• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Plates
 Introduction
 Kitchen middens, refuse-heaps,...
 Burial caves
 Implements
 Pottery
 Images and amulets
 Ornaments
 Rock-carving or petroglyphs
 Reference














Group Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica ...
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024651/00005
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
Physical Description: 2v. : front.,illus.,plates,ports.,maps. ; 26cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1894-99
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subject: Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol.I-II. (1891/93-1894/99)
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol.I is composed of 8 parts; v.2 of 6 parts.
General Note: No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024651
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001366390
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lccn - ca 05002337

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page I
    Table of Contents
        Page II
    List of Figures
        Page III
    List of Plates
        Page IV
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Kitchen middens, refuse-heaps, shell-heaps, or shell-mounds
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Burial caves
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24-1
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Implements
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Pottery
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Images and amulets
        Page 42
        Page 42-1
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Ornaments
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46-1
        Page 47
    Rock-carving or petroglyphs
        Page 48
        Page 48-1
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 50-1
        Page 51
    Reference
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text

VOL. 11., No. 4.


JOURNAL OF THE

INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA.








ABORIGINAL INDIAN


REMAINS IN JAMAICA.



By J. E..DUERDEN, A.R.C.Sc. (LoNI.),
Curator of the .1'!,. .'/n of the Institute of yamaica;

WITH A "NOTE ON THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE ABORIGINES OF JAMAICA,'
BY PROFESSOI A. C. HADDON, M.A., D.Sc..











KINGSTON : JAMAICA.
THE INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA, DATE TREE HALL, EAST STREET.
Agents in London-1I. SOTHERAN & CO., 140, Strand, W.C., and 28, Piccadilly, W.
Agents in New York-G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, 27 & 29, West 23rd Street.


JULY, 1897.


PRICE Is.











CONTENTS.


List of Figures
List of Plates
Introduction


CHAPTER I.
KITCHEN MIDDENS, REFUSE-HEAPS, SHELL-IEAPS, OR SHELL-MOUNDS.-
Shells : ]ones : Ashes : Implements : Pottery : Calcedony
Beads :Amulets : Objects of European Character : Age
of the Shell-mounds : Distribution of the Aboriginess:
Food of the Indians : Shell-mounds in other West Indian
Islands: The Shell-mounds of Guiana: Shell-heaps or
Kitchen-middens in other parts of America.
Description of the Kitchen-middens.--Long Moun-
tain : Botany Bay : Norbrook : Hope : Caymanas : Vere
in Clarendon : Hanover : Williamsfield : Tryall : Califor-
nia: Wales : Stewart Castle : Retreat: Cranbrook : Friend-
ship : Belle Vue ...


BURIAL CAVES.-









IMPEMENTS.--




POTTERY.-


CHAPTER II.
Human Bones : Note on the Craniology of the Aborigines
of Jamaica, by Prof. A. C. Haddon, M.A., D.Sc. : Pot-
tery : Miscellaneous Objects : Burial of the Aborigines.
Description of the Caves.-- Halberstadt: Bloxburgh :
Botany Bay and Cambridge Hill, St. Thomas: Dallas
Castle : Red Hills-Historical Accounts : Goat Island :
District of Vere : Pedro Bluff : Hounslow : Drummond :
Negril : California......

CHAPTER III.
Colts : Spherical, Discoidal, and Smoothing Stones : Axes :
Flint Implements: Shell Implements: Pestles and Meal-
ing Stones ... .....

CHAPTER IV.
Jamaica Pottery : Other West Indian Islands : British
Guiana ............


CHAPTER V.
IMAGES AND A3IULETs.-Stone Images : Wooden Images: Amulets


ORNAMENTS.-


CHAPTER VI.
Perforated Shell Ornaments: Calcedony Beads


CHAPTER V11.
ROOK-CARvINGS on PETROGLYPIS.-Dryland, St. Mary: Pantrepant, Trelawny:
Mountain River, St. John : Kempshot, St. James : Rock-
Pictures: Petroglyphs in other West Indian Islands.
References ... ... .........


PAGE.

iii.
... 1.
S 1






LIST OF FIGURES.


Fig. I. Helix acuta, Lamk Artificially perforated ...

Fig. II. Flaked Flints ...

Fig. III. Shell Implements ......

Fig. IV. 1. Object resembling a Smoothing Tool or Pestle. 2. S
Implement. 3. Implement from Highgate, St.
4. Laterally Grooved Implement ....

Fig. V. Modern Glass Phial. From Norbrook

Fig. VI. Sketch Plan of the Mounds at Stewart Castle. ...

Fig. VII. Spindle-shaped Implement ...

Fig. VIII. [Plate II.] Axe-blade. ...

Fig. IX. [Plate II.] Axe-blade from Grenada ...

Fig. X. Ornamental Handles on Fragments of Vessels ...

Fig. XI. Jamaica Wooden Images in the British Museum

Fig. XII. Wooden Carving in the Guesde Collection "

Fig. XIII. Marble Amulets. From the Long Mountains ..

Fig. XIV. Oliva reticularis, Lamk. Artificially ground, perforated,
al portion chipped off ...

Fig. XV. Quartz Ornament ......

Fig. XVI. Perforated Spindle-shaped Stone, Sinker"

Fig. XVII. Rock-carving at Pantrepant, Trelawny ......

Fig. XVIII: Three of the Rock-carvings at Kempshot, St. James...


PAGE.
5

7

*@


;moothing
Catherine.


8

9

18

32

35

.. 35

40

42

S 48

44


and spir-


.. 45

.. 47

47

49

50


LIST OF PLATES.


FACING PAGE.
Plate LA. CRANIA OF ABORIGINES OF JAMAICA:
Fig. 1. Norma verticalis of Skull O.
2. occipitalis -
3. lateralis -
"4. frontalis -
5. lateralis of Skull G.
"6. frontalis -
The above crania illustrate the general cranial characters of
the aborigines. Skull 0 is considerably artificially de-
formed, but Skull G is scarcely, if at all, deformed.
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate the usual form of these skulls as seen
from above and from behind. The two types of nose which
occur among them are very well shown in figs. 4 and 6 ... 24
Plate I, STONE IMPLEMENTS ... ... 3












LIST OF PLATES.--[Continued].


Plate II. AXE-BLADES ... ........... 4
Plate III. TYPES OF HANDLES AND ORNAMENTATION ON INDIAN POTTERY ...

Plate IV. (4). IMAGES, PESTLES, AND MEALING-STONES :

Fig. 1. Pestle (Image?) with rounded base.
2. Pestle (Image?) with flattened base. From Vere.
3. Image formed of fossil coral. From ne'r Ewarton.
4. Image with double crown, formed of sandstone. From near
Ewarton.
5. Tripod Metate or Mealing-Stone, with upper-stone still in
use for grinding chocolate.
6. Tripod Metate or Mealing-stone with incised ornamentation,
and w;*h oval and spindle-shaped upper-stones ... 42

Plate V. (5). POTTERY FROM VARIOUS CAVES:
Fig. 1. Halberstadt. Fig. 2. Vere. Fig. 3. Pedro. Fig. 4. Negril.
Base wanting. Fig. 5. Goat Island Fig. 6. Cambridge Hill.
Left handle wanting. Fig. 7. Cambridge ill ... 46
Plate VI. (6) :
Fig. 1. Vessel with flattened Skull inside, from Richmond Hill Cave.
2. Calcedony Beads, from Vere.
3. Rock-Carving at Dryland, St. Mary. Incisions intensified
with charcoal ...... .. .... 48

Plate VII. (7). ROcK-CARVINGS AT MOUNTAIN RIVEI, ST. Jons :
Fig. 1. Incised figures on a fallen mass of rock. Intensity of in-
cisions normal.
2. Figures on the vertical face of a rook in a recess. Outlines
intensified with charcoal ... ...... 50

MAP OF THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION o01 ABORIGINAL
INDIAN REMAINS. 52
The figures on Plate I.A are from photographs by Prof. Haddon; figs. 5-7, Plate
V. and fig. 1, Plate VI. are from photographs by Mr. J. W. C. Brennan; and fig. 3, Plate
VI., and the two figures on Plate VII. are from photographs by Mr. J. F. Brennan. All
the Drawings, except Fig. XII., copied from the Smithsonian Report, 1884, and Fig. XI.,
which is a reproduction of an engraving in Arch-wologea," 1803, have been made by the
author.
Plates IV., V., VI., VII. have received Arabic instead of the usual Roman numerals.
Page 24, second column, for Plates IV., V. read Plates VI., fig. 1; V., fig. 5.
Page 28, first column, for Plate IV., read Plate VI., fig. 1.
Page 28, second column, for Plate IV., read Plate V., fig. 5.
Page 29, first column, for Plate IV., read Plate V., fig. 2.
Page 30, first column, for Plate IV., read Plate V., fig. 4.
Page 32, first column, for Plate II., read Plate I.





















ABORIGINAL INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


INTRODUCTION.


The following Circular was issued from the
Museum of the Institute of Jamaica, on the
71h August, 1895 :
AN EXEIlBITION OF ARAWAK REMAINS.
(T'o include objects illustrating the life and cus-
toms ,f the abriginal inhabitants of Jamaica.)
-SIR,-The new Museum buildings of the Insti-
tute are now completed, and the Board of Gover-
nors proposes that the occasion should be signal-
ized for the development of the Archeology of
Jamaica.
The recent discoveries of human and other re-
mains at Halberstadt, and of the carvings investi-
gated by Lady Blake at Saint John's, have
awakened considerable interest in the subject in
the Island, and indicate that much more may still
be done, if sufficient encouragement is given.
They have also brought out prominently the fact
that Jamaica possesses but a very indifferent pub-
lic collection of objects connected with its abori-
ginal Indian inhabitants. There is, however, evi-
dence that many specimens of interest and im-
portance are to be found in the possession of
private individuals; also, that many more may
probably be obtained by a thorough search in caves
and other places.
The Board of Governors therefore proposes to
hold a public exhibition of Arawak remains, to
illustrate, as far as possible, the life and customs
of' the aboriginal inhabitants of Jamaica, and
appeals to the private possessors of such remains
to help, either by the loan or the gift of speci-
mens. Such private donations or loans will be
fully acknowledged in the exhibition, and special
care given to them. -The Exhibition will probably
be opened towards the end of September, and
continue for two or three months. It is intended
to arrange special Lectures and Demonstrations
on the objects.
The Board hopes that by means of the Exhibi-
tion not only will the public interest in every-
thing that pertains to the past history of the
Island be stimulated, but also that a more valuable
and representative collection of objects may be
accumulated by the Museum, where they can be
kept properly labelled and exhibited, and remain
of permanent public value.
The following objects are those specially de-
sired:-"'Thunderbolts," darts, war-clubs, arrow-
heads: stone-hatchets, stone-hammers, bead orna-
ments, :Indian pottery. -remains from kitchen-
middens (marine shells, bones, pottery), human


skulls and bones, canoes, old vessels, old coins,
inscriptions, objects of worship, articles of clothing.
The Curator of the Museum will be very glad to
communicate with any one having such remains
in his possession, or willing to assist by searching
for them. Gifts or loans will be thankfully acknow-
ledged, and, in the case of the latter, carefully
returned when the special Exhibition is closed.
I am, etc.,
J. E. DUERDEN,
Curator.
'The result of this endeavour was that the
anticipations of the Governors were con-
firmed and supported, and a sufficient sup-
ply of objects, connected with Jamaica's
aboriginal Indian inhabitants, was contrib-
uted to enable the Exhibition to be opened
in November. The interest aroused in the
island has also brought to notice a number
of relics not previously known, and has led
to various discoveries and investigations of
importance to the Anthropology of Jamaica
and of the West Indies generally.
A complete list of the objects presented
and lent to the Museum for this special
purpose will be found in the Annual Report
of the Institute for the year 1895-96.
The following, however, amongst the
many Jamaican exhibits, call for particular
notice :
A collection of human crania, bones, and
other objects from the Halberstadt cave,
presented by Mr. B. S. Gosset and the
Rev. W. W. Rumsey.
A collection of vessels, crania,, etc., from
the Richmond Hill and Botany Bay caves,
lent by the Rev. W. W. Rumsey.
A collection of 171 stone implements,
lent by Inspector Church.
A. collection of fragments of aboriginal
pottery, lent by Miss Moulton Barrett.
Collections of stone implements, pre-
sented by Dr. G. Neish, Mr. W. H.
Plant, and others.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


Stone implements, a cast of a monolithic
axe, an aboriginal skull and vessel, lent by
Lady Blake.
Photographs of rock-carvings and rock-
pictures, presented by Mr J. F. Brennan.
In addition to these, an important series
of objects, illustrative of the present-day
life of the natives of British Guiana, was
generously lent by the Demerara Museum,
through its Curator, Mr. J. J. Quelch, for
comparison with the local exhibits.
The Rev. T. W. Bindley, M.A., of Bar.
bados, also lent a number of Barbadian
shell implements and other objects for the
same purpose.
The discoveries made, mostly since the
issue of the circular, and which have been
investigated and are now reported upon,
may be classified as follows:
KITCHEN-MIDDENS, REFUSE.-EAPS, OR
SHELL-MIOUNDS.
Accumulations of the above character,
occurring at Norbrook, were described a
few years ago. but no further advance in
the subject had been made before the pre-
sent enquiries. These have now demon-
strated that similar remains, consisting of
deposits of shells, pottery, fish and Indian
coney bones, implements, ashes, etc., occur in
numerous localities near the sea-border, and
extend over considerable areas on both the
north and south sides of the island. They
have been investigated at the following
places: Stewart Castle,o Wales, Retreat,
Cranbrook, Tryall, California, the Long
Mountain, Botany Bay, Hope, and Caymanas;
while information of others has been re,
ceived from Vere in Clarendon, Hanover,
Williamsfield, and Belle Vue and Friendship
in St. Ann.
CAVES CONTAINING ABORIGINAL REMAINS.
Jamaica has long been known to contain,
in the numerous limestone caves through-
out the island, many skulls, bones, and
other relics of its Indian inhabitants; but
these have never previously been systemati-
cally examined, nor the objects described.
In addition to the Halberstadt cave,
notes upon which have already appeared
in the Journal of the Institute and in
Nature, caves at the following places have
been investigated: Botany Bay, Cam.
Most of these names are those given to sugar.
estates or pens situated in the fourteen parishes
into which the island is divided. A Pen, as dis,
tinguished from an Estate, is a property devoted
mostly to the rearing of cattle and horses.


bridge Hill, and California; while details
have been collected of others occurring at
Blixburgh, Dillas Castle, Go:t Island, Dis.
trit of Vere, Pedro, flounslow. the Red
Ili!ls, and in the parishes of Westmoreland
and Hanover.
ROCK-CAlRVNGS AND ROCK-PICTURES.
In the parish of St. Catherine has been
discovered a series of aboriginal Rock-carv-
ings, mostly deep incisions representing
human figures and heads; also, in connec-
tion with them, a number of rude pictorial
representations of various animals, such as
lizards, turtles, and birds. A rude incised
representation of the human face and figure
has been met with in a recess in the lime-
stone rocks of St. Mary, and a similar
figure at Pantrepant, Trelawny.
There is little doubt as to the aboriginal
character of all these, they having features
in common, and also relationships with
other figures.described from various West
Indian Islands.
While this account was being prepared Mr.
Maxwell Hall sent information relating to
numerous carvings of human faces occurr-
ing in a cave on his property Kempshot,
near Montego Bay.

PoTTERY.
Many examples of aboriginal pottery,
both perfect and in fragments, have been
collected from the various caves and kitchen-
middens. In shape, ornamentation, and
handles, it is throughout of a fairly uniform,
simple character.

IMPLEMENTS.
Several hundred specimens of stone im-
plements of various forms -celts, chisels,
axes, mealing-stones-have been gathered
together. Flaked flints and shell imple-
ments have been found, mostly from the
shell-heaps.
Calcedony beads, perforated ornamental
shells, and perforated stones are also de-
scribed.
IMAGES.
The Hon. D. Campbell lent to the Exhi-
bition two perfect stone images, probably
examples of the idols or Zemes the Indians
are stated by Columbus and other writers to
have worshipped. Two other imperfect mar-
ble images,obtained from the Long Mountain
shell-heaps, are perforated behind for sus-






K TCHlEN-MIDJlNEA.


pension, and are, no doubt, representatives
of the amulets the Indians are known to
have worn.

Where material and information were
accessible, comparison has been made of the
local objects with those of the other West
Indian Islands, or with the continent of
America; especially amongst the latter,
with those of the Indians, both ancient and
modern, of British Guiana, to whom the
former inhabitants of Jamaica, and many of
the other islands, are supposed by some
authors to be most closely related; also,
where possible, confirmatory evidence -of


the customs and conditions of the aborigi-
nes has been adduced from the writings
of the Spanish historians of the time of
Columbus.

My thanks are due to the very numerous
contributors of specimens, material, and
information from all parts of the island.
How deep is the necessity for this obliga-
tion can only be realized by a perusal of the
following pages. Dr. J. W. Plaxton and
Dr. G. U. Henderson have assisted greatly
by their helpful criticisms, and Mr. H.
Vendryes by his knowledge of Jamaican
Mollusca.






CHAPTER I.

KITCIIEN-MIDDENS, REFUSE-HEAPS, SIIELL-HEAPS, OR SHELL-MOUNDS.:

Shells : Bones : Ashes : Implements : Pottery : Calcedony Beads : Amulets : Objects of
European character : Age of the Shell-mounds : Distribution of the Aborigines : Food
of the Indians : Nhell-mounds in other West Indian Islands : The Shell-mounds of Guiana :
Shell-heaps or Kitchen-middens in other parts of America.
Description of the Kitchen-middens : Long Mountain : Botany Bay: Norbrook : Hope:
Caymanas : Vere in Clarendon : Hanover : Williamsfield : Tryall : California: Wales:
Stewart Castle : Retreat : Cranbrook : Friendship : Belle Vue.


Within the past few months, as mentioned
in the Introduction, a number of shell-
heaps have been discovered in Jamaica, and
more or less systematically explored. They
occur, occupying extensive areas, often
several acres in extent, on both the north
and south sides of the island, and in every
case exhibit much the same characters.
They have been found, up to the present,
at the following spots (see Map at end):-
On the South side -in the Parish of St.
Andrew, on the top and southern declivity
of the Long Mountain, at Botany Bay,
Norbrook. and Hope; in St. Catherine, at
Marl Hill on the Caymanns Estate ; and in
Clarendon, at Vere. On the North side-
in Hanover, around Green Island Harbour
and Lucea; in St. James, at Williamsfield,
Mammee Hill and Spotty Hill on the Tryall
Estate, and at Sheep Pen Pasture on the
California Estate: in Trelawny at Wales,
and Stewart Castle ; in St. Ann, at Retreat.
Cranbrook, Friendship, and Belle Vue.
In the majority of cases the accumulations
occur on elevations which command-ti good
prospect of the sea and country for miles
around, and, so far, have been discovered
only near the sea border, those at Retreat,
situated about six miles from the sea, being
the furthest inland.
The deposits consist, for the most part, of
a great variety of species of both land and
marine shells, associated with fish bones
and spines, lower-jaws and bones of the
Any of these terms are sufficiently expressive
and well know-. With regard to similar accumu-
lations in America, Nadaillac (1885) states that
there they are so generally composed almost
entirely of marine or fresh-water shells, that the
term shell-heap, as applied to them, has here
largely replaced the moi e cumbrous term [kitchen-
midden] derived from the Danish."
Mr. Cyril Thomas in the Report on the Mound
Explorations" (1894), distinguishes between a
" heap" and '" mound." regarding the former as a
mere accumulation of rubbish, while the latter is
constructed with a specific design in view.
Limited in this way none of the Jamaican depos-
its would be spoken of as mounds," seeing that
they have always been formed by the mere accu-
mulation of refuse matter.


Indian coney, turtle bones, crabs' claws,
quantities of broken pottery, broken stone
and shell implements, often' with layers
of greyish wood ashes mingled with frag-
ments of charcoal. With a single exception,
no object indicative of European influence
has been found amongst them the occur-
rence of which can not be easily explained.
Often, as at Stewart Castle, the accunmula-
lions are in the form of distinct mounds
ir elevations above the general surface of
the ground in other places, as at Tryall and
California, where the land has been dis-
turbed by cane-planting, they are distri.
buted irregularly over the surface and are
of no great depth. The thickness of the
deposits is very variable, in some places
being five or six feet, in others merely
superficial. Occurring always from or near
the surface, and sometimes on steel) inclines,
the objects have been further distributed by
the, washing from the violent tropic.l
rains. Some of the accumulations, along
with the accompanying earth and stones, arc
partially conslidated, while others are
very loose. In most, the materials exhibit
no regular arrangement, but in others, as
at Stewart Castle and Long Mountain, they
are found embedded in distinctt layers of
ashes, earth,or marl.
SHELLS.
The relative proportions and species of
land and marine shells vary. In places more
distant from the sea, e.g., Retreat and
Stewart Castle, species of Helix predomin-
ate, but at Norbrook and the Long Moun-
tain, not far from the shore, marine shells
are much in the ascendant. The giant
conch, Stro,,,bus gigas, and Turbo pica occur
in all, while Pyrula melongena is the more
plentiful and also universal. Strombus
pugilis is one of the common univalves on
the south side. Codakia (Lucina) tigerina
is the commonest bivalve in the mounds of
the north side, but is rarely obtained in
those of the south, its place being taken
by the various species of Arca, while Chama
lazarus is also plentiful.






KITCHEN-MIDDENS.


