Members of the institute
 Members' meetings
 Additions to the Library
 Art and Archaeology

Group Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica ...
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024651/00003
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
Physical Description: 2v. : front.,illus.,plates,ports.,maps. ; 26cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1894-99
Frequency: completely irregular
Subject: Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol.I-II. (1891/93-1894/99)
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol.I is composed of 8 parts; v.2 of 6 parts.
General Note: No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024651
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001366390
oclc - 05507203
notis - AGM7876
lccn - ca 05002337

Table of Contents
    Members of the institute
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Members' meetings
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 110-1
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
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        Page 118
        Page 118-1
        Page 119
        Page 120
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        Page 128-1
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        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Additions to the Library
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
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        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Art and Archaeology
        Page 178
        Page 178-1
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
Full Text



APRIL, 1895.



IE following is the personnel of the Board of Governors of the Insti-

tute : -
Master of University Col-
lege, ('C ,, ... p,, 1894-95
S director of Public Gar-
dens and Plantations.
J. W. PLAXTON, M.R.C.S., Medical Su-
perintendent, Lunatic Asylum.
H. VENDRYES, Advocate.
Rev. WILLIAM GILLIES, Co-Principal of
the Mico Institution.

G. C. HENDERSON, M.D., Lond.
late Assistant-Attorney-General.
JAMES ALLWOOD, Assistant Colonial Sec-
Superintending Medical Officer.


A LIST of those who have been elected
Members of the Institute since the
publication of the last list in the Journal is
given below:-
Colonel F. B. P. WHITE, London
Miss ANNA L. WARD, Waterbury, U.S.A
J. C. McGrLASiAN, Kingston.
II. BOGLE, Kingston.
D. P. FoucIE, Kingston.
DR. G. J. NEISIi, Plantain Garden River.
EYRE SIARP, Kingston.

F. IT. McDERMOT. Kingston.
W. T. JAMIESON. Kingston.
O. DECoRDOVA, Kingston.
R. J. S. WARAKER, London.
Q. O. ECKFORD, Kingston.
R. W. 1'. RICHARDS, lBuffi By.
C. B. RICKER. New Jersey, U.S.A.
Mrs. HAMILTON, Halfway-Tree.
Miss LAN), Halfway-Tree.
Rev. CIIAS. H. HALL, D.D., America.
Miss MINNIE J. LINDO, Kingston.
Rev ARTHUR JAMiES, B A., Kingston.
JAs. P. LUNAN, Kingston.
Louis Liwis, Kingston.
C. DUQuESNAY, Kingston.
Hon.S.L. CRANE, 1.D)., C.M.G., Kingston.



H. Fa~NCHI SIIAuP, Kingston.
DR. H. E. MAUNSELL. Kingston.
A. L. HARRIS, Kingston.
GEORGE F. JUDAH, Spanish Town.
Mrs. G.E.R. PEARCE, Kingston.
S. V. DURAN, Kingston.
Rev. M. C. CLARE, Kingston.
Mrs. E. FEURTADO, Kingston.
J. CAREW WARE, B.A., Kingston.
C.W.M. CASTLE, M.B., Gordon Town P.O.
G. DELGADO. Kingston.
L. M. PIETERSZ, Kingston.
Miss L. JOHNSON, Kingston.
E. R. ROE, Balaclava.
Rev. H. P. FREAN, Kingston.
Mrs. WILLIAMSON, Kingston.
R. H. PHILLIvPS, Kingston.
Miss ANNIE PALMER, Kingston.
Dr. D. M. M. Ross, Kingston.
Major-General BENGOUGII, C.B., Alder-
Dr. P. M. C. IMcCORMACK, Kingston.
Miss A. D. THOMPSON, Kingston.
Miss A. M. MCI)OUGAL, Kingston.
ITon. J. E. KERR, M.L.(!., Montego Bay.
ALFRED H. D'COSTA, Kingston.
.Mrs. KENNEDY, Kingston.
A. E. BURKE, Kingston.
P. W. JARVIS, Kingston.
S. C. DASILVA LINDO. Kingston.
Mrs. C. STRICKER, Clarendon.
R. M. WATSoN, Kingston.
Miss M. E. GEDDES, Kingston.
B. NosWORTiiY, Kingston.
J. GRINAN, Kingston.
PHILIP LEVY, Kingston.
IENRY HALL, Kingston.
E. A. LEWIS, Kingston.

JOHN DUNN, Kingston.
ARTHUR H. S. PAINE, Kingston.
Dr. H. R. MILTR, Kingston.
Miss EVELYN PAINE, Kingston.
A. H. RICHARD, Kingston
Mrs. C. A. BICKN :LL, Spanish Town.
Rev. W. D. PEARMAN, M.A., Potsdam.
Louis WINKLER, Kingston.
HARVEY McCREA, Chapelton.
Rev. Henry M. F. MACDERMOT, St.
F. M.. MORPHY, Kingston.
W. H. BURKE, Kingston.
J. W. MIDDLETON, Kingston.
C. H. YORKE SLADER, Kingston.
FRED. L. MYERS, Kingston.
J. R. LATREILLE, Kingston.
N. S. HENRIQUES, Kingston.
K. MCCARTHY, Kingston.
DAVID BALFOUR, Mandeville.
J. M. MACGREGOR, Mandeville.
Mrs. BARCLAY, Mandeville.
Mrs. MACDOWELL, Mandeville.
A. S. LINDO, Mandeville.
M. F. JOHNS, Mandeville.
Mrs. J. E. HEARNE, St. Andrew.
J. W. BRANDAY, Kingston.
C. F. POOLE, M.A. Kingston.
Rev. W. A. TUCKER, Spanish Town.
L. C. B. YEOMAN, Kingston.
Rev. J. D. HUNT, May Pen.
Miss M. R. GEDDES, Kingston.
Rev. JOSEPI W. GRAHAM, Port Maria.
Miss V. RADCLIFFE, Kingston.


ON Wednesday, the 6th of December,
1893, was held the eighteenth Members'
Meeting of the Institute. The Rev. Win.
Simms, M.A., Chirmnan "of the Board, wes
in the chair, and the Rev. Win. Gillies
and the Secretary were also present.

Mr. Simms, in introducing the lecturer,
Mr. William Cowper, M.A., said th-t he
felt convinced that before they left the
room that evening Mr. Uowper would
prove to them that there was much to learn
from a study of the life and writings of
Herodotus, and that such a study would
be interesting as well as instructive.

Mr. Ciwper then read a paper entitled
"Herodotus the Father of History," the
first of a series of papers on "Epochs and
Epoch-makers," of which the following is an
abstract :-
Herodotus was horn in 484B.C. at Halicarnassus,
a Greek colony which formed part of the domin-
ions of Artemisia, Queen of Caria, and therefore
was subject to the great king of Persia. He
belonged to a prominent family, one member of
which was put to death for political reasons, and
it is quite possible that some danger connected with
his kinsman's execution led Herodotus to leave
his native town: whatever the cause, he left
Halicarnassus about 457 and settled in the island
of Sams, whence he travelled into various coun-
tries : the extent of his travels is a disputed point,
but according to the popular account, he visited
places so far apart as Susa and the Greek colonies
in southern Italy, as the northern shores of the
Black Sea and the first cataract of the Nile. He
returned to Halicarnassus about 450, but finding
that his fellow townsmen took no interest in his
history, he sought a more enlightened audience in
Athens. However, although the merits of his work
were recognized in that city, his feelings as a
Greek would not allow him to remain without
political privileges: in Athens he was nothing but
a resident alien, and the Athenian citizenship
was guarded too jealously for him to hope that he
would ever be admitted to the franchise : in 443
therefore when the Athenians were establishing a
colony at Thurii in Southern Italy he enrolled
himself among the colonists and left Athens with
them. Of the rest of his life very little is known;
he certainly paid a visit to Athens in or after 428
and tradition states that he died at Thurii: the
date of his death, however, is unknown.
The credibility of Herodotus as a historian has
often been questioned, and in the present day the
Egyptologists have renewed the attacks which
were begun even in his own century: it is
generally believed that Herodotus was one of the
writers referred to by Thucydides as persons whose

aim was not instruction but amusement : (~esias,
a Greek physician, who lived at the court of the
king of Persia at the end of the fifth century
B.C. wrote a Persian history with the express in-
tention of disproving some of the statements made
by Herodotus, while the extant treatise entitled
The Malignity of Herodotus, of which Plutarch
was long supposed to be the author, attempts to
prove that many of the mistakes contained in the
history were not accidental but intentional distor-
tions of the truth. Till recent years, however,
these attacks had ceased and while it was
generally conceded that Herodotus made mis-
takes and had been deceived, it was
claimed that he had rendered good service
to the world by introducing a critical spirit
into historical composition, by drawing up a
definite and comprehensive scheme for the writ-
ing of history, and by endeavouring to learn his
facts at first hand by travel in the various countries
connected with his work. But now credit is
denied him on all these grounds by certain
scholars,-of whom, in England, Professor Sayce
is the most prominent.
There can, it is true, be no doubt that Herodo-
tus had a predecessor who could criticise the
writings of former historians and suggest ration-
alistic explanations of ancient legends: this was
Hecatnus of Miletus from whom Herodotus
himself borrowed without acknowledgment. It
must therefore be admitted that Herodotus was
not the first critical historian, but there is no
necessity to rob him of the credit which he
deserves for the plan on which he wrote his his-
tory: living as he did in the midst of people who
had taken part in the war between the Greeks
and Persians he was in an admirable position for
writing its history. He realized that this was only
a small part of the great struggle between the
eastern and western worlds and therefore began
his work with an attempt to shew how that strug-
gle originated: after giving an account- in part ori-
ginal, part plagiarized, sometimes accurate, some-
times incredible-of the nations concerning which
he had to write, he devoted the last five books of
his history to a valuable record of the Ionic revolt
and the Persian wars. In many of his statements
he is wholly inaccurate, and is wofully ignorant
of the difference between immediate and primary
causes, but he set the example of writing history
on an extensive and systematic plan, dealing not
with a little local feud, where he might be biassed
by partizanship, but with a great war which pro-
duced marked results in the history of the world.
It is, however, with reference to the travels of
Heiodotus and the investigations which he made
while travelling that Professor Sayce is most
hostile to the historian: not content with saying
that Herodotus was guilty of deliberate falsehood
concerning the extent of his travels, he asserts
that in Egypt at all events he was merely the
precursor of the modern tourist, at the mercy of
dragomen who for the sake of a little bakshish
were willing to show any temple to the inquisi-
tive Greek and to give him as much information
as he was willing to receive Moreover the Pro-
fessor would have us believe that Herodotus is
aware of his own ignorance and that he tries to con-


ceal it in some cases by an affectation of religious
reticence: one, at all events, of the passages in
which Herodotus is held to have displayed this
hypocrisy is capable of being explained by a refer-
ence to the Greek feeling with regard to the ill-
omened name of death. For my own part when
I consider the quaintness and simplicity of
Herodotus's style, and when I consider that he is
the recognized authority for our history of the
Persian wars, I cannot conceive that he was guilty
of the gross literary dishonesty which Professor
Sayce imputes to him.
In comparison with the perfection of a modern
history, the work of Herodotus suffers most from
the frequency with which he allows digressions on
unimportant topics to interrupt his narrative : in a
modern history the information given in these
digressions would be found in foot notes or ap-
pendices, but to Herodotus such conveniences of
composition were unknown: it is, moreover, in
these very digressions that the delightful naivete
of his style appeals most strongly to our fancy,-
witness the legend of Hippoclides the Athenian
who did not care though he had danced his wife
away, or the "Arabian Nights' Tale" of the treasury
of thampsinitus king of Egypt. But it is not
merely as a narrator of charming stories that
Herodotus has won a name: part of his fame rests
on his character as an acute observer of the
manners and custom of the people among whom
he lived, and he has secured a still higher re-
putation as the historian of those events which
saved Greece from Eastern despotism and altered
the history of the world. In the years before the
Egyptologists assailed the character of the historian
one might have quoted from his account of
Egyphian customs to prove the acuteness of his
observation, but recent commentaries on that
portion of his history are mere variations of the
statement that Herodotus is the Father of Lies:
especially is this the case with regard to a famous
description of the crocodile which the ancients
said was plagiarized and over the details of which
the moderns still dispute. But however great the
inaccuracy of this part of the history may be, we
can give Herodotus credit for having recognized
the fact that a good historian must do more than
give a bare record of names and events, and must
enable his readers to form some idea of the
countries and the customs of the people with whom
such names and events are connected.
An excellent method of estimating the merits of
Herodotus as the historian of events would be to
study his account of the two great Persian ex-
peditions against Greece: it would be found that
there are many digressions, much unnecessary
detail, and much garrulous story-telling: but the
fact remains that even the greatest of our English
writers on the subject was compelled to take
Herodotus as his authority for the story of one of
the most interesting periods of Greek History: it
is the story of a gallant struggle against great odds,
and we can well imagine that Herodotus hoped to
inspirehis readers with noble thoughts when he
wrote of the heroic defence of Thermopylae and the
great Greek victory at Salamis : even to translate
his simple story robs it of much of its charm, to
abbreviate is to spoil it.
In spite therefore of the depreciatory criticism
passed on him,we can still say that we owe much to
Herodotus, and, in point of fact, historians, painters
and poets have all acknowledged the debt. His
right to the title of Father of History has been
denied, but I cannot support such a denial nor do

I believe that the members of the Institute were
wrong in meeting to do him honour as an Epoch
maker in the writing of History.
In seconding a vote of thanks to Mr.
Cowper, which had been proposed by the
Rev. Leo Tucker, M.A., the Rev. Wm.
Gillies, in his remarks said that he was
much struck with one opinion expressed by
Mr. Cowper in which he thought there was
much truth, and that was that IHerodotus's
style gave evidence of truthfulness, and
tended to rebut the charge of exaggeration
and invention which had of recent years
been brought against him by Professor
Sayce and others.


ON Wednesday the 14th of February,
1894, was held the nineteenth Members'
Meeting of the Institute. The Rev. Win.
Simms, M.A., Chairman of the Board, was
in the chiir, and Dr. Plaxton and the Secre-
tary were also present.

The Rev. Win. Gillies read the second
paper of a series of "Epochs and Epoch-
makers" the subject of which was Bacon
and Philosophy." The following is an
abstract of the paper :-
At the outset, pointing out that the rise and in-
fluence of such a min, as Bacon's certainly formed
an epoch-making event in the history of mankind,
Mr. Gillies proceeded to show that Bacon's mag-
nificent intellect and his wonderful rhetorical
powers had captivated and ruled the greatest
minds in the scientific and philosophical world in
modern times, and through them had contributed
to the happiness and moulded the destiny of mil-
lions. And still, he said, that influence is not
spent. Nothing has come in from any quarter,
since his great works were published, to turn aside
the current of thought, which he did more than
any other writer or thinker to create. Not a few
things which we at present call new are but appli-
cations of Bacon's principles and were in their
nature foreseen by him. The new agriculture, the
new psychology, the new study of the child, the
new education, in so far as they are really new, are
the products of the Baconian philosophy.
A brief sketch, of the private and public
life of Bacon was given, and it was pointed out
that even at the early age of fifteen years Bacon
had adopted opinions diametrically opposed to the
scholastic philosophy then taught at the Univer-
sity, and rightly or wrongly called Aristotelian.
The questioning spirit grew with his personal
growth and his intellectual development, and re-
suited in the course of a few years in contribu-
tions to literature and philosophy which have
attained a supremacy as great in philosophy as
that of his contemporary Shakespeare among
dramatists. At the age of thirty-six he published
the first edition of his Essays, and his Advance-
ment of Learning at forty-four, and these and
other writings published in the course of a few


years gave him the place of supremacy which, in
the world of philosophy, he still holds. The
Essays were referred to as specimens of intellec-
tual activity, of original thinking, and aptness
of illustration, that surpass, as is contended
by the most competent critics, any writing
of equal extent in English literature. Hallam,
Dugald Stewart, and Craik were quoted
in support of this estimate. No one, said the
writer of the paper, who has looked into Bacon's
works with the smallest degree of attention, would
think it possible for him to give in a short paper
such a complete and comprehensive view of either
Bacon's writings or his philosophy, as would con-
vey an adequate conception of his greatness. All
that could be done was to indicate one or two
points that are the most important in any
attempt to give a just, if still a most inadequate
conception of the greatness of the subject. To
understand the services rendered by Bacon to
science a too common misapprehension on the
subject must be dismissed. It has often been repre-
sented that the philosophy he desired to sup-
plant or destroy was that of Aristotle. That which
in fact, he was opposed to from his earliest days
was not a true Aristotelianism, but a philosophy
robbed, as has been well said, of respect for
Nature and corrupted by medicmevial scholasticism
-a philosophy that misrepresented Aristotle and
at the same claimed to be the dictator of all
correct thinking. Verbal distinctions, quibbles
about words, took the place of earnest question-
ing of nature. Hence the barrenness of the
schools. Reason was not free, but slavishly
served a worthless philosophical faith. Bicon was,
however, not entitled to the credit of being the
original creator nf the current of new, free, and
legitimate thought, that had shown itself in con-
nection with the revival of learning, the new
geography, brought in with Western discovery
and the outburst, intellectual and religious, called
the Reformation. The spirit of the time Bacon
drank in at his mother's knee, and as a boy of
extraordinary promise in his teens at Cambridge,
he complained of the barrenness of the philosophy
taught in the University. It seemed to him to
have nothing to do with practical life, and that
was his strongest indictment of it. He would
have philosophy aim at the improvement of
mankind." His great aim was to have man act
as the minister and interpreter of nature. He
would have nature's laws investigated, that
they might be made the servants of man. In
this his was a true humanitarian phil-
osophy, a gospel of the right application of the
human intellect to the study of its natural envi-
ronment. The knowledge of nature on which
everything depended he would ascertain by a
systematic and scientific method of observation
of the phenomena of the world we live in. His
method was that of indirection rightly applied,
not a new method indeed, but not rightly used,
not accorded the place it was entitled to in
inquiry. This system he called the great Resto-
ration or Institution of True Philosophy.
A brief account of Bacon's plin of inquiry was
then given, and it was observed that the magnificence
of the plan is what strikes every one who looks
carefully into it. The more thoughtful the mind
directing attention to it, the greater the wonder
and admiration. The contrast it presented to the
current philosophy of the time is of the most
striking character. Bacon's clear vision of what
was to come as the result of the "New Instru-

ment," a result fast coming, gives him a position
as the prophet of science which cannot be taken
from him. Some passages from Bacon's writings
were here given to show how Bacon anticipated
the course and the triumphs of scientific inquiry, and
it was pointed out that in introducing into our schools
in this island agriculture and handicrafts we
were acting in the Baconian spirit, creating that
intercourse between the mind and things, not
simply on the ground of practical utility, but on
strictly educational grounds as well,-all true edu-
cation being but the action and the re-action be-
tween the human mind and its environment,
'*the commerce" as Bacon says, ''between the
mind and things." We will educate our new
community safely, surely, successfully, when we
carry out the Baconian idea to the utmost possi-
ble extent. The Alphabet of Agriculture. the Al-
phabet of Carpentry, and other real Alphabets
will brighten dull minds and awaken latent
powers, as purely literary appliances will not,
necessary and important though they be.

