of the life
that had been engulfed, the workmen heard a faint
voice piping, heave awa,' lads, I'm no dead yet! "
In spite of an overwhelming mass of indifference,
of commonplace aim and existence, the ancient
spirit of Scotland is not dead. It will be rescued,
it will live. The old, Attic enthusiasm will come
back and it will secure for Scotland all that is now
most ardently desired by the few. We may yet see
Home Rule and the re-creation of the old Scottish
Parliament. We may yet see Edinburgh released
from the thraldom of London, and London look to
Edinburgh for its inspiration. We may, in short,
see the resurrection of Scotland and its establish-
ment as a pacific power in culture, in learning, in all
the strong graces of life. If such a consummation
come about, Edinburgh, we may be sure, will be
the centre of its activity, and share largely in its
At the forty-ninth meeting held at the
Institute, on the 28th of April, the Rev.
Wm. Simms, M.A., presided. The Rev.
Wm. Gillies, Dr. Henderson, Dr. Cargill;
and the Secretary of the Institute were also
The Hon. Thomas Capper, B.A., read a
paper on "Cambridge," the fifth of a series
on Celebrated Cities," of which the fol-
lowing is an abstract:-
Cambridge, the lecturer said, was a word dat-
ing from the time of the Roman occupation, when
the place was known as Camboritum. The river
Cam was not known by that name before the days
of Milton. His suggestion was that the river took
its name from the town and not the town from the
river. Then, directing his hearers' attention to the
English Fen country on the borders of which Camn-
bridge is situated, the lecturer drew an analogy be-
tween the condition ot the Fens a thousand years
ago in Hereward the Wal.e time, and the swamps
round the mouth of the Rio Cobre and along various
-parts of the Black River in Jamaica. The English
Pens, he said, had been reclaimed and converted into
-the finest corn land in England. S)me day, and the
sooner the better, he hoped the Jamaica
swamps would be similarly treated to the equal ad-
vantage of the health and prosperity of the island.
'No one not living in the immediate neighbour-
hood thinks of Cambridge, went on the lecturer,
'as anything but the seat of one of 'the two
greatest Universities in the world The tradition-
al beginning or foundation of the University was
-doubtless apocryphal, but it was certain that in
1284 the Bishop of Ely founded the oldest of the
colleges, Peterhouse. Then-after dealing with the
colleges one by one, narrating their history from
'their foundation to the present day; calling to
memory the famous men who have passed through
them and left their mark upon the world; recount-'
ing legends and anecdotes connected with them,
dealing with the different buildings architecturally
.and romanticalliy-the lecturer went on, Now we
are in Trinity Street and are come to what is by
common assent,' admitted to be the first collegiate
foundation of' the' world, Trinity College, founded
by Henry VI'1. to the glory of God and
advantage of the realim. f6r'the promotion of
science; philosophy,' liberal arts anid' theology." It
has been the good fortune of the House to have
been represented at nearly all periods of its exis-
tence by men who have been impressed with the
full significance of these weighty word.' In con-
sequence, the history of Trinity College hAs been
to a great extent -the history df the University.
Within its walls have originated the majority of
those schemes for the promotion of a liberal edu-
cation which have enabled Cambridge to keep a
foremost place in science and literature: while
the College itself, by encouraging among its mem-
bers a variety of studies, and thoroughness to each
has been saved from those ignoble and borrowing
.controversies into which less wide-cultured bodies
are prone to fall, so to fritter away their lives and
waste their educational opportunities. Hence it
is that the College can rehearse so grand a roll of
names, names of men famous in theology, in
science, in literature, in public life; such as no
-other college in either University can put forward.
Trinity College was formed by the amalgation
of a large number of small colleges and b~ntelPl,
the principalof which and the nucleus ot th..:
new college may be considered to have b(en
King's Hall. founded by Edward III. The present
Great Gate was built by King's Hall before its ab-
sorbtion with the new college. In the reconstruc-
tion of the buildings it was found absolutely
necessary to pull down the original King's, Hall
gate of Edward Ill., but it was thought either
too beautiful or too historically interesting to be
wholly swept away, and was re-erected against
the west end of the chapel. Entering through'
the Great Gate we find ourselves in the Great
Court, the largest in either University, having an'
area of 90,180 square feet, or about 2 acres. The
greater part of this area is occupied by the per-
fectly level, smooth and green turf, irrisistibly
suggesting lawn tennis or croquet; but no sacrile-
gious foot, except,' perhaps, that of the master,,
or an occasional fellow, is ever allowed to touch it.
-On one occasion only is a vehicle admitted into
the Great Court, when Royalty conics to the Uni-
versity and takes up its quarters at the Master's
Lodge. In accordance with custom, a gate is then
opened which at'all'other times is kept rigorously
closed, and the unwoutetd sight is seen of a car-
riage traversing the Great Court to the door of the
Master's Lodge. The Mastership of Trinity has
been preferred to a Bishopric. As one of the incum-
bents said. 'There are many Bishops, but only
one Master of Trinity." and it is one of the most
coveted pieces of patronage belonging to the
Crown. The name of Bentley and Whewell will
show that it has pot been bestowed without re-
gard to the intellectual distinction of the reci-
pients. The few sets of rooms in the small space
between the Great Gate and the east of the chapel
have the distinction of having been tenanted by
Newton, Thackeray and Macaulay. The chapel
itself, though far smaller, and not be compared,
from an architectural point of view with that of
King's, is in the opinion of most a beautiful build-
ing, even as to its exterior; and the beauty of the.
interior no one can well dispute. The internal
decoration was carried qut by Bentley. The
design of the chapel is believed to be due to the
founder, Henry VIII.; the building was com-,
menced in the reign of Mary and completed by
Elizabeth. It contains in the ante-chapel the
beautiful and celebrated statue of Newton, called
by Chantrey' the noblest of our English statues.
Matters have, I believe, been much altered since
my day, but twenty years ago.the position of cook:
to Trinity College was the most lucrative in the'
University. He 'aws believed to make- 20,00 to
15,000 a year; and this is perfectly credible when
we consider that he supplied by contract 600
undergraduates with a very simple dinner of two
courses at 2s. Id. per head, half, at least, of which
must have been profit; this for 200 days in the
year would give give 6,000, and desides this he
supplied at his own rates dinners, luncheons,
breakfasts, etc., in the students' own rooms, the
cost of which may be gathered from the fact that
on a bill I found flying about the Great Court-the
cook's account for one week against one under-
graduate came to over 35.
The lecturer -dismissed the country surrounding
Cambridge with the short remark that it was full
of objects of interest and a paradise for cyclists;
within easy cycling, distance, being Newmarket,
Ely, Saffron Walden, 'St. Ives, Royston, Bury St:
Edmunds, Huntingdon and Peterborough. Of social
life, he-had said nothing, not even of the intel-
lectual work done in the Universities. He had
confined his remarks to the place itself and its
At the fiftieth meeting of the' Institute,'
held at the Collegiate Hall, Kingston, on
June 13th, the Hon. S. C. Burke, the
Chairman of the Board, presided. The
Hon. Wm. Fawcett, B.So., the Rev. Wm.
Simms, and the Secretary of the Institute
were also present. His Eicellency the
Governor and Lady Blake were among the
Professor MacDoigal M.A., M.S., Ph.D.,
of the University of Minnesota. read a paper
on '' ovemelt in P'lnts," of which the,fol-
lowing is an abstract :-
MOVEMENT IN PLANTS.
The power of movement is almost as widely dis-
tributee among plants as among animals, but great
differences are to be found between the motions
of animals and those of plants. These differences
are not incidental, but are correlated with the
fundamental facts of existence of members of
In general it may be said that the power of
locomotion is a characteristic of animals, and that
the movements of the organs of plants are much
more restricted in range and rapidity than those
of the animal. The movements of an animal may
be too swift to be followed by the eye, the move-
ments of the plants are usually so slow as to be
detected only by repeated observation.
The movements of plants, so far as is known,
are for the purpose of securing food-material,
avoiding danger or injury. and facilitating repro-
The curvature of roots in the soil, and the bend-
ing of shoots towards light, are for the purpose of
facilitating the acquisition of food-material from
the soil and air.
The movements of the leaflets of such plants as
the Logwood and other leguminous plants in
strong sunlight and at night are for the purpose of
preventing injury from a too-intense light, from-
over. heating, and from rapid radiation.
The movements of tendrils have for their ulti-
mate pifrpose'the uplifting of the leaves of climb-
ing plants to the sunlight, and the better acquisi-
tion of food from the air. The movements of the
stamens and other parts of the flower of many
plants aid in pollination.
The ordinary Shame-weed (Mimosa) exhibits
movements in response to changes in temperature,
shock or jar, incision or burn, electric current;.
and may be "put to sleep" by ether or chloro-
form. The purpose of most of these movements
is unknown to us.
The Telegraph Plant (Desmodiui gyrans)
also exhibits a continuous movement of the two
small lateral leaflets of its trifoliate leaf, the use
of which is wholly unknown.
An examination of the mechanism of the move-
ment shows that external forces constituting
stimuli act upon certain portions of the plant,
such as the leaf-blade, that the impression re-
ceived is transmitted to a mass of motor tissue
which may be some distance away, in the leaf;
this mass of tissue which is ii.. rn.ul Trl rr i.111 1-
pus lies at the base of the p1.t;-l., nril the c-..-
traction of the motor tissue sets up the move-
The mechanism of movement in plants shows
only a general analogy to that of animals, and the-
more developed a plant becomes the more widely
does its mechanism,differ from that of the animal
both in structure and method of action.
COMPETITIONS IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ARTS AND CRAFTS.
The Competitions, which it was decided to
hold. under the management of the Board of
Governors of the Institute of Jamaica, in
Literature, Science, Arts and Crafts, some-
what on the lines of the well-known Welsh
Eisteddfodau, took place in June, 1897. The
Distribution of Prizes was made at the Insti-
tute on July 1st.
In the absence of the Chairman of the Board,
the Rev. W. Simms occupied the chair. On
his right hand sat Lady Blake. On his left
hand the Governor's Aide-de-Camp. The Hon.
Thomas Capper, and Mr. Cundall, the Secretary
of the Institute, we e on the platform.
After the Secretary had read the report, the
Chairman, before asking Lady Blake to make
the presentations, said he would take the op-
portunity to say how thankful the Governors of
the Institute and all others engaged in the
work were to her for her kindness in com-
ing there that day, and furthermore for all she
had done in helping on the interest of-art and
science and thereby advancing civilization in
The prizes were then distributed in accord-
ance with the list appended.
Mr. Capper said that all who had hadanything-
to do with the competitions must feel that they
had been a great and distinct success. The inte-
rest that had been taken was evidenced by the
splendid attendance there that afternoon, and if
they wanted another proof of the success of the.
undertaking, it was furnished by the concert of
the night before, concerning which lie believed,
many people were surprised to find that it was
possible to get up such an excellent entertain-
ment from the amateur talent of Kingston.
They must remember that the present competi-
tions were the first of the kind'that had been'
held. It would not have been surprising if they
had been a comparative failure. He did not think
there was the slightest doubt.that they. had done
a great deal of good, and they would have many
more that would lead to -tnll yet in..!r success-
COMPETITIONS IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ARTS AND COAFT87 375-
ful results. He would add to what Mr. Simms
had said with reference to Lady Blake's kind-
ness, that her action was only the last of the
many evidences she had given of her warm
interest and desire to advance the moral, social
-and intellectual progress of Jamaica.
The Rev. H. H. Kilburn pointed out that
the present function was the last in connection
with the Diamond Jubilee celebrations. All
those who had had anything to do with-the
-celebrations in Kingston would agree with him
that the present was not the least pleasing
feature in connection with them. He thought
the competitions committee could congratulate
itself upon putting something before the
people of Jamaica which was calculated to do
them good in every way-to enlighten them and
promote their intellectual character. He agreed
with Mr. Capper that for a first attempt the
present was exceedingly good. It might have
been much better; of course, but he hoped if
they were spared that next year's competitions
would be better. There was a great deal of
latent talent among the people of the island
which required to be brought out. It was
being brought out by such competitions as the
present, and they must endeavour to increase
these competitions to a far larger extent. He
-could speak personally as one of the judges in
the musical competitions, anid he thought it
was a very great credit to the colony that the
nine young ladies at the pianoforte competition
last Tuesday afternoon, who played a very
difficult sonata, acquitted themselves on the
whole in a very remarkable manner. He was
-a little disappointed in some branches of the
vocal competition, but he thought people
scarcely understood the meaning of the move-
ment which had resulted in the gathering there
that afternoon. Next year the people would be
in a better position, and they would have a
great many more competitors in every depart-
ment. He regarded it as a very pleasing fea-
ture in connection with the Jubilee. He con-
-eluded by thanking Lady Blake for her pre-
sence, and assured her that the island of Ja-
maica would long remember what she had done
to promote science and art. He did not
know that Jamaica had ever had a Governor's
wife who liad been i;ersonally so much inter-
.ested in the advance of these things in the
island as Lady Blake.
The Rev. S. Negus said he could not address
the audience as an artist or as a poet, but he
-could do so as one who had always been inter-
ested in the educational efforts made in the
island. He thought it was a sign of the times
that competitors should be drawn from all
classes of the community and united on a com-
mon object. He had come to the meeting to
bring to Mr. Cundall's notice a youth who was a
.successful competitor in the art section, as he
hoped that he might thereby be encouraged to
.continue in his endeavours to turn his talent to
account. He looked round about him on the
pictures and lie thought it was a very pleasing
reflection that these pictures and photographs
had been produced in Jamaica as tile result of
the first competition of the kind ever held in
Jamaica. Jamaica had profited by the experi-
ence of older countries, and so long as they had
so great interest manifested in tneir competi-
tions, and a Governor's wife like Lady Blake,
who would take such interest and snow the
people that their efforts aould be appreciated
and rewarded, he was quite sure that the people
of Jamaica although they were often very much
belittled, would be respected and would so at
last learn to respect themselves.
The Chairman, in conveying the thanks of
the meeting to Lady Blake, said that it was the
first competition. He hoped that it would not be
the last. They would learn by what they had
done and by what they had left undone, and it
would be better next time. Turning to Lady
Blake, he said he was quite sure that she needed
no words to express the thanks of the whole of
the audience to her for coming there and for
helping them to put a very good coping stone to
the proceedings of the Jubilee. In the name of
the Governors of the Institute, of the Com-
mittee, of the Competitors, and of the present
audience he begged her to accept their thanks.
The meeting then rose and inspected the ob-
jects on view in the room, which had been
specially prepared for the function. On the
walls were displayed the paintings and works
of the competitors in addition to a number of
pictures lent for the occasion.
Towards the close of the proceedingsHis Ex-
cellency the Governor arrived.
The report of the Organizing Committee was
as follows :-
"During last year the Board of theInstitute-
acting on a suggestion made by Messrs. Winkler
& Co. that it should assume the responsibility
of holding a musical competition similar to that
which they themselves had held in 1895-decided
to organize competitions in literature, science,
arts and crafts, somewhat on the lines of the well-
known Welsh Eisteddfod and covering all the
branches of the Institute, and fulfilling some of
the duties laid on it by law 22 of 1879 of provi-
ding for the holding from time to time of exhibi-
tions illustrative of the industries of Jamaica.
The task of organizing these competitions was
remitted by the Board to a committee of its
members: and, in order to render the scope of
the competitions and the interest in the objects
as wide as possible, the members of the com-
mittee, with the sanction of the Board, asso-
ciated with themselves certain ladies and gentle-'
men, who were willing to assist in carrying out
the work. They also invoked the aid of ladies.
and gentlemen as corresponding members of the
committee to make the object of the competi-
tions known in the various parishes of the
376 COMPETI'TONS IN LITE'RATUIIE, SCIENCE. ARTS AND CRAFTS.
The Board wasuniable to place at the disposal
of the committee 'more than a very limited
amount of mondy, part of whiclihas been ex-
pended on organizing expenses. The committee
was therefore uider the necessity of appealing
for contributions towards the Prize Fund ; and
the number and amounts of the prizes offered
were regulated, t6 sole extent, by the response
to it's appeal.
SThe following is an analysis of the number of
competitors and exhibitors in the various com-
ietitions, making in all a total of 201 entries in
52 classes, a result which, so far as numbers
is concerned, is satisfactory.
It is also satisfactory to note that of the com-
petitors who put down their names, all but eight
faced the juries.
45 competitors in 5 classes.
9 competitors in 3 classes.
27 competitors in 7 classes.
28 competitors in 10 classes.
9 competitors in 1 class.
66 competitors in 20 classes.
17 competitors in 6 classes:
201 competitors in 52 classes.
The several juries were informed that they
might recommend a reduction or increase in any
prize if they thought it necessary ; that in spe-
cial cases second prizes might be.reconmmended ;
that prizes should be withheld if the objects
submitted were not worthy ; and that no medal
should be awarded except in the cases of special
Surprise has been expressed by some at the
decision of the Organizing Committee to hold
the musical competitions *in the presence of the
jury and the members of the committee only,
and it has been pointed out that this is not the
plan adopted at the Eisteddfod iii Wales. Now
the committee has nowhere stated that it in-
tended to hold an Eisteddfod. It merely stated
its intention to hold competitions somewhat on
the lines of an Eisteddfod-clearly- implying
that divergencies would be made where they
were thought necessary,
Those who compete at Welsh Eisteddfoddu
are, as a rule, used to performing in public.
Many of those who have competed here are r.t.
It was felt therefore that it would be fairer to
them to have an ordeal less trying in character
than a performance before---say an audience in
the Kingston theatre ; and one more likely to
secure a just verdict. The choirs might of course
have been expected to compete in public but it
was felt best that all the musical competitions
should be on the same plan. If.these competi-
tions are repeated it may of course ihe possible-
that they may become a veritable Eisteddfod
with its concomitant publicity. It is certain-
however wrapt in mystery as is the origin of
the Eisteddfod dating back long before the time
when Maelgwyn Gwynedd, Prince- of North
Wales in the sixth century played, as we say in
the nineteenth, a low trick" on the mfinstiels
in order to prove the superiority of the bards-
that there must have been a time when Welsh
competitors met in private. Eisteddfodau, like'
other institutions, were never produced fully de-
In making its selection of pieces for compe-
tition, the Music committee kept in view the
desire of the Institute that the musical tastes of
the people should be educated.. While it would
have been unwise to choose, all the pieces as,
difficult as those usually selected for high class
competitions abroad, the committee considered:
that it would have been more unwise and even
useless to choose inferior music; although by
making such a selection a larger number of com-
petitors would no doubt have been secured.
In the Fine Arts the competitors are by no-
means as numerous as might have been expected.
In order to supplement the work of the compe-
titors a small loan collection of paintings and
drawings has been added. If, for example, the-
painters of landscapes in water colours would
study the two works by Collingwood Smith,
they would learn much that would be of value-
The first five objects of competition, the pro-
duction of drawings and paintings in a given
time, aie b-ised. on the plan of the examinations-
in art held by the Department of Science and
Art, of South Kensington.
It is to be regretted that the pictures of all
kinds have to be shown in a room lighted from
all parts except the part from which the light
should come, the top.
In Architecture, the number of competitors-
(nine) is encouraging. In offering a prize,
the highest in thle whole of the competitions,
for a design for a peasant cottage to be con-
structed at a cost within the ability of a man of
limited means-the committee was actuated as
much by a desire to improve the moral and
physical welfare of the peasantry, as by a wish
to raise the standard of architecture in the-
.island. Although the hope of the committee
that the leading architects in the island would
compete for the honour of their profession has
not been realized, the competition has by no-
means proved fruitless.
In Photography, a larger number of competi-
tors might have been expected. In both the
amateur and professional classes, well-known
names re conspicuous by their absence.
In Book-binding and printing both arta which
-t'ni:l greatly in need of improvement in Ja-
m i: ,, there is but one exhibitor in each class.
COMPETITIONS IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ARTS AND CRAFTS. 377
The Crafts section is perhaps the least satis-
factory of any in the competitions, when it is
considered that prizes are offered for objects of
daily manufacture. In carpentry, there is no
entry, in blacksmith's work but one, and in
rustic chairs none.
In the Industrial Arts, the objects sent for
competition are fairly numerous, although there
is no exhibition of carved tortoise-shell which
industry might be developed in the island with
In the Educational section, the entries are
on the whole poor. It is to be regretted that
the only agricultural map sent in arrived too
late for competition.
The Committee would have been glad if it
could have presented a more eulogistic report,
but it feels that it is but doing its duty in giving
expression to the opinion of the several juries
who were asked their views on the objects sub-
mitted to them.
For a first attempt it is not discouraging, and
it will, the committee hopes, lead to increased
interest in literature, science and art.
In conclusion, the thanks of the Board are due
to those ladies and gentlemen who have kindly
served on the organizing committee and the
thanks of the committee are due and are hereby
tendered to the corresponding members who
made the objects of the competitions known in
their several parishes ; to the contributors to the
prize fund without whose aid the competitions
could not have been held, to the members of
the juries who have conscientiously performed
what is at the best a thankless task-especially
those who at the eleventh hour took up labours
forsaken by others, to Miss Myers for kindly
superintending the arrangements in connection
with the concert, and lastly to those who by
coming forward as competitors have rewarded
the efforts of the conunittee to do something
for the promotion of Literature, Science and
Art in the island."
MEMBERS OF T ilEa BOARD.
Rev. W. Gillies. Chairnmin of the Committee;
W. Ii. Strachba, L.R.C.P., lFie. Chlairmani of the
(C6mmitftee; lion. S C. Barke. F.R.G.S., Chairman
of the Board; lion. C. B. Mosse, C.B., C. M. G.
Hon. W. Vawcett, B Sc.; J. W. Plaxton, M.R.C.S. ;
Rev. Wm Simms, M.A.; J. Allwood.
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS :
M rs. Capper; M rs. >:undall; Miss A. C. Johnson
Mrs. II. J. Lewis, Miss Clara Myers. lion. T. Capper
B.A.; Astley G. Clerk; Rev. H. II. Kilburn; WV;
Morrison, M.A.; Louis Winkler.
(1.) LITERATURE JURY.
(To take Nos. I to 5.)
Hon. Thomas Capper, B.A.; Rev. G.H. Baron Hay:
His Honour Mr. Justice Northcote, LL.B.
(2.) SCIENCE JURY.
(To take Nos. 6 to S.)
Hon. W. Fawcett, B.Sc. ; J. W. Plaxton. M.R.C.S.;
II. Vendryes ; J. E. Duerden, A.R.C.Sc., Referee.
(3.) VOCAL MUSIC JURY.
(To take Nos. 9 to I1.)
Mrs. J. C. Ford; Mrs. Hallowes; Mrs. Lewis;
G..V. Lockett, F.R.C.S.i. E. M. Romney; C. A. H.
(4:) INSTRUMENTAL MuSIC JURY.
(To take N'ds. 12 to 15.)
Mrs. Castle; Miss Hallowes; Mrs. Lewis; Mrs.
Milholland; George Wortley; Mrs. Wynne.
.(5.) FINE ARTS JURY.
(To take Nos. 16 to 25 and No. 31.)
Lady Clarke; Frank Cundall; Mrs. Condall; Mrs,
(6.) ARCHITECTURE JURY.
(To take No. 26.)
Hon. V. G. Bell, M. INST. C.E.; G. C. Henderson,
M.D. ; N. A. Sinclair, C.E.
(7.) PHOTOGRAPHY JURY.
(To take Nos. 27 and 28.)
J. R. Chenet; G. C. Henderson, M.D.; R. J.
(8.) BOOKBINDING AND PRINTING JURY.
(To take Nos. 28a and 28b.)
Frank Cundall; E. Nuttall, B.A., LL.M.
(9.) CRAFTS JURY.
(To take Nos. 29, 30, 32, 33 and 43.)
Alexander Berry ; F. B. Lyons.
(10.) INDUSTRIAL ARTS JURY.
(To take Nos. 84 to 42 and 44.)
Miss F. Burke; Mrs. Capper; Mrs. Cundall; His
Honour Mr. Justice Lumb, LL.D.
(11.) EDUCATION JURY.
(To take Nos, 45 to 50.)
J. deCordova; George Hicks: U. M. Martin, B.A.;
J. R. Williams, M.A.
LIST OF PRIZE WINNERS.*
1. Poem on Jamaica. Herbert T. Thomas. 1 s.
2. Poem on Queen Victoria's Reign. Alfred
Cork. 1 is.
3. Narrative of some episode in Jamaica His-
tory. Robert Johnstone. 2 2s.
4. A short Drama on any Jamaica subject.
1st prize, "Tom Redcam 1 Is.; 2nd
prize, A. MacGregor James. 10s. 6d.
5. Essay on Jamaica during the Queen's reign.
(not to exceed 40 pages of 251. words each,
10,000 words in all). 1st prize, "Tom Red-
cam," 2 2s ; 2nd prize, Miss Mabel Cook,
6. Collection of Specimens in any particular
group of Jamaica Natural History-
(a) Zoology. Mrs. Swainson. 1 Is.;
(b) Botany. No award ;
(c) Geology. No competition;
(d) Anthropology. R. C. MacCormack, 2 2s.
7. Classified List (month by month) of Jamaica
flowers with their habitats. No competition.
*Objects for competition were sent in under noms-
de-guerre. Except in the personal examinations, the
competitors were unknown to the Jurors.
The prizes, with a few exceptions, took the form of
medals and objects suitable to the subjects of the
competitions ; in the literary and educational sec-
tions,'books; in the scientific s-ction, scientific in-
struments; in the art section, musical instruments.
and books and objects of art-each to the value indi-
cated in the prize list. The medals awarded were the
Musgrave Medal (Bronze) which was then awarded
for the first time.
*78 COMPETITIONS IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ARTS AND CRAFTS:
LIST OF PRIZE WINNERS, continued.
8. Paper on any Research.or Observation in Ja-
maica Zoology, Botany, Geology or Anthro-
pology, not to exceed 10,000 words. E.
Stuart Panton. 5 5s.
111. AaTS-(a) MuSIw.
9. Rendering of the following part-songs by
choir, not less than twelve or more than
eighteen in number :
for (a) mixed voices, S.A.T.B.--" See the
chariot athand." Wm. Horsley, "You
stole my love"-Walter Macfarren.-
for (b) female voices--" O wert thou in
the cauld blast." "Autumn Song"-
Mendelssohn. Miss Myers' Choir. 7.
for (c) Church choirs only. Rendering
of the two following hymns, from
"Hymns Ancient and Modern :"-
Hymn 223. (second tune) Hark hark !
Hymn 413. '"0, Son of God, our Cap-
tain of Salvation."
Choir of Ebenezer Chapel. 3 13s. 6d.
10. Rendering of a song at sight:-
(a) Tonic Solfa. No award.
(b) Staff Notation. Miss Edith Feurtado.
11. Rendering of the following songs :-
for (a) Soprano or mezzosoprono voices,
"Let me dream again."-Sullivan.
Thou'rt like unto a flower"-Ruben-
stein. Miss Freda Berry, 1 Is.
for (b) Contralto voices. For a dream's
sake." Snow flakes."-Cowen.
Miss Edith Feurtado, 1 ls.
for (c) Tenor voices.-" I'll sing thee
songs of Araby."-Frederic Clay.
Good night. beloved."-Balfe.
Herbert T. Thomas, 1 Is,
for (d) Bass or baritone voices. Recit.
I feel the Deity within." Arm,
arm ye brave." Judas Maccabeus,
Handel. No award.
12. Performance of the following piano-forte
piece-Solo. Sonate pathetique."-
1st. Miss May Wortley, 1 Is.
d (Miss Carmen Tamayo, 10s. 6d.
\d Miss M. O. Lofthouse, 10s. 6d.
13. Performance of the following piece-Duet.
Mendelssohn's Overtureto Midsummer
Night's Dream." No competition.
14. Performance on violin of the following
Rose softly blooming."-Spohr.
Mr. A. Portuando, 2 10s.
15. Performance on an American Organ or har-
monium of the following pieces : -
Bridal chorus, from Lohengrin, Wagner
(American Organ .Journal I. 60). No
16. Drawing from light and shade, (3 hours)
Z. T. Atkinson. 10s.
17. Freehand drawing, (21 hours). Z. I.
18. Still-life-water colour, (4 hours). N
19. Still-life-oil, (6 hours). Mrs. Hendrick.
20. Drawing from the antique, (4 hours). E. A.
Paget, 1 is.
21. Flower-piece in oils from nature. Mrs.
W. D. Hill. 1 Is.
22. Flower-piece in water-colours, from nature.
Mrs. W. D. Hill, 1 Is.
23. Landscape in oils, from nature. Mrs
Lionel Lee. 2 2s.
24. Landscape in water-colour, from nature.
Miss C. L. Scotland. 1 Is.
25. Figure subjects in oils, from nature. Mrs.
Lionel Lee. 1 lls. 6d.
26. Design for a peasant cottage (cost to be
between 90 and 110,) with complete
working drawings, specification and esti-
mate : to be designed with special reference
to (i) Economy ; (ii) Suitability to tropical
life ; (iii) Sanitation. C. R. W. Chandler.
10 10s. and Bronze Medal.
27. Photographs by amateurs:-
(~) Collection of landscapes (not exceed-
ing six). T. Alan Hendrick 1 Is.;
2nd. F. B. Sturridge, 10s. 6d.
(b) Figures (not exceeding six.) T. Alan
Hendrick, 1 Is.
(c) Building (not exceeding six). F. B.
Sturridge, 1 Is.
28. Collection of photographs by professionals
(not exceeding twelve). Hon. and Rev.
Dr. Johnston. Bronze Medal.
28a Book-binding. R. Ilgner, 10s. Od.
28b Typography (a book of not less than 16
pages). Reeves and Lopez. 1 Is.
29. Piece of cabinet-work :-Small table or
cabinet for specimens. Boys' Reformatory,
Stony Hill. 2 2s.
30. Specimens of useful pottery (not more than
six). W. Wade Aiken. 1 Is.
31. Specimen of artistic pottery (not more than
six). W. Wade Aiken. 1 ls.
32. Specimen of Carpentry : Sash-window and
frame, not entirely rectangular : or door and
doorway. No competition.
33. Specimen of blacksmiths' work :-wrought
iron gate, not exceeding 4 feet high.
George Serrant, 2 2s.
COMPETITIONS IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ARTS AND CRAFTS. 379
LIST OF PRIZE WINNERS, continued.
34. Specimen of art needlework. Mrs. Heath,
1 Is. ; 2nd prize, Miss de Roux, 10s. 6d. ;
Honourable mention : Miss B. Osmond,
Mrs. Robert Craig, Mrs. H. Nethercott.
35. Specimen of plain needlework :
(a) A flannel sampler. No award.
(b) A calico sampler. Miss E. L. Locke,
10s. id. Miss LeRay, 10s. id.
36. Specimen of carved tortoiseshell. No comn-
36a Specimen of painted bamboo. Frank
37. Specimen work in ferns, &c., Miss I. C.
Brandon, 1 Is. ; Special prize : Miss
K. D. Doorly, 15s. ; Honourable mention :
Miss E. M. Rowe and Mrs. F.G.M. Lynch.
38. Specimen ofcarved coconut. Frank Sommer.
39. Specimen of shell-work. Miss A.M. Thomp-
40. Specimen of wood-carving. Miss J. G.
Ogilvie. 1 s. Honourable Mention : Miss
41. Specimen of filigree work. No competition.
42. Specimen of plaiting (hats). Miss Marian
437 Specinien of'rustic chairs (rush seats). No
44. Specimen of basket work. Miss Ethel HilL
45. Specimen of Clay modelling (Kindergarten).
46 Table of leading events in Jamaica history
(for school use). Edward Pinnock. 1 Is.[;
2nd, "Tom Redcam," 10s. 6d.
47. Agricultural Map of Jamaica (indicating
altitudes, rainfall, roads, rivers and crops).
48. Shorthand writing. W. Bourke, jnr. 10s. 6d.
49. Recitation-Wordsworth's "' Character of
the Happy Warrior." Cyril C. Henriques.
50. Rhetoric-impromptu on given subject--
(limited to 10 minutes). R. William
Thompson. 1 Is.
NELSON IN '. .HE WEST INDIES.
By ROBER~ JOHNSTONE, F.R.Met.S.
ELSON'S connection with the
West Indies began early and
ended late. In his first voy-
age but one, he sailed in a
merchant-ship to the West
Indies, and in his last voy-
age across the ocean in com-
mand of His Majesty's Fleet he sailed again
into the blue waters of the Caribbean in
.chase of that enemy over whom he was to gain
so immortal a victory at Trafalgar. Between
these dates he served periods of three years
-each on the Jamaica and Leeward Islands
stations respectively, in addition to another
service, at his express desire, of some
months on the former station.
On the Jamaica station he served the
whole term of his lieutenancy and his first'
period of independent command, first as
Commander and then as Post-Captain; in
Jamaica he formed warm friendships which
lasted till death, Collingwood, Admiral
Parker and Captain Locker-to whom may
fairly be added Prince William-being the
chief of his naval friends and Hercules Ross*
of Kingston, the chief of his civilian ones.
After this Jamaica is the place I wish to
go to" he said, as a Captain, and again it is
the Jamaica station we find him subse-
.quently expressing his wish to get the com-
mand of-" was I an admiral"; for three
years we find him in the Leeward Islands
where he married; and on his last and most
celebrated chase of the enemy's fleet, which
saved for the second time the British West
Indies from capture, we find him express-
ing his especial care for the safety of
Jamaica, not only in a letter to an old friend,
Simon Taylor,t then in the Island, but also
in many other letters.
Hercules Ross a merchant at Kingston, Ja-
maica, who is frequently mentioned in subsequent
letters from Nelson. (See Part III. of this article).
t Colonel Simon Taylor was member of the Assem-
bly for Kingston and for St. Thomas in the East.
He died in 1813, aged 73. (See Part III. of this
After a brief summary of Nelson's ser-
vices from 1770-1777, the years 1777-1783,
which embrace his first Jamaica service:
(including the San Juan Expedition) during
the years 1777-1780,. and, his subsequent
reappearance on the Jamaica station in
1782-8:,1 will be dealt with t
After beingatseain 1770 in theRoyal Navy.
for five months and one day inthe laiso able,
61 guns, as a midshipman of twelve years'
of age under his uncle Captain Maurice
Suckling, Nelson, 'the business with SSpain
[in connection with the Falkland Ihlands]
being accommodated,' made a voyage to the
West Indies in the merchant service in June,
1771. No particular details of his life on
this voyage or of the ports which he visited
seem to have been preserved. All we know
is that the ship in which he sailed belonged
to the West India house of Hibbert, Purrier
and Horton; that in her he served under
Mr. John Rathbone who had formerly been
in the Navy with his uncle Suckling in the
Dreadnought; and that the voyage lasted
about a year, Nelson returning, he says, a
"practical seaman with a horror of the
Royal Navy and with a saying then con-
tThe works consulted by the writer have been
numerous, but the chief authority for all the facts
about Nelson is Nicolas's "Despatches and Letters" of
Nelson in seven large volumes which, as Professor
Laughton says, is the only work treating of Nelson's
professional career which is to be implicitly relied
on. The well known "Life" by Southey has literary
charm but also many inaccuracies and embellish-
ments, which it is to be regretted are still being per-
petuated in a recent reproduction of that work. It
is chiefly founded on Clarke and M'Arthur's Life'
which itself, as Nicolas points out, contains many in-
accuracies and imperfections.
Captain Maurice Suckling went to sea young,
under the patronage of Sir Robert Walpole his great
uncle, was made post-captain in December 1755. was
on the Jamaica station several years and signalized
himself in an action off Cape Frangois on October
21st 1757. He was appointed Comptroller of the
Navy some years before his death, which occurred
on July 17th 1778 at the age of 52. (Family Register
by Revd. Edmund Nelson.)' It would appear that
Nelson was,-through the Sucklings, descended from
King Edward III.
NELSON IN TEE WEST INDIES.
stant with the seamen, Aft the most honour,
forward the better man.' "I|
He then, July 1772, rejoined that Service,
of which he was afterwards the most illus-
trious ornament, first as Captain's servant'
(answering somewhat to the naval cadet of
the present day) and then as midshipman
of the gunrdship Triumph at Chatham. In
connection with this practice of entering
embryo naval officers as captain's servants,
we may note that four servants in every
hundred men of the complement were al-
lowed to the captain of every ship in addi-
tion to others allowed to certain of the
officers, but no servants are allowed to
any officer of the ship's books who is
under thirteen years of age, unless he be
the son of the officer and he not to be under
eleven." $ While in the Triumph, by using
his best endeavours and engaging to do
man's work, Nelson was rated as midship-
man of the Carcass, in order to go on an
expedition toward the North Pole. After
this he rejoined the Triumph, and, again
at his own request, in order to "satisfy my
desire for maritime knowledge," he went in
the Seahorse, 20 guns, to the East Indies.
Falling ill there, he was sent back to Eng-
land in the Dolphin, 20 guns, arriving on
the 24th September, 1776. On the 26th he
received an order to act as lieutenant of the
Worcester, 64, in which ship he was at sea
with convoys till April 2nd, 1777, and al-
though they were often in very bad weather
and he was then so young, his captain,
Robinson, complimented him by saying he
felt as easy when Nelson was on deck as any
officer in the ship.
On the 9th of April, 1777, Nelson passed
his examination as lieutenantand received his
commission the next day for the fine frigate
Lowestoffe, 32 guns, Captain William
Locker. In writing to his brother Mr.
11 Since the above was written there has appeared
in print in the Genealogical Magazine a copy of
the Family Register written by Nelson's father in
1781 but brought up to 1789. In it Nelson's father
says that Eoratio in his voyage to the West Indies,
which lasted from July 1771 to July 1772 "sailed in
a trading ship to Jamaica and other islands." It is
to be noted however that in several other details
given in this Register concerning Horatio, his father
is in error.
T The Ship Masters Assistant and Owners' Manual,
*Thronghout this article the above spelling has
been adopted. Laughton spells it Lowestoft, which
of course is the spelling of the town of that name in
Suffolk, but Nelson in his letters, from and to the
ship, invariably spells it Lowestoffe,
William Nelson-then a student at Christ
College, Cambridge, who afterwards took
Holy Orders and succeeded Horatio as second
Baron Nelson of the Nile, and, as a posthu-
mous honour to the hero, was created Earl
Nelson-he refers to the event by saying
that he has passed his Degree as Master of
Arts and states that he is now left on the
world to shift for himself "which I hope I
shall do, so as to bring credit to myself and
Captain Locker, afterwards Commodore
Locker and Lieutenant-Governor of Green-
wich Hospital, was one of Nelson's dearest
friends from this period until the death of
the former in December, 1800. Locker, who
as a lieutenant in 1757 distinguished him-
self in the capture of the Tle'lmaque, gained
his experience under Hawke, the first of the
naval giants of the latter half of last cen-
tury. Hawke, who for nearly four years
from October 1739 watched over Barbadoes
and the adjacent islands, gained at Quiberon
Bay on the 20th November, 1759, "the
greatest sea victory since the Spanish Ar-
mada." Locker was then one of his lieuten-
ants and profited by his advice to "Get
as close to them [the enemy] as possible"
(the practice of which was fittingly likened
to the 'swoop of a hawk') and it was Locker
who, as Nelson himself wrote years after-
wards, taught Nelson to lay a Frenchman
close and you will beat him.' Thus we see
how Hawke's teaching helped at second hand
to produce fruit in the transcendent genius
of Nelson, which falsified the remark of
Walpole (Nelson's own relation) on Hawke's
death in 1781, that he "does not seem to
have bequeathed his mantle to anybody."
(It was after this, in 1782, that Rodney
began that series of British naval victo-
ries which ended in 1805 with Trafalgar.)
Captain Locker married on the 20th Octo-
ber, 1770, Lucy, only daughter and heiress
of Admiral William Parry, who was ap-
pointed Commander in Chief at Jamaica
and in the Windward Islands in 1776, in
which latter place he remained three years.
With this daughter, Locker obtained an es-
tate in Dominica afterwards referred to.
From the time of his stay in Jamaica, Nelson
kept up a regular correspondence with his
old commander, in which reference is often
made to their common friends or to events
As second lieutenant of the Lowestofe,
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
under Captain Locker, Nelson went to the fers to a friendship of over twenty-seven
West Indies, sailing from England in May, years standing.
1777, anchoring at Barbados on the 4th Soon after their arrival, the Lowestoffe set
July, sailing from thence on the 7th, and out on a cruise from Port Royal, accompa-
arriving at Port Royal, Jamaica,, on the 19th nied by a tender named the Gayton (after
July, 1777. During Captain Locker's tern- the Admiral) and on the 26th August, took
porary absence from the Lowestoffe on ac- an American sloop laden with rice, return-
count of ill health, when he must have been ing to Port Royal on the 1st October to re-
ashore in Jamaica, Nelson wrote him from fit. Thence they again sailed on the 6th
on board ship the first of the fourteen letters November on a second cruise and on the
written by him on the Jamaica Station in 20th between Cape Maizi and Cape Nicola
this period, of which we now have any they took an American letter of marque, of
record. (Of Nelson's letters earlier than which Nelson himself speaks in the follow-
these, there is only one on record, viz., that ing tel ms, in his Sketch of my Life," writ-
to his brother mentioned above.) The letter ten on the 15th October, 1799. Whilst
to Locker runs as follows: in this frigate, an event happened which
presaged my character; and as it conveys
To Captain William Locker. no dishonour to the officer alluded to, I shall
[Autograph in the Locker Papers.] relate it. Blowing a gale of wind and
Lowestofe, at Sea, August 12th, 177. very heavy sea, the frigate captured an
My most worthy Friend, American letter of marque. The first lieu-
tenant was ordered to board .her, which
I am exceedingly obliged to you for the good he did not do owin to the very high
opinion you entertain of me, and will do my ii a the a i
utmost that you may have no occasion to change sea. On his return on board, the captain
it. I hope God Almighty will be pleased to spare said, lave I no officer in the ship wno can
your life, for your own sake ,and that of your board the prize?' On which the master
family: but should anything happen to you (which ran to the gangway to get into the boat;
I sincerely pray God, may not,) you may be assured
that nothing shall be wanting on my part for the when I stopped him, saying, It is my turn
taking care of your effects, and delivering safe to now ; and if I come back it is yours.' This
Mrs. Locker such of them as may be thought little incident has often occurred to my
proper not to be disposed of. You mentioned the mind and it is my disposition that difficul-
word consolation,' in your letter-I shall have a
very great one, when I think I have served faith- ties do but increase my desire of attempting
fully the best of friends, and the most amiable of them." Clarke and M'ArtLur add that the
women. American, who had carried a heavy press
All the services I can render to your family, you of sail in the hope of escaping, was so com-
may be assured shall be done, and shall never end pletly water ged that t Lowestofe's
but with my life; and may God Almighty of his pletly ater-logged that the Lowestoffe's
great goodness, keep, bless, and preserve you, and boat went in on deck and out again with
your family, is the most fervent prayer them, that Nelson's memory was slightly at
Of your faithful servant, fault in one particular in the above account.
HORATIO NELSON. in that the first lieutenant had not tried
P.S.-Though this letter is not couched in the without success to board but was below
best manner be assured it comes from one entirely ptting on his hanger and that this was the
devoted to your service.-H. N.
delay which gave Nelson his chance, also
In this first letter to Locker it is inter- that Nclson was so long separated from the
testing to note that, although then only Lowestof'e by the gale that fears for his
second lieutenant it was apparently to Nel- safety caused Locker some uneasiness. There
son that Captain Locker looked to take is a painting of this scene by Richard
charge of his effects, should his illness end Westall, R A., in the Painted Hall of the
fatally. It may be partly accounted for Royal Naval College at Greenaich. It
perhaps by the fact that his acquaintance represents Nelson in the act of getting
with Nelson had begun earlier than this, into the boat at the gangway. A repro-
voyage, as Nelson in February, 1799, in a duction of a sketch from this picture accom-
letter to him after the battle of the Nile, re- panics this article.
IJELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
It is of course to a certain extent what
may be called a fancy picture inasmuch as
it was painted some years later than the
event it depicts and no doubt Nelson did
not in any way sit for the portrait : at any
rate we have not been able to find any
record of or allusion to his so doing. But
it is of course interesting as showing that
after he had become famous this episode
was thought worthy of being portrayed by
an artist of the position of Westall, and it is
the more interesting to us in the West Indies
as being, so far as the author is aware, the
only event in Nelson's life in the West
Indies, (which as we shall see extended in
HOIATIO NELSON, LIEUTENANT, VOLUNTEERING TO BOARD A
PRIZE IN A VIOLENT GALE, NOVEMBER 20, 1777.
Front thepainting by Richard Westall in Grcenwich Hoospital.
all over more considerable period) which
was thought worthy of being painted during
the stirring times of the naval wars of the
end of last century. Being a scene of the time
of his life in question, it naturally shows both
of his arms; but this does not take away from
the interest attaching to the portrait subse-
quently alluded to for which Nelson actually
sat to another Royal Academician.
tWestall was born in 1765,
In it too is to be noticed, what seems cu-
rious to our eyes in the present day, the
fact that the blue-jackets were dressed in
no particular uniform, none in fact being
prescribed for the seamen of the Royal Navy
in those days. This is not so noticeable in
pictures of ship actions which often show
the men as stripped to the waist. In such
costume or demi-costume there appears of
course more uniformity.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
Somelittletimebeforethis much credit had
been gained on the station by a Mr. Jordan,
an acting lieutenant whom the admiral had
appointed to the Racehorse schooner of
10 guns, for his action with a privateer
called the Guest of 16 guns and 16 swivels
which, after a fight of two hours, was carried
by boarding, and this event no doubt fired
Nelson with the spirit of emulation, for we
find him saying that as "even a Frigate
was not sufficiently active for my mind"
he obtained the command of a schooner the
Little Lucy (named after a daughter of
Capt. Locker) as tender to the Lowestofe.
Having returned to Port Royal, the
Lowestofle, on the 9th December again
sailed on another cruise between the
northern side of Hispaniola and the
Bahama Keys, Nelson accompanying in
the Little Lucy. They cruised till the 31st
when the Lowestoffe returned to Port
Royal to heave down and new sheath her
bottom, a custom then yearly observed on
this station. Nelson remained at sea and
went cruising about the Turks and Caicos
Islands, making himself "a complete pilot
for all the passages through the Islands
situated on the Northside of Hispaniola."