Helix acuta, one of our most abundant
and. large ;land shells, predominates at
Stewart Castle and Retreat,-and occurs, in
some cases no doubt naturally.-in less num-
bers in the others. Helix jamaicensis
is only found in quantities in the deposits
of the north.:side, being limited to-day in
its distribution to the western part of the
island. Ampullaria fasciata is the only
fresh-water gastropod met with.
In practically all the different species of
gastropods, though not in all examples,
is a large, irregular, artificial perforation,


Fie. I.' Ielix acuta, Lamk., ARTIFICIALLY
PERFORATED. Nat. size.
varying in position from half an inch to an
inch behind the mouth of the shell (Fig. I.);
perhaps made to facilitate the extraction of
the animal, though bearing no relation to
the position of attachment of the adductor
muscles.0
Of specimens submitted to him Prof. O. T.
Mason writes: The shells have their allies
in both Florida and in South America, where
the perforations are of three kinds-for
hafting, for stringing, and for touching up a
hard edge for scraping wood. These shells
are closely allied also to South American
specimens. In our collection here, there
are a great many conch shells from Florida
that have been used roughly as tools, and
clam and mussel shells are neatly pierced
It has also been suggested that the aperture
may have been made by the Indians for the pur-
pose of stringing the shells together while on their
collecting expeditions. One correspondent informs
me that this is still carried out in the case of gas-
tropod shells containing hermit-crabs. The giant
conch is used plentifully to-day on the north side
as food and for the extraction of pearls. The re-
moval of the animal is facilitated either by break-
ing off the apex of the spiral or by perforating the
shell in the region of the adductor muscle.


for handles. There are also many roughly
broken through, and Von den Steiner, in his
work on Brazil, says that he has seen the
people on the Shinghu break the holes and
use the sharp edges for scraping down war
clubs."
The perforation is always large in Turbo
pica, often having a diameter of two or three
inches. The majority of the shells are other-
wise perfect, and in the Lamellibranchs the
valves are occasionally still united. Some
of the shells give evidence of having been
subjected to the action of fire.
The marine species obtained are all very
common forms around the shores to-day,
especially on the south side, and, on the
score of present distribution, there seems no
particular reason why different species
should be more characteristic of one series
of accumulations than of another. It is
evident also, that the edible quality of the
mollusc had not much determining influence
in this selection ; while all the representa-
tives of the Ostreida, can be recommended
for food, and those of Pyrula, Strombus,
Codalkia, and Area may not be too coriaceous,
most of them being still used in places, not
much can be said in approval of the Indians'
choice of many of the others. The follow-
ing list, arranged somewhat in the order of
predominance of occurrence, will show the
great variety of species met with :
Gastropods.
Pyrula melongena, Linn.
Turbo pica, Linn.
Helix acuta, var. patina.
Helix acuta, Lamnk.
Strombus pugilis, Linn.
Strombus gigas, Linn.
Murex pomum, (melin.
Murex brevifrons, Lamk.
Nerita antillarum, Gmelin.
Nerita versicolor, Lamk.
Helix jamaicensis, Gmelin.
Helix sinuata, Lamk.
Neritina virginea, Lamk.
Ampullaria fasciata, Lamk.
Choanopoma interruptum.
Fasciolaria tulipa, Lamk.
Purpura patula, Lamk.
Fissurella nodosa, Lamk.
Chiton, sp.
Lamellibranchs (Pelecypods).
Codakia (Lucina) tigerina.
Arca noce. Linn.
occidentalis, Deshayes.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


Area orbignyi, Reeve.
deshayesi, Hanley.
scapha, Lamk.
Chama lazarus, Linn.
Asaphis coccinea, Gmelin.
Perna obliqua, Lamk.
Mytilus exustus, Linn.
Avicula radiata, Lamk.
Ostrea parasilica, Gmelin.
Tellina fausta, Dilwitu.
Modiola americana, Leach.
Venus zigzag, Linn.
Pecten zigzag, Chemn.

BONES.
Mammalian bones.-Thebonesofthel dian
Coney (Capromys brachyurus, Hill) met with,
are nm stly limb bones, lower-jaws with teeth,
and occasionally ribs, vertebrae, and parts
of the upper-jaws. Some of the long bones
appear artificially broken. They are found
in all the mounds.
The short-tailed Capromys is an animal
about the size of a rabbit, and, at the present
day, is the only indigenous land mammal of
Jamaica, with the exception of the bats. It
is now very rare in the island, but is occasion-
ally caught in some of the mountainous parts
of Portland and Trelawny. Its flesh is con-
sidered by many good eating. There is rio
doubt that it was much more abundant
and more generally distributed in former
times, the honey-combed limestone dis-
tricts being especially suited to its retir-
ing habits. Its almost extinction in recent
times is, in large measure, a result of the
introduction into the island of the mongoose
(1896).0 The universal occurrence of its
bones in the mounds demonstrates that it
must have been a general article of food for
the Indians in the past.
A single canine tooth of some carnivore
was found in the Long Mountain deposits, at
a depth of fourteen inches below the surface.
The Indians are known to have posset sed a
mutc dog-like creature, the Alco. No pure
examples of this however occur at the
present day.
Human bones have been discovered in
connection with the kitchen-middens at
Cranbrook and Caymanas, but not under
such circumstances as to allow of any de.
cision as to whether they are the re.
mains of a cannibal feast or of orderly
burial.
*The date of publication is employed as the
reference number to the Bibliography at the end,


Turtle bones.-Fragments of the limb and
carapace bones of some turtle were obtained
from several deposits.
Fish bones. -Numerous dentary, vomer,
and operchlar bones of various species of
marine and river fish are to be met with,
along with spinous fin-rays and vertebra,.
The multirayed dermal spines of the sour-
sop fish, Diodon, occasionally occur, and
also its enormously thickened crushing
vomer and dentary. Many of the spines
appear to be those of the common fresh.
water mullet, Mugil, and of the '"snook,"
Centropomus undecimalis. A tuberculated
spine of the Old Wench," Balistes vetula,
Linn.. was found at Stewart Castle.
Crabs' claws.-These consist mainly of
the terminal portions of the ambulatory
legs and chelte of the cotimon land soldier-
crab, Cenobtta diogenes, Latr., and of the
black land-crab, Gecarcinus ruricola. The
large claws of Cardisomin yuanhumii are
also abundant. All the species are very
common to-day.
Pieces of Madrepore corals are now and
again met with, but have evidently no
important significance.
AsH Es.
The ashes at Weireka, on the Long Moun-
tain, are arranged somewhat in layers, and
are quite loose. They exactly resemble
those still produced from wood fires by the
peasantry near the same spot.
At Stewart Castle the entire accumula-
tions, including the layers of ashes, are
more consolidated. I am indebted to Mr.
Bowrey, the Island Chemist, for making
chemical analyses of the ashes. Those
from Stewart Castle are bluish-grey in
colour, and composed of carbonate of lime, a
little iron in both the ferrous and ferric
condition, a slight quantity of carbonaceous
matter, and a mere trace of silica. The
soluble alkalies are almost entirely removed.
The mass, which becomes hard on exposure,
has now practically the chemical characters
of a limestone.
The ashes from Weireka are light grey,
more powdery, and contain a greater amount
of carbonaceous matter and soluble alkalies,
sufficient of the latter being present to
change the colour of litmus.
These differences between the two may
be due to the former deposit being much
older than the latter, or, perhaps the greater
depth at Stewart Castle to which the ashes
extend, and the consequent compression and






KITCHEN-MIDDENS.


infiltration, may account for the variation in
chemical character. In all cases where
ashes have occurred, fragments of charcoal
were found distributed am-)ngst them.

IMPLEMENTr.
Celts.--From practically all th1 deposits
odd broken or fragmentary stone in,plements
are met with, but more particularly at Weireka
and Norbrook. They are of similar type and
composition to the more perfect petaloid or
almond-shaped celts, so commonly found all
over the island.
Mealing.-stoes.- Portions of flattened
smooth stones, much resembling the upper
part of mealing-stones, have been secured
from Weireka. In no case has a perfect
example of either the celt or mealing.


were secured,madeapparently from the recent
shell of Strombus gigas. Another has also
lately been obtained from Weireka, by Mr.
R. N. Goodwill, and a broken one from the
Botany Bay district. These are practically the
only implements known in Jamaicawhich are
madeof shell; though, fashioned from t hefossil
Strombus gigas, they are extremely common
in Barbados, and are not unknown in the
other WestIndian Islands. Later, several fine
specimens, made from the fossil Strombus
shell, have been found in Vere.

POTTERY.
All the pottery obtained from the accumu-
lations is, as might be expected, fragmentary
in condition, and is exactly similar in the
character of its surface, material, ornamenta-


FIG. IT. FLAKED FLINTS.
(1) From Stemart Castle, (2)from Wales. Nat. size.


stone occurred. Evidently those met with
are only the useless discarded examples
thrown on to the refuse-heaps.
Fl.a cedflints (ig. 11.).-ln most shell-heaps
flaked flints are found They are generally
small fragments, an inch or so across, broken
off some large block ; but now and then a
core is met with, showing where flakes have
been struck off. The flint is of the same
character as that occurring abundantly in
the White Limestone in most districts of
the island. The significance of the flakes
is somewhat doubtful, as shaped flint im-
plements are not known in Jamaica. Most
probably they were used as knives or
scrapers.
Shell implenients (Fig. III.).-From the
StewartCastle mounds two shell implements


tion, and handles to the perfect vessels of
various forms obtained from the many caves
in the island. The cave pottery was
associated with undoubted aboriginal crania
and other bones.
Each locality, and more especially Nor-
brook, has yielded quantities of earthenware
mingled with the other objects. The vessels,
now only represented by these larger and
small fragments, were of a circular or oval
shape, mostly rounded at the base, the sur-
face smoothed in the majority, and devoid of
glazing. The clay employed was mixed with
coarse fragments, mostly of siliceous minerals,
and was well baked in a fire, usually be-
coming an earthy red in colour. The
pieces vary in thickness from one-eighth of
an inch to one and a half inches, that of any


~






































FIG. III. SHELL IMPLEMENTS.
(1) Fronm T~re, (2) from Weire/la. 2 nat. icre.


FIG. IV.
1. Oljrct resembling a Smoothing Tool or Pestle. Fromn Norbrook.
2. "nmoothing Implement.
3. Implementt front Highgate, St. Catherine.
4. Laterally Grooved Implement.
All I nat. size.






KITCHEN-MIDDENS.


one piece being however very uniform. Some
of the thickest fragments are quite flat, but
with slightly upturned edges, and are more
suggestive of platters or cooking slabs; while
fragments from Norbrook evidently re-
present the flattened circular base of two
vessels. From Norbrook also were obtained
two objects made of clay, and much re-
sembling smoothing tools or pestles (Fig. iv.,
1). Many of the specimens are blackened
by fire, some still having a layer of carbon
upon their outer surface. The types of
handles are extremely varied, and all grada-
tions can be traced from a simple, thumb-'
indented portion of clay luted on, to more
elaborate handles, resembling, though very
rudely, the human face. Circular perfora-
tions, made while the, clay was still soft,
are often found at the handles, and were
evidently intended for suspending the
vessel.
The ornamentation consists mostly of.
indented parallel straight lines or dots,
either oblique, circular, or vertical in direc-
tion.. The margin or rim is often thickened
by an additional fillet of clay, and occasion-
ally the fillet is used in ornamentation,
forming a W-shaped wreath or festoon.

CALCEDONY BEADS.
From accumulations at Vere,in Clarendon,
were obtained twenty or more perforated
calcedony beads, all beautifully rounded and
polished. Mr. De la Haye, who first drew
attention to them, states that in the same
place were also numerous pieces of partially
worked stone and other incomplete beads.

AMULETS.
Two amulets, perforated behind, and re-
presenting human heads above, but broken
and incomplete below, were found amongst
the extensive shell-heaps on the southern
side of the Long Mountain. From
the Vere deposits, Mr. De la Haye se-
cured an image, with wings to the
side, and the body and face of a man." Owing
to its being destroyed almost immediately
after, no details can be given.

OBJECTS OF EUROPEAN CHARACTER.
With the exception of a small glass phial
found in the refuse-heaps at Norbrook, and
neglecting the admixture of modern objects
at Wales to be referred to under the des-
cription of that spot, no article at all sug-


gestive of European influence has been
obtained. The object first mentioned was
found about eighteen inch-
es below the surface. It is a
small bottle (Fig. V.) about
four inches in length, par-
tially devitrified with age,
and presenting a series of iri-
descent colours. Its unique
occurrence may be regarded
as accidental, or perhaps as
indicating that European in-
fluence had reached the
island while the accumula-
tions were in progress.

AGE OF THE SHELL-MOUNDS.
i 11 _1 _1 1_


FIG. V., MODERN
GLASS PHIAL.
V, OPER


from tne remarkable uni-
formity of the remains met
with throughout the whole
island, from the character of
these remains, and the prac-
tical absence of all objects
of a European nature, there


SNat. size,. can be no doubt that the'
accumulations represent the
domestic refuse-heaps of the people inhabit-
ing the island previous to, and at the
time of, its discovery by Columbus.
Though the species of shells met with vary
with the neighbourhood, the forms and
position of the perforations previously men-
tioned are the same in all. The fish
and coney bones are alike throughout, and
the broken implements are of the same type.
Of greater importance is the fact that the pot-
tery is uniform in ornamentation, handles,
shape. surface, and texture, and similar to
that found in the numerous caves of the
island associated with skulls, bones, and
other undoubted aboriginal objects. The
thickness of the deposits, extending
in some cases to a depth of six feet,
and the extent of the area occupied, often
several acres, demonstrate that the localities
must have been occupied by numbers of
people and for lengthened periods. When
the quantity of pottery met with in any
deposit, especially in such as that at Nor-
brook, is considered, and how very slowly
under ordinary circumstances such frag-
ments would accumulate, one may perhaps
realize how very long the particular spot
must have been occupied. The remains fur-
nish every evidence to supplement the
historical accounts that Jamaica was thickly
populated by the Indians at the time.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA,


of its discovery by Columbus; but, as is well
known, the natives rapidly perished under
the exactions of the Spaniards. Most com-
petent authorities estimate the number at
about 60,000 when the first Spanish settle-
ment was commenced in 1509, and that
probably few were left alive at the time of
the first English invasion in 1596.

DISTRIBUTION OF' THE AIORIGINEs.
The refuse-heaps are the best indications
left us of the distribution of the former in-
habitants of the island, and this may most
fitly be referred to here. Owing to the
fact, that, previous to the present investi-
gations, relics were mainly known from the
south side, it has been supposed that this
part of Jamaica was more thickly populated
by the Indians than was the northern border.
The extensive kitchen-midden accumula-
tions and other evidences, such as the
burial caves and rock-carvings, now known
in the parishes of St. Ann, Trelawny, St.
James, and Hanover, prove that this northern
part of the island had, in the past, its full
proportion of inhabitants.
Though up to the present shell-heaps
are known only along the sea-border,
proof exists, from the finding of imple-
ments and other objects, that the interior
likewise was not devoid of inhabitants. Mr.
D. Campbell's images, confined in a vessel,
were obtained from near Ewarton, a position
about midway between the north and south
borders. Implements have also been
collected at such an inland spot as Mon-
eague.
Again, both eastern and western extremi-
ties have yielded antiquities, collections
being known from Bath and Priestman's
River on the one hand, and Negril, Green
Island, and Lucea on the other. Never-
theless the fact remains that by far the bulk
of the relics is found near the sea-border.
By all historians-Bernaldez, Fernando
Colombo, and Peter Martyr-Jamaica is
reported to have been very populous at the
time of its discovery in 1494. It is con-
sidered by some to have been one of the
best peopled of all the Antilles (Leslie,
1740). Columbus, it his first landfall of
Jamaica at Santa Gloria (St. Ann's Bay'?),
and in his first voyage round the north side
of the island from Puerto Bueno (Dry Har-
bour ?) as far as Negril Point (Cabo del
Buen Tiempo), was visited from different


villages by canoes of Indians, and likewise
afterwards round the south side. It is
stated in the Historie" that all the coast
was full of towns, whence the natives fol-
lowed the ships in their canoes." Especially
does the district around Old Harbour Bay
(de las Vacas) appear to have been thickly
populated, and confirmatory relics are not
few. Again, when stranded, on his fourth
voyage, in the neighbourhood of St. Ann's
Bay, Columbus found the country around
well peopled--the Indians living in villages.
Lately relics have been found within sight
of Don Christopher's Cove.

Foon OF THE INDIANS.
In the kitchen-middens we have, of
course, only those indications of the food of
the Indians left us which admit of natural
preservation for a long time, such as bones
and shells. The remains of the Indian coney
are universally met with, as also the spines
and bones of various species of fish, both
fresh-water and marine. The turtle does
not appear to have been so often eaten,
fragmentary bones being found only now
and again. No manatee bones have yet been
revealed.0 The numerous and varied shells
are mainly marine species, .and the relative
proportions of each in different parts have
been already indicated. Helix acuta and
H. jamaicensis occur in such numbers, in
association with the other examples, that
their presence in the refuse-heaps can
scarcely be regarded as natural, even
though the former is gregarious and very
abundant in the island.
The crabs' claws are mainly limited to
those of the land soldier-crab and the black
crab.
The numerous pieces of vessels nearly all
blackened by contact with fire, the pre-
sence of ashes mingled with fragments of
charcoal, and occasional burnt bones and
shells are indications that they were accus-
tomed to prepare their food with fire.
Accounts from the various Spanish
writers show that, in addition to this ani-
mal food, the inhabitants of the West In-
dies were accustomed to cultivate maize,
cassava, sweet potatoes, and that they pos-
sessed various other fruits and roots.
Since this was written, Mr. R. C. MacCormack
has discovered a nearly perfect rib of a manatee
in one of the mounds in Vere. It was found at a
depth of about eighteen inches. associated with
other bones, shells, fragments of pottery, and ashes.






ICIPCJHN-MIDDENS.


Ling Roth (1887) quotes Benzoni's full
account of the preparation in Haiti of bread
made from maize and from cassava.

SIHELL-MOUNDS IN OTrHi WEST INDIAN
ISLANDS.
So far as I am aware, no shell-mounds or
kitchen-middens of importance have been
described from the other large islands of
the Antilles-Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti.
In Nature, April 28, 1896, appears a
letter from Dr. C. W. Branch, St. Kitts,
describing objects lately found there,
the details of which somewhat resemble
the Jamaican relics. Dr. Branch states:
" Last year in St. Kitts in a cliff fresh cut
by a wash, a gentleman found what were
apparently the contents of a Carib grave-
fragments of pottery, two complete uten-
sils, and pieces of human bone.........
This is the first discovery, so far as I can
ascertain, of either bones or pottery in the
Leeward Islands. Since then, however,
I have found a kitchen-midden, and pro-
cured plenty of small fragments, along
with crab-claws, broken shells, fish bones,
etc." A brief description of the bones and
pottery is given, but the latter, especially
in its ornamentation, apparently bears no
resemblance to the Jamaican pottery.
Dr. Branch has since informed me that
he has further opened the grave from which
the Carib pottery was taken, and that he
found the rest of the skeleton and a con-
plete skull. The bones were, however, so
altered by the action of the St. Kitt's earth
that they crumbled away upon handling.

TIE SHELL-MOUNDS OF GUIANA.
Mr. im Thurn in "Among the Indians of
Guiana," refers (1883, p. 410, et seq.) to shell-
mounds very similar in structure and
contents to the well-known kitchen-mid-
dens of Europe . ... all such heaps
found in Guiana occur within a certain
small and comparatively little-known dis-
trict, north of the Pomeroon. . .
At least eight are at present known .
. all are in strong defensive positions, and
near running water ...... All the mounds
-so faras they have been examined--are alike
in character and contents. They consist
chiefly of great accumulations of a small
snail-like black and white shell (Neritina
lineolata) . .
Among the shells which constitute the
bulk of the mounds, have been found vari-


ous objects deserving attention. In the Cab.
acaboori nound, among the vast accumula-
tion of one species of shells, but in far less
abundance, were some bivalve shells (Lu-
cina), a few oyster-shells and fragments
of a fresh-water shell ...... together with
pieces of crab-shells, bones of fish and of
mammals, and lastly -and most important
-human bones. These bones are invariably
found scattered, and not as entire skeletons,
and have'been split, so as to allow the ex-
traction 'of the marrow. There were also
some broken, and a few entire, stone im-
plements, hammers probably and axe-heads,
pieces of charcoal, and lumps of the red
pigment called faroah, with which the In-
dians paint their bodies. Great quantities
of sharp-edged fragments of white semi-
transparent quartz were also present. The
shape of these and the fact that they do not
occur naturally in the immediate neigh-
bourhood, seems to suggest that they were
used as inmiilemeuts, probably as knives, for
which purpose they must have been brought
from a distance .... In one place there were a
few fragments of pottery, evidently all be-
longing to one vessel; these are noticeable as
the only examples of pottery ever recorded
as discovered in a Guiana shell-mound."
From a consideration of all the facts con-
cerned Mr. im Thurn comes to the fol-
lowing conclusions with regard to the
shell-mounds : (1) that they were made
not by the resident inhabitants of the
country, but by strangers; (2) that these
strangers came from the sea and not from
further inland; and (3) that these strangers
were certain Island Caribs, who afterwards
took tribal form in Guiana as the :o-called
Catibisi, or, as I have called them, True
Caribs."
SHICLL-HEAPS Olt KITCHEN-MIIDDENS IN
OTHER PARTS OF AMERICA.
After referring to the kitchen-middens of
Europe, Nadaillac (1885, p. 47, et seq.) thus
summarizes those of America: "No less
numerous are the kitchen-middens or shell-
heaps in America, and wherever excavations
have been made they have been most fruit-
ful in results. Immense heaps of shells,
the gradual accumulations of man, stretch'
along the coasts of Newfoundland, Nova
6cotia, Massachusetts, Louisiana, and Ni-
caragua, where deposits are described dating
from the most remote antiquity-. They are
met with again in the Guianas, Brazil; and
Patagonia; near the mouths of the Orinoco ;






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico; on the
coasts of the Pacific. as well as on those of the
Atlantic; and the shell-mounds of Tierra del
Fnego and of Alaska can be made out from
afar by the navigator. ... ..Some of
these shell-heaps are of considerable dimen-
sions. Sir Charles Lyell describes one on St.
Simon's Island at the mouth of the Altam.
aha River in Georgia, which covers ten
acres of ground, to a depth varying from
five to ten feet. It is formed also entirely
of oyster-shells, and excavations have
yielded hatchets, stone arrow-heads, and
some fragments of pottery. . The
shell-heaps of Florida and Alabama are yet
more considerable ... .
All the shell-mounds just enumerated are
situated on the shores of the sea, or in its
immediate vicinity . .
Dr. Jones has explored forty shell-heaps
on Colonel Island, Georgia. The whole
island, he tells us, is covered with shell-
mounds. Similar heaps, chiefly formed of
the shells of oysters, clams, and mussels, are
of very frequent occurrence in Maine and
Massachusetts, and excavations have yielded


results no less interesting. Dr. Jeffries
Wyman has noted the rarity of stone imple-,
ments, which are replaced by articles of
bone, which are very common. Fragments
of pottery are not abundant; the ornamen-
tation, always coarse, presents little resem-
blance to the most ancient European pottery.
The ornamentation Was produced by traceries
made on the soft clay either with the point
of a shell, or of a sharp stone. The bones
of animals are numerous."
tie further refers to those of San Francisco,
the shells of which one mound is made up,
chiefly those of the oyster and mussel, hav-
ing all been subjected to the action of fire.
From these brief references it is evi-
dent that the shell-heaps of Jamaica are of
the same nature as those of the mainland,
and formed by a race of people at about the
same stage of development.
In the following description of the indi-
vidual kitchen-middens in Jamaica,the order
is mostly that of geographical distribution,
not that in which. they have been inves-
tigated, commencing with those on the
south side (see Map).


DESCRIPTION OF THE KITCHEN-MIDDENS.