OnWednesday the 28th of February, 1894,
was held the twentieth Members' Meeting
at the Institute. The Rev. Wm. Simms
M.A., Chairman of the Board, was in the
chair. and the Rev. Wm. Gillies and the
Secretary were also present.
The Rev. L. Tucker, M A., read the third
paper of a series of "Epochs and Epoch-
makers." The following is an abstract of
the paper :--
The subject may conveniently be con-
sidered under four headings as follows :
Howard was born at Enfield in 1726, the son of a re-
tired London merchant. After a short experience of
business-life, he inherited his father's wealth in
1742. He visited France, and on returning settled'
on his father's property, and looked about him for
something to do. After a severe illness in 1742
he married the widow lady who had nursed him ;
lost her a few years later, and in 1755 took ship for
Lisbon to study the effects of the recent earthquake.
At this period he is described as a thin sallow-faced
man with a keen eye and kindly smile; strong-
willed and industrious; with a strong religious bent'
of mind and a tendency to melancholy. Howard's
ship was captured by a French privateer, and the
sufferings endured by the passengers as prisoners
drew Howard's attention to the question of prison
management. On returning to England on parole
he did all he could to get his fellow sufferers re-
leased. In 1773 Howard was appointed High
Sheriff of Bedford. To collect evidence in favour of
abolishing fees to jailers, he made a tour amongst
British prisons, and so awful was the condition of'
things he witnessed that he henceforth made
prison-reform the object of his life.
In 1774 Howard laid a report of prisons before
the House of Commons, which led to th- immediate
passing of important reform measures He made
further inspections of prisons in Scotland and
Ireland and in many of the countries of the Con-
tinent. He was subsequently appointed on a


Government Commission with Blackstone and Eden
for the establishment of a model penitentiary, but
resigned because of disagreement with the other
commissioners. An experience of quarantine on
board a vessel in the Mediterranean led Howard
to visit the Lazarettos of the continent, going as
far east as Smyrna. In 1790, on the same quest,
Howard visited a military hospital in Russia;
caught the camp-fever, died on 20th January and
was buried near Dauphigny amidst general lamen-
Howard left one son, who after a dissipated life
became insane in 1787.
IN HOWARD'S REPORT, 1774.-(1) Prisoners of all
classes were herded together without distinction
or separation. This included besides convicted
criminals, accused persons waiting trial, common
debtors, acquitted persons detained by the jailers
for non-payment of jailer's fees. The result was
the contamination of the good by the bad, and of
the bad by those worse than themselves, and most
cruel suffering on the part of any who wished to
do differently. (2.) Jailers were dependent for
their salaries on what they could make out of the
prisoners. Thus prisoners with wealthy friends
were allowed to live almost in luxury, whilst the
poorer were half-starved, and innocent persons, as
indicated above, were detained till they could
settle accounts with the jailers. (3.) Prisoners
had no occupation except such as they were able
to invent for themselves. For the most part they
spent the day in card-playing and gambling, inter-
mixed with the coarsest jesting and recital of feats
of wickedness. (4.) Sanitation wa3 entirely
neglected. In some of the prisons visited by
Howard the air was so bad that it infected his very
clothing. There were rooms where jailers and
constables would not go in. Ruin of health,
disease and death were the natural results. Jail-
fever was dreaded, and with good reason by the
judges who had to try men brought into court
from such places.
a prison has been changed. Instead of being a
house of detention it is now considered a peniten-
tiary, that is a place where a criminal is surround-
ed with whatever influences are likely to make
him repent his past misconduct and lead to the
reformation of his life. Thus the cells and pas-
sages are kept scrupulously clean; and the personal
cleanliness of the prisoners insisted on. A quali-
fied doctor attends the sick and keeps watch over
the physical well-being of all. To break off old
associations prisoners are subjected to periods of
isolation, and to prevent moral contamination no
communication between prisoners is allowed.
Every prisoner is put to some suitable occupation
for the day.' The uneducated are put to school.
and the unskilled are taught some trade. Good
behaviour is rewarded by marks, and an accumula-
tion of marks is likely to result in shortening the
term of imprisonment; well-behaved prisoners are
employed in various duties, counted honourable,
about the prison. Under suitable regulations
every prisoner is allowed to communicate with the
Governor or Inspector, to lay complaints, make
petitions, &c. Daily prayers and Sunday services
are regularly conducted, each prisoner attending
the form of service of the denomination he belongs
to and having also the privilege of visits from the
chaplain of that denomination.
In the wake of Howard's reforms have sprung

up the Prisoners' Aid Society, which assists dis-
charged prisoners in getting employment and tries
in every way to prevent their relapse into crimi-
nal life, and many other societies all aiming at
the reformation of the criminal classes.
PORTATION.-As early as the 17th century, laws were
passed for the transportation of convicted criminals
to distant lands. The usual plan was to confine
the more troublesome convicts in hulks or prison
ships on the Thames, whence in due time they
were transhipped to convict vessels bound for
Australia. Both hulksand vessels were places of
terrible riot and disorder and not infrequently of
vice, disease and death. On landing, the convicts
were told off into gangs, put to various kinds of
labour, and, if after a time well-behaved, allowed to
live almost as free men. Those who had served
their time usually remained in the colony and in
some cases became immensely rich. There was,
however, very little moral reformation, discipline
was hard to enforce, and the turbulence and even
violence of the more hardened criminals had a
most baleful influence on the public morals and
manners. Howard condemned the system, and
eventually after great expense and repeated failures
it was abandoned.
RIVAL SYSTEMS.-For many years towards the
close of the last and beginning of the present
centuries prison reformers were divided on the
comparative merits of the silent and the solitary
methods of imprisonment American reformers
favoured the solitary system, and itis in that land
that it has had its completes trial. On this
system the prisoner was kept in solitary confine-
ment, never seeing other prisoners, or, in fact, any
human beings except the jailer, chaplain and other
prison officials. He was left also without regular
employment, that he might be forced to reflect
upon his previous misconduct, and have leisure to
form good resolutions for the future. Pressed
beyond endurance, this system drove many prisoners
insane, and left others permanently broken in
spirit and in some cases weakened in brain. The
Silent System, also called the Industrial System,
allows a prisoner the interest and solace of the
company of other prisoners both at religious
service and at work. but he is strictly forbidden to
talk with them or hold any kind of communica-
tion. The practical difficulty of enforcing this
regulation is what is incessantly urged against
the system by its opponents. It is alleged that
prisoners do and will keep up incessant communi-
cation. Howard's reform was on the line of the
Industrial System, and this is the ordinary practice
in British prisons. An attempt is, however, made
to secure the advantages of the solitary system by
giving each prisoner some periods of solitary con-
finement, which are longer during the first few
weeks in jail.
CONCLUSION.-A problem left untouched by
Howard, but closely connected with, if not preced-
ing all questions of prison-management, is the re-
formation of the children born of criminal parents.
The testimony of governors and chaplains points
to the deplorable fact that a very small percentage
of children brought up in such surroundings fail
of becoming criminals, or on becoming criminals are
ever reformed. The reformation of criminals which
is essentially Howard's work, is being attempted on
a larger scale than perhaps ever before by Mr.
Booth and the agents of the Salvation Army; the
reformation of children, by the reformatories,


ragged schools, orphanages, rescue, societies and
other State or philanthropic agencies.
But valuable and praiseworthy as all these
efforts have been, and invaluable in the good they
have accomplished, they have not proved sufficient
to meet the large requirements of the case, and
great will be the debt of thankfulness and praise
that England and all other civilized lands will owe
to any modern Howard" who, endued like the
great philanthropists with the love of God and man,
shall shew how this greater and grander reform
is to be accomplished.
Mr. Tucker having mentioned in his
lecture that he had known of cases of per-
manent reformation brought about by the
discipline in force in our Penitentiary, Mr.
Bowrey asked, whether these persons were of
the ordinary low type of the Jamaica criminal
or of a more developed and educated class.
Mr. Tucker replied that they were of the
latter class. Mr. Bowrey further asked if
a case of reformation of the low type Ja-
maica criminal by our prison discipline
could be adduced, his observation being
that it had no reforming influence on such
criminals. Mr. Tucker replied that he had
no personal knowledge of such reformation.
Mr. Gillies said he was very glad Mr.
Bowrey had asked that question as to the
effects of our ordinary prison discipline on
the after lives of discharged prisoners. The
question was one in which he felt a deep
interest, and it was a most important one.
Five years ago this week, he heard a lecture
on prison discipline in Nashville, Tennessee,
by Dr. F. H. Wines, one of the foremost
advocates in America of prison reform.
The lecture was deeply interesting. It
took an hour and a half to deliver, but he
could well have wished that it had faken
another hour and a half. Dr. Wines is the
son and the inheritor of the labours of the
late Dr. E. C. Wines, who was well known
to the prison authorities all over Europe, as
the prison reformer who had entered more
deeply thananyotherinto the spirit of How-
ard. He had investigated the condition and
had been the chief organiser both of the Lon-
don and the Stockholm International Con-
gress on the subject, and his influence had
led to those of Rome and St. Petersburg. Dr.
F. II. Wines has himself taken part in the
later congresses, and, after studying the
subject in a most thorough manner, had
come to the conclusion, that the greater
part of our prison life exercises a very slight
reformatory character, and that the one
thing that needs to be attended to in at-
tempting to reform the criminal and pre.
vent the formation of criminal character is
the education of the will. This should be

aimed at more, and should be pursued with
greater skill ; and how best to do this was
the great practical question to-day in prison

Wednesday, 14th March, the Rev. William
Gillies was in the chair, and the Secretary
of the Institute was also present. The Rev.
William Simms read a paper on

The lecturer, after a brief notice of the
chief events of Fielding's life and mention
of his contemporaries, occupied most of the
time at his disposal in reading copious ex-
tracts from his author, with a running nar-
rative connecting the various passages read.
As it is impossibleto give an abstract of such
a lecture, one or two of the salient passages
are given. Readers acquainted with the
subject will see that the view taken of
Fielding's genius is in the main that of
Thackeray. who was frequently quoted and
referred to in the lecture.
Henry Fielding, born in 1707, was the son of a
General in the army, whilst his mother's father was
a Judge of King's Bench. He belonged to a
younger branch of the family of the Earl of Den-
bigh and was thus a man of good family, with high
connections and some means. His life need not
here much concern us. He began by writing
plays which were only moderately successful; but
at the age of 30 gave this up and entered the
Middle Temple. He became a London Police
Magistrate and worked hard in his calling; bat
his health early failed, partly from excess, partly
from hard work, and he died at the age of 47 at
Lisbon whither he had gone in the hope of re-
cruiting in a warmer climate than that of England.
What concerns us here are his novels which are
his claim to be treated as an Epoch-maker in the
history not only of English but of European Litera-
ture. Let us first name them-Joseph Andrews
published in 1742 when he was 35, Jonathan Wild
in the next year, Tom Jones when he was 42, and
Amelia two years later. Let us remember that
Pope was near his end when Joseph Andrews ap-
peared, that Gray's Elegy was written in the same
year, that Dr. Samuel Johnson was struggling as a
bookseller's hack and that Burke and Gibbon were
young boys Two names will need further men-
tion, his brother novelists Richardson and Smollett.
Fielding's first novel was suggested by (was in
fact started as a parody on) Richardson's Pamela
which appeared two years before it, and in con-
fining our view to Fielding we must not forget
that Clarissa, Roderick Random and Peregrine
Pickle are contemporary with Tom Jones and
Amelia, and that Tristram Shandy and the Vicar of
Wakefield are only five years or so younger What
a burst of genius ; Pamela. Clarissa, Tom Jones,
were hailed throughout Western Europe and were
almostmore popular in France than in England ;
Diderot placing Richardson with Homer, and
Rousseau avowedly imitating him. There had


been romances, tales and fiction of various sorts. of their souls revealed to us. But if we only ask
Dryasdust researches can trace the influence of for what Fielding can give us, what keen and
predecessors on the earliest novelists, but none the kindly observation he has to offer, what invention
less the prose-novel burst into life full grown and and what a firm grasp of reality: his heroes tread
the novel of character and of profound emotion the earth. Compare Parson Adams for example
had its birth there and then. It took the place of with Dr. Primrose. His intentions are altogether
the drama. What Shakespeare, Jonson, Congreve moral: vice always leads to misery, even the open
were to the people of their day the novel was to hearted, generous vice which he condemns less
the people of a later age, when reading had become strongly than he does what he considers over deli-
more common; and the manifold and complex cacy. Many interests have been introduced into
problems of human nature and human life were to real life, and therefore into the life of fiction, since
receive their deepest treatment no longer on the lie wrote, the interest in nature for example and
stage but in the novel. We don't know very much natural scenery ; but he describes everything in the
of Fielding's life, but what. we do know convinces field of his vision accurately, with clear definition
us that his own heroes Tom Jones and Captain and correct delineation. He is the Homer of his
Booth unveil his character before us; the showman art, who gives us a feeling of health, and light, and
appears continually in his books, just as he does space, and a true vision into the civilization, life,
in lhackeray's, and we see the fine, large, manly, characters and actions of the people of his time,
nature tender, generous and unaffected, yet with the men and women whose surroundings and
a lack of refinement and a coarseness that disfi- standards are so strange to us, but whose natures
gnre books which are in essence sound and and feelings are identical with our own.
wholesome, and in a few places lead him
to condone what is blameable not only on grounds
of morality, but even of the sense of true TWENTY-SECOND MEETING.
fitness. One cannot recommend his books to boys
and maidens: their coarseness repelled Charlotte OnWednesday the 25th April,1884, was held
Bronte, and more or less repels us all; and yet the twenty-second meeting of the mineimbrs
what a healthy world he leads us into, what friends of the Institute. The Rev. Wm. Gillies
he gives us In this respect of happy and
clear endings, all the leading characters being dis- presided, and the Secretary of the
posed of somehow, Fielding is thoroughly Eng- Institute was also present. Mr. W. F'
lish. Some of you may have read the literary FitzGerald, B.A. read a paper, of which the
criticisms of-Mr..W. D. Howells and will know how following is an abstraction:-
he despises the thick-witted, thumb-fingered Eng-
lish novelist. He lays down certain canons as to LIVINGSTONE AND MODERN DISCOVERY.
what a novel should be, and by them condemns not
only people like the "unspeakable Mr. Rider Hag- A plain slab of slate, in the centre of the nave of
gard "but Dickens and Thackeray. He isin some- that resting place of kings, heroes and statesmen,
what in the same position as Voltaire when he now covers the mortal remains of one of the greatest.
condemned Shakespeare. The canons are reason- men of modern times, a man who during hisvolun--
able enough, as every competent judge will admit tary exile saw and suffered, and has left his name
thac many of Voltaire's strictures on Shakespeare indelibly stamped upon the memorial tablet of the
are reasonable enough, but his rules blinded him to ages.
the greatness that did not fit into them. A greater A Scotchman, born in a low state of life, he first
critic than Mr. Howells (St. Beuve) considers it saw the light on St. Joseph's day, the 19th of
one advantage of tae. novel, in enabling it to March, 1813, at Blantyre near Glasgow. As boy;:
express the whole of life, that it has no rules and youth and man he worked in a cotton factory inm
canons, no unities and the like. Mr. Howells'scanon tie town. The proximity of that town to Glasgow
that the novelist should not appear himself con- and in consequence of its University and the"'
demns Fielding as it does Thackeray, as an inartis- system of that University, Anderson College, en-
tic-novelist, which I take leave to say with Euclid abled young Livingstone to obtain educational :
"is absurd." According to the new lights the advantages, which would "otherwise have been
proper ending should be onelike that of the "Lady impossible. But even these advantages were.
and the -Tiger" which does not gratify the thick- gained by great exertion and self-denial, and thus.
witted objection to veiled meanings and half satis- erly he is said to have shown traces of that de-
factions. I am not concerned to dispute the termined and firm character which:in after years
undoubted excellence of many tales written as was to bring him such unparalleled success.
Mr. Howells would have the- written, but I do In 183S he was accepted on probation by the-,
want to lodge my protest against the judgment of Lonidon Missionary Society and sent to I.'lIl.li.-m
works of genius by utterly arbitrary and inade- Ongar in Essex to a Missionary training' .,-r-oii:h
quate rules. nient.." At this time he is described as a pale,
-The lecturer concluded by saying:- thin; modest retiring young man, with a peculiar
It will have been st ti11 Fielding is not one Scotch accent." But although the reminiscences
of the novelists like I ,ie ..r his own rival Rich- of notable men are always pleasing, they have
ardson who loses himself in .his characters. His nothing to do with us this evening, and we must
comparative failure iii his plays is only one pilsh on to the subject for discussion which I pro-
of the proofs that he did not possess high dramatic pose to place before you.
.power; that he is one who looks at them as obser- Livingstone started on his first journey on
vant men of the world see their acquaintances, December 8th, 1840, and during this expedition he
one who looks for motives in the way of the Police met Dr. Robert Moffat, whose daughter he subse-
Magistrate and not of the Philosopher. We have qnently married. In his early career he had firm
Tom Jones or Parson Adams as they might have convictions as to what constituted the success' of
looked to those who knew them, and not as we tile m;- ;.- ,,i]. The white missionary was ..the:
have Macbeth and Hamlet with the inner recesses pioneer, this was his proper work, to open up