One letter is preserved which Nelson wrote
from on board the Little Lucy during this
period, from which it appears that it was
with this little craft that he on the
9th February, 1778, began that series of
captures 'off his own bat' which ended only
with Trafalgar. The following is the letter
To Captain Locker.
[From Clarke and M'Arthur's Life of Nelson.]
9th February, 1778. Off the West Corcos.
I am happy in having an opportunity of writing
by Mr. Ellis, who comes down in the Abigail
schooner from FranQois, bound to Nantucket. We
took her this morning at four o'clock, after a chase
of eight hours. We are just come to an anchor; and
the wind is got to the Northward, so that I must
conclude, as we are now weighing. Pray give my
compliments to my messmates.
On the 3rd March, 1778, Rear-Admiral
(afterwards Admiral of the Fleet) Sir Peter
Parker arrived in Jamaica succeeding Ad-
miral Gayton. Sir Peter Parker and Lady
Parker, during their stay in Jamaica, ex-
tended the greatest kindness to Nelson,
and with them Nelson kept up a life-long
intimacy and correspondence. No doubt,
as Prof. Laughton says, at first Admiral
Parker may have taken an interest in
Nelson as being the nephew of the Comp-
troller of the Navy, but afterwards (for
Captain Suckling died in July, 1778) the
Admiral, like others, was undoubtedly fasci-
nated with the charm of Nelson's char-
acter. Margaret, Lady Parker, who was a
Miss Nugent, wrote Nelson, as Nicolas
terms it, a beautiful letter after the battle
of the Nile, in which she says ihat she
and Admiral Parker always looked on Nel-
son as their son. Sir Peter Parker, was
Admiral of the Fleet at the time of Nelson's
death, and, as Senior Officer in the Navy,
attended his old friend's funeral, hold-
ing there the important position of Chief
Sir Peter Parker, Bart., came of a fighting
sea-stock. His father was an admiral, he
himself became admiral of the fleet, and
in his lifetime saw his son an admiral
(a most unusual thing for an admiral
to see his son attain fl:ig rank) while
the elder of his grandsons was killed
a captain and the younger lived to attain
the rank of full admiral like his forebears :
a nephew of Admiral Sir Peter was also an
admiral and a K.C.B. Thus we have in
this family four admirals in the direct line
of descent (Christopher, Peter, Christopher
and Charles Christopher) with another
admiral (George) and a captain of the
royal navy (Peter) thrown in, so to speak:
truly a naval lot. The last of the admirals,
Sir Charles Christopher, son of Nelson's
contemporary and grandson of his patron,
brings us down to our own day as he died
only in 1869, without issue, when the
baronetcy became extinct. A grandniece
of Sir Peter Parker, Margaret Parker, was
Byron's first love.
There was also another admiral' family of
the name of Parker, with which both
Nelson and Jamaica were connected. These
were also baronets and were all named
Hyde' Parker and seem to have been no
relation to the other family. Vice-Admiral
Sir Hyde Parker had a son Admiral Sir
Hyde Parker, who had a son Vice-Admiral
Hyde Parker who again had a son Captain
Hyde Parker, R.N. Thus in the Hyde-
Parkers we have three generations of Admi-
rals in direct descent with the fourth a cap-
tain. In 1779 Byron after the repulse of
D'Estaing turned over the command in the
Leeward Islands to the first Sir Hyde
*Vide "Naval Chronicle" of 1806 and London
Gazette" of 18th January 1806.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
Parker, then Rear Admiral; and the second
of this batch, as Captain Sir Hyde Parker
of the Phoenix on the Jamaica Station in
the year 1780, when Nelson was invalided
home, was wrecked in the destructive hur-
ricane of October on the coast of Cuba.
Most of the complement of the Phoenix
escaped and Captain Sir Hyde Parker lived
to be, as Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, Nelson's
nominal Commander-in-Chief at the battle
To come back now to Nelson we find that
on the 6th May, 1778, the Lowestofe sailed
on her third cruise with the Lucy in com-
pany. On the 27th, Clarke and M'Arthur
tell us, they chased a strange ship and
schooner in the Caicos passage, the former
being the Inconstant, a French frigate
which seemed to be convoying an American
schooner, although France was then nomi-
nally at peace with Britain. Hostilities
had commenced however in some quarters,
without any official declaration, in March,
1778. Nelson in the Lucy stood ahead of
the Lowestoffe to examine the schooner,
where he came under the frigate's guns
and was received with a volley of small
arms. The schooner was however examined
but proved to be French property. On the
17th June, 1778, despatches were brought
out in the Bristol to Captain Locker in
consequence of which, it is said, Lieutenant
Nelson and his men were removed back
into the Lowestoffe, and on the 24th June
they returned to Port Royal. While Nelson
was still in the Lowestoffe we learn that
a George Smith, Esq., of Camer in Kent"
took a cruise in her, and references to Mr.
Smith and letters from Nelson to Mr.
Smith in after years are to be found in the
pages of Nicolas.
In July, 1778, Sir Peter Parker took
Nelson as third lieutenant into his own
flagship the Bristol, a sure road to promo-
tion, as Prof. Laughton explains, the admiral
having the power to fill up vacancies
on the station which he usually did by
promotions from his own ship. On the
4th September, when he was not quite
twenty years of age, Nelson was appointed
by Sir Peter Parker to be first lieutenant
of the Bristol, Lieutenant James Macnamara
(who was Nelson's companion to France in
1783, afterwards attained flag rank and
died in 1802) succeeding him as third
On the 5th September, the Bristol, in
company with the Lowestoffe and some
other ships, sailed from Port Royal and
cruised off Cape Frangois until the 17th
October. During this cruise the squadron
took seventeen sail of French St. Domi ngo
ships. The following are two letters writ-
ten during this cruise by Nelson to Captain
Locker, his late commander.
To Captain Locker, Lowestoffe.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers-without date
of month or year.]
Bristol, Monday afternoon [apparently
31st August, 1778].
Your goodness to me has been more than ever
I expected, or had any right to think on in every
respect. The man you mentioned I shouldbe very
happy to have with me, as the one is very assid-
uous, the other you know [is] one of my favourites.
I will write to Mr. Hodgeson the first opportunity.
One of these days we shall meet, but I know you
would not have me ask where there is a probability
of being refused. Dundas.*--I thought I had
mentioned him before: he messes with us, and
keeps the fourth watch: he agrees tolerable well,
as he has been told the man he has to deal with,
but I am sure he has wished himself often on
board the Lowestoffe. Cunningham has sent me a
jar of sweetmeats, which I am much obliged to him
for. I heard of you by M'Namara yesterday.
I hope it is not true the account we have here of
the taking the Minerva.t May health and happi-
ness attend [you] is the constant sincere wish of
your humble Servant,
To Captain Locker, Lowestofte.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers. Without date
of month or year.]
Bristol, Saturday morning. [apparently
12th September, 1778.]
Mr. M'Namara came on board late last night,
and I am very sorry to acquaint [you] of the
Active's laying alongside the Minerva:-she was
taken by our friend the Disdain Captain M'Namara,
and the Chamont. She had hove twelve of her
guns overboard, in a gale of wind; and sprung
her mainmast. Poor Captain Williams died about
ten days ago of a broken heart: the Tender that
was sent after the Eolus is also taken, and our
people were not permitted to see either the Officers
or Seamen of the Ships. They say there is upwards
of three hundred seamen in the jails. The Ships
that went in the other day were the Concord and
"Thomas Dundas, who had been a midshipman of
the Lowestoffe: he was made a lieutenant in 1798,
commanded the Naiad, Frigate, in the battle of
Trafalgar, and died a vice-admiral and K.C.B. in
t On the 22nd August 1778 the AMinerva, 32,
Captain John Stott was taken by La Concorde. 40.
On the 2nd September, in the same year, the Active
28, Captain William Williams, was captured by the
French ships mentioned (in the next letter) by
Nelson. Neither of the captains survived his mis-
fortunes many weeks.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
Disdain : they said once they thought of supping himself which ended only with Trafalgar,
with us. They had been convoying twenty-four where, with Collingwood in the Royal
sail through the Caicos passage, at half-past one Sovere pressing alone into the midst of
A.M., they were within a mile of the Niger. ere pressing alone into the midst of
Captain Caulfield and Mr. M'Namara are gone on the combined fleets, Nelson (soon also to
board the Ruby. May health and one [of] the be in the thick of it) said See how that
French frigates attend you, is the sincere wish of noble fellow Collingwood takes his ship
yours faithfully, into action, how I envy him" and the other
SNELON. old friend in his turn remarked "What
On the 8th December, Nelson was ap- would Nelson give to be here." At St. Vin-
pointed by Sir Peter Parker to be Com- cent, Collingwood acted most generously
mander of the Badger0 brig, being then as "a friend in need" to use Nelson's words
twenty years and two months old. Nelson and in his turn warmly praised Nelson as
was thus enabled to rise rapidly in his having been the chief one to win the battle.
profession, and was fortunate enough at an The following extract from a list of officers
early period of his life to be in independent appointed by Admiral Parker from the
command to shew the stuff he was made of. 29th September, 1778, to 21st February,
It was also at this early period of Nelson's 1779, is highly interesting from its con-
life that there may be said to have ripened training the names of Nelson and Colling-
that friendship between Collingwood and wood in juxtaposition.
8th Dec., Lt. Horatio
1st Lt. of
3rd Lt. oi
2nd Lt. of
Occasion of the
mander of the Port
of the Badger.
tenant of the
Collingwood, who was eight years older
than Nelson, was placed in the Navy in
1761, at the age of eleven under the care of
his cousin Captain, afterwards Admiral
Braithwaite, with whom he served for many
years. He afterwards served with his friend
Captain (afterwards Admiral) Roddam. In
1774 he went to Boston with Admiral Graves,
and in 1775 was made a Lieutenant on the
day that the battle was fought at Bunker's
Hill, where he was with a party of seamen
assisting the army. In March, 1776, he went
*The following officers served with Captain Nelson
in the Badger, from the 1st January 1779, to the 19th
June following:-O. Edwards, Lieutenant; Francis
Foster, Surgeon; J. Wilson, Master; John Tyson,
in the Hornet sloop to Jamaica, where at Port
Royal he was tried by court martial for
charges amounting to disobedience of the
captain's orders and neglect of duty. On
each and all of these charges he was fully
acquitted, but the Court remarked on the
apparent want of cheerfulness on the part
of Lieutenant Collingwood in carrying on
the duty of the sloop and therefore recom-
mended it to him to conduct himself for the
future with that alacrity which is so esstn-
tially necessary for carrying on his Majesty's
service." This seems completely to have
been his line of conduct at any rate after-
wards, and the court martial may. for all
we know, have been prompted by spite on
the part of his captain. With regard to
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
his Jamaica service, Lord Collingwood him-
self wrote as follows. "In 1776, I went to
Jamaica Lieutenant of the Hornet sloop,
and soon after the Lowestoffe came to the
same station, of which Lord Nelson was
Lieutenant. We had been long before in
the habits of great friendship, and it hap-
pened here that Sir Peter Parker, the Com-
mander-in-Chief being the friend of both,
whenever Lord Nelson got a step in rank,
I succeeded him-first in the Lowestoffe,
then with the Badger, into which ship I
was made a Commander in 1779 and after-
wards the Hinchinbrook, a 28 gun frigate,
which made us both Post-Captains."
Nelson's first service in the Badger brig,
after his appointment on the 8th December,
1778, was to go to the Mosquito coast and
the Bay of Honduras to protect these places
from the depredations of American priva-
teers. Whilst there he, in his own words,
" gained so, much the affections of the
Settlers that they unanimously voted" him
their thanks and expressed their regret
on his leaving them, entrusting to him
to describe what their situation would be, in
the event of a war with Spain, both to the
Naval Commander-in-Chief at Jamaica, Ad-
miral Sir Peter Parker, and to the Military
Commander-in-Chief at Jamaica, General
John Dalling, who was also Governor of the
Nelson was probably engaged in this ser-
vice on the Mosquito coast for about four
or five months, as by April, 1779, the
Badger was back again off the north-east
end of Jamaica, where on the 28th, Nelson
captured La Prudente of eighty tons and nine
men. It will be seen from the following
letter that they had some trouble in find-
ing the French papers which justified them
in the capture, but that after two days'
search they at last found them (not inside
a shark but) in an old shoe. The letter in
question is as follows :
To Captain Locker, Lowestoffe.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers. The 'N. E.
end' is evidently the N.E. end of Jamaica.]
Badger, off the N.E. end, April 30th, 1779.
I hope with all my heart you are much better
*John Dalling, as Lt.-Colonel Dalling was Lt.-
Governor of Jamaica in 1772, and again in 1777, and
as General, Dalling held the post of Governor from
1778 to 1781. The Assembly voted 500 for a piece
of plate to be presented to him as a testimony of the
esteem the House entertained of his conduct. (Fear-
tado-Official and other Personages of Jamaica.) He
was created a baronet in March, 1783, and died in
than when I left. you, and that you will not be
obliged to go home on account of your health. I
wish sincerely it was in my power in some mea-
sure to show some small return for the many
favours I have received, but I am sure you do not
think me ungrateful. If you come on the North
Side, and I hear of it, I will come in. I know
you will be pleased with this little earnest of suc-
cess, but we have had a good deal of plague with
her. Two days before we could find the French
papers, at last found them in an old shoe. There
is a Polacre coming this way; I hope we shall
fall in her way. I wish I could give a good char-
acter of Mr. Capper: he is a drunkard; I need
say no more. We shall part whenever he can get
Mate of a Merchant ship. George Cruger behaves
very well. If you have heard from Mrs. Locker,
I sincerely hope she and all the family are in good
health; and that you and they may continue so,
and enjoy every blessing of this life, is the real
sincere wish of
Your much obliged and faithful Servant,
NEWS.--The Punch killed one man and wounded
three, on board the Bourdeaux Snow. The Minerva
sailed six days ago, with fifteen sail, for the Turks'
Island Passage. The Tyger, Letter of Marque,
belongingto Liverpool, of twenty-four guns, car-
ried into the Cape. They mention an Action off
Grenada, between the two Fleets. The people
say, Chambers searched them, and let them pass;
also a Kingston schooner.
It will be seen that in this letter Nelson
refers to an action off Grenada between the
two fleets, which Nicolas states was the ac-
tion fought on the 5th July, 1779, off Gren-
ada between the British Fleet under Vice-
Admiral Byron and that of France under
the Comte d' Estaing, but there appears
some error here, as Nelson's letter in ques-
tion was written on the 30th April.
It does not appear whether Nelson cap-
tured the polacre he had hoped to get, but
three days after the date of the last letter
we find him again writing to Locker in the
To Captain Locker, Lowestoffe.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers ]
Badger, Monday Evening, May 3rd, 1779.
I have just received your letter of the 29th,
and this morning yours of the 24th, and hope you
are much better than when 1 left you. Since I
wrote last, we had very near taken a Schooner
privateer, but it becoming calm she rowed off.
We have no accounts here of any Ships being cut
out, but I shall sail in the morning and keep a
sharp look out, and hope the next we see we shall
be able to get alongside of. I am much obliged to
you for taking care of Silvan: do as you please
with him; I don't think he will ever stay with me
now. May health, happiness, and every blessing
attend you, is the real sincere wish of
Your much obliged and faithful Servant,
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
His next letter to Locker is written from
Port Antonio, a harbour he seems often to
have put into. It runs as follows :
To Captain Locker, Lowestoffe.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers.]
Badger, [apparently in Port Antonio].
May 13th, 1779.
I am very sorry I made you so uneasy about
the men that were pressed from the Amity Hall;
but I will relate the story in particular, for Mr.
Taylor's satisfaction, who I should be very sorry
to disoblige, as he has been so exceedingly civil to
me, and also upon your account.
When I first saw the Ships in Port Antonio, I
took them for part of the Cork Fleet, and sent the
boat for men, with orders not to press from home-
ward-bound Ships. They went on board two, and
did not meddle with their people; but thirty-five
men on board the Amity Hall tempted them to
bring five; I was not pleased when they were
brought on board, and came into Port on purpose
to return them, for I had -not a thought of keeping
any of them; the Master came on board in a most
impertinent manner, and with very abusive lan-
guage told me he should take the Law, &c. I can't
say hut I was warm to be talked to in such a
manner; however, I immediately returned two
men and a Neutral, but told him I should keep
the other two, for his impertinent behaviour.
(This is all the matter.) If you tell the story, I
beg you will mention, that the Master forgot to
advertise that he had on board two deserters
from the Badger. The Master is just coming on
board, so I must stop a little.
The Master is just gone, and I never was more
surprised than for him to deny the advertisement,
that several circumstances were not what he had
wrote about, in regard to the number, and to
hinder his proceeding with the Convoy: he says he
wrote to a gentleman in Kingston his account of
the affair, and to beg he would get his men, or to
take such methods that he might not [be] blamed
if he did not fail. He tells me he never desired
to be advertised, he has begged my pardon for
his behaviour on that day, and we are parted
very good friends (though I believe all he told me
is false:) however, it will convince people what
sort of man he is. I am now completing our
water, and shall sail in the morning. I intend
going off the East End, to see if the report of the
fourteen-gun Brig be true.
Since I wrote last I have lost a very fine Brig,
who we chased twenty leagues to leeward of the
Island, and lost, I am sure, for want of a night-
glass. I intend to come in again on Tuesday to
save. post if possible, but for fear I should not, I
leave this here. I see you are quite settled about
going home, which in all probability may happen
before you can hear from me again; but I shall
always write to you in England. I hope you will
have a good passage, and find Mrs. Locker and all
your family, in good health: 1 hope you willsoon
recover when you get home. The friendship you
have shown me I shall never forget; and though I
lose my best friend by your going, I would not have
you stay a day longer in this country. I am very
sorry indeed Captain Deane* is ill; I beg you will
give my best wishes for his speedy recovery. May
health and happiness attend you is the sincere wish
Much obliged and faithful Servant,
I am afraid the Admiral has got the wrong end
of the story about the men; if you think proper,
mention it. I beg you [will] return Mr. Taylor
my sincere thanks, for the kind part he has taken
in this affair.
A reference to a summary of the laws oa
Impressing at that time shows apparently
that none of the men on the Amity Hall
were legally exempt from impressing ex-
cept the Neutral i. e., foreigner, unless they
were under eighteen or over fifty-five years
of age, or persons using the sea for the first
time, and then only for a period of not
more than two years. After proof of age
or of circumstances had been made to the
Admiralty such a person would receive pro-
tection without any fee.t
In June, the Badger was lying in Mon-
tego Bay. when H. M. S. Glasgow, Captain
Thomas Lloyd, came into the Bay, and it
was owing to Nelson's prompt action and
exertions, joined to those of Captain Lloyd,
that the crew of the Glasgow were rescued
from death. The following is Nelson's ac-
count of thisto Locker.
To Captain Locker, Lowestoffe.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers]
Badger, off St. Ann's, oune 7th, 1779.
I suppose before this you have heard of the
fate of the poor Glasgow: indeed it was a most
shocking sight; and had it happened half an hour
later, in all probability a great many people would
have been lost. She anchored at half-past three.
and at six she was in flames, owing to the steward
attempting to steal rum out of the after-hold.
Captain Lloyd is very melancholy indeed on the
occasion, and I sincerely wish I was at Port Royal
for his sake, and the Ship's company's, who are
falling sick very fast, with the constant rains we
have had since we left Montego Bay and no place
on board the Badger to shelter such a num-
ber of men. I suppose I have letters at Port
Antonio from you, but I have not been there
these three Posts; and am much afraid I shall be
obliged to go round the West End, and attempt
the South side, the current having set us nine
leagues to leeward these last twenty-four hours,
*Captain Joseph Deane; he died Captain of the
Ruby on the 12th January, 1780. Vide Letter of the
23rd January, 1780.
SThe whole of the chapter summarising these
Laws contained in a book, 'The Ship Masters Assist-
ant and Owners' Manual, compiled by a Barrister of
the Inuar Temple, in 1792, deals with protections
from impressing. The active portions of these Laws
were apparently not thought necessary to be inserted.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
although we have had favourable winds: as I have
heard of no Packets arriving, I hope to see you at
I beg you will remember me very kindly to Mr.
Ross, and Captain Deane, who I hope is got well.
May health and happiness attend you, is the real
sincere wish of
Your most humble Servant,
The Lieutenant of Glasgow will take care of
this: he is a very good young man I believe, and
has not saved a rag but what was on his back.
Clarke and M'Arthur say the crew of the
Glasgow were leaping into the watei', when
Nelson came up in the Badger's boats and
made them throw their powder overboard,
and by his presence of mind and generous
exertions prevented any loss of life." In
Nelson's letter above we are given an idea
of the difficulties of navigation a hundred
years ago, when he says that he is very
much afraid that to get to Port Royal from
off St. Ann, he will have to go round the
west end of Jamaica and attempt the south
side, on account of the current setting them
to leeward, in spite of favourable winds. His
remark that he hoped still to see Locker at
Port Royal, refers to the fact that Captain
Locker about that time was on the eve of
going to England, having on the 1st of
May 1779 applied to the Admiral, Sir Peter
Parker, for leave to resign the command of
his. ship on account of ill health.
In June 1779 war was declared with Spain,
and on the 11th Nelson was promoted to
the command of the Hinchinbrook,t a French
merchant ship named the A stree, which had
been captured off The Cape' in October,
1778, taken into the service and named
after Lord Sandwich, first Lord of the Ad-
miralty. This promotion, which made him
a. post-captain when he still wanted some
four months of being twenty-one years of
age, occurred in the following rather curious
*It is curious that this same Captain Thomas
Lloyd, when again on the Jamaica station some time
between 1780 and 1790, was at Port Royal with a large
stock of gunpowder in a frigate which caught fire, and
that on this occasion, no doubt profiting by the expe-
rience gained at Montego Bay, he insisted on all the
powder being thrown overboard before any one left
the ship, after which they all got clear in boats.
This story is given on the authority of the Marquis
of Lansdowne. who also stated that Lloyd received
the warmest thanks of a meeting of the merchants
fThe officers who served "with Captain Nelson in
the Ilinchinbrook, from the 1st September 1779 to
the 1st May 1780, were :-Lieutepants A. St. Leger,
Gee. Harrison, C. Cunningham, George Bullens,
Peter Burns; Surgeon, Fran. Foster ; Master J.
Walker; Purser, R. Huggens.
manner, illustrating the chances of war.
Captain Everitt, who commanded the Hinch-
inbrook, joined the Ruby for a cruise, in
consequence of the illness of the Ruby's
proper captain, Joseph Deane, and was killed
by a random shot on the 2nd June, in
capturing La Prudente, a French frigate,
(not La Prudente, taken by Nelson in
April). Nelson refers to this in a letter
to his parson brother on the 8th February,
1782, in the following terms: "I wish I
could congratulate you upon a Rectory in-
stead of a Vicarage: it is rather awkward
wishing the poor man dead, but we all
rise by deaths. I got my rank by a shot
killing a Post-Captain, and I most sincerely
hope I shall, when I go, go out of [the]
world the same way; then we go all in the
line of our profession-a Parson praying, a
Captain fighting." Nelson had his wish!
At the time of Nelson's appointment the
Hinchinbrook was at sea and was still so on
the 28th July, as we find Nelson on that date
writing to Captain Locker, who had then
left Jamaica, that the Hinchinbrook had
not arrived although her cruise had been
out these four weeks." The reference in the
letter to Lady Parker being 'almost mad'
is explained by the fact that her son was
on this occasion in command of the Hinchin.
brook. This letter runs as follows:
To Captain Locker.
[Autograph in the Locker papers.]
Port Royal, July 28th, 1779.
My dear Sir,
We have nothing new here since I wrote you
last by the Halifax Pacquet, except the safe arrival
of the Lion, Captain Cornwallis,* in a very shat-
tered condition. The news of the Action you have
heard long before this comes to you. The Hinch-
inbrook is not arrived, although her cruise has
been out these four weeks. Lady Parker is almost
mad. The Admiral tells me he will send me out
in the Lowestoffe, to cruize for the Hinchinbrook,
but I am afraid it will not be farther to windward
than the Navassa. Captain Deane wished much, I
should go with him off the Cape, but it will not do.
No prizes to any of the Men-of-War except a few
Americans. I sincerely hope you have had a good
passage home, and that your health is recovered.
I, you know, am never well in Port. Janus not
arrived: a good deal alarmed for her. Ruby and
Bristol sail on Sunday; the Captain of the latter $
is in a bad scrape: you know Mrs. Browne's affair:
Captain the Hon., afterwards Admiral, Sir Wil-
liam Cornwallis, G.C.B., particularly distinguished
himself in the command of the Lion, 64, in the action
between Vice-Admiral Byron's squadron, and the
French under Comte d'Estaing, off Grenada, on the
6th July, 1779.
f Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Knight,
IQuery Captain John Raynor,
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
he is arrested for 10,0001., and went from the
Marshall after being seized. They have petitioned
the Governor not to permit him to leave the
Island. He is now outlawed-I think the affair
will end much to his loss. I beg I may be most
kindly remembered to Mrs. Locker and all the
family. I hope they and you will always enjoy
health and happiness.
I am, dear Sir,
Your most faithful Servant,
I find this is not the time of year for shaddocks,
but I will send some whenever they are in season;
at present there is not one to be had. Captain
Deane, &c., desire their compliments.
During the absence of the Hinchinbrook
at sea, which apparently lasted till the 1st
September, Nelson remained at Port Royal
and it was no doubt owing partly to this
that he was entrusted with the command of
the batteries at Fort Charles, to. which we
will now allude.
An attempt, on negative evidence only,
has recently been made to dispute the as-
sertion that Nelson was ever in command
of Fort Charles, but the evidence in favour
of it is that of Nelson himself, given in two
separate statements, one in a letter written
at the time, in August 1779, to his friend
Captain Locker, and the other in the "Sketch
jf my Life," written by him twenty years
.ater, in 1799, both of which are printed by
Nicolas from the originals, and this inter-
esting connection between the immortal hero
and the land of Jamaica (as well as its
waters) is thus still left to us.
At the time in question Jamaica was in a
state of great fear and alarm, such as the
generation of these peaceful days would
find it hard to imagine, in fact, in Nelson's
own words, the Island was turned upside
down, in fear of capture by a French fleet.
What has happened before may happen
again. Britain may be again at war with a
great naval power or a coalition of powers,
when Jamaica will once more no doubt have
to rely for its chief protection on the modern
representatives of those noble ships and
men which, in our great hero's time, swept
the seas of our enemies, although as against
a mere raid it will again have to look for
protection to, amongst ol be' s. Ihe same bat-
teries brought up io date, wa.ich Nelson
commanded on shore. The immediate fear
was shortly after temporarily dispelled, but
the troublous times lasted for three years
more, till Rodney in his glorious victory on
See p. 146. Vol. II. of this Journal.
the 12th April, 1782, relieved Jamaica
from all fear of invasion. On the occasion
of 1779, however, it was on the younger
sailor and subsequently greater naval hero
that this immediate trust was placed in the
island itself. It will be remembered that
Jam tica at that time was a place of greater
relative importance to the British Crown
than it is now. Then, when the North
American colonies had just been lost to
Britain, the large West India island re-
mained as one of the most valuable of the
assets of Britain abroad: now Jamaica is
as a small unit swallowed up in the gigantic
World Empire of the British Crown. From
a gazetteer issued a few years later than the
time of which we are speaking we find that
it was then regarded as forming one of the
most valuable appendages to that crown,"
that the value of the Island as British pro-
perty was estimated at 39 millions sterling,
that the annual exports amounted in value
to over two millions sterling, and that the
Government of the island was one of the
richest places next to that of Ireland at the
disposal of the crown. In the same work we
are told that Kingston was a place of great
trade and opulence and that, upon an aver-
age of twenty years, 400 ships went out
annually from its harbour. In another work
of about the same period we are told that
the ships annually employed were upwards
of 5 0 sail. These are the words and figures
extracted from dry statistical volumes: the
glowing words in which Rodney spoke of
Jamaica are well known. As against the de-
cadence, however, experienced by Jamaica
since those words, we may place in com-
parison the following words taken from the
latest work on 'Naval Policy" now before
us in this year of Grace, the Diamond Jubi-
lee of our beloved Queen. "-'ut if their com-
mercial riches are largely of the past, there
may come a day, and that not very remote,
when they will be once more the scene of
important and decisive naval action" and
Jamaica's "strategic position may thus one
day be as dominating as Egypt."
The following is the text of Nelson's let-
ter to Looker, reporting the state of affairs
as it then appeared to them in Jamaica.
To Captain Locler.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers.]
Port Royal, Thursday, 12th August, 1779.
Jamaica is turned upside down since you left
it. The Count d'Estaing is at the Cape witl
NELSON IN PHE WEST INDIES.
twenty Sail of the Line, and a Flag-ship, with
eight or nine more, are at Port an Prince ; the
latter Fleet fell in with the Charon and Pomona,
in the night, but they got off by good sailing.
They say that there are 20,000 men at the Cape
ready to embark, and 5,000 at Port an Prince.
He arrived at the Cape last Saturday fortnight,
with one hundred and twenty-five Sail, Men of
War and Transports. He passed Captain Lambert's
Squadron on a very thick day, who arrived here
yesterday; so that all our Ships are in Port, except
Hincbinbrook, Hound, and Porcupine, who. we
[have] reason to believe, are taken ; as reports are
very strong from the Bahama Islands. As I have,
told you what we may expect, I will tell you the
measures taken to defend the Island: 5,000 men
are encamped between the Ferry and Kingston,
1,000 in Fort Augusta, 300 at the Apostles Battery,
and we expect to have 500 in Fort Charles, where
I am to command. Lion, Salisbury, Charon. and
Janus, in a line from the Point to the outer shoal;
Ruby and Bristol in the narrows going to King-
ston, to rake any Ships that may attack Fort
Augusta; Pomona and Speke Indiaman above Rock
Fort, and Lowestoffe at the end of the dock-wall.
Expresses go to-morrow morning to all quarters.
Resource and Penelope off the East End to cruise:
four Fireships are down here, two of them com-
missioned. I have very fairly stated our situation,
and I leave you in England to judge what stand
we shall make; I think you must not be surprised
to hear of my learning to speak French. I hope
you have had a good passage, and are now in
peace and plenty with your family. Ross has
behaved in a very public spirited manner. Has
sent the Gayton and his vessels to the Admiral, to
send expressess, even his negroes into the batte-
ries. As the Packet sails tomorrow morning, and
it was a secret, I have not time to say any more;
I know we shall have your wishes for success.
May health, peace, and happiness always surround
you and your good family, to whom I beg to be
kindly remembered, is the constant wish of
Your devoted humble Servant,
Such was the situation in Jamaica, but
against the powerful French fleet with its
25,000 troops on board, we see that Nelson
did not expect that a successful resistance
could be made and the hero looked forward
to a French prison, where he would learn to
speak French. That the planters were also of
the same opinion is evident, for in February
1780 they presented petitions to Parlia-
ment, wherein they represented (in a some-
what exaggerated manner) that "Jamaica
was totally destitute of defence and owed
its being a British Colony ,to the mere acci-
dent of the forces of the enemy being di-
rected to another point."
In Nelson's letter above, as well as in
the letter of the 7th June, we find men-
tion of the merchant of Kingston, Her-
cules Ross, of whom we are never to lose
sight all through Nelson's life.
In connection with the public spirited
behaviour of Ross and, generally, the assist-
ance of private persons in the defence of
the Colony, we may here note that a French
historian the Abb6 Raynal in a work0 pub-
lished in this same year, (1779), while
speaking in terms of approbation of the
laws drawn up in Jamaica in 1682, and in
particular of three "wise laws," refers to
one of the three as follows :--"the first being
one which provides for the defence of the
country and warmly excites that very self
interest which might divert individuals
from attending to it. It is enacted that
whatever mischief is done by the enemy
shall immediately be made good by the
State or at the expense of all the subjects
if the money found in the Treasury prove
With regard to the particular point of
Fort Charles, we see that Nelson says in his
letter of 12th August-" we expect to have
500 (men) in Fort Charles where I am to
command,"t and he thus refers to the sub-
ject in the Sketch of my Life." '? On the
11th of June, 1779. I was made Post into
the Hinchinbrooke. When, being at sea, and
Count d'Estaing arriving at Hispaniola with
a very large fleet and army from Martinico,
an attack on Jamaica was expected. In this
critical state, I was by both Admiral and
General entrusted ivith the command of the
batteries at Port Royal :t and I need not say
as the defence of this place was the key to
the Port of the whole naval force, the town
of Kingston, and Spanish Town, it was
the most important place in the whole
Island." If it be urged that in his letter
of the 12th August. Nelson only said, "where
I am to command" it may be replied that
the tenor of the letter goes to show that his
wording is meant to refer to the actual fight-
ing against the expected attack, in reference
to which, as the attack had not actually then
taken place, Nelson could not in this letter
say "I commanded" the defence. He was
detailing the measures taken to defend the
Island," and in addition to this, we have
the Sketch of my Life" where he dis-
tinctly states, "I was by both Admiral and
General entrusted with the command." Even
if the evidence of the letter alone be taken,
*History of the East and West Indies.
t The italics are the author's.
iVELSON IN THE WEST INbIES.
it is not to be supposed, that if, as one of
many measures of defence taken against an
expected early attack, he was to com-
mand the batteries," where they hoped to
raise the number of men to 500, he did not
assume at least the general charge of them,
while waiting for the attack-which did
not come. To imagine that the commander
would wait till the attack had actually com-
menced to put his foot in the fort and
assume the command would be an assump-
tion unwarranted in any case and more par-
ticularly in that of Nelson. That was not
the way in which he did business. It will
be remembered that the general was also
the governor of the island and it was the
circumstances of the case no doubt, in
Captain Nelson being without the ship to
which he had been promoted, that lent
themselves to Nelson being entrusted with
,such an important command on shore in the
naval base of Port Royal, although no doubt
the reputation he had already gained on the
station and his friendship with the admiral
clenched the matter. We have here a par-
tial example of what is sometimes urged in
the present day that naval bases and coaling
stations should be defended by the navy
and forces under its control.
Nelson's reputation still survives in Fort
Charles itself and his wooden quarter-
deck" there is still shown, from which he
could, while pacing up and down, command
a view to Windward.
There is also an inscription to his memory
in gilt letters on a white marble tablet
fixed into the brickwork of the west wall
of Fort Charles. In size the tablet is two
and a half feet by one and a half feet, and
the following is a copy of the inscription:
IN THIS PLACE
You who tread his footprints
remember his glory.
Under the walls of Fort Charles are.
three nameless graves which are reported
to be the graves of Nelson's wives There
is also-another memento in the naval yard
at Port Royal-in the shape of a figure-head
representing the great hero overlooking
the harbour, into which he so often sailed
with those daily sea breezes, as constantthen
as now, but not necessary for our ships
now as then. This is the actual figurehead
of the former guardship at Port Royal, the
Aboulcir, named of course after Nelson's
victory in Aboukir Bay more commonly
known now as the battle of the Nile. When
the old Aboukir was broken up, her figure-
head was preserved and placed in its
This command of the batteries no doubt
did not last very long, probably something
under a month, but apparently there is no
reason to doubt that our greatest 'sea-
officer' (to use his own expression) was
in charge of them for a time. Fort Charles
therefore was Nelson's first actual com-
mand after being 'posted.'"
As it happened the alarm was false,
although, perhaps, not so entirely false as is
stated by Laughton.0 D'Estaing, it is true,
with the following record, was at 'the
Cape' (as Cape Francois was often styled-in
fact was so described in some maps). With
the fleet which he had brought from Toulofi,
via Boston, D'Estaing had been ignomi-
niously repulsed by Barrington, at St. Lucia,
in December, 1778; he had managed to gain
with a vastly superior force only an inglor-
ious success against Byron and Barrington
in the confused and ill-managed action' off
Grenada, on the 6th July, 1779; and on.the
22nd of the same month, at St. Kitts, he had
been deterred from attacking and' been
driven away by these same admirals an-
chored off Basseterre. But although D'Es-
taing and his fleet were at the Cape there
were no transports and no troops ; the
twenty thousand men were a myth and the
supposed transports were the homeward
bound fleet of French merchantmen. D'Es-
taing left Jamaica alone, and, not even con-
voying his country's merchantmen as he was
*For an account of Fort Charles see "Port Royal
and its Harbour" by AM.M. et al. Kingston 1893. 'But
all the statements therein made about Nelson are
not to be relied on e.g. while it is true -Ib N..-....
was in command of the batteries, as is above shown,
it is quite evident that he was not Commandant for
two years as is' therein stated. Again, it was-not
while he was in Jamaica but when he was on the
Leeward Islands Station that he discovered a system
of extensive frauds in the West Indies including
Jamaica. From this booklet we learn that the arms
of Nelson and his effigy in Lambeth pottery are also
to be seen in Fort Charles.
*In Nelson' in the English Men of Action series
NELSONN IN THE WEST 'INDIES.
asked to do, sailed away again for the north
coast of America.
When the .immediate fear of invasion in
Jamaica was over, Nelson, having assumed
command of his new ship the IIinchinbrook
(which it turned out had been delayed by
foul winds and arrived in want of provi-
sions), sailed in this frigate in the middle of
September, on a cruise to join the Niger and
Penelope. The cruise lasted till the middle
of December, and on the 23rd January 1780,
we find Nelson writing the following letter
To Captain Locker.
[Autograph in the Locker Papers.]
Port Royal, January 23rd, 1780.
My, Dear Sir,
I arrived here from a cruize in the middle of
December, and received your letter from London
with great pleasure, as I much feared you were in
France;'and on the 10th of this month, I received
your letter from Kent, dated October 3rd, and am
sorry you are not quite recovered. I sailed in the
Hinchinbrook from Port Royal in the middle of
September, to join the Niger and Penelope. We
took four Sail, for which I shall share about 8001.
sterling. We left the Penelope at sea, who soon
afterwards took a Spanish privateer: the crew
rose upon the Penelope, and have carried her off :
they certainly have killed poor Captain Jones and
I know you will be sincerely sorry for the loss
of poor Hill, who died of a fever at Rattan. He
Shad entirely recovered of his wounds. I suppose
you have heard he lost his right hand in the action.
William Forrest, your old Coxswain, is amongst
the slain. The Lowestoffe was the first that
stormed under the command of Dundas. f I am
now going to tell what you and many others
will be very sorry to hear-the death of that
worthy, good man, Captain Joseph Deane. He
died on the 12th of January, and was buried next
day, at Green Bay, amidst the tears of his Officers
and Ship's company, and his many friends. Captain
Cowling is appointed to the Ruby. Of that noble
Ship's crew, three hundred took boats and are gone
off. Every method has been used to bring them
back, which I hope will prove successful. The
Salisbury has brought in a Spanish Store-ship,
mounting fifty six guns, four hundred men, from
Cadiz to Port Omoa. after a smart action of two
hours' and a half. The Salisbury lost nine men;'
the Don fifty men. it
S(1) Captain Robert Lambert of the Niger who ob-
tained that rank in February, 1760. Appointed
Commissioner of the Navy at Jamaica, 1782.
(2) The Reports were'unfounded, (from the Bahama
This report was not true: but the Penelope, Cap-
tain James Jones, foundered with all her crew in
,t Apparently Mr. Thomas Dundas. Vide Letter
of 31st August 1778.
1 Captain John Cowling: lie died in 1792.
Commanded by Captain Charles Inglis, who died
a Hear-Admiral, in October, 1791. The captured
ship was the San Carlos, Don Juan Antonio Zavel-
Our mess is broke up. Captain Cornwallis and
myself live together. I hope I have made a frithd
of him, which I am sure from his character you
will be glad to hear. Lambert has changed into
the Leviathan, to go hone I have sent a cask or
two of shaddocks by him, and Mr. Taylor sends to
him this day, that if convenient to take two casks
of old rum for you. I shall'fake your rum out of
the Lowestoffe, and keep it with me until you send
for it. The Spanish Ship'is to be made a Ship of
36 guns. The Admiral offered her to me, which I
declined. He says he will give me the first Frigate.
He has, appointed me to go with an Expedition
which-is now,on foot against the city of Cfl tI. i.i
upon the Lake of Nicaragua. How it will :ii n r-nr.
God knows. I do not expect to return beif.r'- tihe
beginning of June, but I shall always take evbty
opportunity of writing to you. Collingwood || 4e-
sires to be very particularly remembered to you
and Mrs. Locker, to whom I beg you [to] give my
The Admiral sails with the Fleet on Tuesday
next, the 25th January, to meet if he canlthe
Count de Grasse, who has been qcuizing these some
weeks past between Cape Nicola and Maize with
five Sail of the Line.
You must not be surprised to see me in England
after this trip; for if my health is not much better
than it is at present, I shall certainly come home,
as all the Doctors are against my staying so long in
this country. You know my old complaint in my
breast: it is turned out to be the gout'got there.
Kitty Crawford sends you two jars of tamarinds.
Cuba, and all your old acquaintances in this partof
the world, desire to be kindly remembered to yolp;
and none more so than Captain Cornwallis, Who
has, I assure you, a very high esteem for your
character. Caulfield is to stay behind this cruize
to take his trial. Captain Pakenham (Lord
Longford's brother) goesin his ship. Glover* is very
ill; I hardly think he will get over this cruize. I
have been twice given over since you left this
country with that cursed disorder, the gout. I
must make this a double letter, though against
your desire. We have just heard the Penelope was
carried into St. Jago, in Cuba. She has been cruiz-
ing off the West end of Jamaica. 1 must now bid
you Adieu, wishing you everything you can wish
in this life, and believe me to be with real sin-
Your much obliged and sincere friend, .,
Captain Inglis t desires his compliments.
The following are the particulars of the
action,. briefly' referred to by Nelson, in
\ 1 i..L the Lowestoffe was the first to storm.
On the 16th October, a small foice:fof
ships, consisting of the Charon, Lowestoffe,
|I Captain Cufhbert Collingwood, afterwards Vice-
Admiral Lord Colliigwood.
11 Captain the Honourable, afterwards Admiral Sir
Thomas Pakenham, G.C.B., who died on the 2nd
Captain Bonovier Glover, of the Janus, who died
immediately before Captain the Hon. William Corn-
wallis' gallant action, "in the very hour he so wished
to see," on the 20th March, 1780. He was a son of
the author of Leonidas." .
t Captain Charles Inglis of the Salisbury.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
Pomona and Racehorse, under Captain the
Hon. John Luttrell of the first named,
attacked the fortress of Saint Fernando de
Omoa which was gallantly stormed with
the result that the Register Shipso which
had taken refuge there were captured,
two hundred and fifty quintals of quick-
silver and three millions of piastres being
the reward of the enterprise. Omoa was
a small fortified town at the bottom of
the Bay of Honduras, on the south side,
and possessed a good hirbour. From a
Gazetteer issued twenty years later we find
that the Spaniards in vain offered 300,000
dollars in place of the quicksilver captured,
the latter being required for their gold and
silver mines. The Lowestoffe was at this
time commanded by Capt. Christopher
Parker, son of Admiral Sir Peter Parker,
and as the total value captured on this
occasion was, say, three and a third million
of dollars we can begin to understand a
later allusion of Nelson to the wealth
gained by the Parkers while on the Jamaica
Nelson's opening remark in the letter of
the .23rd January, that he much feared
Locker was in France, evidently means that
he had been afraid that L6cker on his way
home had been captured .by the French.
His remark that he had been twice given
over since Locker had left is confirmed by
a letter written to Hercules Ross twenty-
one years after, in which he says that Green
Bay had very often its jtws open to receive
him. The reference in the body of the
letter to his appointment by. the Admiral to
*The term "Register Ships" is one unknown at
the present day and requires a little explanation.
Last century all the trade between Spain and
America was required to be carried on between the
ports of Cadiz and Vera Cruz. Annual fleets under
convoys set sail from the one place to the other, and
on the outward journey bulk was not allowed to be
broken till the fleet reached Vera Cruz. This con-
finement of the trade encouraged illicit commerce,
in which, by the bye, Jamaica had its fair share by
trading to the Spanish Colonies, and to counteract
which in some respect arose the custom of register
ships. A company of merchants at Cadiz, judging
that goods were wanted at any certain place, would
petition the Council of the Indies for leave to use a
ship of 300 tons or under (which would generally
mean 600 tons) and would pay for this privilege
forty or fifty thousand dollars, besides presents to
the officers in proportion to the fraud in excess of the
allowed tonnage. Such a ship and her cargo would
then be registered at the pretended burden and the
vessel would then be called a -register ship and by
such means, we are told in a book published in 1761,
(An account of the European Settlements in America)
the trade of South America had been carried on
principally for some years past."
go with an Expedition which is now on
foot against Grenada" brings us to the San
Juan Expedition which again nearly cost
Nelson his life.
This project was one formed by General
Dalling, then Governor of Jamaica, and
highly approved by Lord George Germaine,
Secretary of State for the American Depart-
ment. It was that the British should take
Fort San Juan on the river of that name,
which flows from Lake Nicaragua into the
Caribbean, make themselves masters of the
lake itself and of the cities of Grenada and
Leon, and thus cut off the communication of
the Spaniards between their northern and
southern possessions in America. (This it
will be remembered is the line of route for
the proposed Nicaraguan Canal now before
the public.) Hopes were entertained that
this might result in an empire in that part
of America as extensive as the one then
being lost to Britain in North America.
At that time, from maps and gazetteers of
the period, we learn that Mexico or New
Spain as it was very often termed, which
by Dalling's plan was to be cut in two,
comprised the whole of Central America
(including the present Mexico), down to
Panama, and that it was still the principal
settlement of Spain in America, whether
the number of its inhabitants, its natural
wealth, or its extended traffic was con-
sidered. One writer of the period states
that the annual revenues of Mexico could
hardly fall short of twenty-four millions
The following was the plan of operation
drawn up by General Dalling himself. Is
was found in the Nelson papers and forms
a valuable document respecting this ex-
In order to give a facility to the great object
of government, and to fulfil that which is incum.
cent upon me, I intend to possess the lake of
Nicaragua, by means of our first conquest; which,
for the present, may in some degree be looked
upon, as the inland Gibraltar of Spanish America.
As it commands the only water-pass between the
lake of Nicaragua and the Northern Ocean, its
situation must ever render.it a principal post, to
insure success to our troops forcing their passage
to the South Sea; and by our possession of it,
Spanish America is severed in two. In this post,
therefore, I mean to keep a grand deposit of pro-
visions, and reinforce it,l occasionally with a
respectable body of regulars, as soon as the troops
should have arrived.