LONG MOUNTAIN.
Tho Long Mountain shell-mounds are.
situated on the top and along the southern
slope of the hill, which is 1,400 feet high.
The distance from the sea to the base of the
hill is about half a mile, and is a flat con-
tinuation of the Liguanea PlFin.
The road to the top, in its twisting and
turnings, is a little over a imle in length,
the ascent being easily made in an hour.
At present the way is being considerably
improved for a driving road, but previously
the climb must have been rugged and some-
what difficult to make.
The hill is steep on the south side facing,
the sea; on its northern aspect it has
a gradual descent, and is more rugged, the
limestone being much honey-combed in
places. No caves, however, are known
to occur in the immediate neighbourhood.
Much further to the north are seen the higher
elevations of the Blue Mountain Range.
The elongated top of the Long Mountain is
in places flat, and the view from it all around


is one of exceptional extent ond beauty.
To the west can be seen the details of the
Liguanea Plain, with Kingston to its south
east ; beyond this, the whole extent of
Kingston Harbour, the Palisadoes, and the
sea and coast line for miles around.
Surrounding the residence, Weireka, re-
cently built on the top, are to be found
extensive accumulations of shells, bones,
fragments of pottery, ashes, etc. Some arc
raised above thegeneral surfaceof theground,
but others are mre irregularly scattered.
On the plateau they are-seen, more or less
washed out at the surface, over an extent
equal to about an acre. The principal
mounds are immediately behind the house.
A seieion 'through one showed an accu-
mulation of light grey ashes to a depth
of about eighteen inches, then a layer of
brownish marl of six inches thickness, and
ashes again for a few inches, before coming
to the solid rock below. Shells were thickly
distributed throughout. In another spot
remains were found to a depth of three






KI2TCHEN-MIDDENS.


feet; in others again to only a few inches.
Many loose marine shells occur, for
some distance down each side of the hill,
having evidently been washed from the top
by the rains. Deposits have also been
noted scattered over numerous spots on the
less elevated portions of the mountain. The
accumulations as a whole are very loose.
A small pond with dirty water, found on
the lower part of the north side, is, as far as
could be gathered, the only source of water ;
the residents at Weireka have to depend for
their supply upon the rain water collected
from the roofs of the buildings.
Shells.-The shells are characterized by
an abundance of species, including a nunm-
ber of forms not usually met with else-
where.
Of the Gastropods, Strornbus pufgilis is
the most abundant, and many are perfor-
ated ; Nerita antillarum and N. versicolor,
and the brackish Neritina virginea are com-
mon, the latter retaining much of its origi-
nal colour markings; nearly all the shells of
Pyrala melongena have large perforations;
the terrestrial Helix acuta is represented by
numerous examples, but was evidently not
so important an article of food in this
locality as the var. patina was on the north
side ; Murexpomumn and M. brevifrons are
not rare.
The five species of ark shells, Area noa~,
A. occidentalis,, A. orbigayi, A. deshayesi,
and A. scapha, are the most abundant of
the bivales. The two halves are often
still united. Aggregations of small ex,
samples of Chama lazarus are plentiful, with
the addition of a few very large specimens.
Asaphus coccinea is fairly abundant, as are
also Perna obliqua and Avicula radiata.
A few valves of Ostrea parasilica and
Venus zigzag were collected.
Mytilus exustus is not uncommon, Modiola
Americana is rare, and only a single valve
of 'ecten zigzag was met with.
Boues.--The majority are limb and girdle
bones of the Indian Coney, with an occa-
sional lower-and upper-jaw ; two or three
fragments of limb bones of the turtle were
obtained, and fish spines, vertebra, dentary
and opercular bones.
I Crabs' claws. -These consist mainly of
the terminal joints of the ambulatory legs
and chehe of Cardisoma guanhumii, and
of the common black land-crab, Gecarcihtus
ruricola.
Several' fragments of various species of
1Mailiepore corals occurred.


SPottery.-The pottery resembles that ob.
tainted from other refuse-heaps. :It is made
of a very coarse clay with large particles
of siliceous matter; not much lime is
demonstrated by testing with acid. Some
thick, flattened pieces, are more suggestive
of large platters than of vessels.
Implements.-Many broken celts of the
usual type were obtained,eitherfromamongst
the rubbish or washed out from the earth
a little down the incline; also several
broken parts of upper mealing-stones,
irregular broken pieces of flint, and an im-
plement with ground edges formed from
the shell of Strombus gigns, and resembling
the Barbadian specimens.
Amulets.-Two imperfect images of grey-
ish marble, perforated behind for suspen-
sion, were obtained many years ago by
Mr. C. P. O'R. de Montagnac 'from the
ground around Rennock Lodge, about 4(00
feet up the. Long Mountain. They were
associated with accumulations of shells and
pottery, which must be considered a contin-
uation of the Weireka refuse-heaps. The
two Amulets are described later.

BOTANY BAY.
While examining the ground around the
Botany Bay and Cambridge Hill caves, each
of which contains abundant aboriginal re-
mains, examples of marine shells similar to
those on the Long Mountain were met with
in different places, associated with a few
pieces of pottery. The elevations command
a good view of the sea, about two miles dis-
tant. The accumulations, so far as observed,
are not abundant, though further search
would probably reveal more. A broken
shell implement was picked up in travers-
ing the very rocky district, and two or three
other implements were obtained from the
peasantry.
NORBROOK.
The investigation of this deposit, the first
carried out with any degree of thoroughness,
was undertaken by a Committee of the
Board of the Institute of Jamaica, in 1890.
An article on the subject by Lady Blake,
appears in the 'Victoria Quarterly" (1890)
of the same year. The Committes's collec-
tions were deposited in the Museum. The
following details are :abstracted from the
paper referred to: The Kitchen-midden
occurs about six miles from Kingston, on a
little table-land sloping down to the






INDIAN REMAINS IN JA~1AICA.


Liguanea Plain with the Port Royal Moun,
tains behind and a lovely view of the sea in
front. Close at hand rises a clear and ever
running spring of water. To the east the
field is abruptly terminated by a sudden
dip and a bank of some 16 or 18 feet in
height. In digging into this bank layer
upon layer of shells are to be found,
mingled with pottery more or less broken,
a few small bones, and now and then a
stone hatchet. Here and there some of the
shells show traces of fire.
The pottery is of different degrees of
thickness, some of it of a rather finer tex.
ture than the generality of the fragments.
and we found a few bits that bore traces of
a slight attempt at ornamentation."
Bones. -Most of the bones deposited in
theMuseum are hose of the limbs andpelvic
girdleof the/coney, together with an occasional
upper and lower-jaw. Some are blackened
throughout, having been burnt in a fire. A
number of spines and vertebra of fish, and
a few fragments of turtle bones occur.
Shells. -The shells are much like those
obtained from the Long Mountain deposits,
and many are perforated. Pyrula mjelongena,
Turbo pica, Jlirex brevifrons, and two or
three species of Area constitute the majority;
while Ostrea parasitica, Strombus pugilis,
and Chama lazarus are represented by many
specimens. Occasional pieces of coral are
met with, as in all the other accumulations.
Pottery. -Hundreds of fragmentsof pottery
of various sizes were collected from the
small section of the kitchen-midden ex-
mined. The earthenware forms a large
proportion of the accumulations, exhibiting
only small differences in character. Much
variation exists however in the numerous
handles, along two or three distinct lines of
modification. Some of the examples rudely
represent faces. Most of the pieces are
partially blackened by use.
Implements,-As mentioned in the account
already published, broken stone implements
are met with. Those in the Museum are of
similar type to the ordinary petaloid ex-
amples found everywhere in the island. A
number of flaked flints and a chipped core
correspond with examples from the other
refuse-heaps.
Flaked flints were first discovered here
in Jamaica, attention being drawn to them
by Dr. Plaxton, one of the Committee
charged with the investigation.
European objects.-The phial represented
in Fig. V.,p.), is evidentlyofEuropean origin.


It was found in the deposit at a depth of 18
inches. It is nearly four inches in length,
green in colour, and partially devitrified
with ago.
HOPE.
The remains at Hope are on a slight
elevation in a rather secluded spot in the
vicinity of the old Tavern, with the Hope
River running near. They are at a distance
of about five miles from the nearest point
in Kingston Harbour.
The surface of the ground exhibits num-
erous weathered utrine shells, such as those
of Strombus, Pyrula, and Area, mingled, in
a black earth, with fragments of pottery.
A cursory examination of the spot indi-
cates afacies much like that of Norbrook
or the Long Mountain.

CAYDMANAS.
These refuse-heaps were known to the late
lion. Richard Hill, one of Jamaica's early
naturalists. They were further brought to
notice by Mr. H. Vendryt s. From Hill's
MS. notes for a series of lectures up!op the
Indians of the West Indies, now in the
possession of Mr. L. Hutchings, the follow-
ing is extracted in reference to these
deposits in particular, and also to the gene-
ral habits of the Indians and the construc-
tion of their villages : We have already
adverted to the circumstances under which
those that inhibited the West Indian Islands
wasted,and waned, and perished out, leaving
scarcely any vestige of how they had lived,
or where they had lived, beyond the heaps
of shells and broken pottery where their
villages had stood. Let us describe the
remains of an Indian village, accessible to
anyone curious in these researches, and not
far away from Kingston, At tige Marl Hill,
descending into the plain of Caymanas, the
highway outs through the remains of an
Indian village, Broken pottery with a
quantity of shells of both land. and marine
molluscs embedded in ashes reveal this ves-
tige of the ancient people of the island. In
looking into these heaps-minutely examin-
ing the materials that strew the hill slope
to discover bones of veitebrate-I found
portions of human skeletons, portions of two
skulls and parts of arm Iones rind a shoulder
blade. The Indians removed, their dead
from their dwellings, and buried them, or
deposited them in caverns at some distance
away. In these remote places their remains
are still to be found with specimens of their






KITCHI'N-MlIDDENS.


pottery. The human vestiges at the Marl
Hill, with traces of their ancient dwelling
places, their food, and their he rth fires,
would imply that that village had been
destroyed by violence and that these are
bones of persons who had died in conflict.
Indian villages were always erected on hill
sides in the neighbourhood of streams of wa-
ter. In past times the RioCobre swept at the
foot of this hill, and wound at the base of
the mountains, through the lagoon, and
descended to the sea, by the Fresh river.
The storm of 1722 divided the Cobre from
its channel, and opened for it a more direct
course into the Harbour.
We may picture what this Indian village
was at the time of the discovery. The plain
round which the river swept was a series of
fields and gardens, producing their staff
food, the yam, the maize, and manioc, beans,
cucumbers, and melons -with such fruits as
the Cainite or Star-apple. They wound cotton
for cordage, or twined into yarn, which they
wove into vestments for women. If they had
any domesticated bird it was the Turkey and
the Muysca duck. They trapped the Coney-
the C,'. ir,',. ; and the only quadruped they
possessed in a state of domestication was
their little household pet, the small dog
they called the Alco (Dn. Ferdinand Colum.
bus, Hist. Dis. Am. Pt. II., lib. II.. oh. 1).
Their cottages were built of stockade
posts set vertically side by side in a trench,
and bound with a horizontal lattice of slight
rods. This primitive style of building still
prevails in some of our country cottages
..... .The Indians of these Islands,
like their cognate tribe the Arawaaks of the
coast, depended on the sea for food.
Though the Marl Hill village was situated
on a stream plentiful in fish at all seasons,
their messes, if we may judge from the ex-
ceeding prevalence of sea-shells, were very
considerably dependent on the ocean. The
traditional fish-feasts, so frequently indulged
in by the older colonists, were the associate
festivities called Barbacoes by the Indians,
when the entire villagery went out on marine
and river excursions. In Don Ferdinand
Columbus's History of the Discovery voy-
ages of his father, he mentions that some
high raised islets on the coast of Cuba under
which the discovery vessels anchored had
been places visited by the Indians in
these seasonal barbacoes. It appeared, he
says, that the people were in use to go
over in great numbers in their canoes to
these islands, and to a great number of


other uninhabited islets in these seas to live
upon fish, which they catch in great abun-
dance, and upon birds, crabs, and other
things, which they find on the land. The
Indians, he adds, follow this employ-
ment of fishing and bird catching according
to the seasons, sometimes in one island,
sometimes in another, as a person changes
his diet, when weary of living on one kind
of food."

VERE, CLARENDON.
In the year 1880, Mr, De la Haye dis-
covered on the lands at Harmony Hall,
District of Vere, Clarendon, while making
holes for the planting of canes, a number of
calcedony beads, a perforated spindle-shaped
stone, and numerous pieces of ornamental
pottery. Along with these was also found
an image which Mr. Ie La Haye describes
as "only the breast with wings to the sides,
and the body and face of a man." Unfor-
tunately this most important object was
broken, and nothing more is known of it.
The IIon, W. Fawcett visited the place
later, and found additional objects similar
to those previously obtained. These are
now located within the Museum.
The entry in the Museum book referring
to the presentation of the perforated stone
is as follows : An oval-shaped stone,
probably a line sinker, presented by A. De
la Haye, Esq,, found by him in Clarendon,
on the site of what he believes to be a
deserted village. At the same place Mr.
Do la Haye found beads made of a kind of
marble ; an image of burnt clay, the face
of a man with wings. Coral, oyster shells,
and pieces of pottery are thickly strewn
about the ground."
The calcedony beads are described and
figured further on.
The pieces of ornamental pottery are a
little different in the character of their
handles from those obtained elsewhere, and
appear better burnt.
From information supplied later it appears
that the pottery, beads, etc., were found
scattered about and turned up in digging
cane holes on a spot distant about a third
of a mile from the sea at West Harbour
Creek. Mr. l)e la Hayo believes there were
two Indian families living at'a distance of
about a quarter of a mile apart, and that
one carried on the trade of bead making
and pottery, the other pottery alone ; the
reason given being that half hewn bits of
stones, half finished beads, pieces of un-






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


burnt pottery, and an immense quantity of
unfinished utensils were found in one
place, while broken pottery alone was met
with in the other. An abundance of marine
shells of all descriptions--oysters, conchs
--are scattered about both places, and
are similar to those still living at West
Harbour and Bogue Creeks. From this
account, further supported by the speci-
mens at the Museum, there seems no doubt
that we have in Vere refuse-heaps of the
aborigines, similar to those more system.
atically investigated elsewhere.

HANOVEI.
This parish is at the extreme north
western part of the island. Mr. A. Bran.
croft has contributed accounts of the occur-
*rence ofquantities of marineshells, asso cited
with fragments of pottery, from various
spots. Specimens from Haughton Ilill
Estate, at Green Island Harbour, and from
Newfound River, near by, are of the same
'character as those obtained from mounds ini
other parts. One heap he describes ais
having an extent of two or three square
chains, the objects being met with f.or a
depth of one or Iwo feet, commencing about
a foot below the surface. Mr. liancroft
records having obtained simiilar evidences
from Rhodes Hall Estate in the same dis-
trict. and more northerly at Kew Estate,
near Lucea East River.

WILLIAMSFIELD.
Mr. Edward Foster has forwarded to the
M museum a collection of objects obtained from
Williamsfield, St. James.. It includes pieces
of pottery, several broken stone implements,
numerous valves of (Codakia ti'lerina, and
shells of Turbo pica, Helix acuta, and 11.
jatnaicensis, all indicative of a kitchen-
midden deposit. Later, Mr. Foster has
supplied the following details: The accu-
mulations occur on the top of a hill on the
right bank of the Orange River, a tributary
of the Montego River, at a distance of abl))ut
five miles from the sea in a direct line, aNid
seven and a half by road. Several springs
around are connected with tlhe river. The
deposit of shells extends over an are of
about fifteen chains round the hill, by an
average of one and a half chains wide, and
is eighteen to twenty inches deep in places.
Kempshot. where the cave containing
aboriginal carvings occurs, is three or four
miles distant.


TRYALL.
Mr. R J. Taylor Domville, formerly of
Running Gut Estate, and now of King's
Valley, in a communication to the Hon. W.
Fawcett, referred to the fact that in digging
cane holes in certain places on the Tryall
State no end of broken pieces of jars,
shells, and now and then a stone axe, were
to be found. Mr. Fawcett forwarded the
letter to the Museum, suggesting that the
matter might be worthy of investigation.
Later, Mr. Domville was able to supply
further details with regard to such accumu-
lations on two distinct hills on the estate-
Mammee Hill and Spotty Hill. Researches
now carried out demonstrate that at Tryall,
and the surrounding estates, there must have
been important Indian settlements. Relics
have been found, to a depth of two or three
feet, extending over a number of acres
of ground; while a cave has been discover-
ed at California, containing heaps of broken
pottery and many portions of human skulls
and other bones.
Tryall Estate is situated in St. James, a
little off the main road, at about nine miles
from Montego Bay. It adjoins the Running
Gut Estate, and is now owned by Mr. Edgar
Turnbull, and under the management of Mr.
Melville, the latter of whom rendered very
considerable assistance in the work. The
country around is formed of the White
Limestone and, from the sea, exhibits one or
more terraces of rounded hills or downs,
from fifty to a hundred feet high, backed
by a higher series of hills. It is oh the
former, overlooking the flat erosion plain
which extends to the sea, that the Indians
appear to have erected their settlements in
this parish.
Mammee Hill.-This hill consists of two
fl't terraces rising one above the other, and
sloping upwards to the high elevations
which constitute the greater part of the in-
terior. Deposits are found scattered over an
area of four or five acres; this being the
most extensive accumulation vet met with.
They are most plentiful alonw the margins
of the plateau, and consi-t of shells,
pottery, bones, and pieces of flint similar to
I hose obtained in other mounds. The marine
bivalves Codakia (Lucina) tigerina ,and
Tellina fausta are especially abundant. In
one spot about a dozen examples of Perna
obliqne were obtained, a species more
characteristic of the accumulations on, the
south side, and no doubt regarded as a






KI TCIEN-3MIDDENrS.


speci d delicacy. Exposed fragments of
shells are to be seen over all the surface of
the grnind. A bri-lie path cut round a
p rtion of the hill first displayed to Mr.
Domville the abundance of foreign objects.
[tere, as in other inmunds, the superficial
soil in which the remninu are embedded
is rich, and very dark in c dour, c,.itrast-
ing strongly with the yellowish in tr below
and the lighter coloured earth near by where
no shells are met with. The occurrence of
an iron nail, met with in digging, must
be regarded as merely accidental.
Spotty Hill. -On Spotty Hill, which is
abmut a mile from the sea, the deposits are
much disturbed and scattered, as a result of
the ground being planted with canes, coco-
nut palms, and guinea-grass ; and also by
the great wash which occurs during the
heavy rains. The shells and pottery are
found to a depth of two or three inches
below the surface, and extend over an area
of an acre or two. One of the best spots
occurred at the dividing line between the
piece in commons and the cane-piece. Here
remains were obtained to a depth of over
twelve inches. Ap irtionofanaboriginal stone
implement, formed of polished greenstone,
was found amongst the objects. With this
exception the relics are the same in character
as in the mounds previously described.
CALIFORNIA.
Enquiry of various labourers elicited the
fact that, in digging, marine shells were
to be met with at Sheep Pen Pasture on
the California estate, adjoining Tryall,
Running Gut, and Rose Hall estates. In
company with the proprietor, Mr. Frank
Robertson, and the Attorney, Mr. J. Shore,
excavations were conducted there. Over an
extent of three or four acres small frag-
ments of land and marine shells could be
seen at the surface, and digging at any spot
revealed more perfect ones, associated with
pieces of pottery, bones, and spines of fish,
to a depth of from two to three feet.
The three localities, Mammee Hill, Spotty
Hill, and Sheep Pen Pasture, are all in
sight of one another, and within a radius of
a mile or two. The character of the accu-
mulations in all the mounds is exactly the
same, their extent demonstrating that the
district must have been a populous one in
the days of the Indians.
Thunderbolts" are plentiful to-day in
the possession of the workers on the estates
around.


WVALES.
These accumulations aresituated behind the
residence ontheproperty of Mr.J.II.Clerk,at
Wales, 'relawny, occurring on one of a series
of hills surrounding a rich and fertile plain.
The hill inclines steeply to the south and
east, more gradually to the north and west.
The presence of these circles of hills, en-
closing plains of greater or less extent, is
one of the features of the parish of Tre-
lawny, where it surrounds the Cockpit
Country. At present part of the ground
where the remains are found is planted
with coco-nut palms.
The investigations were instituted as a
result of Mr. A. Townend's attention being
directed to the spot by the presence of
numbers of marine bivalves found exposed
at the surface. Mr. Clerk allowed excava-
tions to be made in order to determine the
nature and extent of the deposit. About
twenty different parts were examined.
The soil in most places is Iose and min-
gled with stones of various sizes. The
shells are confined to the south-west de-
clivity and are mainly superficial, but at
some few spots are found to a depth of two
feet. They are scattered abjut promiscu-
ously. The following species were ob-
tained: Helix acuta, var. patina, H. jamai-
censis, Strorbus gigas, Pyrula melongena,
Purpura patula, Turbo pica, Lucina tigerina,
Mytilus exustus, and Ampullaria fasciota.
The first two are terrestrial and by far the
most abundant, A mpullariafusciatais a fresh
water gastropod. while the others are marine
shells. They are all common species found
living in the surrounding district, or in the
sea, which latter is distant about five miles.
Many of the flattened shells of Helix
acuta have the upper part, for about two
and a half whorls, broken off; apparently
this has no artificial significance, as speci-
mens were obtained in situ with the portion
in process of separation. Many have, how-
ever, the large irregular artificial perfora-
tion behind the mouth of the shell. Min-
gled with the shells were found fragmentary
pieces of coarse, unglazed earthenware with
occasional indented ornamentation. A bone
of the Indian coney, a few fish bones, and
pieces of broken flints were obtained; but
the accumulations are not by any means
extensive. Confusion was produced in places
by the finding of objects indicative of very
modern European occupation, such as bro-
ken pieces of glazed and painted pottery,
glass, iron-nails, and stems of pipes. It was






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


ascertained that the situation had been used
during slavery times as the Negro village.
Foundations of the houses are still to be
seen on the top of the hill, and elsewhere
their places of burial.
From a comparison of the shells, bones,
and pottery obtained with those from other
places, not associated with any modern re-
mains, we are evidently warranted in consi-
dering the deposits at \ales as relics of an
Indian occupation, disturbed in later times
by the residence of the Negro slaves belong-
ing to the property, at that time a sugar
estate.