and start new ground, leaving the details to the
native agents, and so during his whole life he
worked for the development of this idea.
The results of his labours in the geography of
the Dark Continent and in natural science in
almost all its departments were most startingly
abundant, and what is of moreimportance, closely
accurate. I do not believe myself in hero worship,
but no one can withhold his admiration from the
perseverance of the lonely man of whom it is re-
corded that in consequence of his enterprise and
perseverance a reconstruction of the map of Africa
became necessary. We many of us remember the
atlas of ouryouth ; how Africa presented a very
empty space, the Nile but a short river and not
the giant stream it has since been fouud to be ; no
wide spreading lakes, but all described as unex-
plored; but look now at our Geographical Charts,
and we think that chief among the pioneers of this
improved knowledge stands David Livingstone.
In 1858 we find his power for good much
strengthened by the fact that he received the ap-
pointment of Her Majesty's Consul at Kilimane
for the eastern coast and the independent districts
of the interior, and Commander of an expedition
for exploring Ea-tern and Central Africa.
In 1864 and 1865 he visited England and during
.that time the most extraordinary interest was ex-
hibited by the people in the man and his work.
Congratulations poured in on him from all sides,
and he must indeed have had a steady brain to be
unmoved by the encomiums passed on him by all.
Livingstone gave a graphic account of a brutal
massacre in a slave market, and by his description
roused a just indignation in England and a deter-
mination and a fairly successful effort to get the
Sultan of Zanzibar to suppress this iniquitous and
degrading traffic.
But it was not for him to rest upon his laurels
yet, and he again returned to Africa ; the same
:indomitable spirit still guiding the man. His
object now was to find the source of the Nile,
which Grant, Speke and Burton were by their
explorations proving to be the immense
stream it really is; but now the subject of our
paper is lost sight of and for fully two years no
rumour reached England of his whereabouts or his
But now we must travel far from the scenes of
Livingstone's solitary toil, and find ourselves in
the midst of the busy haunts of New York city.
-The news, or rather absence of news concerning
,Livingstone was agitating the minds of all, and
that enterprising man, John Gordon Bennett,
hearing that H. M. Stanley was staying at the
same hotel, knocked at his chamber door late one
night, and being admitted, quietly remarked,
"Mr. Stanley, I want you to find Livingstone."
As quietly, Stanley enquires, 'When shall I start.?'
"To-mor ow" was the reply, and this it is said
was the origin of the expedition to relieve the
heroic doctor. How the expedition succeeded is
now matter of history, and the dramatic incidents
of the journey, vague news of a white medicine
man somewhere, and the final meeting and polite
salutation, hat in hand, of "Dr. Livingstone. I
believe," are known to all through the pen of the
writer and the pencil of the artist. Livingstone
refused to return to England, and Commander
Dawson and Lieutenant Henn, a parson and the
Doctor's own son who had a part in sundry other
expeditions, met Stanley and returned. Livingstone
was evidently a man who felt he had a civilising
beside an exploring mission. With him "the end

of geographical discovery is the beginning of
missionary enterprise," and this is a proposition
which I fancy will repay discussion. He
is a great traveller and his observations of
the important points in the districts through
which he travels shew greater accuracy than
the observations of the majority of travellers
who have met with far fewer difficulties; but it
is all to one purpose, the "carrying on of mission-
ary enterprise.' He is a worthy successor of the
early Jesuit missionaries who in the 16th century
penetrated into the heart of Abyssinia. Possess-
ing all qualifications, physical and mental, for a
career in the world of commerce, he might have
succeeded in becoming a wealthy man, but no, he
is a genuine missionary, and such is the man
whom we all should delight to honour.
The lecturer then quoted from various
sources describing the last scene in
the eventful life of the explorer, and con-
cluded by reading Sir Bartle Frere's esti-
Smate of his character.
The Rev. James Balfour, M.A., moved a
vote of thanks to the lecturer, and the meet-
ing closed.


ON Wednesday, May the 9th, 1894, was
held the twenty-third meeting of the mem-
bers of the Institute.
The Rev. W. Simms, M.A., Chairman of
the Board of Governors, occupied the chair.
Their were present Rev. W. Gillies and Mr.
W. Fawcett, B. Sc., members of the Board,
the Secretary of the Institute, Bishop Douet,
and others. Dr. Grabbam, having been in-
troduced by the Chairman, read a paper on
"Darwin and Darwinism" the sixth and last
of a series of Epochs and Epoch-makers.
The following is an abstract:-
At the outset a number of interesting particulars
were mentioned, showing that Darwin came of a
family of naturalists. He himself very early
developed a taste for natural history. At school
he did not distinguish himself and was considered
both by his schoolmaster and his father as being
below the ordinary boy in attainments. His father
had on one occasion told him that he wou'd be a
disgrace to himself and his family. When at
Cambridge he was intended to be a clergyman, and
his promising character was certified to by a
phrenologist who said he had the bump of reverence
so well developed, as to be quite enough for ten
priests. His early voyage of five years, investiga-
ting life in the deep, was briefly described, and its
permanent injurious effect on his health was re-
ferred to. His character as an observer was then
dealt with. He had been described as a machine
for grinding laws out of large collections of facts.
His devotion to his favourite studies had so
absorbed all his energies that he became incapable
of aesthetic pleasure, and he owned late in life that
if he had to begin life again he would take means
to prevent this happening. His unparalleled in-
dustry and untiring patience were prominent


features of his character. Having sketched the
personal life of Darwin, Dr. Grabham went on
briefly to refer to his chief contributions to the
literature of science, and from these he passed to
the theory of evolution which is associated with
the name of Darwin, No two seeds are exactly
alike, no two plants, no two puppies or kittens, no
two human beings; there are countless small differ-
ences between creatures of the same species.
Nature selects the best to survive, in the same
way as cultivators and breeders of domestic ani-
mals, selecting the best, have improved the quality
and added to the diversity of the plants or animals
raised. The dog and the pigeon were referred
to as illustrations of the changes that have taken
place under domestication. Rising higher than
mere development and differentiation of structure,
Dr. Grabham stated the views of Darwin on the ex-
pression of the emotions in the lower animals, and
then proceeded to state his views on the origin of
species and the descent of man. Darwin's theory
of the survival of the fittest was clearly enunciated;
and the perpetual struggle for life was described.
Only a very few of the plants or animals that come
into existence are victorious in the struggle and
live. These few favoured individuals transmit their
favourable characters to their offspring, who win the
race for life. An illustration of this struggle was
given in the steady progress westward of European
weeds in the United States. A similar progress had
been observed in other parts of the world,
and it was held to show how the fittest
survive. By means of extinct organisms, the
developmentof the horse andthe deer had been
fully traced. In the case of man there were still
many links wanted, but it was thought that, as at
the present time through earthquakes or other
calamities numbers of human beings are often en-
gulphed in the earth, so in past ages the same had
probably occurred, and therefore evidence may yet
be expected to be found of the gradual evolution of
man as he is. He has the body of an animal. He
closely corresponds with the mammalia in all im-
portant respects. His senses are identical; and in
almost every detail of structure he is exactly like
the higher mammalia. By universal consent the
monkey is a caricature of humanity. Three of the
anthropoid apes-the gorilla, the ouraneoutang
and the chimpanzee-come wonderfully near the
human species. Dr. Grabham admitted that the
intervening links between the monkey and man
were no greater than between any one species of
monkey and another, and that, if supplied, they
would necessarily carry us back to an enormously
distant date. But he contended that the rejec-
tion of the Darwinian hypothesis throws upon
the rejecter the problem of accounting for. the
origin of man in some other way, and remember-
ing his obvious homologies with the anthropoid
,apes, the task was one of vast difficulty. He con-
tended that the elements of the moral nature of
-man could be traced in the lower animals. In-

stances of curiosity, wonder, memory, imagination,
pride, contempt and shame can easily be found
among all the higher animals. Rudiments of
language can be found among them, also of arith-
metical knowledge up to three, four or even five.
Sympathy between animals has often been evinced.
It appeared difficult to account for the origin of
the mathematical, artistic, and metaphysical
powers in man by the theory of natural selection,
since life in no way depended on them.
At the close of the paper, Dr. Grabham
was asked whether he held that the perfect
result could come from the imperfect ances-
tor. the monkey. He replied that he saw no
difficulty in the case.
MR. FAWCETT maintained that history in
art and other things showed that there
was a progress and that all progress was
from the imperfect to the perfect.
The CHAIRMAN made a few remarks on
the subject. The Rev. W. Gillies in mov-
ing a vote of thanks to Dr. Grablam said
that the attention given to the reader of the
paper and the hearty response given to the
proposal of a vote of thanks showed clearly
that the large and intelligent audience had
been much interested and had eagerly fol-
lowed a restatement and brief exposition
of the Darwinian speculation, that has for
many years occupied the foremost place in
the lecture-room of scientists.

At the twenty-fourth meeting held on
Wednesday the 19th of December, the
Rev. Wm. Simms, M.A., Chairman of the
Board, was in the chair. The Secretary was
also present.
Commander NANKIVEhL, R.N.,read a paper
on Admiral Lord Rodney," which was
illustrated by various engravings and dia-
grams. The Secretary of the Institute also
read a few notes .on Portraits of Rodney,
especially on that by Pine in the Town
Hall, Kingston. Both papers will be found
printed further on.
A vote of thanks, proposed by Mr. Win.
Cowper, M.A., was passed to Commander
Nankivell and Mr. Cundall.





ricE the time of Henry VI.
(1457), there is abundant
evidence') of a family
named Roby settled at
Castle Donnington, Leices-
tershire, who:were yeomen,
chiefly copyholders, but to
some extent also freeholders of the ma-
nor. The name is not a patronymic
like Edwards, or Johnson; descriptive
of business like Smith, or Farmer; or
derived from personal qualification or ap-
pearance like Armstrong or Brown. But
there is a place of the name: Roby is a
manor in the parish of Huyton 5 or 6 miles
east of Liverpool, and nothing is more
common than -a local origin for personal
names. In my own neighbourhood, I have
seen the names of Manchester, Eccles, &c.,
as names of persons. Castle Donnington,
though in Liecestershire, belonged to the
Duchy of Lancaster, and it is probable that
a settler from Roby acquired his surname
from the circumstance, while serving in
some way under one of the great chieftains
who in 1400 were both barons of Huyton--
8 miles from Roby-and lords of Castle
An immediate ancestor of my father,
Thomas Roby, left Castle Donnington in
1715 and moved to Alvecote near Tamworth
in Staffordshire. In this town my father was
born, on the 3rd Jan. 1785, the eldest of the
six children of Thomas Roby, younger brother
of John Roby of Alvecote Priory; his mother
being Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Wood,
manufacturing hosier of Leicester.
As a boy he evinced a true love of books,
and his studious habits created in his father
a strong hope that a distinguished Uni-
versity career lay before him. A course of
suffering, however, from a succession of

*The particulars of the Roby Family are abstracted
from the "Pedigree of Roby of Castle Donnington
in Leicester." compiled by Henry John Roby, M.P.
for Eccles, nephew of the subject of this memoir.

abscesses, not only cut short his school life,
but continued to enfeeble his health in
youth and early manhood. This notwith-
standing, he became an excellent classic,
studying hard at home on his couch, and,
when able, reading under the tutorship of a
clergyman in the neighbourhood. He was
fond of recalling his indebtedness to this
good man. who, he was wont to say, "drew
out and trained my critical faculty when a
boy; for he made me accompany him to
church and read the lessons, while he sat
behind in the reading desk, giving me, a
kick whenever I mispronounced a word, and
in the walk home always asking me 'Now,
John, was my sermon good or bad to-day" ?,
Atfirst, naturally, being shy, I said I thought
it was good. That won't do, John-why
was it good?' and once when I said I
thought the sermon too long, he replied,
' You are right, John, you are right-I had
not time to make it shorter.' "
In early manhood, by medical advice, he
rented a small house in the country and,
with his servant and horse, led for some
years the life of a recluse. He attained
then, and thus, a ripe amount of scholar-
ship, his literary tastes and powers being of
a very decided character, and his interest
in antiquarian research keen and untiring.
An unusually retentive memory enabled
him all his-life to literally repeat whole
volumes of his miscellaneous reading-
notably the Latin and English Poets and
the best English prose writers. He was a
member of a literary club which numbered
many names of future note. My father
used to relate an intellectual feat of one of
the members-Mr. Knight Bruce. At one
of the club meetings the members amused
themselves by baiting Mr. Bruce with every,
remembered quotation from the Odes of
Horace, he taking up each and all and con-
tinuing it to the end.
My father found interest and occupation
in editing a local newspaper, "The Cam-


brian," while he was residing in Glamorgan-
shire, with the result that the circulation
increased rapidly, and the society of the
editor was sought by many men. of literary
ability. He held the post of Deputy Re-
ceiver-General of the county of Glamorgan-
shire for some years, till 1821.
The family of my grandfather was near
neighbour to, and intimate with, that of the
first Sir Robert Peel. A reminiscence of
young Mr. Robert, afterwards the great
premier, was, seeing him when he came
down from the final university examina-
tion, triumphant, but the mere ghost of him-
self. He had declined the choice of books
for examination on the subject open to that
privilege, writing 'any.' To give the range
of the Bodleian Library, even on one subject
only, was considered such a conceited chal-
lenge, that it was taken up, and the test
was a severe one. However, he crime
through it triumphantly, though his studies
had endangered his life and health. Rest
and youth restored him after a time of
entire seclusion to become soon a power in
England's history." Mr. Peel's election to
Parliament was naturally warmly aided by
the canvassing of the' Roby voters. My
uncle, Thom-is Roby, was indeed at that
time, probably, engaged to his future wife,
Miss Halliwell, eldest daughter of the part-
ner of the firm, Sir Robert Peel, Yates,
ant Halliwell," cotton printers. His stren-
uous- exertions at the election were suc-
cessful, and in those days the scenes at
the hustings were of a description so fren-
zied as to mean personal danger to partizans
obnoxious from their zeal and success to the
opposing faction, whose cry of Peel and
Roby in the river," used to cause much
laughter to the young men, but serious
alarm to their parents and friends, as I have
been told.
It was in 1821 that Mr. Peel offered to
his friend Thomas Roby the appointment of
Surveyor of Customs in Spanish Town, Ja-
maica. The post was worth some 800 per
annum, andthe island, the loveliness of which
suggests thoughts of the Paradise in Eden,
was at that time, for the European residents
the abode of wealth and luxury. The sugar
and coffee estates of the landowners had
literally marble halls for their managers or
overseers, and the gold which resulted from
the shocking trade in slaves, was simply
shovelled into bags, weighed, and taken to
the banks. The post was suitable for my
father's delicate chest, strictly temperate
habits, and love of travel, rather than for

the robust health and full habit of the
younger man who, being medically threat-
ened with certain death from yellow fever
within three months of landing in the
island, readily effected the transfer of the
post to his brother John. This arrangement
interrupted the writing of the History of
Tamworth upon which the brothers John
and Henry were engaged, and which con-
sequently remained unfinished, my father
going abroad, and his younger brother, a
solicitor in Tamworth, being professionally
occupied and dying at the early age of 33.
After spending a few months in the
Custom House in London, my father took
up his commission and sailed for Kingston,
Jamaica, in 1823. In the discharge of his
official duties in Spanish Town, his zeal and
ability soon made their mark, the revenue
being increased 200 per annum by his
sagacious discovery of a clever fraud, the
promptitude and firmness of his action in
the matter naturally attracting the attention
and .approval of the authorities at home.
His intellectual acquirements combined
with a singular simplicity and sincerity of
character, and a warm and large-hearted
benevolence, gained the respect and affection
of his compatriots in the island.
Of the seven years (1823-30) of his life
passed in Spanish Town. I remember only
his telling me a few things. That he
was member of a whist and chess club and
played a, drawn game with the celebrated
chess champion from England, who said in a
tone of relief as he rose from the tible, "I
will never play again with you, Mr. Ro)by."
Finding the interest of the game so exciting
as to keep him wakeful at nights rehearsing
the moves which made or marred a game, my
father gave up playing his favourite chess,
his characteristic sense of duty suggesting
that, he ought not to go tired to his official
duties." With regard to whist, he remarked
" I always spent my winnings in jewellery
for your mother, and I kept my losses to
myself." My mother had indicated to me
as his gifts some beautiful sets of gold
enamel, carved coral, &c.; I inferred there-
fore that he was a good whist player.
Though his general health greatly bene-
fited by the warm climate of Jamaica, he
did not escape an attack of yellow fever.
It was so severe that it led to the curious
fact of his office in Spanish Towvn being
given away provisionally. The Governor
met the medical man leaving the house one
evening and enquired how Mr. Roby was.
On being informed that fatal symptoms had


set in which would terminate his life before zeal and ability of the Surveyor of Customs
morning, his Excellency remarked, The in Spanish Town, and as the interests of the
island and service will lose in him a man of service could not be better secured than by
exceptional ability then-but are you sure the promotion of that officer, the Commission
that there is no hope of recovery?" None for Montego Bay had been made for,
at all. I have in all my wide experience of and sent out to Mr. Roby. I have heard
the fever never known any one survive this my father relate the incredulity with which
last symptom." His Excellency then rode he received the announcement of a friend ;
on to the house of a friend to whom he re- The English mail is in, and Roby, you are
peated the medical verdict, and offered the Collector of Montego Bay I" No doubt,
post provisionally while he petitioned the and you of course are appointed to Savan-
Home Authorities to confirm the appoint- nah-la-Mar" contemptuously rejoined the
ment. It was when reading in newspaper at new Collector.
Montego Bay many years after of the death In the beginning of 1830 my father mar-
of his Excellency's nominee that my father ried Miss Lindo, the elder of the two
remarked to me, "I have survived my suc- daughters of a wealthy landowner in the
cessor then! The fact was that 1 was in a island. My mother was a vocalist of very
hopeless state. The doctor called to enquire remarkable sweetness and power. Her
at what time I had died, but my French musical abilities had been carefully culti-
Creole nurse had meantime immersed me in vated in England by that good woman and
a bath of hot herbs, which brought on pers- beautiful artiste, Miss Stephens, afterwards
piration, and saved my life. The doctor, on the second wife of the Earl of Essex. I
being informed that I still lived, came in, have heard competent judges affirm, that
but wisely told the nurse that he would none of the public singers of that day sur-
not interfere with the treatment which had passed, and that few even equalled Mrs.
rescued life so marvellously." The dear Roby, in sweetness of voice and brilliancy
old nurse, Cefice by name, enjoyed a small of execution. My mother told me that
pension from my father from that time till Miss Stephens taught her to sustain the
her death, which occurred in 1850. clearness of her warbling shake by running
The history of the parish of St Cathe- up and down stairs while she was practising
rine must, I think, have formed the lite- it. In a letter to his brother Henry, dated
rary research and work of the years spent Feb. 1, 1830, acknowledging various wed-
in Spanish Town. It is a work of consider- ding presents, the event is recorded thus
able archaeological value, and evidence of My last letter to you sailed in the
much research is met with on every Frolic' and on the same day by the Ven.
page. Lawrence-Archer, in his better-known the Archdeacon of Jamaica, John Roby was
book on The Monumental Inscriptions of happily married to Mary Lindo; and
the West Indies," quotes freely from it. Lucius O'Brien, M.D., to her sister Eliza."
Students of Jamaica history have expressed There were six children of this union-a
their regret that my father was unable to son, Lucius, who died childless in Australia
complete his intention of compiling a history in 1891; four daughters, of whom three
of the whole island, parish by parish, survive-all unmarried-and a son, John,
He also published a List of the Jamaica a schoolmaster in New Zealand who has one
Members of Assembly, making the dry de- child, a daughter married in the colony.
tails interesting by numerous foot-notes. My father was a most loyal and loving
In the year 1829-30 the Collectorship of son of the Church of England. The simpli-
Montego Bay with the ports subordinate city of his character reverenced the tender-
to it became vacant. The salary was ness and discipline of her order; his love of
was nearly 2,000 (currency) per annum, the beautiful was gratified by what has been
and the Governor of the island, wishing to called the frozen music" of her architec-
place a relative of his own in it, applied to tural monuments ; and the classic beauty of
the Government at home for the commission, the Liturgy in which she clothes the aspi-
The Duke of Wellington was then Prime rations of her children in Faith, Hope and
Minister, and the reply to his Excellency's Charity, satisfied his cultivated tastes and
application was to the effect that the Duke requirements. The bishop and clergy of
was placing the Customs, like the Army, the island valued greatly the aid, which
on retiring pensions, which would reduce the whether in purse, time or talents, this in-
salary of Montego Bay to 1,000 sterling per fluential layman was always ready to place
annum with a retiring allowance of from500 at their service for the support and fur-
to 600 a year. The Duke knew only of the therance of church work. Indeed, the