On a supposition, that it will be too hazardous
to attempt for the present the possession of the
lake from San Juan's, my next design will be to
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
seize on the only possible land carriage, that can
be, between the lake of Nicaragua and the Atlantic;
by opening a road, and sending a body of Indians
from Bluefields towards Mena, on the lake. Pre-
vious however, to attempting this last service, the
mind of the Indians must be again conciliated,
past griefs allayed, and their old attachments
revived; this to be brought about by plenty of
presents. Bluefields harbour, and island, must be
put in a state of defence; this may be more easily
effected, as the water upon the bar will not admit
large vessels, i.- consequently is not exposed to
the fire from heavy shipping. Bluefields river is
navigable for forty miles; and, from the falls in
the river, to Mena on the lake, by an old road now
grown over, but easily opened, the Indians esteem
it forty more. By this new road San Juan's may
be occasionally succoured, in case the enemy's
shipping should be superior to ours at San Juan's
harbour, and r retreat be eventually secured.
While matters are thus advancing by the centre.
and by Bluefields, a corps of troops shall force
their way by the village of Matina, which is to the
southward oZ San Juan's. From the village of
Matina to the city of Carthago, there is but a
narrow road, and the distance about thirty miles;
whence, to the lake, there is a good military road
made of late years, for the more easily trans-
porting stores across the country. The city of
Carthago it is my purpose likewise to reduce, and
to establish a strong post there, which cannot be
forced but by regular approaches. This will pre-
vent the Spaniards from sending supplies to the
lake, or making an attempt on San Juan's fort
from that quarter. By these different move-
ments. I do not see how we can fail to bring about
that grand object, a communication between sea
and sea, and to co-operate with any naval force
that may be sent from England.
Even should I be so fortunate as to force my
way to Granada, I shall si.ll have in view the
attack on Carthago, by Rio Matina, in order not
only to distract and impede such succours as the
enemy may iniend to throw in from the eastward,
but likewise wo possess ihe flue conu; ry about the
cities of Caruhago and Nicoya. This will be the
more easily done, as the troops employed on that
service will, on ibe;r risaB flank, be well covered
by the fort and post of San Juan. In like manner,
the dive"sioi up Blue ields river io Mena will serve,
not only to pu,.,le the enemy, bub equally to cover
that im: :1.;ub fort and poss. Iu short it is my
opinion tha, even should we be so unfortunate as
to lose orr superiority at San Juan's harbour, soill,
by being in possession o! Bluefields. forming a
grand deposit there. opeuing a road to Mena on
the lake, and at the same time beitug in possession
of Carihago to the eastward, we should be enabled.
not only to support ourselves against an attack
from the enemy, but likewise to pursue onr intended
operations to the souhward; and that should
things come o the worst, and we should be obliged
to retire,. sill we should be able to ietreat from
Carihago to San Juan's by the Costa Rica river;
and from San Juan's, by Mena, to the road opened
from thence to Bluefields river, where our grand
deposit is to be. After all, I must own, I cannot
perceive how such a retreat could possibly become
necessary: for what with the military stores now
at San Juan's, those forwarding, and a deposit of
provisions established there, the fort and its envi-
rons put into a respectable state-I cannot, I say,
perceive, how the enemy, with the force they can
bring against us, could be able, but after a conside-
rable period indeed, and after infinite loss of time,
treasure and men, to drive us out of tie country.
More able generals in less difficult countries, and
after the best formed plans, have had disappoint-
ments: should I unfortunately add one to the
number, a conscientious determination to do my
duty, and to fulfil the intentions of my sovereign,
will, if not sweeten mine, at least render them
The command of the whole forces was to
have been given to General Garth, with as
second in command the Earl of Harrington
who had with him in his regiment Lord
Mulgrave, Major Richard Crewe, the Hon.
Paulet, Lord Henry Fitzgerald, the Hon.
Henry Lascelles, the Hon. Fred. St. John
and many others. The troops accompany-
ing these officers were the 85th, 92nd,
93rd and 94th Regiments, but they em-
barked in England many months too late
and then being delayed by a six month's
passage from England by contrary winds"
did not arrive in Jamaica till the 1st August
1780, instead of being on the Spanish Main
in January, so that they took no part in the
expedition. Dr. Benjamin Moseley who in
1780 was Surgeon-General of the Island of
Jamaica was to have gone with the expedi-
tion as surgeon-general, but he remained in
Jamaica awaiting the arrival of the above-
named regiments. While waiting for this
force General Dalling determined on send-
ing an advance party whose fortunes we
will now follow. The military command
of this was entrusted to Captain Poison, the
medical charge was given to Dr. Dancer of
Jamaica, and Nelson in the Hinchinbrook
was appointed to convoy the troops.
Two narratives of the San Juan expedi-
tion have been published; one by Dr.
Benjamin Moseley (who had, in all, he
says, twelve years extensive practice in the
West Indies) entitled A Treatise on
Tropical Diseases; on Military operations;
and on the climate of the West Indies," and
the other by Dr. Thomas Dancer, a King-
ston physician; entitled A Brief History
of the late Expedition against Fort St.
Juan, so far as it relates to the diseases of
the Troops." At least four editions.of
Moseley's work were printed : the first on
30th November, 1787, the second on 4tli
April, 1789, the third in 1795 witha capital'
index), and the fourth in 1803 or the early
part of 1804. The first edition of or;
Dancer's work was printed
1781'and was dedicated
while at least one other e
at Kingston in 1792.0 Dr
was. '%extremely scarce" a
lication' of Clarke and M
Nelsdn in 1809, and as be
an actual participator in t
one chiefly referred to
works have been drawn u
paper. Early in 1803 I
some remarks on this e
fourth edition of Dr. Mose
will be given later. It
that in the first three e(
ley does not mention 1
who had not then becor
The brief summary of the
by Nelson in his "Sketch
fitly preface our account,
" In January 1780, an
resolved on against St. Ji
to command the Sea pa
Poison, who commanded
my exertions: how I c
carried troops in boats o
up a river, which none bi
the time of the bucca
ascended that river. It
how I boarded, (if I ma
expression,) an outpost
situated on an Island on
made batteries, and after
and was a principal cau
From this scene I was
Janus, 44, at Jamaica ai
Royal in the Victor sloop.
'Collingwood in this as
cases succeeded Nelson
scene as Nelson went off,
of the affair in continuatic
here be given. It is take
tive of his life written in
The Hinchinbrooke was in
employed on an expedition to
where it was proposed to pass
by a navigation of boats along
and the lakes Nicaragua and I
formed without a sufficient knox
which presented difficulties n
by human skill or perseverance
to proceed on the river, from
current, and the numerous fa
intercepted the navigation; t
deadly, and no constitution co
At San Juan I joined the Hinc
ceeded Lord Nelson, who was
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
d at Kingston in ship; but he had received the infection of the
to General Dalling climate before he went from the port, and had a
do w a p fever, from which he could not recover until he
edition was printed quitted his ship anl went to England. My con-
. Dancer's account stitution resisted, many attacks, and I survived
It the time of pub- most of my ship's company, having buried in four
L'Arthur's Life of months 180 of the 200 who composed it. Mine
.in the relation of was not a singular case, for every ship that was
g e relation o g there suffered in the same degree. The trans-
he events was the ports' men all died, and some of the ships, having
by them. Both none left to take care of them, sunk in the harbour:
pon in the present but transport ships were not wanted, for the troops
ord Nelson wrote whom they had brought were no more; they had
fallen, not by the hand of an enemy, but from
expedition for the the contagion of the climate."
ley's work, which The foregoing are the general outlines of
is curious to note the expedition as given by Nelson and
litions Dr. Mose- Collingwood many years after. We may
by name Nelson now follow it in some detail by the light
ae world-famous. of the fuller accounts given by Clarke and
expedition given M'Arthur (based chiefly on Dr. Dancer)
of my Life" may and by Dr. Moseley. The latter says:
and is as follows. Every person '' : formed the most san-
Expedition being guine expectations. Happy was every man
ian's I was chosen who had hopes of bearing any part in the
art of it. Major enterprise. Enthusiasm never was carried
will tell you of to greater height, than by those who had
fittedd my Ship, promised to themselves the glory of shaking
ne hundred miles Spain to her foundation." As we have already
ut Spaniards since seen, the greater portion of the forces con.
neers had ever sisting of four regiments of the line were
will then be told expected from England with the General'
ay be allowed the who was to be in command, but these being.
of the Enemy, delayed there was sent off the first detach-
the river ; that I moat consisting of 200 men from the 60thand
rards fought them, 79th Regiments, 100 of the "Loyal Irish
se of our success. Corps"- and 200 Jamaican Volunteers."'
appointed to the This small force set sail in transports from
nd went to Port Port Royal on the 3rd February, 1780, under
the convoy of Nelson in the Ilinchinbrook.
in so many other On the 14th February they arrived at Cape
and came on the Gracias a Dios in order to embark the
and his summary friendly Mosquito Indians, and here the
un of Nelson's may soldiers encamped on a large plain called
n from his narra- Wank's Savanna about a mile from the sea.
1806. The soil of this plain was swampy, water
the spring of 1780, being found a foot or two below the surface,
the Spanish Main, and between it and the sea was a large river
Sinfn thP nllh Ra
the river San Juan
Leon. The plan was
wledgeof the country,
ot to be surmounted
e. It was dangerous
the rapidity of the
lls over rocks which
he climate too was
uld resist its effects.
hinbrooke, and suc-
promotod to a larger
S* For an account of Dancer see. p. 102, vol I. of this
tThis is probably a misprint for Royal" as, in the
list of the killed given by Moseley, it is thus spelt.
However the same misprint occurs later on in
*From an interesting article by "J" in the Daily
Gleaner of the 28th October, 1897, it would appear
that the "Jamaica Volunteers" or independent
companies" were enrolled in Jamaica about 1771 or
1772 as His Majesty's Forty Ninth Regiment now.
known as the Royal Berkshire Regiment, three:'om-
panies of which will, by the time this is published
be again in Jamaica-the first home of the Regi.
ment-for the first time since as "Jamaica Volun.
teers" it became a regiment of the line,
NELSON tN THE WEST INDiES.
of the same name, surrounded by 'Scots
grass' and mangroves, which excluded the
sea breeze from the camp. At this place
the number in hospital did not exceed 30
until they were joined by Captain Dalrym-
ple and Mr. Schomberg from Black River
-of the coast, not the Jamaica Black River
-with some of the 79th Regiment, whose
health was in a most deplorable account.'"
The troops were re-embarked on the 10th
of March and a few days after left the Cape;
and after anchoring at several places on the
Mosquito shore, the appointed rendezvous
for our allies the Indians (who were to fur-
nish proper boats for the passage of the
river), they arrived on the 24th at-the river
San Juan (Nelson says-many years after-
on the 28th), the men in general being in
good spirits and health. Here Nelson's ser-
vices in convoying the troops had strictly
come to an end. He had performed his part
of the service but, in his own words, in
some memoranda made at the time, there
not being a man who had ever been up the
river, or had an idea of the distance of any
fortification from its mouth, Captain Nel-
son manned the Mosquito shore craft, and
two of the Hinchinbrook's boats and carried
the soldiers up to the Castle of San Juan.
About 200 regulars were disembarked
with ammunition and stores, and together
with the Indians and a few seamen and
marines, proceeded up the river. As it
was then the latter end of the dry season
and the river was in parts very low, the
passage for several days after they left the
mouth of the river was rendered exceedingly
difficult. The men were frequently obliged
to quit the boats and haul them, thus light.
ened, through a number of shallow channels
previously selected by the Indians. During
this time the men were much exposed to
unwholesome influences. At this part the
river ran through marshes, and the adjacent
trees, Moseley says, grew so thickly as to
keep off the rays of the sun, the soil below
being covered with rotten leaves and putrid
vegetables. On the river itself the men be-
sides being exposed to the direct rays of the
sun freight hours or so everyday, were also
subjected to the intense heat reflected from
many dry shoals covered with a whitish
sand, followed by exposure to the heavy
dews at night. After some days they arrived
in deeper water when they made quicker
progress, butoccasional rapids, Moseley says,
would have been insurmountable but for the
skill of the Indians.
On this occasion as in many other similar
cases (extending indeed up to the time of
writing in the case of the Benin Expedition)
the blue jackets bore the brunt of the hard
work, in getting the boats up against the
current and rapids or through the shoals,
assisted to some extent by the Indians. Dr.
Dancer adds, "The soldiery, partly from
ignorance in these matters, and partly from
that indolence which was the natural effect
of their situation, were frequently of very
On the 9th April, this advanced party
arrived at a small island in the river called
St. Bartholomew, which was distant about
sixteen miles from the Castle, and which
commanded the navigation in a rapid and
difficult part, and was defended by a small
semi-circular battery, mounting nine or ten
swivels, under the charge of twelve or
eighteen soldiers. Nelson, to use his own
expression, boarded this battery at the head
of a few of his sailors. Leaping on shore
with such impetuosity that he had to leave
his shoes in the mud before he could extri-
cate himself he put the Spaniards to flight
to be only stopped higher up by the In-
dians posted for that purpose. A few shots
only from the enemy were received, by
which two men were wounded. In the at-
tack Nelson was bravely supported by Lieu-
tenant Despard, who afterwards in 1803
conspired with a party of soldiers to assassi-
nate King George III., for which he duly
suffered the death penalty. Clarke and
M'Arthur add that several Honduras mer-
chants to whom Despard was personally
known declared, after his death, that "his
insanity was indisputable."0
On their way up the party had other
perils to encounter. As one of the men was
passing along, a snake darted from the
bough of a tree and bit him under the eye,
with the result that the man was unable to
proceed, and when one of his comrades was
sent to look after him he was found dead
aAd putrified. Nelson himself narrowly es-
caped a similar fate. He was asleep in'his
hammock when a monitory lizard passed
across his face. The Indians woke him
and he then found one of the most veno-
mous of the many snakes of that country,
For a short memoir of Despard, see p. 184, vol. II,
of this Journal.
IELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
curled up at his feet. Clarke and M'Arthur
state that this monitory lizard is so called
from its faculty of warning persons of the
approach of any venomous animal. Nel-
son's escape seemed to the simple Indians
preternatural, and impressed them with the
idea that he was under special protection.
On another occasion Nelson and his men
suffered severely from drinking at a spring,
into which some branches of the manchion-
eal apple had been thrown, this being a
poison used by the Indians for their arrows,
and it was the opinion of the Duke of
Clarence, from whom this anecdote was re-
ceived, that the delicate health of his friend
then experienced a severe and lasting injury.
On the 11th April the party came in
sight of the Castle at San Juan, and on the
18th, the siege was commenced. Nelson
wished, with the same well calculated, not
rash, impetuosity so often displayed in after
years, to attack at once, but he was not in
charge of the military operations and his
advice was not accepted. Batteries had to
be thrown up and the ammunition and stores
had to be transported by a very bad road
through the woods from the landing place
two or three miles below the castle. The
hills occupied by the men, however, afforded
safe positions so that only two or three
were killed, and nine or ten wounded, and
for some time they were elated at the near
prospect of victory. But the rainy weather
set in and the whole party, sailors, soldiers,
and Indians, began to fall sick. However,
the castle surrendered on the 24th, after a
siege of eleven days with a loss to the
British of two or three men killed and nine
or ten wounded.
San Juan Castle is situated sixty-nine
miles up the river from the mouth and
thirty-two from the lake of Nicaragua.
Moseley says the navigation up took ordi-
narilynine days, but for loaded boats the time
was much longer, while the return journey
could be made in a day and a half. Moseley
remarks that the best concerted and most
important enterprise that had been con-
ceived during the war was here defeated by
the unfortunate delay before the castle,
which after all surrendered when it was
summoned, the arrival of the spring period-
ical rains with their ensuing diseases pre.
venting the little army from pushing on
to the dry, pleasant and healthful plains
and agreeable towns of Grenada and Leon
near the lake in the province of Nicaragua,
which was "justly termed by the Spaniards
Mahomet's Paradise." Here they could have
maintained themselves with the reinforce-
ment which came from Jamaica on the 10th
April, till the seasons had permitted of the
arrival of the large force we have already
seen was on its way from England. The
following account of the disastrous part of
this expedition is taken from Dr. Dancer.
"The castle having surrendered we hoped that
our victory would furnish us not only with ac-
commodation, but with many useful supplies,
that might tend in some degree to stop our in-
creasing sickness; but the wretched state of the
garrison, provided with nothing that could lend
either them, or us, the least comfort, and the in-
convenient structure of the place, which was
worse than any garrison, disappointed us in those
flattering expectations. Our men, therefore, now
falling down in great numbers, added to all their
other misfortunes, had no proper hospital for re-
ceiving them; the wretched houses, or sheds to
which we were obliged to give that name, being,
from the dirt and filth surrounding them, n
ing chiefly of semi-putrid skins, I will not say
merely improper hospitals, but a certain grave to
almost all who entered them. Although the un-
healthiness of these houses was represented to the
Commander-in-Chief, [Colonel Kemble of the 60th,
who afterwards joined the party] and his orders
were obtained for building a proper hospital, these
orders could never be carried into execution; the
sickness becoming so general, that there was
neither artificer to work, nor soldier to assist him.
As to hospital accommodations, we had them
in abundant quantity but not at our hospital, where
they were wanted. There not being a sufficient
number of crift for transporting the ammunition
and stores up the river, only a certain quantity of
each could be put on board, which, in many cases,
was not competent to the exigencies of the service;
and the sickness increasing, rendered our future
supplies from the transports still more precarious.
So general was the illness at this time, and ever
afterwards, that independent of the few who were
well enough to do garrison duty, we had not orderly
men sufficient to assist the sick. From the month
of April, when the castle surrendered until October
when the army returned to Bluefields and for some
time afterwards, the rains continued, with now and
then an interval of a few days, to fall in prodigious
quantities; and, occasionally, with the most dread-
ful thunderstorms. The exhausted and debilitated
state which most of the men werein, on being re-
embarked for Bluefields, an English settlement
about twenty leagues to the northward, rendered
the situation and air of a ship's hold mortal to
them, and a great number died on their passage."
The main body was thus obliged to quit
their "flattering conquest" in October (or
September, according to Moseley) leaving
behind them a few of the men thought
most likely to live in order to keep posses-
sion of the castle, if possible, till further
orders should come from Jamaica. Dr,
NELSON IN TEE WEST INDIES.
Dancer himself it may be remarked had to
leave before this date on account of ill
Dr. Moseley says that great as were the
inconveniences of those troops arriving late
who remained in Jamaica--the 93rd and
94th Regiments arrived in a miserable con-
dition, the first bringing the gaol distemper
from England, and those who did not perish
on the voyage being so reduced as almost
all to die in Jamaica-those who went on
this expedition suffered much more, and that
it was long doubtful whether those who were
thrown into the river or lay unburied on the
banks, a prey to wild beasts, (some being
actually devoured, he says, by tigers0 and
carrion crows) were not in a more enviable
state than the survivors, some of whom
had their intellects impaired during their
weak and convalescent state. According
to Moseley, out of 1800 people who were
sent to "different posts at different embarka-
tions" none of the Europeans retained their
health above nineteen days, and not more
than 380 ever returned and those chiefly
in a miserable condition. It was otherwise
with the negroes employed on this occasion,
very few of whom were ill, and Moseley
adds that it was the same at the taking of
Fort Omoa from the Spaniards (already re-
ferred to) where half the Europeans who
landed died in six weeks, but very few
of the negroes, and not one out of 200
that were African born, died,-" the creole
negroes did not bear hardships so well."
Moseley gives a detailed list-" nearly an
accurate account"-from which we find that
the following was the loss of life among the
officers in the San Juan Expedition :-60th
Regiment, 6 ; 79th Regiment, 10; Royal Irish
Corps, 2; Jamaican Volunteers, 10; Legion
Corps, 6; Batteaux Corps, 10; Black Reg-
[iment] Volunteers, 4; Armed Vessels, 2;
Artillery, 2; Navy, 4; and Marines (inclu-
dingSurgeons and Surgeons Mates, 11) 13;
a grand total of 69 officers who perished.-
*This would of course be the American Tiger or
tThe following are the full details:-60th Regi-
muent.-Lieutenants 3, Ensigns 3. 79?." ',.;, 't.-
Major 1, Captain 1, Lieutenants 5, Er ..: '. t.'' :/
Irish Corps.-Captains 2. Jamnaic. I .... :--
Captains 4, Lieutenants 4, Ensign 1, Quarter Master
1. Legion Corps.-Captain i, Lieutenants 5. Bat-
teaua Corps.-Lieut. Colonel 1, Captains 3, Lien-
tenants 5, Ensign 1. Black Reg. Volunteers.-Cap-
tain 1, Lieutenants 3. Armed Vessels.-Captains 2.
Artillery.-Lieutenant 1, Commissary 1. Navy.-
Captain 1, Lieutenant 1, Masters 1. Marines.-Lieu-
tenants 2, Surgeons 4, Surgeons' Mates 7.-Total 69.
Moseley says he related more of the ex-
pedition and its consequences than he would
have done had it not formed part of a cam-
paign in which he was employed, besides
constituting the most striking example found
in history of the ill effects of exposing men
to the rigour of the wet seasons in hot cli-
mates; and that he had suppressed much
more as irrelative to medicinal history, not
for want of authentic materials, nor for
want of disapprobation of many circum-
stances connected with it. We may note
incidentally in connection with the Mos.
quito Indians that Moseley states that the
English territories in Central America con-
sisted of the Bay of Honduras, commencing
at Cape Catouche and ending at Cape Hon-
duras, and of the Mosquito Shore, com-
mencing at the latter cape, and extending
to the San Juan river, and that the three
principal settlements were at Black River,
Cape Gracias h Dies and Bluefields. Britain
still possesses British Honduras and the last
phase of the Protectorate over the Mosquito
Indians came before the public only two or
three years ago.o
But we have gone too fast. Coming back to
Nelson, we find that Dr. Moseley, although,
as already stated, he did not mention Nel-
son's name in the first edition of his work,
gives the following account of the hero in
Clarke and M'Arthur's Life. It was on
our San Juan expedition that he commenced
his.career of glory: when unfortunate con-
tentions had slackened the ardour for pub-
lic service, Captain Nelson did not suffer
any narrow spirit to influence his conduct.
He did more than his duty: when anything
was to be done, he saw no difficulties: not
contented with having carried the arma-
ment safe to the harbour of San Juan, he
accompanied and assisted the troops in all
their difficulties. He was the first on shore
at the attack of Saint Bartholomew, followed
by a few brave seamen and soldiers, in the
face of a severe fire. The undauntedness of
the act frightened the Spaniards, who, from
the nature of the ground, might have put
him and his party to death, but they ran
away and abandoned the battery. By his
example and perseverance the Indians and
seamen were encouraged through their toil
*In the Finance Accounts of the Jamaica Govern-
ment for the year 1896-97 there appears the fol-
lowing entry: "Advances to be recovered:-Im-
perial Government-Mosquito Chief 1,277 10s." A
maintenance allowance is being paid to Chief Cla-
rence in Kingston.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
in forcing the boats against the current up
the river; otherwise not a man would have
seen San Juan Castle. When they arrived
at the Castle, as prompt in thought as bold
in action, he advised the carrying it in-
stantly by assault. He knew the seasons
were at hand, and that there was no time
to be lost. Misunderstandings, opposition,
and delays, the ruin of many military opera-
tions, were the origin of the failure of this :
but even these perplexities and disappoint-
ments, great as they were, would not have
defeated the expedition, had the first de-
tachment that General Dalling sent taken
San Juan Castle in two hours, instead of
sitting down formally before itfor eleven
We may close our quotations with Nel-
son's own remarks, written in 1803 for the
-fourth edition of Moseley's book. Had
the expedition arrived at San Juan's har *
bour in the month of January, the violent
torrents would have subsided, and of course
the whole army would not have had occa-
sion, which was the case in April, to get
wet three or four times a day in dragging
the boats. They would then have arrived
at the Castle by the middle of February,
and had between two or three months of
fair season to have established themselves,
with all the stores, in the healthy country
of Grenada and Leon; and then, I think, a
road for carriages might have been made
from Bluefields harbour, a healthier place
than San Juan's, to the Lake Nicaragua.
The fever which destroyed the army and
navy attached to that expedition, was inva-
iiably from twenty to thirty days before it
attacked the new-comer, and I cannot give
a stronger instance than that in the Hinch-
inbrooke, with a complement of two hundred
men, eighty-seven took to their beds in one
night; and of the two hundred, one hundred
and forty-five were buried in mine and Cap-
tain Collingwood's time; and I believe very
few, not more than ten, survived of that
ship's crew; a proof how necessary expedi.
tion is in those climates."
While the force was besieging Fort San
Juan, the Victor, sloop of war, which had
sailed from Jamaica with a reinforcement
arrived at the coast on the 10th of April,
with the news of Nelson's promotion to the
command of the Janus. Nelson accordingly
returned to the harbour at Bluefields only
one day previous to the surrender of the
Castle, and this removal no doubt saved his
life, as when the news arrived he was in a
precarious state of health. To this scene
of death Dr. Dancer applied the follow-
ing lines from Thomson's Summer" (origi-
nally written in allusion to the sufferings
of the seamen under Admiral Vernon in
another expedition which had sailed from
Jamaica, viz., that on the 28th January,
1741, against Carthagena.)
"You heard the groans
Of agonizing ships, from shore to shore:
Heard nightly plunged amid the sullen waves
The frequent corse; while on each other fixed
In sad presage, the blank assistants seemed
Silent to ask whom fate would next demand."
In the Victor sloop, Captain Samuel Hood
Walker-a nephew of Lord Hood--Nelson
returned to Jamaica. John Tyson, who had '
been Nelson's purser' in the Badger, and
was afterwards his Secretary, was at that
time in the Victor, and attended him in his
illness while on board. The Victor at the
same time carried despatches from Major
Polson to General Dalling. In one dated
the 30th April, Polson wrote as follows:
" Captain Nelson then of the Hinchinbrooke,
came up with thirty-four seamen, one ser-
geant and twelve marines. I want words
to express the obligations I owe that gentle-
man. le was the first on every service
whether by night by day. There was
scarcely a gun but what was pointed by
him or Lieutenant Despard. As Captain
Nelson goes to Jamaica he can inform you
of every delay and point of service as well
as I could for he knows my very thoughts."
General Dalling fully recognized the value
of Nels in's services. In a note to Nelson
dated Kingston, May 3n, 1780, the General
said Thanks to you, my friend, for your
kind congratulations : to you, without com-
pliment do I attribute in a great measure
the cause," and subsequently in the follow-
ing private letter to Lord George Ger-
main, Secretary of State for the American or
Colonial Department,t he wrote as follows:
Jamaica, June 29th. 1780.
My Lord,-I have hitherto neglected a piece of
justice due to the services of Captain Nelson of
H.M.S Hinchinbrooke, who conveyed the first de-
tachment of troops to St. Johns. On his arrival
there, the commanding officer experienced every
kind of assistance and attention from him; he left
his ship in the harbour, and accompanied the first
division up the river to the Fort. with some of his
'The officer now called paymaster.
tThis Department was abolished in 1782 by Burke's
Act 22 Geeo. III. Cap 82 on the loss of the United
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
seamen ; he then dedicated himself to erecting bat-
teries, and afterwards to fighting them. Unfortu-
nately for the service, he was obliged to return to
the harbour, being appointed to another ship at
this Island; but he remained at the fort until the
day before it surrendered.
I most humbly entreat that his majesty will be
graciously pleased, through your lordship, to mani-
fest a satisfaction of Captain Nelson's conduct; and
in case that a co-operating squadron should have
been determined on for the sother ocan that
he may be 'employedon that service. Captain Nel-
son's constitution is rather too delicate for the ser-
vice under my direction on this northern one: as
such minds, my lord, are most devoutly to be
wished, for government's sake, I once more ven-
tare to urge this suit.
The end of this whole business was that
the Spaniards re-took Fort San Juan as soon
as the season permitted, and with it those
who had not strength enough to make their
escape. Previous to this, however, our troops
had reached the Lake Nicaragua, and a
chart of the river and of the lake was taken
and sent to England. The foregoing full
accounts of the expedition are given not
only on account of the interest attaching to
Nelson's deeds, but also on account of the
interest attaching in Jamaica to one of the
most considerable military expeditions des-
patched from the island.
Nelson returned to Jamaica suffering so
severely from fever and dysentery that he
had to be carried ashore in his cot to the
lodging house of his former black nurse,
Cuba Cornwallis, a respectable negress who
had obtained her freedom from the noble
admiral of that name, and who we are told
saved the lives of many naval officers.*
He was subsequently removed, say Clarke
and M'Arthur, to the house or penn of the
Admiral near Kingston. Here Lady Parker
and her housekeeper, Mrs. Yates, sat up
with him in turns, and even the admiral, it
is said, helped at times to nurse his friend.
It is also stated that Nelson's aversion to
taking medicine was so great that they had to
send it by the admiral's youngest daughter,
a little girl who also helped to nurse him.
We find later that Nelson felt the coldness
*Richard Hill in "A week at Port Royal" says
she had been the mistress of Admiral Cornwallis
when a young officer on the station. Hill speaks of
her as Couba," but Nelson always writes Cuba."
Hill also says that she "soothed many a headache"
of Prince William, and that many years afterwards
Queen Adelaide in remembrance of kindnesses to her
royal Consort sent Cuba" a present of a costly
gown, which the latter would not wear while alive,
but kept till her death, which occurred in 1848, and
in it was buried.
of the operating knife so much (in those
pre-chloroform days) that h, afterwards on
going into action desired the surgeons to
keep hot water ready to plunge the knife
in before the cutting began.
On the 2nd June, Nelson was so far re-
covered as to be able to write to Poison at
San Juan, the following letter, congratulat-
ing him on the reduction of the Fort (which,
as we have seen, took place the day after
Nelson had been called away.)
To Captain Polson.
[Autograph in the possession of P. S. Benwell,
Esq. Captain Poison, at the time of this
letter in the 60th Regiment, obtained his
Majority in the 92nd Regiment on the 20th
Port Royal, 2nd June, 1780.
I assure you nothing gave me more pleasure
than to hear of your reducing the Fort, before the
arrival of Kemble,* or any of the folks of the
Second Division. When I arrived at Jamaica, I
saw General Dallingt several times, and I told
him of all your transactions from our first setting
out; our troubles on the Mosquito Shore, &c.,
which I thought you would wish, as no letters had
arrived. He expressed himself very much pleased
with your conduct on every occasion, and ex-
pressed a very great regard for you, and was very
sorry he was obliged to send down older Officers.
But when the news arrived of the reduction of
the Fort, I assure you've expressed the greatest
pleasure it happened to you; and the news arriving
of the plundering Black River by the Governor of
Camayagoa, I told him of your sending back the
Black River Company, and only taking 40 men
from Tempest, instead of 150; and advising to send
200 men to Black River; and that these 40 men
had run away, so that not one Indian was taken to
the Westward of the Cape. He was much pleased
with those matters, as it takes off all reflection
of taking the Inhabitants of the Shore to go upon
I am sorry you and so many of the Officers are
not well; but I sincerely hope you are recovered
before this. General Dalling will be with you by
the middle of July, you may depend upon it. Pray
remember me kindly to the two Despards,+ 1 Bul-
Lt.-Col. Stephen Kemble, who commanded the
60th or Royal American Regiment, to which Captain
Poison belonged. The late Hon. H. J. Kemble,
Custos of Kingston, was a descendant ofCol. Kemble.
t Governor of Jamaica.
ICaptain Andrew Despard; and Lieutenant, after-
wards Col Edward Marcus Despard, of the 79th Regi-
ment, mentioned above (p. 397). Lord Nelson
attended his trial, and gave satisfactory evidence of
his bravery and character as an Officer. There was
also a Thomas Despard, who was then an ensign in
the same regiment.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
keley,2 Harrison,3 Monnsey,4 and all my good
friends about you; and believe me with very great
Your ever well wisher.
And obedient Servant,
On the 11th June, Nelson went up to the
hill residence of Admiral and Lady Parker,
and the day after we find him writing to his
friend Hercules Ross the following letter:-
To Hereles Ross, Esq., Kingston, Jamaica.
[From a copy in the Nelson Papers.]
Ad's. Mountain, June 12th, 1780.
1 got up here yesterday morning, and am but
just got out of bed to answer your letter. I am
exceedingly obliged to you for sending the letters.
Oh, Mr. Ross, what would I give to be at Port
Royal. Lady P. not here, and the servants letting
me lay as if a log. and take no notice.
I am yours, most sincerely,
It will be seen that Nelson dates this
letter from "AdIs. Mountain." It would
be interesting to know where this place
was. It would seem that the Parkers had
two houses, one near Kingston and one on
the hills; the former one, was of course
the place known until the present day as
"Admiral's Penn," now the Union Poor
House and the Girl's Reformatory. This
place was bought on the 13th January
1774 by Jasper Hall et al., Commissioners
for purchasing a pen for the Admiral on
the Station, from Jno. Dalling et ux. for
the sum of 2,500 (?Currency.) On the
20th May 1863 Thos. Cushnie for the
Executive Committee bought it for 600
(Sterling), which purchase is recorded in
Lib. 937 Fol. 35, in addition to which
the Act 22 Vic. Cap. 27 vests Admiral's
Penn in the Colonial Government. But
it seems quite impossible that it could
also be what Nelson terms in this
letter Adis. Mountain." This can only
be short for Admiral's Mountain,"t and
(2) Captain Richard Bulkeley, of the 79th Regi-
(3) Apparently Captain William Causabon Harri-
son, of a Corps serving in Jamaica." Vide the Army
List for 1780. A Lieutenant Robert Harrison was
then serving in the same Corps.
(4) Captain.Lieutenant James Mounsey, or Lieuten-
ant Thomas Mounsey, of the 79th Regiment.
tThere is no mention of the mountain residence
of the Admiral by Lady Nugent in her Diary
1803-1805, but Admiral's Penn near Kingston is often
referred to. The author is doing his best to track it
down and has obtained certain information but has
not yet been able definitely to fix the place. It will
therefore have to be referred to in a separate Note
in a subsequent part of this Paper. Any information
concerning it will be gladly received,
the supposition that 'mountain' did mean
a hill residence and not a position on
the sloping plain behind Kingston, only
about a hundred feet above sea level,
is further confirmed by Nelson's remarks
that I got up here yesterday morn-
ing," that he was obliged for the let-
ters sent by Ross (who was in Kingston),
and that Lady Parker was not in the house.
The authority for the statement that Nelson
was removed to the "house or penn" of
Admiral Parker "near Kingston" is Clarke
and M'Arthur's work, while the inform-
ation about Admiral's. Mountain is taken
from the above letter from Nelson himself.
Some time after, too, we find a reference in
one of Nelson's letters to the Parkers as
" enjoying the mountains" of Jamaica.
Nelson recovered sufficiently to take com-
mand of his new ship, the Janus,o for a
short time, but having had a relapse, he
made application on the 30th of August to
the admiral for leave in the following
To Sir Peter Parker, Knight, Vice-Admiral of
the Blue, and Commander-in-Chief at Jamaica.
[Original in the Admiralty.]
Port Royal, Jamaica, the 30th of August, 1780.
Having been in a very bad state of health for
these several months past, so bad as to be unable
to attend my duty on board the Janus, and the
faculty having informed me that I cannot recover
in this climate; I am therefore to request that
you will be pleased to permit me to go to England
for the re-establishment of my health.
I am, Sir, &c.,
It appears that Dr. Moseley in particular
had urged the absolute necessity of his im-
mediate return to Europe. The admiral in
his reply, dated two days later said, The
Report of the Surgeons who have examined
into your complaints confirm my opinion of
the absolute necessity for your immediate
return to Europe; and you have therefore my
leave to go to England by the first opportu-
nity, with my very sincere wishes for your
speedy recovery; being with true esteem,
Sir, your most obedient humble servant, P.
Parker." The opportunity proved to be the
Lion, whose Captain was Nelson's friend, the
Hon. Wm. Cornwallis, who had lived with
*The following officers Served with Captain Nelson
in the Janus, from the 2nd May 1780 to the 19th
September following: Lieutenants, Geo. H. Stevens,
J. C. Haswell, C. U. Priswick, and Henry Knight;
Surgeon T. Jameson; Master J. Flenerick; Purser,
tin the Nelson Papers.
NPLsON h f9f PHP WEST INDICES.
him at Port Royal in January of the same
year; and Nelson said in his 'Sketch of my
Life' that the care and attentionof this officer
asain saved his life on the voyage home.
The frailty of Nelson's body was such that
that he frequently nearly came to a prema-
ture end. From the camp before Calvi in
August 1784, he writes to the Duke of
Clarence, "I am here the reed amongst the
oaks : all the prevailing disorders have at-
tacked me, but I have not strength for
them to fasten upon : I bow before the
storm whilst the sturdy oak is laid low."
Nelson left Jamaica just in time to
escape three destructive hurricanes which
visited the West Indies in the following
month viz. : October 1780, and in which
many ships and men were lost. The
first is known as the Jamaica hurricane of
the 3rd October (which destroyed Savanna-
la-Mar and left only two houses in Lucea)
and the second as the Barbados hurricane
of the 10th October; the third, known as
Solano's storm of 16th October, in the Gulf
of Mexico, did not do any damage to British
ships. At that time the command of the
British Fleet in the West Indies was divided.
Sir Peter Parker, as we have seen, com-
manded at Jamaica, but Sir George Rodney
was off New York in the Sandwich, having
gone to the coast of America with a portion
of his fleet before the storms occurred. Of
Sir Peter Parker's squadron, the Thunderer,
Stirling Castle, Scarborough, Barbados,
Phoenix, Deal Castle, Victor and the En.
deavour were all lost in the first two
storms, and nearly the whole of their crews
perished. Of Sir George Rodney's squad-
ron, the Blanche, Andromeda, Laura, Came-
lion and Beaver's Prize were lost. Here
we have thirteen men-of-war and nearly
the whole of their crews lost in one month.
Well may Kipling write -
"We have fed our seas for a thousand years
And she calls on us, still unfed,
Though there's never a wave of all her waves
But marks our English dead:
We have showed our best to the weed's unrest
To the shark and the sheering gull.
If blood be the price of Admiralty,
Lord God, we ha' paid in full I"
In addition to this we find that in the
same stormsthere were dismastedorseverely
damaged the following warships :-Of Sir
Peter Parker's squadron, the Berwick, Hec.
tor, Trident, Ruby, Bristol, Ulysses, Pomona
and Badger, the latter being also driven
ashore in Lucea harbour ; of Rodney's squad-
ron, the Vengeance, Montague, Ajax, Ale-
mene, Egmont, Endymion, Albemarle, Venus
and Amazon. The following ships of Sir
Peter.Parker's squadron which were out
of the.destructive radius of these storms,
escaped :-The Porcupine, James (? Janus),
Princess Royal, Pallas, Diamond, Pelican
and Lowestoffe. We have above an idea of
the perils of the sea before the days of steam
and the understanding of the ways of
In the work (Reid's Law of Storms")
from which the foregoing particulars are
taken, there is no mention made of the
Hinchinbrook (which left the coast" in
August)', but of other ships connected with
Nelson or Collingwood at this period we see
that tli Bristol, the ship in which both had
served as lieutenants, was dismasted, the
Badger, which both had commanded, was
dismasted and cast ashore at Lucea, the Vic-
tor, which had brought Nelson back to
Jamaica from San Juan, was lost with all
hands, and the Albemarle. which was to be
Nelson's next ship, was also dismasted, while
the Lozbestoffe which brought Nelson origi-
nally to Jamaica, escaped the storm, as did
the Pelican, afterwards commanded by Col-
lingwodd. The Pelican escaped, however,
only to be wrecked on the Morant Keys in a
hurricane the following August.
Nels6n arrived in England on the 20th
November 1780. This date we are enabled
to fix from a letter written by him to
the Admiralty on the 18th October 1783
asking that, as he had been obliged to
quit the Janus on account of ill health,
he might be allowed whole pay' from that
date, viz., 4th September 1780, to the date
of his arrival in England, 20th Novem-
ber. After again experiencing Admiral
Parker's hospitality (according to Clarke
and M'Arthur) at the admiral's London
house, where an old domestic retained for
years after a lively recollection of the sick
captain, Nelson proceeded for the recovery
of his health to Bath, the great resort of
naval officers in those times, and remained
there several months. While there he was
so ill that he was obliged to be carried to
and from his bed, with the most excrucia-
ting tortures ; but in January 1781, he
reports himself as on the mend, and in
February as being nearly restored. It was
during' this period that a portrait was
painted'of Nelson by John Francis Rigaud,
NELSON IN THE 'WEST INDIES.
R.A. and' given by the hero to Captain
Locker who also received about the same
time presents of the portraits of two other
captains, afterwards admirals, Sir George
Montagu and Sir Charles MIorice Pole with
the latter of whom Nelson had become
acquainted while on his service in Jamaica.
In writing to Captain Locker from Bath in
February concerning his p rtrait, Nelson
told him that when Locker got the pictures
he (Nelson) must be placed in the middle
"for God knows, without good Supporters,
I shall fall to the ground." Nelson's por-
trait was accordingly placed by Captain
Locker between those of Captains Montagu
and Pole, and in 1845 (when Nicolas issued
his work) it was in the possession of Captain
Locker's son, Edward Hawke Looker, Esq.,
F.R.S. It i. now in the possession of the
present Eirl Nelson. It is a copy of this
portrait which, by the courtesy of Mr.
George Allen, the publisher of "Nelson
and his Companions in Arms" by Pro-
fessor Laughton, is attached to this article.
It is especially interesting owing to the fact
that 4t is one of the very few poi traits known
of Nelson which show his right arm.
So fair as the likeness to Nelson goes, it is
to be noted that on the 21st February he
writes to Captain Locker as to my picture,
it will not be the least like what I am now,
that is certain ; but you may tell Mr.
Rigaud to add beauty to it, and it will be
much mended." From this we may gather
that Nelson had sat for the portrait (if
indeed he wls able to sit up),in London
immediately after his return from Jamaica
and when he was looking extremely ill and
not, as Lvighton says, apparently in Feb-
ruary, 1781" seeing that on the 21st of Feb-
ruary Nelson says "it will not be the least
like what I am now." In this letter he
added that he was going to stay at Bath
a few weeks longer to avoid the cold
weather which he believed to be setting
in for you know this is like Jamaica to
any other part of England."
The next year and a half of Nelson's life
may be thus summarised in his own words.
" In August, 1781, I'was commissioned for
the Albenmarle [a frigate of 28 guns] ; and,
it would almost be supposed, to try my
constitution, was kept the whole winter in
the North Sea. In April, 1782, I sailed with
a convoy for Newfoundland and Quebec,
under the orders of Captain Thomas Pringle.
From Quebec, during a cruise off Boston, I
was chased by three French Ships of the
Line, and the Iris frigate: as they all beat
me in sailing very much, I had no chance
left, but running them amongst the shoals
of St. George's bank. This alarmed the
Line-of-Battle Ships and they quitted the
pursuit; but the Frigate continued, and at
sunset was little more than gun-shot dis-
tant: when the Line-of-Battle Ships being
out of sight, I ordered the main-top-sail to
be laid to the mast; when the Frigate
reached, and stood to rejoin her consorts."
On the 24th August, 1781, Nelson gives
the following account of the Albemarle,
in which he afterwards went to Jamaica.
'" Yesterday I went down to Woolwich
with Maurice, and hoisted my Pendant, and
I am perfectly satisfied with her, as a
twenty-eight gun Frigate. She is in dock,
alongside the Enterprize, and in some
respects, I think, excells her. She has a
bold entrance and clean run. The Enter-
prize a lean bow, which does not answer so
well with copper, as they always allow for
sheathing, which is upwards of an inch
more in thickness, therefore she wants that
much. The Albemarle is not so wide, upon
the gun-deck, by four inches, but the same
beam; the gun-deck six feet high; between
decks very low indeed about five feet. She
is now coppering," &c.
In December, 1781, we find what we may
term a connecting link between Nelson and
the great victory achieved by Rodney off
Dominica on the 12th April, 1782, in the
person of a Mr. Mitchell, who had been
serving as one of the mates on board the
Albemarle. Nelson writes to Locker (30th
December) Mr. Mitchell this morning,
has shown me a letter from an uncle of his,
which he received last night, telling him
that he was to go out with Sir George
Rodney, and that you had wrote to me in
the Downs to discharge him. I therefore
instantly discharged him, and have given
[him] a boat to go on shore with his things,
although it blows pretty hard." Nelson
did not kinoto then, although he might have
foretold perhaps that on this occasion
Rodney was to win a glorious victory with
his fleet. If he had known, what, to use
Collingwood's expression, would not he
have given to be there !
We may trace other West Indian con-
nections between Rodney and Nelson. The
1. F. Rigaud, Pinxit. WVm. H. Ward & Co., Sc.
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
year 1771 took Rodney to Jamaica to
command the Station, and Nelson to the
West Indies in a merchant ship to learn
seamanship. In 1779, the young Captain,
Nelson, was in command of Fort Charles,
Jamaica, then in fear of invasion, and it
was in 1779 that the veteran Admiral
Rodney was again sent out, as Commander-
in-Chief, to preserve the West Indies, on
the voyage out fighting a successful battle
in a storm on the coast of Spain and after-
wards partially routing the enemy in two
battles in the West Indies in 1780. the
year in which Nelson took part in the San
Juan Expedition. At the end of 1781,
Nelson, as we have seen, parted with one of
his officers from the Albemarle for the
latter to go out with Rodney to his brilliant
victory off Dominica, which dispelled for
over twenty years the fear of invasion in
Jamaica, (Nelson as we shall see doing a
similar service later on) after which, in
1782, Nelson on special application served
under Lord Hood, Rodney's second in com-
mand in his great victory. Before the sun
of the one hero had set that of the other
had already appeared over the sea: thus is
the continuity of our naval heroes kept up.
While Nelson was still in the Downs
about this time we find in the log of the
Albemarle another example of the powers
then given by law to the Navy to impress.
We learn from one of his letters that he
had to fire 26 nine-pounders and one
eighteen-pounder, shotted, at an East India-
man and eventually to run the Albemarle
alongside before they would allow tenders
to come alongside to take the men required.
On the 10th March 1782 we find Nelson
giving Capt. Locker some Jamaica news.