STEWART CASTLE.
The Stewart Castle mounds, six in num-
ber, are situated on a slight rising of the
ground along the border of a plain sur-
rounded by picturesque 1 hills. The selec-
tion of this spot by the Indians, as a
residence, is more characterized by its beau.
tiful surroundings than by any protective
feature. The locality is about one and a
half miles from the sea, and the particular
enclosure where the accumulations occur is
known, even to day, as Indian Town."
The property, which belongs to Dr. Dewar,
was formerly a sugar estate, and the mounds,
though now covered with a rich soil sup-
porting guinea-grass, have evidently never
been more than superficially disturbed
since their formation. Even from some
distance the peculiar mound character of
the spot is obvious, quite distinguishing it
from the surrounding country. The shells
in each heap commence near the surface,
mingling with the soil around the roots of
the grass. Excavations were conducted at all
the elevations, and yielded much the same
results, except that the objects were found to
extend to variable depths One mound is more
central, larger, and slightly higher than the
rest, which vary in size and are arranged
somewhat in the form of an incomplete cir-
cle (Fig. VI.). In the principal mound dig-
ging was continued to a depth of six feet;
remains being met with for five feet. In
others they extended to a depth of four
feet, or for only two or three %'et. The
objects were scattered somewhat uniformly
throughout the earth, along with many loose
limestone blocks.
Evidences of arrangement in layers were
not wanting, especially in the largest mound.
The upper soil everywhere is dark, but
passes into a lower, light coloured, marly


FI. VI. SKETCH PLAN OF THE MOUNDS AT
STEWART CASTLE.
Area 7 acres 3 roods.
la3er. In no cise was the solid rock reached,
though in an adjoining higher pasture this
was quite superficial. Dr. Dewar was led
to suggest that the place ought to be inves-
tigated from the fact that the ground here
is much looser than elsewhere, often
causing his horse to stumble when riding
over it. The deposits, with the elevation
upon which they are situated, occupy an
area of three or four acres. Excavations were
also carried out in the depressions between
the mounds, but only stray shells were to
be found.
In section the principal mound exhibits
different layers of material, demonstrating
the manner in which it has been built up.
At a depth of two and a half feet in one
particular spot, four distinct strata of fine,
greyish-blue ashes, with alternating layers of
burnt earth and soil, were to be seen. The
layers of ash, each about three inches in
thickness, are now partially consolidated,
but become more so on exposure, and
mingled with the ash are small fragments of
unburnt carbon. The layers indicate tuat the
wood fires of the aborigines must have burnt
for a considerable length of time on the
same spot; then, for a period, the place be-
came covered with earth ; other fires were
made on the top of this, and so on for the
several successions indicated. Few shells
were found in the intermediate strata of
burnt earth and soil.
The extent of the area covered, and the
thickness and quantity of the various de-
posits prove that the locality must have been
frequented for long and various periods by
numbers of the aboriginal Indians, The







KITCHEN-MIDDE NS.


objects detailed below, show the kinds of
food (so far as concerns those which possess
parts capable of preservation) they fed
upon ; while the ashes and blackened pottery
prove that they were accustomed to prepare
their food by cooking.
Bones.--The majority of bones are those
of various species of fish Numerous spines,
including one of the body-spines of tlhe
sour-sop fish, vertebrae, and facial bones oc-
cur. A few long bomis and jaw bones of
the Indian coney were found.
Shells. -The shells form. by f.r, the
pI incipal objects met with. The common
land snail, Helix acuta, var. patina, is the
most numerous, and, along with the bivalve,
Luciina tigerina, and less so the small mus-
sel, Mylilus exustus, determines the charac-
teristic, of these accumulations. The Helix
is found of all sizes, the majority having
the irregular perforation on the upper side
of the last whorl, about half an inch from
the shell m:)uth. Pyrula melongena, Strom-
bus figas, 'Turbo pica, and Helix jamricen-
sis are occasionally present, and still more
rarely species of 'Purpura, Fissurella, Chi-
ton, and Neritina.
Several claws of crabs, mostly those of
the land soldier-cral, Ccenobita diogenes,
were collect ; also two pieces of Madre-
pore coral.
Pottery.--Numerous broken fragmnents of
coarse eirthen ware were distributed through-
out, with characters differing in no respect
from the undoubted aboriginal pottery ob-
tained from the various caves, and now
known from numerous other parts of the
island. The pieces are of various thick-
nesses, aln include a few of the simple
types of handles.
Implements.-Irregular flaked flints
occur mixed with the loose earth and the
smnll boulders of limestone; none, how-
ever, showed further traces of workman-
ship. Two shell implements, one rather
gouge-like and the other resembling in
shape a curved knife blade, are of special
importance, as being, at the time, apparently
the first aboriginal implements of shell de-
scribed from Jamaica. They are made from
the shell of the great Conch, Strombus
.gigns.
RETREAT.
These deposits are on the property Re-
treat, situated between Brown's Town and
Stewart Town, in St. Ann, about four miles
from the former. The land is now
owned by Mr. Roper, but was formerly in


the possession of Mr. Moulton Barrett. Miss
Moulton Barrett made a number of investi-
gations at the place, and lent to the Anthro-
pological Exhibition a collection of trag-
ments of pottery obtained.
With regard to the occurrence of these Miss
Barrett writes as follows: "The pottery was
found on a ridge of land connecting two hills ;
the higher of the two commanding a very
extensive view of a part of St. Ann, a great
part of Trelawny, and a long stretch of
coast. The ridge in question is covered
with small mounds, all of which contain
fragments of pottery. broken shells, and
bones of the Indian coney, and I found
there too a solitary piece of sea-coral. The
pottery was quite on the surface of the
ground, and theie was none below two or
three feet." The pieces of pottery, which
were the only objects from the spot sent to
the Musemn, are all of the same type as the
examples now obtained in such abundance
elsewhere.
The hill or ridge upon which the kitchen-
middens are found is about 1,200 feet high,
and six miles from the sea. It forms one
of a series very abundant in this part of St.
Ann and Trelawny. The White Limestone
weathers into rounded elevations, the mate-
rial of the intervening valleys being re-
moved mainly in solution. The view from
them is one of remarkable beauty, embra-
cing richly wooded and cultivated hills and
vales on each side, higher hills behind, and
a long stretch cf coast and sea to the north,
with Cuba in the distance, to be seen under
favourable conditions. The elevation in ques-
tion was very significantly known by the
former owners as "Cacique's Ridge," and
is also known as Little Nigger-ground Hill,
while a higher one near has the title of Big
Nigger-ground Hill. These latter names
recall the fact that in slavery days the
particular spots were used by the Negroes
as provision grounds; they being allowed to
cultivate them for their own benefit on
Sunday and holidays. The mounds are now
rather irregular in shape, probably owing to
the hill being formerly cultivated, and scat-
teredremains are found to extend over an acre
or more. Excavations were made at numerous
spots, and, in all, scattered amongst the
upper dark loose earth and fragments of
limestone, were broken pieces of pottery,
quantities of land shells, a few specimens of
marine shells, and bones of the Indian
coney and of various fish. This foreign
material extended in several places to a






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


depth of two feet. In one a deposit of par-
tially indurated bluish.grey ash and chur-
coal gtve evidence of the use of fire by the
builders of the refuse-heaps. The land
shells obtained were principally Helix acuta
and I. jamaicensis; the marine shell., Turbo
pica, Strombus giyas, and one or two examples
of thebivalves, Codakia (Lucin) tigerin and
'Tl'lina fausta. Ii regard to the general
faces of the accumulations the present
mounds d.) not differ from the neighb during
ones at StewartCastleandWales. The marine
shells are proportionately much less i' num-
ber,a fact which may perhaps bece united for
by the greater distance of the locality from
.the sea; again, none of the land shells
collected has the artificial perforation behind
the mouth, such as was fund in those from
Stewart Castle and from Wales.
Mr Roper gave permission and assistance
for carrying out the excavations.

CRANBROOK.
Cranbrook is a property on the northern
hrder of St. Ann, situated about a mile
from the sea, and within view of the cele--
brated Don Christopher's Cove. It was at
this latter place, in June, 1503, that Col-
nmhns, on his fourth voyage, is supposed to
have stranded his two unseaworthy caravels,
and later found the surrounding districts
well populated with Indians, who sup-
plied him with food during his stay of
over a year in the neighbourhood. Mlendez,
one of the followers of Columbus. mentions
several villagesand caciques with whom he
arranged for regular supplies of food, such
as cassava and fish. He speaks of Aguacadiba
as the name of the first village he came to
when he went out from the vessels to seek
for supplies. Further on. about 13 leagues
from where the ships lay, he "came to a
great cacique named Huareo, living in a
place which is now called Melilla" (Journ.
Instit. Jam., Vol. 11., p. 41). The same
writer also refers to the presence of natives
towards the eastern end of the island. He
was taken prisoner on two occasions by
these, speaking of them as Indian pirates,
and was in danger of losing his life,


It is interesting therefore to learn that
Mr. A. Townend was able to announce,
while the preparation of this report was in
progress, the discovery of Indian relics
near this historical spot. Concerning them
le supplies the following details: "A
general examination shows a number of the
usual shell-mounds containing an abundant -e
of shells, broken pottery, and flint chips.
On the north west, and within 200 yards of
the Llandovery river, is a large semicircular
mound, digging into which yielded at once
the remains of what appeared to be an
earthenware bowl containing human bones
and a skull all in fragments. Another spot
also yielded a similar vessel with human
bones. At a distance of about three feet
from the surface a large deposit of wood
ashes, looking as if quite recent, was met
with. Elsewhere another collection of frag-
mentary bones was found. The bones were
examined by Dr. Ormsby who regards them
as having belonged to young individuals,
probably under twenty years of age. They
are too incomplete to allow of the determi-
nation of other characters."
Mr. Townend forwarded some of the frag-
ments of pottery to the Museum. They are
similar to those obtained from the other
refuse.heaps and from the caves, except that
the handles are rather more ornamental
(Fig. X., p. 40).
FHI NDSHIP.
Information his been received of the oc-
currence of marine shells and broken pot-
tery, indicative of a kitchen-midden, on the
property Friendship in St. Ann, belong-
ing to the Hon. S. C. Burke, but no inves-
tigations have yet been carried out.

BfILLE VUE.
On the side of a road cutting through
Belle Vue, on the northern border of St.
Ann, Dr. Plaxton discovered an accumula-
tion of shells associated with fragments of
coarse pottery. These were presented to
the Museum and suggest the desirability of
a further examination of the spot.







CHAPTER It.


BURIAL CAVES.
Human Bones : Note on the Craniology of the Aborigines of Jaaica, by Prof. A. C.
Haddon, M.A., D.Sc. : Pottery : miscellaneous Objects : Burial of the Aborigines.
Description of the Caves : Halberstadt : Bloxburgh ; Botany Bay and Cambridge Hill,
St. Thomas: Dallas Castle: Red Hills-Historical Accounts : Goat Island: District of
Vere: Pedro Bluff: Hounslow: Drummond: Negril: California.


Owing to the numerous natural caves
in Jamaica, the method of burial practised
by its aborigines appears to have been
different from thitt generally followed by
the various native tribes on the American
continent. Amongst these, the more usual
course evidently was to bury their dead in
specially constructed mounds, Sepulchral
mounds being met with throughout the
United States" (Nadaillac). The so-called
White and Yellow Limestone of Jamaica,
considered to be of Tertiary age, occupies
about five-eighths of the surfaceof the island;
andl cves, sink-holes, and underground pas-
sages are common in many districts. The
floors of most of these contain only phos-
phatic deposits, mainly derived from the
faces of innumerable bats and the de-
composition of the limestone. Others,
however, have been known for a long time,
and are even yet occasionally being dis-
covered, which contain quantities of skulls
and other human bones, examples of coarse
earthenware vessels, with now and again
other objects of archwological interest.
Rarely have the refuse-heaps yielded any
human bones.the two exceptions being those
at Cranbrook and (Caynmants. Beyond
these, bones of the aborigines have not been
found otherwise than in caves. During re-
cent excavations in various parts of King-
ston, and in some few other places, human
bones have been met with, either Negro or
Europea'. In the caves knovn for a long
time the relics have suffered by depredations
on various occasions, and most of the objects
have been destroyed or distributed beyond
the island. It is to be regretted that in no
instance have we an ace unt of any cave
which can be undoubtedly regarded as
being in the original condition ii which it
was left by the Indians, at least two:or
three hundred years ago. Probably neatly
all have been visited and so disturbed iby
the later inhabitants -European and Negro
-at one time and another, that in no case
can much reliance be placed upon the pres-
ent position or arrangements of the objects.
The Halberstadt cave, when discovered last
year, showed least indication of having been
tampered with. The entrance was closed


by loose boulders, and the Rev. W. W.
Rumsey, who first opened it, states that the
skulls and other parts of the skeletons were
arranged somewhat in a row under the pieces
of a canoe. An old resident at Botany
Bay affirms that when he first saw the
cave there, the skulls were placed side by
side. Beyond this, there is no trustworthy
account of any orderly arrangement of the
skeletons or pottery in the caves. In those
recently examined the bones and pottery
were promiscuously scattered on the surface
of the floor and ledges, or were partially or
c unpletely buried in the debris of cave
earth and stones. No evidence is forthcom-
ing to show that the bones were purposely
covered with earth or stones. Many are
more or less broken or decayed; others
again, especially those from Halberstadt,
are very perfect.
In no case is there any appearance of
artificial construction connected with the
formation of the caves; the roof and sides
have often stalactitic. matter upon them.
The aperture of the Halberstadt cave, as
already menioned. was closed with boulders
when first discovered, and numerous similar
st mes generally found around the mouth of
the others may indicate that it was the
custom of the natives to protect their dead
in this way. The distribution of the burial
caves is practically the same as that of the
kitchen-middens, i.e., around the borders
of the island (see Map). The limestone in
which the caves occur is usually so weath-
red as to give a rugged character to the
districts.
A small variety of objects, such as shells,
shell-beads, and bones of other animals, has
been found in addition to the human bones
and pottery.
HUMAN BONES.
Bones of all parts of the skeleton, and
representing both sexes and all .ages, have
been obtained. Many are in a good state
of preservation, but those embedded in damp
cave earth are considerably decayed. The
Hlalber tadt cave has, in recent times, yield-
ed the most extensive series, one or more
components of the skeleton of at least thirty-






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


four individuals being represented, includ-
ing a number of crania The Richmond
Hill and Botany Bay caves contained many
complete skulls and other bones.
The important and obvious features dis-
tinguishing most of the cave skulls from
those of Europeans or Negroes are the flat-
tened frontal region and the marked brachy-
cephalic form; the latter exaggerated no
doubt by the process involved in the former.
Not all the skulls, however, exhibit this
artificial deformation of the sinciput to a
marked degree.
Practically all the osteological remains
recently obtained have been handed over
to Prof. A. C. Haddon for complete report.
About half of those from the Halber-
stadt cave were, some time ago, forvwarded
to Sir William H. Flower, and were
exhibited by him before the British As-
sociation at its meeting at Ipswich, in
1895. A preliminary account was contri-
buted to "Nature," October 17, 1895. Con-
cerning eight skulls submitted, we have the
following remarks:-
"Of the adult skulls, three appear to be
masculine and three feminine in type Five
of these show evidence of artificial depres-
sion of the frontal region in various degrees.
In two it is very marked ; in the others less
so. In the sixth, though the frontal region
is low, no effects of artificial deformation are
evident. Both the children's skulls are very
broad and flat, but whether naturally so, or
whether this character has been exaggerated
artificially, it is difficult to say. The mode
of depression, when it occurs, is similar in
all, evidently produced by the flat board
upon the forehead -the commonest custom
throughout so large a portion of the ancient
inhabitants of the American continent.
Although there is a considerable general re-
semblance between these skulls, they present
strong individual characters, but their whole
aspect, taken together, is characteristic of
the American type.
The retreating forehead, well marked su-
praciliary ridges, round broad arch of tlhe
palate, round high orbits, narrow nasal aper-
ture, and especially the narrow, prominent
nasal bones, causing a high bridge of the


nose d(iring life, ar. very characteristic.
There are, however, two rather rein rkable
exceptions to this form of nose, in which the
breadth of the aperture and flatness of the
nasal bi tes almost rec.tll those of the negro,
the n Ls Il index bsing as high, respectively,
as 542 a:d 563. These are both feminine-
looking heads, and one of them is the most
and the other the least deformed of the set.
Whether this form of nose is met with in
any other undoubtedly aboriginal American
crania, is subject for investigation. Apart
from these, the skulls are remarkably like
the majority of those which I have seen of
Peruvian-, Mexicans, and the ancient mound-
builders of the United States."
In 1890 Sir Win. H. Flower read a paper
before the Anthropological Institute upon
two skulls --one Indian, the other Negro --
obtained in Jamaica from the Pedro Bluff
caves. With regard to the former, he says :-
'The cranium, of which I shall speak first,
is of great interest, as it is undoubtedly that
of one of the aboriginal races of America,
and therefore in all probability one of the
long vanquished people who inhabited the
island of Jamaica before the European con-
quest, and of whom we have such scanty
traces remaining ..... The cranium h;as been
artificially deformed during infancy in a
very marked degree, according to the fashion
most frequent along the whole of the West
coast of America, i.e., by depression of the
frontal region, or fronto-occipital compres-
sion, with corresponding lateral expansion.
This form of deformation is known to have
been practised among the inhabitants of the
West Indian Islands. In all essential fea-
tures, the skull is purely American; indeed
I see no characters by which it could be dis-
tinguished from one of those, now so abun-
dant in collections, obtained from the old
burying grounds on the sea-coast of Peru."
Seeing that the skulls obtained from all the
caves exhibit characters similar to these
already described, no doubt exists that the
cave remains met with throughout the island
are those of the Indians of the discovery.
This receives further confirmation from the
conditions under which the bones are ob-
tained, and the objects, especially the pot-
tery, associated with them.






BURIAL CAVES.


NOTE ON THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE ABORIGINES OF JAMAICA.*
BY PROFESson A. C. HADDON, M.A., D.Sc.


A collection of some sixteen crania and
numerous fragments of skulls and lower jaws,
together with a vast number of bones of the
axial and appendicular skeleton were for-
warded to me by my friend and late col-
league, Mr. J. E. Duerden.
Various circumstances have prevented me
from expeditiously working through this
mass of valuable anthropological material of
an extinct and hitherto unstudied people. I
therefore invited my former pupil, Mr. B.
N. Tebbs, of Queen's College, Cambridge, to
assist me in this study; unfortunately his
time has also been much occupied. We
have, however, made considerable progress,
and we hope before long to publish our joint
memoir on the Jamaican aborigine
In the present communication I submit
the main craniological characters of this
people. The descriptions of the crania anid
the detailed measurements, as well as re-
marks on the bones of the skeleton, will be
published in the complete and, I hope, il-
lustrated memoir. The craniological re-
mains must have belonged to at least three
dozen individuals.
There is a good deal of variation in cer-
tain details among the skulls, but I am not
at present in a position to say that this in-
dicates an ethnic mixture.
Probably all the skulls have been sub-
jected to artificial deformatiiin; in a few
instances this has been but slight, whereas
in others it is very marked. The general
effect of the deformation has been to flatten
the lower portion of the frontal bone: but
along the anterior margin of the coronal
suture there is a slight swelling which, in
front of the bregmn, often expands into a
broad triangular area, ihe apex of which
passes mesially forwards and may extend to
the level of the frontal eminences; the
latter may be moderately developed or
scarcely apparent. Behind the coronal su-
ture, and along the anterior border of the
parietals, is a moderately broad, shallow
depression, thus producing a form of clino-
cephaly; this annular depression is often
interrupted in the sagittal line by a very
slight median keel. The parietal eminences
are fairly prominent, but they are often
masked by the lateral bulging of the walls
of the cranium. The obelion is usually flat,
and so is the occipital squame. This artifi-


cial deformation, as it is a combination of
the "annular deformation" and of the "sim-
ple frontal deformation" (also known as the
' dformatin, tolo)usaine"),isanalogous to the
"macrocophaly" of the ancients (cf' Broca,
Instructions Craniologiques, 1875, p. 156);
but instead of lengthening the skull it ap-
pears to shorten it.
Viewed from above, the axis of the great-
est diameter is seen to be placed -rather far
back; the head form may be described ac-
cording to Sergi's nomenclature as ''Sphe-
noides rotundus." The sides are well filled,
the greatest diameter usually occurring on
the squamous portion of the temporal just
below the suture.
In a front view, the broad flat receding
forehead is typical, the glabella and supra-
ciliary arches are moderately prominent. The
orbits are generally large and rounded, but
the nose is subject to great variation. The
nasals may be fairly narrow and arched
transversely, or very broad and flattened;
the apertura pyriformis may be narrow or
broad, in the majority of cases its lower
margin has the appearance known as the
forma infantalis.
A side view of the crania shows the re-
ceding frontal with its slight posterior an-
nular swelling, the shallow anterior parietal
annular groove, and the parietal eminences.
The end view of a typical cranium is very
characteristic, it appears as a transversely
elongated oblong with somewhat convex
sides and pe haps a slight median keel.
The palate is usually broad and horse-
shoe shaped.
The sutures as a rule are very simple-but
there are a good many wormian bones; theic
are especially characteri-tic of the temporal
squime usually there is a long anterior
wormian which extends across the pteiion,
and not infrequently there is one at the hin-
der border of the squame. WVormians fre-
quently occur in the lambdoidal suture; but
the "os inca," and similar separate ossifica-
tions, are not specially common.
The average cranial capacity of 7 crana
:is 1282 (min. 1100, max 14-I7). With two
exceptions, they are all microcephalic.
The cephalic index of 16 crania is -8.S6
(min. 81, max. 93). Thus all are brachy-
cephalic. The average glabello-occipital
length is 167.1; (min. 154, max. 177). The


*For explanation of accompanying Plate Ia. sec List of Illustrations,






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


average maximum breadth is 147.7 (min.
136. max. 163).
The length-height index averages 73.2,
that is me'riocephalic (min. 67.8, max 77.7).
The breadth-height index averages 83.4 (min.
71, max. 89.1).
The average gnathic or alveolar index of
15 crania is 99.9 (min. !90, max. 107). The
figures are very evenly distributed between
the ortho-, meso-, and prognathous groups.
The average upper facial index of 9 speci-
mens is 50.8, or just within the leptopros-
opic group. (Min. 46.2, max. 55.7).
The naso-malar index of 19 crania aver-
ages 107.6, or just mesopic. (Mlin. 101.7,
max. 111.3). Only one is prosopic, the re-
mainder are fairly evenly divided between
mesopy and platyopy.
The average orbital index is 92.5, or very
megaseme; only six orbits, out of about
forty, were mesoseme. (Min. 85.4, max.
100-three orbits).
The nasal index is irregular, the average
of 20 crania is 51.2 (min. 40.5, max. 69.2).
The numbers are fairly equally distributed
between lepto., meso-, and platyrhiny.
The average palatal index of 10 crania is
119.5 (min. 101.7, max. 131.3, two speci-
mens). With two exceptions, all the exam-
ples are well within the braohyuranic group.
The average cranium may be described as
microcephalic, brachycephalic, metriocepha-
lic, mesognathous, leptoprosop (barely),


mesopic (barely), megaseme, mesorhine,
brachyuranic.
As an example of the variation that oc-
curs, the following is the analysis of thso
crania (G, 0, and P) which belong to the
collection kindly loaned by the Rev. W. '.
Rumsey :-
G. Megacephalic (1470), brachycephalic
(84.7), metriocephalic (75.1), mesognathoiis
(98.9), leptoprosopic (52.6), mesopic (109.;).
megaseme (95 and 96.2), leptorhile (43.,:),
dolichuranic (101.7).
0. Miicrocephalic, brachycephalic (85.8),
barely metiiocephalic (72.1), mesognathous
(99.4), chaimpprosopic (49.2), barely meso-
pic (107.7), megaseme (91.1 and 90.5), pli-
tyrhine (61.4), brachyuranic (125.5).
P. Microcephalio (estimated), bracbycc-
phalic (90.2), platyopic (106.9), mesoseme
(88.3 and 87.5), platyrhine (56.1).
The first of these is artificially deformed
to a very much less extent than the two
latter. In the detailed paper the effect of
artificial deformation will be more filly
discussed, not only as it modifies the head
form, but also its apparent action on lhe
bones of the face.
I would like to take this opportunity of
thanking the Board of Governors of the In-
stitute of Jamaica for entrusting this v.ilu-
able collection to me for description, and
for the patience with which they have
waited for the report. A.C.11.


POTTERY.