Bishop, the Hon. Aubrey Spencer, always
considered the success of a meeting as
assured, if he had secured a speech for it
from Mr. Roby. The Collector's close rea-
soning had a thread of humour glancing
through it, his fluency seemed to impart its
ease to the listeners, while his warm-hearted
enthusiasm in his subject caught his au-
dience, and carried it along with him. Yet
in the great rebellion 1831-32, he alone
at great risk to his life, rescued the Baptist
missionaries, who were considered to have
instigated the rising, from the fury of the

the white men crowded into Montego Bay,
and both avenged, and revenged themselves
with scant discrimination. Martial law was
proclaimed, horrible scenes of execution
defiled the town, and the power of reflection
and judgment seemed wholly lost--with
one noble exception, that of the Collector
of H. M. Customs in the port. He deeply
sympathized with the wrongs of his country-
men, and considered the Baptist missionaries
to be the innocent cause of the revolt, inas-
much as the slaves had misunderstood the
passages of Scripture read, or repeated to



Copied from i akeill's "Picturesque Tmlur of the Island of Jamaica," 1825.

population. He insisted on claiming for
them, and placing them under, the pro-
tection of the English flag, to which lhe
rowed them in the Government boat. until
such time as they could have a fair and not
a mock trial." It was a time of frenzied
reprisals between the two populations.
Though the slaves did not rise en masse,
they gathered into formidable bands, under
the organized command of various leaders,
murdering the planters and destroying their
property. In the last week of December
1831, from a neighboring eminence, the
flames of as many as 15 sugar estates and
cattle pens, could be seen burning at one
time. Maddened by the loss of friends and
property, numerically as 1 to 20, taken by
surprise, and confronted by what then ap-
peared to be a general and organized revolt,

them, such as the Son shall make you free.'
" Fight the good fight of faith" &c., but he
realized clearly the impossibility of any
judicial weighing of evidence in a time of
hot fear and passion. On the 1st ,f January
the Baptist ministers, Messrs. Knibb, White-
horn, and Abbott, were arrested, and dragged
through an infuriated crowd into the court
house, where the magistrates were hearing
cases, with short shrift. Then providen-
tially my father appeared on the scene.
He interrupted the mock trial with earnest
representations to the civil authorities, but
he was barely heard, and entirely disre-
garded; whereupon he promptly sought,
and required the assistance of the officer
commanding the troops in the town. He,
too, received my father's representations
coldly, and wished to decline interfering,


when my father warmly exclaimed Then
Sir, you will take the responsibility of what
happens! for naturally I will inform the
home authorities that I claimed your pro-
tection for British subjects till they could
be fairly tried, and you declined to give it
them !" If you put it so, Mr. Roby," re-
joined the officer coldly, and assert that
the men are in danger of their lives, I have
no option but to comply. I will give an
order for their release, and furnish you
with a guard, but the responsibility for
these things will now rest upon you."
Accepting all three things, my father
hurried back to the court-house, where,
even then, the soldiers were slightly prick-
ing the prisoners with their bayonets, and
the excitement of the crowd outside was
scarcely greater than that within. The
missionaries thus rescued were taken to the
custom-house for safety, and my father
next morning brought their wives to the
same asylum. Some days later, he induced
two worthy merchants, Messrs. Manderson
and Guthrie, to go bail with him for the
appearance of the missionaries when called
upon, and they were then released. Un-
fortunately, just at the same time, Mr.
Burchell, a chief pastor of the Baptists,
returned from England, and was seized
before he could land, and lodged in the town
jail; the scarcely mitigated wrath of the
white men blazing out afresh. The dis.
seating places of worship were torn down.
and an attack on the released missionaries
at their lodgings was meditated. They,
however, were hurriedly notified of their
danger- by my father, and escaped through
-back streets to the wharf. The collector
rowed about in the tropical sun, from one
vessel to another seeking protection for
the ministers and their families, but all,
.without exception, were afraid to receive
them. At last he induced Capt. Trefusis,
R.N., commandingH.M.S. "North Star," very
reluctantly to receive the refugees under the
protection of the British flag
My mother used to relate the terror she
endured daily for many weeks, in seeing her
husband set off to his office as usual, pro-
foundly regardless alike of threats, warn-
ings and advice. Inever expected," she
said, "to see him return alive to me." Re-
monstrances certainly were not likely to
avail much, with some such characteristic
reply to them as, assuredly 1 do not want
to be killed, but my work is down there,
and unless I am prevented by no fault of my
own, I shall do it."

The collecting, compiling and writing of
the History ofSt. James with monumental
inscriptions of the parish, was evidently
now employing his leisure hours. The
publication of it was in parts ; of which Nos.
I, II and III only were printed; and this
must have been interrupted and suspended
by the violent agitations of that eventful
period. The work gave descriptions of all
monuments in the parish with copies of the
inscriptions, the motto affixed to it being
the appropriate lines of the poet Gray :
O who to dumb forgetfulness a prey
This pleasing anxious being ere resigned
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind."
The author's own reference to the work
anid motto above mentioned, is in a letter
to his brother Henry, dated March 1832,
and the particulars there given by him
read somewhat like a romance of the mid-
dle ages. It is transcribed herewith:-
I wrote to you regarding my being hung in
effigy-on a gallows in the market-place-in con-
sequence of my interference on behalf of the
Baptists-a sect I cordially dislike. But in des-
pite of the animosity and obloquy, and-as I
shall have to tell you-the personal danger to
which my action exposed me, I regard it with
great complacency, satisfied that I acted in the
business as became a man willing to do to others
as, &c. I had put down my name to a list of
persons willing to form a volunteer town-guard to
patrol the streets at night-for tho' the rebellion,
I trust, is over, for a long time we cannot feel
secure in a town of wood, many desperate and
revengeful insurgents not yet taken, and our
domestics almost exclusively slaves,-when four
gentlemen signed their names on the promise
that I should be turned out, and two more after-
wards joined in the request. Of the six two were
considered as my inferiors in rank, one was a
mere boy-but three were men of position and
character ; so I borrowed bull-dogs' from Dr.
Gordon, but as he was a judge of the grand court
he could not be my friend on the occasion, and
a Captain Boyd of the Royal Navy, a magistrate
of this parish, known to be a man of spirit, kindly
consented to require an explanation from the three,
immediately after a public meeting at noon on
February lth. That meeting I attended, and
publicly demanded the reason of such an insult,
but none of the three were present, and Mr. A.-
one of the six could have answered me, but thd
meeting would not hear him, though I earneht'y
requested it in order that I might have replied,:
but proceeded to public business. However, to
put you out of suspense-the affair has blown over
without coming to the scratch." I believe a
re-action has in great degree taken place in the
public mind, for Capt. Boyd, in whose hands I
had deposited my honour, being satisfied, and
having written me the following letter, which I
have shown to all when I had an opportunity,
and his dictum on the occasion being conclusive
The names are given in the letter, but withheld
here, as all three gentlemen lived to become warm
friends of my father.


from his high character-though he acted with
great caution to prevent bloodshed-I believe the
public are satisfied with my conduct, though they
still hate me cordially for interfering in favour of
men who -to an extent you can hardly have any
idea of-are detested by 99 out of 100. But to the
S' Sir, agreeably to the promise made to you,
I called on Messrs. T. D. and L.-they all three
disclaimed any other objection personal to your-
self than that of your having so completely identi-
fied yourself with the Baptists, whom they con-
ceive the greatest enemies to the colonies. That
being the case I really think nothing is further
requisite to satisfy your honour, as it was only
from political reasons they refused to enroll them-
selves in the same corps with yourself,-I remain
Sir, &c., (signed)-DAvID BOYD.'
For your further amusement I transcribe from
the Cornoall Chronicle-the Editor and I quar-
relled on his attempt to cheat me in printing my
pamphlets-and what has been copied into other
papers as the hanging paragraph-' On Thursday
s'en night an effigy was suspended on the gallows
in the market square of the town, having on its
breast the following 'Monumental Inscription '
The Baptists' friend R-Y.
'For he to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
His pleasing, anxious being had resigned,
As passing by the meeting house one day.
He lost his fame, and left his corse b-hind.'
The individual was recognized by the marvel-
ling multitude. This mock execution seemed to
produce a very dramatic effect, being it was said
'in strict accordance with poetical justice.' The
parody on the motto to my pamphlet, and sub-
sequent remarks are the Editor's and made me
laugh heartily. It was a bit of personal pique,
bad taste. and pandering to the embittered spirit
of the vulgar, but upon my honour I believe my-
self in no danger whatever. The three missionaries
I originally rescued have been liberated from their
bail, not a shadow of a charge or proof appearing
against them. Burchell and Gardner are to be
tried at the Assizes, but the principal witness on
whose evidence they were committed to prison
has since owned that his testimony was false, and
accused four gentlemen of subornation of per-
When peace and order returned, a better
spirit asserted itself among the English in
the island. The re-action of feeling alluded
to in the above letter showed itself in the
warm respect and friendship expressed for
the man who had saved Englishmen from
shedding the blood of their own innocent
countrymen, in the heat of passion.
In 1834, England restored to her slaves
their rightful freedom; and soon after the
act of manumission, another phase of duty
again required my father to risk his life for
his fellow men ; this time in a far less excit-
ing, and more unpleasant manner. A British
cruiser brought into the port of Montego
Bay a captured slaver, with about 300 un-
fortunate African slaves-in a horrible state
of dirt and dysentry-dying fast, some 10
or 15 daily. My father improvised hospitals
out of the Government warehouses-bribed

a few of the least frightened natives in the
town to carry in, and attend on the poor
creatures.-himself with one good young
subordinate setting the example, and in
turn with him, night and day superintended
the whole, procuring and administering
food and medicine, till, though some 100
lives were saved, my father succumbed
to his exertions, incurring a dangerous
illness, and never afterwards quite recover-
ing from the effects of the poison.
" We could not understand, or speak with
the poor fellows," he remarked once to
me in reference to this episode, but we got
to know that -kickerahboo' meant dead
One morning as I passed along inspecting
I remarked this poor follow is kickerahboo,'
when the supposed defunct opened his eyes
with an indignant 'me no kickerahboo, him
kickerahboo,' indicating a neighbour more
correctly than I had done."
The Government of England is that
which "expects every man to do his duty"
as a matter of course. On this occasion,
however, it recognized the self-sacrifice of
a philanthropist to be something beyond the
routine call of official requirements, and
directed an expression of its approval and
commendation of Mr. Roby's action to be
specially and officially notified to him-
and the rescued Africans were also
grateful. When they were being hired
for employment, and had to receive
names, they were all anxious to be called
after their benefactor. As many there-
fore as could be conveniently gratified
were accordingly entered on the books of the
sugar estates as John Robys. Thus did my
dear father earn, and-what is more un-
common-receive and retain the gratitude
of country, compatriots and fellow crea-
Very gratifying to him were the fre-
quent proofs of the esteem in which his
opinion was held by the authorities at home
and in the island. The Governors of Ja-
maica received with marked courtesy of
word and deed any recommendation made
for persons or objects by the collector of
Montego Bay. He once pleaded with the
Board of Directors in London for the miti-
gation of a sentence of dismissal passed by it
on an officer holding a good position in the
service. It was the hardest thing, I think,
that I ever achieved," he reported after-
wards to a relative. My cause was so
weak, that there was no replying to the
chairman's reasoning, till he commented
severely on a matter, which was fortunately


well without the pale of official business. I
saw then my advantage, for Sir Thomas had
rightly checked with that reason a reference
made by me to Y's wife and large family.
' Well, Sir,' [ interposed, 'you permit a
private matter to weigh with you adversely
to Mr. Y., but you would not permit me to
use a subject of the same character to make
'mercy temper justice.' The Board, after
further private discussion, summoned me to
hear. You have won Mr. Y's. cause, Mr.
Roby, but not your own ; for we shall send
him to work under you!' The benefit was
only in 'another chance' and respite for Mr..
Y, as I was obliged to get rid of him myself
at last." The directors afterwards twice
bestowed appointments on a gentleman for
whom the collector requested them.
My father always frankly rejoiced in his
intellectual powers, and in the success of his
efforts to do good, but he had a merry knack
of turning or neutralizing complimentary
speeches with a humorous quotation, ridi-
culous suggestion, or quaintly absurd in-
quiry. No one enjoyed a kindly laugh at
himself, more than he did; and as he was
singularly deficient in manual dexterity,
"never knowing what to do with his
hands," his awkward helplessness with
them often provoked mirth at his expense.
His life was brightened by social inter-
course with m-n of like powers and tastes,
for he was intimate with many members of
the Grignon family, Lord Abinger's relatives
-with Dr. W Gordon, the lion. Richard
Hill, Sir Joshua Rowe, Judge McDougall, C.
Rumbold, Esq., and other names known in
the Jamaica history of his time.
The exigencies of climate and education
separated me from my father for the ten
years which lie between 6 and 16 in my
life But I spent the last 14 months of his
residence in Montego Bay with him. The
ovation which greeted my arrival in the
island with a younger sister-half fright-
ened, and wholly astonished us -young girls
to whom the land, father, and even life
itself were all new. The wondrous beauty
of the sapphire bay studded with more than
100 islets, alive with sailing craft, the shore
fringed with the gieen and white of houses
and vegetation, backed by the blue mass of
,mountains rising from the centre of the
island, made me hold my breath in speech-
less admiration, as the custom's boat, pro-
pelled by the stalwart black boatmen in
immaculate white jackets, trousers and
straw hats, shot across to the crowded
wharf, amid loud cheers, shouts of welcome,

and an army of outstretched hands, among
which plunged and backed the horses of the
carriage we could not for some little time
enter. It was many hours before the re-
ception in our pretty little house was over,
the rooms being filled with one stream after
another of callers and friends. I soon
realzied how inevitable was the trust and
affection inspired by my father's character.
His official duties engaged him from 9 a. m.
to 4 p.m. daily, during which time he could
not be induced to take refreshment of any
kind. At 4 he was supposed to return
home for rest, bathing, dinner, the society
of friends, the last book from England, or
the arrangementofa very large and valuable
collection of coins, obtained mainly from ves-
sels clearing in the port. But I early discov-
ered that these enjoyments were at the mercy
of all, or any one needing his assistance.
Perhaps a few instances, representative of
these many and varied kindnesses, may be
given as proof rather than assertion of his
goodness of heart and life. One evening
his explanation of his delayed return
would be I draw the dividends for the poor
ladies at Cotton Tree, and for D's widow,
so I had to go round to them, which
means a small gossip too, you know."
Another time it might be that young
fellow B. has been with me, I am helping
him to pull himself out of debt, but it
takes time each quarter"; and yet again
" the gentleman I sent up to lunch with you,
came from a distance, to ask me to witness
a runaway marriage with a cousin. The
parents fully sanctioned the engagement,
but now they have inherited a large fortune,
they forbid him the house. The girl agrees
to a runaway wedding and wants me to
bring you for a bridesmaid, because"- laugh-
ing--"my support will expedite, or ensure
the reconciliation of the parents after the
ceremony-in their opinion." The collec-
tor's daughter could hardly know which she
considered the more strange, the choice of a
silver-haired old man for the rl6e of confidante,
or the scheme for the redress of love's wrongs.
" How is it to be ?" she inquired. I said,
the case was a really hard one, but my
hearty sympathy must not help H. to do
wrong as well as suffer it two wrongs do
not make one right, and I should not like
my own little girl to treat me so if I were
unjust to her. They must wait, if"-with
strong emphasis-"the girl be steadfeist and
brave till she come of age, all will be right,
they must wait now :" and accordingly the
young lovers did wait, not, I am sorry to