Nelson had received a letter from Hercules
Ross, dated the 31st December, 1781,
stating that he had been twice on his way to
England, once being driven back by the
French Fleet and the other time being ship-
wrecked, but that he was going to make
another trial and Nelson supposed would
arrive in 'this Convoy.' Nelson said that
Ross desired his particular compliments to
Capt. Locker and that the letter was as
friendly as he had ever received. He went
on to say that all the Admiral's [Sir Peter
Parker's] family were well and enjoying
.the mountains and daily increasing in
wealth, that General Dalling, the Governor,
had lauded at Portsmouth the night before,
having come home in the Ranger armed
ship, that one or two of the convoy had
arrived, and that the Jupiter arrived
yesterday morning with a brig from St.
Domingo and a French privateer." In
conclusion he says that he had just learnt
that the Ranger's convoy had most of them
been taken in the Gulf of Florida by
two line of battle ships, and one armed
schooner, so that he supposed Ross had
been carried into the Havannah. We have
in this description a graphic epitome of
the dangers of travel in those days.
It was when Nelson arrived at Newfound-
land on the 27th May, 1782, that he heard of
Rodney's engagement with the Count de
Grasse in the West Indies on the 12th April,
1782, which he thus refers to in a letter
to Captain Locker. "We have heard the
news from the West Indies, but not particu-
lars: it is reported that the Duke blew up
in the action. I hope to God it is not true.
I had rather the French were at the devil,
than have lost Captain Gardner: He is a
real loss to the service." The report of the
explosion of the Duke was unfounded, and
Captain Alan Gardner, who greatly distin.
guished himself in her in that battle, and on
numerous other occasions, was Commodore
on the Jamaica station when Nelson was in
the Leeward Islands, became an admiral,
was raised to the peerage, both in England
and Ireland, and died in December, 1808.
It was while Nelson was at Quebec that
there is said to have occurred the first
of his love affairs. We are not, however,
given any particulars of the lady's name
and position, but Clarke and M'Arthur say
that she afterwards married and resided in
London. After the Albermarle had gone
down the river in readiness to sail, a friend
named Dawson, who was Nelson's agent in
London in later years, met Nelson next
morning on his way back, intending to re-
turn to the town. Nelson told his friend
that it was impossible for him to leave
Quebec without again seeing the woman
whose society had contributed so much to
his happiness and offering her his hand.
"If you do," said his friend "your utter
ruin must eventually follow." Then let
it follow," said Nelson, "for I am resolved
to do it." "And I," replied Dawson, "am
resolved you shall not." Nelson was pre-
vailed upon by his friend and was led back
to his boat. Such is a summary of the ao-
count as given by Clarke and M'Arthur.
NELSON IN THE WEST INIDIES.
The following brief summary in Nelson's
own words of his life from October, 1782, to
July, 1783, during most of which time he
.was engaged in another West Indian cruise,
,.with Jamaica as his headquarters, may pre-
'face the fuller account to be gained from
.his correspondence and other sources.
"In October  I sailed from Quebec
with a convoy to New York, where I joined
the fleet under the command of Lord Hood ;
and in November I sailed with him to the
:*West Indies, where I remained till the
Peace; when I came to England; (being
.directed in my way to attend H. R. H. Duke
of Clarence in his visit to the Havannah;)
and was paid off at Portsmouth on July 3rd
This outline we are enabled to fill in
from his letters. Just previous to sailing
from the river St. Lawrence, he writes to his
father' on the 19th October, 1782, that he
was to sail with a fleet for New York on the
following day, and that he thinks it likely
'that from there they will "go to the grand
theatre of actions, the West Indies." He
"arrived at New York on the 13th November
and found Rear Admiral Samuel Lord Hood
(who had gone to Sandy Hook with a de-
tachment of Rodney's victorious fleet) about
to return to the West Indies with a large
squadron. Nelson writes, "I have requested
'him to take me with him to the West
Indies," which Hood consented to do, writing
accordingly to Rear Admiral the Hon.
Robert Digby, under whom, as Commander-
'in-Chief in North America, Nelson was
then serving. It appears that on Nelson
arriving at Sandy Hook and reporting him-
self to Admiral Digby, the latter told him
he. had come on'a fine station for making
prize money, to which Nelson replied "Yes
sir, but the West Indies is the station for
honour" and on-receiving the intimation
from Lord Hood above referred to, Admiral
Digby, in :Nelson's words, honoured him
highly in a letter "for wishing to go off
this station to a station of service." It will
be remembered that Rodney's laurels had
just' been gained in the West Indies, and
this was the most active and dangerous
station of our navy at that time, so nume-
rous were the French and American pri-
This was not Hood's first connection with
Rodney or the West Indies. Samuel, Vis-
coupt 'Hood, had as a midshipman served
under Rodney, then a Captain: in 1754 he
commanded the Jamaica, sloop of war, which
he took out to North America; in Septem-
ber, 1780, he was promoted to be Rear Ad-
,miral and appointed to the command of a
strong squadron sent out in December to
the West Indies to reinforce Rodney; and
in 1782, he was Rodney's second in com-
mand at the great victory off Dominica.
Hood's ship, the Barfleur, had a brilliant
share in that victory, and it was to the Bar-
fleur that the Ville de Paris hauled down
her flag, and if Hood's wish to chase had
been listened to more of the fruits of Rod-
ney's victory would have been reaped.
For these services Hood was rewarded, like
Rodney, with a peerage.
It was at this time in New York Bay
that Nelson became acquainted with Prince
William Henry, afterwards Duke of Clar-
ence, Admiral of the fleet, and King Wil-
liam IV. Prince William had, on the out-
break of the war with Spain, been sent to
sea by his father, King George III., and on
the 15th June, 1779, was entered as a mid-
shipman in the Royal Navy on the Prince
George, under Admiral Digby. Soon after
this he joined the Channel fleet, and at the
end of the year he sailed as far as Gibraltar
with the fleet which Rodney was taking out
to relieve the West Indies. On their way,
eightdays after taking Spanish fleet of store.
ships and seven men-of-war, the largest of
which Rodney named Prince William, they
encountered the Spanish squadron of four-
teen ships of the line. In May 1780 the
Prince returned home, and in 1781, after
going back to Gibraltar, he went to New
York. In the autumn of 1782, he was at
his own request transferred to the Warwick,
50, (Captain Elphinstone, afterwards Lord
Keith) from which he was soon after by the
King's orders, removed to the Barfleur, un-
der Lord Hood. The Prince honoured Nelson
with his warmest friendship and gave, after
the hero's death, the following interesting
account of him at this period. I was then
a midshipman on board the Barfleur [the
ship afterwards commanded by Collingwood
on the glorious First of June,"] lying in
the narrows off Staten Island, and had the
watch on deck, when Captain Nelson, of
the Albemarle, came in his barge alongside,
who appeared to be the merest boy of a
Captain 1 ever beheld; and his dress "was
worthy of attention. He had on a full laced
uniform: his lank unpowdered hair.was tied
NALSOV 11 V2HE W *EST fkbIES.
in a stiff Hessian tail, of an extraordinary
length : the old fashioned flaps of his waist-
coat added to the general quaintness of his
figure, and produced an appearance which
particularly attracted my notice; for I had
never seen anything like it before, nor
could I imagine who he was, nor what he
came about. My doubts were, however, re-
nmoved, when Lord Hood introduced me
-'to him. There was something irresistibly
pleasing in his address and conversation;
and an enthusiasm, when speaking on pro-
fessional subjects, that showed he was no
'common being. Nelson after this went
'with us to the West Indies, and served
under Lord Hood's flag during his indefati-
gable cruise off Cape F'ranoois. Through-
out the whole of the American war, the
height of Nelson's ambition was to command
a Line of Battle ship; as for prize-money,
it never entered his thoughts : he had always
in view the character of his maternal
uncle. I found him warmly attached to my
father, and singularly humane: he had the
honour of the King's service, and the inde-
pendence of the British Navy, particularly
at heart; and his mind glowed with this
idea as much when he was simply Captain
of the Albermarle, and had obtained none
of the honours of his country, as when he
was afterwards decorated with so much well.
earned distinction." A few months later
we shall find Nelson's account of Prince
Lord Hood sailed from Sandy Hook for
the West Indies on the 22nd November,
1782. His fleet consisted of the following
ships-of-the-line: Valiant, Invincible, Re-
pulse, Prince George, Magnificent, America,
Marlborough, Alfred, Belliqueux Bedford,
Prothde, Arrogant. He also had with him
'the Albemarle frigate, Captain Nelson, and
fthe Santa Margaretta, a frigate, which fell
in with the fleet on its way, and was also or-
-dered to accompany. The French squadron,
-which had been the cause of Hood's trip
north, left Boston about the same time for
Cape Francois, but hearing that Hood was
,there, pushed through the Mona Passage
and got into Porto Cavallo, on the coast of
ICaraccas, where they remained till the end of
Athe war. On th.:. ,lth December, the British
fleet, under Hood, made Hispaniola.
, There are no letters from Nelson about this
.time, but we have the following informa-
.tiQn from the log of the Albemarle, which
brings us again to Jamaica. January 29,
178'3. Off Cape Donna Maria, near Cape
Tiberoon, a.m. half-past five, the Admiral
made our signal to chase three sail to the
eastward. At 6 out pinnace and cutter, and
sent them on board-found them to be all
Danes bound to St. Thomas. At 8 the cudt
ter saw a sloop to windward; made sail and
gave chase. Half-past 10 fired at the chase,
and battery on shore fired several shot at
us, which we returned. Half-past 11 the
chase run aground-under the battery. At
noon bore away and made sail." On the
4th of February the Albemarle was ordered
to proceed to Jamaica, and ihe anchored in
Port Royal in the afternoon. Lord Hood
and the fleet, with Prince William Henry,
arrived a few hours afterwards. The Albe-
marle in getting under weigh on the.,7th,
ran aground, but after starting her water
and getting her guns out, she was hove off
on the following day and then anchored
On the 16th February, Nelson sailed from
Port Royal in company with the Drake
brig on a cruise, his destination being Porto
Cavallo. It was during this cruise that
Nelson in writing to Capt. Locker on the
25th February, gave him the following
account of Prince William:
My situation in Lord Hood's Fleet must be
in the highest degree flattering to any young man
He tieats me as if I was his son, and will, I am
convinced, give me anything I can ask of him:
nor is my situation with Prince William less flat-
tering. Lord Hood was so kind as to tell him
(indeed I cannot make use of expressions strong
enough to describe what I felt) that if he
wished to ask questions relative to Naval Tactics,
I could give him as much information as any
Officer in the Fleet. He will be, I am certain, an
ornament to our Service. He is a seaman, which
you con!d hardly suppose. Every, other qualifica-
tion you may expect from him. But he will be a
disciplinarian, and a strong one ; he says he is
determined every person shall serve his time
.before they shall be provided for, as he is obliged
to serve his. A vast deal of notice has been taken
of him at Jamaica: he has been Addressed by the
Council, and the House of Assembly were to
address him the day after I sailed. He has his
Levdes at Spanish Town: they ard all highly de-
lighted with him. With the best temper and great
good sense, he cannot fail of being pleasing to
The first part of Nelson's letter to Capt.
Locker in which occurs the above account.
and which was headed Albemarlh-, off C'ape
Tiberoon, Feb. 25th, 1783," runs as follows:
As I see the Packet is in sight astern, I ought
not to miss this opportunity of rilin%, mcore f.-
pecially as I did not write whtn in -F'ort-IieyRl
XtELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
harbour, for I was so much hurried in getting my
Ship in order for Sea, that I had not time to look
The Fleet arrived the 4th Instant, and I
suppose will be ready for Sea the last day of
this month, although stores are as scarce at
Jamaica as ever: sixteen topmasts were wanted
for the Line of Battle Ships and there was not
one in the Island of Jamaica; and the Fleet must
have been sent to Sea short of masts, had not
providentially a French-Mast ship, belonging to
Monsieur Vaudreuil's Fleet come alongside the
Albemarle, and was captured by her. She has
nearly a hundred topmasts for large Ships, with a
number of lower masts and yards. She will clear
upwards of 20,0001. What a good prize if the
Fleet had not been in sight. They do not deserve
to share for her : we had chased to leeward, and
She had passed every Ship in the Fleet without
being noticed. The other Mast-ship that the French
brought from America was run ashore, and entirely
lost by the Fleet. They had parted fromVaudreuil
in a gale of wind, and could not fetch St. John's,
Porto Rico, which was their rendezvous, and there-
fore very fortunately came in our way. The French
Fleet, finding we were off Monti Christi went
through the Mona Passage, and have been in sight
of the Island of Curacoa, but where they are God
knows. I am sent out by Lord Hood to find them
if I can,
We are all in the dark in this part of the
world whether it is Peace or War. If I should
capture anything this cruize, I have made Hanbury
Shaw my Agents. Many inquiries were made
after you at Jamaica, by people of all ranks and
colour. Captain Reynolds,* I think, told me he
had heard from you lately, and that you were in
good health, which, be assured, gave me great
pleasure. The Fleet fell in with Charles Pole, but
I was in chase, and could not see him. I had a
letter from him ten days ago by a Ship who parted
from his Squadron, for he is quite a Commodore
here. He has been pretty successful since he came
upon this Station, and will be very much so, if a
Neutral, which he sent in, is given to him. She is
condemned in Jamaica, but they have appealed, and
in England we are afraid of the cursed Neutral flag."
[Then comes the paragraph about Prince
William quoted above].
But I must say God bless you, for the Endymion's
boat is just coming on board, who is Convoy to the
Packet: they sailed seven days before us from Port
Royal. You will remember me kindly to all my
acquaintance and friends that you meet with.
Farewell my good Sir, and assure yourself I am,
and always shall be,
Your most affectionate Friend and Servant,
If I get safe back to Port Royal (which is a
matter of great doubt to me), I shall get a cask
of the best rum on board for you, when you write,
which I hope will have been long before you receive
this. You may direct them to the care of Mr.
Joseph Hunt, Lord Hood's Secretary, which will
be a sure way of my getting them. Bromwich is
a second Lieutenant of the Albemarle, and is a
*Apparently Captain rancis Reynolds, of the
Monarch, 74 guns, who was posted on the 12th April
1762, and succeeded to the title of Lord Ducie.
very good Officer. Not an Officer has been changed,
except the Second Lieutenant, since the Albemarle
was commissioned, therefore it is needless to say,
I am happy in my Ship's company. Once more
We may here mention the story told
about Nelson and the Bahama Islands and
the cays to the North of Hispaniola where,
it will be remembered, he had gained as a
lieutenant much experience of pilotage. This
knowledge being commented on by Lord
Hood, Nelson at once replied, with that jus-
tice to others always present with him, that
while he was well acquainted with these
islands his second lieutenant was far his
On the 6th March, Nelson at 5 a.m. seeing
three sail to the eastward hove to and
cleared the Albemarle for action. They
proved to be H.M. Ship Resistance, 44 guns,
and two prizes. The Resistance was com-
manded by Captain James King (who had
been one of the lieutenants with Captain
Cook in his voyage of discovery) and Nelson
was informed by him that on the 13th
February the French had captured Turks
Island with one hundred and fifty Regu.
lars and three vessels of war. Nelson
promptly decided to retake Turks Island,
if possible and narrates his attempt to do
so in a letter to Rear Admiral Lord Hood,
Commander-in-Chief in the West Indies."
It is curious that this attack on Turks
Island, Nelson's earliest exploit with a
Squadron (small though it was), had not
been mentioned by any of Nelson's biog-
raphers prior to the publication of his
Letters and Despatches by Nicolas in
1845, and that Nelson himself makes no
allusion to it in the Sketch of my Life."
To this day there is no mention of this
capture of Turks Island by the French and
Nelson's attempt to recapture it in either the
Handbook of Jamaica or the Colonial Office
List. The following is the letter the origi
nal of which, in 1845, was in the Admiralty
Albemarle, March 9, 1783.
On Thursday, the 6th Instant, a few leagues
to windward of Monti Christi, I fell in with
His Majesty's Ship Resistance, Captain King.
From him I received information that the French
had. taken the Turk's Island, on the 13th February,
with one hundred 6ad fifty Regulars, and three
Vessels of War.
As it would be very little loss in my getting to
the Eastward, making the Turks Island, I deter.
mined to look what situation the French were in,
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
and if possible to retake it. The Tartar,* who
joined company a few hours afterwards, [at noon]
I ordered to put herself under my command,
which, with the Resistance and La Coquette, a
French Ship of War, prize to the Resistance, made
a tolerable outward show. On Friday evening, the
Albemarle, Resistance and Draket anchored at the
Island. The Tartar Captain Fairfax, I imagine,
could not keep his anchorage upon the bank. He
went to Sea, nor have I heard or seen anything of
him since. I can have no doubt but Captain Fairfax
has good reasons why he did not join me again.
This reduced our small force one third (the
Coquette, a larger Ship kept off and on the whole
time of our stay). I sent Captain Dixon on shore
with a flag of truce to demand a surrender of the
Islands. With much confidence of his superior
situation, the Commander of the French troops sent
an answer that he should defend himself.
On Saturday morning, at daylight, one hundred
and sixty-seven Seamen and Marines were landed
from the Ships under the command of Captain
Charles Dixon, who very much obliged me by
offering to command them. At eleven o'clock,
Captain Dixon thought a division of the Enemy's
force might be made by sending the Brigs off the
Town, to give him an opportunity of pushing on to
the Enemy's works. I ordered the Drake, under
the command of Lieutenant Hinton and [the]
Admiral Barrington, Lieutenant Cunningham, who
joined at this instant, to go off the town, and batter
it. Upon their getting within shot, I was very
much surprised to see a battery of three guns open
upon them, but notwithstanding such an unexpected
attack, they were both brought to an anchor oppo-
site the battery in a masterly manner; and the
steady constant fire they kept up for upwards of an
hour, does great honour to the Gentlemen who com-
manded them, and to their Officers and Men. The
Master of the Drake is wounded, and the Boats-
wain and six men aboard the Admiral Barrington.
Captain Dixon at this time observed that the guns
were fought by Seamen, and that the Troops were
waiting to receive him with several field-pieces; and
that they had a post upon the side of the hill with
two pieces of cannon. With such a force, and their
strong situation, I did not think anything farther
could be attempted.
I am, my Lord,
Your most obedient humble Servant,
We may add to this Report of Nelson's
attempt to recapture Turks Island his ac-
count of the matter as preserved to us in
his Journal now, or at least in 1845, in the
1783. 7th March. At half-past 1 P.M. made the
signal to prepare to anchor. At 5 anchored with
the best bower in 4 fathoms, East end Grand Turk's
Island S E. by S. off shore 2 cables length; carried
*Captain William George Fairfax, who was First
Captain to Lord Duncan, in the battle off Camper-
down in 1797. He received a Medal and was knighted
for his services on that occasion, and died a Vice-
Admiral in November 1813.
tThe Drake of 14 guns, Captain Charles Dixon:
.he was made a Post-Captain in November 1790 and
died in 1804. .. ..
our stream anchor to the Southward. Sent Captain
Dixon on shore with a Flag of Truce with a sum-
mons to the Governor. At 8 the Flag returned
with the Governor's determination to defend the
place. During the night fired several guns (as we
saw several fires) to annoy the Enemy. Saturday
8th. A.M. At 5 disembarked our Marines and Sea-
men made the signal to engage, and fired several
broadsides to make good their landing. Quarter
past, made the signal for landing the Troops which
was effected by Captain Dixon, under his command,
without the smallest opposition. At 9 arrived the
Admiral Barrington-ditto, ordered the Drake
under the command of our First Lieutenant and
Barrington to batter the Enemy's works abreast of
the Town, which they obeyed. At 1 p.m. the Brigs
cut and came away from the battery. At 3 they
anchored near to us. At 6 made the signal for the
Troops to embark. Sunday 9th. A.M. At 8 weighed,
and hove short on the stream. At 10 cut ditto,
not being able to purchase it, and made sail, in
company with the Resistance, Drake, Barrington,
and two prizes.
Soon after this, while to the North of
San Domingo (Hispaniola) we learn from
his Journal that Nelson chased a French
ship, and at 4 p.m. on the 15th March, came
up with her and found her to be a flag of
truce from Brest, bound to Cnpe Frangois
with the preliminary articles of peace.
As these had been signed in January 1783,
it appears that the capture of Turks Islands
and its attempted recapture by Nelson had
both taken place after the preliminaries' of
peace had been concluded.
However much this flag of truce may
herself have been protected, her news does
not seem to have been sufficient authority
in Nelson's mind to put a stop to hostilities,
for we learn from his journal that he pro-
ceeded on his way, and on the 29th March
was off Porto Cavallo, where he saw the
French fleet, which he counted at eleven
sail of the line, one of them with a flag
at the fore, a flag at the main and a flag
at the mizen. Clarke and M'Arthur say
that there were also in the port two frigates,
a ship armed en flute, and several merchant-
men, and that on the next day Nelson
examined Curagoa harbour, and when be-
tween Porto Cavallo and La Guayra cap-
tured a launch. Of this latter event there
is no mention in his journal, but there is a
long reference to it afterwards in one of his
letters from France at the' end of the sate
year, which will be duly referred to. 'His
journal then goes on to say that on the
31st'he captured a brig from Nantz bound
to Porto Cavallo, that on the 2nd April he
captured'a sloop under Dutch colours, that
on the 3rd he."found a blut at the starboard
c10 fsElSOlT 'H^ TS '' I lbieS.
bo\w to i-hve started, from which the ship Rowley2 is to come Home in the spring.
:iinile muh"~water,"' .ndl that he then bore Lord Charles Montagu3 is to be Governor,
away for Jamaica. He anchored in Port in the room of General Campbell, who has
-Royal on the 7th. resigned. Have you heard from Simon
The Albemarle remained at Port Royal, Taylor lately? He was very ill when I
repairing, until April 26th, when she left Jamaica; he seemed to me consump-
"weighed and came to sail" and joined tive. He said he should come to England
:Lord Hood's fleet on the way to England, as soon as he hed settled his affairs. I
,and the following extract from Nelson's think if he don't make haste he may stay a
Journal gives the account of Prince Wil- day too long." Simon Taylor. however, as
liam's visit to the Havannah, attended by we shall see, lived to receive in Jamaica,
Nelson :-"May 6th. Parted company with twenty-two years later, a letter from Nelson
the Fleet. 9th.--The Moroa Castle, S. J W. after the latter's arrival in the West Indies
I of a mile. Saluted'H. R. H. Prince Wil- in chase of the French Fleet.
liam Henry with 21 guns, on his going On the 9th of August we find Nelson
on shore. At 1 P.M. anchored in the Ha- writing to another old Jamaica friend, Her-
vannah. llth:-At 5 A.M. weighed and cules Ross, stating that he had called to see
made sail. At 9 saluted H. R. H. Prince the latter, whom he had found to be in
1William Henry with 21 guns, on his return- Scotland, and that he should never forget
.ing from shore. Joined the Fleet." Clarke the innumerable favours he had received
and M'Arthur state that Prince William from Mr. Ross, and that any opportunity
.paid this visit to Havannah on board the that might offer of his making some small
Fortune'e, Captain. Christian, and that he return Mr. Ross might always command.
was also attended by Captains Goodall, Mr. Ross, he says, had always looked on
Rowley and Merrick. On the 14th Nelson him with a favourable eye, and Nelson be-
"parted company with the Fleet in Lat. 30 lived he didn't want gratitude. Nelson
N. and Long. kb W. On the 16th he an- goes on : "I have closed the war without a
chored in St. Augustine's Roads, East Flor- fortune: but I trust, and, from the atten-
ida, and on the 19th.May he weighed. On tion that has been paid me, believe that
June the 25th he anchored at Spithead; on there is not a speck on my character. True
the 2lith he went into Portsmouth Harbour, honour, I hope, predominates in my mind
on which date he writes that Lord Hood's far above riches. I came home in the
Fleet is just heaving in sight round St. Albemarle, with Lord Hood, last from Ja-
Helen's" and on 'July the 3rd the Com- maica, where I left Hanbury, as indefatiga-
missioners went on board and paid off the ble in business as ever, (you know best), he
Albemarle. is, I hope, and think in a fair way for
Nelson took home with him on this occa- making a fortune. Shaw was up at Porto
sion 40. gallons of rum (from Jamaica no Prince; he has, I fancy, done pretty well
doubt)'for his friend Captain Locker, which in the Neutral trade: all Our other Jamaica
were despatched io him on the 12th July friends are vanished. Wallcoff, who was
'by Nelson's old and faithful servant, Frank Agent of Transports, I supped with him
Lepee, who had been with him on the last night; he begged 1. would present
'San Juan expedition, and is frequently his best compliments, and say everything
,mentioned in his correspondence later, that could be said of his sensibility of your
Nelson also .had .some 'segars' on board civility to him. o ( I have not seen any
.(these no doubt from Havannah) which of the Parkers since my arrival : they are
bie told -Frank,' .on the 31st July, to in Essex, at an estate they have lately pui
sernd to captainn Locker,.who -had then a___
'.Wesf Indian. with, himn, and at the same 2. Either Rear-Admiral Joshua Rowley, Com-
time he gives Captain Locker .the follow. mander-in-Chief in Jamaica in 1782-83 who was
ing" Jamaica news :-"Macnamara is just created a baronet in 1786, and died in 1790 or his
J re issp w second son, 'Captain Bartholomew Sarduel Rowley,
rn.iv.'l pln.. Jamaica, where his sip was then Commander.. of the Diamond, who died n
-sold.- Gamibieir says he is to command there. Admiral of the Bine, while Commanding-in-Chief ht
S" Jamaica, in October 1811.
:.;1. Captain James Macnamara who had commanded 3. Second son of Robert, Duke of Manchester;' he
thLe .1P,1.OU' thi Jiiie Stat....n. -did not become Governor of Jamaica. But a subse-
." Vc.:-Admiral Janme- l;mt:.,br (1723-1789)-,was quent' Duke of Manchester -was- a w-e ll-nowu Ja-
9,qmwander.m--caiei at Jamaica in 1783-84." maica Governor afterwards. : F
NELSON .IN; THE. WESST INDIES.
chasedd, pulling the old house down and
building a new one (thanks to Jamaica for
the money.)" Soon after this, however,
Nelson paid a '"visit of gratitude" to Sir
Peter and Lady Parker.
Nelson having determined to live on shore
during the peace, on account of the expense
of living on board ship "in such a manner
as is going on at present," resolved on
going to France, accompanied by his friend
Capt. James Macnamara (late of the Jamaica
station), to acquire the French language,
and asked on the 8th October, 1783, for six
months' leave from the Admiralty. While
in France he came across two English
Captains, Ball and Shepard, and thought
them great coxcombs for wearing "fine
epaulettes," which although not ordered to
be worn as part of the British naval uni-
form till the 1st June, 1795, were at that
date, twelve years before, in use in the
French navy. Nelson "held them a little
cheap for putting on any part of a French-
man's uniform." At St. Omer, Nelson xe-
newed the acquaintance of the Count de
Deux Ponts, a Prince of the Empire, a
General of the French Empire, Knight of
the Grand Order of St. Louis, and second in
command at the capture of York Town,
America. It appears that in March, 1783,
Nelson while cruising in the Albemarle off
Porto Cavallo captured a Spanish launch
with several French officers ,of distinction
on board, who were making a scientific tour
round Caracca de Leon, and whom he im-
mediately released, on the condition that if
the commander-in.chief did not acquiesce
they were to consider themselves prisoners,
Among them was the officer above men-
tioned who went by the name of the Count
de Deux Ponts, and whose rank Nelson did
"not know till he met him at St. Omer. It
appears that this officer's brother was heir
apparent of the Electorate of Bavaria and of
the Palatinate, and Nelson in writing to
Locker on the 26th November says that
most probably I shall have had the
honour of having taken prisoner a man,
who will be a Sovereign Prince of Europe
and brings into the field near a hundred
thousand men" and that a letter he had re-
ceived from the Prince was truly expressive
of the attention paid him on board the
Albemarle. Nelson's expectations were
more than realized, for this gentleman, out-
living his brother, not only succeeded to
the Electorate of Bavaria in 1799, b but in
1806 became King of Bavaria.
In France Nelson became enrni...ured of
a young English lady, Miss Andrews, and the
course of this love affair can be thus traced
from his letters. On the 10th Novembeir
he wrote to his brother that "to-day I
" dine with an English clergyman, a Mr.
'* Andrews, who has two very beautiful
' young ladies, daughters. I must take
" care of my heart, I assure you." On the
26th November he writes to his father that
he has made the acquaintance of two of the
English families at St. Omer: one "is arn
English clergyman, who has a very large
family, but two very agreeable daughters
grown up, about twenty years of age, who
play and sing to us whenever we go. I
must take care of my heart, I assure you :"
On the 4th December he writes to his
brother. My heart is quite secured against
the French beauties : I almost wish I could
say as much for an English young lady,
the daughter of a clergyman, with whom I
I am just going to dine, and spend the day.
She has such accomplishments, that had 1
a million of money, I am sure I should at
this moment. make her an offerr of them;
my income at present is by-ifar too small
to think of marriage, and she has no for-
tune." On the 3rd January he writes to
his brother to say that he intends shortly
to go back to London for some good advice
from the London physicians, and'adds;" I
must conclude, as I am engaged to tea and
spend the evening with the most accom-
plished woman my eyes ever beheld." On
the 14th January, 1784, he writes to his
uncle, William Suckling, soliciting his aid
to get married. "There is.a lady.I have
seen, of a good family and connexions, but
with a small fortune-1,000 I understand.
The whole of my income does not exceed
130 per annum. Now I must come to'the
point:-will you, if I should marry, allow
me yearly 100 until my income is in-
creased to that sum either by employment
or some other way." The person who com-
municated this letter to the Gentleman's
Magazine" stated that Mr. Suckling imme-
diately complied with the request : if so, as is
probable, from his complying with a similar
request later on, Nelsbn must have been re.
fused by the fair object of his affections. This
Miss Andrews afterwards married first a
clergyman of the name of Farror and second
.~..T.-. '.. /.-; .:J
NELSON IN THE WEST INDIES.
Colonel Warne of the East India Company's
Service. A brother of hers went out in the
Unicorn to the West Indies two or three
months after Nelson left France and,
while in the West Indies, was taken
by Nelson on board his ship, the Boreas,
as a midshipman, and afterwards served
with Nelson in the Agamemnon in the
Mediterranean, where Nelson befriended
him. He proved himself an active and
useful officer in the service there, and on
Nelson's recommendation was made a cap-
tain and was often referred to in Nelson's
correspondence at that time.
On the 19th January, 1781, Nelson was
back in London. A few days after, he
asked Lord Hood then .First Lord of the
Admiralty for employment, but not being
certain of getting it on the 31st January he
writes to his brother that he is thinking of
going back to the Continent to many
charming women, but no charming woman
will return with me. I want to be a proficient
in the language which is my only reason
for returning." He did not however return
to France as shortly afterwards he was
appointed to the Boreas, in which ship he
served in the West Indies for the next
three years, and this brings us to the second
part of the present paper.
BY IIEnBERT T. THOMAS.
Through the dim and distant ages, in a
silence deep and dark,
Happy, artless child of Nature, roamed
thy woods the Arawak;
Rose along thy coral beaches from their
sands so white and warm
Merry shout of Indian maiden, while
around her dusky form
Curled and clung the crystal water, clasp-
ing it in fond embrace.
Doomed was laughter, doomed was free-
dom, doomed was all thy gentle race-
Doomed on that black day when, seaward,
gleaming white the Spaniard's sail
And his dark hulls' sombre shadow,
speeding hither on the gale,
Tore aside the veil that hid thee, gentle
daughter of the West,
And the grim and dark Castilian clutched
thee to his cruel breast.
Once more shadows close around thee-
shadows stained with blood and
Darker veil, that lifts or lights not nigh
on twice a hundred years,
Till again on the bright bosom of thy
blue, gem-studded sea
Floats a sail, and flaunts a banner bear-
ing westward down to thee.
[Floating sail and flaunting banner chill
the Spaniard's heart with dread,
For he knows the bitter story of Armada's
England's Lion rends the darkness, drives
the grim Castilian forth,
And he flees-who shall withstand them,
hardy children of the North ?
More than twice a hundred years have
passed into the grave of Time
Since that day when England's war-
riors first thy mountain slopes did
Years of warfare, years of suffering, years
of darkness, dun and dim,
Years-some few-of peace and plenty,
years of peril, stern and grim.
Yet behind the darkness gleaming, slowly,
surely piercing through,
Dawned the heaven-born light of Free-
dom, changed thy tints to rosier hue;
Rose the mighty Sun of Progress, smiling
on thee with his ray,
And from out the cloud of darkness
guided thee to realms of day.
Now thou stand'st with head uplifted,
while above serenely waves
That proud flag beneath whose shadow
men no longer may be slaves,
.*Awarded the prize for the Best Poem on Jamaica, in the Competition in Literature, So
Crafts (see p. 877).
POEM ON JAMAICA.
Joining all those vast dominions on whose
bounds there sets no sun
To acclaim their Empire's ruler-her
whose woman's heart has won
All the love of all her subjects, binding
them with chains unseen-
Truest woman, wife, and mother; sixty
years most mighty Queen !
Upward! Onward! be thy motto-up-
ward on towards the Light !
Marching in the march of Progress,
striving in the cause of Right;
Till thy sons shall prove them worthy of
the charm which Nature's hand
Throws so lavishly around thy forests,
streams, and coral strand.
HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER-SPOUTS.
AN EXAMINATION OF THE HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER-SPOUTS, IN OPPOSITION TO THE
INGENIOUS SPECULATIONS OF DR. B. FRANKLIN OF PHILADELPHIA, F.R.S., BY THE
REV. JOHN LINDSAY, D.D., RECTOR OF THE PARISH OF ST. CATHERINE,
AND TOWN or ST. JAGO DE LA VEGA, IN JAMAICA.
(From The Gentleman's Magazine" December, 1781 and December, 1783.)
WITH NOTES HISTORIC AND SCIENTIFIC.
The Editor is indebted to Mr. Leslie
Alexander for the following notes relating
to Dr. Lindsay :-
"John Lindsay, D.D., was ordained on
the 23rd of December, 1753, in "Conduit
StreetChapel,St. George's, HanoverSquare,"
London, by the Bishop of Lincoln, (Lib. 31,
Patents fol. 1t8).
He was presented Rector of St. Thomas-
ye-Vale, Jamaica, on the Sth of July, 1768,
(Liber. 31, Patents fol. 148) where he offi-
ciated until 1773, when he became rector
of the parish church of St. Catherine, the
present cathedral. Though his letters of
presentation are not recorded among the
Patents of the Record Office, on reference
to the Ecclesiastical Records in the General
Register Office, I find that the first entry
signed by him is that of a baptism on the
30th Sept., 1773, (copy: Register St. Cathe-
rine, vol. II., p. 22). In the same year
(12th January) he received from the Uni-
versity of Edinburgh the distinguished title
of "Doctor of Theology" (Lib. 33, Patents
fol. 87). He officiated as rector of St.
Catherine for 15 years, dying at Spanish
Town, of "-bile," as the records mention, on
the 2nd of November, 1788 (copy: Register
St. Catherine, vol. I., fol. 265). Like all
the rectors of St. Catherine (with the ex-
ception of Dr. Musson, who died in 1857),
no monument or tombstone marks his rest-
ing place in the cathedral. Consequently,
he is not mentioned either by Roby or
"Lawrexice-Archetr 'But his name, along
with those of his churchwardens, Samuel
Howell and James Trowers, appears in-
scribed on an old flagon -a piece of the old
plate of 1685, which was re-fashioned in
1777-now the property of the cathedral.
As rector of the parish, he was one of the
three trustees appointed to carry out the
trusts of the will of Matthew Gregory, D.D.,
who died 31st Doc 1779.0
It is curious that Fig. 6 represents the
cathedral wiih a tower and spire, which it
did not possess in 1781. Long, in his
"History" published in 1774, says "as it
[the church'] is without a tower, the con-
gregation is summoned by a small bell hung
in a wooden frame, which is erected in the
churchyard;" and we learn from the in-
scription on it, that the present tower was
not erected till 1817. It is possible that
the draughtsman of the 'Gentleman's Maga-
zine' misunderstood Lindsay's sketch."
*By will dated 22nd March, 1765, Dr. Gregory left
property to e ld, the proceeds f which were to be
invested and the interest and profits arising there-
from applied towards relieving any distressed object
in St. Jago de la Vega, to bind out poor children to
trades, or to portion orphan girls at marriage. The
present rector of St. Catherine administers the fund.
On the east wall of the north transept of the cathe-
dral is a large black board (with ornamental frame-
work, now destroyed) on which the history of the
"Gregory Trust" is inscribed in gold letters. The
name of John Lindsay, D.D., rector, appears thereon
as one of the then trustees.
Dr. Gregory's monument, by Joseph Wilton, is in
the cathedral : as is also that of his father Matthew
Gregory, senior. They were both members of the
House of Assembly : the latter was, at various times,
HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATn R SPOUts.
The following notes on the paper itself are
by Mr. Robert Johnstone, F. I. Met. Soc.:-
Dr. Lindsay was certainly a bold man
to dispute with Benjamin Franklin. Lindsay
says it is the rising of a Spout he means at
present to dispute, and "that Dr. Franklin's
notion is that a Water Spout is nothing but
a whirlwind on the seas, which carrying
more or less quantities of water with it into
the air gives it that denomination." Lindsay
says further that it is Franklin's idea that
the water is sucked up through a tube or
void space in the middle of the whirl to
the height of thirty or thirty-two feet pro-
vided the centre of the whirl be really a
vacuum and less if the void is less perfect,
and quotes the following from Franklin :
" if the vacuum passes over water, the water
may rise in it in a body or column to near
the height of thirty-two feet." Further
it would seem to be inferred by Lindsay in
his second article that spouts are merely
very heavy local falls of rain.
Now in this contention Franklin was
certainly right in the main. His assertion
that a water-spout is nothing but a whirl-
wind on the seas is strictly correct. But
where he says that the water of the seas is
sucked up owing to there being a vacuum,
and that if this vacuum were absolute the
water would rise to the height of thirty-
two feet, thus likening the action to that in
a water barometer, he is not in accord
with the knowledge of the present day.
Dust whirlwinds, water-spouts and torna-
does are all of the same nature. They are
caused by whirling currents of air, which in
the case of the first-named carry up the
dust with them, and in the case of water-
spouts carry up, only, the spray caught
from the broken waves. Prof. Davis (a
countryman of Franklin) in his recent
work on Meteorology says, Although these
spouts seem to draw water up from the sea,
they consist of fresh water for the greater
part; and hence must be regarded as the
product of vapour condensed from the air."
Chambers' Encyclopaedia says: "The sea
at the base of the whirling vortices is
thrown into the most violent commotion
resembling the surface of water in rapid
ebullition. It is a popular fallacy that the
water of the sea is sucked up in a solid
mass by waterspouts, it being only the spray
from the broken waves which is carried up.
Qbservations of the rain-gauge conclusively
prove this." Prof. Davis also relates a story
to illustrate this freshness of the water.
He says that a ship-captain, who had been
drenched by the falling water from one of
these water-spouts and had said the water
ran into his mouth nose eyes and ears,
having been asked whether the water was
fresh or salt, replied that it was "as fresh as
ever I tasted spring water in my life."
Further, the portion of Franklin's argu-
ment (as given by Lindsay) drawing an
analogy between the whirl set up by the
hole in the bottom of the tub of water is
correct, but not in the application of it
given by Franklin. It is the explanation
given now-a-days of the whirling of the
air, whereas Franklin seems to assert it of
the water rising in a sort of solid" mass
from the sea, and where Lindsay controverts
this the latter is correct. On the other
hand Lindsay's main contention that water-
spouts are only very partial and very heavy
falls of rain, as set forth in some detail in
his second paper, is undoubtedly incorrect-
as evidenced by his statement that during
the action of all spouts which I have
either seen or heard of, instead of any
fretfulness or at least strong whirling in
the air, a perfect heavy and, as it were
awful, solid tranquility reigns amidst the
deep hanging clouds." Here, as also in
the instances he gives in his second paper,
he is evidently confounding 'cases of rain-
fall, which he at the same time very truly
and aptly describes, with the real water-
spout. One would almost have thought Lind-
say had never seen a real water-spout, hence
the confusion. But in his opening remarks
he says that on one occasion he came across
five on the banks of Newfoundland, and
while he correctly describes the "frothing,
boiling and fretting" at the base of the
water-spout, he draws a wrong conclusion
from this and considers it to be analogous
to that occasioned by o0 the roaring
tumble of cataracts from huge precipices"
whereas the "frothing and boiling" really
comes from the disturbance of the water
caused by the whirling motion of the air.
It is curious how each of the errors made
by Franklin and Lindsay is still perpet-
uated. We have above seen a reference (in
Chambers' Ency.) to the "popular fallacy"
of the present day that the water of the
sea is sucked up in a solid mass, as Franklin
considered to be the case, and frq94 the
YHPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER-SPOUTS.
same work we learn that the erroneous
term water-spout on land" is also some-
times used at the present day to designate
whatLindsay imagined to be the same as the
true water-spout, but that the former is quite
"distinct" and is "merely a heavy fall of rain
of a very local character." It is evident that
Lindsay's "spouts," so fully and correctly
described in his second paper and fairly
accurately portrayed in figures 5 and 6,
are of this latter nature, and they will be
be easily recognized in Jamaica."
I.-IN DECEMBER 1781.
The extensive circulation of your valuable mis-
cellany, and the many useful discoveries in every
species of literature you have introduced to public
notice, must plead my excuse for troubling you
with the present thoughts and observations upon
the hypothetical doctrine of Water-spouts; as
(from doctor Stuart) improved upon and illus-
trated by the ingenious Dr. Franklin.
In a voyage to America in July 1749, about the
banks of Newfoundland, in a clear air, the sea
rendered smooth as glass by hot and calm weather,
and heavy, gloomy looking clouds hanging all
around us, on a sudden we were surrounded with
five spouts at once: one of which being within
about a mile of us, we felt severely. (See the
plate, fig. 1.) In appearance it might be said to
resemble that figure given by Dr. Franklin from
Dr. Stuart; I mean in the bushy form at the base,
and the joining of the column to the cloud, but
many times higher in the proportion : and instead
of being particles of water, driven as from the
vortex of a wheel, we had all that frothing, boiling,
and fretting, which is occasioned by the fall of an
over-shot miln; or to speak (in some cases) nearer
the point, the roaring tumble of cataracts from
huge precipices, which naturally, also throwing
up a thin misty spray, obscured in a slight degree
this boiling base. And from this uproar the sea
(but a few minutes before smooth as a sheet of
glass) became so agitated, that our ship had a very
disagreeable and tumbling motion. The height
matters not, a Spout may doubtless fall from any
height; it is the rising of such a phenomenon I
mean at present to dispute.
Dr. Franklin's notion is, that a water-spout is
nothing but a whirlwind on the seas, which carrying
more or less quantities of water with it into the
air, gives it that denomination; and the water at
that time being by pulsion or suction forced up
through a tube or void space in the middle of the
whirl, is thereby carried up into the clouds to
the height of thirty or thirty-two feet, provided
the center of the whirl be really a vacuum; and
less, if the void is less perfect; which, in his
Philosophical Tracts, Lend. 1774, he again repeats
in these words (p. 233) If the vacuum passes over
water, the water may rise in it, in a body or column,
to near the height of thirty-two feet." And from
which words, may and near, he seems to think
(indeed the theory will admit no other) that a
spout, at least the solid part of it, can ascend no
It will not be necessary, I believe, to consider
at large the Doctor's philosophy. The very founda-
tion and support of which is, that a fluid, moving
horizontally from all points towards a center, must
either mount or descend at that center (page 228.)
True; but will a fluid do either the one or the
other in extremes, to support a doctrine in extra-
vagance ? With all due deference, we cannot cer-
tainly be certain of this; one would rather be
inclined to think otherwise; but that we may
collect a few ideas to assist us in the enquiry, let
us apply our thoughts for a few minutes on the
Artificial Vortex, and place Dr. Franklin's tub full
of water upon a horizontal wheel, which in the
first experiment shall be at rest. If a hole,"
he says, "be opened in the middle of the bot-
tom, the water will flow from all sides to the
center, and there descend in a whirl." Doubtless.
But suppose, instead of the aperture at the bottom
of the vessel, we procure a whirlwind on the sur-
face of the water: I apprehend, whatever be the
effect in a confined experiment, the strongest
whirl in the open air will have but a very super-
ficial effect in forcing of descents by whirls on the
water. Not that the land at the bottom, or any
strength of element at top, shall hinder this effect
(as the Doctor seems to insinuate); and that a
descent being hindered, an ascent must follow.
This, I imagine, can by no means be admitted
without clearer demonstration ; it seems the
corner-stone of the hypothesis; and I think is too
easily huddled over, to pass for experimented
truth. The truth lies rather here, that water is
too yielding and pliant to refuse the effects of any
whirlwind; and has too many ways for a vortex to
expand and escape by (near the surface) to have
a whirlpool continued to any considerable depth,
far less to be forced upwards for want of elbow-
room (if I may be allowed the expression) into
the very midst of the cause which gives the effect,
into the whirlwind itself.
Of the force of strong tides against headlands
in the neighbourhood of short bays, or amongst
islands, we are well convinced by powerful cur-
rents everywhere ; by the dangerous eddies met
with amongst the Orkney Islands, and by that
unaccountable whirl of theMaeclstroom, in Norway
in particularly: these may all well suit, or in some
degree apply to the idea given by the Doctor's
tub with the hole in the bottom; but if we must
have an ascending whirl, we must try another ex-
Supposing then the sides of the tub or receiver
(be it what it will) to act as the sustaining force
of the whirlwind, we will set our vessel in motion
by a quick horizontal turning of the wheel. It will
gain a horizontal motion firomi all parts towards
the center, forming an eddy by the consonant
whirling of the containing vessel and its attrac-
tion: the weight of the water towards the sides,
being now overbalanced by the force of the whirl
in the center, must yield and ascend, the weaker
giving place to the stronger part of the whirl: the
conical vacuum or hollow pipe formed here by the
whirl in the middle or center can be no other way
produced, than by an equal quantity of rising
water, supported by the sides of the containing
vessel; and if the vessel is nearly filled, the water
will run over. Again. Supposing the vessel to
be heightened, or but a small quantity of water
HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER SPOUTS.
put into it (fig, 2) in the whirl, the bottom of the
receiver will presently appear dry ; and if the
receiver is glass instead of wood, the water will be
seen in a thin sheet, spirally climbing the sides
of the cylinder, till reaching the summit, it will,
from its thinness fly off in horizontal spray and
spiritings, till perhaps the greatest part is ex-
hausted. But granting this cylindric tub to be
higher than thirty-two feet (fig. 3) and by this
swift whirling the Iluid should be raised so as to
expand itself, as in the last experiment; I would
not from thence conclude, that a huge body of
solid water (which is the Franklinian doctrine) by
whirls of wind, and would allow me to suppose a
little, that they may be NOT the same thing : or if
he here means that sort of wind or whirlwind
called Exhydria, descending from the clouds with
gushings of water, as that obviously was, which
(under the name of a Water-spout, as described
by PERE BOSCOVICH) damaged the city of Rome
in 1749 ; I would join issue with him, and say they
are not frequent. But, since during the action of
all spouts, which I have either seen or heard of,
instead of any fretfulness, or at least strong whirl-
ing in the air, a perfect heavy, and as it were awful,
solid tranquility reigns amidst the deep-hanging
REPRESENTATIOi OF WATER-SPOUTS AT ST. JAGO DE LA VEGA IS JAAMAICA.
any walls of embodied air whatever, could be
held up, and kept in on every side, even to the
height of twenty feet, nor the half of that. It is
true we are led further into the secret; and that
just as this vast pile of aerial building is risen, or
while it is rising, some unseen and Fairy air-pump,
or a sonmenhat of that nature, is set to work, upon
the receiver ; and such a provident vacuum is so
completely formed, that the element below cannot
but mount, like Mercury in the tube.