From the various caves have been ob-
tained the best and most perfect representa-
tives of the ceramic art of the Jamaican
aborigine. Although quantities are known
from the kitchen-middens, it is all in a
fragmentary condition. The examples from
both sets of remains are, however, of the
same type. A collection of eight vessels
was obtained by the Rev. W. W. Rumsey,
from the Richmond Hill cave, and odd per-
fect ones have been secured from others ;
while it appears that many more have been
removed in the past and either broken or
dispersed. The quantity of fragments of
all sizes met with in such a cave as that on
the California estate demonstrates that the
number of vessels originally located in some
of the sepulchres must have been consider-
able. The Halberstadt cave, containing so
much osteological material, yielded, by con-
trait, only two small vessels. Most are
blackened by contact with fire, patches of
carbon still remaining on some. With re-


guard to their significance, the larger ex in-
ples probably represent mortuary vessels,
more especially for the head. From btli
Goat Island and Richmond Hill caves a
boat-shaped vessel was obtained with the
skull still inside (Plates IV., V.); and it
is stated that some of the crania from the
Pedro caves were in eartlhenware recepta-
cles. The two vessels mentioned are cor-
tainly the most perfect and most ornament-
al of the examples now left. The smaller
vessels, incapable of holding skulls, proba-
bly contained the food and water placed
along with the dead, as is so often the custom
among uncivilized races. For further de-
scription of the pottery, see page 37, et. seq.
MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS.
Close examination of the cave earth at
Richmond Hill yielded thirty-two small
examples of the shells of Oliva reticularis,
Lamk. They are all artificially perforated
through the body whorl, a little distance







Plate. IA.


Ft9.. 2







13URIAL CAVES.


from the mouth (Fig. XIV.), apparently for
the purpose of being strung together as if to
form a necklace.or armlet. They are more
fully described on page 45, along with three
perforated shells from the Halberstadt cave.
Among the other objects obtained are
skulls and bones of the Indian coney,
fragments of marine shells, an occasional
flint flake, and various land shells, the ad-
admission of some of which into the c ves
has probably no anthropological significance.

BURIAL OF THE ABORIGINES.
It has been suggested by several writers
that the human remains met with in the
caves in Jamaica are those of Indians who
were attempting to escape from the more
warlike Carib, or from the cruelties of the
discoverers of the island-the Spaniards ;
that the caverns were places of refuge, and
that some of the unfortunate natives be-
came immured and met their death in one
way or another. From a consideration of
many of the connected circumstances this
explanation appears in most cases unten-
able. Most of the caves are of small di-
mensions, not larger than sufficient to hold
a few living persons. The Halberstadt
cave, for example, could not by any means
hold more than about a dozen living adults
however packed, while from the bones en-
tombed we have evidence of at least thirty-
four individuals of different ages.
Similarly with the Richmond Hill, Botany
Bay, and California caves. Further, the
proportions of the bones do not correspond.
Compared with the number of lower-jaws
and the other bones, a deficiency of skulls
is always evident; while the limb bones do
not show a corresponding completion. In
this connection it must, however, also be
borne in mind that few of the caves are
probably now il their primary condition
as left by the Indians.
No indications that the caves ever formed
regular places of habitation are presented.
Tropical conditions would never necessitate
such a course, and, as shown above, the size
of the holes precludes this. All the
circumstances seem to warrant the idea that
the caves served the Indians as natural os-
suaries, or places where the bones of their
fellows, perhaps some time after death, were
collected and deposited in common sepulture.
WVh-t historical knowledge we [ave of
the methods of the burial of the Indian of
the \West Indies supports this view. Writ-
ing of those of tlayti, Ling Roth, quoting


Oviedo, Moralis, and Ferdinand Columbus,
states (1887, p. 277):--" When a cacique
died two (or more?) women were buried with
him alive ..... The best beloved of the
King's wives or concubines are but ied with.
him ..... Their custom is, to place beside
every of them in their sepultures, a cup of
water and a portion of the fine bread or
cazabi .... In some cases the cacique's
body is opened and dried at the fire, that
he may keep whole. ()f others they keep
only the head. Others they bring in a
grotto, and lay a calabash of water and
bread on his head."
In his second voyage, Columbus states: --
"On examining some things which h ul
been very cautiously sewn up in a small
basket, we found a man's head wrapped up
with great care ; this we judged might he
the head of a father, or mother, or of some
person whom they much regarded : I have
since heard that many were found in the same
state, which makes me believe that our first
impression was the true one (Major, 1870,
p. 52-3).
It would also appear from the finding of the
skulls in earthenware vessels in the caves as if
special care were taken in the disposal of the
heads; and, as already mentioned, these ves-
sels are the most perfect and ornamental.
waves s containing human remains in other
WVest Indian Islands are referred to by Mr.
F. A. Ober in ''In the Wake of Columbus,"
and in "Aborigines of the West Indies."
In the first work (1893), writing of the Baha-
mas, he states (p. 75):-" We have bones and
skeletons, particularly crania, which un-
doubtedly pertained to the Lucayan or Ce-
boyan, as he has been called. These have
mostly been found in caves, and generally
beneath the cave earth or bat guano; end
not one island alone has produced them,
but many, throughout the Bahamas." Prof.
W. K. Brooks, who described two Bahaman
skulls secured by Mr. Ober, speaks of them
as extremelyy broad in proportion to their
length," and as 'among the most brachyce-
lphalic of all human skulls and further re-
marks that "T'lhe Ceboyans flattened their
headsartificial ly in i infancy, so that the vertical
part of the forehead is completely obliter-
ated in all Hadult skulls, and the head slopes
backward immediately above the eyes."
In the second contribution (1 .94) Mr. Ober
refers (p. 12) to several flattened brachyce-
phalic crania from Cuba, and (p. 23) to two
others from Santo Domingo, jll found in
eaves.







INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CAVES.


HALBERSTADT.
An account of this cave has already ap-
peared in the Journal of the Institute, April,
18J5,by theEditor; in Nature, June 20, Ib95,
by the present writer; and a preliminary
notice of the bones obtained was given by
Sir Wm. H. Flower, in Nature, Oct. 17,
1895.
The following are the chief facts of im-
portance: The cave is a natural formation
in the rugged honey-combed limestone rocks
on the Halberstadt Estate, in the Port Royal
Mountains, St. Andrew. It is situated
at a height of about 2,000 feet above
the sea level; the shore, along a direct
road, being about two miles distant. A
labourer first discovered in its vicinity a
human limb bone, which led the Rev. AW.
W. Rumsey to make further search. After
removing a number of loose limestone blocks
it was seen that the latter concealed a cav-
ern in the rocks. Descending into this,
through a very narrow aperture, the floor
was found covered with human skulls
and bones, on the top of which were the
pieces of what appears to have been a cedar-
wood canoe.
The cavern is formed in the sloping Lill
side and is irregular in shape, extending
inwardly for a distance of about twenty
feet. It is somewhat triangular in vertical
section; the walls are smooth, as if water-
worn, and in places have a little stalactitic
matter upon them. The cave is barely
sufficiently high and broad in its maximum
dimensions to allow an adult to sit upright.
When first discovered no orderly arrange-
ment of the bones was apparent, though Mr.
Rumsey states that the skulls appeared to
be arranged in a row. No attempt at burial
had been made, most of the remains being
superficial. A thick deposit of yellowish,
powdery cave earth occurs, and into this
some of the bones had sunk. The upper
skulls and bones are well preserved, while
those below, especially in the cave earth,
have suffered a little through decay.
The superimposed cedar-wood slabs are
certainly suggestive of the remnants of a
canoe, one portion being partially hollowed
out and truncated; placed together, how-
ever, they do not indicate an entire vessel.
Numerous references are given by the Span-
ish writers to canoes possessed by the
Indians. Buried amongst the, bones was
found later a breastplate-like slab of the


outer part of the trunk of a Lignum-viti',
exhibiting no sign of decay. If, as has
been suggested, the caves are to be regarded
as natural ossuaries of the Indians. it seems
not unlikely that the cedar-wood slabs, and
also that of the Lignum-vitce, may have been
used for carrying the bones thither; which
work completed, the former was finally
thrown into the cave over the bones in the
position in which it was first seen. In
addition to the bones were found two
small earthenware vessels, one. perfect,
but the other not quite complete; two per-
fect skulls and other bones of the Indian
cmey; three shells, each with an artificial
perforation ; the larval cases of some beetle,
along with a few land shells evidently
of accidental occurrence; and a portion of
what was apparently some implement.
About half the quantity of the bones was
first sent to the British Museum, and Sir
Win. II. Flower arranged with Prof. A. U.
Haddon to carry out the full details of the
examination of these, and of the others
transmitted later. In the preliminary des-
cription by the former the following facts
of interest are already noted : None of
the bones show any wounds or marks of
violence, but all appear to be those of per-
sons who have died a natural or slow death.
Both sexes and almost all ages.are re-
presented, from children of four or six years
to very old persons, the proportion of the
latter being remarkable. Most of the skulls
show evidence of artificial depression of the
frontal region in various degrees, the mode
being similar in all, evidently produced by
the flat board upon the forehead-the com-
monest custom throughout so large a por-
tion of the ancient inhabitants of the Ame-
rican type "
The bones coming under the observation
of Prof. Flower necessarily did not show
much corresponding conplelion, and even
when compared with the remains which
were then in Jamnaica this feature is of con-
siderable significance The number of dif-
foeent paired bones such as the Humeri, the
Radii and Ulnw. the Tibie andd Fibulre,
does not agree with one another, or even
with the right and left of the same kind;
and these again differ markedly from the
number of skulls andlower-jaws. Thus, in
all, only ten approximately entire crania and
very few fragmentsof other cranialbones were
obtained, not sufficient to demonstrate the






BURIAL CAVES.


presence of more than twenty individuals.
Of lower-jaws, however, there are 28; right
Femora 32, left 34; right Tibia 29. left 26;
Humeri 27 right and 27 left. The maximum
number of individuals therefore of whom we
have remains from the cave is thirty-four,
including representatives of both sexes and
of all ages. The gool state of preservation
of most of the bones precludes the idea that
any of the larger ones may have undergone
complete decomposition within the cave.

BLoxBURGlI.
Lieutenant J. E. Henderson, of the W.I.
lRegiment, while making a military survey
of the district around Halberstadt, a locality
already celebrated by the Rev. W. \V. Rum-
sey's previous discovery, also investigated
many of the caves. He has kindly for-
warded the following account of his results:
In May and June, 1896, being in the
vicinity of Halberstadt, Bull Bay, I explored
a large number of caves in the limestone
formation between Halberstadt Great House
and Bloxburgh. The first one I entered,
which is within soimeo 250 yards of the ruins
of Pictorial Cottage and quite close to the
main road, was very easy of access, having a
large opening. At the bottom I found a
skull and a large number of human bones
lying about, and on a ledge of rock a per-
fect specimen of a boat-shaped earthenware
vessel full of earth. On searching further
I found a large shallow dish of similar m-i-
terial jammed in amongst some debris. This
latter was broken at one side, but I event.
ally found the missing fragments. The cave
in question is rather a damp one and the
best portion of it is filled with large bould-
ers and debris fallen from above. The
bones were very much decayed and could
not be removed whole. I found no other
pottery or any ornaments or implements;
but as the cave is considerably deeper than
I was able to get at, and many more bones
could be seen lower down, it is quite possible
that a thorough search and removal of the
debris would bring something more to light.
As a general rule the caves in this district
are on the underlay or sloping down, and
have become full of earth or large boulders,
making a thorough search impracticable.
In every case except the first the human
hones were lying in great disorder, broken
fragments being found in perhaps half a
dozen places in one cave. There are many
more similar caves which I had not time to
explore, in this district."


BOTANY BAY AND CAMBRIDGE HILL, ST.
THeOMAS.
These two caves containing aboriginal
bones and other remains are in close prox-
imity, being only about a quarter of a mile
apart. We are indebted to the Rev. W. W.
Rumsey for bringing them to public notice,
and for affording the writer an opportunity
of investigating them. They occur in a
hilly part of the south western portion of
St. Thomas, known as the Botany Bay dis-
trict, and are situated about four miles from
the sea, a fine view of which is obtained
from each. The caves are natural forma-
tions in the Tertiary Limestone. All around
the latter is very rugged and so honey-
combed by weathering and solution, that, in
places, walking becomes dangerous, the
superficial rqqk being in the condition
of large, irregular blocks. The aperture
of each cave is on a level with the in-
clined surface of the ground, and admits
of easy entrance. The immediate district is
to-day ruinate.
Botaniy Bay Cave.-T'he opening of the
cave faces the south, and is from five to six
feet in diameter. It leads into a very
irregular sloping cavern, extending a dis-
tance of twenty-five feet. The vertical
height is in places twenty feet, and the
average width about ten feet; the roof and
sides are covered with stalactitic matter.
Many blocks of stone, loosened from the
roof, have fallen on the floor, and, along
with a thick deposit of cave earth,
cover some of the remains. When first
discovered the more distant part of the
floor was largely strewn with portions of
human skulls exhibiting the frontal flatten-
ing, and numerous other bones associated
with fragments of pottery. On a slightly
raised ledge at the back were found five
nearly complete skulls. No perfect exam.
ples of pottery were obtained. A search
amongst the debris and loose earth revealed
similar remains, 1but no additional objects of
anthropological interest, with the exception
of two or three broken marine shells.
Cambridge lill Cave. -Although gene.
rally distinguished by this term the cave is
a little to the:.south of Cambridge Hill and
slightly more distant from the sea than the
previous one. From the surf.ice it presents
merely the appearance of a steep, narrow
crevice in the rugged limestone lock, two
or three feet across, and twenty-seven feet
in length. Two step-like projections occur
between the aperture and the termination,






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


and on these, as well as at the bottom,
bones were found promiscuously scattered
and mingled with the cave earth.
Seven practically perfect crania were
secured and fragments of many others.
From this cave was obtained the best col-
lection of aboriginal earthenware vessels
now existing in the island. On the second
ledge from the opening were found, em.
bedded amongst the cave earth, thirty-one
artificially chipped and perforated shells
of Oliva reticularis, described on page 45.
One of the flattened skulls was laid on
its side in the most ornamental vessel of
the collection (Plate 1V.).

DALLAS CASTLE.
This cave, investigated by the Rev. W.
WV. Rumsey, in August, 1895, is situated
in the south east part of St. Andrew, about
three miles from the coast. It occurs in a hill
side, the interior presenting no declivity.
The aperture varies from two to-four feet
across, and not more than two or three
adults could possibly occupy the cave at one
time.
I'he country people report that formerly
the place contained nlany skulls and bones,
some of which have been removed by
obeahmen for their superstitious practices,
while others have been buried by the people
themselves. Mr. Rumsey only obtained a
large, coarse, circular vessel with a human
lower-jaw inside.

iED HILLs-HIsTORIcALr AccouNrs.
Sir Hans Sloane, in the Introduction to
his "Voyage, etc. (1707)," an important work
treating largely of the Natural History of
Jamaica, from material collected about
1670, referring to the destruction of the
Indians by the severity of the Spaniards,
by sending to mines, says (page iv.) :
I have seen in the woods, many of their
bones in caves, which some people thought
were of such as had voluntarily inclosed or
immured themselves, in order to be starved
to death, to avoid the severities of their
masters."
Again (page lxx.) he refers to a Mr.
Barnes, a carpenter, who lived on the Red
Hills, four miles from Guanaboa, St. Johns,
having found a cave in which lay a human
body's bones all in order, the body having
been eaten by the ants. The ants nests we
found there, the rest of the cave was filled
with pots or urns, wherein were bones of


men and children, the pots were oval, large,
of a redish dirty colour. On the upper
part of the rim or ledge there stood out an
ear, on which were inmde some lines, the
ears were not over an inch square, towards
the top it had two parallel lines which went
around, being grosly cut in the edges near.
The Negroes had removed most of these
pots to boil their meat in. The cave was
about eight or nine foot diameter, round-
ish, and about five foot high, it was on a
sufficiently high precipice, of nine foot steep
ascent before one came at it. It was before
opening curiously shut in on all sides with
thin, flat stones. The ants had eat one
carcass to the bones, and had made holes in
their ends, whereat they enter'd, I suppose,
thus to eat the marrow."
Other historical writers furnish similar
evidence, which may best be inserted here.
Long, writing in 1774 (History of Jamaica,
Vol. II., p. 153) refers to the caves in
the mountains of County Surrey : In most
of them are found large quantities of human
bones, almost consumed by time, the teeth
alone being in a tolerably perfect state.
Some have conjectured, that these places
were either used by the Indians as ossua-
ries, or else as occasional retreats, to elude
the search of an enemy. The most probable
account is, that the bones belonged to those
poor Indian natives who fell victims to the
barbarity of their Spanish conquerors."
Bryan Edwards in his History of the
West Indies, written in 17!3, mentions
(Vol. I., p. 1(69) that in his day, in Jamaica,
'caves are frequently discovered in the
mountains, wherein the ground is covered
with human bones; the miserable remains,
without all doubt, of somie of the unfortu-
nate aborigines, who, immured in these re-
cesses, were probably reduced to the sad
alternative of perishing with hunger, or
bleeding under tne swords of their merciless
invaders."

GOAr ISLAND).
From a deep cave on this i-land in Old
Harbour Bay, Mr. Leo E. Verley obtained
the perfect, oval-shaped vessel, with ex-
panded ornamental handles, shown on Plate
IV.
The flattened skull of a young individual
was inside the vessel, and associated with it
were two imperfect limb-bones. Nothing
more is known of the aboriginal re-
mains from this, at present, almost uniin.






BURIAL CAVES.


habited spot. Considering the accounts
Peter Martyr and Bernaldez gike (Jour.
Instit. Jam., Vol. 11., No. i., p. 32) of the in-
habitants all around the Bay called by
Columbus '" )e las Vacas," and especially
of the cacique and hisparty who there visited
him, the locality must hive been thickly p )p-
ulated in aboriginal times, and many more
remains may still be obtained. Lately
researches have been carried on with consi-
derable enthusiasm and success on the
mainland around Old Harbour Bay, parti-
cularly in the District of Vere.

DIrsTRCT or VERE.
Several caves have been examined in this
lower district of Clarendon by Mr. It. C.
MacCormack. from whose accounts we have
the following details:
Three Sandy Bay Cave.-This yielded
a nearly perfect, oval-shaped vessel (I'l.
IV.), much resembling that obtained, with
a skull inside, from Goat Island; also
other pottery indicating vessels of large
dimensions. The portion of a skull was
also found associated with numerous limb
and other bones, and several conch shells.
The entrance to the cave was partially
concealed with stones.
Another cave a mile or more from this
place, and about a mile from the sea, yielded
small pieces of pottery and some l-irge,
thick, coarse fragments.
Jackson Bau Cve.--This third cave con-
tained the very perfect, flattened, human skull
of some aged person, and fragments of
another skull; along with numerous limb and
other bones, turtle bones, pottery, and
shells. The cave is very large, has two
entrances, and is lofty in some parts.
All the objects from the three caves
have been added to the Museum collections.

PEDRO BLUFF.
\e have several notices of caves, contain-
ing human remains, in the southern border
of St. Elizabeth. They have long been
known and fr m all accounts have yielded
in the past much important material, most
of which has unfortunately been lost or
dispersed. They are referred to in Plum-
Smer's, Geography and History of Jamaica,"
the author of which also informs me that
hIe has seen n numerous skulls and vessels which
had been removed in years gone by. In a pre-
viously unpublished letter from Sir Arthur
Rumbold to the Hon. Richard Hill, now in


the possession of Mr. L. Hutchings, is given
the following descriptive account of a visit
to the Pedro Bluff Caves, made on February
25, 18.5 : -
The Bluff disappointed us. It does not
tower above the sea as we expected; its
utmost altitude cannot exceed 6i feet. The
blossom of the Coratoe [Agave morrisii]
was magnificent, the bright yellow flowers
contrasting well with the sombre hue of the
vegetation. We ran close in to the beach
on our return, and laughed at Mr. Parch-
ment's hesitation. The pass hence to the
cave is very rough. Ye Gods what a strug-
gle over the rocky path, holding on by
fragile bushes, and tho' I had on thick
soled boots, I feared to wound my feet on
the sharp crannies and fissures. But a treat
is in store. Mr. Parchment leads me to a
cave which has long been known; but he
promises now to conduct me to one which
has been visited but once since its discovery
some six months back, and after a search
and cutting bush to make a way over a yet
more frightful pass, I let myself down into
what out of compliment, was then and there
christened "Sir Arthur's Cave." Mr Parch-
ment shows several skulls he had found
there closely packed together. It was a
strange feeling to be nearly the first to have
disturbed the abode of the dead after a lapse
perhaps of centuries. The cave is formed
by a hollow in a rock with a ledge over-
hanging, and you have to let yourself down
to enter it-indeed, so small is the aperture
that its non-discovery previously may be
easily understood. The dimensions are
small, ard from the number of skulls in a
confined space, it must evidently have been
used for purposes of sepulture, though the
remains of a Terra Cotta vase would lead
one to imagine that the Indians had either
eaten there -perhaps when seeking refuge
from the Spaniards -or that in accordance
with the superstitions of many ancient races
they had left food for the sols of departed
friends. With some of the frail emblems
of mortality we -mbark to re-visit friend
James's house. But I must not omit to tell
the learned visitor that just on leaving Mr.
Parchment's house, if the sea be calm and
the canoe can range alongside, a stone
may be seen which I %\\.- i-:1,ir'L.1 contained
an inscription in strange characters.
I regretted not being able to inform my-
self on this point.
Arthur l ;"






IA DIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


In the Museum are three or fone skulls,
aboriginal in character, but without any
history accompanying them. 'Mr. Hutchings
identifies them as being those obtained by
Sir Arthur Rumbold and Mr. Hill from the
Pedro Bluff caves. The Hon. Henry Shirley
also found in these caves two skulls, one of
which was taken to England by Mr
Fawcett in 189", and was submitted to
Sir Wm. Flower. The latter's account,
recognizing the aboriginal character of the
skull, was published in the Journal of the
Anthropological Institute, and is referred to
on page 22.
In Vignes', Travels in America," 182S3,
is a reference to some artificially flat-
tened crania of aborigines met with in
St. Elizabeth. No doubt these were ob-
tained from the caves under consideration.

HorNSLOW.
Mr. W. L. Maxwell writes from Houn-
slow; in the Santa Cruz Mountains, St.
Elizabeth, referring to a cave in the vicinity
which requires further investigation ; his
father secured specimens of skulls and
pottery from it, but unfortunately they were
destroyed by fire a few years ago.
Mr. Maxwell has sent to the Museum
fragments of pottery since obtained by him;
they are of the same type as those from
other caves. He also mentions that other
hones still remain, but that everything was
left for a more complete examination.

DRUMMIOND.
Mr. Arthur Hale contributes information
relative to a cave in the limestone between
Retirement, and Nonpareil, near Drummond
Pen, in the parish of Westmoreland. It has
been known as Indian Head Cave for a very
long period, and visited from time to time
by people, who have removed nearly all the
remains, such as skulls and long bones.
Much pottery has also been obtained. The
floor is strewn with fragments.,of rock, fallen
from the sides and roof.

NEGRIL.
Mr. A. C. Bancroft has, at request, kindly
examined some of the caves near Negril.
the most western part of the island. From
one in the district called Indian Head, near
oiuth Negril Point. he forwar'dcl a parcel
of bones and pottery to the Museum;
and from another cave near by a nearly
perfect oval-shaped vessel (P1. IV.), abori-


ginal in type, but more simple than is usual
with cave vessels. This was also associated
with human bones. The same investigator
also mentions other caves in the neighbour-
hood which still require exploration.