say for the young doctor's happiness, but
for the lady's transmutation into the Baroness
Von- of German society. Oneevening my
father came home late, white with anger,
panting with indignation and blowing off
steam with exclamations of the rascal I'll
prosecute him, let him off indeed !' "' I have
rescued a poor lad," he explained, from hor-
rible cruelty on the part of his master, my
rage was so great, that"-with a grim chuckle
of satisfaction-" I actually frightened the
scoundrel into an abject state !" A glance
at his flashing eyes, and tall, spare, large
frame, made me think that result as natural
as it was desirable under the circumstances.
Twice over my father was the direct
means of obtaining large fortunes for differ-
ent people. As these incidents of his private
life have an instructive as well as curious
interest I will relate them. On the first
occasion, his sister in England interested
him in an endeavour to discover the brother
of a poor woman, the widow of a postman,
left destitute with a large family of small
children. "I know only two people of the
requisite name," said my father, one a
wealthy planter, whom I shall meet at din-
ner to-morrow, the other a lawyer in Spanish
Town." He was only slightly acquainted
with the planter, but contrived in conver-
sation with him to relate the circumstances
of the case, without, however, elicting any
show of interest in it from his hearer, who,
he therefore concluded, could possess none.
On his way home, hearing himself called
and steps in pursuit of him, my father
waited, till Mr. S. the planter, .came up,
with the words I am the brother of that
widow but only half-brother, and do not
intend to saddle myself with persons who
are entire strangers to me, and who will
simply look on me as a mine of wealth for
their own use, without reference to my
comfort." I am sorry to hearyou express
such sentiments, sir." "Never mind that,
Mr. Roby, I will give 5 for my sister's use,
and perhaps another again, if you will not
disclose my existence, sending it for me as
the gift of a friend." Well, no then, Mr.
S." was my father's spirited rejection of
the proffered sum. "You must get some
one else to assist you in such unhandsome
arrangements, for I do Inot care to be con-
cerned with them." Oh, indeed, may I ask
then what would be handsome arrangements
in your opinion, Mr. Roby ?" Certainly-
one of two courses-either, a small annuity,
which will not lift the family out of poverty
while relieving, and placing it beyond the

reach of want,-or better, as you are a
bachelor with large means, the education
of the young people to fit them for succeed-
ing to your property, on a fair share of it."
" Very good." laughed Mr. S. I accept the
allowance scheme if you will take the trouble
of arranging it without revealing my exist-
ence." This request was complied with,
and after some time Mr S. died, an intestate
bachelor, when of course my father in-
formed the next of kin who established their
claim by his means, and rapidly squaliid-red
the 4(0,000 so suddenly inherited, without
a word of gratitude to their benefactor.
The second of these incidents happened
thus : the collector was hastily summoned
out of Church during the morning service
one Sunday to attend the dying bed of his
most intimate literary friend in the town.
" It was a seizure of some sort, and as his
sister fancied that there was an attempt to
pronounce my name, they sent for me to see
if I could explain and soothe his agitation."
" And were you of any use ?" "Yes," with
grave sadness--"of very important use ; I
had urged him many months ago to make
his will, as his property is large, and there
are claims requiring a testamentary disposi-
tion. He talked it over with me, stating
his intentions in the main, but-as I felt
sure would be the case at the time-he
deferred doing it, even though I reminded
him a second time, saying I should not do so
a third, it being no business of mine So
when I saw the distressed look on his face,
I bent over him and asked, Is it your will
G'? The immediate expression of relief
answered me. Hastily consulting with his
sister and the doctor, I wrote as briefly as
possible what he had distinctly told me he
intended with regard to the bulk of his pro-
perty, and read it over very slowly to him.
lie was just able to sign it, and I waited with
his sister till all was over,--but, 'the pity of
it, the pity of it.' there were things I feel
sure he wished and would have done, but
which I had neither time nor specific
authority to write, you see"--my father be-
coming so distressed, that he had to be re-
minded that his friendship certainly proved
of great service to his friend, as well as to
the family inheriting.
In the course of his nearly 30. years
official service in Jamaica, my father spent
one furlough in America, and thrice re-
visited England on long leave of absence.
On the last of these occasions he retired, at
the expiration of his leave, the Government
withdrawing from the patronage which


therefore ceased to be any longer a Crown
appointment. On the first visit to England
in 1825 he was shipwrecked. His graphic
account of the disaster which was published
in a newspaper at the time spoke so highly
of the first mate, that the owners of the vessel
gave 10)0 and the command of another of
their ships to the worthy seaman. My
father was wont to remark that this piece of
his writing gained more money than any of
his higher class literary work, which indeed
was discontinued on account of the expense
incurred by its publication. The name of
the vessel, and that of the captain have
escaped my memory; but this event in my
father's private life is of a sufficiently in-
teresting and important character to be
related as nearly as I can remember in his
own words.
I was about to take my passage in another
ship, when my friend Lient. Hopkirk, R.N., per-
suaded me to secure a berth in the same vessel in
which he had already arranged to sail with his
wife and little girl, kindly saying 'as you are an
invalid, Mr. Roby, my wife will be able to nurse
you, while we shall be company for one another 1'
They had already secured for their accommodation
the roomy, light round-house on the deck, and were
generously desirous to exchange it for my less
pleasant berth below deck. but I stopped all per-
suasion with an absolute refusal to separate hus-
band and wife. More than half the voyage was
accomplished in safety, when the weather changed,
and the wind began to 'blow great guns.' We were
much knocked about, and the evening before the
disaster poor Mrs. Hopkirk who had become very
nervous said to me, "Are we in danger, Mr. IRoby?"
I replied, I hope not, we have a good ship, and a
full crew, an experienced captain, and above all
we are 500 miles from any shore: it is a great thing
-to have plenty of sea room in bad weather," to
which she replied with a sa smile, 'thank you, and
good night, Mr. Roby, but I wish we were all safe
on terra firma," the last words she ever spoke to me.
I went below, but as the gale increased there could
be no sleep for me, and I was about to rise at 2.
a. m. when the first mate came below, and to my
remark, It is adreadful night, mate," replied You
may well say so. Mr. Roby, for though I have been
20 years at sea I have never seen one so bad." To
my inquiry for Lieut. Hopkirk and his wife, he
said "She is much frightened but has the child
with her in bed and her husband is sitting beside
her. It is no good your rising, Mr. Roby" he added,
you could not stand a moment on deck I" Not
long after, perhaps an hour and a half, there
was a tremendous crash, 'the vessel had fallen into
the trough of a wave, and been struck by another
while in it. She shivered, stopped, and rose from
momentary silence, the water pouring down and
into her hold. I either jumped, or was thrown
out of my beth into water up to my waist, but
managed to scramble out to the companion ladder,
to behold the deck swept as clean as the palm of
my hand, the round-house with my friends in it,
the Captain, 2nd mate and the whole watch on
deck, masts, boats, bulwarks, and stanchions, all
gone I and the awful grandeur of the scene over-
bearing and compelling my notice in that even

terrible moment. The first mate took command
of the wreck; the cargo of liquified sugar was
pumped out of the hold in the form of molasses,
and the dismasted hull rose like a huge shell on
the angry swell of the abating storm. The little
band of survivors, i. e., the first mate, watch below,
myself and one other passenger, a young jew,
worked with a will to keep the wreck afloat. It
was noticed that the most pious man, and the most
profane man among the sailors worked best, being
the two volunteers for the dangerous task of
cutting the masts adrift, as, being entangled and
held by the cordage, they threatened to beat in the
side of the ship. The situation was, however, des-
perate, pumping could alone keep the hull afloat,
and the number of hands saved was not sufficient
to relieve the workers as they became exhausted.
I therefore read the prayers appointed by the
Church for such times of danger, encouraging my
companions to take food, and meet our fate with
British pluck, working to the end. At intervals I
went round administering small doses of rum to
the brave and tired sailors. Suddenly the profane
sailorshouted, "My God, there's a boat '' Impos-
sible," broke from most lips ; but with an oath the
man repeated his words, and the strange but happy
sight soon greeted our eyes. Another vessel had
foundered in the same gale, but her crew with one
bag of biscuit only, had taken to the boats and
escaped. We therefore mutually saved each
other. We had food enough, while they relieved
our exhausted workers at the pumps. Some of
the worst leaks were stopped, till a Danish brig
hove in sight, taking me and the other passenger
off, and helping the first mate to rig up a jury
mast, he deciding to remain by the wreck, which
he finally ran safely into the nearest British port.
In 1851 my father went back to England
for the last time. It was generally under-
stood that he did not intend to return to
Jamaica, and both populations vied with
each other in expressions of affectionate
regret at his loss. The clergy from dis-
tant parishes and towns came into Montego
Hay to wish him God-speed. Owners and
overseers of estates in the mountain or
inland districts rode in through many weeks
preceding his departure, to take personal
leave of him Friends and officials, unable
to once more clasp his hand, sent letters
teeming with expressions of affectionate
regret. Societies organized demonstrations
and testimonials in his honour, and a public
address signed by upwards of 170 of the most
respectable inhabitants of St. James was
voted and presented to him in the crowded
court-house. When he left the building,
many eyes were wet, and the cheering
had a very husky sound.
An address from the Magistrates, Merchants, Plan-
ters, and other Inhabitants of Montego Bay,
St. James, Jamaica.
Dear Sir,
We cannot permit you to leave Mon-
tego Bay, after an official residence among us for
upwards of twenty years, without conveying to
you, in this address, our sentiments of sincere
respect and esteem.


While, during your long sojourn in this town, we
can all bearwitness to your compassionate feelings
for the sufferings of the distressed, and your readi-
ness to afford relief, the mercantile community
has found you always at your official post, watch-
ful of your duties, and at the same time ever ready
to advise in any difficulty, and to give to the
commerce of the Port all the accommodation and
facilities consistent with your duties. Now, on
the eve of your departure, we may be allowed to
express our opinion with reference to the attempt
which has lately been made to injure your high
and well-merited reputation, and to disturb the
confidence justly reposed in you by the superior
Officers of your department.
Had it been the province of the public at any
time during the investigation of the matter to
which we have alluded, we feel assured that the
whole community would have been ready, with
one voice, to bear testimony to your unblemished
character, which we consider to be above the
reach of any assailant. This occasion, however,
affords us the opportunity of expressing our con-
viction that throughout the British dominions, there
cannot be found an Officer of Her Majesty, more
conscientious in the discharge of his duties, nor
more vigilant in the protection of the trust reposed
in him,-and while, all those who have had to
transact business with your office will readily ac-
knowledge that they have never been subjected
by you to any vexatious trouble or delay, we feel
confident that it cannot be charged upon you,
that knowingly, you had ever permitted any in-
dividual to evade the smallest amount in the pay-
ment of the Public Revenue under your charge.
These are the expressions of our sincere opinions,
and they are but the result of that which your
public conduct merits. In conclusion, it now
devolves upon us to assure you of our regret at
your departure from among us. A regret lessened,
,however, by the belief that your absence is to be
but of temporary duration, and we earnestly hope
that the Divine blessing may be bestowed upon
you and your family, and that we shall soon again
have the pleasure of greeting you on your return
to the field of your accustomed vocation.
An individuality, which was thus strong to
oppose Wrong, and protect the Weak, had
of course some enemies who remained such
instead of being converted into friends by
the force of Truth in ithe course of time.
The most rancorous of these had been one
of my father's officers whom, he was com-
pelled to have tried, and dismissed from the
service. Though this 'villain of the story'
was unable to injure the hero of it, yet
the attempt referred to in the public ad-
dress given above, was made by his pre-
fering more thon 20 charges against the
Collector. The Board of Control at home
characterized all but two of these charges,
I think, "as frivolous and vexatious;" one
was I believe a simple libel, and the other
raised a question of privilege on a trifling
matter which was settled therefore into
definite limits. At the expiration of his
leave, eighteen months later, the Board in
London fixed the well-earned pension at the

maximum rate allowed, giving the retiring
Collector nearly 100 a year more than he
expected, or could have claimed. He lived
11 years after his retirement, dying at
Bideford, North Devon, Nov. 26, 1864. My
mother predeceased him some years. Hie
loved to lie on the grey Pebble Ridge-
since swept away-of the Northam Burrows
-then one of the best Golf Links in Eng-
land, and the scene of Kingsley's "West-
ward Ho !" It was arranged therefore that
he should be buried in the churchyard of
that village commanding the same view--
so emblematic of human life-the em-
bouchure of the river (Torridge) with the
sea. But he lingered on, and the grave-
yard, which holds so many worn out and
shipwrecked mariners, was fast filling up.
A piece of ground had to be added to it.
The Bishop of Exeter was ill, and the
-prelate who took his place to consecrate
it was--the aged Bishop of Jamaica. The
vicar, mentioning my father's name with
the inquiry if it were known to the bishop,
evoked the warm exclamation, My friend,
my dear old friend and helper, John Roby!
is he in this neighbourhood,.I must indeed
go and see him before I leave to-morrow."
He was almost too ill to be roused, but
opened his eyes when he heard the bishop's
name, and felt the gentle pressure of his
hand, smiling as they gazed at each other
in an affectionate and pathetic silence, and
again when his daughter remarked, Father
honoured the chief officer of his Church out
in the far West, for he was a good Churchman
and thought heresy and schism, something
specially wicked, did he not?" So they
parted, and not many days later my father
was laid in the first grave opened in the
ground which his old friend had prepared
for his resting place. It was probably the
last ground consecrated by the aged bishop
as,only a few months afterwards, he rejoined
his friend in the kingdom where d ell "the
spirits of just men made perfect."
In concluding this my labour of love, I
wish to do so by transcribing not inap-
propriately the little rythmic story of Leigh
Hunt, which has occurred often to me in
writing this memoir of my father's life:
Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase)
Awoke one morn, from a deep dream of peace,
And saw, within the moonlight in his room,
Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom
An Angel writing in a book of gold-
Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,
And to the Presence in the room he said,
"What writest thou ?" The Vision raised its head


And, with a look made of all sweet accord
Answered--"the names of those who love the
"And is mine one ?" said Abou "Nay, not so,"
Replied the angel,--Abou spoke more low,
But cheerly still; and said. I pray thee then,

Write me as one who loves his fellow men."
The angel wrote, and vanished, The next night
It came again with-a great wakening light,
And showed the names whom love of God had
And lo I Ben Adhem's name led all the rest.



TaH place and exact date of the birth of the
Rev. George Wilson Bridges are unknown.
As his father's body was taken from Bath
(where he died) to Ilford for interment,
this village may have been his original
home, and there his son George may pos-
sibly hive been born. His mother's name
was Wilson. The year of his birth was
apparently between 1785 and 1788. He
was educ-ited at Trinity College, Oxford,
and at the University of Utrecht. He ran
away to Scotland in 1811 with the lady who
became his wife, from the house of her aunt
at Cheltenham, and after a life of nearly
thirty years in England," part of which was
spent as a village pastor, he left England in
the following year, for Jamaica. He tells
us in his Voice from Jamaica" that he
served cures in the counties of Essex, Nor-
folk and Hampshire, and in London. Acci-
dent,"he says in his "Annals," "brought me,
a stranger, to this distant land of slavery,"
and at the time his father, through pecu-
niary losses, was compelled to stop his
allowance of 200 per annum, and he had
moreover to sell his reversionary interests
in order to pay his college debts. He reached
Jamaica in 1816. Soon after his arrival, the
Governor, the Duke of Manchester, pre-
ferred him to the rectorship of the recently
formed parish of Manchester; his imme-
diate predecessor being the Rev. J. M.
Trew, who afterwards went to Morant
Bay, as rector of St. Thomas-in-the-East.
Bridges's first entry in the Mandeville
Church Register is dated 23rd December,
1817: and his last is "Here ends the min-
istry of the Rev. George W. Bridges-
moved to St. Ann's, 10th October, 1823.
Slaves baptized, 9547 ; Slave marriages,
In 1823 he published, in reply to Wil-
berforce, his "Voice from Jamaica," of
which a copy of the second edition has re-
cently been added to the Library of the
Institute, and which was a pamphlet written
in defence .of slave-owners, though not of
slavery. He says in it I, Sir, have mixed

much in Society here; have, with attention,
heard much upon the subject; and have ever
found the opinions of all concurrent with
mine own, that the desirable period of eman-
cipation, only awaits the arrival of the ne-
groes at that state of civilization which will
render self-controul advantageous to them-
selves, by making them good, industrious,
arid faithful subjects of our empire." He
convicts Wilberforce of two glaring historical
blunders, and then says if upon facts of
such notoriety you are so incorrect, what
may we not expect in the sequel, on points
upon which your distant residence forbids
the opportunity of gaining that informa-
tion which even in your study you
have overlooked." In 1825, the House
of Assembly voted him the sum of 700
in consideration of his able defence of the
character of this colony" in this work.
The cause of this vote was his praying, with
a certain amount of adulation, in November
1825 for the aid of the House of Assembly
towards his Annals." He says
That the numerous defects in other histories,
now become scarce and imperfect, suggested to the
petitioner a compilation under a different arrange-
ment; free from the prejudices and partialities, the
obscurity and error, of earlier writers, and brought
down far beyond the period when their labours ter-
minate; a work requiring much indulgence, and
which he now humbly prays he may be permitted
to offer to those faithful guardians of the rights and
privileges of their constituents, who have, with un-
shaken integrity and persevering patriotism, upheld-
through years of difficulty and distress, that con-
stitutional fabric, upon which reposes one of the
most valuable possessions of the British crown."
This petition was referred to a committee
which reported that although they are of
opinion that it is a work of great research,
reflecting the highest credit on the author,
and tending to correct the injurious opinions
fabricated against our character and insti-
tutions, the committee cannot take upon
themselves to recommend to the house to
assume the publication of that or any other
new literary production"; but they referred
him to the favourable consideration of the
House, with the above-mentioned result.
In 1823, he left Manchester, and in the


following year (1824), he published two
works, both dated from Wakefield, Jamaica.
The one, printed in England, was entitled
"Dreams of Dalooracy, or the Puritanical
Obituary, an appeal not to the romantic
sensibility but to the good sense of the Bri-
tish public;" and was an answer to those
who criticised his "Voice from Jamaica,"
e.g., a writer in the ;British Review on
'Negro Slavery' whom he calls an "idle
reviler;" a writer signing himself Publius"
in the Times, whom he designates "this
loathsome scribe" and A Friend to Free-
dom," to whom he applies the epithet
"feeble, but well meaning." The copy of
this work in the Library of the Institute was
that presented by the author to John Lunan.
As it had been asserted that Bridges was
a friend to slavery, it may be well to quote
the following sentence from this pamphlet:
Let it not be thought then, that I can ever
become an advocate for slavery. I avowed
it before and I again repeat it, I detest the
barbarous institution, as a curse, which,
originating in the dark ages, has like a bane-
ful weed, ever been extirpated as a people
have become civilized by reason, or enlight-
ened by Christianity." It is difficult to re-
concile this with an expression of his, quoted
by Dr. Madden in his "Twelve Months in
the West Indies," to the effect that "slavery
has been established by prescription, and
immemorial usage has confirmed it as one of
the most important, if not the most obvious,
bonds of civil society." Bridges, in his
Dreams of Dulocracy"' goes on to say.
Jamaica, no doubt. will be one of the first
colonies from which slavery will be finally
eradicated: but time must be allowed for
the operation. It must not be forced, or
rudely torn from the soil, lest, like the poly-
pus a single fibre should remain, which
would renew the growth-it must be suffered
to die in the ground under the mild but
certain influence of Christianity." If. how-
ever, we trust the account given by Bleby
in his "Death Struggles of Slavery,"o:
Bridges sometimes allowed his zeal for the
Church of England and his dislike of the
dissenters to lead him to incite others to acts
of cruelty which were a disgrace to humanity.
But it must be borne in mind that Bleby, a
Wesleyan minister, was very inimical to
.Bridges and wrote at a time when party
feeling ran high, and when the partizans
of each side were wont to take, as typical of
thewhole state of affairs, examples in a very
complex question which came under their