The Doctor says, he had not mnet irith any accounts
of spouts that certainly descended, and suspects
they are not frequent. Now if he would permit
one here to distinguish between spouts of mater and
clouds ; the only certain-to-be-depended-upon
accounts of Water-spouts are falling ones. Those
mentioned by Dr.- --- of Boston to Dr.
Franklin (page 247) and read at the Royal Society,
July 8. 1756, are clear accounts of this matter.
That of Capt Langstaff was of the solidity of a
torrent; those of Capt. Wakefield and Howland,
perhaps not too heavy; that of Capt. Spring was
only a small and very thick rain; and all of them
certain that they descended. Dr. Richardson's
spout on Emeth-Moor, Lancaster, in 1718 (Phil.
Trans.) was certainly a falling one. So was Gordon's
in the Downs
*** This curious Letter shall be resetmed, and Fig,
4 explained in the Supplement.
HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER-SPOUTS.
II.-IN DECEMBER, 1783.
Our Philosophical Readers will doubtless be
pleased to see a continuation of Dr. Lindsay s
ingenious and original Hypothesis on Water-
Before I make deductions or conclusions from
the account of my Water-spouts of 1772 (Ree Vol.
LI. p. 615), I shall trouble you with a few more
representations; which I hope will not be thought
improper to the matter in view.
I must inform you, Sir, that in the Torrid-Zone,.
at some times of the year, the falling, or dropping
of the clouds is exceedingly heavy-that it is then
very common to see the rain streaming down in
sheets and flakes; picturing an idea, somewhat
resembling the ribbon-like webbing of the Aurora-
Borealis (see the plate annexed, fig. 5). It is not
at all unfrequent here, to see the clouds send down
one, two-or more such ribbon-hanging flakes, at
some little distance from each other-sometimes
from the same cloud : sometimes from different
ones-and to the eye in many respects similar to
water-spouts-I say, similar; because, if they are a
sort of light pouring spouts (as I make no doubt
they are),yet I confess they are very commonly seen
to:hang in the air,, without visibly reaching the
earth. But this circumstance is delusive, and may
have its rise from various causes. That the phbe-
nomena are composed of drops of rain, is most
certain-because we see the spots where they
fall-we know the spots-and that on such places
and at such times heavy showers have fallen.
Besides this, there is nothing so easily distin-
guished, as a real fall of rain (at a small distance)
from a misty appearance only. We seldom indeed
here observe any rain-cloud fall, when not imme-
diately under it ourselves; but we see its fall. in
different densities, by streaming down in a variety
of shaded tints: and when under the fall, we have
demonstration of it ; being as distinctly percep-
tible to the ear, by the pleasant. variety of sounds
proceeding from a variety of densities. Now the
partial and narrow breaking of a rain-charged
cloud, may sometimes be dispersed before it meets
the ground-and that, from its own natural thin-
ness: for falling from a thin serene air aloft, it
sometimes meets with an active air below; which
will effectually at least disperse the ribbon or
spout-like appearance. But no change is perhaps
wrought upon it at all-and all falls fair to the
ground, tho' not full to the eye. The deception
may lie in the horizon; which may itself be so
very hazy and foul, as to render the lower part of
the fall invisible, from the distance only. Perhaps
too, this narrow vein of rain falling immediately
from the parent cloud in thick, small, mizzly drops,
may in the descent join together; and before it
reaches the surface, after various coalescence may
be so knit together, and so thinned in substance,
that being transformed from a light, thick shower,
to a thinned fall of heavy crystalline drops, that
appearance may be lost at a distance, which at hand
might be heavily felt. And perhaps philosophic
observers, thoroughly acquainted with the atmos
phere of sultry regions, may be pleased to assign
In such climates, Sir, we frequently see a heavy
fall of rain, on one side of a fence or hedge, water-
ing the thirsty fields of one gentleman, without
blessing his neighbours, with a single drop. A
heavy rain will all on a sudden rattle over the
roof of a house, scarcely leaving even a trace of it
about the court-yard. And when those sort c.f
clouds thro' a little fanning breeze, have any
rake or motion ; such a vein of rain will run along
a street, touching the houses of one side only: or
cross over a town in the breadth of a few feet or
yards-while every drop from verge to verge is
equally thick and heavy.
I have myself often seen such rain, and withal
composed of such heavy drops, that had the fall
been from a greater height, and strengthened /,y
the action ofn ind (for very fortunately these falls
are generally in the profoundest calm), I am sure
a good roof only could have stood the weight. A
remarkable instance of one of those I met with on
the 6th of May, 1778, at the burial of one of my
parishioners, where there was at least a concourse
of three hundred people. The house of the de-
ceased was adjoining to the church-yard wall, and
being dry and warm weather, I sat with many
others for a little time without doors; when on a
sudden a bustle happened amongst the company-
endeavouring to get under cover, on account of an
approaching shower. As I did not immediately
see from whence it came, I at first got up to look
abbut me, when I beheld the sunbeams from the
West shining thro' two clouds upon this fall;
the lowest of which, serving as a ground (see the
plate, fig. 6) to make the fall visible, we were pre-
sented with a most beautiful appearance of shining
crystalline drops, as large as hasel nuts, which fell
very thick and fast within the church-yard, and
about the distance of twelve yards from us. I.
knew it immediately to be a spout; and from the
dead calm, declaring that it would keep its situa-
tion, I prevailed upon a few of the company to
join me in taking our seats again ; and accordingly
it spent its strength in a few minutes, without
having thrown a hundred scattered drops amongst
the whole company. And may not such pours of
rain be still heavier? Surely ; particularly so at
at sea. For here the heat of the sun during calms
is much more intense than on the shore : and the
exhalations sometimes so plentiful and heavy, that
a cloud is unable to bear the burden to any great
distance from the spot at which it was taken up,
but, as it were struggling along, .quits the load
with a confused precipitation. And here, I think,
may be formed spouts of various moderate sizes
and densities without giving us any sort of sur-
prise; or to make us follow nature out of her
ordinary way. Her extraordinary effects, we shall
come to by and by. For it is not water thrown
upwards whidh constitutes a spout, any more than
water falling downwards. Nor can it be the
quantity either; for the spout which fell in LAN-
CASTER, in 1718, was not a jot more essentially a
spout, than that which yesterday fell from the leads
, of my rectory house* at ST. JAGO DE LA VEPA.
*The house, No. 11 Red Church Street, was known
Over a century auo as the rectory. At the back,
Facing Monk street, is a quaint stone building with
I ornamental stone roof with leaden gutters, which
was formerly used as a study.
HYPOTHETICAL DOCTRINE OF WATER.SPOUTS.'.
And from theseleads, according to the quantity of
rain in the overpouring clouds, I have seen in our
rainy seasons handsome spouts of various arches,
sizes and densities.
But the friends of whirlwind vacuums will doubt-
less say, And is this the stupendous machinery
for raising so wonderful a phenomenon as some
millions of tons of ponderous element in the pipe
of a whirlwind, brought to a level with the paltry
spurting from the leads of a private gentleman's
house ?" It may indeed be lowering the dignity
of a traveller's description; but. as I never could
see any true philosophy in screwing up accounts
of uncommon. phenomena till they grow past
belief-or think that .a story is not worth telling.
unless the reader is set a-staring; I confess I cannot
help thinking that the wonderful catalogue of
nature needed not Whirlwind-Water-spouts to
increase the number.
And, after all, what have the fond friends of this
philosophy made of the Water-spout ? Is it terri-
ble ? Is it worthy of a Mariner's dread ? Or is it
worth a Voyager's attention ? Not one.of them
all. As the ingenious philosopher in his mathe-
matical figure has described it, it is charming. I
confess, passing curious, but a chip in porridge
withal. Some voyagers have indeed related stories
of spouts rising out of the sea; forecastle men
have seen many of them; and they also at the
same time have informed us, that corresponding
falling-spouts were presently after discovered;
where the rising element was quickly expended,
arid from the clouds disgorged again in heavy and
dreadful falls. But our whirlwind friends disclaim
all dangers of this sort; unless peradventure, we
can imagine to ourselves, that a ship in the midst
of a whirlwind should be whistled up bodily,
anchors, cables and all in vacuo. For such philo-
sophers are inclined to dispute the existence of
falling spouts altogether; so that after their huge
magazine of water is forced to the height of thirty-
two feet (the plumb of a ship's tafferel or so, not
worth talking of), it seems it is discharged very
innocently, and we don't know how, among the
clouds they say.
Dr. M- r indeed, of Boston in a-letter to
Dr. Franklin, (page 239) acquaints us, he had been
told by seamen of spouts which had fallen suddenly
to the great danger of ships-but these (agreeable to
his own hypothesis and plan, plate II. fig. 2)
fell only after they had risen from W. to N- or
his 32'eet-their breadth was 20 yards diameter, he
says, or 60 feet. The very untowardness and ill
proportion of such a figure would have induced
me at least to suspect the traveller. I have oft'
times on the seas seen clumps of water, six times
that size, but I should hardly have allowed myself
to distinguish them by the name of Waterspout.
Capt. CARTERET (in Hawkswarth, Vol. 1. page
313) saw an appearance of this, kind. and one
much more remarkable being as lofty as a Man of
War-but we should hardly have found a place .
given tb it in the narrative, had not its resemb-
lance to a lost companion elated the whole crew.
I partly here, however, forgive Dr. Franklin.
Good men are often credulous-and it is too natu-
ral..for us all to wrap and coax a pliable story,
when it will suit a fond hypothesis. But his appli-
cation of the LANCASTER spout in,the same para-
graph is not so like a philosopher. One would
think, he says, from this instance, that the column
of a spout is sometimes lifted off from the water, and
carried oLer land, and there let sail in a body" Why,
this is making no more of working about a whirling
vacuum, than a fire-man does the directing pipe
of his engine-and he drowns the poor people in
COLNE, by an unlucky lifting of one of his spouts,
with-as little ceremony as the enraged elephant
did with a small turn of his proboscis-as the
Perhaps this to some may appear ill-natured
irony-for he himself supposes this happens but
rarely.-But why should he suppose it to happen
at all Why, to suit his hypothesis of pulsion and
suction, must a Water-spout be confined to the
ocean, like a squirt to the pond, and only upon a
rare occasion be raised up or lifted -about to splash
and beflood the neighboring shores I have
spent some convivial hours with Dr. Franklin in a
group of philosophic friends; and in numerous
respects have, as an ingenious gentleman, the
highest esteem for him. Even in the distorted
children of his genius, I can behold with pleasure
any lineaments of beauty: and can easily excuse a
fond parent himself, in seeing 'every feature to
advantage-nay, perhaps, to doat upon them.
But surely, because I admire the Doctor's pro.
ductions, I am not bound to put on his spectacles,
and view objects only in his favourite mediums;
to believe, for instance, that rivers run not into
the sea, because he is pleased to say so (Letter
Ivi. page 4T9)-for then indeed an end must be
put to all impartial enquirings.
XVII. SIR EDWARD -NEWTON.
FROM THE "JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY."
SIR' EvWARD NiwTON, M.A., K.C.M.G.,
was born at Elveden Hall in the county of
Suffolk on the 10th of November, 1832,
being the youngest son of William Newton,
Esq. of that place, and Elizabeth, daughter,
of Richard Slater Miltes of Frystbn Hall
in the county of York. In 1845, he began'
communicating.ornithological notes to 'The.
Zoologist,' which were chiefly records of
migration or nidification,: for from his earli-
est years he was devoted to birds' nesting,
and in the scientific practice of that pursuit
sh?- EDWA RD NE*I'Ok.
attained remarkable proficiency. In 1849
he-commenced (with his brother Prof. New-
ton) a daily register of all the birds he
saw, after a method described in the 'Trans-
actions of the Norfolk and Norwich Natu-
ralists' Society" (1870, p. 24), and, with
only few breaks, this register was kept at
Elveden for fiearly ten years. But he did
not confine his ornithological interest to
field observations, and he devoted much at-
tention to the osteology of birds, so as to
be able to recognize at sight almost any
bone shewn to him.
Entering at Magdalene College, Cam-
bridge, and. graduating B.A. in 1857, he
the next year, went to the West Indies, and
passed several months in the island of St.
Croix, subsequently contributing (jointly.
with his brother) to the newly-founded
'Ibis' a series of papers on the birds of that
SIsland. In 1859 he was appointed Assist-
ant Colonial Secretary of Mauritus, being
promoted to the post of Auditor-General in
1863, and Colonial Secretary in 1868. He
Swas a member of the mission sent in 1861
by the Government of that colony to con-
gratulate King Radama II. on his accession
to the throne of Madagascar, and was the
first English zoologist to set foot on that
island for nearly twenty-four years. The
ornithological minutes of his journey were
recorded in The Ibis' (1862, p. 26i :.1863,
pp. 43 and 165), and were so promising that
in the following year he paid a second
visit to that country, solely for the sake of
investigating its ornithology, and with re-
sults still more satisfactory ('Ibis,' 1863, pp.
333 and 452). In 1864 he seized an oppor-
tunity of going to Rodriguez, the known
locality of the extinct "Solitaire," but an
island never before visited by a zoologist.
Though his stay there was limited to forty-
eight hours ('Ibis' 1868, p. 146), he not.
only obtained two new species of birds, but
examined some caves, in one of which he
found bones that he at once saw were those
of Pezophaps, and their discovery led to the
elaborate researches, subsequently direct-
ed by him, at the cost of the British Asso-
ciation and of the Royal Society, which
ended in the excavation not only of several
complete skeletons of that very remarkable
bird, but of an enormous multitude of its
bones, and those of several other extinct
forms only known before from the vague.
indications of old voyagers. The spoils thus
obtained were described in three papers in
the Philosophical Transactions' (1869, p.
327, and vol. clxviii. pp. 423 and 438); the
first being by himself. and his brother,
while he was assisted in the two others by
Dr.: Giinther and Mr. J. W;.Clark: respec-
ively. In like manner: he cntrzbitted not
a little to the elucidation, of the ancient
fauna of.Mauritius. His official position en-
abled him to facilitate the operations of the
late Mr. George Clarke in the recovery of
the remains of the Dodo ard other lost
birds from the mud of the now celebrated
Mare-aux-Songes in that island; and he was
the first to recognize among them fragments
of the marvellous Al,'iii,,lir ry. ;of Von
Fraunfeld, afterwards described by Prof.
Alphonse Milne-Edwards (Ann. Sc. Nats.
Ser. S. x. p. 325; Ibis, 1 ,I9. p. 256). In
1867, he passed a month in the Seychelles,
when he found many new ard unexpected
species (P. Z. S. 1867, pp. 344, 821; Ibis,
1867, p. 325), and ten years later he.in-
duced the late Mr. Bewsher to examine the
Comoros, which, though they had been be-
fore visited by other zoologists, were found
to yield fresh novelties (E. Z. S., 1877,
p. 295). In the meanwhile he had been
assisting several travelling naturalists in
In 1877 he was promoted to the post of
Colonial Secretary and Lieutenant-Gover.
nor of Jamaica, but it was with no little
regret that he left Mauritius. In his new
appointment his opportunities of advancing
ornithology were very limited; neverthe-
less he added two or three species to the
fauna of the island, and in the Handbook
of Jamaica' for 1881 he published a List of
its Birds drawn up by himself and his
brother. In 1882 his health broke down,
and he was compelled to return to England,
and next year to retire from the Colonial
Service. In 1888, being President of the
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society,
he appended to his Address a List of the
Birds of the Mascarene Islands; and his last
work was to contribute in 1893, to the
* Transactions of the Zoological Society,' (in
conjunction with Dr. Gadow) an article on
further remains of the Dodo and other ex-
tinct birds of Mauritins-some of them
wholly unexpected-which had been re-
covered from the Mare-aux-Songes through
the exertions of Mr. Sauzier.
Sir Edward was one .of. the fouundgri 9
the British Ornithologists Union in 1858,
and was elected a corresponding member of
the Zoological Society in 1859. He was for
several years President of the Royal Society
of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, and was
an original member of the Board of Gover-
nors of the Institute of Jamaica on its es-
tablishment in 1879. He was made a O.M.G.
in 1875 and K.C.M.G. in 1887. He died at
Lowestoft on the 25th of April, 1897, in
his sixty-fifth year. His natural history
collections had been for several years de.
posited in the museums of the University:of
Cambridge. He was elected a Fellow of the
Linnean Society on the 6th of June, 1867.
XVIII. WILLIAM JAMES.
BY H. Y. POWELL, RETIRED F. R. HIST. Soc., LOND.
THE Israelites had difficulty in making
bricks for want of straw, and an author
has difficulty in compiling any biographical
sketch of the life of William Jamas for
want of materials. The publishers Messrs.
Bentley have stated that he left no descend-
ants, though his widow, a West Indian, sur-
vived him some years. Evidently a man
of good education, quoting French freely,
and necessarily having, as a proctor, some
knowledge of L-tin, it is highly improba-
ble that he was ever a mere clerk in a wag.
gon warehouse, nor is it likely that he
wrote his history in- rooms in Harbour
Street, Kingston, since his own statement
in prefaces to his books was that he did not
begin to compile it until two or three years
after his arrival in England.
Whether he was born in Jamaica or in
the. United Kingdom is doubtful, for he
lived in both countries; but he was undoubt-
edly in practice as a solicitor and proctor
in the Vice-Admiralty Court, Jamaica, from
1801 to 1812. In the preface to "Naval Oc-
currences" herefers to himself as an English-
man,but hemight have been born of English
parents in Jamaica. How he got into the
United States is not clear, but on the war
breaking out he was kept there about a year,
as a detenu, similarly to many English who
were detained by Napoleon in France, on
the war being resumed in 1802. But this de-
tention did not prevent James from collect-
ing much information in the United States,
until he at length escaped and made his way
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, thence after some
months to London. His development as an
author was gradual, commencing with a
series of letters to a Halifax newspaper on
the events of the naval war of 1812-13;
then a pamphlet which had a large sale;
the his octavo work of 700 pages, published
in London, 1817; the "Naval Occurrences
of the war between Great'Britain and the
United States," and finally his Naval His-
tory of Great Britain,"the first edition of five
volumes in 1822-24 ,and subsequent editions
in six volumes. Very commendable 'and
valuable is the work, "Naval Occurrences,"
for it gives the official accounts of nearly
all the actions, as supplied by the respective
commanding officers on both sides, a great
desideratum in every history, and it practi-
cally almost exhausts the subject on which
it treats. Obviously it is not at all liked
in the United States, and much dispute has
arisen on the facts mentioned, but James
collected his data with very great pains, re-
sorting to the most reliable sources, and
discussed the items with minuteness, force
The present writer has devoted much time
and pains to checking his statements, and
has found them remarkably correct. Many
facts as to size and force of ships are proved
by official particulars from French 'authori-
ties and even from some American authori-
ties also. This has been fully setforth in an
appendix to the sixth volume of the Naval
History of 1886. Some original American
reports were erroneous, and' the errors have
been repeated down to the present day'as
they are more tasteful to the national appe.
tite than the sober truths of James. But
we do not share in the bitterness with
which he attacks American narratives, for
after the lapse of eighty years we can be cool
enough over the events of 1812 or 1815.
James was irritated, no doubt, from two'cir-
cumstances; first, his being detained for
about a year against his will, and second,
from the few American successes over the
British being published with incorrectness
and great exaggeration.
James also published a small work, "War-
den Refuted,".in which he exposed many
errors in a book written on naval affairs,
by D. B. Warden, late Consul for the United
States at Paris, but as it is a subject chiefly
of details and statistics it does not greatly
interest the general reader.
James's history is a standard work taking
rank with Napier's "Peninsular War," and it
is a storehouse where any one wishing to
become acquainted with naval wars of the
period of George III. can draw abundant
materials. It is almost a cyclopedia on
naval affairs and ship statistics.
His style does not emulate the ponderos-
ity of Johnson or the colouring and sensa-
tionalism of modern authors, but is more
after the diction of Addison. The remark
may be hazarded that the more sensation
and the more enthusiasm, the greater the
distortion of truth.
Professor Laughton of the Royal Navy
observes that James is scrupulously accu-
rate, but that his deductions require to
be qualified with the opinions of foreign
authors." It is always best to hear both
sides, but actually James is so rigidly
correct in his statistics and so painstaking
in collecting them that there is very little
to alter. It is true that he seems to firmly
hold the opinion that the British have
never been beaten on equal terms at sea in
modern times; and as exceptions only prove
the rule that may be said to generally hold
Fenimore Cooper, who was too indignant
to mention James by name in his "History
of the United States Navy," yet published
two articles in the "United States Maga-
zine and Democratic Review" of 1842, dis-
puting warmly various statements of James's
works; but they nearly all, notwithstanding,
remain correct. Cooper's biographer, Louns-
bury, remarks that he was not fond of de-
In fact with most American accounts, to
describe one of their frigates capturing one
of the British, in terms of enthusiasm, is
interesting and glorious; but to go into all
sorts of particulars by which it is finally
elicited that the American ship was superior
in size to the British by 40 per cent., supe-
rior in weight of armament by about the
same, and superior in complement of men
by 50 per cent., all this is dull and tire-
some and far removed from the art of the
A ridiculous rumour that James was only
a '" horse doctor" was set about or repeated
by Fenimore Cooper, but probably arose
from a conversational blunder of doctor for
proctor for it is certain that- the name of
William James is in the list of legal prac-
titioners in Jamaica, and he states that his
practice in the Admiralty Court gave him
some of his knowledge of naval affairs;
Writing of his labours in preparing the
History, James states that he had worked
" almost daily among dusty shelves(of the
Admiralty in London) for several years,"
in. addition to which he had conducted
an extensive correspondence with hun-
dreds of officers who had been engaged in
transactions of any importance.
The devotion of James to naval affairs
appears to have led to the neglect of his own
profession for he left no provision for his
widow, who however, received a pension
from the British Government after his death
in May, 1827, at Lambeth.
Captain Brenton's Naval History published
at nearly the same period as James's is not
so accurate and devotes unnecessary space
to affairs of the land. He was an officer of
high character personally, but derived his
information, having lost many papers, too
much from the traditions and conversation
of the service instead of from deliberate and
Theodore Roosevelt, in 1882, published an
American version of the War of 1812, where-
in he attempts to explain away the superi.
ority in size and force possessed by the
American vessels, by magnifying the ton-
nage of the British ships and endeavouring
to prove that 32 pound cast-iron shot in
American vessels weighed less than 32 pound
cast-iron shot in British vessels. There is
reason to think the American shot were ac-
tually a trifle the larger. Some correspond-
ence on these points took place in the "Army
and Navy Journal" of New York from Sep-
tember 1888 to June 1889.
Proud of his knowledge of ships and
naval affairs, James did not hesitate to criti-
cise the operations of sea officers, and occa-
sionally pushed his criticisms rather too
far. He was very fond of showing up in-
accuracies in Brenton's Naval History and
the superior precisions of his own (though
Brenton was a captain in the navy); and he
several times got embroiled with officers
whom he had censured, although in most
instances he was correct.
Notable was the case of his animadver-
sions on the conduct of a certain British
commodore who had unhappily allowed the
Constitution, American frigate, to slip
through his fingers when there was every
prospect of his squadron capturing her. So
bitter were the animadversions and s;) stung
was the commodore upon reading them,
some years after the event, that he commit-
ted suicide. But James did all in honour, if
he did nothing extenuate, neither did he
set down aught in malice.
The West Indies have received a fair share
of James's attention, as under the heading of
each year there is an account of such battles
and transactions as took place in their part
of the world. Admiral Duckworth's action
off San Domingo, 1806, the taking and re-
taking of sundry of the Windward Islands,
and the action of Blanche and Pique, 1795 ;
Seine and Vengeance 1800; and cuttingg out
of lermione 1799; and combat of South-
ampton and Amethyst, 1812; all received
their notice in due course. A paraphrase
is now given of the IIermione affair.
The Naval History relates how in the year
1799 the Admiral in command at Port
Royal, Jamaica, Sir Hyde Parker, despatched
Capt. C. B. Hamilton in the small frigate
Surprise, rated of 28 guns, to endeavour to
capture the Spanish ship Hermione. rated
of 32 guns, lying in the harbour of Puerto
Cabello, on the Spanish Main (Venezuela),
and understood to be about sailing for
Havanna. She had been in the British ser-
vice and had been given up to the Spaniards
by the crew under painful circumstances.
Captain Hamilton was directed to hover
about the coast some 60 or 80 leagues to
the west of the Herminne's harbour, keep-
ing out of telescope range but so as to in-
tercept her en route, if possible. However
after waiting several weeks, Captain IIamil-
ton saw nothing of that frigate, and, his pro-
visions and water running low, he sum-
moned his crew and announced his inten-
tion to cut her out from the harbour : this
was received by the gallant and reckless
tars with three resounding cheers : and, al-
though one of the most desperate enter-
prises ever undertaken, it was carried out.
Herself superior in force to the Surprise.
having 4) or more guns to oppose to 34,
the Ilermione had the immense advantage
of being anchored in a harbour which was
said to be defended by upwards of 150
guns, and she had received on board a com-
plement of sailors, marines and soldiers,
made up to the unusual number of 320 to
360 men-accounts varying. Consequently
the only hope of success lay in a night at-
tack. and that is always attended with risk
of the boats not arriving at the same time.
For this most dangerous enterprise the
Surprise could spare little more than 10C
men out of her total complement of 200,
and these filled the ship's six boats which
were sent off one night in October. They
arrived in the harbour together, but were
shortly detected by two Spanish gunboats.
and while three of the British boats pressed
on, the others entered into contest with the
enemy. On getting up to the Hermione,
which vessel was well prepared and the
crew at quarters, Captain Hamilton gave
the order to board and was himself one of
the very first to climb the bows ; his men
from the three or four boats entered into a
protracted and sanguinary struggle with the
Spaniards on forecastle, gangways, quarter
deck and main deck successively, lasting
for about an hour, and finally carried the
ship. Sail was put upon her and she was
making out of the harbour under fire of the
batteries, when the second division of boats
joined, and their men came on board. Thus
this desperate service was performed chiefly
by about 60 or 70 men opposed to more
than 300. The Spanish crew suffered most
severely in killed and wounded, and Cap-
tain Hamilton was himself knocked down
by the butt of a musket, and afterwards re-
ceived half a dozen wounds in succession,
the effects of which he felt for years.
He returned with his prize to Jamaica,
arriving on 1st November, and the House
of Assembly voted him, with charac-
teristic liberality, a sword 'of 300 guineas
value ; besides which on arrival in England
he most deservedly received the honour of
knighthood. Besides all the daring of the
fighting man,Captain Hamilton,as shewn by
all the pre-arrangements, amply possessed
the skill of the commanding officer.
Not the least interesting part of the His-
tory are the episodes of Lieutenant Fitton's
services in the West Indian seas. In the year
1709 he was put in command first of an
open boat and then of a small tender be-
longing to the Admiral's ship, Abergavenny,
51, in Port Royal Harbour, and with this
tender and others succeeding it he was very
active in combating privateers often, of
much superior force.
In January, 1801, LieutenautFitton, cruis-
ing about the Gulf of Darien with a small
lugger having only one long gun and 44
men, fell in with a Spanish g;arda costa
having 6 guns besides swivels and 60 men,
and, after an engagement of half an hour,
drove her on shore, the lugger taking the
ground also at a short distance off. The
lieutenant then jumped into the sea, with his
sword between his teeth, followed by such
of his crew as could swim (some invalided),
boarded and captured the enemy and finally
Remarkably protracted was the action or
rather series of actions between the British
12 gun schooner Pitt, in October, 1806,
under Mr. Fitton and the noted French pri-
vateer Superbe, 14 guns, caminminded by
Cat. D. Diron: this consisted of alternate
chasing and firing during no less than 67
hours, a great portion of which time was
occupied by the crew of the Pitt in the
energetic use of their sweeps in order to
keep up with or overtake the enemy. The
affair ended by the Superbe being driven
on the rocks of the Cuban coasts (near Cape
Maysi). In men, her crew numbered over
90, while the Pitt's was but 54. The Bri-
tish loss in killed and wounded was 7 men,
the Spanish 14.
It appears thatLieutenantFitton had given
offence to some admiral and in consequence
was never promoted, but finally received
the small benefit of a pension on Greenwich
Hospital. What the offence was is not
clearly known as yet,.
Persons interested in naval or West In-
dian occurrences will find the fullest ac-
count given by our author urder the re-
spective years and many more particulars
than can be detailed in this limited article.'
There being several old histories of the
British navy in former times, such as Bur-
chett's, Lediard's, Entick's, Schomberg's,
&c., James did not go further back than the
Jamaica may reasonably be proud of her
adopted son and perhaps there may yet be
persons in the island able to afford some
information of his antecedents or of his
wife's, as she was a West Indian. Any par.
ticulars will be received by the Editor, or
present writer, with pleasure.
*For an account of the discovery, by Lieutenant
Fitton, of the Nanecq's papers in a shark, which led
to the condemnation of the brig, see vol. I. p. 297 of
XIX.-JAMES JOHN BOWREY, F.I.O., F.C.S.
By J. E. DUERDEN.
Mr. J. J. Bowrey was born in Demerara,
in the year 1844, his father, the Rev. J.
Bowrey, being a well-known missionary in
that colony, in connection with the London
In 1856, his parents left Guiana and
settled in L-ndon. Later, the son studied
at University College, and early showed
a special bent for chemical investigations,
taking the gold medal in Practical and
the silver medal in Theoretical Chemis-
try, in 1865. Three years after, he attended
the Royal School of Mines as a Royal
Exhibitioner, and there pursued his chemi-
cal studies under Prof. E. Frankland, also
serving for a time as assistant. In the
Register of the Associates and Old Students
of the Royal School of Mines, Mr. Bowrey
is stated to have been a student in Mining,
It was in 1870, upon the formation of the
Government Chemical Laboratory in Ja-
maica, that the Secretary of State for the
Colonies, actifig upon Prof Frankland's
recommendation, appointed Mr. Bowrey
Analytical Chemist to the Government of
Jamaica. The actual duties of the post
were mostly of a judicial character. This
appointment he held up to the time of his
death; and we have now to record his influ-
ence upon the island during the twenty-
seven years of his tenure of the office.
Coming as an inexperienced official of
twenty-six, isolated from personal inter-
course with professional colleagues, with
the entire organization and conduct of his
department placed under his charge, the
conditions as regards helpful and stimu-
lating scientific associations must have been
very different from those he had just left ii
LIndon. As has so often been the case, he
appears to have soon realized that under his
insular circumstances the prosecution of
original research work, the ideal with which
all true scientific students are imbued, was
well nigh an impossibility. His title of
Island Chemist well characterized his after
professional career. For his work as a
chemist was henceforth almost restricted to
matters having a. purely local interest.
Content in a large measure to perform his
official duties in a most careful and emi-
nently conscientious manner, his leisure
time was devoted with great enthusiasm to
educational and philanthropic work. And
it is in this sphere that he has left his
greatest effect on the island, and with
which his name will be best connected.
From personal association with him there
was every evidence that he possessed the
ability and the true scientific spirit for ori-
ginal research; that spirit which investi-
gates into the secrets of nature, and has for
its ultimate object the addition of some
little to the stock of knowledge provided
for the welfare and intellectual enjoyment
of mankind. The necessary conditions for
such achievements are however so exacting,
that only exceptionally do we find it possi-
ble to mould such an insular life as to
make it conducive to their fulfilment.
Nevertheless, Mr. Bowrey was able in
1878 to complete an important piece of
chemical research upon the Poisonous Prin-
ciple of Urechites suberecta, the "Night-
shade" of Jamaica. Most of the work was
carried out in Jamaica and the rest in the
Research Laboratory, South Kensington.
His experiments and results are embodied
in a paper printed in the Journal of the
Chemical Society. They are also included
in Sohn's "Dictionary of the Active Princi-
ples of Plants." Since his investigations were
published, others have been stimulated to
give attention to the matter.
He was also able to separate from the
Papaw, Carica papaya, Linn., the well-
known digestive principle Papaine, in the
form of a dry, white powder. Considerable
time wasdevoted to investigations on poison-
ing by the Akee. Cupania edulis, Camb., but
apparently no definite poisonous principle
could be isolated.
Upon the dissolution of the Royal Society
of Arts and Agriculture in 1873, the objects
in its museum were handed over to the
Government, and were, with the collections-
of the Geological Survey, placed in Date
Tree Hall, under the care of the Island Che-
mist,whose laboratory was adjoining. There-
fore, in addition to his duties of chemist,:
Mr. Bowrey combined, for a time, those of
curator of the Museum. In 1879, the Insti-
tute of Jamaica was founded, and he con-
tinued to hold the post of Curator until 1890.
He devoted himself with considerable vig-
our to the collection of natural history ob-
jects of the island, and appears to have been
very successful in the methods of preserva-
tion of fruits and the larger animals, such
as fishes. Bringing his chemical knowledge
to bear upon the matter was evidently of
great advantage to his curatorial duties.
It was by his efforts that the present
fairly representative collection of Jamaica
fishes was made, and even after sixteen
years most of them are in excellent con-
dition. Large collections of our native in-
sects were also made. Realizing the im-
possibility of carrying out identifications
away from type specimens and literature,
many of his specimens remained undeter-
mined, while others were submitted to
specialists. He was able to publish in the
"Jamaica Handbook," for 1881, apparently
the first attempt at a List of the Insects of
the Island. The list, though acknowledged
to be very incomplete, was a result of his
own collections, as identified for him at the
British Museum. It contains references to
several new species, two of which were
named after its author.
As evidence of the interest he took in the
work of his dual appointment, the Handbook
for the year mentioned also contains a
short popular paper by him on the Poi-
sonous Plants of Jamaica." In 1881 and
1882, he forwarded to the United States
National Museum collections of our native
fishes, amounting to one hundred species.
A catalogue of these, by Messrs. T. H.
Bean and H. G. l)resel was published in
the "Proceedings of the U. S. National Mu-
seum," and includes a description of two
new species of Jamaica fishes.
He ever showed an interest in horti-
culture, and was for a few years President of
the Kingston Horticultural Society. In
1887, he read before the Society a paper on
"Garden Pests," which was afterwards pub-
lished. In the series of Institute of Jamaica
Lectures he delivered three popular lec-
JAMES JOHN BOWRIEY
tures on "Soils," which were also published,
For many years he was lecturer in che.
mistry at the Mico Training College. His
work in this direction was of a thoroughly
In 1893, he gave a series of demonstra-
tions in chemistry for the Institute of
Jamaica. His last published work was in
the Bulletin of the Botanical Department,
for October and November, 1897, on the
"Analysis of Sugar Cane."
As indicative of his interest in the edu-
cational and social welfare of the people of
the island it may be mentioned that he held
the following public appointments: Member
of the Board of Directors of the Mico Train.
ing College, one of the Trustees of Wolmer's
Free School, Member of the Board of the
Jamaica Agricultural Society, one of the
Visitors of Shortwood Training College, and
a Member of the Cambridge Local Examina-
In addition to these, he was Treasurer in
Jamaica: for the Colonial Missionary Society,
and ex-chairman of the Congregational
Union in the island.
For an estimate of his character as a man,
and for an appreciation of his public influ-
ence, I can not do better than quote the fol-
lowing statement made by the Rev. Wim.
Gillies, in St. John's Church, Hannah Town,
on Sunday, Nov. 21, 1897: "There passed
away on Friday, at the age of fifty-three
years, twenty-seven of which were spent in
this island, one of our most honoured and
useful citizens. I refer to the death of Mr.
J. J. Bowrey. For the last fifteen of the
twenty-seven years spent by him in the
service of Jamaica I had his acquaintance.
I knew him as a director of and for some
time a lecturer in the Mico Training Col-
lege. His interest in the college was deep
and constant. He never grudged the time
which its interests demanded, if he could
give it. Many who are now teachers will
remember with gratitude the ready and
helpful assistance he gave them in the
understanding of many matters of a scien-
tiflo character. As a citizen all philanthro-
pic movements had for him an abiding in-
terest, and whatever tended to the material
or the moral welfare of the community
never failed to command his study and close
attention. If he could, in any way, render
personal assistance to the furtherance of
such causes, the assistance was given in no
As a student he was well read, indeed,
he was always reading the best, and it was
ever a pleasure to him to give liberally to
others of what he had learned. As a man
he was modest, real, true. There was no
sham of any kind about him. As a christian
he was humble, earnest, whole-hearted, sin-
cere in the highest and best sense. A good
man and a worthy citizen we may truly say
has gone, and in the circles where he was
well known he will be greatly missed."
The following is a list of the papers pub-
lished by him :-
1878. "The Poisonous Principle of Ure-
chites suberecta." Jour. Chem. Soc.,
1878. "On the Physiological Action of
the Poisonous Principle of Ure.
cites suberecta." Proc. Boy. Soc.,
1881. "List of the Insects of Jamaica." Ja-
maica Handbook, 1881.
1881. "Poisonous Plantsof Jamaica." Ja-
maica Handbook, 1881.
1884. Institute of Jamaica Lectures: Out-
lines of a Lecture on Vegetable
1887. "Garden Pests." Kingston.
1893. Institute of Jamaica Lectures. (Agri-
culture) : Soil ; The Tillage of the
Soil; Manuring of the Soil. [Part
of a series].
1893. "Manures for Bananas." Bulletin
fo the Botanical Department, Ja-
1897. "Analysis of Sugar Cane." Bulletin
of the Botanical Department, Ja.
mwica. October and November,
NOTES AND QUERIES.
THE PORT ROYAL EARTHQUAKcE.-With
reference to the account of the Port Royal
Earthquake published in Vol. II., No. 3 of
the Journal, G. F. J. wrote as follows in the
"Gleaner" for January 16th, 1897 :-
The Journal of the Jamaica Institute for July,
1896, contains a sixth account of this visitation,
by a Minister of the parish of Vere. The edi-
tor in a foot-note gives an extract from Sir Thomas
Lynch's account, shewing that there was a Church
at Wittywood (or Vere) but no minister. Among
the Patents for Church livings in Jamaica in its
early days of settlement under the British flag,
there are two, which were evidently brought out
with their donees by the Earl of Carlisle who ar-
rived here as Governor in 1678, as they were
signed by that nobleman on behalf of the King.
Thomas Hardwicke was appointed Rector of Vere,
and John Longworth. Rector of Port Royal under
these. H. L ," the friend of the writer of the
account, says the latter had long been located
in the island. It is likely therefore that the
authorship belongs to the Rev. Mr. Hardwicke.
Following on the same ground it is likely that the
account published in Bridge's Annals of Jamaica
was from the pen of the Rev. Mr. Longwoith.
With respect to another note by the Editor that
'-The Divine was in error in saying "that his
parish was nenext to aea," I take it that
what he meant by the word next was not as to lo-
cality but as to importance. For in a previous
note from Long, the historian, the Editor gives an
account there 'that more carriages of pleasures
were at one time kept there, that in all the rest of
the island. Spanish Town only excepted. "
Although Dr. John Longworth was not
rector of Port Royal at the time of the
SEarthquake, it was quite possible that
Mr. Hardwicke was rector of Vere. Dr.
Longworth was rector as late as 1687 as he
is mentioned as such in the Council
Minutes; but the contemporary broadside,
a facsimile of which was published in the
Journal, Vol. I. p. 147, mentions the then
rector by name:-"N. Dr. Heath going
from ship to ship to visit the bruised
People, and to do his last Office to the dead
Corpses that lay Floating from the Point"
and again Dr. He:th, the Minister of the
Place, has Lahour'd very much Co 0" 0
G. F. J. writes, while this note is passing
through the press :--
"With respect to Heath. I find in Lib. 12 of Pa-
tents, fol. 87, during the reign of William and
Mary that Governor Inchiquin presented 'Eman-
nuell Heath, Master of Arts and Fellow in Magda-
len College, Oxford, late Curate of St. Augustine
in Bristol', with the rectorship of St. Thomas in
the Vale. These Letters patent were dated 2nd
November. 1691. If this be the same Heath who
became rector of Port Royal and was at the earth-
quake of 1692, he must have been made rector of
that parish between the periods indicated and
must alsh.bave been made D.D. during the same
period. 'Wh:. or the subject of the earthquake,
I may mention that as evidence of the general
consternation and consequent suspension of all
ordinary business at the time, not a single entry
appears in the Island Record Office from 1st June,
1692, to the 15th July following-an interregnum
of six weeks."
Mr. W. A. Feurtado says:-
With reference to the Port Royal earthquake arti-
cle wherein it is said "that nothing is known of the
author, nor anything to throw light upon the iden-
tity of H. L. the friend of the Author, who gave
publicity to the account of the earthquake. I
think, and probably you will agree with me, that
H. L. is no other than Col. Henry Lowe, who was
Member of Assembly for Vere, 1691, and Clarendon
1693. Col Henry Lowe, you will find mentioned
in my Official Personages" at page 62, and also
at page 43, where Capt. William Hall complained
to the House of Assembly of Col. Lowe's conduct
We thus find that Thomas Hardwicke
was possibly rector of Vere at the time of
the earthquake, and that the rector's friend
who gave publicity to the account was possi-
bly Colonel Henry Lowe.
Investigations at the Record Office made
by Mr. Leslie Alexander do not throw, un-
fortunately, any further light on the sub-
ject. No trace has been found of Hard-
wicke's will, of the administration of his
estate, of any patent of land to him, or of
his death in either Vere, St. Catherine or
Kingston. But from the Marriage Register
of St. Catherine, it appears that Hardwicke
celebrated a marriage there in March, 1679.
He must have been on a visit to the capital
to have officiated on that occasion. Instances
of this kind occur often among the St.
Catherine registers. Between this date and
the catastrophe of the earthquake no less
than nine ministers celebrated marriages at
St. Jago de la Vega. Their names are Lening,
Hane, Corefield. Moody, Hardwicke, Long-
worth, Paris, Zeller and Towers. Up to
1683 there were nine churches and as many
ministers in the Island (Appendix. Journals
Vol. I. p. 46.). Possibly all the churches are
represented in the list here given. The Iap-
tismal Register for Vere only commences
in 1694. The baptisms are recorded by one
'John MeCar:ine' of whom nothing is known,
and who was possibly only the parish clerk.
Colonel Henry Lowe's will is dated 1713.
His tombstone is on the floor of the cathedral.
A ROYAL PR)CLAMI\TION OF TllH YEAR
1 1i.--The following is a copy of a broad-
side in the Library of the Earl of Clawford,
at Haigh Hall :-
By the King. A Proclamation for the encoura-
ging of Planters in His Majesties island of Ja-
maica in tWest Indies, Charles R. We being
NOTES AND QVETESE
fully satisfied that Our Island of Jamaica, being a
pleasant and most fertile soyl, and situate commo-
diously for Trade and Commerce, is likely, through
God's blessing, to be a great Benefit and Advantage
to this and other Our Kingdoms and Dominions,
have thought fit, for encouraging of Our Subjects,
as well such as are already upon the said Island, as
all others that shall transport themselves thither
and Reside and plant there, do declare and publish,
And We do hereby declare and publish, That Thirty
Acres of Improveable Lands shall be granted
and allotted to every such person, Male or Female,
being twelve years old or upwards, who now
Resides, or within Two years next ensuing, shall
Reside upon the said Island, and that the same
shall be assigned and set out by the Governor and
Council within Six weeks next after notice shall
be given in Writing, subscribed by such Planter
or Planters, or some of them, in behalf of the rest,
to the Governor, or such Officer as he shall appoint
in that behalf, signifying their resolutions to Plant
there, and when they intend to be on the place.
And in case they do not go thither within Six
months then next ensuing, the said Allotment
shall be Void, and free to be a-signed to any other
Planter; And that every person and persons to
whom such Assignment shall be made, shall hold
and enjoy the said Lands so to be assigned, and
all Houses, Edifices, Buildings, and Inclosures,
thereupon to be built or made, to them and their
Heils for ever, by and under such Tenure as is
usual in other Plantations subject unto us.
Nevertheless they are to be obliged to serve in
Arms upon any Insurrection. Mutiny, or Forreign
Invasion; and that the said Assignments and Al-
lotments shall be made and confirmed under the
public Seal of the said Island, with power to
create any Manner or Manners, and with such
convenient and suitable Priviledges and Immuni-
ties, as the Grantee shall reasonably devise and re-
quire: and a draught of such Assignments shall be
prepared by Our Learned Council in the Law, and
delivered to the Governor to that purpose; And
that all Fishings and Pisparies, and all Copper,
Lead, Tin, Iron, Coals, and all other Mines (ex-
cept Gold and Silver.) within such respective Al-
lotments, shall be enjoyed by the Grantees there-
of, reserving only a Twentieth part of the Product
of the said Mines to Our use. And We do fur-
ther publish end declare. That all Children of any
of Our Natural born Subjects of England to he
born in Jamaica, shall from their respective Births
be reputed to be, and shall be free Denizens of
England, and shall have the same Priviledges to all
intents and purposes as Our Free-born Subjects of
England ; And that all Free persons shall have
liberty without Interruption, to transport them-
selves and their Familes, and any their Goods (ex-
cept only Coyn and Bullion) from any of Our
Dominions and Territories to the said Island of
Jamaica. And We do straitly charge and com-
mand all Planters. Soldiers, and others upon the
said Island. to yield obedience to the lawful Com-
mands of Our R'ght Trusty and Welbeloved
Thomas Lord Windsor, now Our Governor of the
said Island, and to every other Governor thereof
for the time being, under pain of Our displeasure
and such penalties as may be inflicted there-
giyen at Our Coqrt at Whitehal, this Fourteenth
day of December, in the Thirteenth year of Our
God Save the King.