CALIFORNIA.
In regard to this cave, which is the only
one containing Indian relics yet known on
the north side of the island, Mr. Taylor
Domville writes as follows : The cave
which contains the Indian remains is at
California, in St. James. It is under some
flat stones in a ruinate pasture near the sea.
The entrance is just large enough for one to
pass through. It appears to have been once
well packed withhuman remains and jars. An
old man told me that he remembered seeing
an overseer take out several skulls. When
I went there I found the floor of the cave
covered with fine dust and quantities of
broken jars. One of these was rather large,
about 16 inches in diameter, but it unfortu-
nately got broken when 1 was moving.
There was also a large quantity of portions
of human skulls, leg and arm bones. etc.
When I removed from Running Gut I left
a small bundle of them in the overseer's
house."
Mr. Domville sent two human lower-jaws
and a perforated piece of pottery to the
Anthropological Exhibition. The latter is
unique amongst our aboriginal earthenware.
The hole is circular and nearly an inch
in diameter, with a thickened, well-shaped
rim. Of the remains, referred to above, as
previously removed from the cave, only
another lower-jaw and the frontal portion
of a skull could be obtained, the others
having been destroyed or buried. Sufficient
of the skull remains, however, to show that
it had been artificially flattened in front.
The cave occurs on what is known as
Burnt Ground Pasture, now more or less
ruinate, and about three quarters of a mile
from the sea. It is open at each end, being
merely a large, irregular, under-ground
passage in the White Limestone, which all
around is considerably honey-combed and
cavernous.
The upper end is now partially closed by
a deposit of rock debris, but may perhaps
have been walled-up at one time; the lower
end opens nearly vertically to the surface of
the ground, from a depth of about six feet.
The length is about twenty-five feet. Inside
it is regularly arch-shaped, being nearly
eight feet broad and three to four feet high






BURIAL CAVES.


ill the middle. The roof has stalactitic
matter lup i it, while the flobr is covered
to a (osiderable depth with boulders, bat-
manure, pieces of broken pottery, and
1)one.s,
It is evident that the oeve has been en-
tered and the contents much disturbed on
previous occasions, and, as already indic ited
in Mr. Dmnville's account, the superficial
human objects removed. Those remaining
were mostly fragmentary, and buried in the
brownish manure deposit. Most of the
bones are much decayed frorl being em-
bedded in the earth, and from attacks by
ants. Several lower-jaws, many free teeth,
portions of skulls, and numerous long
bones and other parts of the skeleton were
obtained, indicative of every variety of age.
Of five lower-jaws collected four are those
of old individuals who had lost most of their
teeth, the sockets being nearly obliterated.
From all the remains found, and others
which can be traced, more than a dozen
individuals are shown to be represented.
Lirge quantities of pieces of pottery were
obtained, one rem trkable feature being the


great size of the vessels they represent.
From the curvature of some it is safe to
assert that the diameter when perfect must
have been between one and two feet. The
ornamentation and handles are of the usual
type, the vessels appearing to most closely
resemble th:se obtained from the Cambridge
Hill eive a:d from those at Vere.
Although a careful search was made
amongst the debris on the floor, the cave did
not yield anything else of anthropological
interest, with the exception of a few flints.
It seems probable that, as in the
case of the other caves described, the
California cave represents an aboriginal
burying place, and that some of the larger
vessels were used as urns in which to place
the skulls, while the smaller ones served
to contain food and water supplied to the
dead.
The discovery of cave relics in this par-
ticular district is all the more interesting
because of the numerous refuse-heaps found
on the surrounding hills, all pointing to
this part of St. James as being one of im-
portance in pre-Columbian times.


CHAPTER III.

IMPLEM ENTS.

Celts : Spherical, Discoidal, and Smoothing Stones : Axes: Flint Implements : Shell
Implements : Pestles and Mealing Stones.


Jamaica has been noted by several writers
as having furnished a peculiarly abundant
series of examples of the stone and flint
weapons and implements of its ancient in-
habitants (1870, p. 239). This is certainly
true as regards the various stone imple-
ments, but flint objects are exceptional;
flakes having been only recently discovered
in the refuse.heaps.
In the Exhibition has been gathered to.
gether probably the largest series of imple-
ments ever shown from the island Inspec-
tor Church's collection numbered 171 speci-
mens; the Institute's about 70; Dr. G. J.
Neish's 40; Lady Blake's 18; Mr. W. H.
Plant's 21; while additional minor ones
bring the number up to nearly four hundred.
Notices and presentations of other small col-
ections are constantly being received at the


Museum ; while the peasantry are known to
still have occasional ones in their possession,
and to be often finding them. Quite recently
a collection of one hundred specimens has
been obtained from and around the District
of Vere. This quantity was secured by
the:, exertions of one collector, within a
period of three or four months. Numbers
have also left the island at various times,
and been dispersed. Inspector Church in-
forms me that between one and two hundred
have been thus sent abroad by him, and
Lady Blake has obtained at various times a
total of over a hundred examples. Consid-
ering the small extent of Jamaica, 4,193-
square miles, this number of specimens is
rather surprising. A further important fact
is the uniformity in the type presented.
About 90 per cent. belong to the well known






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


petaloid or almond-shaped celts, with only
slight variations in form. The remainder
are fashioned as wedges, chisels, axes, meal.
ing-stone rollers, smoothing stones, or are
spherical.

CELTS.
Different forms of celts are represented
on Plate II.
Many of the specimens are apparently
accidentally and recently chipped at the
broad cutting edge, and more rarely at the
narrow edge; but practically all are well
shaped, beautifully finished,
and smooth. Many are highly
polished, and others appear to
have lost their original polish
by long burial in the ground.
Most are sharpened, while a
few have the broad cutting
edge rounded. Opposite parts
are not always symmetrical to
any axis.
The sizes vary from some
about an inch in length to a
petaloid one, lent by Mr. H. P.
Deans, 9 inches long and 4
inches across at the broadest.
part.
The material of which the
implements are composed varies
considerably, examples of most
of the types of the sediment-
ary, metamorphic, and igneous
rocks being met with.
The most abundant material
undoubtedly belongs to the
trappean series of rocks, in-
cluding the trachytes, felsites,
rhyolites, and basalts, so prom-
inent in various parts of the
island. Dolerite is rather com-
mon, as well as a greenish
schist, and others graduating
between quartzites and gneis-
FIo. VII. SPINDLE- ses. A metamorphic sili-
SHAPED IMPLEMENT. ceous green rock resem-
Sharpenedateach bling jade, and taking a
end. nat.size. high polish, is met with,
sometimes with light and dark bands. Most
of the material is such as occurs in the
island. The flint is the same as is derived
from various districts.
Practically all the specimens in Jamaica
are picked up on the surface of the ground by
the peasantry and others, or are found embed-
ded in the superficial deposits. They are
often exposed by the heavy tropical rains,


and are to be met with in nearly every part
of the island. In past times they were appar.
ently much more abundant than now, it being
no uncommon occurrence to meet with
them while digging. Collectors to-day
obtain them largely from the country
people, who keep them in the bottom of
their water-cooling jars; the expressed pur-
pose being to keep the water cool. They
are supposed also to have some influence in
diverting lightning. The petaloid ones are
known amongst the peasantry, as is the case
in other countries, as Thunderbolts," and
are believed by them to fall from the clouds
during the rains.
Occasionally broken specimens, evidently
discarded, have been met with in investi-
gating the shell-mounds, and several exam-
ples of shell implements have also been
collected from there.
The uses to which the Indians applied
their implements were no doubt varied.
It is likely that they were employed both
as weapons and for industrial purposes,
and perhaps also for ceremonial func-
tions; and though some axes, celts, or
chisels may have been held in the
hand, others were fixed in wooden han-
dles. Somewhat similar examples, lent from
British Guiana, give evidence of the abra-
sion produced at the place of fixture; while
others from the same source show deep
notches or grooves (see Pl. X., figs. 3
and 4, Among the Indians of Guiana").
It is remarkable that, of the several hundred
examples represented in our collection, only
two much battered specimens, one of which
is shown in Fig. IV., 4, give any indication,
by being notched or abraded, of having been
fixed in handles. A celt similar to the
Jamaican forms and fixed in a handle of
Lifnum-vitce, was found in a cave in the
Middle Caicos Islands by Mr. G. J. Gibbs,
and is now in the possession of Lady Blake.
It is figured in the Institute Journal, and
in the "Latimer Collection" (fig. 11, not fig.
12). The well finished perfection of form
and highly polished surface of many would
appear to preclude the idea that they were
mainly employed for industrial purposes.
In the Museum is only one specimen (Fig.
VIII.) of the large axes, such as are more
characteristic of the Lesser Antilles, and
which certainly appear better adapted for
cutting wood,etc.
While perhaps many may have been used
as weapons, it seems not unreasonable to
suppose that some may have been regarded













'"i


/


PLATE I. STONE IMPLEMENTS.
Figs. 1. 2, 3, 4,8, 9. Vzrio unt furms rf C(lts. Fig.s. 5, 10. tedle-s.haped ,Implements. Fig. 6. Chisel-shaped Implement. Fig. 7. Large Celt with central boss.
All j nat. size.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


as desirable ornaments, or, as having had a
ceremonial function.
Fig. 1, P1. I. is a specimen from Negril,
at the western extremity of the island, and
was lent 1li.L iy 1\l B-il It is formed of some
black metamorphic siliceous rock, and has
taken a very high polish. Examples of this
kind are much prized by collectors.
The celt represented in fig. S is con-
structed of a reddish limestone, the fossil
corals and shells being distinctly seen.
It is a perfect example, apparently as if
just turned out by the manufacturer,
having some of the scratches produced by
the smoothing and polishing still visible. A
similar, but thin, highly polished, petaloid
example, made of quartzite, is in Dr. G.
J. Neish's collection from St. Thomas-ye-
East. Its donor suggests its being a
" hatchet of ceremony."
Fig. 7 is a unique specimen of the peta-
loid type, having a central, rounded pro-
tuberance or boss, perhaps to afford
greater security or firmness in using.
It is 94 inches long, and 34 inches at its
greatest breadth. A not uncommon type is
the one represented by fig. 4. The body
of the celt is almost cylindrical, but
it tapers at one end and is edged at the other.
An almost similar one is represented by the
spindle-shaped form in Fig. VII., p. 32, but a
chisel-edge occurs at each end.
Fig. 6 represents a chisel-shaped imple-
ment lent by the Hon. D. Campbell. It is
formed of some greenish rock, and is 8 inches
long and 21 inches broad at the cutting end,
which latter is very smoothand sharp. Wedge-
shaped specimens are shown on the same
plate, figs. 5 and 10. Among other individual
examples to be noted is one from Portland,
presented by Mr. W. H. Plant, made up of
a greenish volcanic rock containing garnets.
SPHERICAL, DISCOIDAL, AND S3OOTIHING
STONES.
Inspector Church's collection contains four
spherical- implements, varying from 13 to
2 -inches in diameter, and formed of
quartzite and trappean rocks. Other
stones are occasionally collected, more or
less artificial in- shape, and showing
smooth areas, as if they had been used for
rubbing or grinding. Some of them were
no doubt the upper parts of mealing-stones.
A few of the petaloid implements in the
collection exhibit restricted areas indicative
of having been used in smoothing other
objects. Fig. IV. 2, resembles an unequally


three-sided pyramid, but all the sides, the
base, and the edges are well rounded and
polished as if used in rubbing.
Several smooth, flattened pieces of har-
dened chalk collected from the inhabitants
of Botany Bay, and one of limestone from
a cave at Kalorami, are more of the charac-
ter of whetstones, and are similar to those
still in use by the peasantry for this pur-
pose.
Dr. Mason states (1877,p. 374): "It is to be
understood, in speaking of the objects as
smoothing-stones, that we do not know
what they were used to smooth, or whether
they were used for any such purpose. We use
the name for convenience of classification,
and shall readily change it as soon as their
function is ascertained."
AXES.
Fig. IV. 3, and Fig. VIIT. represent
two specimens which are unique in the
Jamaican series. The first, from Inspector
Church's collection, was recently dug up in a
field at IIighgate, St. Catherine. It is about 3
inches lung, as is also the straight head,
and is formed of a piece of ornamental
metamorphic rock with alternations of light
and dark green layers arranged obliquely
to the axis of the object. The whole sur-
face is very smooth. The wedge-shaped
cutting edge is sharpened and accident-
ally chipped. It seems very likely that
the specimen may have been used as an axe-
blade, and that the lateral projections were
for the purpose of fixing it more firmly
into the haft.
Fig. VIII. is a much more massive imple-
ment, made of diorite. It is 9 inches long,
5 inches across at its greatest breadth,
and weighs nearly 4 pounds. It shows a slight
abrasion all round the neck.
The axe-blade with a distinct head, neck,
and cutting edge is rare in Jamaica; nothing
is known of the history of this larger speci-
men, whether it was originally found in the
island or not. It bears a marked resemblance
to numerous massive forms from St. Vincent
and Trinidad, and to others figured in the
"Guesde Collection" (1885).
In Porto Rico and Jamaica, two of the four
principal islands of the Greater Antilles, the
implements are mostly the smaller almond-
shaped celt, while axes are rare; but, in the
Lesser Antilles, axes are more numerous
than the other pieces. Not much is known
of those from the islands of Cuba and Hayti.
No axes are mentioned in the Latimer







PLATE It.


F'lR. VIll. Ax-:-IlLADE. 1 nat. sizC.


E'l1. IX. AXE-urIADE. FROM G(IRENADA.
Lent by the Her. T. IV. Bindley. j nut. size.






INDIAN PfiMAINS IN JAMAICA.


Collection" from Porto Rico; :while "The
celts,one hundred and thirty-five in number,
are of the very highest order of workman-
ship, being beautifully shaped, and many
of them the most highly polished stone im-
plements in the National Museum (p. 373).
M. Guesde states that celts are scarcer than
axes in Guadaloupe.
In the Museum collections was a highly
finished axe-head from Grenada (Fig. IX.),
lent by the Rev. T. W. Bindley, of Bar-
bados; and, as already mentioned, among
the specimens from British Guiana are
several examples of implements with well
marked notches'for fixing more firmly in
handles, while larger ones present, in their
abraded surface, undoubted indication of
having been also fixed to some handle.

FLINT IMPLEMENTS.
In Fig. II. (p. 7) are represented two flint
flakes or spalls obtained from the refuse-
heaps in the island. From practically all
these accumulations such flakes have been
collected, often associated with large cores
from which pieces have been chipped. The
Richmond Hill and California caves have
also yielded two or three similar examples.
None of the flakes appears as if fashioned for
any particular purpose; and no well shaped
or elaborately worked specimens of flint, with
one doubtful example referred to below, have
been met with. Flint, arranged in layers
or in irregular masses, occurs naturally in
various districts in the Tertiary limestone
of the island. In some of the parishes it is
found in sufficient quantity to be used as
road metal. A specimen of such flint is in
Dr. G. J. Neish's collection, but some doubt
attaches to its significance. It is of
an elongated petaloid form, with the
broader end carefully rounded; the sides and
narrower end are irregular, some parts
showing a flaked, unfinished appearance.
The general surface is rough and pitted,
apparently by weathering. It would ap-
pear to be a block of flint of which the
intention was to produce an ordinary celt,
but, from the unsuitable structure, this had
been found impracticable.
Implements made of flint are also ex-
tremely rare in the other West India islands.
In reference to specimens sent him, Dr.
Mason writes: "I am astonished to hear of
the abundance of flint in Jamaica. In our
Porto Rico collection there is not one chipped
object which was surely a tool. Your pieces


are spalls or cores." In the introduction to
the Guesde Collection," M. Guesde states
(p. 740) : 1 have had the good fortune to
discover in Grande-terre, in an piece of
ground which Iad not been ploughed for 60
or S0 years, two tools of flaked flint-a
knife and hacking-knife. This discovery
somewhat modifies the theory held to this
day by writers on America that flaked flint
does not exist in the Antilles."
Again, Dr. 0. T. Mason in his paper on the
"Latimer Collection," from Iorto Iico,
states (p. ;72) : Whether from accident or
design, there is not in all the collection a
single flaked or chipped implement or
weapon. Indeed, I have searched in vain
in the National Museum for flaking or
chipping from a Carib area."
SHELL IMPLEMENTS.
At least half a dozen implements made of
shell havebeen collected recently in Jamaica,
associated with the refuse-heaps(Fig.III.,p.8).
They are similar to those well known from
B irbados, of which collections were lent to
the Exhibition by the Rev. T. W. Bindley
and the Rev. J. iMassiah. Some of the Ja-
maican specimens appear to be made from
the recent, not hle fossil, shell of the great
conch, Stro ,bits ii!lJs ; the latter is always
the case in Barbados, where fossil shells are
common and are very hard. The shell does
not seem to occur fossil in Jamaica. The
cutting edge of the implements is carefully
sharpened. M.Guesde mentions (p. 759)that
his Guadaloupe collection includes "a series
of very fine chisels extracted from the outer
edge of the Stromnbus gigas. This part of
the shell is very thick and harder than
stone. It is certain that the Caribs did not
use the living Strombus, but were careful to
take the fossil Strombi, which had in time
acquired the hardness of ivory."
PESTLES AND MEALING STONES.
Pestles.-Fig. 1, Pl. IV. is most probably
an ornamental pestle. It is 5 inches
in height, 2, inches across the base,
and made of some heavy, basic, ig-
neous rock. It belongs to the Mu-
scum collections, but unfortunately is with-
out any other history. The head projects a
little forward, and carries two very promi-
ncnt eye cavities with thick rims. No
attempts are made to represent the ears,
mouth, or nose. The surface of the.eye
cavities is partially coated with what appears
to be some kind of cement. Representations






IMPLEMENTS.


of arms extend from large, relief shoulder-
blades, first down the sides of the body and
then turn inwardly almost at right angles.
The base is rounded and shows evidence of
having been used for pounding.
The specimen undoubtedly belongs to the
same types as those represented in -" Flint
Chips," p. 227, figs. 4 and 6, and less so to
the others on the same page and on pages
230 and 231, mostly obtained from the neigh-
bouring island of San Domingo (Hayti), and
stated to have been used for pounding
maize. The Latimer Collection" contains
(fig. 20) a rough bell-shaped pestle, with a
rude human face on the top. Prof. Mason
likewise considers this similar to the San
Domingo specimens.
Mr. F. G. Bather lent a partially mutila-
ted, bell-shaped, worn specimen, which must
also be regarded as a pestle (P. IV.,fig. 2). It
was ploughed up on an estate in Vere, is 41
inches in height and 2: inches across the base,
and made of a hard sandstone with a light
brown patina. The base and lower part of
the body are smooth, as if used for rubbing
other objects. The head, narrowing upwards,
shows little more than hints of ears, nose,
and mouth.
Rollers.-A massive spindle-shaped and an
oval roller, evidently intended for use with
metates, areshown in fig. 6, PI.IV. The former
specimen, with an end broken off, is still
21 inches in length and 31 inches at its
broadest diameter. When perfect it would,
no doubt, be over 24 inches long. Of smaller
examples some are short and oval, and others


a narrow elongated spindle-shape. They are
mostly formed of some doleritic rock.
Mealing-stones or Metates.-A well fin-
ished, elaborate, three-legged metate,
carved out of a single block of dolerite,'
is shown in fig. 6, P1. IV. It is 24 inches
long and 151 inches broad and some-
what sagged, standing at the ends 15 inches
from the ground and 13 inches at the mid-
dle. The sides and ends bear a very
perfect incised fret pattern, as also the
lateral parts of the two contiguous legs;
while the outer area of the odd leg has an in-
cised scroll pattern. A leg, presented by Mr.
Bowrey, has evidently been broken off a simi-
lar mealing-stone. Another tripod metate,
lent by Mr. Lynch, of SpanishTown, is shown
in fig. 5, on the same plate, along with the up-
per flattened stone used with it. A rude repre-
sentation of a head, most nearly resembling
that of a turtle, is carried in front; the hinder
part narrows a little. It is 231 inches long, 11
inches wide at one end, 10 at the other,
and stands 61 inches high in the middle.
It was still in use for grinding chocolate
when first obtained. Forms similar to these
two are commonly employed to-day in
Central America for grinding maize, and
now and again are met with amongst the
peasantry in Jamaica. Two allied speci-
mens are referred to in the Latimer Cdl-
lection" (p. 376) ; and one from Nicaragua,'
closely resembling the first mentioned Ja-
maican specimen, is figured in Bancroft's.
"Native Races of the Pacific States," Vol.
IV., p. 61.


CHAPTER IV.

POTTERY.
Jamaica Pottery : Other West Indian Islands: British Guiana.


From the various caves have been ob-
tained the best and most perfect represent.
tatives of the ceramic art of the Jamaican
aborigine. Although quantities are known
from the kitchen-middens, it is only
in a fragmentary condition. Both the
mounds and the caves however yield the
same type. Eight nearly perfect vessels
were obtained by the Rev. W. \V. Rumsey
from the Richmond Hill cave, and
odd ones have been secured from others;


while it appears that many have been removed i
in the past, and either broken or dispersed.
The quantity of fragments to be met
with in such a cave as that on the California
estate, demonstrates that the number of'
vessels originally located in these ossuaries
must have been very considerable. The
Halberstadt cave, containing so many bones,
yielded however, only two small vessels.
The most typical forms are shown oi
Plate V.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMATCA.


The vessels present but little variety or
elaboration of form, though all are well and
more or less regularly shaped. They are,
with one exception, somewhat shallow, oval
or circular in outline, and often the
upper part is turned inwardly ; the base is
convex or rounded. Two fragments from
Norbrook appeiarto have f rined the flattened
circular base of two vessels. Even if this
interpretation be correct, a flittcened base
must be reg r led as very exceptional. The
symmetry of the parts to any axis i, not
always well maintained; the distortion, how-
ever, may be the result of the imperfect
methods of burning, and not of manufacture.
One vessel, obtained by Mr. Rtonsey from
the Dallas Casle c Lv. is very much deeper
than the others, forming nearly a complete
sphere. It is of quite a distinct type and
made of much coarser material.
The handles are either luted on, or are
formed as a prolongation of the ends. In the
great majority the border is thickened, or
strengthened by the addition of a flattened
fillet or band of clay.
The surface of some is very smooth or
even polished, evidently by rubbing with a
suitable implement; others, again, show the
construction marks left on the soft clay.
Many are of a dirty reddish earthy colour ;
one or two are yellowish; most are, how-
ever, darkened or blackened by use. show-
ing evidence of contact with fire in having
patches of carbon still upon them. In no case
is there any trace of a glazed surface, but
occasional suggestions of some paint or
colouring material having been used are
presented.
Dimensions.-The dimensions of the
vessels vary considerably, some of them
being very large. A nearly complete por-
tion of a circular basin, obtained from the
caves in Vere, corresponds with a diameter
of about 18 inches. As the thickness is only
a quarter of an inch it is evident that to con-
struct a-vessel of such magnitude must have
required considerable skill. The larger frag-
ments from the California cave give indica-
tions of vessels of similar magnitude. Some
perfectly flat fragments are very thick, often
an inch or more, and are made of the
coarsest materials. It seems likely that they
served as cooking slabs or plates.
Mfanufacture.-As usual in West Indian
and American ancient pottery no evidence of
the potter's wheel having been used in the
manufacture is apparent. The vessels ap-
pear to have been constructed by building up


separate bands of clay, and then smoothing
the surface.
The material employed is nearly always
coarse. Pulverized or decomposing volcanic
rock, so abundant in many parts of the
island, is mixed with the clay in large
proportions. Only occasionally do any of
the fragments effervesce with acid, show-
ing that few free calcareous particles are
present. The vessels were no doubt baked
in a fire; but there is no appearance of fusion
of the materials.
Oruamentation.-The ornamentation of
the vessels is mostly of a simple character;
in none is there any attempt at any pattern
of curved lines. In many merely indented
lines or dots. or combinations of the two.
were made upon the surface by some stylus,
while the clay wais in a soft condition; often
the lines are deeply hatched. In others
there is a projecting rim or fillet where the
upper part of the vessel becomes turned in.
This is strongly indented, becoming crenate,
in the basin represented in fig.6, P1. V. A
flattened fillet may form a zigzag or chevron
pattern. The handles exhibit the furthest
attempt at ornamentation. Some of the
best of these are among the material from
the Norbrook and the Cranbrook kitchen-
middens. See Plate Ill. opposite, and Fig. X.
The general characters of the Jamaican
aboriginal vessels may be briefly summed
up as follows: Circular or oval in outline;
generally shallow, with an inturned upper
part; nearlyalways rounded at the base; mar-
gin often thickened by an additional fillet of
clay; handles either luted on or formed as a
prolongation of the ends, generally simple
in character, but with gradations leading up
to more ornamental types; occasionally per-
forated at the handles for suspension; or-
namentation, with exception of the handles,
limited to dots, straight indented lines, and
fillets ; surface unglazed, blackish, dirty red
or yellow in colour, often with construe.
tion or smoothing marks upon it; clay vary-
ing in fineness, and generally mixed with
pulverized siliceous minerals.
A few representative examples of the
Jamaican pottery, along with other objects,
were sent toProf.O.T. Mason for his valuable
opinion, and for comparison with the large
American and West Indian collections under
his charge at the Smithsonian Inst'tution.
He has kinlly replied as follows: I have
to-day examined with great care the speci-
mens you sent me and give you the benefit
of the study, The fragments of pottery lie
































--- -----.