*3rd edition 1868, p. 64, et seq.

own notice and coloured by their own pre-
judices, and were not always mindful of
the truth. The following is in brief the ac-
count given by Bleby :
Henry Williams, who had before become an
object of interest to the Christian public of Great
Britain on account of the persecutions and cruelties
which he had endured at the instigation of the
Rev. Mr. Bridges, the Rector of St. Ann, was one of
the victims marked out for further punishment.
* Henry was a slave belonging to a property
called Rural Retreat, in the parish of St. Ann ; and
was driver or headman, having the superintendence
of his fellow-slaves when at work. The adjoining
estate, called Sydenham,* was in the occupation of
the Rev. Mr. Bridges the rector. One day. when
the Rural Retreat gang of negroes was at work in
the field under Williams's control, Mr. Bridges came
to the wall which separated the two plantations and
beckoned Williams to come to him, observing that
he had something particular to say. He then went
on to remark, that Mr. B., the attorney, desired
that Williams would go no more to the Wesleyan
chapel at Bellemont,t and have no more to do with
the teaching of the missionaries; and he gave him
this information because e wished him well, and
knew that Mr. B. was determined to give him a ter-
rible punishment if he continued to attend the
chapel. Mr. Bridges then, with apparent kindness,
proceeded to advise his negro auditor to have
nothing to do with the missionaries, but go to
church, and act in compliance with his master's
wishes; and further intimated that he was setting
off to town the following day, and, as it was likely
that he should call at Crescent Park, (Mr. B's. resi-
dence) either going or returning, he would be glad
to convey to him Williams's answer, if it were to the
effect that he would never again go to the mission-
ary services. Henry replied that he was obliged to
Mr. Bridges for his advice, and for his offer to carry
such a message; but he had none to send at that
time; he was often seeing Mr. B. and he would pre-
fer giving his answer directly to that gentleman,
when he came to the estate. Mr. Bridges then went
away, holding out threats of severe punishment
against Williams for what he was pleased to term
his obstinacy and insolence.'
The reverend gentlemen saw Mr. B. on his return
from town on the following Saturday; and a plan
was arranged between them which was intended to
prevent the attendance of Henry Willians and the
other slaves of Rural Retret at Bellemont chapel.
As the parish church at St. Ann's Bay, where the
rector officiated, was undergoing repairs, and con-
sequently shut up, Mr. Bridges proposed to have
service performed at his own residence; and Mr.
B. was to be there, though not in the habit of
attending any place of worship, to enforce the
attendance of Henry Williams and the other slaves.
Very early on the Sunday morning. Mr. Bridges's
servant, Scipio, knocked at Henry Williams's door,
and, being invited into the house, delivered a mes-
sage with which he was charged, to this effect,-
that Mr. B. was come to Sydenham, and church was
to be held there that day: and he, Henry Williams,
and all the people, were expected to go there at ten
o'clock. As he was the head man, and thought it
possible that Mr. B. might have some directions to
give him concerning the estate or the people. Henry
determined to go over to Sydenham ; but he did not
think it his duty to call upon the people to go there
*A misprint for Tydenham.
t A misprint for'Belmont.


withhim, as he usually exercised no control over
them on the Sabbath-day; he therefore told them
that they must act for themselves, and either go to
Sydenham, or to the chapel at Bellemont, as they
thought best. Accordingly, the whole of the people,
including his own wife and children went as usual
to the chapel, while he alone went to Sydenham.
He waited there for some time,Messrs. Bridges and
B. frequently looking out, to see if the people were
coming to the service. After the lapse of a con-
siderable time, as none appeared, Mr. B. called up
Williams, and asked him what was the reason he
had not obeyed his orders, and brought up all the
people with him. Henry replied, that he had
thought it his duty to come, as perhaps Mr. B. might
wish to say something to hin about his temporal
duty, or the estate; but he had no account to give
him concerning the people, as they were not under
his direction on Sundays: on any other day he would
answer for them. I suppose they are all gone to
Bellemont,' Mr. B. remarked; 'and it is a wonder you
are not gone there too. I suppose you would have
done so if I had not been here ?' Henry said that he
should have gone to Bellemont, for he always went
there on Sundays; but as massa' had sent for him,
he thought it his duty to wait upon massa.' and
hear what he had to say. Bat have I not told you,'
said Mr: B., that you and the people are not to go
to Bellemont chapel, preachingandpraying ? How
dare you go, when I tell you not, and encourage the
people to disobey my orders?' 'Yes, Sir,' Henry
replied, 'you did tell me not to go to Bellemont
but I asked massa to point out to me what harm
thereis in my going to the chapel. If massa will
show me that it does me any harm, or that it does
harm to massa, or to any body else, then I will think
about it, and I will leave the chapel, and never go to
the preaching again. In everything that concerns
the people and the estate, I am ready to obey you,
Sir; but I cannot leave off going to Bellemont till
massa shows me what harm it does.' 'Yon may n)w
go away,' said the angry master to the slave; and
you will come to me at Crescent Park to-morrow at
ten o'clock, and I will send you down to Ro:lney
Hall; where you shall have such a punishment as you
have never seen or heard of before. I'll teach you
to disobey my orders: you shall not go to Bellemont
chapel for nothing.' Other conversation ensued, in
the course of which the attorney was greatly in-
censed by Henry saying, in reply to some sneering
observations of his, I have learnt the way of salva-
tion by going to the chapel. I should lose my soul,
if I were to leave off going there; and I would
rather lose my life than lose my soul.'
The rector sto)d by during this conversation,
occasionally taking part therein,-not, however, in
favour of the slave: and as Henry turned down the
steps to depart, the clergyman called to him and
said, in a jeering tone and manner, We are going
to have the prayers now ; you had better stay to the
service. Henry turned round, and said, 'No, Sir;
you may have it all to yourself. I didn't like your
service too much before; but I don't like it at all
now; for you hear the punishment I am to get to-
morrow.' And he took his departure, whilst the
reverend gentleman cursed him, and, before he got
out of hearing, denounced his conduct as down-
Sright rebellion."
The punishment which Bleby describes as
received by Williams at Rodney Hall work-
house was brutal in the extreme. And again
he relates how later on
Mr. B. was gone to his account, and Henry Wil-

liams had passed under the control of another
attorney, who was not subject to the baneful in-
fluence of the rector. Henry was therefore to a
certain extent beyond the reach and power of Mr.
Bridges; but subsequent occurrences made it suffi-
ciently evident, that the clergyman still regarded
poor Williams with intense and unmitigated hatred,
which could be assuaged with nothing less than his
blood. The revolt of 1831 furnished the desired
opportunity to this persecutor, for pouring out his
cherished vengeance upon the defenceless head of
poor Williams. There was no insurrection in that
neighbourhood, nor the slightest indication of a
rebellious spirit amongst the slaves; but, martial
law being proclaimed throughout the island, as
well as in the disturbed district, an opportunity
of persecuting the Methodists, and especially
of accomplishing the destruction of Henry Wil-
liams, was presented, such as might never again
occur. Mr. Bridges in conjunction with a neigh-
bour with whom he had been at enmity, but had
effected a reconciliation for the occasion, got up a
list of charges against Williams; who was taken by a
partyof militia out of the field at Rural Retreat,
where he was superintending the people at their
work, and carried down a prisoner to St. Ann's Bay."
And then he goes on to tell how Williams,
against whom he could not obtain evidence
to justify them in hanging him, was flog-
ged nearly to death in the presence of the
rector and others. The Rev. John Clarke,
in his Memorials of Baptist Missionaries,"
bears similar testimony : -
The house occupied by Mr. Abbott at St. Ann's
Bay was not far from The Cloisters," the residence
of the rector of the parish, author of "Annals of
Jamaica," and originator of the Colonial Church
Union. Of this prominent actor against the mis-
sionaries. a clerical writer of the present day says:
" The Cloisters were once the residence of the
Rev. G. Wilson Bridges, the intimate friend and
counsellor of the Duke of Manchester, who, with
his secretary, Mr. Bullock, used to spend the recess
from business there. This Church dignitary, and
rector of the parish, endeavoured to make the place
correspond with its name. There his Annals'
were written, and colonial slavery advocated; there
he fulminated his thunderbolts against sectarians;
there the Colonial Church Union was organized.
How full of suggestiveness is the fact that the
Cloisters are now held by the Wesleyan Methodists
against whom Mr. Bridges used to spit his venom I
and a worthy and much-esteemed Wesleyan minis-
ter now occupies the premises.
'The loss of Mr. Bridges' four beautiful daugh-
ters by one fell swoop in a single moment, his sub-
sequent prostration of spirit, his supposed peni-
tence for .he past, and his recent death.* are sub-
jects fresh in the minds of the public, and on which
we will not intrude." Jamntica Paper, 1854.
In the days of Mr. Bridges' fierce opposition to
missionaries, he sent to St. Ann's Bay mule-loads of
cudgels to put into the hands of the mob on the day
the Wesleyan missionaries were expected to apply
f.)r a licence to recommence preaching; but after
the loss of his four daughters by a boat accident in
the Bay, he welcomed the visits and sympathy of
Mr. Abbott, and on a fly-leaf of the copy of his
' Annals of Jamaica' he presented to him he wrote
a recantation of his former views respecting mis-
sionaries and their work in Jamaica."
*He did not die till 1863.


The profits arising from both the Dreams
of Dulocracy" and the Voice from Ja-
maica" were devoted to the Jamaica Dis-
trict Society for promoting Christian Know-
ledge; and Bridges's name is found as giving
25 in the list of donations for the forma-
tion of a free school for the uneducated
children of colour in the Parish of Manches-
ter, as quoted in Barclay's Practical View
of the Present State of Slavery in the
West Indies." The other work published in
this year (1824) was printed by the author
at the Wakefield Press, Jamaica. It is
entitled The Statistical History of the
Parish of Manchster in the Island of
Jamaica," and is dedicated to the inhabitants
of the parish "as a tribute of remembrance
to a community, which for a period of seven
years, endured the numerous imperfections
and rewarded the humble services of the
author." It is an interesting pamphlet of
twenty-two pages, but contains nothing like
the archeological research of Roby's his-
tories of St. Catherine and St. .ames. Bridges
resided for some time at Wakefield, about
three miles southwest of St. Ann's Bay, but
afterwards lived at the loisters," near
the town, which is now the property of the
Wesleyans. He tells us that he had
"a rare and chosen library" of eight
thousand volumes : if this is so, it was
probably the finest private library ever
formed in the West Indies, where books were
never at a premium. From the works quoted
in his writings, he was evidently a widely
read man; and all his known literary work
was done in Jamaica.
In 1825 he was one of the fourteen
" competent persons" who gave evidence
before a committee appointed by the House
of Assembly to prepare and bring in a bill
to enable slaves to give evidence in certain
cases: (five other witnesses were reotors).
Bridges gave it as his opinion that the pro-
portion of the slave population which might
safely be admitted to give testimony on oath,
was very small: and in this opinion his
brother rectors shared, though they seemed
to think the proportion larger.
Towards the close of this year, some ame-
liorations were made in the slave laws, but
party feeling still ran high. On the evening
of Curistmas day, some white men fired into
the Wesleyan mission-house at St. Ann's
Bay, and a sermon which Bridges had
preached in the morning was said to have
been the cause. The case created great ex-
citement at the time, and Dr. Lushington
brought the matter before the House of


Commons : but the Duke of Manchest
reported that the affair was a mare drunken
frolic and in no way attribut:lile to t
sermon in question, which Bridges put
listed in the newspapers in proof of th
honesty of his intentions, and the author c
which was, it is said, not Bridges, but th
then Archdeacon of Colchester; but,
Gardner points out in his history, Bridge
altered it to suit the occasion, and mad
allusions to the Wesleyans to whom he wa
particularly antipathetic.
In 1826 Bridges got to loggerheads wit
the Bishop. He petitioned the House t<
aid him against the Bishop who had refuse
to sign the rector's certificate for stipend
on the ground that he had not tran
scribed the early registers of the parish o
St. Ann, in accordance with the order o
the Bishop's registrar. This Bridges con-
sidered a task which should not have been
imposed upon him, and after seeking aid
from the Vestry applied to the Assembly ;
but he received no support from the House
at that time. In the following year, however,
he was more successful, the House vot-
ing him remuneration to the extent of
39 12s. 6d. on account of the copy he had
caused to be made of the registers from
1768 to 1826.
In 1828, appeared Bridges's well.known
"Annals of Jamaica," in some respects the
best history of the island; but marred by
certain inaccuracies which are apparently
due to carelessness or perhaps to a fertile
imagination, by want of method in ar-
rangement and by the lack of an index.
That this work had been in preparation for
some years is evident from the fact that he
dated its prospectus from Manchester in
1823. It was then called A New History
of the Island of Jamaica; from its discovery
to the year 1824, with statistical illustra-
tions, etc."
In 1823, he was a B.A. only ; but on the
title-page of this work his name is followed
by M.A.
Bleby says of the Annals," alluding
probably to Bridges's strictures on the Gov-
ernors, Admiral Knowles and William
Henry Lyttleton, that its libellous character
caused its sale to be prohibited : and he then
says :--
"Many bitter articles from his pen, published
in the Jamaica newspapers, contributed largely to
awaken and augment that hostility to religion and
its ministers, on the part of the planters, which for
many years gave to Jamaica an unenviable notoriety
in the Christian world. Mr. Bridges was himself a
slave-holder, and therefore deeply interested in the
maintenance of the wretched system ; and, when the


demoralizing and imbruting influence which slavery
generally exerts both upon the enslaver and the
enslaved is considered, it ceases to be a matter of
surprise that this gentleman should distinguish him-
self not only as the persecutor of religion, but as the
oppressor of the negro. The case of Henry Williams
was not the only one in which he appeared before the
public in this character. That of Kitty Hylton his
own slave, is eloquent concerning both the disposi-
tion of the individual into whose hands it was her
hard lot to fall, and the wickedness of the system
under which so many thousands were doomed to
suffer, and groan and die."*
And then he gives a copy of the proceed-
ings before the Council of Protection, by
whom it was decided, by 14 to 4, that Bridges
should not be prosecuted for alleged
cruelty to Kitty Hylton. Bleby's com-
ment on which is,-" It was not a matter to
excite surprise, that the investigation ter-
minated in this manner; for the Council of
Protection was composed entirely of per-
sons who were slave-owners, and the per-
sonal friends of Mr. Bridges."
From 1823 to 1837, Bridges was rector of
the Parish of St. Ann Bleby and Clarke tell
us, that he was the originator of the Colonial
Church Union. although his name does not
appear on the list of committee; and Bleby
"Endowed with talents of no ordinary kind, he
might have exerted a powerful influence for good in
a community like that of Jamaica, and have become
the true benefactor, rather t t the bane of the
country. But his talents were prostituted to evil;
and his name will be associated with Jamaica, only
as one who stained her soil with the blood of slaves,
and contributed very largely to plunge her into a
depth of infamy far beyond any other colony con-
nected with the British crown."
The Colonial Church Union which origin-
ated in St. Ann's in 1832, spread through
all the other parishes except Kingston. Its
object was stated to be "to resist by all
constitutional means, the encroachments of
their enemies under every disguise, and, :; o
to offer to the falsehoods of the opposing An-
ti-Slavery Society an antidote, in the form
of argument and facts, illustrative of the true
state of our laboring classes '" :,"; but
its main objects appear to have been the
persecution of dissenters and the destruction
of their property. One of the articles of
this Union was 4th, That the members
of the Union do bind themselves to use
every possible exertion to prevent the
dissemination of any religious doctrines
at variance with those of the English
and Scotch Churches." This Union was
* Bleby tells us elsewhere that Bridges wrote for the
Jafnaica Courant, a paper famed for its hatred of
the Sectarians as it called the dissenters, and the
letters signed Umbratus," inveighing against the
missionaries, were generally understood to be his pro-

the cause of the destruction of several
dissenting, especially Baptist, chapels on
the north side; and it was only through the
strong measures adopted by Lord Mulgrave
at the close of 1832 and in the early months
of 1833 that it was broken up.
In February 1834, Bridges's wife was per-
suaded to leave him and henceforth they
lived apart.o In the followingyear Bridges
visited England in order to put his daughters
to school, and he stayed for nearly a year
at the seat, in Ireland, of the Earl of Bel-
more, late Governor of Jamaica. On re-
turning to Jamaica, in order to defray the
expenses of the voyage, he was compelled to
part with some valuable plate which had
been presented to him by the House of
In 1837, he lost four daughters, of which
the eldest was eighteen years of age, by the
upsetting of a boat outside St. Ann's Bay.
Report says that Bridges witnessed this
accident from his room in the "Cloisters."
The Hon. C. W. Steer, Custos of St. Anne,
writes in answer to a request for informa-
tion concerning Bridges :- I may say that
he did not rescue any of the party who were
with his daughters when they were drowned.
The rescuer was a person of the same name,
Alexander Bridges, who was at the time
captain (master) of a trading vessel, named
(I think) The Ralph Bernal,' but he was
not a relative of George Wilson Bridges.
He had lent the party a boat which was
sailing about in the harbour, and, on seeing
the accident, put off in another boat which
was alongside his ship. The horror of the
accident affected his mind and he never re-
covered froln the shock sufficiently to work."
But from the following account copied at
the time in the Kingston Chronicle from
the Cornwall Courier and from the ac-
count given by Bleby, it would appear that
Bridges was in another boat and succeeded
in saving three persons, but none of his own
children. It is of course possible that the
Cornwall Courier's correspondent mixed up
the two Bridges. The circumstances of
this distressing event (as taken from the
Kingston Chronicle) are as follow :-
On Monday party of ladies and gentlemen had
been on board the barque "Demerara Packet," Cap-
tain Bridges, lying in St. Ann's harbour, to a second
breakfast. The party afterwards went in a boat out-
side the Bay when she unfortunately upset and