London, Printed by John Bill and Christopher
Barker, Printers to the King's most Excellent
A BROAD SIDE OF THE YEAR 1710.-The
following is a reprint of a folio single sheet
in the Guildhall Library, London. It is
endorsed "Case of the Island of Jamaica
in Relation to their Privateers."
The Report from the Commissioners of Her Majes.
ty's Customs, Dated the 19th of August. 1710. to the
Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, re-
lating to the high Duties on Prize Goods in America.
May it please your Lordships,
In obedience to the Commands of the Right
Honourable the late Lord High Treasurer of Great
Britain, signified to us by Mr. Lownds's Letter of
the Fourth Instant, transmitting to us the inclesed
Order of Her Majesty in Council, referring to his
Petition of several Merchants, Traders and Inhabi-
tants of Jamaica, concerning the high duties laid
upon Prize Goods in that Island, and of the severe
Collecting of the same there; his Lordship direct-
ing us to consider, and to report to his Lordship
our Opinion, what we thought fit for Her Majesty
to do therein.
In our Report of the 9th of May last, before the
late Lord High Treasuer, the Steps we had taken to
put the Act of Parliament (which laid the Duties
complained of) in execution in the Plantations,
wherein we have done no more than our Duty
obliged us to, in pursuance to the said Act, and
his Lordship's Directions thereon, but in consider-
ation of the Ha-dships represented in the said
Petition. which we believe in great Measure to be
true ; Viz. That these Duties generally exceed the
Value of the Goods, and where they do not, the
the Profits after Deductions were so small, that
the Privateers always made loosing Voyages; by
Means whereof, they were reduced from Twenty-
five to Two bail that the Seamen deserted the
Island for want of Subsistance, and Nine Hundred
of them were gone to settle at the Sambalos,
which would prove a great Prejudice to the Trade,
and that if the Bonds taken for these Duties
should be prosecuted, it would ruin many Families
there, who are already very low; we think if
Security could be taken, to answer the Duties till
the Persons concerned shall have an Opportunity
of applying to Parliament it would very much con-
duce to the Encouragement of Captors, the Benefit
of the Trade. and Security of that Island.
Custom House, London, T. Newport. M. Dudley.
Aug. 1 th, 1710. W. Culliford. J. Shuts.
This Report hath been agreed to, by the Right
Honourable the Lords Commissioners of Her Majes-
ty's Treasury. with Directions to Mr. Lowndes, to
acquaint the Committee therewith, and to consent
to the Bill for their relief.
AND THEREFORE, it is humbly hoped, the
Bonds shall be discharged that the Privateers and
other Inhabitants, may be encouraged to return
and prevent the Ruin of that beneficial Colony,
without which it is to be feared, the said Island will
not be able long to subsist, or defend themselves
against the increasing Power of their Enemieq.
NOTES AND QUEBTES,
SiR EDWA D LMAssY.--Sir Edward Mas.
sey (called by Evelyn, Massy), mentioned
on p. 247 as a Governor who never visited
the island, was born about 1619. His
father was John Massey, of Coddington,
Cheshire, and his mother was a daughter
of Richard Grosvenor. He served first
in the king's army: then under Crom-
well, having Gloucester as his base of
operations, of which he became Governor,
receiving for its defence the thanks of
both houses of Parliament and a vote of
1,000. In 1646, he represented Glouce-
ster in Parliament. He sided with Par-
liainent against the army, being a leader
amongst the Presbyterians, fled to Hol-
land, was imprisoned on his return, fled and
joined Charles II., for whom he intrigued;
after the restoration he was rewarded by a
knighthood. He was appointed Governor
of Jamaica in September, 1660, but he
never took up the appointment. He was
elected, in April 1661, Member of Parliament
for Gloucester which he represented till
his death which took place in 1674 or 75.
There is a full account of him in the Dic-
tionary of National Biography.
LIEUTENANT-GENERAL VILLETTS.--As is
stated in the brief memoir
of him given on p. 305 of
Vol. II. No. 3 of this Jour-
nal, there is a monument
erected to General Vil-
lette's memory in West-
minster Abbey. It is a
mural tablet at the entrance
to St. Michael's Chapel.
S The accompanying en-
graving of it is taken from
"The History of the Abbey
Church of St. Peter's West-
minster, its Antiquities and
Monuments", London, 1812.
Sacred to the Memory
Lieutenant-General WILLIAM ANNE
Second Son of Arthur Villettes, Esq.
His late Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary
To the Court of Turin, and to the Helvetic
Cantons; Who, in consideration
Of Essential Services rendered to his
'Country, During a period of Thirty-three
At Toulon, in Corsica, at Malta, and many
Other places, was appointed Colonel of the
64th regiment of infantry And
Commander of the forces in Jamaica;
But while engaged in a tour of
Military inspection for that island, was
Seized with a fever, and died near
Port Antonio, on the 18th of July, 1898,
Aged fifty-four years.
A worthy member of society was thus
Taken from the public, A valuable officer
Was lost to the King's Service, And
The Island of Jamaica was deprived of a
Man well calculated to promote its
Happiness and prosperity: his residence
There was, indeed, short; yet his
Manly, but mild virtues, his dignified but
Affable deportment, his firm, but
Conciliating conduct, had secured him the
Confidence and esteem of the whole
The sculptur'd marble shall dissolve in dust,
And fame, and wealth, and honour pass
Not such the triumphs of the good and just,
Not such the glories of eternal day.
Amicitim superstitis sacrum voluerunt.
\V. Cartwright, T. Boulter, J. Cazenove.
COLONEL DESPARD.-One of the saddest
biographies connected with the history of
Jamaica, is that of Colonel Edward Marcus
Despard, a brief notice of whom will b)
found on page 184 of this Journal.
A copy of his '" Trial" his recently been
added to the library of the Institute.
The following extracts, giving the testi-
mony in his favour borne by two famous
men who knew him in Jamaica, may prove
Evidence from the Prisoner. The Right Honou-
rable Lord Nelson sworn, Examined by Mr. Gurney.
Q. How long has your Lordship known Colonel
A. It is twedty-three years since I saw him. I
became acquainted with him in the year 1779, at
Jamaica. He was, at that time. lieutenant in
what were called the Liverpool Blues. From his
abilities as an Engineer, I know he was expected
to be appointed-
Lord Fllenborough.-I am sorry to be obliged to
interrupt your Lordship, but we cannot hear,
what I dare say your Lordship would give with
great effect, the history of this gentleman's mili-
tary life; but you will state what has been his
A. We went on the Spanish Main together; we
slept many. nights together in our clothes upon
the ground ; we have measured the height of the
enemies wall together. In all that period of time
NOTES AND QUERIES.
no man could have shewn more zealous attach.
ment to his Sovereign and his Country, than Colo.
nel Despard did. I formed the highest opinion of
him at the time, as a man and an officer, seeing
him so willing in the service of his Sovereign.
Having lost sight of him for the last twenty years,
if Ihad been asked my opinion of him, I should
certainly have said, if he is alive he is certainly one
of the brightest ornaments of the British Army.
The Right Honourable Lord Nelson, cross-exam.
ined by Mr. Attorney-General.
Q. What your Lordship has been stating, was
in the years 1779 and 1780 ?
.Q. Have you had much intercourse with Colonel
Despard since that time ?
,A. I have never seen him since the 29th of
.Q. Then as to his loyalty for the last 23 years of
his life, your Lordship knows nothing ?
General Sir Alnred Clarke sworn. Examined by
Mr. Serjeant Best.
Q. How long have you known Colonel Despard ?
A. I cannot exactly speak as to dates, but I
think I may say with safety, thirty years.
Q. From your knowledge of him what do you
state to he his character ?
A. I knew he was very much respected by the
officers of the corps, and I considered him as likely
to be a very useful officer. I knew him at a later
period ; whilst I was in the Government of Ja-
maica, he was under my orders during the six
years I was in the Government. I saw him fre-
quently, and had intercourse with him. 1 always
considered him to be a very loyal, good subject,
and a good officer.
General Sir Alured Clarke. Cross-examined by
I Q. How long is it since you were last acquainted
with Colonel Despard ?
A. I think it is thirteen years since I have either
een him or had any intercourse with him. Fromthe
period of my quitting the Government of Jamaica,
in the year 1790, I have never seen him, or had
any communication with him.
Q. During the period you have been speaking
of, you have given a very high character of Colonel
Despard ; was he at that time in the habit of asso-
ciating and living with the common soldiers ?
A. I never knew such a thing ; I should have
had a very different opinion of him if I could
have thought it.
The jury's recommendation to mercy, on
account of the high testimonials to his former
character and eminent services, did not save
Despard from a traitor's death; but the
King remitted the barbarous portions of the
SJAMES ROBERTSON, CARTOGRAPHER.-The
following brief memoir of James Robertson,
who is best known in Jamaica as the author
of the maps of the island of the year 1804,
(one of each of the counties, and one of the
whole island), has been compiled in part
from ilfformiation coItributed by Mr. W,
F. Colin Liddell, Survey-General, and by
Mr. G: Fortunatus Judah.
James Robertson was a Scotchman and
Master of Arts of Edinburgh. He appar-
ently came out here as a surveyor towards
the latter end of the last century, and his
name appears among the list of commis-
sioned surveyors in the Jamaica Almanacts
for 180R, 1808 and 1809. After this his
name disappears. We learn from Dallas,
that he served as an officer in the Maroon
war of 1795.96, and supplied the historian
with details of the expedition.
Subsequent to 1809, he went back to
Scotland, and died in Edinburgh, intestate;
for on 10th September, 1841, letters of ad-
mistration were granted to Laurence Iislop,
of St. James, Esquire, as the attorney in
this island of the relatives and next of kin
It seems that, after making his maps of
Jamaica, for which he was paid 7,500, he
returned to Scotland. Beyond these maps
and the map of the war in "Dallas's His-
tory of the Maroons," he appears to have
done very little work as a surveyor, since
his name is rarely seen on old surveys as
the maker. He tells us in his advertise-
ment, which appears at length in t e 'Ja-
maica Courant" for 1805 that the maps
were made from "actual surveys", "'pursuant
to the orders and by the authority of the
honourable the General Assembly ; of which
these maps, after the most careful examina-
tion, have respectively received the unani-
mons approbation." He further says that
"in the course of this survey access has been
had to the originals, or to the copies. of
almost all the diagrams, schemes and plans
that have been made since the conquest of
the island to the present time."
He was a large patentee of land in St.
James, Trelawny and St Ann. The lands
he patented were all back lands and he never
settled them. To this day they are still
unsettled; some have reverted to the Crown
from non-payment of quit rent, and some
belong to Mr. Moulton Barrett, of St. Ann.
RIHARDn HILL AND TaIE (GHosr.--';Vox
Clamantis" writes :-" Dr. Cargill in his
interesting note appended to the biography
of Richard Iill, recently published in
the Journal of the Institute" refers to
the ghost of a Spanish woman that fre-
quently appeared in Hill's house, in
Spanish Town,. I.can confirm all he writes
NOTES AND QUERIES.
except as regards one point. Dr. Cargill
states that no one erer saw her except
himself." In this, I think Dr. Cargill is
mistaken. I distinctly remember the com-
non belief that children at play in the
piazza, when the ghost was said to walk,
often came running into the inner rooms in
a nervous condition asking who was the
strange woman walking there, and they
could accurately describe how she was
dressed. I knew Hill well. He was a man
of the most calm, truthful, philosophic, un-
imaginative character, and if lie said he saw
" something" it is certain he did or believed
he did, and as I have just stated others saw
it as well Moreover, I am under the im-
pression that dogs and cats alko sometimes
came running in from the piazza, in a state
of great terror when the footsteps were
audible. Although referring to a period of
between forty and fifty years ago my mind
is perfectly clear as to the children, but not
quite so clear as to the animals, allhongh I
have a strong impression that in this point
also my memory serves me correctly.
My impression is that Hill wrote some-
thing on this subject, but whether he pub-
lished it I do not remember. Who is now
in possession of Hill's h SS. ? The matter
is worth looking up. Where is the sketch
of the ghost, Dr. Cargill states Hill made ?"
SMOLLErT's WlDOw.-On page 144 of
Vol. II. No. 2 of this Journal is given an
Appeal for Support made by the widow of
Smollett in 1782. The following account
of her appeared in the Gleaner" for the
13th of February, 1897.
The correspondent to whom our readers are
already indebted for much interesting information,
writes:--I send you herewith an extract I have
made from one of the Record Books in the Island
Record Office. The extract is a copy of the exem-
plitication of the will of the widow of Dr. Tobias
Smollett of eminent literary fame. Smollett mar-
ried (probably in England) a daughter of Charles
Lepells, Esq, of this island who had patents of
lands in St. Thomas-in-the-East, where he resided
and died. The property in Jamaica which Mrs.
Smollett alludes to in her will, was inherited from
the father, mother and two brothers, Charles and
Edward. At the date of her father's will she was
under age. His will is dated 6th April, 1723. It
was proved on the 21st day of January 1724 and
entered on the same day for record in the Island
Secretary's Office; which was the office also of the
Ordinary (Governor)- then the Duke of Portland.
Mrs. Smollett's will is as follows:
In the name of God. Amen. I, Ann Smollet,
relict of Dr. Smollett. deceased, now residing in
the city of Leghorn. in the Grand Ducby of Tns-
cany, being weak in body but of sound and dis-
posing mind, memory and understanding, praised
be God for the same, do make publish and declare
this my last will and testament in manner and
form following :-First, I commend my soul into
the hands of Almighty God my Creator, hoping
for a remission of all my sins by the merits and
mediation of my Saviour Jesus Christ and my body
I commit to the earth to be decently interred at
the discretion of my executors hereinafter named,
and as to all my worldly estate both real and per-
sonal, I give, devise and bequeath the same as
follows: First, I give and bequeath unto my
dearly beloved friend Mrs. Ann Renner, wife of
Mr. George Renner, merchant of Leghorn to have
and to hold to my said friend Mrs. Ann Renner
to and for her own sole and separate use and
benefit during her natural life, notwithstanding
her coverture all the rents dues. &c &c., from my
estates in the West Indies, and also I bequeath to
the said Ann Renner all my property in the funds
or in bonds or on annuities or in whatsoever kind
or manner said property may ba placed and that
the said Ann Renner be put in possession of the
same immediately after my death. Idem I will
and bequeath to my much esteemed friend Mr.
Robert Graham of North Britain as a small token
of my esteem and regard, two curious pieces of
gold medals to be found amongst my things at
Leghorn. Idem I will and bequeath to my servant
maid besides what may be due to her at my death
three month's additional pay, and whatsoever
clothes, &c. my executors may think proper to
allow her. Idem I will and bequeath at the death
of Mrs. Ann Renner all my property real and per-
sonal in the West Indies to the daughter of Mr.
Robert Graham in North Britain to be held by her
for her use and to be entirely at her disposal for-
ever, moreover in case of the recovery of said
property in whole or in part it is my will and de-
sire that my age!.t Mr. Angus MacBean there
shall be presented to a ring of not exceeding 20
sterling value to this my last will and testament,
I constitute and appoint Mr. John Adolph Koster
and Mr. George Renner merchants of Leghorn.
Given under my hand and seal this 14th day of
December, A.D., 1710, Leghorn.
ANN SMOLLETT, (L.S.)
In the presence of J. Patridge, R. Pottrick,
Thomas Hall. William Barker.
In faith and testimony of all and singular which
premises we have caused these our presents. let-
ters, testimonial, to issue forth and to be corro-
borated and confirmed by affixing the seal of our
Prerogative Court of Canterbury which we use in
this behalf. Given at London. as to the time of
the aforesaid search and sealing of these presents,
this 2nd day of January. in the year of Our Lord
1794, and in the eleventh year of our translation.
AnCio ,rECTURAL EMULATION.-" Vex Cla-
mantis" writes: 'With reference to a recent
article in this Journal on Lady Mico's
Charity, it may be of interest to place on
record a tradition which was current manly
years ago and is now probably forgotten
regarding the building in Hanover Street,
occupied by the Mlico Charity since 1835.
It was said that about the middle of last
century there were resent in Kingston,
NOTES AND QUERIES.
three merchants of great wealth and
equally great ambition as regards appear.
ances and they made a heavy bet among
themselves as to who should build the most
magnificent residence. The result was the
erection of the building in Hanover Street,
known for so many years ago as The Mico;'
' Jasper H ll.' in llighholborn Street, and
the Colonial Secretary's Office,' in Duke
Street, better known as the Generals'
House' or Head-quarters House.'
These three houses are very old, very
massive and in size and construction far
superior to any others in Kingston, and
there seems little reason to doubt that in all
probability this tradition is correct. There
is a date on some part of the inside of Jas-
par Hall and probably that is the date of
the erection of all these houses. It would
be interesting to know if dates can be found
on the other two houses.
Fuithermore, tradition stated that the
builder and owner of the Colonial Secretary's
Office was buried in the cellar at the foot of
the steps leading thereto.
As to which house was considered the
best, what it cost and the name of the win-
ner of the bet deponent knoweth not.'
It would be interesting to learn if many
houses in Jamaica have dates on them. One
cl se to lHalf-way Tree has a date some-
where. I think about 1760. Which is the
oldest house now inhabited in Jamaica ?"
Vox Clamantis" evidently refers to the
house at the northend of the Old Micopremi-
ses. formerly called Harmony Hall." A
correspondent who has heard of the legend
writes "The sto y I heard was that four were
connected with thebet. One was John liullof
Sheldon Coffee Plantation. Iis house must
have been Bull House Jasper Hall" was
built by Jasper Hall, Receiver-General, and
Speaker of the House of Assembly (died
1778), who named it Constantine House.
The date on it is 1st June 1756," Head-
quarter House," was built by Thomas
Hibbert, who arrived in Jamaica, in 1734,
and soon b came one of the principal and
most opulent merchants in Kingston, where
he erected the very handsome house in Duke
Street, late the residence of the Commander-
in-Chief of the Forces. and still known as
Hlibbert's House." (Hakewvill, "Picturesque
Tour of the Island of Jamaica," 1825). He
was Member of the Assembly for St. George,
and Portland, and Speaker in 1756. He died
in 1780. His nionnuent is on Aqualta Vale
Penn, which he owned. This would seem
to contradict the legend that he was buried
in Head.quarter House.
A WAYSIDE TOMB,.-It is not often even
in countries brimful of historical associa.
tions, that we find the wayside selected as a
place of sepulture unless for some specific
reason-such as suicides and other felons
buried at cross roads. But when two tombs
are found side by side at the junction of two
roads, the springs of curiosity of the travel-
ler are set in motion, and the subject grows
until some old tradition is unravelled. 'The
evolution of such a train of circumstances
is the cause of this brief notice.
In our little Island of Jamaica, to the an-
tiquary rich in traditions, there is at least
one instance of wayside-burial which, owing
to the noble family involved in the tradition,
is of distinct archaeological importance. At
Lacovia, in the parish of St. Elizabeth, on
the main road from SantaCruz to Black River,
precisely at its junction with the road from
Lacovia to Balaclava, there are two tombs,
side by side ; the space between being only
six feet. One, built of large squares of stones
or rock commonly used for building purposes,
is in the last stages of decay and nin, and
without any slab or inscription. The other,
the subject of this article, is a high brick
tomb with a massive, white marble slab on
which the following inscription, arms and
Here lyes interr'd the body of
THoMAS JORDAN SPENCER.
Born Octbr. the 14th, 1723, who departed
this life Sunday morning, September the
Arms:-Quarterly arg. and gu., in the se-
cond and third quarters a frette or:
over all, on a bend sa,, three flours.
de-lys of the first,
NOTES AND QUERIES
Crest:-An Esquire's helmet.
This monument is not mentioned by Law.
rence-Archer in his Monumental Inscrip.
tions of the British West Indies."
The quartering of the shield is very much
worn owing to the exposed position of the
tomb the partition line corresponding to the
pale is very indistinct, compared to that of
the fesse. This has led, as I have heard, to
incorrect blazoning, and to the false opinion
that the deceased was illegitimate.
The fret or frette (a saltire and masole in-
terlaced) known also as the herald's true-
lovers-knot, has been for over five centuries
a distinctive charge of the family of Le
The arms of Henry Le Despencer, Bishop
of Norwich, are-quarterly arg. and gn.,
in the second and third quarters a frette
or; over all a bend sa. This is difference
by an azure bordure charged with eight gol-
den mitres (ecclesiastical). On the Escut-
cheon of Pretence on the shield of Richard
Beauchamp, K.G., Earl of Warwick, are
,quartered (for his Countess Isabelle, daugh-
ter and heiress of Thomis Le Despencer,
Earl of Gloucester) De Clare and Le Des-
pencer as blazoned above. In the arms of
Spencer Churchill, Duke of Marlborouglh,
are quartered Le Despencer, only that the
bend sa. is charged with three escallops. By
way of contrast with the above arms, I here
give, according to Burke's Peerage, the
Spencer arms:-" Quarterly arg. and gu.,
in the second and third quarters a fret or :
over all, on a bend sa three escallops of the
first-quartering Poyntz, Browne, Neville,
&c." At a glance it will be seen that the
only difference between the last described
arms and those on the tomb at Lacovia is
the substitution of the three fleurs-de-lys for
as many escallops. 1 find that John
Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough was
granted as an honourable augmentation "in
chief, an inescu'cheon arg., charged with
the cross of St. George, gu.. and thereon
an escutcheon of the arms of France." 'This
may explain the substitution of the fleurs-
de-lys. Coming down to later days
(1843-56), on the Seal of Aubrey George
Spencer, Bishop of Jamaica, the aims of his
See are represented impaling Spencer and
Churchill. Dr. Spencer, according to W.
A. Feurtado's Official and other person-
ages of Jamaica" was the second son of Lord
Charles Spencer, who was the second son of
the 2nd Duke of Marlborough, The faQt to
be established is, from which branch is
Thomas Jordan Spencer descended ?
Coming to the tradition which attaches to
this wayside relic, another question arises :
to what circumstance are we to attribute the
visit of a descendant of such an illustrious
family at such an early age -for it will be
seen that he died when only 15 years of age.
I give the tradition just as it has been rela-
ted to me by an old resident in the parish,
one whom I consider trustworthy :-Some-
where about the site of the present residence
of Mr. W. J. Tomlinson known as Enfield,"
a stone's throw from the tomb, stood a fa-
mous inn or tavern. A party of gay young
fellows met there on one occasion : during
a merry bout, two of the party exchanged
hot and angry words which resulted in a
challenge Seconds were soon found and a
duel fought. Both combatants died within
a few hours of each other. It was then and
there decided, so as to mark the extraordi-
nary circumstance of the dual loss of life,
that the victims should be buried on the spot
side by side. Whether the uninscribed
tomb marks the resting place of some ob-
scure personage cannot be ascertained, but
the fact that Spencer had a tomb with mar-
ble slab, inscription, arms and crest erected
over his remains certainly points to his being
a more distinguished personage than his
cm nr.de in arms. It might seem incredi-
ble that a mere stripling of fifteen should
have figured in such a deadly conflict; but
the testimony of history would help to ac-
credit the family of that name with a war-
like spirit which may have been hereditary.
Boutell in his "English Heraldry" (5th
edition p. 191) records the following:-
Haughty, fierce, cruel and pugnacious,
his career not less inglorious as a military
commander than a, a churchman, this Henry
Le Despencer, a grandson of the unhappy
favourite of the no less hapless Edward 1
was one of the war-loving prelates who occa-
sionally appear sustaining a strange, and yet
as it would seem a characteristic, part in the
romantic drama of medieval History."
The same writer (p. 151), narrates the
following :-" At the court of Edward II.,
Sir Gilbert Hamilton had unadvisedly ex-
pressed admiration for Robert Bruce, on
which John Le Despencer struck him.
Despencer fell in a single combat the next
day, and Hamilton fle.l, hotly persued,
NOTES AND QUERIES.
The hereditary spirit of warfare, the co-
incidence of the double sepulchre, the lo-
cality-ai road-side-coupled with the his-
torical associations which are grouped around
Lacovia and its neighbourhood, in the ab-
sence of direct evidence, do all certainly
help to lend the colour of truth to what
might otherwise be deemed legendary, On
the other hand, it has also been said that the
deceased came here in company with a
dominie, and that both having died from
natural causes they were buried side by side.
Which of the two traditions is correct I can-
The remarkable state of preservation of
this relic is due to frequent repairs
bestowed upon it-either privately or other-
wise. I understand that a late custos of
the parish, the Hon. Raynes Waite Smith,
was among the few who bestowed some care
upon it in his lifetime. This brief notice of
the tomb as a record of the buried past-as
well as buried dead-will help to rescue it
from that oblivion which unfortunately so
rapidly ovetakes such relics in a tropical
country. Little does the peasant (who on
going to market halts at that tomb, rests his
burden thereon, eats his meal in the shade
of overhanging trees and then moves on)
know of its traditions and those of the
neighbourhood. Those of us who scan the
pages of history can recall the brilliant
achievements of a Sir Willoughby Cotton
with his gallant 72nd regiment in the stormy
days of 1831, and can ponder over the asso-
ciations of these head-quarters of our local
militia. And those who have never visited
the spot have yet to know that behind the
walls of the Lacovia church are many sadly
neglected graves, worn and eaten down by
the vile practice of sharpening tools, cut-
lasses, &c., on the limestone slabs indulged
in by the peasantry: that a step across the
road will reveal numerous slabs inscribed
with Hebrew characters and Portuguese, all
covered with the cultivation of squatters on
what is known as Dickenson's Run and tell-
ing the glorious history of a populous and
important centre in a still more important
and ancient parish.
THE SPELLING OF COCO-NUT AND COCCO.
Owing to the fact that there are five
plants in Jamaica of very similar names,
(i) the coco-nut, or, as it is more commonly
spelt, cocoanut, palm, (Cocos nucifera) ; (ii)
the cdcoa-tree (Theobroma cacao): (iii) the
cocco, commonly called coco (Colocasia
antiquorum), (iv) the cocoa-plum (Chrysoba,
lanus Icaco), and (v), coca (Erythroxylon
coca), well-known for the stimulating pro-
perties of its leaves, it would seem desi-
rable that the spelling of the first named,
if not the third also, should revert to its
original form; and thus prevent possible
In Dr. Murray's "New English Diction-
ary," Coco is given as the true form with
cocoa as an alternative: and cocus, cocos,
coquo, caco, coeco, coquer, cocar, cocker.
cokar, and coker as other forms. We
there learn that the early writers, from
Cosmas 545 to the 15th century knew it
only as the Indian nut or 'nut of India';
coquos (plural) is quoted first from the
Roteiro de Vasco da, Gama (Portuguese,
1498-9); Barbosa 1516 has (Portuguese)
quoquos; Pigafetta 1519 has (Italian)
coche plural of coca; Oviedo 1526, Barros
1553, Garcia 1563, ar.d Acosta 1578 have
coco ; Correa 1561 coquio.
The Portuguese and Spanish authors of
the 16th century agree in identifying the
word with the Portuguese and Spanish coco
'grinning face, grin, grimace', also bug-
bear, scarecrow,' cognate with cocar 'to
grin, make a grimace'; the name being said
to refer to the face-like appearance of the
base of the shell, with its three holes. His-
torical evidence favours the European ori-
gin of the name, for there is nothing simi.
lar in any of the languages of India, where
the Portugese first found the fruit; and in-
deed Barbosa, Barros, and Garcia, in
mentioning the Malayalam name tenga,
and Canarese narle, expressly say 'we call
these fruits quoquos', 'our people have given
it the name of coco', 'that which we call coco
and the Malabars temga.'
In English the latinized form cocus, after-
wards (as in Botanical Latin) cocos, was at
first used both for singular and plural. To-
wards the close of the 16th century, coquo,
coco, as 'the Portingalls cal this fruit'
(Linschoten), began to be used, with plural
cocos, cocoes. Coco remained the estab-
lished spelling in the 18th century, till the
publication of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, in
which the article Coco was (apparently by
some accident, for Johnson in his own
writings used coco, plural cocoes) run toge.
other with the article Cocoa (=Cacao) ; this
gave currency to a confusion between the
NOTES AND QUERIES.
two words which still prevails, although
careful writers have never ceased to use the
correct form coco.
Another spelling, coker, has been used,
with various modifications since about 1620
(I'urchas has covers, Burton coquer-nuts) ;
it appears to be from 17th century, Dutch
koker-noot. and has long been in commer-
cial use at the port of London to avoid the
ambiguity of cocoa.
The tuber commonly called coco in Je-
maica is in Murray's Dictionary spelled
cocco, as it is in Browne's "History of Ja-
Of cocoa, Dr. Murray says, A corrup-
tion of CAcAo in 16-18th century also
written cacoa, and sometimes in 18th cen-
tury cocao. Cacao was the Spanish adapta-
tion of cacauatl (or rather of its combining
form cacaua-) the Mexican name of the
cacao-seed. The word was originally of three
sylables, ca-ca-o, co-co-a, but the error of
spelling coco as cocoa has led to the further
corruption of pronouncing cocoa as coco."
The term cocoa has become so universally
adopted in the English language, that it
would probably be hopeless for one to ex-
pect a reversion to the truer form cacao,
for the chocolate-bearing tree, although
at least one writer well-known to Ja-
maicans, uses that form. But it would
certainly tend to prevent confusion if the
form coco-nut were universally adopted
in place of cocoa-nut, and cocco for coco.
We should thus have (i) the coco-nut palm:
(ii) the cocoa or chocolate : (iii) the cocco
the edible root: and (iv) the cocca-plum-
which would prevent confusion and would
have the authority of the latest and best
PARISH REGISTERs.-The following list
of the dates at which the Registers in the
General Register Office Spanish Town, com-
mence, may be useful for reference:--
St. Catherine -
Port Royal -
St. George -
St. Mary -
THE LIFE-IIISTORY OF SOME JAMAICA HESPERIID.i.o
BY E. STUART PANTON,
ITTrrI is known of the early
stages of the group of
butterflies termed Hfis-
lER IIUam or Skippers,
which are most a b u n-
dantly represented in
Tropical America. They
are an isolated tribe, in many respects
unlike the butterflies, and in some charac-
ters showing affinity with the moths. The
superficial resemblance to moths is also
very marked in some of the species, as, for
example, our dingy coloured dark brown
ACOIYLODES PHILEMON, FABR.1
Figs. 1, 2, 3.
When this butterfly is about to lay her
eggs, she may be seen hovering over the
leaves of the food plant in a timid manner,
sometimes doing this for a considerable time,
and flying away every now and then, only
to return immediately to continue in the
same manner, before eventually depositing
The eggs are played singly, and are placed
on the upper, and sometimes on the under,
side of the leaf. On the 4th of August I
took two eggs off its food plant near Man-
deville ; from these the following descrip-
tion is taken:
DESCRIPTION OF EGG.
Hemispherical, the base flat. Colour, light
yellow. Diameter at leait 1 m.m., and less in
height. Under the lens narrow light lines are
visible running from apex to base.
The larva of this insect, unlike the imago,
*Awarded the prize for the best paper on any re-
search or observation in Jamaica Zoology, Botany,
G(ology or Anthropology, in the "Competitions" held
by the Institute. See page 378.
1. I am indebted to Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, of
Mesilla, New Mexico, for sending the butterflies to
Dr. Henry iSkinner. Acad. Nat. Sci., Logan Square,
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A., who kindly determined
the species; and to Mr. W. Fawcett for the identifica-
tion of the grasses, &c.
is very beautifully coloured. It feeds on
the leaves of the orange tree2, and may be
taken in August, September and October3. I
have obtained them at Melrose (about (00
feet elevation), at Mandeville, and as high
as 3,000 feet in the Upper Clarendon
Mountains. Like the rest of the tribe,
they are very stationary in their habits,
living beneath the turned-down sides of the
leaves which they draw over and fasten by
means of silk threads. Sometimes they
may be found concealed between two over-
lapping leaves which they firmly attach
with silk, and generally a large piece of
closely woven net-work of silk covers the
larva above, and sometimes it rests on a
But when quite young, the manner in
which they construct a hiding-place for
themselves is very interesting, and evinces
a remarkable example of mechanical instinct.
When just hatched the little grubs are unable
to draw over the stiff sides of the orange
leaves. And therefore, soon after a larva
emerges from the egg, it commences to cut
the leaf from the edge inwards for a short
distance 1. This cut it leaves for a while to
start another of the same sort about half
an inch away from the first, working on both
lines of cutting alternately, and in such'a
way as to cut a semi-lunar shaped piece, or
sometimes a more irregular portion of leaf,
about half an inch in length, leaving a small
piece about 3 mm.long, exactly in the middle
of the inner margin, uncut; thus forming a
hinge for the piece of leaf, which it now
draws over with silk threads on to the upper
surface of the leaf, and firmly fastens it
down with silk. Under this roof or tent
the little larva hides securely, coming out
at nights and eating the upper tissue of the
leaf in irregular patches around its hiding
2. I have taken larve in August, at Martin's Hill,.in
Manchester, feeding on the leaves of the lemon tree.
3. I have also taken larve in the last week -of
November, at Martin's Hill.
SOME JAMAICA RESPERIID:E.
place; feeding in this way for about two
weeks, after which it eats the leaf right
through in the ordinary way of caterpillars.
I frequently deprived them of their homes
thus formed, and in every case they went
through the same operation. As they grow
larger, they make for themselves another
retreat by drawing over the side of a leaf,
and forsake their early habitation, which
has become too small.
The following are descriptions of the
larva at different stages of its growth:-
DESCRIPTION OF YOUNG LARVA.
When just hatched the larva is cylindrical.
Head, black. Body, very light yellow: later on
when about 8 m.m. long it is yellowish-green, more
yellow on terminal segment. When about 14 m.m.
in length the first 2 or 3 segments appear trans-
parent yellowish, especially when the fore part of
body is extended. The first appearance of what is
afterwards the yellow subdorsal blotches is now
indicated by small and indistinct light marks.
Soon after this, the larva is three weeks old
and casts its skin, at which time the fol-
lowing description was made:-
DESCRIPTION OF HALF-GROWN LARVA.
Length about 14 m.m.; in form, nearly cylin-
drical. Head, very large, of a light yellowish-
brown colour. Mouth-parts and surface extending
to cheeks, black. Little white dots are situated
on each cheek. The first two or three segments
narrow towards head, and the last 2 or 3 taper a
little towards extremity. There is a yellowish
lateral stripe on each side, which in the mature
larva appears to be situated more sub-dorsally.
The entire top surface between these stripes is
dark green, set with minute light points, that are
scarcely visible without the aid of a lens. The
internal vessel is visible as a dark dorsal line.
Spiracular and under surfaces, claspers and legs,
light coloured. Spiracles, white. The first 3 or
4 and last 2 or 3 segments are lighter coloured
than the rest.
DESCRIPTION OF MATURE LARVA.
The mature larva appears sub-truncate as it
lies under its leaf-fold, but if disturbed it will
often assume a cylindrical form. The 3 most
anterior segments narrow towards head, and the
last three taper posteriorly. Length l about 23
m.m., by about 6J m.m. wide at widest part. The
general ground colour is light grey-blue on top
surface, inclining to more greenish laterally. The
dorsal vessel is indicated by a darker line, which
visib'y pulsates. Head, large, broad throughout,
flattish, of a flesh-colour2, surface granulose and
covered with short fine light hairs. Mouth-parts
1. The largest specimen I have taken measured
33 m.m. long when at rest, and 7.5 m.m. wide at
2. Just prior to the last moult the head becomes a
and adjacent surface extending to cheeks, shining
black, with minute silvery dotsl included in
the black surface, and just outside. Between
mandibles is a deep orange-colour, as seen when
the jaws are moved by the larva. A bright yellow
stripe is situated on either side, a little over 1 m.m.
above the spiracular region, extending from seg-
ment 3 to 10: these stripes are not continuous
along their length, but made up of large oblong
blotches, each of which is divided by three sepa-
rate perpendicular yellow lines which together
occupy about the same space as the blotches: they
are closely and so evenly set together, that when
seen from a little distance, the blotches and lines
almost appear as an unbroken stripe. The entire
upper surface of the larva is dotted with minute
white dots or points. In some specimens there
are two oblong light coloured marks showing
through the skin, situated on either side of dorsal
vessel posteriorly, which pulsates in unison with
it. Legs, light coloured, anterior pair very small.
Claspers, light coloured. Spiracles indistinct, of
a light colour. Anal plate somewhat flat.
The duration of the larval state is from
48 to 49 days.
The pupa is formed within the leaf-fold,
where it is attached by the tail, and a thread
girds the thorax. About 24 hours after the
pupa is formed, the entire surface becomes
completely covered by a white chalk-like
substance that entirely hides the tints of
the pupa, and remains unchanged up to the
time that the imago emerges, and can easily
be removed by friction.
DESCRIPTION OF PUPA.
In form, oblong-ovate, smooth and without
angular prominences, except that anteriorly the
head is produced into a short point about 1 m.m.
long, and which turns up slightly at the tip, and
anal segment terminates in a narrow point mea-
suring about 14 to 2 m.m. in length, and is dark at
extremity. The pupa measures about 21 m.m. long,
by about 6 m.m. wide at widest part.2 Pupa covered
with a white chalk-like substance, which when
removed, the thorax and wing cases are seen to
be coloured a very delicate green, and the body
segments are yellowish-greenish, tinged with yel-
lowish dorsally. In form the thorax is round
above, and very little raised. A small red spots
is situated mid-way between eyes on under side of
head. A tiny black dot is located behind, and a
little above each eye. Veiy small light coloured
downy hairs clothe thorax and body segments, and
are also located round the eyes. Prior to the imago
emerging the pupa asumes dark brown streaks
and spots on wing-cases and thorax, which even-
1. Before the last moult these shining dots are a
dead white, but soon after they assume a shining
appearance, like silver.
2. One pupa I had, measured as much as 25 m.m.
by 8 m.m. wide.
3. This spot disappears some time before the insect
emerges from the chrysalis, or else is covered by the
dark brown streaks that appear on the pupa as it
SOME JAMAICA HESPERIIbM.
tually become quite black. After the butterfly has
emerged the pupa-case is light coloured, with pale
yellow over body segments, and thorax and wing-
cases are streaked and spotted with dark brown or
The time passed in the pupa state is about
141 to 15L days; and the imago emerges
from the pupa at night. For some hours
after escaping from the chrysalis, the but-
terfly keeps her wings in a perpendicular
position, the edges being about : of an inch
apart: when the wings are quite dry, she
extends them horizontally, but with a
slightly downward slope, which is the natu-
ral position for them when the insect is at
rest. These butterflies are not seen com-
monly, owing, no doubt, in great measure, to
their very obscure colour, and timid nature.
On one occasion I saw three of them on the
m virgin of some woodland in the Clarendon
Mountains; they were flying among the
weeds and low bushes, basking in the sun-
light, when their very dowdy coloration
appeared to greater advantage, as the sun's
rays shone on them, imparting a lighter and
more shining hue. The sexes of this but-
terfly are alike.
PYRGUS MONTIVAGUS, BREAK.
The female of this common species lays
her eggs on one of the many broom weeds
(Sida rhombifolia), and the species is to be
met with at all elevations in Jamaica. This
insect has not the quick jerky flight so
characteristic of the Hesperiidae. When a
female alights on the food-plant to deposit
an egg, she turns slowly round, then walk-
ing leisurely to a top shoot, places an egg
on a very young half developed leaf, or on
a flower bud, or its foot-stalk.
June is the usual breeding time of this
butterfly, but I have taken eggs in Novem-
ber. On the 12th and 16th of June I took
many eggs off its food.plant at Half-way-
DESCuIPTION OF EGG.
Diameter i m.m. and slightly less in height, nar-
rowing a little at apex, and also at base: apex
marked by a slight depression. Colour light, with a
faint green tinge. Strong, thickly set, perpendicular
and somewhat irregular ribs traverse the surface,
some of which do not quite reach the apex. These
ribs are crossed in places by similar transverse
ones, all of which are only seenby the aid of a
When a larva is hatched it conceals itself
in the deep narrow cavities formed by the
unexpanded calyx of the conical flower buds,
or in the deep narrow passage of a very
young and undeveloped leaf, across which
it stretches silk threads : after which, as it
grows larger, it, hides beneath the side of
a leaf which it turns over and fastens with
silk. The duration of the larval state is
27 days. The larvae are timid, and gene-
rally feed at night.
DESCRIPTION OF YOUNG LARVA.
When just hatched the body is of a cloudy ap-
pearance, and from the extreme transparency of the
integument, the dark internal vessel is visible
through the whole length of body. Head black,
DESCRIPTION OF MATURE LARVA.
Head black, of moderate size, but much larger
than first segment. In form the larva is cylindrical,
except that first segment is smaller than the rest,
and appears somewhat divided from the next, and
in colour is dark brown: in the middle of this seg-
ment there is a transverse fringe of short light hairs
set wide apart at regular intervals, and 3 light
blotches situated, one dorsally, the others laterally :
the rest of body is light yellowish-green, with
blotches of greener above claspers and dorsally,
more so anteriorly. There is a green dorsal line
that narrows and expands by pulsation of dorsal
vessel, less visible on 2nd, 3rd, and anal segments.
The junction of segments is marked by light yellow,
best seen when the animal is in locomotion. The
head and body are thinly covered by light hairs.
Pro-legs 6, well developed, first pair blackish brown,
next two pairs lighter, especially posterior pair,
Claspers, 10, light green.
DESCRIPTION OF PUPA.
Sub-cylindrical, not angulate, measuring about 15
m.m. long by 4 m.m. wide. Thorax smooth, round
above, very little raised. Segments not articulate,
converging to a narrow point at anal extremity,
which point is concave beneath, and in colour
bright red-brown. There is a green tinge on dorsal
surface of the two segments next anal one; the other
segments are pale yellowish with two very small dark
dots on top of segments 2 and 7; and the divisions or
junction of the three segments anterior to anal one
is indicated by light green on their under side. Spi-
racular apertures are located by brown dots. Dusky
marks are situated at junction of segments with
wing-cases along upper edge. Wing-cases, bright
green, the pale yellowish of segments showing
through them posteriorly. A small elevated brown
bean-shaped mark lies on either side of junction of
head with thorax laterally. Head, thorax, and seg-
ments thickly set with short light hairs, the same
as those which cover the larva: the hairs on head
point forward, on thorax upward, and those on seg-
ments branch posteriorly, and are set very thickly
at anal extremity. The.entire structure of pupa is
very similar to that of a moth.
Before the imago emerges the delicate
tints of the pupa fade, giving place to brown
on thorax, and wing-cases become very light
brown, and the segments yellowish-greenish
beneath, brownish above. Eyes almostblack.
Later on the thorax and wing-cases turn
SOME JAMAICA HESPERIID.,.
very dark, and the spots on the wings of the
butterfly can now be seen through the wing-
cases. After the butterfly has escaped, the
pupa-case is light brown. The insect re-
mains in the pupal state for 14 days.
,CARYSTUS CORYDON, FABR.
Figs. 4, 5, 7.
I have traced the life-history of this beau-
tiful skipper in the Clarendon Mountains
(3,000 feet), where I find its larva feeds on
the leaf-blades of the sugar cane1, and on
which it appears to be found all the year
round, but most frequently taken in the
months of November, December, January
and February, but especially in the latter
It is strong and swift on the wing, and
when at rest the wings are closed over the
back. It is generally shy, but may some-
times be approached and caught without
difficulty when feeding on a flower. One
morning, as early as 7 o'clock, I saw one of
them to great advantage; it was on the top
of a full blown spray of coffee blossom,
which it was eagerly sucking, and so heed-
lessly, that I got near enough to appreciate
the beautiful sighi : perched in the midst of
these spotlessly white flowers, which were
alike ladened with perfume and dew-drops,
the little fairy was taking her morning feed,
with eyes glowing like coals of fire. The
eyes of this species are very beautiful, being
a clear lake-colour when seen in certain
lights, and the brilliancy of which remains
some days after the insect has been killed
and set for the cabinet.
The female has a curious habit of laying
her eggs late in the evening. On more than
one occasion I was fortunate enough while
walking among some growing canes in
January and February, in the Clarendon
Mountains, to see one of these butterflies
laying her eggs on the leaf-blades. She
moves with a quick jerky flight among the
canes, as if in a great hurry to accomplish
her duty of egg-laying.
The egg, which is played singly, is some-
times placed on the under surface of the
leaf-blade, near the edge, and in other in-
stances on the upper side near the mid-rib,
or otherwise placed at random. On one
1. I t ok a mature larva at Martin's Hill, in Man-
chester ;n the last week of November, on a leaf-blade
of Indian corn; and on the grass Panicum maximum,
early in September and October, in the Clarendon
occasion 1 found two eggs lying close
together. An egg which I saw deposited
by the insect, and was played at 6 o'clock in
the evening, took exactly 11 days 15 hours
to hatch, the little caterpillar coming out at
9 o'clock in the morning.
DESCRIPTION OF EGG.
Hemispherical, the base flat; colour, shining pale
green; but when viewed with a lens the surface is
seen to be minutely but faintlypunctate, and evenly
set with perpendicular lines that arise from the
base, terminating at about half the height of egg.
Diameter 1 m.m, by about 1 m.m. high. Just before
hatching, the long black hairs that are to be seen
on the newly hatched larva are visible through the
When hatched, the young larva generally
seeks the topmost portion of the cane-blade,
the sides of which are more pliable than the
lower part, and easier drawn together ; these
it partially connects by some 7 or 8 strong
silk ropes composed of numerous silk threads.
In this hollow, the top of which is open and
barred by silk ropes, the little larva lies. In
other instances, instead of seeking this re-
treat, it will cut a slit in the side, anywhere
along the leaf-blade, and draw over a small
piece of the edge, which it fastens with silk.
under which it hides.
DESCRIPTION OF YOUNG LARVA.