-P O~-- -N L~-- ----N -A ; -. -



- PLATE I. TYPES OF HANDLES AND ORNAMENTATION ON INDIAN POTTERY. From various Kithe-middes. nat. size.






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


between the Porto Rican and that of Florida
to Carolina. The angular margin [such as
is shown il figs. 1 & 3, P1. V.] is found in Porto
Rico and Florida, the sharp hatching [fig. 5]
in Florida; in Porto Rico there is more
elaboration of design culminating in the
labyrinth.
The Jamaican heads are possibly of par-
rots. with outspreadwings ; the Porto Rico
handles are of monkeys and men, very
boldly executed. No soch handles are now
in the Florid- collection. On the whole
Jamaica seems to be a connection link be-
tween Porto Rico and Floride-."
Uses -The uses to which the Jamaican
pottery was put were no doubt nmiinly in


contained the food and water placed along
with the dead, as is so often ithe custom
amongst uncivilized or partially civilized
people, and of which we have historical
evidence from the contemporaneous Spanish
writers as to its prevalence amongst the
Indians of the Antilles (see Ling Roth,
1887, p. 277).
OTHER WEST INDIAN ISLANDS.
With regard to the condition of aboriginal
pottery in other WestIndian islands it is evi-
dent that it had reached a somewhat higher
stage in ornamentation thanthat now obtain-
able forstudy i aJamaica. Dr. Mason thus refers
to the pottery in the Latimer Collection,"
from Porto Rico (p. 372, and figs. 1-9):


;-~--1


FIG. X. ORNAMENTAL HANDLES ON FRAGMENTS OF VESSELS.
1, 4,from ranbroolk; 3,from Norbrook. s nat. size.


connection with:the preparation of food and
other domestic functions, much of it show-
ing the blackening produced by fire The
fragments obtained from the kitchen-mid-
dens must be regarded as discarded broken
examples, no longer of any service.
Some of the larger specimens met with in
the caves probably represent mortuary ves-
sels, more especially for the heads. From
both Goat Island and Richmond Hill caves
a vessel was obtained with the skull still
inside. These two (fig. 5. P1. V. and
fig. 1, Pl. VI.) are certainly the most
perfect and most ornamental of the ves-
sels now left -us. The smaller recep-
tacles, incapable of holding skulls, no doubt


"There is not an entire vessel in the
collection, all of the specimens being frag-
ments of variously shaped, coarse, red pot-
tery, well baked, one or two pieces being
glossy on the surface. Nearly all of the or-
namentation is produced by animal forms
luted on. The most of these are monkey
heads adorned with scrolled, circular, and
fluted coronets, and by deeply incised lines,
often forming very ingenious patterns. Others
bear human faces, all grotesque, and the
figures of mythrlogicdl animals. In one of
them a W-shaped wreath or festoon is luted
on the outside." Somewhat similar ornamen-
tal designs, likewise obtained from Porto
Rico, are figured from the "Guesde Collec-


~l~i~r. 1
ruu-.;;,,






POTTERY.


tion" (figs. 209-214). Pieces of pottery
brought from Navassa, a small island b)e-
tween IHayti and Jamaica, by the late Dr.
Gayleard, are in the Museum collections.
A few are figured in the Journal of the
Institute, Sept. 1894 (figs. ii., iii., v. Plate
facing page 70). They bear a much closer
resemblance to the pottery of Porto Rico,
than to the Jamaican specimens.
In a paper by Prof. W. H. Holmes on
"Caribbean Influence on the Prehistoric
Ceramic Art of the Southern States" (l9l4),
the author attempts to show that the decor-
ative art of the mainland was strongly influ-
enced by the art of the Caribbean0 islands,
although no evidence is forthcoming that the
Caribbean peoples had originally belonged to
orhadtaken permianentpossession of theFlori-
da-Georgi region. He states that "among
the remains of the region, so far as I know,
no single implement or article of sculptured
stone of strictly caribbean characters has
been found." lie further remarks (p. 74) :
The most striking characteristics of the
\est Indian decorative designs are compli-
cated groupings of curved and broken lines
and the filling in of areas and interspaces
with concentric circles and angular figures."
Such designs occur on ancient vases found in
Florida. From the islands the examples
figured are taken from the wooden stools of
Turk's Island. Prof. Holmes further adds "that
there is hardly a conventional linear design
on the whole series of carved wood and stone
articles derived from the Antilles and at-
tributed to the Caribs that cannot be closely
duplicated in the ceramic decorations of the
Florida-Appalache province." Though the
Jamaican pottery bears no evidence of
curved lines, the patterns on the metate
(PI. IV.) and on the images, though less.
complex, have some similarity to the
designs referred to.
In connection with the pottery of Hayti,
Mr. H. Ling Roth in the Aborigines of
Hispaniola (p. 283) writes: Pottery was
a well developed art amongst these people,
for collectors seem to be able to find frag-
ments marked with the images peculiar to
the Indians of this part of the world,"
and adds that Herrera speaks of their "earth-
enware pitchers handsomely made and
painted;" and that, '" According to Benzoni,
*"The term Caribbean, as used in this paper [by
Prof. Holmes refers to the culture province, and
not to a particular stock of people."


the cacique's bread was baked in a round
pipkin, and they used also large jars or
vases and pipkins in the manufacture of
their wine, and lie also refers to their idols
being made of clay. Angleria mentions
special pots for cooking iguanas.

BRITisu GUIANA.
Of the pottery now manufactured by the
Indians of British Guiana we learn frcm Mr.
im Thurn (1883, p. 274) that the clay vessels
are all of a few very simple and unvaried
forms, and are formed by hand alone. After
the vessel has been shaped, it is smoothed and
polished by much rubbing with a water-
worn pebble-or, if it can be had, an old
Indian stone axe-head. After the polishing,
it is dried in the sun, and finally slowly
baked over a fire. The four types figured
---the buck-pot, casii-jar, goglets, and sap-
poora examples of which were also lent by
the I)emerara Museum to the Anthropologi.
cal Exhibitio:l-have no resemblance to any
of the known Jamaican aboriginal forms.
Fragments of ancient pottery, discover-
ed some time ago from a deposit in
British Guiana, containing also fish and
human bones, are described by Mr. im Thnrn
("Timehri," Vol. II., 1884, p. 123), who
mentions artistically wrought grotesque
figures, heads, faces and whole bodies of
men and other animals, which have evidently
been, in some few cases still are, luted on to
the vessel by way of ornament and handle
combined."
Mr. J. J. Quelch (" Argosy," Demerara,
April, 1894) has, from another locality, Mon
Repos, obtained similar pottery with rem-
nants of fish bones and human skeletons.
These were lent to the Museum Exhibition,
and are considered to belong to a class of
people whose pottery was characterized by
an artistic finish quite unlike, and indeed
superior to, anything of which the modern
Indians give evidence.
It would thus appear that this method of
fashioning ornamental handles on pottery,
in the shape of faces and often the whole
body of man and other animals, was very
general amongst the aborigines of the West
Indies and British Guiana, but that these yet
discovered in Jamaica indicate that the
native artist had not attained to the elabo-
ration of the complex designs found else-
where,






CHAPTER V.


IMAGES AND AMULETS.
Slone Images: Wooden Inmues : Aiulets.


'The two specimens shown in figs. 3 and 4,
P1. IV.. blcriging to the Hon. D. Campbell,
Instead, were brought to notice by the
Hon. Wm. Fawcett, and were lent by the
former gentleman for exhibition. They
were obtained while digging a yam hill on
the property of Riverhead, near Ewarton,
in St. 'Ihomas ye Vale, and when found
were enclosed in an earthenware vessel,
which, unfortunately, fell to pieces upon
being struck by the hoe. Both specimens
are perfect.and show a considerable develop-


with the open mouth, were evidently hol-
lowed out by a process of grinding not by
chipping; the forehead and nose are con-
jointly represented by a triangular area. Of
special interest is the fact that the head is
surmounted by a double fiat crown, the two
halves (of which, separated by a deep groove.
show an ornamental folded pattern. A curi-
ous account, from Peter Martyr, is given
below, in reference to children in the King's
village sometimes being born with a double
crown, for which exceptional feature a par-


Fro. Xt. JAMAICA WOODEN IMAGES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.


ment of ornamental stine carving. They
represent a more elaborate head on a plain,
truncated, conical body, terminated by a
flat base. The largest is 1i inches high and
inches across the base. It is formed of
a rather coarse sandstone, with a dark
brown, external coloration or patina. Ori-
ginally the surface must have been very
smooth, if not polished ; but, evidently as a
result of the burial for a long period in the
earth, it is now minutely pitted and
roughened. A distinct groove separates
the body, about half an inch from the base,
into two very unequal parts.
The ears do not project much, the eye
cavities are large and circular, and, along


ticular Zeme was regarded as partially re-
sponsible.
The other specimen is somewhat
smaller, measuring 44 inches in height
and 21 inches across the base. It is made
of a close-grained mass of fossil coral, of a
considerable degree -of hardness, and ob-
tained, in doubt, from the limestone rocks
in the island. The surface was much
smoother originally, and has now a mottled
white and brown patina.
The ears are prominent, bearing a large,
non-perforated, lower lobe, and present an
ornamentalfolded pattern of the same type as
that exhibited on the crown of the first des-
cribed specimen. The eye and mouth cavi-


~





Plate 4






IMAGES AND AMULETS.


ties are also of the same character; but the
former are smaller, oval in shape, and bear
a projecting rim, while the latter is large,
with a sub-marginal groove. A narrow groove
above may perhaps be intended to distin.
guish a flat covering or crown to the head.
The specimens have each a flat base, and
show no evidence of having been used as
pestles; indeed the coral and sandstone are
scarcely of the necessary hardness.
The faces may be compared with that on
the stone stool or chair figured on p. 827 of
the Guesde Collection," the eyes, mouth,
and ears having much in common.
One finds itdifficult to discriminatebetween


--- -
FrI. XII. WOODEN CARVING IN THE GUESDE
CO.I.ECTION."
(Coptied from the Saithsonian Report, 1884,fig. 204,
p. 831).
such carved figures as to whether they should
he regarded as images or as pestles. Comparing
these two objects with the one represented in
fig. 1, on the same Plate, there is much simi-
larity in design and execution. The latter,
however, is rounded at the base, as if it had
been employed for pounding, while, the.
former are flattened.

WOODEN IMAGES.
In the last number of the Journal of the
Institute (1896) is a facsimile, reproducedon
the previous page,of an engravingin 'A rchwo-
logia" (1803) of three Jamaica wooden


Images in the British Museum. With regard
to these the Editor supplies the accompany-
ing details: -'In 1799 they were exhibited
at the Society of Antiquaries, London, and
the following account appears of them in
the Appendix to "Archaeologia" Vol. 14,
1803, p. 269."

April I1, 1799.
"Isa :c Alves Rebello. Esq., F.A.S., exhib-
ited to the Society Three Figures, supposed
to be of Indian Deities, in Wood, found in
June 171i2, in a natural cave near the sum-
mit of a mountain, called Spots, in Carpen-
ter's Mountain, in the parish of Vere,: in the
island of Jamaica, by a surveyor in measur-
ing the land. They were discovered placed
with their faces (one of which is that of a
bird) towards the East."
The wooden carvings are extremely in-
teresting when compared with two existing
in the Guesde Collection" (1885, figs. 203-
205). One of these is reproduced in Fig.XII.
from which it is seen that the essential
characteristics in those from the two islands
are exactly alike. The most distinguishing
feature is the circular constrictions on the
legs and arms. Fig. 201, in the paper referred
ferred to, shows the high back of the chair or-
namented with scrolls and concentric rings.
but the figures of the Jamaican examples are
not sufficiently clear to determine whether
any such ornamentation occurs on them.
In Dr. Chanca's letter, describing part of the
Second Voyage of Columbus, is given a refer-
ence (1870, p. 30), to the habit of the natives of
Guadaloupe (Ayay, Turuquiera) of wearing
hands on their legs: We were enabled to dis-
tinguish which of the women were natives, and
which were captives, by the Caribbees wear-
ing o. each leg two bands of woven cotton,
the one fastened round the knee, and the
other round the ankle; by this means they
make the calves of their legs large, and the
above-mentioned parts very small." In
Irving's Columbus (Vol.I., p. 199) is another
notice, quoted also by Mason, of the natives
of Santa Cruz wearing similar bands on
their arm' id legs. The constrictions on
the arms a,'d logs of the carved images are
significant.,. this custom; while, in the quota-
tion from Peter Martyr, given below, men-
tion is made of the Indians fashioning their
Zemes of wood, as well as of other material.

*Jarpenter's Mountain is now included in the
parish of Manchester, created in 1817.







INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA,


AMIUJ.TS.

In 1879, Mr. (. P. O'r. de Montagnac dis-
covered two small stone imn.ges on some re-
cently disturbed ground at Rennock Lodge,
situated on a small plateau at a height of
about 400 feet up the Long Mountain. They
were associated with accumulations of ma-
rine shells and fragments of pottery, such as
are met with on the top of the hill at Weireka.
The larger (Fig. XIII.) is a neatly carved
representation of a human head and neck,
and is perforated behind for suspension. It
is 2* inches long and 1V inches from ear to
ear; the body below the neck has been
broken off. The material is a soft crystal-
line limestone, scratching readily with a


were represented, raised high at the shoul-
ders, such as is shown in the Latimer
Collection," fig. 32.
The two are undoubtedly of the same
type as those figured (figs. 32-34) as amu-
lets in the Latimer Collection from Porto
Rico. Especially does the smaller Jamaican
specimen agree with fir 32, which is a small
kneeling figure made of white marble. The
arms and legs are represented as pinioned
back, and the shouller-blades are perforated
for suspension.
Similarly with the Amulets in the
'"Gneste Collectio"' (p. 739): "The principal
amulet is of carbonate of lime in bladed
crystallization. It represents a wmboya (evil
spirit) with bended arms and legs, and the


FIG. XIII. MARBLE AMULETS.
From the Long Mounitain. Nat. size.


knife, and forms a marble of a greyish or
slightly greenish colour, such as is found in
various parts of the island, especially at the
eastern end. The upper part of the head
bears some resemblance to that figured in
"Flint Chips," p. 227, fig. 6, occurring on
the top of a carved stone pestle found in
ITayti. The nose, chin, eyes, and ears are
clearly distinguished; the perforation is I
inch in diameter and extends for 11 inches
through the upper part of the back of the
neck.
The smaller object is 11 inches long, and
is likewise incomplete below. Though made
of the same kind of stone the figure is of a
different shape, the facial characters not
being well pronounced. It is broken at the
sides, but there is a suggestion that arms


virile organ in a state of action. The
shoulders are pierced posteriorly to allow of
suspension of the amulet."
Owing to the broken imperfect state of
the lower portions of the Long Mountain
specimens, and considering the conditions
under which they were discovered, washed
out of the earth associated with a refuse-
heap, there can be little doubt in regarding
them as amulets discarded by the aborigines,
because broken. The Long Mountain, even
at different levels, was evidently a thickly
populated ocality in pre-Columbian times,
and further examination may yield addi-
tional important results.
These two objects, so far as the Museum
collections show, are the only ones belonging
tothisgroup of aboriginal relics hitherto found






ALVA CYS AND AJIULEJJS.


in Jamaica; though, as above quoted, some-
what similar examples are known from other
parts of the West Indies. They were probably
worn or carried about the person and intended
to act as charms or preservatives against evil
or mischief. That the Indians were accus-
tomed to wearing such objects for thispurposa
is recorded by various writers. Peter Martyr
(Dec. 1, lib. ix., pps. 50-54) gives a long ac-
count of the worship and superstition of the
inhabitants of Hispaniola (Ilayti), which we
may assume to be very much the same as
those of Jamaica. The following extracts
(italics added) relate to their images:
' they make certain images of Gossampine
cotton ..... These images they make
sitting much like unto the pictures of spirits
and devilles which our painters are ac-


customed to paint upon walles...... These
images the inhabitauntes call Zeaoes, whereof
the least, made to the likenebse of young
devilles, they binde to their foreheades when
they goe to the warres against their ene-
mies ... .. Of these, they believe to
obtain raine, if raine bee lacking, likewise
fire weather: for they think that these
Zernes are the mediatours and messengers
of the great God . divers of the in
habitantes honour Zeries of divers fashions:
some make them of wood: other ........
make them of stone and marble. Some they
make of rootes. .. They say also, that in the
kinges village there are sometime children
borne having two crownes, which they sup-
pose to be the children of Corochotum the
Zemes."


CHAPTER VI.

ORNAMENTS.

Perforated Shell Ornaments : Calcedoy Beads.


Close investigation of the cave earth at
Richmond Hill has yielded to Lady Blake,
Mr. Ioumsey. and the writer, a collection of
thirty-two smallexamp)les ofthestellof Oliva
reticularis, Lamk. (Fig. XIV.). They are
all artificially perforated through the dorsal
portion of the body whorl, a little distance
from the anterior (mouth) end, apparently
for the purpose of being strung together, as
if to form a necklace or armlet. At the
place of perforation the shell
has been made thinner by
grinding, in some cases with a
convex implement, in others
S by rubbing on a smooth plain
S surface ; or, again, by being
deeply and narrowly notched
.' / with some sharper implement,
'-" Y: such as a piece of flint. An
FIG. XIV. Oliva reticularis, Lamk. irregul ar
Artificially ground, perforated, hole, vary-
and spiral portion chipped off. ing in size,
Nat. size. has then
then made at these thinner, weaker
places, through which a string could easily
be passed and then out through the
mouth of the shell, and thus all could lie
strung together as a, necklace. In no ex-
ample has the perforation been made by


drilling. Another feature is that in every
case the spiral portion of the shell has been
broken off at the last suture, so that only
the body whorl remains. This is stated to
happen accidentally with recent shells; but,
from the rugged chipped edge presented in
the remains under consideration,.there can
be little doubt that it was produced arti-
ficially. Perhaps it may have been effected
to lighten the weight of the shells, as their
thickness makes them somewhat heavy.
Oliva recticularis is very common around
the shores at the present day. With regard
to its appearance in the fresh condition,
Mr. Vendryes observes : "A magnificently
coloured and polished species, white with
pink or chestnut zig-zag longitudinal mark-
ings and fasciculi around the suture; some-
times there is a bluish tinge through which
the white ground shines, and which much
enhances the beautiful appearance of the
shell. One could hardly imagine a more
gorgeous and striking object than necklaces
made of these shells and worn on the dark
skin of the Indian."
As now obtained, after such a long inter-
val, from amongst the earth covering the
floor of the cave, the shells have lost all the
original beauty of their bright, enamelled






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


surface, having only a dull, dirty brown
patina. Of specimens sent him, Prof. Mar-
son writes : Many of the ground Oliva are
found in both continents, and I have thought
that the curiously rolled tin pendants
of our Indians were copied from this peculiar
shape of bead."
Three large perforated shells, obtained
from the Halberstadt cave, are of a different
type, though evidently used for personal
decoration. Two, Fasciolaria tulipa, Linn.,
and Triton (Gymnatiuim) femorale, Linn.,
are large marine shells, very common among
the West Indian islands; while the third.
Helix (Partlhena) jamaicensis, Chemn.. is
a terrestrial form restricted to Jamaica. Un-
like the Oliva, these shells are perfect with
the exception of the artificial perforation,
which in each case is small and of a differ-
ent character from that met with in the
shells of the refuse-heaps. Of the Fascio-
laria tulipa Mr. Vendryes notes that the
varieties are numerous and all showy, and
that it has been met with only on one or
two occasions in the kitchen-middens which
have been examined in Jamaic i, so that the
aborigines did not appear to have used the
animal for food ; indeed it is too coriaceous
to make this probable. The perforation is
incomplete, but is interesting as showing
that, at any rate in this particular example.
it was executed by some drilling tool.
The hole is perfectly conical with smooth
sides, in contrast to the irregular edges- of
the Oliva, and there is no preliminary wear-
ing away or thinning of the shell to facilitate
the perforation.
The fresh colour of Triton femorale is
brown, with white ribs, which, with the
well-marked varices and peculiar form of
the shell, give rather a striking appearance,
and would render it a desirable object for
ornamentation.' The hole was made
through one of the thinnest parts of the
body whorl.
Helix jamaicensis, from Mr. Vendryes's
researches, is not found in the eastward
parts of the island, but occurs in the central,
mountainous districts. It was probably
taken to Halberstadt, from Manches-
ter or Upper Clarendon. The shell is
a handsome one when fresh, being dark
brown, with one,. two, or three white
zones on the body whorl. The perforation
is quite small with sinooth edges, as if bored.
For purposes of ornamentation, and as
articles of exchange amongst partially
civilized tribes, it is to be noted that marine


shells are mostly used in preference to land
shells, by reason of their much greater
hardness and durability ; those of the pul-
monates being generally thin and fragile.
The shell of Helix jamaicensis is, how-
ever, a good sized, rather thick type.
Numerous references are given by the
early Spanish writers to the dress and orna-
ments worn by the aborigines of the West
Indies, at the time of the discovery by
Columbus.
In regard more especially to the use of
marine shells as ornaments, by the natives
of Hayti, Benzoni. as translated by Smyth
(1887, p. 263) states (italics added):- -"When
thecacique of La Espanola wished to celebrate
a feast in honour of his principal false deity,
he commanded all his vassals, both men and
women to come to him on a certain day .
. the men painted black, red, anl
yellow, with plumes of parrot and other
feathers, with ornaments of sea-shells round
their necks, their legs and their ,rn ,."
Accounts are given in the discoveries
of the relies of the North American Indians
of the occurrence of shells. 'ilso first ground
down and then pierced with a hole in the
lower part for the purpose of stringing
them Mr. Stevens in Flint Chips" (p.
445-7) refers to a deposit of Indian relics in
Illinois, described by Mr. Rau, amongst
which was about a bushel of small fossil
marine univalve shells partly pierced and
belonging almost entirely to the genus
Conovulus. On close examination 1 found
that these shells had been reduced, by grind-
ing. to greater thinness at the place of per-
foration, in order to facilitate the process of
piercing."