It was in order to vindicate her memory from
"the most foul and unfounded charges" that he
printed, for private circulation, a pamphlet entitled
"1834-1862. Outlines and Notes of Twenty-nine
Years," from which several facts of his later life
have been gleaned.


eleven persons sunk to rise no more. The individuals
who have thus suddenly met an early death are:
Lieutenant Mallison, 56th Regiment; the four daugh-
ters of the Rev. G. W. Bridges, Rector of St. Ann's,
Mrs. Cocking, wife of Ralph Cocking, Esq., Special
Justice; Mrs. Smith; Miss Jennings, an English
woman, housekeeper in Mr. Bridges' family; two
black servants and one sailor. The Rev. Mr. Bridges
was out in his own boat, and witnessed the appalling
accident, and succeeded in rescuing three persons
from a watery grave-viz., Lieutenant Fraser, 56th
Regiment, Dr. Alexander, Staff Assistant Surgeon,
and one sailor; but alas! none of the females were
seen again. Captain Bridges of the 'Demerara
Packet' and two sailors were also saved."
To this sad accident, he fully alludes in "A
Call to his Parishioners." In fact it is the
burden of his address.
Bleby looked upon this accident as the
blast of the Divine displeasure" on account
of his persecution of the dissenters: but
Bridges himself, although he regarded it in
the light of a Divine judgment, looked upon
it as a punishment for a failure to fully
realize the Divine blessing, and his con-
science seemed quite easy with respect to
the dissenters: at all events he makes no
mention of them. Referring to his daugh-
ters he says, The truth is, I had forgotten
HIM in his gifts. 'o This HE would not
suffer. HE was determined to be seen and
acknowledged in His gifts; and HE there-
fore withdrew those I had so wretchedly
abused." This is the keynote of his "Call,"
which was written on the occasion of his
leaving the island "for a time at least;"
"perhaps for ever:" he never returned to
. In response to a request for information
made in the Gleaner in November, 1894,
the Rev. J. M. Denniston wrote :-
As to his after career I happened to go to Malta
in January 1848 and used to hear of him from my
nearest relation who knew him well, as having spent
some months there,where he was a favourite at even-
ing parties, with the very fine photographs of
his own doing, which he had just brought from
Palestine. After this he went to England and lived
for a good many years, but never returned to
The following details are chiefly gleaned
from the "Outlines and Notes" alluded to
He writes that, after waiting during eight
months in utter distraction for his wife to
come to him, he (in 1838)
" abandoned everything* and fled with my young boy
to the backwoods of Canada, strangely instigated

He adds in a note:-" I had taken with me a con-
siderable sum of money-more followed me,-granted
by the House of Assembly of Jamaica which always
expressed gratitude for what it was pleased to call
my past services. After great hardship during two
years, living in a forest cavern, I bought a large tract
of land at Is. to 3s. 6d. an acre, built The Tower on

thereto by reading Mrs. Traill's book with that title,
at a moment when if I had not gone wild, I should
doubtless have gone mad. Four years there, and
yet no intelligence whatever of my wife. The
climate provedtoo severe for my child, and 1 sud-
denly sacrificed all my property there again, as I
had done in Jamaica to hasten to a warmer.* Mere-
accident, apparently brought us to Palermo, then to
Naples and Malta, and in the next year, 1843,
eventually to England, to prepare my boy for the
navy, through the interest of Lord Belmore's family.
I took a curacy in Gloucestershire. andimainly by the
assistance of the late Sir Sandford Graham, educated
him there during that and the following year; then
went to Malta. During these three years,and the suc-
ceeding six that we remained in Malta, I heard not
whether my wife was alive or not; in fact, I had not
the courage to enquire. Still my brother in appa-
rent friendship, acted as my agent in England, trans-
acting all my money matters, though in a strictly
mercantile, rather than in a brotherly, way-charg-
ing even postages though often with large sums of
mine in hand-never deficient in them. In 1852 we
came to England. William was made a lieutenant;
and I should have been homeless-his expenses
having absorbed all my means-but that Bishop
Monk took me into his family as his Private Sec-
In 1848, he petitioned the House as fol-
lows :-
That while petitioner desires to express to the
house his warmest gratitude for the grant of 90,
now become his sole means of subsistence, shared
with his boy, now in his sixteenth year, he most
earnestly entreats the House, taking his unpre-
cedented case into their consideration, will yet,
in its benevolence, continue the same a little
longer, upon the ground that of eight children this
boy alone survives; has just now entered the navy,
entailing a heavy expenditure upon such a pit-
tance; and that for more than a quarter of a cen-
tury, petitioner never once leaving the island.t
has contributed to the fund on which allhis nume-
rous family might have become charged, but for
the dire calamity which destroyed them, with all
his means of existence. Moreover, that at the
very moment when petitioner was thus driven
distracted from his living of St. Ann, he was ac-
tually entitled by age and service, to the provision
so nobly granted by the house to its time-worn
clergy, had he been in a state of mind then to
claim it.
That petitioner will urge no more to occupy the
time of the House, than he hopes many still sur-
vive therein who know his fearful doom and
destitution, and will therefore feel inclined to
grant to him in old age, and ruined health, the
really necessary support for himself and only
In 1851, he was in Syria. He left behind
him friends in Jerusalem with whom he
corresponded. His quarrel with his younger

Rice Lake, and was the first pioneer in a district
through which a railroad now runs, and where land
is at present selling at 8 to 10 an acre. Some
4000 outlay there gave me in the end scarcely as
many hundreds, so anxiously hurried was'.myn de-
parture by my child's failing health."
*He says that The Cloisters" cost him 4,000,
and he sold in 1845 for 600.
tHe was in the island but twenty-two years, and
he left it, as we have seen, in 1835.


brother was embittered by the fact that
the latter extracted" from their mother
the family living of Bruntingthorpe in Lei-
cestershire "in the prospect of which,
though then distant, I was ordained when
he was but a child, and never intended for
the church," and lie adds while but for my
aged mother's precarious charity and Bishop
Monk's benevolence in giving me this curacy
of Beachley, of about forty pounds a year,
I should be left destitute."
In 1862, in writing to a friend in Jamaica,
he says, alluding to the Exhibition then
being held in London, I am too poor and
too weak to go to London to see the great
show-in fact would not step across the road
to see it." In the same letter, he says This
(evidently Beachley) is a sweet quiet place-
only too good for me."
Those who knew him describe him as
large of stature, learned, but bigotted against
dissenters, and somewhat hasty tempered.
Though a staunch churchman and upholder
of the constitution, he appears to have had
little sympathy for the negro race, and was
not formed of the stuff of which the true
missionary is mide. He regretted having
to come to Jamaica, and he regretted that
circumstances compelled him to reside here.
But his whole life seems to have been soured
by family quarrels, and, if his own state.
ment is to be accepted, by gross injustices
received at the hands of his nearest relatives.
He died in 1863. His eldest son George,
who was in the East India Service, was
for a time Secretary of the Royal Club at
Southsea. His younger, William Somerset,

who became a captain in the navy, died in
The following is a list of his writings, so
far as they are known :-
1. A VOIcE FROM JAMAICA; in reply to
William Wilberforce, Esq. M.P.; By the
Rev. George Wilson Bridges, B.A., of Trinity
College, Oxford; and Rector of the Parish
of Manchester, Jamaica. 2nd ed. London,
1823. 8vo.
tanical Obituary: "An Appeal," not to the
Romantic Sensibility, but to the Good Sense
of the British Public. By the Reverend
George Wilson Bridges, Author of A Voice
from Jamaica." London, 1824. 8vo.
PARISH OF MANCHESTER, in the Island of
Jamaica. By the Reverend George W.
Bridges, Author of A Voice from Jamaica";
" Dreams of Dulocracy," &c. &c., and late
Rector of that Parish. Jamaica. Printed
by the Author at theWakefield press. 1824.
Rev. George Wilson Bridges, A.M., Member
of the Universities of Oxford and Utrecht,
and Rector of the Parish of St. Ann, Jamaica,
2 vols. London, 1828. 8vo.
George Wilson Bridges, Rector of Saint
Anne (sic), Jamaica. Printed at the office of
the Falmouth Post," Jamaica, 1837. 8vo.
6. "1834-1862. OUTLINES AND NOTES OF
TWENTY-NINE YEARS." [Privately printed.]


By the Rev. D. J. EAST.

IT was not till the year 1838 that the
emancipation of the slave population was
completed by the abolition of what is known
as the Apprenticeship System. It was in
1823 that the Rev. James Mursell Phil-
lippo arrived in Jamaica as an agent of
the Baptist Missionary Society of England.
Dr. Phillippo, the son of this honoured
missionary, was born in the year 1830, eight
years before the freedom of the bondman
was fully accomplished. His early life,
therefore, was passed while slavery was
still rampant, and during the period
which preceded the new social era on
which Jamaica was to enter under the agis
and the flag of liberty. From 1823 his
father was the victim of the hostility of the

opponents of Emancipation and was exposed
to a degree of obloquy and persecution of
which all classes are now ashamed. But, hap-
pily, his holy consistency, his gentlemanly
bearing, and his dauntless spirit eventually
disarmed opposition and commanded the
respect of his most bitter opponents. So
for nearly 6U years he was enabled to
prosecute his mission with a measure of
success unsurpassed by any one of his co-
temporaries. But on this there is no need
to enlarge. Dr. Phillippo's sketch of his
father's life and work which appeared in
this journal in 1892 supplies all that can
be desired.
Thus the circumstances in which the
early years of the doctor were passed, and


the happier conditions in which in ma-
turity he found himself, were evidently
fitted and designed to prepare him for the
noble career which seems to his survivors
to have been brought too prematurely to its
Dr. James Cecil Phillippo and his younger
brother Sir George Phillippo were sent as
boys to England for education, and passed
several years under the care and instruc-
tion of Mr. Payne of Camberwell, and
afterwards of Leatherhead. For his medi-
cal education, on leaving school, he gradu-
ated in the University of Edinburgh, where
he took his degree of Doctor of Medicine,
and became a member of the Royal College
of Surgeons. Having completed his Uni-
versity course, he returned to Janlaica to
commence his medical practice at Spanish
It was with no mere mercenary motives
that Dr. Phillippo entered on his profession.
He had a lofty sense and a deep conscious-
ness of its Christianized humanities : and
these through life he never failed to exem-
plify. He was the kind as well as skilful
physician, devoting himself to the cases of
his patients by night or by day without
regard to his own convenience, or priva-
tions; and was rewarded by the affec-
tionate esteem with which they regarded
him. In his treatment it was not with him
a question of emolument, but what the case
demanded of the medical attendant. The
poorest patient therefore was sure of his
unremitting attention. We personally knew
of some frequently ailing ones, whom for a
long series of years he attended but from
whom, in consideration of their limited
means, he never accepted a single fee. We
know he kept a long list of such patients.
The blessing of the poor thus rested on him
from the commencement to the close of
his medical practice. An eloquent testi-
mony to this effect was given in the memo-
rial sermon preached by the Rev.
James Balfour in East Queen Street Bap-
tist Chapel, Not long ago Ihad an oppor-
tunity of seeing the affection of the poor
of Spanish Town for him. In February of
this year (1893) he unveiled a tablet to the
memory of his father in the Baptist Church
which his father had built. At the close of
the service a crowd of old men and women
pressed round him to shake his hand, and
to express their joy at seeing him once more
his father's church. It was touching to
witness the expression on their faces as they
looked on him that night. As I stood and
watched them crowding round him ; as I

saw with what heartfelt pleasure he greeted
them, and how they seemed to claim him as
one of themselves, I felt like a stranger
in a family gathering."
It has been justly said, however, that the
young energetic doctor required a wider
field for professional enterprise than Span-
ish Town afforded. Great and unabated as
was his affection for it, he came to Kingston,
and entered into the medical practice from
which the late Dr. Dunn was then retiring.
For some years he carried it on alone, until
it had become so extensive that it was im-
possible for him to meet its requirements
without efficient aid. Dr. Arthur Saunders
became his assistant ; he was subsequently
received into co-partnership, soon after which
he became more closely associated by mar-
riage with the doctor's second daughter.
The business continued to grow under the
names of Phillippo & Saunders until the re-
tirement of our lamented friend during
Almost from the commencement of Dr.
Phillippo's professional life he won the
confidence of the Jamaica Government; and,
partly also in consideration of the eminent
services which his father at various times
had rendered to it, he received honorary
appointments, which he cheerfully accepted
and the responsibilities of which he faith-
fully fulfilled. In 1859 he was appointed
physician to the Middlesex County Gaol.
In 1860 he was made Justice of the Peace
for the parish of St. Catherine. In 1863 he
became a member of the Board of Visitors
to the Public Hospital, and in 1873 of the
Central Board of Health. He was Presi-
dent of the Medical Council of Jamaica, and
lie was successively President or Vice-
President of several important associa-
tions, philanthropic and literary. Notably
lie was an original member of the Board of
Governors of the Institute of Jamaica, and
its first Chairman.
Year by year, the value of Dr. Phillippo's
services was more and more appreciated.
lie was appointed a member of the Board
of Official Visitors to the Government Re.
formatories, of the Board of Management of
the Female Training College, and Offi-
cial Visitor on the Board of the Govern-
ment Lunatic Asylum. Of this last, he be-
came chairman on the writer's retirement.
On all these the writer had the honour of as-
sociation with him, as also on two Govern-
ment Commissions-a Commission to inquire
into the condition of the juvenile population,
and the Elementary Schools Commission.
He is thus able to bear personal testi-


mony to the value of his services and to
the punctuality and faithfulness with which
he rendered them, sometimes at a great
sacrifice. On two other Government Com-
missions, Dr. Phillippo was honoured with
a seat-the highly important one to re-
port on the franchise for the elections to
the Legislative Council, and the Schools
Dr. Phillippo never became a member of
the Legislature, under either the old con-
stitution or the new, though at times urged
by his friends to offer himself for election.
But the Governor of Jamaica and the Sec-
retary of State for the Colonies, confident
alike in the soundness of his judgment, his
patriotism and his loyalty, claimed his ser-
vices. In 1839, he became a member of the
Privy Council ; and in 1892, on the recom-
mendation of Sir Henry Blake, the Secre-
tary of State conferred on him the dis-
tinguishel honour of the Presidency of the
Legislative Council of Jamaica. Of this
last, the highest position in the colony, ex-
cept the Governorship, it has been truly
said by a leading Kingston journal, that it
was universally acknowledged that he de-
served the great honour which he accepted
with great diffidence, but as a solemn duty.
On taking his seat in the Council Chamber
for the first time, he said: Animated as
we all are by the desire to serve our
country to the best of our ability, I trust
under the guidance and by the blessing of
Almighty God, we may be so guided in our
deliberations and debates as to pass such
measures as will tend to promote the ad-
vancement of the people of this country, to
their improvement socially and morally."
Quoting from the same journal-The
Daily ;,r .. '-i-it may also be said, that
" Dr. Phillippo did not confine his labours
merely to local work. As he endeavoured
to advance the country in its internal rela-
tions, so he sought to dissipate the ignorance
which prevailed abroad respecting its cli-
mate. He wrote and lectured on the sub-
ject, and what he has written has been
extensively quoted as an authoritative
opinion on our much-abused sanitary and
climatic conditions. During his official
visit to the Pan-American Medical Congress
he read a valuable paper on the subject."
Dr. Phillippo was twice married. His
first wife was the daughter of the Rev.
John Clark, of Brown's Town. The fruit
of this marriage was four daughters and
five sons, all surviving to mourn the loss of
one of the most devoted and self-sacrificing

fathers. His second wife was the widow of
the late Mr. Wheatle.
But Dr. Phillippo served his generation
according to the will of God, not only in its
earthly, but in its higher and more sacred
relations. He was an exemplary Christian,
and by conviction and profession a Baptist.
Nor did he ever shirk the principles he
professed. He was a member of the Church
at East Queen Street, and a constant at-
tendant on its ministrations, a liberal sup-
porter of its institutions, and a generous
friend of its pastor. He frequently pre-
sided at its meetings, especially those in
connection with the Missionary Society, in
the objects of which he took the liveliest
interest. As was said, however, by the
preacher of the memorial sermon, while
he was an avowed member of the Baptist
"denomination, he belonged to every
branch of the Christian Church. The influ-
ence of his godly life entered into them
all and helped them all. Each one that
did Christ's work had a place in his
heart. As far as his professional duties
allowed he was a regular attendant on
the public worship of God, and never
absent from the monthly communion, if
it was possible for him to be present.
In his medical practice he was not only
the kind physician, but the spiritual
guide and helper of his patients." In
his own house he was its chaplain: and on
the morning of the day on which he died
his household was struck with the earnest-
ness of his prayer, and especially with the
fervent expression that the members of
his family might be ready for the Lord at
His coming. It seemed like a premonition
of the sudden and unexpected event just at
hand. He had returned with his wife from
America apparently in perfect health. On
the morning of the day of his death he had
taken his usual breakfast, and was walking
in his garden, when a faint seized him. In
a few minutes all was over.
The funeral service which was conducted
in East Queen Street Baptist Chapel was
fully reported in our Kingston journals, and
needs here only a brief notice. Thirty car-
riages started from his residence known as
Saxthorpe, and the funeral cortege received
accessions at Halfway-Tree, the Cross Roads,
and other places on the route, until the
time the chapel was reached. when East
Queen Street was blocked up by many more
than a hundred carriages. All classes of
the community were represented :-His Ex-
cellency the Governor by his A.D.C. Mr.
Carleton, and his Private Secretary, Lord


George Fitzgerald; the Medical and Legal
Professions; the Ecclesiastical representatives
of all Denominations, including the Bishop
and Clergy of the Episcopal Church; the
merchants of the city, and members of the
Legislative Council. And notwithstanding
a heavy downpour of rain, the building was
filled with a sympathetic and sorrowing
congregation of which the poor formed a
large proportion.