When just hatched the body is light yellow, with
a narrow transverse, shining black, corneous line on
first segment, from which long hairs arisel: similar
hairs having a forward direction are thinly scat-
tered over the body. Head, very large, shining
black. After food has been taken, the anterior por-
tion of body becomes greenish, caused by the vege-
table matter showing through the transparent integ-
ment. Later on the whole body becomes greenish,
or bluish-greenish, except the two most posterior
segments, which incline to whiteish: after which
the larva gradually assumes the colours of maturity.
The older larve hide themselves under
the sides of the leaf-blades which they draw
towards the mid-rib, fastening them to the
inner surface, and attaching the opposite
edges with silk. The surface on which the
larva lies is thinly covered by silk. During
the night it comes out to feed, and if kept
in a room it may generally be heard between
8 and 9 o'clock, making a faint rasping
sound while eating. It eats the leaf-blades
edgewise down to the mid-rib, and often
1. This corneous line is lost after successive moults.
2. With each successive moult the head of the larva
becomes lighter in colour, and in the intermediate
stages it presents a mottled appearance of light and
dark, until only a few minute black specks remain,
after which the head becomes entirely light coloured,
except a few little black specks on cheeks.
SOME JAMAICA HESPERI1D.E.
on both sides so as to cause the leaf to re-
semble a switch, but more frequently it is
eaten at irregular intervals on either side.
Some plants get considerably attacked, ap-
pearing 'bare and wretched, but, as the
growth of the leaf-blades is so enormously
rapid, it seems doubtful if any appreciable
damage is done.
The following is a description of a mature
larva taken on 23rd January.
DESCRIPTION OF NATURE LARVA.
In shape cylindrical, except that the first 2 or
3 segments narrow slightly towards head, and the
last 3 narrow terminally. Length about 53 m.m.,
by 7 m.m. wide. Head, rather small, somewhat
heart-shaped, narrowest end uppermost; in colour
light, with about 5 minute black specks on each
cheek, and the surface is clothed with short fine
white hairs that point forwards. The articulations
of body segments are very indistinct, making the
larva appear somewhat worm-like, and which is
made the more so by the shining or enamelled
appearance of the body. There is a greenish-
yellow dorsal stripe about 21 m.m. wide, inclining
to dark green in the middle, the outer edges of
which are not defined, but blend into the adjacent
surface. The sub-dorsal surface is cloudy greenish-
yellowish, and the spiracular and under surfaces
are transparent green, and in parts pale bluish,
with a glossy surface. Situated transversely, on
under surface of segment 4, there is a broad chalky-
white blotch. Terminal segment is flattened, fall-
ing over anal claspers, so that when looked at from
above, the claspers are hidden. Legs, 6, transpa-
rent green above, black at ends, but less so on
posterior pair. Claspers, 10, transparent green.
Body clothed with white downy hairs, which are
most numerous on anal segment.
When about to enter the pupa state, the
larva becomes a very delicate green, and
less shining in appearance, and the dorsal
stripe now changing, gives place to two
narrow parallel lines that are formed by the
edges of the dorsal stripe : the space between
these lines is coloured translucent green,
darkest posteriorly, and through which the
the internal vessel can be seen gently pul-
sating, and alternating the green to light
The pupa is formed within the leaf-fold,
where the anal end is attached by silk to
transverse threads fastened to the surface
of the leaf-blade, and is also girded over
the thorax by a thread, and the surface on
which the pupa lies is covered with silk
DESCRIPTION OF POpA.
Cylindrical, but tapering from the last 2 or 3
segments terminally. Length about 43 m.m., mea-
sured from its most anterior projection to anal
extremity, by 7 m.m. wide. The pupa is very
smooth, segments not at all articulate, the divi-
sions being very faintly visible, and the surfaces
entirely inangulate, except that the head is pro-
duced into a narrow projection measuring about
4 m.m. in length, which is widest at base and tapers
to a blunt point: the greatest part of this snout-
like process anteriorly, is rough, and of a yellowish-
brownish colour, and the base is pale green: in
direction, it has a slight tendency to curve down-
wards at extremity. For the most part the sur-
faces of pupa are a very pale green, paler on lower
and under surfaces. The wing-sheaths are whitish,
and the dorsal surface has the faintest possible
yellowish-brownish tint. The entire pupa has a
polished or enamelled appearance. Two longitu-
dinal and parallel light yellow lines or stripes
traverse the dorsal surface, starting from junction
of head with thorax, and terminating about 4 m.m.
from anal extremity; the distance between these
stripes is about ] m.m. Anal segment narrows
into a long point, the upper edges of which are
rough: above it is arcuate, but depressed in the
middle, beneath concave, and coloured yellowish-
brownish. There is a long slender tongue-case
about 23 m.m. in length, extending about 7 m.m.
beyond anal extremity; light coloured, and with a
faint tint of brown, showing in some lights pinkish.
This tongue-case starts independently of body on
under surface, at about the termination of wing-
cases1. The pupa is sensitive when touched, gene-
rally turning over on its back in a quick convul-
sive manner, and in a second or two after, regains
its natural position.
The butterfly always emerges from the
pupa at night, and a few hours before it
escapes, the abdominal segments of pupa
become encircled by dark broad, almost
black transverse bands at junction of seg-
ments, while the thorax appears yet darker.
There are five of these bands, the first being
on about segment 3, and the rest situated
on the successive segments: the first two
segments are without bands, being merged
in the blackish-brown of the thorax.2 The
pupa-case is colourless after the escape of
the insect, and is somewhat more than half
full of a thin, light yellowish liquid.
On 1st August, I took a young larva of
this species which had 12 yellowish parasitic
larvae, some of which lay transversely on
the back of the larva, and others on the
lateral surface. Although the parasites lay
beneath the skin, their form could clearly
be seen, as their bodies were much above
the level of that of their host. Leaving
home, I did not return till the 5th, and then
found that the caterpillar had been entirely
destroyed, and twelve parasitic pups lay
in the midst of a little brown mass, the only
vestige left of the caterpillar. The pupm
1. This tongue-case is very similar to that of Pam-
phila ethlius, but is longer.
2, These bands appear in the same way on the pupa
of Panphila ethlius.
SOME JAMAICA HESPIERIDtE.
were adhering by the anal extremity to the
brown mass, with their bodies pointing
obliquely upwards. They were transparent,
and of a light colour, with light yellowish-
brownish on under surface of thorax, and
on leg-sheaths. Some of the pupm were
characterized by a head and leg-sheaths,
whereas others were more vermiform in
appearance, and without these; but in gene-
ral outline similar to the rest. Unfortu-
nately these pups all dried up.
PAMPHILA PHYLACUS, DRURY.
Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10.
This common little butterfly is found
everywhere in this island, and lays her eggs
on different species of the smaller grasses.
I observed a female depositing her eggs on
Bahama grass on a tennis lawn at Halfway-
Tree, and in the Upper Clarendon Mountains,
as high as 3,000 feet, on the running grass
Paspalum conjugatum, Bery., and on another
grass known as Panicum sanguinale, Linn,
If care is taken not to frighten the insect
when laying, she will deposit quite a num-
ber of eggs in a few square yards of ground,
flying quickly from place to place, laying
an egg singly on a grass blade or stalk, and
generally on the under side. On 28th
October, I took 3 eggs in the Clarendon
Mountains, all three of which were played
at the same time; two of these hatched at 9
o'clock on the morning of 6th November,
and the third three hours later ,making the
time of incubation 9 days.
DESCRIPTION OF EGG.
In shape hemispherical. Diameter about mm.,
and less in height. Colour light, with the faintest
possible yellow-green tint. Surface smooth and
Soon after the little larva is hatched it
crawls into the hollow of a grass-blade, the
top of which it crosses with silk threads,
drawing the edges a little towards each
other, but not as much as to meet: these
threads are strengthened by additional ones
from time to time. In some cases the threads
are formed into a mesh or net-work. The
larva feeds both at night and during the
day, but on the least alarm it retreats
quickly, moving backwards all the way
until it reaches its hiding place.
DESCRIPTION OF NEWLY-IIATCHED LARVA.
Length about l1 m.m. Head, very large, shining
black. Mouth-parts, rather dark. Body, cylindrical,
white, and with a lens, short dark hairs are seen
thinly scattered over the surface, and long ones
branching backwards from extremity of anal seg-
ment. A broad dark and shining corneous-like
ring encircles first segment just behind head.
Legs, dark, except posterior pair, which is lighter,
but dark at ends. Claspers, light coloured.
On the second day after hatching, thebody
is greenish, especially posteriorly, owing to
the larva having taken food, the green of
which shows through the transparent skin :
and when a week old it is still light coloured,
with the internal vessel visible through the
skin: after this the colour gradually changes
to light brown, with a very narrow dorsal
line, darker than the body.
As the larva grows older it leaves its
hiding place in the hollow of the grass-
blade for another more suited to its size;
drawing some of the grass-blades and stalks
together, it connects them with silk threads,
forming a somewhat rude habitation near
the base of the grass-stalks.
When about half grown these larvi begin
to evince a curious habit while in locomotion,
that of shaking the head and fore part of
the body by a tremulous or quivering side-
DESCRIPTION OF LARVA WHEN 12 DAYS OLD.
Length about 9 m.m. Middle segments, greenish;
anterior and posterior ones yellowish-brownish.
A greenish line traverses the dorsal surface. The
black ring is still present on first segment. With
a lens the body is seen to be thickly set with
minute dark dots out of each of which a very short
(lark hair arises, some of these being longer than
DESCRIPTION OF LARVA WIIEN 15 DAYs OLD.
Length about 11 m.m. In shape cylindrical,
except that first three segments taper towards
head. General colour very light brownish, with
green showing indistinctly through the skin. parti-
cularly on middle segments. When viewed through
a lens, the body is seen to be thickly set with brown
blotches on a lighter groundwork of brown, and
out of which very short black hairs arise. The
green of internal vessel shows plainly through the
light brown skin of under surface. Dorsal surface
traversed by a dark brown line, and a brown stripe,
less distinct, is situated on either side of lateral
surface. Head black, moderate size. Anterior to
the black ring, situated on first segment, there
now appears one of pure white. First pair of legs,
black, the rest ringed with light and dark.
Claspers, concholorous with body.
DESCRIPTION OF LARVA WHEN 23 DAYS OLD.
Length 30 m.m. by 31 m.m. wide. In shape
cylindrical, except that first 2 or 3 segments
narrow a little towards head, but hardly notice-
able until the body is extended in locomotion.
Head, large, of a dark brown colour, darkest at
sides, with two short light broadish londitudinal
streaks extending from top of head to near middle
office, the space betweenwhichis slightly concave.
and very dark in colour. In the middle of the
Journal of the Institute of Jamaica. VOL. II., No. 5.
ji 9 7.
E. S. P. del.
LIFE-HISTORY OF SOME JAMAICA HESPERIIDE.
SOME JAMAICA HESPERIIDA'.
face there is triangular mark. Mouth-parts, dark.
The black and white rings still visible on first seg-
ment. The upper surface of body as far as spira-
cles is brown dusted with blackish. A dark line
traverses the dorsal surface, and another is situated
on either side of lateral surface above spiracles,
but appears interrupted at junction of segments.
Spiracular and under surfaces, brown. Spiracles,
yellowish-brown, and that on segment next anal
one most visible. Legs, 3 pairs, well developed,
black. Claspers, 5 pairs, concolourons with under
When touched the larva moved back-
wards, andat other times they feigned death
by curling themselves into a ball, remaining
in this attitude for a little while.
About seven days before they assumed
the pupa state, I placed some larvm under
a bell-glass on some earth and grass, being
curious to see if they would descend into
the earth to conceal themselves. For two
reasons it appeared to me that this species
probably led a subterranean life; at any
rate for the latter part of its existence.
In the first place, early in life, the little
grubs lose their light colour and assumes a
brownish hue, a colour not at all suitable as
protection, should they be in the habit of
passing their entire larval existence among
the grass-blades: and secondly the grass-
blades on which they feed are so narrow
that it is hard to imagine them effectively
concealing themselves among the grass. As
soon as they were placed under the bell-
glass, each larva burrowed beneath the sur-
face, making a hole for itself, leaving a
small aperture at the top, through which
to come up and feed, which they would
do at nights, and sometimes during the day,
when they would seize a piece of grass,
pulling it into their holes to eat.
DESCRIPTION OF NATUREE LARVA.
Length 32 m.m., by 5 m.m. wide. Head, mode-
rate size, dark brown. Colour of body now slightly
lighter, with the brown lateral and dorsal stripes
showing more distinctly. Spiracles, hardly visible.
Just prior to entering, the pupa state the larva
becomes somewhat greenish, especially laterally
and on under surface.
It is interesting to note that larvae hatched
in the summer remain far less time in the
larval state than those hatched at the end
of the year: for some which I reared from
eggs, taken in July, remained 32 days before
changing to the pupa; whereas those hatched
in November took 45 days, and were other-
wise under exactly the same conditions as
those reared in the summer.
The larvae become pupat in the hole
or burrow they make in the earth: the
burrow measures about one inch long, by
about ,- of an inch wide : the particles of
earth forming the top are closely woven
together by silk threads, and the pupa is
attached terminally to the earth at the bot-
tom of the hole.
DESCRIPTION OF PUPA.
Sub-cylindrical. Length, 22 m.m., by 51 m.m.
wide. Surface inangulate, and resembling the pupa
of a moth. Head, nearly as wide as thorax.
Thorax smooth, very little raised. The last 3 or
4 segments taper towards extremity, and the anal
one terminates in a narrow point that is grooved
along its length on top surface, and coloured red-
dish brown. The ground-colour of pupa is light
brown, of a similar shade to last stage of larva.
The top surfaces are boldly marked with dark
brown or blackish streaks and marks as follows,-
a somewhat elevated blackish semi-round mark is
situated on either side sub-dorsally at junction of
head with thorax: a dark blotch lies on top of
head, behind which a broad blackish stripe starts
from about junction of head with thorax, traver-
sing dorsal surfaces of thorax and abdominal seg-
ments: on either side of this line there is a broadish
black stripe situated sub-dorsally on thorax: dark
blotches are on sub-dorsal surface of abdominal
segments, most marked on segments 1, 3, 4 and 5.
Upper edge of wing-cases streaked with dark
brown anteriorly. There is a greenish tinge on
anterior abdominal segments dorsally, which is also
vizable at junction of posterior ones. Indistinct
and very minute dark dots, some of which can
hardly be seen without a lens, are situated on top
of abdominal segments on either side of doisal
stripe as follows,-segments 2, 3, 7 and 8, each
possess two dots, which on segments 2 and 3 are
not horizontally parallel like the rest, but the ante-
rior dot is situated more dorsally; segments 4, 5
and 6 eact possess one dot. Spiracles, light red-
dish-brown. Under surface light brown, with a
small dark brown blotch between eyes, and 6
brown dots arranged in two rows on lower abdomi-
nal segments, commencing just under wing-cases.
Abdominal segments clothed with short light hairs
dorsally, that have a backward direction, and are
most numerous on posterior segments. Eyes and
most anterior portion of head covered with short
light hairs. What appears to be the extremity of
a short tongue-case, projects somewhat over 1
m.m. immediately below the wing-cases on under
surface, and in colour is a little darker than under
surface. The pupa case retains its colours after
the imago has escaped.
The sexes of this butterfly present a
different appearance, as may be seen on the
plate: the females are lighter coloured, and
quite differently marked from the males.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE.
Figs. 1, 2, 3. Achlyodes philemon, Fabr.
Larva, pupa, and imago.
Figs. 4, 5, 6. Carystus corydon, Fabr. Larva,
pupa, and imago.
Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. Pamphila phylacus, Drury.
Larvu, pupa, and male and female,
THE COOK-PIT COUNTRY AND THE WHITE LIMESTONE OF JAMAICA'.
By F. C. NICHOLAS.
A marked feature of the geology of the
West Indies is found in the extensive de-
posits of massive white limestone common
to all this part of the world. This forma-
tion, though hard and compact, disintegrates
freely; tall cliffs and broken rocks are
honeycombed with openings and pit-marks,
presenting a rough jagged surface, which is
sometimes almost impassable.
Nowhere is this formation found as ex-
tensive, or so much cut up, as in the Cock-
pit Country of Jamaica, which seems to be
the centre of chaos.
In this region scarcely any fossils are to
be found, but a careful search proved that
fragments of corals were mingled with the
general formation; and, in adjacent ridges,
where the rocks were better preserved, a
collection was secured, which comprised a
variety of shallow water types of marine life.
Judging from these, and from other speci.
mens taken from many points on the island,
as well as from the relative position and
the structure of the white limestone, I
should say that this formation belongs to
late Miocene times; and that it originated
among coral reefs, which, rising to the sur-
face. were by the action of the waves broken
and ground up, the sediments and fragments
gradually filling all the openings in the
structure, and forming one solid mass fre-
quently without distinct fossil remains.
In such a deposit two distinct types of
formation might be confidently expected:
one, the massive material without distinct
fossils, representing the collected fragments
eroded by the action of the waves beating
on the coral reefs; and another, originating
in the more protected places where varied
types of marine life existed in great-num-
bers, now represented by zones and beds
rich in fossils, and surrounded by the more
extensive deposits of barren material. These
conditions re verified at many places, and
a collection of fossils now in the American
Museum of Natural History, and specimens
in the Museum of the Institute of Jamaica,
prove that corals, and other marine types of
shallow water origin are mingled con-
formably, though in isolated zones, in the
general formation of white limestone found
in Jamaica; indicating that all these rocks
are of a comparatively shallow water de-
posit, thrown from one to three thousand
feet out of place.
These rocks exposed to atmospheric action
began a rapid course of disintegration, and
in time the brooks and rivers worked their
way under the ledges, cutting out passages
which later fell in, till to-day, in many
places, there are wildernesses of broken rocks
where one meets with curious sink holes,
"bottomless pits" ; and water courses, which
appear, and almost immediately pass out of
sight again. It is a curious fact that every-
where among the rough broken rocks all
sorts of trees and tropical plants are grow-
ing abundantly; for this limestone disin-
tegrates so freely that all find nourishment,
the roots pushing down into crevices or
even clinging to the bare rocks.
Qualitative tests show that, besides a very
pure carbonate of calcium, these rocks con-
tain a slight proportion of silica, traces of
phosphates, and a little iron.
The cock-pit country, where this forma-
tion is typical, is situated in the west central
part of Jamaica, and comprises an area some
ten by fifteen miles in extent, and for the
greater part one vast labyrinth of glades
among rough cliffs, with here and there
patches of smoother ground; and, at other
places, coming one after the other, a general
collection of impassable sink holes, called
The impression one gets on first visiting
this region is that it is of little interest;
just a path between a few not very high
cliffs. There is such a sameness about it
all that one is constantly expecting the next
turn to lead out into the open country, or
to a cultivated estate. After a few hours
hard scrambling one realizes that here, in
truth, there is a wilderness of rocks.
A trail leads in and out among the glades
in this region, and one can travel on for
miles meeting always the same thing, and
there is such a sameness about it all that it
is difficult to tell one point from another;
and should the path be lost the traveller
THE COCKPIT COUNTRY.
could wander on for days and days, as I am
told some have done, without finding any
means of egress.
In all this district there is very little
water, the rains being carried off almost
immediately by a multitude of creviceslead-
ing no one knows where; but it may be that
there are extensive caverns under the sur-
face into which this water drains, the tex-
ture of the rocks making it probable; and
many of the broken surfaces may have been
caused by the falling in of the roofs of old
caves, the foundations of which had been
gradually washed away.
At long distances apart there are springs,
or rather places where underground water
courses have been uncovered, and almost
immediately pass out of sight again.
One of these, called Booth Camp Spring,
is found at the bottom of a deep circular
opening where it comes out from under a
ledge of rock, makes a deep channel for
five or six yards, and then disappears under
another ledge of rock on the other side of the
hollow depression. At times, when the rains
are heavy, all this low place is filled with
water, at which time it appears like a great
open cistern. This spring is typical of the
few that are found at long intervals near the
margins of the inner cock-pit country.
The sink-holes, from which the district is
named, occasionally present a somewhat
conical appearance, broadening as they go
down. This may have been caused by the
action of similar springs or water courses,
which first washed out channels at the bot-
tom of other low places, and finally, breaking
through the rocks,disappeared,leaving behind
a peculiar hollow called a cock-pit. These
inverted conical forms are not so abundant
as one would imagine from the extent of
country named after them, and, in Jamaica,
cock-pit country" means a rough lime-
stone hill and ledge formation with pits or
sink holes, the sides of which are filled with
rough broken rooks.
All the streams flowing towards this re-
gion disappear under the rocks, and the
glades leading through the cock-pit country
are possibly old water courses cut out by
brooks and rivers which later worked their
way into underground passages along the
edge of this formation, leaving it almost
entirely without water. This is further
evidenced by the presence of pits or holes
in the glades, resembling the openings
through which the rivers of to-day sink
down and disappear in the ground. One of
these, called the Devil's Staircase, and re-
ported locally to have no bottom, is an
opening of considerable magnitude, and
could have carried off a large body of water.
This pit is found in the northern part of
the district, near a trail leading across the
cock-pit country, and is some 12 to 15 feet
in diameter. Wishing to know something
of its approximate depth I pushed a large
rock over the side, and it was gone. Then
came a hissing noise as it fell, and then a
crash, and the sound of fragments rattling
on down, while the reverberations shook
the rocks all about me.
I directed my guide to drop a boulder
over the side, and noted seven seconds
before the crash came, indicating a fall of
about 800 feet, while the fragments could
be heard for five seconds more dashing
against the rocks, and the sounds seemed to
die away in the depth of the earth.
A large part of the cock-pit country has
never been explored, nor is it probable that
it ever will, because the land is useless.
One can cross the district from north to
south, and east to west, and go all around
it; sufficient to show that there is nothing
to compensate for the effort, and that one
parties quite similar to all the others. The ele-
vations averaged from 1,400 from 1,500 feet.
In the glades I noted aneroid readings as
low as 800 feet, while on some of the ridges
which cross this district N.E. and S.W.
bending at times N. and S., I took readings
as high as 2,300 feet. These are the ex-
tremes, the average variation is about 200
feet; but these elevations are abrupt and
almost precipitous over nearly all the
The origin of the white limestone of the
cock-pit country, and also throughout the
West Indies, was probably due, as previously
stated, to sediments from ancient coral reefs.
After the upheaval of the islands the dis-
integrating action of rain and heat caused
the rough surfaces, and, in Jamaica, the gra-
dual development of subterranean drainage
brought about a condition of great scarcity
of water, so noticeable in the cock-pit coun-
try and other parts of the island. This
underground drainage brings up the im.
portant economic question of water supply.
If the white limestone is a relatively super-
ficial deposit following the undulations of
THE COCK-PIT COUNTRY.
the underlying formations, then the drain-
age planes must also follow such undu-
lations; and, in places where a deep ero-
sion has taken place in the overlying mate-
rial, it would be quite possible to tap such
drainage planes and. secure an abundant
supply of water, even at some of the most
arid places. Near the Devil's Staircase in
the cock-pit country the drainage plane
is evidently too far below the surface for
practical well-boring; but, at other points in
this most arid part of the limestone country,
it is quite possible that underlying form-
ation may be reasonably near the surface.
The supposition that the white limestone
of the West Indies has been formed by
coral reefs and by comparatively shallow
water sediments accounts for many of its
irregularities; but it accounts for nothing
more, and leaves out of the question all
the problems of the geological history of
If they were once connected with the
mainland and subsided from it, coral reefs
could have formed to almost any depth,
provided only that the subsidence was
gradual ; or, if the islands rose out of the
surrounding waters, then there would have
been every opportunity for coral reefs to
have formed, and gradually deposited their
sediments to great thickness.
If the islands rose at one great seismic
action, then the white limestone would pro-
bably have been of deep sea origin ; but, as
there is scarcely any evidence of violent
seismic action on most of the islands, a
gradual development seems more probable,
and that the peculiar white limestone of
these regions originated as a shallow water
superficial deposit during such movements.
From this it seems reasonable to claim
that the key to all the economic problems in
regard to the geology of Jamaica, as well as
in regard to the geological development,
will be found in the underlying formations,
especially the Cretaceous limestone, out-
croppings of which can be noted at various
INDIAN REMAINS IN VERE, JAMAICA.
BY R. C. MACOORMACK.
INTRODUCTION.--The holding of the Ex-
hibition of objects connected with the
Aboriginal Inhabitants of this Island,0 in
1895, and the discovery of Remains at Hal-
berstadt, and at various other parts of the
island, stimulated me to see what could be
obtained from Vere, the southern portion of
the parish of Clarendon. The area from
which I have obtained my collections is not
more than 158 square miles, or a third of the
area of the parish.
Implements were secured from nearly all
the numerous villages around, including
those as far north as May Pen.
See Aboriginal Indian Remains in Jamaica,"
by J. E. Duerden, Journal Institute Jamaica. Vol.
ii., No. 4, 1897.
All the caves explored and the mounds or
refuse-heaps examined are situated in the
Portland Hills, and the southern part of the
The following is a list of the objects I
have collected :-
143 Stone Implements,
3 Shell Implements,
5 Calcedony Beads,
I Stone Image,
13 Human Skulls, along with other
6 Perfect Earthenware Vessels.
The skulls and vessels were obtained from
the exploration of seventeen caves and one
burial place. In addition to these, collec-
tions of broken pottery, shells, bones of vari-
ous animals, coral, and ashes were obtained
INDIAN REMAINS IN VElE, JAMAICA.
from several caves and the opening up of
four Mounds or Refuse-heaps.-
STONE AND SHELL IMPLEMENTS.--In start-
ing my collections I first went to all the
villages in the Vere District and asked the
inhabitants if they had any Thunder or
Lightning-stones to sell me: this being the
name given to the Indi;n it ;e:o Implement
by the Negro peasantry. They are always
kept in their water-jars, in the belief that
they keep the water cool.
In almost every village I obtained imple-
ments. The seller would tell me how he
saw it descending from the heavens during
a thunder-storm, how it struck a tree or
house, and was then buried in the earth for
seven years, after which time it returned to
the surface and was discovered. They never
forget to remark also how some one had a
narrow escape from being -killed. I have
found it useless to imform them that they
are wrong; that the stones were ground
to their present shape by the Indians who
inhabited the island years ago, and that
those were their implements. After heavy
rains the peasantry commence cultivating
their provision-fields, and, in digging the
soil, they may turn up an implement ; also,
after such rains, the water may wash away
the soil for many inches and reveal buried
implements. In these cases they say that
the stone dropped during the thunder-storm,
but not meeting anything to destroy, it did
not get buried for its usual seven years.
Implements are also found in the caves,
associated with pottery and other remains ;
in mounds or refuse-heaps; and in the open
fields. They are always to be found in
mounds, but are there generally broken
On one occasion a peasant at Portland, while
digging his field, discovered five large im-
plements secreted in a small hole in a rock.
I secured four of the number, and one is the
finest implement I have obtained. It is
eight inches long, highly polished, and of
a mottled blue colour. Of all the villages I
have visited in Vere, those of Portland and
Hayes have yielded the most implements.
It is probable that Hayes and its neighbour-
hood were well populated in past times, its
natural position being well suited for the
life of the aborigines. It is an elevated
tract of savannahs, at some places quite
t The collection obtained a prize at the Compe-
titions," held by the Institute of Jamaica, in 1897.
See page 377.,
bai ren. The savannahs are bounded on the
east by the Braziletto Hills-their fertile
valleys could grow all the provisions they
needed ; on hie west, it is bounded by the
liio Minho, where fish could be obtained ;
on the south, five miles off, is the sea
(Carlisle B;iy) ; on the north are the May
Pen Hills. This locality has yielded a
large number of stone implements of many
shapes, sizes, and colours, but only one stone
image and a bend; no pottery has yet been
discovered. Other ae e no caves in the
vicinity to preserve the remains, and tlie soil
'n the savannahs is so very hard that ob-
jects would not become buried.
All the implements found here and in
other districts are generally of a petaloid or
almond shape, and are of various dimensions
and colours. Although buried so long, many
of them retain a beautifully smooth surface
and are highly polished ; some have their
flattened parts ground to a keen edge.
while in others the bevel is ground very
abruptly. Occasionally, one obtains a chisel-
shaped implement, with either one or both
ends sharpened. They are the shape of a
blacksmith's cold-chisel and are of various
sizes. After an implement has been chipped
or broken it was often re-sharpened, as is
shown by several specimens obtained. Most
of the stone implements are made of varieties
of metamorphic or igneous rocks, usually of
a greenish colour.
The large and medium-sized petaloid im-
plements could be easily used for cutting
purposes ; others perfectly shaped, but only
about three-quarters of an inch in length,
would not be very effective for this purpose.
Most probably such were used for arrow-
heads or decorative ornaments; rarely
are they found chipped or broken. It is
doubtful if the Jamnaica aborigines knew or
mAdo use of flint for implements; pieces of
flaked flints have been discovered in the
mounds, and from their shape, it is proba-
ble they were used as scrapers.
The shell implements I have collected are
made of the giant conch shell. I have
only three, found at Salt River. Two, made
of the fossilized shell, are petaloid ; the
other, obtained from a mound, is dagger-
shaped ; it is half an inch broad, but evi-
dently broken, and is still 21 inches in
The largest stone implement I have is
nearly 10 inches long. Most are from 24
INDIAN REMAINS IN VERE, JAMAICA.
to 5 inches long, and 11 to 3 inches broad.
POTTERY.-Portland Village and its
neighbourhood have yielded the most and
best pottery. There is no doubt that the
locality was formerly well populated ; it has
even better apparent advantages for the
aborigines than the other villages. It is
known that the aborigines were very fond
of fishing. Here they had the calm West
Harbour and its surrounding lagoons, all of
which yield an abundance of fish ; while,
not a quarter of a mile off, are the Portland
Hills, which are very fertile and contain so
many caves. On the opposite side of the
Portland Ridge are numerous little bi:ys.
noted for the turtles and manatees they
Pottery was the most important mann-
facture of the aborigines. Specimens are
found in this locality in abundance, and
some are the largest and most perfect ex-
ples yet found ; it is similar in type to that
discovered in other parts of the island. The
handles and the edges of the vessels are the
only parts of the vessels which display any
ornamentation. All the vessels are either
circular or boat-shaped ; and somewhat thin,
considering the coarse material of which
they are made.
Some of the circular vessels are without
handles, while others have them well formed
and prominent ; portions of vessels are ob-
tained irith a hole pierced through near the
handle. It is likely that this was for the
purpose of suspending the vessel. The han-
dles on both kinds of the vessels are of great
variety, but there appears to have been no
uniformity in the manufacture. Some are
prominent and well formed, and a string
could be easily fastened to them for sus-
pension ; others are simple pieces of clay
stuck on. From a mound in Portland, a
handle of a boat-shaped vessel was secured
with a head and face modelled on it. The
face is a good representation, the nose is
especially well formed ; the eyes are repre-
sented by two oblique incisions not distinct
from the head ; the crown is flat, with cir-
cular and oblique incisions. The. ornamental
work on the handles and on the body of tlhe
vessels consists chiefly of lines or incisions,
often forming a W-shaped pattern; occa-
sionally, the edge of the vessel has a pro-
jecting rim or fillet. I have discovered
from one of the mounds in Portland a piece
of pottery resembling a portion of a pipe.
It is the shape of a coolie's cheelum,"
which is smoked by being held between the
hands. I have obtained several whole ves-
sels from caves. One, the largest yet dis-
covered, was found in a cave in the Portland
Iills, in the vicinity of Miller's Bay. It is
20 inches long and i4 inches broad, and
is boat-shaped, with handles.
MOUNDS on RIe'US--IIEAPS.--Of the three
mounds or refuse-heaps which I have
searched in the neighbourhood of Portland
and Salt River, all have yielded great
quantities of broken pottery and shells, and
fish, turtle, coney, manatee, and crocodile
bones ; broken shell and stone implements,
ashes, charcoal, coral, and stones blackened
by fire, have been also obtained.
T'he accumulations are not of any great
depth, rarely more than three feet. The
first mound I searched is about two miles
to the south of Portland village, and near
Jackson's Bay; it is situated on the top of
a small hill. It has accumulations three
feet deep, consisting chiefly of ashes and
blackened stones. I also discovered a
broken stone implement in the mound, some
fine ornamental handles, bits of pottery, and
a piece of flaked flint. The second mound
is situated about a quarter of a mile to the
south of the first, and also on a hill. In
this the accumulations wore not more than
18 inches deep. It contained more pottery,
shells, and bones than the first mound, but
is not so large
I have obtained the best ornamental
handles and bits of pottery from this mound;
it has also yielded a large rib bone, and
some other small bones of a manatee or sea-
The third mound is at Salt River, about a
mile from the sea, and on the top of a por-
tion of the Braziletto Hills. It contained
large quantities of giant conch shells.
The reefs around the various islands in
Salt River harbour abound to-day with
conch and other shell-fish. They are about
two miles from the mound ; all my shell
implements were obtained from this locality.
It was from this mound that I secured the
dagger-shaped shell implement, and also a
perfect stone implement. The mound is
very extensive, but is not more than 21
feet deep, and there is a fresh-water spring
at the foot of the hill.
The fourth mound is at Portland, about
20 yards direct east of the second mound at
INDIAN REMAINS IN VERE, JAMAICA.
that place. This contained quantities of
bones, especially those of the turtle ; large
pieces of their carapace bones were obtained.
Fish bones were also numerous : I also dis-
covered in it two crocodile vertebrae. With
the exception of snail shells and crab-claws,
the shells are similar to those found
around our sea coast. Shells of the giant
conch, Strombus gigas, snail shells. Helix,
and flat white shells, Codakia tigerina, were
obtained most abundantly from the mounds.
These mounds are all situated on the tops
of small hills, being some distance from all
swampy lands, and from most one has a
good view of the surrounding lands and
the sea, and they are not far removed from
fresh water. From the mound at Salt River,
one has a fine view of nearly the whole of
On the north side of the Portland Ridge
are many evidences of mounds, and this side
is supposed to have been more thickly popu-
lated than the others. It is from this locality
that calcedony beads have been discovered,
but I was not allowed to carry out any
CAVES AND DWELLINGs.-The first cave
from which I obtained any remains is
situated at Three Sandy Bay--a small bay
on the south side of the Portland Ridge.
The cave is but small, and has a narrow
entrance which was partially concealed.
From it I secured one perfect boat-shaped
vessel, a portion of a large circular vessel,
pieces of broken pottery and shells, and
human bones. One skull was found, but it
was too much decayed to be of any value.
This cave is not far from the sea and has a
spring of water near.
At Jackson's Bay there are several caves;
some have yielded only broken pottery and
shells, while others were empty. From a
very large one I obtained my first perfect
skull. This cave has two entrances, is lofty
and well lighted, and about a mile from the
sea. Several pieces of wood, broken pottery,
and shells were scattered about.
At the extreme end of the Portland
Ridge, near Miller's Bay, I have searched
three caves and one burial-place. All are
situated about a quarter of a mile from the
sea. The first cave is very small and con-
tained a few fragments of broken pottery,
three human jaw-bones, and some other
small bones. To all appearance it had
been already searched and its contents
removed. The second cave is much larger
than the first and has many compart-
ments, and a small and rugged entrance.
It contained three skulls and many other
bones, and a very large boat-shaped vessel.
Each skull was found in a separate com-
partment of the cave, along with the other
bones of the body. Two of the compart-
ments containing skulls, had medium-sized
stones packed at the entrance, but not suffi-
cient to completely close them. The bones
were found scattered about. The other com-
partment containing a skull, had no stones
at its entrance, but had a heap of stones
within and under it. I discovered the
balance of the bones of the body. All the
leg and arm bones were together on the top
of the ribs and vertelbre, and the skulls
were found at the entrance of the compart-
ments, and not in any way covered. From
the situation of this cave it is impossible
for any stone to get into it accidentally, and
from all appearance it seems to have been
used as a burial cave. No broken pottery
or shells were found in or around it, except
the very large vessel Lituated in the mid-
dle of the cave. The third cave is situa-
ted about fifty yards from the second, and
about two hundred yards from the first.
It is much larger than the others, and is on
the top of a hill; while the others are situa-
ted on the side. Seven skulls with other
bones, two perfect earthenware vessels,
numerous pieces of broken pottery, shells,
and one notched implement were found in
it. The skull and bones were found scat-
tered all over the cave, and four of the
former were much decomposed. One of the
vessels was boat-shaped, the other circular
and ornamented with lines forming a W.
All the caves I have searched are natu-
rally formed in the limestone, and generally
contain a display of stalactites and stalag-
mites. They are mostly inhabited by bats,
and when one enters with a light the
latter come rushing around, and at times
extinguish the light and strike one in the
face. I have searched carefully in and
around all the caves for rock-carvings, ves-
sels containing skulls, and ashes, also for
stone and wooden images, but have failed
to discover any as yet.
FOOD AND FISHING.-During the Indian
occupation Jamaica possessed but little ani-
mal food, the only likely animals being the
INDIAN REMAINS IN VERIE, JAMAICA.
coney, birds, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles.
Bones of the coney have been met with in
nearly all the mounds, but those of snakes
and lizards are too delicate for preserva-
tion. Crocodile bones were discovered
in a mound at Portland. It is probable
these latter reptiles were caught in the
lagoons around West Harbour, where they
still abound, and are of large size. No bones
of birds have been found in any of the
mounds I have examined. It is evident
from the localities in which the mounds
and caves are discovered that the majority
of the aborigines lived around the sea-coast,
or but a short distance inland, and that they
obtained much of their food from the sea.
From the abundance of shells found in
every mound it is clear that the abori-
gines were somewhat fond of shell-fish.
The capturing of a manatee or turtle must
have caused much trouble. Manatees and
turtles are still plentiful off the southern
part of Portland Point, the former espe-
pecially off Rocky Point. About two miles
from the Point is the mound in which I
discovered the manatee bones.
The aborigines made large canoes which
they paddled with great velocity and for
long distances. The numerous pieces of
broken pottery and of perfect vessels with
the outer side blackened with fire, are evi-
dence that the aborigines ate their food
cooked. No bones of the iguana have been
discovered, although they were probably
regarded by the aborigines as a great deli-
cacy, and live ones are still to be found here.
In addition to the earthenware vessels,
are the mealing-stones and rollers. These
were used probable for grinding grain and
other objects. I have only met with one
of these in this locality -at Mitchell's Town
village. The stone is of a brownish colour,
is 20 inches long and 12 inches broad, and
oval in shape.
ORNAMENTS.-- It is known that all Indians
are fond of decorating their bodies, and
those of Jamaica were not in any way an
exception. Most are familiar with the
minute description of the cacique's regal
attire of coloured stones, beads, and golden
ornaments, when he boarded Columbus's
vessel at Old Harbour, in July 1494.
The only ornaments which have been
discovered are beads made of calcedony or
quartz; They are of an oblong or disc
shape, and of various dimensions and
colours, usually with a large hole bored
through. I have only obtained one pure
white quartz bead. It is difficult to under-
stand how the aborigines managed to bore
holes through such hard substances. It is
seen that the boring was performed from
each end. I have found at Bratts Hill
village two beads of a very crude descrip-
tion; they are pieces of coloured stones of
irregular shape, one black and the other of
a reddish colour, each pierced with a large
IMAGES.- Images and rock-carvings have
been discovered at several places in the
island. Of the former I have obtained
but one example. It is made of some hard
stn me, and consists of a head attached to a
conical body ; its height is 6) inches, and
the diameter at the base 31 inches. The
outlines of the face are fairly good; the
ears are large; the eyes, instead of being
full and oval-shaped, are hollow and
The specimen was discovered in the Bra-
ziletto Hills, near Hayes village.
SKUL'S AND BONES.-All the thirteen
skulls collected from the caves in the Port-
land hills have the forehead flattened.
This artificial deformation was probably
accomplished by placing a piece of wood or
stone on the forehead of the child, and
keeping it there until the flattened shape
became permanent. As a result of the de-
pression of the forehead, the hinder part of
the head projects upwards.
The entrances to all the caves in which
I have found human-remains are not in any
way concealed, and the objects were found
scattered over the floor; in the cave at
Miller's Bay, the remains were found buried
under a heap of stones. An earthenware
vessel, with a skull init, has been discovered
in a cave at Goat Island and another at
From the numerous skulls, and other re-
mains known to have existed in former
times in the Portland hills, and the number
obtained from them now, it is evident that
a great many of the aborigines must have
lived and perished in this locality.
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
BY J. E. DUEtRDN, A.R.C.Sc.(LoND.).
AnONG the most abundant and attractive
forms of life met with in marine collecting
around Jamaica, whether along the shores
or on the coral reefs, are the sea anemones.
As such they tend to stimulate an interest
in the most casual observer, or even in the
enthusiastic investigator of other groups.
The present contribution is intended to
serve students and others as a collector's
guide in their ready determination and clas-
sification; and, as far as possible, is limited
to the most obvious of the external charac-
ters. It also constitutes a first attempt at
a list of the local species. Researches so
far carried out, however, demonstrate that
the assemblages of the Actiniea met with
around any of the islands of the West In-
dies and the Bermudas are practically the
same; different species being abundant or
rare in particular localities.
For a more extended acquaintance, and
for detailed references, the works referred
to at the end may be consulted. In the
later contributions will be found a descrip-
tion of the. anatomical characters, which
now constitute the only safe basis in classi-
fication, and often in identification. It is
intended that all the species briefly
referred to in the present list will be fully
described along such lines ; and a first con-
tribution has already been made, limited to
the Zoantheae (1898).
For preservation of the external form,
and also of the anatomy, a three to five per
cent. solution of formalin has been found
by the author and other workers to serve
admirably. Previous narcotization with
magnesium sulphate is desirable.
Only Kingston Harbour and the Port
Royal Cays or the south side of the island,
and Port Antonio on the north east, are the
localities yet investigated with any degree
At Port Antonio the work was carried
out in connection with the Johns Hopkins
University Marine Laboratory, established
there during the summer of 1897 ; the late
Prof. J. E. Humphrey having kindly granted
the writer the occupancy of a table for three
All the species here mentioned are repre-
sented in the collections of the Museum of
the Institute of Jamaica.
Polyps generally with simple, not pin-
nate, tentacles, usually in multiples of 6 ;
never forming a skeleton; in most cases
solitary and attached by a flattened base.
Tribe 1. EnwAnDSIE.
No representative of this tribe, which is
distinguished by the possession of 8 mesen-
teries, has yet been collected.
Tribe II. HEXACTINILE.
The number of pairs of mesenteries is
usually 6 or multiples of 6. two pairs
(directives) of which have the longitudinal
muscles differently arranged from the
A. Sub-tribe Stichlodactylinle.
Hexactinimt with the tentacles arranged
radially, that is, more than one communi-
cate with a mesenterial space. The tenta-
cles may be all of one form, or the disc
tentacles may differ from those at the
Family CORALLIMORPHI DA
(COR YNA COTID.).
Tentacles comparatively few, all of the
same form, knobbed, in radial rows, the
outer larger than the inner.
Along with others this family is some-
times placed, upon anatomical grounds, in
the Tribe Protanthecc (Carlgren)-Protacti-
Tentacles consisting of a conical stem and
a globular head.
1. CORYNACTIS MYRCIA (Duchassaing and
Draytonia myrcia, Duch. and Mich., 1866,
A small and rare species, found attached
to coral. rooks and loose objects in the
THE ACTINIARIA AROtUND JAMAICA.
shallow waters around Drunkenman Cay,
and in Kingston Harbour. Usually seve.
ral polyps are closely associated, and
some may be in actual connection by
a thin basal expansion. Their whole
structure is very delicate; abundant mucus
is thrown out on irritation. In extension
the column is short and cylindrical, mam-
miform in retraction. The outermost ten-
tacles are long, while the innermost are
little more than mere processes of the disc.
The number is variable; 40 were present in
one specimen, arranged according to the
formula 8, 8, 12, 12.
The column is brown below, and almost
colourless or crimson above; a circle of
small, emerald green, capitular spots may
or may not be present. The stems of the ten-
tacles are colourless or yellow, the knobs
light or dark red, or orange; the disc is
brown with white radiating lines; around
the mouth is a narrow circle of emerald
In retraction the polyps are about 0.7
cm. in height, and the same in diameter.
Tentacles all of one form, short, usually
digitiform, numerous, covering nearly all
the surface of the disc.
Column either smooth or bearing verruca
on its upper portion; disc enormously ex-
panded; tentacles finger-shaped or slightly
2. DISCOSOMA HELIANTHUS (Ellis), 1767.
Discosoma anemone, MoMurrich, 1889, p. 37.
On and around the coral reefs this species
is very common at all points from which
collections have been made. Usually num-
bers occur together, attached to the surface
of the rocks; only rarely is the column
buried in the sand. The column is short,
strongly crateriform, and distally bears
vertical rows of oval, green verruct. The
acrorhagi are only slight, rounded enlarge-
ments ; the fossa is well marked. The disc
overhangs so as to completely hide the
column, and is generally flat. Mote than
two esophageal grooves are occasionally
present in large examples. The number of
radiating rows of tentacles is very great,
but depends partly upon the age of the
specimen ; from the margin they extend
various distances towards the peristome;
an outermost cycle alternates with all the
The usual disc colours are yellowish
brown or green, arranged in lighter and
darker patches ; the peristome is brownish
yellow, the lips a rich yellow. At Port
Antonio, a remarkable colour variety occurs ;
with the exception of the green verruca
and a slight brown tint on the peristome,
the column and disc are perfectly trans-
parent and the tentacles a delicate sulphur
The diameter of the disc varies from 10
to 12 cm., or may be even more. The
diameter of the base is about 5 cm., and
the length of the tentacles 0.6 cm.
3. DISCOSOMA ANEMONE (Ellis), 1767.
A very distinct second form of Discosoma
occurs in abundance at Port Antonio. The
column is long, cylindrical, and buried to a
considerable depth in sand, gravel, or
among the roots of Thalassia and other
plants. It is devoid of verruce, and the
fossa is very shallow. Generally the disc
is partially covered in the sand, and is
strongly sinuous ; it may be thrown into as
many as a dozen folds. The tentacles are
shorter and more capitate than in the former
species; about twelve closely contiguous
peripheral cycles, all containing the same
number of tentacles, form a series quite dis-
tinct from those more internal, where the
rows begin to diminish in number and
The colours are more strongly marked,
and arranged in more regular patterns than
in helianthus. Usually the column bears
irregular red patches, and the tentacles
exhibit various mixtures of green and
opaque white. Nearly all the tentacles have
an opaque white ring at their thickest part,
and the tip may be either a light opaque
white or green or brown. Some of the
polyps undergo the remarkable colour
changes mentioned by the older writers. In
examples noted, all the vivid green colours
would disappear in a few hours when kept
in the laboratory, and the disc be reduced
to mixtures of a dull opaque white and a
delicate brown. The twelve peripheral
cycles are a dark green, and are limited in-
ternally by a cycle of slightly larger tenta-
cles, having the tips a deep opaque white.