CAL.OKDOXNY BEADS.
In the Museum collections is a string of
twenty flattened calcedony beads ordiscs,
obt-ined by the Hon. Win. Fawcett and
M r.DelaHayefruom a deposit of aboriginal re-
mains at Vere, Clarendon (see page 15). The
beads were discovered in 18I.O, while holes
were being dug in a cane piece. Lady Blake
also possesses another series obtained in
Jamaica, and Mr. De la Haye states that
there were in the same place numerousipieces
of partially worked stone and other incom-
plete beads. 'I he two groups are figured in
the Journal of the Institute, August, 1894,
and one series is again shown on Plate VI.
Calcedony, arranged in layers, occurs
naturally in various places in the Tertiary
limestone of the island,






Plate 5


FIG. 2


r


FIG. 6


POTTERY FROM CAVES.


FIG. 3


FIG. 4


FIG. 7


-,.






ORntAMENTS.


The beads differ in length, some
being only mere discs I of an inch .in
thickness, while the longest are I an inch.
They vary in diameter from to r of an
inch, and are beautifully rounded and
polished. The drilling, except in the
thinnest, has been effected from both
flattened ends, meeting near the middle.
often at different inclinations. The size of
the holes is very variable, Considering the
hardness of the material, and the well
finished shape and surface, the perforations
must have required a large amount of time
and expenditure of energy to produce,
remembering the rude implements employed
in the execution.
In the Latimer Collection" from Porto
Rico, Prof. Mason describes (p. 378) A
string of seventy small chalcedony beads,
about the size of peas. They are quite
perfectly rounded and perforated-some of
them in two directions. This is the most
remarkable sample of aboriginal stone
polishing and drilling that has ever come
under the observation of the writer. It is
exceedingly doubtful whether another col-
lection of so many witnesses of savage
patience and skill has been found anywhere
in one specimen."
He further reminds one of the eight
hundred beads of a certain stone called ciba,
given by Guacanagari to Columbus on his
second voyage," which are mentioned by
Herrera, and on which the Indians set great
value. Numerous other references occur, in
the contemporaneous Spanish writers, to the
dress and ornaments worn by the natives of
Jamaica, and of the West Indies generally,
at the time of their discovery by Columbus.
Several are given of the use of strings of
variously coloured beads.
In the account by Bernaldez of the
Cacique and his party who visited Col-
umbus when he was obliged to shelter in
Old Harbour Bay, on his second visit to
Jamaica, in July, 1494, we have a description
of the full regalia of the Cacique, and of the
dresses of his wife and daughters.
The account, translated by Irving (Life
of Columbus, '88 Ed, p. 276) is as follows
(italics added) :
Around his head was a band of small
stones of various colours, but principally
green, symmetrically arranged, with large
white stones at intervals, and connected in
front by a large jewel of gold. Two plates
of gold were suspended to his ears by rings
of very small green stones. To a necklace


of white beads, of a kind deemed precious by
them, was suspended a large plate, in the
form of a fleur-de-lys, of guanin, an inferior
species of gold ; and a girdle of variegated
stones, similar to those around his head, com-
pleted his regal decorations.
His wife was adorned in a
S similar manner, having also
Sa very small apron of cotton,
Sand bands of the same round
her arms and legs. The daugh-
,' ters were without ornaments,
excepting the eldest and hand-
FIG. XV. QUARTZ ORNA- somest. who had
MENT. a girdle of small
From Cranbrook. Nat. size. stones, from which


FIG. XVi. PERFORATED SPINDLE-SHAPED
STONE, "SINKER."
From 'ere. Nat. size.
was suspended a tablet, the size of an ivy
leaf, composed of various coloured stones,
embroidered on networkk of cotton."
It is recorded[ that Columbus received
from the Haytianu on one occasion 605 pieces
of jewellery of various colours. Among
the 605 pieces of jewellery were eight strings
of small beads made of white, green and
red stones, one string of gold beads, one
regal crown of gold (1887,p. 276).
A perforated cylinder or bead from Bar.






INDIAN PEL'JIANS IN JAMA10A.


bados, lent to the Exhibition by the Rev.
T. W. Bindley, is 21 inches in length, and
perforated right Ihrough by a hole about 1'
of an inch in diameter.
The small piece of worked quartz. repre-
sented inFig. XV., was fond by Mr.Tow nend
in the refuse-heaps at Cranbrook (p. 20).
It resembles the centra of two contiguous


vertebrae, and is, no doubt, to be regarded
as an ornament.
The object shown in Fig. XVI., and ob-
tained from the Vere deposits (p. 15), is
generally regarded as a sinker for fish-
ing apparatus, the perforation enabling it
to be suspended.


CHAPTER VII,

ROCK-CARVINGS olt PET1IoOLYI'IIS.*
(WITHVr rniE ASSISTANCE lp AMi. J. F. BnENNAN, PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTI'MENTI).

Dryladl, St Marlly: Panltrepaot, ['relan :ll2 MOuntlatin Ivrer" St. Jok hi p :, Kewjshot, St.
Jawe.S : ock-Pictures :'Ptroglypihs in otker 1W'est Indiau Isolods.


Within the past year or two four exam-
ples of probable aboriginal- rock-carvings,
all previously unrecognized, have been
brought to public notice. They occur at
widely separated and remote spots, and,
though rude, are without doubt of similar
origin. Two, those in Trelawny and St.
Mary, represent only an individual human
figure, the face being the most distinct fea-
ture; others, at Kempshot and St. John,
show numerous inscriptions. The former are
very simple, representing only the face, while
the latter exhibit more complicated designs.
In every case they are rather deep incisions
in the soft limestone or on stalactitic mat-
ter, and present a more or less perfect circle
enclosing a face ; the lower markings are
less definite. Though mostly in caves or
recesses, protected from the rain, the inci-
sions or grooves show a very rough pitted
surface, as if from weathering or solution
extending over a long period. It is not
likely, however, that the surface and edges
were ever neatly made, having evidently
been executed by some implement not well
adapted to the purpose. A comparison with
others known from various West Indian
islands, and from Guiana, shows there
can be little doubt as to the uniformity of
the whole series.

*The term Petroglyph is restricted by Mallery (1893,
p.31) for productions in which the picture, whe-
ther carved or pecked, or otherwise incised, and
whether figured only by coloration, or by coloration
and incision together, is upon a rock either in situ
or. sufficiently large. for inference that the picture
was imposed upon where it was found."


DRYLAND, ST. MARY.
The Petroglyph at Dryland, representing
a human figure (PI. VI., fig. 3), occurs in the
parish of St. Mary, just where it borders on the
parish of St. Catherine between Highgate
and Pear Tree Grove. It is found in a recess
at the angle of a small closed gorge, about
15 feet high, in the soft, yellow limestone.
The gorge was probably at one time a river-
course; a pit, evidently an old sink-hole,
occurring in it.
At present the immediate district, known
as the Dryland Settlement, is a rugged ruin-
ate woodland, about half a mile from the
public road, and has a stream behind to the
north-east. In a straight line it is distant
nine miles from the northern shore of the
island, and has an altitude of 1,470 feet.
Well-wooded surrounding elevations give
the locality considerable picturesque beauty.
Numerous settlements are met with in the
vicinity, but none of the oldest inhabitants
knows anything of the history of the carv-
ing. A local celebrity, over 80 years of age,
and rejoicing in the name of "Prince Wil-
liam," remembers seeing it when a boy.
As contributing to the human likeness
advantage has been taken of a vertical pro-
jection, covered with stalactitic matter, on
the wall of the gorge. Upon this, deep in-
cisions have been made to distinguish the
various regions of the body; a circular one
marks the extent of the face, and others the
eyes, nose, and mouth. Incisions are further
found in various places below ; but are not
of sulticient definiteness to allow of their im-
port being accurately determined, the face







Plate 6


























FiG. I-VESSEL WITH FLATTENED SKULL INSIDE,
FROM RICHMOND HILL CAVE.


FIG. 3-ROCK-CARVING AT DRYLAND, ST. MARY.


FIG. 2--CALCFDONY BEADS, FROM VERB.








1ROCK-CCAhVIXUS OR PFETIROGLYPHS.


being the most characteristic portion. A
receding area above the face is probably only
a part of the original natural form of the
projection. A fractured surface on one side
may represent where an arm has been
broken off. The body terminates inferiorly
much like the surrounding stalatitic covered
projections. The total length is 5 feet 6 in-
ches, the length of the face 14 inches, the
diameter of the circular eye sockets 1 inches,
the distance between their centres 3 inches.
The depth of the grooves varies throughout
from J to 3 of an inch. The greater part of
the surface was evidently smooth at one
time, but is now, as is also the case with the
surface of the incisions, considerably rough-
ened and pitted by weathering and solution,
denoting considerable antiquity.
For the photograph from which the figure is
taken, and also for that on P1. VII., fig. 2,
the markings on the rock had been care-
fully traced with a charcoal pencil so as to
render, in the shade, a good negative possible.

PANTREPANT, TRELAWNY.
Pantrepant is a large property in Trelaw-
lawny, beyond the Good Hope estate, and
belongs to Mr. A. Townend. It is on the
orders of the Cockpit country, about nine
miles from the sea, and 387 feet above the
sea-level. In slavery days it was a cele-
brated sugar-estate, but is now used largely
for cattle-grazing. The location of the carv-
ing is in one of the wildest and most pic-
turesqlue parts of the property on the side
of a hill, with the Martha Brae river run-
ning below. The white Tertiary limestone
here begins to be rugged and precipitous, as
in the typical parts of the Cockpit country
near, and shows the result of very consider-
able weathering action. From the house
on the property, the approach to tlhe
carving is through the old Negro village,
then for some distance through ruinate
pasture, and afterwards up the rugged
side of a hill where one's way through
the bush had to be cut in advance. The
primary object of the visit, which accident-
ally led to the discovery, was to examine
the accumulation of bones dropped on the
floor of an archway in the limestone rock,
from an owl's nest. The hill here is very
precipitous, and a natural archway leads
through a I].li....t;I portion. The abun-
dant crevices and recesses in tile sides and
roof of the archway are taken advantage of
by numerous bats and birds ; while, in one


part, the ground is strewn with hundreds of
skulls and bones, principally those of rats
and bats, from the owl's nest overhead;
Other parts of the floor are covered with bat
manure, portions of which have evidently
been removed in recent times. Climbing
round a projecting part of the rock, a natural
recess in the side of the hill is seen, on the
vertical walls of which the incised carving
is discovered. It is a rude representation
of a human fikin.,
about 4 feet long and
1 foot brpad, with the
facial part only well de-
fined (Fig. XVII.). The
grooves denoting the
outlines of the face,
the eyes, and mouth,
are well marked, being
nearly an inch in
depth. The parts re.
presenting the eyes are
directed obliquely in-
wards, as in the eye
N apertures of the Mon-
golian race. The edges
FIG. XVII. ROCK-CARVING and surface of the
AT PANTREPANT, TRELAWNY. carving, though
evidently smooth at one time, are now
roughened and pitted by the solution and
weathering of the limestone.
The parts below the face are not well de-
fined; incisions, probably intended to repre-
sent arms, can be distinguished, while the
slightly projecting portion of rock in which
the carving is made forms a natural outline
tending to complete the resemblance to the
human figure.

MOUNTAIN RIVER, ST. JOHN.
The spot where these more important carv-
ings (Plate VII.) occur is reached by
travelling on the St John's road to near the
12th milestone from Spanish Town, then
turning to the right through the property
known as Berry Hill and pursuing a very
rough and steep track .over brecciated lime-
stone, where the sharp weathered edgesof
the rock render walking very difficult. For
a distance of about one and a half miles frofi
the main road one descends nearly 200 feet to
a spring, and then ascends to about the, same
height. The elevation is between 1,200 aiid
1,400 feet above the sea. The :,ot can
scarcely be called a cave, a recess being
formed by a huge limestone boulder which
has lodged in such a manner as to fonrm.a
roof over the figures. The latter are pro-






INDIAN REMAINS IN JAMAICA.


duced by deep incisions, about an inch broad stone. There is a thick deposition of stal-
and half an inch deep, in the limestone actitic material, which has become very hard.
rock. They present all the appear- The figures are only representations of human
ances of age, being rough and weathered, heads, the length of the faces averaging about
and show no marks of any tool. The roof seven inches, the breadth five inches, and the
protects them from rain. The principal distance between the eye centres two inches.
figure (fig. 2) measures four feet in height, The depths of the incisions vary from to I
and about one foot in breadth near the up- of an inch, and are very indefinite in some.
per portion. Advantage has been taken of a The ones distinguishing the eyes and mouth
projecting piece of rock to give an impres- are not very deep or well marked, but those
sion of solidity and relief. As shown in the surrounding the faces are much more so.
photograph the eyes and mouth are repre- The heads are fairly upright. No trace of
sented, and the face is surrounded by two any other inscription is seen. There is a
parallel three-sided incisions, producing some- marked difference in the carvings, one series
what the appearance of a thick hood. The shows that a sharp chisel was used, but the
outer incision is continued below, giving to others are blunt and much water-worn.
the whole the resemblance of a shrouded :Whether anyone in more recent times has
human body. Other figures around are .added to some of the original figures to fur-
smaller and of various forms, but all more
or less represent the outlines of human ,,"T !
beings in a grotesque and distorted fashion. i ,.
A fallen piece of rock, measuring about four .
feet cube, lies upon the ground near by, and tr
bears similar carvings, but the figures are \
not sb complete (fig. 1).


KEMPSHOT, ST. JAMES.
These carvings were first brought to the
notice of the Institute by Maxwell Hall,
Esq., M.A., Government Meteorologist, who
writes as follows:-"In the Home-common
of Kempshot Pen is a small cave containing
some rude stone-carvings. When I first
saw them, 25 years ago, I supposed them to
be "artistic" attempts of pen-boys, past and
present. The cave is at the base of a hill,
and is easy of access from the pasture. The
further end is covered with stalactites, on
which are several rough carvings of human
faces; there are eleven fairly well marked,
and a few more not so distinct. Unfortunately
many have, I believe, been recently muti-
lated by gangs of labourers, who take refuge
in the cave from time to time."
SLater one of us visited the spot to note
and compare the inscriptions more fully and
to photograph them.
Kempshot is situated about eight miles
from Montego Bay, and is at an elevation of
1,600 feet above sea-level. The cave is
away from the house, say 150 feet, and faces
the east. The nearest spring is nearly two
miles distant, but there is an appearance of
an old water-course or gully a chain or two
from the mouth. It is about 25 feet long
by 12 broad, with an average height of
10 feet, and is a natural formation in lime-


FIG. XVIII. THREE OP THE ROCK-CARVINGS AT
KEMISHOT, ST. JAMES.
their embellish the cave is hard to say. There
are twelve figures, and a possible thirteenth,
all cut on the stalactites. The inside of the cave
is sheltered, and, as it is not well lighted, the
carved lines, before photographing, were ren-
dered more distinguishable by means of a
charcoal pencil, otherwise one could not ob-
tain a good negative. No remains of pot-
tery were to be seen, but apparently
a cavity occurs below and has become
filled up by fallen stone.

ROCK-PICTURES.
A series of rock-pictures has lately been
discovered in the island, associated with the
petroglyphs atMountain River, and occurring
on the inner surface of the block of stone






















































ROCK-CARVINGS AT MOUNTAIN RIVER, ST. JOHN-S.


Plate 7


FIG. 2


FIG. I






ROCK-CArllVINYGS' OR ]'ETROIGLYPHIIS.


constituting the recess. They are rough re-
presentations of various forms of animals,
such as lizards, birds, and turtles, between
one and two hundred figures being depicted.
The pigment employed is black, and can
not be readily abraded Further examin-
ation is necessary before a more detailed
description can be given.

PETH:O(LYPIIS IN OTIER WEST' INDIAN
ISLANDS.
An important and valuable paper upon
the petroglyphs of the Greater and Lesser
Antilles has recently been published by
M. Pinart (Note sur les Pdtroglyphes et
Antiquites des Grandes et Petites Antilles.
Par A. L. Pinart. Paris; 1890. Folio Fac-
simile of MS.). Unfortunately we have not
been able to obtain a copy of this, and for
what follows are indebted to the extracts
given in the very elaborate work by Colonel
Garrick Mallery on "Picture-writing of the
American Indians" (Tenth Annual Report
of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1888-'89). Pi-
nart explored a number of the islands of the
West Indies but found that the neighbour-
ing one of Porto Rico furnishes the greatest
amount of evidence of development in the
pictographic art. At la Cueva del Islote, on
the north side of the island, are to be seen
inscriptions all around. "The incisions are
very deep, and the edges are generally dulled
by the blows of the hammer; in certain
spots, toward the lower part of the grotto,
several inscriptions are partially effaced by
the action of the sea, but those of the upper
part are in a remarkable state of preserva-
tion. Beneath certain principal figures of
the groups are little circular basin-like de-
pressions cut in the rock with a trench run-
ning down toward the bottom ...... Tlhe


most noticeable thing in this group of in
scriptions is the frequency of the. grinning
faces in a circle, often alone, often accompa-
nied by two others placed at the sides, which
are universally met with in every inscription
found in the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
The same may be said of the human figure
apparently swaddled in cloths like a very
young infant, the head and body more or
less decorated, which is also very frequently
found (p. 136)."
While in the Bahamas, Lady Blake
furnished the American Bureau of Ethnolo-
gy with an account and sketches of petro-
glyphs occurring in those islands. They are
referred to in the Report above mentioned
(pps. 137-9). The carvings were found
in a cave on the northern shore of a small
island at Rum Cay. The inscriptions are
very numerous, and most of them rudely re-
present human faces enclosed in a circle,
"and the markings must have been nearly
half an inch in depth, cut into the face of
the rock, and seemed to us such as might have
been made with a sharp stone implement."
Colonel Mallery considers the petroglyphs
to bear a remarkable similarity to those in
British Guiana, "and the authorship would
seem to relate to the same group of natives,
the Caribs." The well-known slab bearing
ornamental inscriptions found in Guada-
loupe, and represented in the "Guesde Col-
lection" (fig. 208), is also reproduced in Col.
Mallery's Report, and its comparison with
the Guiana carvings recommended. These
latter are very fully described and figured
in im Thurn's "Among the Indians of Gui-
ana" (pps. 389-410), and certainly, along
with these others mentioned in different
islands of the West Indies, bear some resem-
blance to the Jamaican carvings, especially
to those at Mountain River.






REFERENCES.


1G05. MARTYR, PETER. "The Historie of the West Indies." (Published in Latin by Mr.
Hakluyt, and translated into English by M. Tok, Gent.), London [about 1605].
1707. SLOANE, Sir HANS. "A Voyage to the Islands of Madeira, Barbados, Nieves, St.
Christopher's and Jamaica, etc." 2 vols. Vol. II., 1725, London.
1740. LESLIE, CHARLES. "A new History of Jamaica, etc." 2nd edition. London.
1774. LONG, EDWARD. "The History of Jamaica." 3 vols., London.
1807 EDWARDS, BRYAN. The History, Civil and Commercial of the British Colonies in
the West Indies." 4th edition. 3 vols., London.
1870. MAJOR, R. H. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus." (Translated and edited),
London.
1870. STEVENS, EDWARD T. "Flint Chips." London.
1875. BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE. "The Native Races of the Pacific States of North
America." 5 vols., London.
1877. MASON, OTIS T. "The Latimer Collection of Antiquities from Porto Rico in the
National Museum. at Washington, D.C." Smithsonian Report for 1876; pps.
372-393. Washington.
1883. I THURN, EVERARD F. "Among the Indians of Guiana." London.
1885. NADAILLAC, MARQUIS DE. "Pre-historic America." (Translated by N. D'Anvers.
Edited by W. H. Dall). London.
1885. MASON, OTIS T. The Guesde Collection of Antiquities in Pointe-ip-pitre, Guade-
loupe, West Indies." Smithsonian Report for 1884, pps. 731-837. Washington.
1887. ROTr, HY. LING. "The Aborigines of Hispaniola." Jour. Anthrop. Instit., Vol.
XVI., pps. 247-286.
1888. IRVING, WASHINGTON. The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus." 2 vols.
Vol. I., 1888; Vol. IT., 1876.
1890. FLOWER, W. H. "Exhibition of Two Skulls from a Cave in Jamaica." Jour.
Anthrop. Instit., November, 1890.
1890. BLAKE, Lady. "The Norbrook Kitchen-midden." Victoria Quarterly, Vol. II.,
No. IV. Kingston.
1893. OBER, FREDERICK A. "In the Wake of Columbus." Boston.
1893. MALLERY, GARRICK. Picture-writing of the American Indians." Tenth Annual
Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1888-'89. Washington, D.C.
1894. CUNDALL, FRANK. "The Story of the Life of Columbus and the Discovery of Ja-
maica." Jour. Instit. Jam., Vol. II., No. 1.
1894. OBER, FREDERICK A. "Alorigines of the West Indies." Proc. Amer. Antiq. Soc.
Worcester, Mass., U.S.A.
1894. QUELCI, J. J. "Carib Remains from Pin. Mon Repos." Argosy, 21st April,
Demerara.
1894. HOLMES, AV. H. Caribbean influence on the Prehistoric Ceramic Art of the South-
ern States." American Anthropologist, Washington, D.C.
1894. THIIOAS, CYRUS. Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology."
Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1890-'91, Washington, D.C.
1895. FLOWER, Sir WM. H. "On Recently Discovered Remains of the Aboriginal Inha-
bitants of Jamaica." Nature, Oct 17, London.
1896. "Jamaica Wooden Images in the British Museum." Jour. Instit. Jam., Vol. II.,
No. 3.
1896. DUIDEN, J. E. 'Phases in Jamaican Natural History." Jour. Instit. Jam., Vol.
II., No. 3.





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i INCHES R CLA ENLt

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REFEREN OE. II'S'.i l. $L .s.b1AFL& e n.itL **. o LD
Division of Parishes .. ..... ...R'. --" .ONs
Principal Elevations thus. DolpH

Railway and Stations constructed L St A, s o a
Do. .in course of construction -------------- ,air HaRE
Ports at which Coastal Steamers call. .. BA
Lighthouses 4 11
Prinipal Churches and Chapels + n y
Post Ofces ........ a O.-owns which _Ha

District Medical Offices.. giu hae a ths Kitchen Middens Jokn y
District Court stations. ... TYPE. Caves .... Thre Sand

Markets ... . xRock Carvings ............ + and
78 77 30'










MAP OF
THE ISLAND OF

JAMAICA
SHOWING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF ABORIGINAL INDIAN REMAINS
(Prepared for the Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, Vol. II., No. 4, 1897.)
Scale of Statute Miles.
O 1 82.3 + 5 I 1o20 25 30




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