Radiating opaque white bands occur movie
centripetally. The naked, smooth part of the
disc usually shows a purplish tinge; the
THE ACTiNIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
lips are a strong purple. Some specimens
occur in which all the tentacles are a rich
The older writers describe these two
species of Discosoma from the West Indies,
but the distinguishing characters given are
so vague that Prof. McMurrich considers
the differences simply due to unequal con-
traction or to age, and only one species to
There can be no doubt as to the two forms
occurring at Port Antonio, the distinctions
being very readily realized in the living
condition of the polyps. Anatomically they
present still greater differences. The one
found at the Bahamas by McMuirich, and
described by him as D. anemone, is evidently
the D. helianthus of previous writers.
4. ACTINOPO11US ELEGANS, Duch., 1850.
Aureliania elegans, Andres, 1883, p. 283.
At Port Antonio, on the east shore of Folly
Point, a single specimen of what I doubt-
fully identify as this species was collected
by Dr. H. L Clark, and was kindly handed
over to me. Although the locality was
searched many times afterwards, no other
example could be found. In the same
neighbourhood occur many fine specimens
of Asteractis. The extraordinary long
column was completely buried in the sand
and mud, the disc only being exposed. This
was quickly withdrawn when the animal
was irritated. Both when the animal was
alive, and when preserved, the column is
much longer than that of any other anemone
with which I am acquainted. It is ridged
and grooved proximally and distally, the
grooves corresponding with the attachment
of the mesenteries. From the created apex
rows of large, circular verructe extend
for some distance down the column. The
disc is almost entirely constituted by a
series of very narrow, radiating, triangular
areas, separated from one another by deep
grooves. Peripherally, a row of extremely
short spheroidal vesicles, probably to be
regarded as tentacles, is arranged upon the
two sides of each area; centripetally, the
areas become narrower, and only a single
row of smaller tentacles occurs along the
apex of each. The vesicles vary in size, and
are often partially bifurcated and lobed.
They completely hide the portion of the
disc where they occur, giving to it a beaded
appearance, particularly when the polyp is
a little contracted. The central, naked por.
tion of the disc is small, and the cosophageal
groove can be readily seen.
The surface of the column shows a thin,
opaque, white surface, the verrucae appear-
ing as clear transparent dies. The colours
of the apices of the tentacles are very vari-
able, and not arranged according to any
regular pattern. Spots of opaque white,
yellow, brown, pink, or red occur on a clear
transparent ground; the marginal rows,
more than the others, are mottled with
opaque white. The naked portion of the
disc is also partially streaked with opaque
The column may be as much as 15 cm. in
length, and is about 5 cm. in diameter.
The disc is only slightly broader than the
Until an anatomical study of this species
has been made its true systematic position,
as also that of the genus, can not be settled.
Family RHODA CTIDA .
Tentacles of two kinds: marginal tenta-
cles of the ordinary simple form ; disc ten-
tacles short, much branched, knobbed or
Marginal tentacles very short and conical,
disc tentacles more or less lobed and branch-
5. RHODACTIS SANCTI-TIIOMA' (Duch. and
In the neighbourhood of the coral reefs,
this species occurs in large patches on coral
rock, and is generally distributed. In any
one spot scores of individuals are closely
aggregated-a result,no doubt, of the process
of asexual reproduction. Examples show-
ing more than one mouth, and in various
stages of division, are met with.
The base is broad, irregular in outline,
and firmly adherent; the column is short,
with a broad limbus. The marginal tenta.
cles are all in one cycle, very small and
acuminate; a smaller one, or even two or
three, alternates with a larger. The apical
part of the column forms a thin collar, ex-
tending beyond the disc; in retraction, this
may be drawn as a thin, transparent mem-
brane over the disc, or, at other times, it
may overhang the column, The disc tenta-
cles are scattered somewhat irregularly ;
they are short discal outgrowths and bear
numerous pointed or finger-shaped processes.
Usually the peristome is much elevated,
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
and the esophageal wall forms numerous,
The column is light or dark brown ; the
disc brown with radiating iridescent green
bands; the larger marginal tentacles may
be a faint blue below, and brown or pink
distally ; the disc tentacles are brown and
iridescent green, or may be a deep blue
The dimensions are very variable. The
base may be from 2 to 6 cm. across, and the
column 1 to 2 cm high.
On irritation enormous qauntities of clear
mucus are ejected, and may interfere some-
what with the proper preservation of the
Marginal tentacles in two cycles; disc
tentacles knobbed or tuberculiform. not
6, RICORDEA FLORIDA, Duch.andMich.,1860.
In habit this species closely resembles the
former, being very common on the coral reefs
in water of from three to five feet ; it also
reproduces asexually, several mouths being
often present on the disc of one polyp. The
base is less in diameter than the column;
the latter is short and irregularly outlined;
young forms are cyclindrical, but the com-
pound examples are elongated and sinuous.
The marginal tentacles are very short, dicy-
clic, and entacmteous. Each consists of a
short conical stalk, terminating either blunt-
ly or in a slight knob. From near the nmrgin
the disc tentacles extend in radial rows for
various distances towards the peristome, and
differ in length from 0-2 cm. to mere tuber-
culiform processes. Sixty rows were counted
in one, but the number is not constant.
The disc is sinuate, the outer part often
much reflexed ; the peristome is consider-
ably elevated, and ends sharply at the oval
The colouration varies somewhat. The
lower part of the column is flesh-coloured ;
the upper a dark brown, or may be bluish
towards the margin. The marginal tenta-
cles may have a green, blue, or brown stein;
and the knob may be green, yellow, or white.
The disc is a bright green or blue along the
radii of the disc tentacles, and dark purplish
brown towards the naked area ; the tenta-
cles are green and purplish brown, or light
green and grey. At Port Antonio, speci-
mens having the tips of the disc tentacles
a bright orange red were met with.
The dimensions are also very variable.
In extension, the height of the column
may vary from 1 to 2 7 cm. ; the greater
length of the disc of one with four mouths,
was 35 cm., another was 5'5 cm. The length
of the inner marginal tentacles is 0-5 cm.
Tentacles of two kinds, peripheral large
and usually pinnately tuberculiferous ; disc
tentacles very small and papilliform.
Column with longitudinal rows of verrucas
in its upper part.
7. PHYMANTHUS CRUCIFER (Lesueur).
Actinia crucifera (Lesueur), 1817, p. 174.
Cereus crucifer (Actinia), Duch. and Mich.,
1866, p. 125.
In the shallow waters on the south-east
part of Drunkenman Cay, this form occurs
in great abundance, and of all sizes, while, at
Port Antonio, large isolated individuals are
met with. The column is buried in the coral
sand, and the base firmly adherent to rocks
and stones; the large, sinuous, light coloured
disc usually presents a strong contrast to the
sea-floor. The column is somewhat trumpet.
shaped, being elongated and greatly expand-
ed above. Four to six sucker-like verrucre
occur in each row ; and, at the apex of the
column, a circle of rounded acroragi is pre-
sent, double in number the rows of verruce
and alternating with the outer row of tenta-
cles. The peripheral tentacles are very nu-
merous, shortly conical, and arranged in seve-
ral cycles. In most cases they bear several
transverse opaque thickenings on their oro-
lateral aspect. At Drunkenman Cay many
of the polyps are devoid of the tubercles, the
tentacles presenting a very different aspect
from the usual form. An examination of a
large series of specimens, however, reveals all
stages in the presence or absence of the thick-
enings. The radially arranged, disc tenta-
cles are little more than mere papillh, and
vary much in the amount of their develop-
ment ; they correspond with the first and
second cycles of the marginal series. The
outer part of the disc is thrown into from
eight to twelve sinuous folds ; the peristome
is slightly raised, and the esophageal
grooves clearly marked.
The colour is very variable, partly de-
pendent upon size, and whether the tenta.
cles are smooth orbear the thickened bands.
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
Brown and green, with opaque white spots,
are the prevailing disc colours; those of
the column are scarlet and crimson on a
white or crean-coloured ground. The
verrucm show a deep crimson centre ; the
peristome is usually iridescent green.
At Drunkenman Cay, young specimens
were collected only 1.1 cm. in length, and
0-6( cm. in diameter. The length of the
column in large examples is 6 cmr., the diame-
ter across the middle 1 7 cm., and the disc in
full extension 5 5 cm. across ; the longest
tentacles are 0-7 cm.
B. Sub-tribe Actiitire.
lIexactiniwc with the tentacles arranged in
cycles, (rely a single tentacle communicating
with a mesenterial space.
Column smooth or verrueose in the upper
part, without cinclides ; apex smooth or with
The most important differences between
this and the families Bunodidm and Sagar-
tidre are anatomical. The character of the
sphincter muscle, amongst others, is of great
moment. In the present family it is en-
dodermal, diffuse, and weak ; in the Buno-
dide it is strong and circumscribed ; while
in the Sagartide it is usually a strongly
developed mesoglotl form.
Column smooth, or slightly verrucose in
the upper part; margin forming a slight
collar, but without acrorhagi.
S. CONDYLACTIS PASSIFLORA, Duch. and
At all the localities yet examined around
Jamaica this large and most striking ane-
mnone occurs but sparingly, and in water of
three or four or more feet. Generally the
tentacles are seen extending from crevices
or under stones ; but the thick cylindrical
column is never buried in sand or mud.
Young examples have verrucae above, but in
the older they are absent. The tentacles are
long, adhesive, broad at the base, thick for
practically all their length, and terminate
bluntly. They wave about very gracefully,
and are incapable of being completely re-
tracted. The disc is large and thin ; the
ccsophageal grooves are very distinct.
The richness of the colouring of the
greater part of the column is remarkable,
and may be a bright scarlet, or orange;
sometimes it is diffuse in character, but may
be in granulations ; distally the column is a
dark brownish red. The tentacles are dark
brown with minute white granulations,
while the tips are a conspicuous bright pur-
ple or greenish yellow; when partially
collapsed the tentacles show a rich irides-
cent green. The disc is light or dark
Upper part of column with more or less
prominent verrucrm; capitular margin with
9. ACTINIOIDES PALLIDA (Duch. and Mich.).
Antiopleumra pallida, Duch. and Mich., 1866,
About the clear coral sand of the Port
Royal Cays, and at Port Antonio, this small,
pale anemone is frequently met with on the
under surface of stones and in crevices, and
is probably generally distributed.
When retracted the short conical'column
bears some resemblance to a minute sea-
urchin, such as a diminutive Toxopneustes
devoid of its spines, being divided into 24
alternating darker and lighter green zones,
each separated by a very narrow zigzag
line. In the upper part verrucm occur, and
at the apex of the lighter areas smooth coni,
cal acrorhagi. The tentacles are short and
blunt, with opaque white oval patches;
usually two longitudinal red or dark
coloured bands are present on the inner
face of the longer tentacles. The tentacles
vary in number, but 24 are present in most
cases. The column is often nearly colour-
less, and the disc is olive green with white
Under ordinary circumstances the column
is about 1 cm. high, but in the laboratory it
may extend to as much as 3-5 cm. The
diameter of the column is 0-6 cm., and that
of the disc 0-7 cm. ; the larger tentacles
are 0-8 cm. long.
Anatomical examination shows that the
species belongs to the genus Actinioides, as
defined by Haddon and Shackleton in 1893.
Column either partiallyor entirely covered
with longitudinal rows of verruca (warts,
usually acting as suckers) or vesicular out.
growths, the uppermost in each row modified
to form an acrorhagus, and separated from
the disc by a fossa.
454 THE ACTINIARIA ABOUND JAMAICA
Genus BUNODES. crimson, and on the inner face bear nume-
All or some of the rows of verruc; ex- rous opaque white or yellowish oval patches
tend the full length of the column. of various sizes. The disc is variable in
colour, but is usually pale or dark olive,
10. BUNODES GRANULIFERA (Les.). with opaque white or yellow patches towards
Actinia granulifera, Lesueur, 1817, p. 173. the tentacles and around the mouth.
Anthopleura granllifera, Duch. and Mich., The height of the column is about 2.5
1866, p, 126. cm.; the diameter of the disc is 2.3 cm.,
Bunodes tceniatus, McMurrich, 1889, p. 23. and the length of the inner tentacles 1.2 cm.
A widely distributed West Indian species,
often attaining large dimensions. It is Genus AULACTINIA.
found, attached to the upper surface of None of the rows of verruca extend the
stones and rocks, sparingly around Drunk- whole length of the column.
enman Cay, in remarkable abundance at 12. AULACTINIA STELLA (Verrill)
South Cay, and occasionally at Port Antonio. Buodes stella, Verill, 1864, l.
The column is highly dilatable and covered Aulactinia stelloides,MMurrich. 1889,p.28.
throughout with thin, usually tuberculated At Port Antonio on the shallow bank
vesicles, arranged in 24 alternating darker connecting Wood Island with the main-
and lighter bands, the former having five land, and at one or two spots immediately
rows of verruca and the latter three. The around, this species occurs i s a
acrorhagi are large, triangular, and bear dance. 'he whole conlun, and generally
tubercles on their outer aspect. part of the disc, are embedded in the
The colours of the column are very va- white sand, to hic te olie e brown ten-
riable, hut are usually red, brown, or olive; tables present a marked contrast. The
the fossa is scarlet ; the tentacles have large, erc to which foi ptiles adre
oval, opaque white or cream patches on their are readily distinguished as lighter, elevated
inner aspect, and often a vertical spindle- structures; they correspond in position with
shaped patch of crimson. alternate mesenterial spaces, and diminish
Prof. McMurrich agrees with me that the in size pioximally ; towards the apex two
single Bunodes obtained by him at the or three verruca may occur on each area
Bahamas, and regarded as a now species, corresponding with the remaining mesen-
must now be considered as belonging to this trial spaces. The tentacles are shortly
long established species. conical ; the disc is broad, with a slightly
11. BUNODES KREBSII (l)nch. and Mich.). The column-wall is rather delicate, and
Anthopleura Krebsii, Duch. and Mich., 1800, greenish-brown in colur, darker above:
p. 49. the tentacles often show a green iridescence,
This species is rather rare in Jamaica, and may bear several thin, opaque whit'
having been collected only from near Port bands on the inner face, and a light area
Henderson, attached to rocks and stones in around their origin. A circle of radiating
very shallow water. Twenty-four rows of white patches occurs between the tentacles
somewhat distant, elevated, simple verrucae, and the peristome.
of nearly equal size, extend the whole length The column is about 2 cm. high, 1.5 ci.
of the column, while both towards the apex in diameter, and the whole disc and extended
and the base additional alternating rows of tentacles 3 cm. across ; the inner tentacles
two or three occur. Each verruca presents are 1.7 cm. in length.
a circular areola and a distinct centre. The From the interior of specimens collected
acrorhagi are acuminate, equal, and trir-.- during the months of July and August white
gular, and occur at the top of both the per- planula, and brown embryos of various sizes
feet and imperfect rows of verrucw. were freely ejected through the mouth. The
In most cases the column is a light yel- tissues were also sufficiently transparent to
lowishbrown,becominga little darker above; allow other embryos to be seen floating
the verrucuu have a white areola and red about in the coelenteron, and in the cavity
centre; the acrorhagi and their tubercles are a of the tentacles.
bright crimson, often with a minute white In his valuable paper on the Actiniaria
tip. The tentacles are greyish white or faint of the Bahanas, McMurrich, discussing
THE ACTINIAtlIA AROUND JAMAICA.
A. stelloides, remarks (p. 30) : "This form
seems to resemble in some respects Bnnodes
stella, Verrill, but I regret that my efforts
to obtain specimens of that species for conm-
parison were unsuccessful. Perhaps further
investigation will demonstrate the identity
of the two forms, in which case they should
both be included under the name Auluctinia
A careful comparison of the Jamaican
specimens with the descriptions and figures
given by these two authors convinces ime
that the above supposition is correct. In
colour and size the present examples, if
anything, agree more closely with Verrill's
from the Eastern Coast of the United States,
than with those from the Bahamas. I have,
however, never found the mouth presenting
appearances similar to those figured and
described in the older publication. The
esophageal grooves were only distinguish-
able when the cosophagus was a little pro-
truded. Evidently it is a species capable
of considerable local variation. In all cases
the viviparous character has been recog-
Verrucca restricted to the upper part of
the column ; acrorhagi enormously devel-
oped, so as to appear to belong to the disc,
the tubercular areas upon them serially
arranged in correspondence with the tenta-
This genus, established by Verrill (18(9,
p. 464), is usually placed in another family,
the Phyllactidme; but the extraordinary
development of the acrorhagi does not ap-
pear to nie worthy of more than generic
13. ASTERACTIS n. sp.
One of the commonest and most widely
distributed of the Jamaican anemones. The
column is buried up to the apparent disc in
sand, mud, and gravel, its outspreading,
upper part resting on the sea-floor; the
enormously enlarged acrorhagi, and the
tentacles and disc, are exposed and look
upwards. Verrucae extend in longitudinal
rows for about one-third the length of the
column, and attach foreign particles. The
acrorhagi are more or less crowded with
papillre and short branching outgrowths,
arranged in three series corresponding with
the tentacles. A fossa occurs between the
acrorhagi and the outermost cycle of ten-
tacles. The tentacles,normally 48 in num-
bor, are arranged in four cycles, and situated
a little within the middle of the apparent
The column is cream-coloured below,
light or dark olive or brown above, and
largely flecked and streaked with a bright
red; the verruco are a bright purple. The
exposed colours are somewhat variable, but
generally are lighter and darker shades of
olive and brown; the olive or brown ten-
tacles show opaque white, oval spots, with
clear centres; the disc is flecked with
opaque white or cream, and the peristome
is iridescent green or purple.
The height of the column varies from
3 to (6 cm. ; usually the diameter of the
whole of the exposed part is 6 or 7 cm.;
the length of the innermost tentacles 1.5
Column with simple or compound hollow
outgrowths or vesicles over more or less of
Upon anatomical grounds this family is
very distinct from the former.
Column short, beset proximally with
pedunculate or sessile vesicles, the vesi-
cular area being much broader than the
remaining portion, which may be regarded
as a capitulum ; no acrorhagi.
14. BUNOI)EOPSIS ANTILLIENSIS, Duerden,
So far, this anemone has been ob-
tained only from the shallow waters of
Kingston Harbour, where it occurs in
restricted areas, mostly on the leaves of
Thalassia. In its usual condition, with
the base elongated and only the vesicular
area showing, it bears a considerable re
semblance to a Nudibranch. The proximal
region of the column is entirely hidden by
bluish white or brown vesicles. These
bear thickened ridges and tubercles from
which large nematocysts are thrown out.
In extension the capitulum is long, very
delicate, transparent, and nearly colourless.
The tentacles are long and narrow, and
overhang or wave about in a very graceful
SThe dimensions are variable, according to
the state of retraction or extension of the
polyps. The larger diameter of the base
may be as munch as 3.5 cm. ; the height of
retracted specimens is about 0.5 cm. ; the
THE ACTlNIAlllA AROUND JAMAICA.
length of the inner tentacles 3.5 cm. ; the
vesicles, when inflated, may be 0.7 cm. in
diameter, and 1 cm. in length. An asexual
method of reproduction is effected by the
detachment of fragments of the body-wall
from around the margin of the base.
15. BUNODEOPSIS --, n. sp.
At Port Antonio, in water of a depth of
three or four feet, another much smaller
species of Bunodeopsis occurs, attached in
numbers to the long, narrow, cylindrical
leaves of Ruppia, and to Dictyota.
Seen in situ, by means of a water-glass.
the individuals appear as little more than
swellings on the leaves. The vesicles are
very small and sessile, some constituting
mere tubercles ; a few are larger and sphe-
roidal or reniform ; all are without any
appreciable thickenings or tubercles. The
capitulum is'shorter than in B. antilliensis,
and the tentacles are usually extended, the
reverse being the condition in the latter.
The capitulum, disc, and tentacles are ex-
tremely delicate, transparent, and colourless.
The tentacles dre few in number, and may
be imperfectly developed at particular spots,
sometimes appearing as mere papille.
During partial contraction, the colour of
the lower part of the column is a bright,
opaque yellowish green, with dark brown or
black lines or spots. On full inflation, the
vesicles and the portion of the column from
which they originate are a clear, delicate,
yellowish brown, due to the yellow cells or
zooxanthelli in the endoderm. The dia-
meter of the base of the largest specimens
is 1.2 cm., the height 0.5 cma., and the
length of the inner tentacles 1.1 cm.
With the exception of the rather unim-
portant character of colouration, I can find
no difference between this West Indian spe-
cies and the Mediterranean B. strumosa,
Andres, with examples of which I have
been able to institute comparisons. It is
certainly more allied to the European form
than to the other Jamaican representative.
Column provided, immediately below the
tentacles, with a cycle of bifurcating out-
This family and the previous one agree so
very closely in their anatomical characters,
as well as in their external features, that
it seems likely they will have to be united.
Definition same as that of family.
16. LEBRUNEA NEGLhCTA, Duch. and Mich.
The extraordinary development of the
outgrowths, situated towards tLe apex of the
column, give this anemone a very remark-
able appearance. It is only occasionally met
with, the Port Royal Cays and Port Antonio
having yielded a few specimens from water
of four or five feet. Seen in situ, projecting
its pseudotentacles from under stones or from
crevices, it bears a great resemblance to a
large mass of greenish brown sea-weed, The
outgrowths, five to eight in number, usually
extend beyond the ordinary tentacles, enve-
loping the polyp as it were in a ruff. Com-
mencing with a strong cylindrical stem, they
become bifurcated, and ultimately terminate
in narrow digitiform or flattened divisions ;
and, in places, bear light-coloured sphe-
roidal bodies. The tentacles, though long,
are usually hidden amongst this greenish
The colour of the pseudotentacles and
tentacles is generally a rich dark or light
brown, but the former may be yellowish or
olive brown. The naked portion of the disc
is small, and often bears opaque white
The column is 4 or 5 cmr. high, and the
diameter across the disc and outgrowths
8.5 cmi,. or even much more when fully ex-
tended ; the diameter of the disc is 9.5 cm.,
and the base about the same ; the length of
the largest tentacles is 3.5 cm.
17. LEBRUNEA CORALLIGENS (H. V. Wilson).
IIop)lophoria coralligens, H. V. Wilson, 18(0.
Wherever the coral-reefs have been ex-
amined this much smaller species is met
with, projecting its brightly coloured psen-
dotentacles from the numerous crevices.
Generally it affects a social habit, but
isolated individuals may occur. The out-
growths are about six in number, and bifur-
cate only two or three times. They are
blunted at the termination. and incapable
of concealing the tentacles to the same de-
gree as in the previous species near the
points of division they bear a white sphe-
The basal portion of the pseudotentacles
is dark brown in colour; towards the tips
they may become a bright blue; irregu-
lar, opaque white patches may also be
present, particularly about the spheroidal
THE AOTINIAllA AROUND JAMAICA.
bodies. The tentacles are a granular brown;
around the mouth, a circle of opaque
white flecks often occurs.
The length of the column is 1 cm., the
diameter 0.7 cm. ; the diameter of the disc
and expanded tentacles 1.7 cm. the length
of the inner tentacles 0.7 cm. Port Anto-
nio speci.nens ame a little larger, and the
outgrowths are more uniformly brown in
Prof. McMurrich suggests that this spe-
cies, which was first described by Prof. H.
V. Wilson from a single example obtained
at the Bahamas, is identical with the
Viaorix globulifera, of Duchassaing. There
is no doubt, however, that it belongs to the
genus Lebrunea, and it is possible that it
may be but a young form of L. neglect.
No examples intermediate in size have yet
been obtained, but the two are found to
agree extremely closely in habit, and in
all their anatomical and histological char-
acters. In both representatives of the genus
the pseudotentacles seem to be especially
lacking in fixity of number, amount of devel-
opment, and in colour.
Acontia present, column usually provided
with pores or cinclides for their emission.
The presence of acontia is the only charac-
ter new uniting the different members of
this large family. They are fine threads
bearing nematocysts or stinging bodies. and
can be emitted through openings (cinclides)
in the wall, and through the month.
Cinclides, in from one to several horizon-
tal rows about the middle of the column ;
tissues very delicate; tentacles strongly
entacmmous (i.e., those of the inner cycles
longer than those of the outer), and not
18. AIPTASIA TAGETES (Duch. and Mich.).
Bartholomea tagetes, Duch. and Mich., 1866,
Bartholomea inula, Duch. and Mich., 1866,
Though not abundant at Port Antonio,
this is one of the most common of the
smaller anemones occurring in Kingston
Harbour and at the Port Royal Cays. Thick
beds of it are to be met with in the canal
near the Naval Burial Ground, Port Royal.
It is found in almost any position attached
to stones, wee s, and other objects, the
column being either exposed or bur:e1.
Usually it affects a social habit, dependent
upLo an asexual method of reproduction by
the detachment of fragments-"laceration"
-f'ron around the margin of the base.
The lower part of the column is pale
brown in colour, while the upper part is
dark Ibrown; the tentacles are a uniform
dark brown; generally the disc is much'.
flecked with opaque white or brownish
spots. Much colour variation occurs, and
occasionally white or colourless forms are
met with. The column varies from 2 to
3 cm. in height, the dis8 is about 1.5 cm.
in diameter, and the inner tentacles 2 cm.
19. AIPTASIA ANNULATA (Les.).
Actinia annulata, Lesueur., 1817, p. 172.
Actinia solifera, Lesueur, 1817, p. 173.
This is a much larger representative of
the genus, and occurs singly, scattered over
all places yet examined. The base is attached
to various objects, and the column buried in
the sand or mud on the sea floor. It is
readily recognized by the numerous, long,
delicate, waving tentacles bearing thickened,
white, incomplete annuli aind spirals. The
column is very retractile, and shows numer-
ous irregular rows of cinclides.
It is white below and dark brown above
flecked witl opaque white; the tentacles
are a dark brown with white annuli and
spirals: the disc is muIc flecked with
op1lnue white or brown. or, more rarely' ,
witli pale blue spots.
The column is from 4 to 5 cm.-" high,
and 3 cm. in diameter: the dise 3 cm.
across, and the inner tentacles from 4 to
5 cm. long; when fully extended, some
polyps may be nearly double these amounts.
20. AIPTASIA LUCIDA, Duch. and Mich.
Capnea lucida, Duch and Mich., 18S';0, 41.
Hieeractis lucida, D.uch. and Mich., 1866,
Raiactis lucida, Andres, 1883, p. 254.
Heteractis lucida, McMurrich, 1896t, p. 182.
In habit and appearance the present
species very closely resembles the former,
but is much rarer. It is distinguished by
the tentacles bearing small. light-cloured.
reniform or spheroidal tubercles. These
may be considered as equivalehti tb'o ohcen-
T-E ACTINVIArIA AREOUiND JAJIMAICA.
trations of the thickened spiral bands of
A. ainnulata, both showing the same histo-
logical structure, and serving as batteries
of stinging cells. All the other details of
form and anatomy show that the species
is best regarded as a member of the genus
21. SAGARTIA NIVEA (Lesson, non Gosse, 1860).
Actinia nirea, Lesson, 1830.
Sagartia nirea, Verrill, 1869, p. 485.
Ailtas nivea, Andres, 1883, p. 176.
Upon the submerged roots of the man-
grove trees at the canal near the Naval
Burial Ground,( Port Royal, this small
Sagartid occurs in great numbers, and
The base is very thin-walled, and usually
larger than the column in diameter. The
latter is erect, cylindrical in full extension,
smooth, thin-walled, and so transparent
that the pairs of mesenteries and darker
coloured esophagus show through very dis-
tinctly. No cinclides are distinguishable,
though white acontia are emitted. The
column is very variable in form. Extended
specimens may be elongated and very
narrow, or shorter and broader; some-
times a constrictiout or indrawal occurs a
little below the uspex. In full retraction,
the disc, tentacles, and much of the distal
part of the column are infolded, and the
polyp appears as a flattened cone. The
tent cles are marginate, smooth, digitiform,
narrowing but little above, and rounded at
the apex. Several polyps presented a dis-
tinct bilateral symmetry in that one, two,
or three axial tentacles of the inner cycle
were much larger than the others, and cx-
hibted great mobility. The naked part of
the disc is small and flat, the mouth narrow
The base is colourless and transparent;
the column practically the same, but may be
a little brownish above. The tentacles are
either colourless or slightly brown, usually
with small opaque white spots on the oral
aspect; opaque white or cream patches oc-
cur on the disc around the origin of the
*This canal and the lagoons near, form one of the
richest collecting spots in my experience. Repre-
sentatives of almost every group of. animals occur,
often in enormous numbers; while peculiar forms are
there met with not usual elsewhere. Beds of A iptasitr
fagetes flourish to such an extent, as to almost en-
tirely hide the banks of the weed lhalassia to which
they are attached.
tentacles. The disc is brown, with white
lines extending from the angles of the
mouth to the tentacular region.
The diameter of the base of average spe-
cimens is 0.5 cm., and the height of the
column about the same ; the length of the
tentacles of the inner cycle is 0.4 cm.
Anatomical examination shows that the
species will have to be removed from its
present genus, there being no mesogloeal
Cinclides usually in two rows, near the
greatly expanded base of the column;
column divided into scapus and capitulum,
the former with a thin membranous invest-
ment which may be shed. Commensal with
Crustacea and Gastropods.
22. ADAMS1A TRICOLOR (Les.).
A tinia tricolor, Lesneur, 1817, p. 171.
Actinia bicolor, Lesueur, 1817, p. 171.
Adamsia eyletes, Duch. and Mich., 1866, p.
This commensal anemono is very abun-
dant in Kingston Harbour, firmly adhering
to (1) (lead gastropod shells, inhabited by
the large hermit crab, Petrochirus baha-
mensis, (2) the carapace of the spinons
crab, Pericera cornuta, and (3) the shells
of the living PIyrla melongena and Fascio-
laria tulipa. All these are usually brought
ashore when fishing with the seine nets.
Generally a number of polyps, from three
or four to over a dozen, occur in these
associations. The cinclides are easily dis-
tinguished a little above the margin of the
broad base; white or salmon-coloured acontia
are readily emitted through them, as also
though the mouth. A rough memnbra-
nous investment covers the surface of
scapus, and is constantly being shed, the
column-wall then appearing smooth; the
capitulum is always smooth and thin-walled.
The tentacles are very numerous, short, and
over-hanging; the disc is comparatively
Occasionally the colour of the column is
a bright orange, but more often brown and
orange, tinged with purple: the cinclides
are dark brown, elevated spots, with lighter
triangular bands extending to them from
the base. Usually the tentacles bear faint,
purplish brown, transverse bands near their
base. The disc has one or two wavy circles.
of opaque white lines.
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
SThe diameter of the base of an average-
sized specimen is 3 cm., the height of
the column 2.8 cm., the diameter of the disc
1.5 cm., and the length of the inner tenta-
cles 0.9 cm.
Column without pores and divided into
scapus and capitulum, the f ,rmur having
an external coarse investment wNhich is not
23. PHELLIA CLAVATA (Duch. and Mich.).
Paractis clavata, Duch. and Mich., 1860,
Odd examples of what I identify as this
species occur on the under surface of many
of the stones in the shallow waters at
Drunkenman Cay, Port Henderson, and
Port Antonio, and appear to be generally
distributed. At the two latter places the
cylindrical column is about 1 cm. high, but
at the first mentioned spot the specimens
are somewhat larger. The columnar sur-
face is very rough, due to adherent sand
grains, and is.often wrinkled. When the
polyps are retracted this is especially ap-
parent; in extension, the walls appear thin-
ner and smoother; the tentacles are usually
forty-eight in number, and are short, over-
hanging, and rounded at the tips.
The column is sand-coloured; the tenta-
cles have four or five purplish brown and
three or four alternating narrow opaque
white transverse bands or patches on the
inner aspect; the former are angular or
w-shaped. The disc is light brown, with
opaque white and purplish brown patches
towards the tentacular area.
The height of the column is I to 1-G cm.,
the diameter about 0-8 cm. above and 0-5i
cm. below ; the diameter of the disc 0-S cm.;
the length of innermost tentacles 0.5 cm.
24. CAPNEOPSIS SOLIDAGO, Dnch. and Mich.
Phellia solidago, Andres, 1883, p. 12(,
I have met with this species only on
one or two occasions in the shallow waters
of Kingston Harbour, opposite the Asylum
grounds. A number of polyps, of different
sizes, occurred amongst a Zoanthus colony
incrusting a stone; and another time a sin-
gle example was found growing on an old
The column is erect, cylindrical, and
sharply divided into scapus and capitulum.
The former is incrusted with a thicoK coat-
ing of foreign matter, mostly small sand
grains. The capitulum is usually slightly
narrower than the scapus, long, smooth,
thin-walled, and allows the mesenteries and
(esophagus to be seen through. The ten-
tacles are marginate, smooth, very long, en-
tacmreous, thin, terminate very acutely, and
are arranged in several cycles. The lips
are partially ridged and grooved; no ceso.'
phageal grooves are visible. White acontia
were emitted from ruptures in the column-
wall and base.
The base is white and somewhat trans-
parent; the scapus dirty brown, the colour
of the san anad mud; the capitulum is light
or dark reddish brown, with white spots
towards its lower part. The tentacles show
several alternating light and dark annular
bands. In partial retraction the capitulum
shows marginal opaque white lines, 16 to
20 in mnuber. The disc is thickly flecked
with opaque white; an orange ring occurs
around the peristome, subdivided by twelve
narrow dark lines.
The height of the column is about 1 cm.,
the capitulum being 0"25 cm.. and the diame-
ter of the scapus 0-4 cm.; the length of the
inner tentacles is 0-4 cm.
Until an anatomical study has been made
it is impossible to say definitely to which
genus of the Sagartide the species will be.
long. Most likely Andres is correct in re-
garding it as a Phelli(a.
Tribe III. ZOANTHLE.E
The Zoanthee constitute a well-marked
division of the Actiniaria, but their most
distinctive characteristics are anatomical,
having reference to the arrangement of the
mesenteries and the structure of the column
wall. The polyps are usually small, and
united more or less closely by coenenchyme
into incrusting colonies of different sizes',
the coelentera of the different members being
in communication; the column-wall is often
strengthened by the inclusion of foreign
particles, usually sand grains, in the ecto-
derm and mesogloea; the tentacles are gene-
rally short and dicyclic, and only one
esophageal groove .is present.
Definition same as that of Tribe.
The generic characters are also mainly
anatomical, being founded on the mesenterial
arrangement, the nature of the sphinctei
muscle, body-wall, and coenenelcyme,
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
The body-wall is fleshy and uninerustel,
the column cylindrical or club-shaped; the
polyps are connected by narrow stolons, or
broad lamellar expansions of cuineichyme,
or are rarely isolated, and may lie closely
associated or more distant.
: representatives of this genus incrust
large areas of the coral-rock in shallow
water. Owing to the abundance and close-
-ness of the polyps when expanded, they
give rise to the appearance of gieen or
brown mosaic patches on the sea-floor. An
examination of numerous living specimens
froin different spots shows that the species
are capable of much variation in practically
all their diagnostic features--form, dimen-
sions, colour, and c(euenchyme. This vari-
ation has, no doubt, led to much confusion.
It will, however, probably be found that the
thiee following species show sufficient con-
stent characters, both externally and ana-
tomically, to warrant their separation.
25. ZOANTHUS IULCHELLUS (Duch. anil
Mamilliffra pulchella (an varietas M.
nymphcec ?), Duch. and Mich, 1666, p. 137.
This species is met with in abundance
in various parts of Kingston Harbour,
around all the Port Royal Cays, and proba-
bly all round the island. It grows in large
patches incrusting the surface of rocks and
stones, and is distinguished by possessing a
thin continuous coenenchyme, the polyps
being usually close together and varying
in height according to their position in
a colony. Where more distant, they are
short and cylindrical or mammiform ; where
.crowded, as towards the under surface of a
stone or rock, they are elongated and
.may become clavate or pedunculate. In
complete retraction the upper part of the
.column shows minute capitular radiations
in partial retraction a groove is indicated
dividing the capitulum into two parts, the
margin of the inner being create. The
tentacles are short, rounded or acuminate,
and overhang in extension; the number
varies from about 30 to 32 in each row.
The proximal part of the column is pale
buff in colour, the distal dark green or dark
brown. Generally the disc is a bright green,
with radiating lines equalling the tentacles
in number. A common combination of
colours is that of a green disc and brown
peristome, and dark brown tentacles; in
others the tentacles may be green or a light
brown; again, in many the peristome is a
bright pink, or, more rarely, yellow.
The height of the column varies from 0.3
cm. to 2-5 cm., the diameter is about 0-5 cm.
The continuous, lamellar coonenchyme
and usually short cylindrical column, distin-
guish this Zoantlius from the next two
The species presents the same external
characters as the lMammillijera niunphta of
Lesueur (1817, p. 178). Prof. McMurrich
(1896, p. 188) identified a form from the
Bahamas as this species, but informs me that
anatomically it is very different from the
Jama;icani representative. I have therefore
adopted the term pulcdellus which Duch-
as,-ing and Michelotti employed for a
doubtful variety of Lesueur's species, and
with which my specimens seem to agree.
26. ZOANTHUS FLOS-MARINUS (Duch. and
This species likewise occurs in abun-
dance around all the Port Royal Cays. The
short, narrow, irregular stolons connecting
the polyps serve as a ready means of distin-
guishing it from the previous form. The in-
dividuals live in very close association, and
apparently may arise from one another at
almost any point about the lower part of the
column. When aggregated, they constitute
irregular bunches mingled with strongly ad-
hering foreign matter, such as coral sand,
calcareous alge, and shells. The column is
elongated, narrow or pedunculate below, but
broader above. From 30 to 32 tentacles are
present in each cycle.
The colouration is as inconstant as in the
former species, almost any variation and
combination of green and b-own occurring.
In the growth of any colony the endea-
vour of each polyp appears to be to produce
a regular surface above, when all the discs
are expanded; hence the individuals at-
tached in crevices, or on the under surface
of stones and rocks, have often to elongate
themselves very considerably to accomplish
this. Long narrow examples, 4 or 5 cm.
long, may be met with, while in another
part of the same colony the polyps may be
only 1 cm., or even less in length.
27. ZOANTHUS SOLANDERI, Lesneur.
Around the Cays this species is not
very common. It is found growing on
stones and coral-rock, often partially em-
bedded in sand and shore debris. The
THE ACTINIARIA ABOUND JAMAICA.
polyps are erect and cylindrical, and con-
nected with one another by very narrow
ccenenchymatous expansions; isolated indi-
viduals may also occur. The column is
usually non-pedunculate, and of practically
the same diameter throughout, but often
forming basal expansions; the walls are
thin and smooth. The two cycles of tenta-
cles number about 60.
In its lower part the column is sand-
coloured, but above becomes a dark blue or
slate colour. The capitular margin bears
irregularly disposed, silvery white, narrow,
radiating patches; and the toothed eleva-
tions may be nearly opaque white. The
colours of the tentacles and disc are varia-
ble: in a colony from Lime Cay, both were
a bright orange brown, and the peristome a
bright green; in' a large colony from Maiden
Cay, the tentacles were green on their inner
aspect and dark brown on the outer, the
disc dark brown with a bright green peris-
tome; specimens at Rackum Cay had the
disc a very bright blue, and the tentacles a
The height of the polyps may vary from
0-4 cm. to 2 7 cm., the diameter is about
0-5 cm. and is fairly constant throughout the
column and independent of the length.
The slightly developed conenchyme,
stout cylindrical column, and capitular co-
louration are good distinguishing features.
Polyps rather large and growing in small
clusters, either separated or united by broad
expansions of the base; hody-wall unin-
orhsted, upper part with thick tubercles
longitudinally and asymmetrically arranged.
28, ISAURUS DUCHASSAINGI (Andres).
Zoanthus tuberculatus, Duch., 1850, p. 11.
Antinedia tuberculata, Duch. and Mich.,
1866, p, 136.
Antinedia Duchassaingi, Andres. 1883, p.330,
Isaurus Duchassaingi, McMurrich, 1896,
At Drunkenman Cay and Port Antonio
this species occurs sparingly in isolated
groups of from five or six to a dozen or so
polyps, attached to the upper or under sur-
face of rocks and stones. Usually some of
the members of a group are connected by
a very tough basal expansion of ccenen-
chyme, suggesting that the polyps arise
from one another by gemmation and after-
wards separate. Generally the base is large
and much expanded, and the lower part of
the column is broader than the upper. The
surface is rather coarse and wrinkled, and
the polyps usually overhang. Distally, they
bear vertical rows of thick tubercles asym-
metrically arranged, the ones on the con.
vexity being larger than those approaching
the concavity of the column. The latter is
quite smooth, as are also the young polyps,
The true disc and tentacles seem to be nearly
always withdrawn and hidden; the capitu-
lum in the retracted polyps appears as a
flattened or dome-shaped area or disc, with
ridges radiating from the centre and bound-
ed peripherally by large tubercles. One or
two polyps of a colony were seen partially
expanded. The apex of the column then
showed a smooth capitulum, two alter-
nating cycles of 15 short, colourless or
slightly brown tentacles, a conical disc with
radiating lines, and a slit-like mouth.
Usually the column is a dark dirty brown,
and may show a green iridescence with
black spots. Individuals vary in height
from 4-2 to 2-2 cm., and are about 06 cm.
Polyps sometimes solitary, but usually
connected by lamellar or ribbon-like expan-
sions of ccenenchyme ; body-wall incrusted
with sand grains, sponge spicules, etc.
29. GEMMARIA VARIABILIS, Duerden, 1898.
In the shallow waters along the shore at
Port Henderson, a species of Gemmaria oc-
curs in great abundance, and is evidently
distinct from any previously described. The
colonies form large patches incrusting the
rocks and stones, and live in close associa-
tion with Zoanthus pulchellus.
The ccenenchyme is thick, strongly im-
pregnated with foreign particles, and, in
different parts of the same colony, varies
much in the extent of its development. The
polyps may be closely aggregated or distant;
the column is firm, erect, and, in retraction,
much swollen distally. Where close to-
gether, as happens towards the under sur-
face of stones and in crevices, the columns are
very long and clavate ; when more distant,
they are cylindrical. In complete retraction
numerous radiating capitular lines are seen;
the capitular ridges, best seen on partial
expansions are wedge-shaped and number
THE ACTINIARIA AROUND JAMAICA.
about thirty. The same number of short ten-
tacles occurs in each row, the outer alter-
nating with the capitular ridges. When all
the discs in a colony are expanded their
margins press against one another and pro-
duce a polygonal mosaic work.
The lower, less exposed part of the col-
umn is a light buff, the upper a dark brown.
The disc may be dark brown with green
radiating lines, and the peristome a bright
green, or vice versa ;or, the whole disc may
be a bright green. The tentacles are usually
a dark brown, but may be olive or green.
The shorter polyps vary from 0-6 to 1-1
cm. in height, and are about 0-8 cm. in
diameter ; others in the same colony may
be 2"6 cm. in height, but all intermediate
stages are to lie met with.
30. GEMMARIA FUSCA, Duerden, 1898.
Another Genmaria occurs along the
southern shore of Drunkennman Cay, and is
very distinct from the previous one in mnny
of its external as well as in its internal char-
acters. The coenenchyme is not so strongly
developed, and not so many foreign particles
are taken upas in the Port Henderson species.
Thecolumn is cylindrical, and much enlarged
above in expansion ; the capitulhun bears 30
or 3lapical ridges, and, in retraction, shows
corresponding ridges and furrows extend-
ing for some distance down the column. In
extension the disc is broad, and the oral
cone high and very distinct from the rest
of the disc ; the peripheral part of the disc
shows radiating ridges and furrows, aed may
overhang in extension. The inner tentacles
are slightly larger than the outer ; they
correspond in number with the capitular
The column is sand-coloured below, and
deep brown above ; the dic and tentacles
appear to be always dark brown; the
esophagus is white.
The height of the column varies from 1
to 2 cm., the diameter from 0-5 to 0-9 cm. ;
the diameter of the expanded disc is 16 cmn.,
and the inner tentacles are 0.15 cm. in
Polpys often form large compact colonies,
the individuals being united for nearly their
whole length by a thick conenechyme in
which they appear as if immersed the
body-wall and c(enenchyme strongly inm-
pregnated with foreign particles,
At the Port Royal Cays and about all the
reefs yet examined representatives of the
genus Palythoa occur in great abundance,
and extend from the Zoanthus zone into the
zone of living coral. The colonies are of
various sizes, and, as a thick, tough, light
yellow or brown, mannmillated incrustation
cover extensive areas of the coral-rock. The
appearance differs according as the polyps
are retracted or expanded. As may be ex-
pected amongst such abundant material,
considerable variation in external features
is met with, and it is extremely difficult to
obtain constant reliable diagnostic charac-
ters. For this purpose one has only the
form, colour, dimensions of the colony, and
the number of capitular ridges and tentacles
for comparison, and nearly all variations
among these can be collected.
T'he two following species appear to be
sufliciently well determined.
il. PALYTIHOA MAMMILLOSA (Ell. and Sol.).
Colonies of what I identify as this species
are generally robust, hut of small extent
and often a number will be found closely
associated, separated only by narrow deep
channels. The polyps are cylindrical,
rounded above in contraction, and free for a
short distance beyond the limit of the
ctcuenchyme. The surface is smooth, except
where the ectoderm has been rubbed off
in this state the mesogl(ea can be seen in-
crusted throughout with minute calcareous
particles. Thle capitular ridges, best seen
when the polyps are partially expanded,
have been counted in scores of specimens,
and, with occasional exceptions, vary from
18 to 20. The tentacles are 36 to 40 in
number, arranged in two alternating cycles;
they are extremely short, acuminate, and
overhang in full extension. The central
part of the disc is raised into an oral cone,
and is incrusted with sand grains; the peri.
pheral part is distinctly separated and
grooved in correspondence with the tenta.
cles ; the mouth is slit-like.
The colour is a pale yellow or cream, with
slight variations in intensity.
The individuals in the various colonies
vary somewhat in dimensions, but the
averages are very different frm those of the
next species. The diameter is more con-
,stant than the height. The average for the
latter is 1.3 cma., but may vary from 0-6 to
1'8 cm, ; the distance of the centres of con,