Did our space permit, it would be easy
to indulge in extensive eulogies of so noble
a citizen as the late Dr. Phillippo. His
highest eulogy is the record of his life.
Imperfectly we have given it. In the
words of the. Editor of the Gleaner we
may truly say, He was not so much an
individual in Jamaica; he stood for the
island-was an embodiment of all that was
best in its aspiring, progressive, national
life. Some of his work we see; more of it
is intangible, and yet all-dominant like the

unseen air. lie wrought loyally himself ;
and by his example and persuasion moved
others to do the same. His rectitude, hon-
our, and veracity were such that his name
alone was a rebuke to their antitheses."
Nor in the review of a career so illustrious
as that of Dr. Phillippo can we fail to con-
trast the present with the past ; and to
note the beneficent change which has come
over the spirit of society since the date of
Emancipatlon. Seventy years ago, when
slavery was rampant we see the father
treated with contumely and shamefully
persecuted ; in the era of Jamaica free-
doin the son raised to distinguished
honour ; we see a flee people rising
in the social scale, under the teaching
and influence of the gospel; all reli-
gious denominations placed on a platform
of equality; and the channel to highest
preferment laid open to every man irre-
spective of religious opinion, or clime, or



TIROUGH causes which need not be other-
wise referred to here, an extended notice of
the career of this prominent and influential
member of the Board of Governors of the
Institute has been delayed long beyond the
time when it was originally intended to
appear. Mr. Radcliffe was one of the
original members of the Board and held
office for the period of thirteen years,
during which time he on several occasions
rendered very special services in connection
with the Institute.
Mr. Radcliffe was born at Castlewellan
in County Down, Ireland. His early educa-
tion was received chiefly at Belfast
Academy, a scholastic institution of high
standing, to which many Irish lads owed
the great advantage of a good start in life.
After his Academy course young Radcliffe
entered the College, in the same city, of the
General Assembly of the Presbyterian
Church in Ireland, one of the Divinity
Schools of the Church, with a view to ser-
vice in its ministry. At the completion of
the usual course extending over several
years, he was according to Presbyterian
order "licensed as a preacher of the gospel,"
by the Presbytery of Magherafelt in the
County of Londonderry, and soon there-
after was ordained as minister of the Pres-
byterian Church and congregation of Castle

Dawson in the same county. There he
labored for some years discharging the
usual duties of a clergyman, and carrying on
with diligence and zeal, those private
studies, especially in literature, which so
well fitted him for filling the large place
afterwards occupied in Jamaica, to which
he came at the age of thirty-three years.
A vacancy having occurred in the pas-
toral charge of the Scotch Kirk in this city
in 1848, Mr. Radcliffe was selected by the
Colonial Committee of the Church of Scot-
land, and appointed to fill it. His arrival
in Kingston took place on the 7th Dlecem-
ber of that year. He at once took and kept,
through the force of his character and his
intellectual activity and vigour, a high
place in the estimation of this community,
and this place he held for the long period of
forty-four years, a convincing pr-of of the
sterling ability which he from the first dis-
played. For more than a generation the
Kirk and Mr. Radcliffe were one. His
strong personality was imprinted on all
connected with it.
Led by his own scholastic proclivities
and aiming at the supply of a great
desideratum, Mr. Radcliffe five years after
his arrival--in July, 1853--opened the
Collegiate School. His Belfast Academy
and Divinity School training, together



4 _






with his practice of continuing his early
classical and other studies fitted him for
making this school, in the circumstances of
the island at the time, one of its most im-
portant institutions. This it soon became
in the hands of himself as Principal and of
the able assistants he has had from time to
time. He closed his connection with it in
June 1881. Since that date Mr. William
Morrison, M. A., who then succeeded Mr.
Radcliffe in the Principalship, has greatly
extended the reputation and usefulness of
the School, and carried out the purposes
Mr. Radcliffe had in view in establishing it.
During the eight and twenty years of his
connection with it, the school provided an
education which at the time was nowhere
else to be had in the island. From every
parish boys came to it to receive a grammar
school education on the lines generally of
the Academy at Belfast. His chief assistants
were from the North of Scotland, where
thoroughness was a distinguishing mark of
all grammar school work. The "old Col-
legiate boys" have shown by their sub-
sequent careers in life, that the Collegiate
did much for them. They are to be found
now in many parts of the world, in all the
professions, and engaged in all forms of
business. If even those only that are still
alive and in Jamaica could be got together,
and were to stand up in presence of the
largest assembly that could be convened
in one building, "the old boys," would tell
in an effective manner what one good school
could do in thirty years to provide a
country with men to do its hardest and
most difficult work. In nothing did Mr.
Radcliffe render better service to Jamaica,
than in the establishment and management
of the Collegiate School for the long period
of twenty-eight years.
From first to last he was closely asso-
ciated with most of our local men of light
and leading"-in the earliest days with
Judge Wilkinson, Alexander Heslop, Alex-
ander Barclay, Alexander Bravo, Richard
Hill, Dr. Bowerbank, Dr. Allen, Custos
Kemble, and Thomas Oughton. On public
occasions his services were called for, and it
was usually considered that his help was an
a.. ury of success in any new movements.
For many years he was connected with the
Mico Institution as one of its Directors; he
was also a member of the Board of Visitors
of the Public Hospital, and of the Cam-
bridge Local Examination Committee. In
1879, by Law 22 of that year, the Institute
of Jamaica, for the encouragement of Litera.
ture, Science and Art, was founded, the

chief promoter of this object being the late
Sir Anthony Musgrave, then Governor of
the island. The management of the Insti-
tute was placed in the hands of a Board of
seven governors, appointed by the Gover-
nor of the island. Of the first seven it was
most fit that Mr. Radcliffe should be one,
and his colleagues were His Excellency
Edward Newton, C.M.G., Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor; the Hon. E. L. O'Malley, Attorney-
General, the Hon. Dr. Hamilton, Deputy
Surgeon-General Mosse, C.B., Superintend-
ing Medical Officer; the Hon. H. J. Kemble
Custos of Kingston, and Dr. J. C. Phillippo,
practising physician in Kingston, Chairman
of the Board. At the first course of lec-
tures delivered in connection with the
Institute in 1881, the inaugural address,
Sir Anthony Musgrave being in the chair,
was delivered by Mr. Radcliffe. A second
course of lectures was delivered during
the following year, when the first of the
course was again delivered by him, his sub-
ject being Evolution.
Besides the lectures delivered in connec-
tion with the Institute, Mr. Radcliffe de-
livered many other lectures and addresses
which were afterwards published and widely
circulated. Among them may be men-
tioned his popular lectures on "Negro
Proverbs," "Solvitur Ambulando," "Old
Clothes for the Colonies," and in 1878 "I
should like to know what the Dog has to
say," and "The Crack of Doom," both in
connection with the Young Men's Christian
Association of that time. He was a fre-
quent contributor both in prose and verse
during the last four years of his life.
to the Victoria Quarterly. The contribution
that attracted most attention was a poem
of reflection" entitled Moriendum." By
some it was keenly censured at the time on
the ground that it "leaned to doubt" on
" things most surely believed" inside all
the Christian churches. By others it was
earnestly defended as a strong and admir-
able poetic expression of the working of
thoughtful and inquiring belief" on s,,me
of the mysteries of life and death. In this
sense it was justly quoted and applied as a
confession of his own faith on the occasion
of the funeral service held a few hours
after his death, in the Kirk where he had
for forty-four years officiated. But his
chief literary work was a volume of poems,
published in London, in 1874, by Longmans,
Green & Co., when he was in the fifty-ninth
year of his age, and which was entitled
"The Last Lays of Shiloh." By competent
judges this work has been regarded as


proving Mr. Radcliffe to have been a true
poet. This volume, his sermons, and an
unpublished work, on which he had spent
much time and thought-" Hebrew Pro-
phetism-the Record and Maintenance of
Hebrew Hope, National and Messianic"-
all indicate how deeply imbued his mind was
with the spirit of the Old Testament in the
best times of the kingdom of Israel.
His last public appearance of any conse-
quence was in May 1889, when he delivered
at the solicitation of many friends, in the
presence of a crowded meeting of the most
influential citizens, a lecture that turned
out to be his last. The subject of it was
"Forty years Reminiscences of Kingston."
As he described the city as it was when he
first became acquainted with it, his hearers
learned from him something of the great
changes for the better, that had taken place
in its appearance and in its sanitary condi-
tion; and as he portrayed the character of
the leading men he had been associated
with during the time of his connection with
it, he presented in as realistic a form as
possible a picture of civic life which those
who were present will not readily forget.
The tone of the whole lecture, while it
necessarily touched with manly sorrow on
the loss of old companions, was bright with
suggestions of the general upward progress
of the community as a whole. It was as if
he were saying hopefully, manfully, with
another poet
The year is going, let him go;
Ring out the false, ring in the true."
Ring in the valiant man and free,

The larger heart, the kindlier hand;
Ring out the darkness of the land,-
Ring in the Christ that is to be."
As was meet, the larger heart, the kind-
lier hand were distinguishing marks of his
later years. In the local public discussions
of his own tfme he had taken a large share,
he had strong likes and dislikes," and his
opinions he expressed vigorously and freely.
His mind craved and insisted upon having
liberty, and he constantly protested against
unthinking submission to authority in every
form. He was often in consequence of this
a detached thinker on public questions;
but his personal influence was not lessened
through this, it was often much greater. All
his life he had been a student ; he read, in-
quired, reflected. Whether, therefore, he
came to the wisest or soundest conclu-
sions, his opinions were with know-
ledge, and accordingly carried weight.
He was a preacher, a teacher, a scholar,
and more, he was a public-spirited citizens.
He had many of the elements which
the Elder Disraeli" delineated as consti-
tuting "the literary character;" but he
was above all, in the judgment of the best
minds in the community, a true poet, a
brother who had the gift of song, and whose
best thoughts took that form, because it was
truest to his own nature.
Had the scope of this notice permitted, it
would have been easy to justify what has
been said by copious extracts from his pub-
lished and unpublished writings. It is to
be hoped that this task will yet be under-
taken by some competent hand.



THE following notes are given as a sup-
plement to the article on William Beckford,
which was published in the Journal for De-
cember, 1893.
As, when that article was written, no
evidence had been met with pointing to
either a wife or child, it was therein stated
that he "apparently never married." The
following extract from "A short journey in
the West Indies," published anonymously

in London in 1790, (a copy of which has
recently been added to the Library of the
Institute) proves that he had a wife, if not
children also: and also throws additional
light on the shameful way in which he was
treated by his creditors.

-The real West Indian is the rarest inhabitant of
the West Indies, as Philanthropos told me; yet,


Eugenio*, there are some who reside in this island.
I am now at Hertford Penn; it is the residence of
a West Indian, a man of taste and learning; and
a description would but picture the elegance of
European manners, turning all that the climate
offers to the best advantage. A classical educa-
tion, and a course of well-directed travelling, con-
spired to accomplish the mind of Benevolus; and
while that was liberally stored with the beauties of
science and of art, and with every delicate refine-
ment. Nature pressed upon his heart all the noble
feelings of philanthropy. A princely fortune en-
abled him to indulge his taste in the patronage of
merit, and to enjoy the luxury of doing good. In
the bosom of his family, he enjoys true and do-
mestic happiness. As a man of the world, he is
accomplished, mild and pleasing; as a friend, sin-
cere; as a husband, delicate and affectionate; as
a brother, warmly attached; as a master, tender
and humane; as a man of business, alas! misled
by the goodness of his own heart and the villany
of others.
The situation of Hertford, is one of the pleas-
antest in the country; it is on a very gently rising
ground, nearly equally removed from the sea, and
lofty mountains covered with wood, and at a short
distance from a fine river. Some of the most ro-
mantic scenes in this island are upon the estates of
Benevolus; and I hope one day (for he is fond of
writing, and writes charmingly) to see an account
not only of these scenes that belong to himself,
but of the whole island.
I have spent no days in this country with more
pleasure than tho short time I have passed at
Hertford. Conversation, books, music, drawing.
riding, bathing, fishing. Yet all the elegance and
pleasures I find in this place, though they dazzle,
do not extinguish the general opinion I have
formed; for in Benevolus himself, I discover a
fresh instance to establish it. The real West In-
dian, sooner or later, becomes a prey to the har-
pies of his country-his own heart is too honest
and too open-he perceives not the approach of
the talons, till the grip awakes him, alas I too late
to a sense of danger. Hurricanes from Heaven,
and compound interest on earth, have conspired
to shake the noble fortune of this amiable man,
and there are at this moment wretches, who have
been raised by his own hand from poverty and in-
significance to prosperity and consequence, that
are watching his downfall with a diabolical malig-
nity of heart, and waiting but the signal to rush in
and bury him in his ruins. Angels, avert it.
The rest is in the form of the following
foot-note : -
With what indignation must every man of
feeling learn the fate of this amiable West Indian.
When he found himself involved, and that his
creditors were proceeding hastily, he determined
to come to England to put his affairs into the best
train that he could. Some of his friends advised
him to land first in France--"No," said he ; "why
should I be afraid ? I do not mean to injure any
man, why should any man injure me ? and besides,
they who have the power to do me ill, are those
to whom I have done good-I cannot believe the
heart of man so corrupt." He landed in England,
and took a post-chaise for London-On the road
he met a carriage, in which there were three men,
one of whom he knew, and whose rise in life he
had been greatly the means of promoting.-They
stopt, when this descendant of Judas Iscariot
*The work consists of a series of letters addressed
to a friend of the writer whom he designates Eugenio.

alighted from the carriage, and with the most
friendly salutation advanced and shook hands
with his benefactor, who was thereupon im-
mediately taken by the bailiffs, he had brought
for the purpose. It is said this betrayer was af-
terwards seized withfsome degree of remorse, but
I do not hear that he has yet performed the same
justice upon himself that Iscariot did. Be that as
it may, the victim of his ingratitude was brought in
custody to London, where detainers to a large
amount were lodged against him, and he was con-
ducted to the Fleet Prison. His circumstances
being involved from the causes already mentioned
in the foregoing pages, no friend was found to step
forth to extricate him from the toils into which he
had fallen ; and he remains, after'two years' con-
finement, with less hope than ever of his liberty,
while they who enjail so benevolent, so worthy a
man, forget they ever owed him obligation. Thus
wounded by the envenomed dart of ingratitude,
thus fallen from the pinnacle of prosperity to a
prison, he still finds cheerfulness the result of phi-
losophy, and folding his heart at present in the
warm affection of his friends, he looks forward
with resignation and manly fortitude. He has
lately treated the world with a descriptive account
at large, of the island of Jamaica, in which his
properties are situated.
This Journey in the West Indies was prepared
for the press some months before, and the Author
apprehended it might interfere with Mr. B's. ac-
count but a perusal of that pleasing work has re-
moved his apprehensions. The two small volumes
that are now offered to the public contain a few
scenes that have presented themselves in the
West Indies. Mr. B's. work, on an ample scale,
treats of the agriculture of the country, and of the
nature and proper treatment of the negroes, to-
gether with political remarks on the abolition of
the slave trade; and he has also frequently in-
dulged the ardour of his imagination, in painting
the sublime of the Torrid Zone. His description
of the terrible hurricane in the year 1780, by
which he was so great a sufferer in his property,
and was personally so imminently in danger, is
not more justly than sublimely an sul ad feelingly pic-
Somerley Hall, Beckford's seat in Suffolk,
stood where Somerleyton now is. Of
the house, little remains, but two rooms:
and there is no record to show when or why
the name was changed to Somerleyton. Old
Thomas Fuller, in his "History of the
Worthies of England," said he thought it
ought to be called Summerley, as it was so
"summerly" there.
With regard to the early settling of the
family in Jamaica, and its connection with
the Scotts and Heerings, G. F. J. contri-
butes the following information, gleaned
from the Records at Spanish Town :-
The name of Beckford first appears in the re-
cords of Jamaica under date of 1662-- when Richard
Beckford, merchant, of London, advanced a sum of
money on the [ship and] cargo of a vessel sailing
from that port to Jamaica; the captain having
given his Bond, certified by a notary public. Richard
Beckford sent a power of attorney to a third party
to represent his interests in the island. The next
entry of a Beckford, is that of Robert Beckford,


who obtained a patent of land of 30 acres at
"Colbourne's Quarters" in St. Catherine. From
the lines laid down in this patent, which is dated
in 1665, it would seem that the "Beckford Tovin"
mentioned in the original article in the Journal for
December 1893 lies within the district there men-
tioned. The third entry of a Beckford is also in
1665, and on the same date as that of Robert
Beckford just named. It is a grant of land
(patent) of 1120 acres in extent "at the Two
Miles Wood in St. Catherine" to Edward Beck-
ford; which grant is, no doubt represented
by "Two Mile Wood Pen, now in the possession of
.Mr. Fursden. There is a record of a deed of
"general release" dated 1668, of all claims from
Richard Beckford, of London, merchant, to Peter
Beckford, then about to emigrate to Jamaica:
and Peter Beckford's first patent of land was not
until 6th March, 1668, and was a grant of 1,000
acres of land in Clarendon. In 1673. one Cope
(evidently Colonel Cope one of the soldiers, under
Penn, who assisted in the conquest of the island,
and who had returned from Jamaica to England.)
gave a power of attorney to Peter Beckford "who
is about to go on a voyage to England." The

first grant of land to a Scott was to Richard Scott
in 1675. It was a patent of 280 acres in St.
Elizabeth. But 10 years after (1685) there is a
record of another grant or patent to "Richard
Scott" of 211 acres at Wyess, St. Elizabeth. These
two grants were. no doubt, the nucleus of the
present "Y. S." plantation of that parish. Subse-
quently Richard Scott and Julines Heeringbecame
joint owners of property; for in a deed dated
10th January, 1709, between Nathaniel Heering
(son of Julines Heering) and Richard Scott, a
moiety of "Y. S. or Colonel Scott's Plantation" is
conveyed by Nathaniel Heering to Richard Scott.
In one of the recitals of this deed, it is stated
that "Nathaniel Heering will be entitled to the
other moiety or half of the said parcels of land,
negroes, cattle and stock from and after the death
of his mother, Annie, wife of the said Richard
Scott, to whom the other moiety of the said Ju-
lines Heering's said estate was devised for life."
This shews that Richard Scott married the widow
of Julines Heering. Thomas Scott, was, appar-
ently a son, and also the residuary devisee of
Richard Scott.



IT would be manifestly out of the ques-
tion, besides being beyond the scope of this
journal, to attempt to give here even an
epitome of the services of Admiral Lord
Rodney, other than in so far as they are
closely connected with the three and a half
years during which he was Commander-in-
Chief on the Jamaica Station, and with his
great and crowning victory over the gallant
Count de Grasse off Dominica on the 12th
April, 1782; whereby Jamaica was saved
from becoming a French Colony, or more
likely, reverting to her old masters the
Rodney appears to have been born in
London, probably in January 1718. He
came of a good Somersetshire family, al-
though in a letter to his wife, dated Dec.
10, 1780, he writes of Hampshire as his
own county. lie was for a short time at
Harrow School and went to sea at the age
of twelve under Admiral Medley, serving
for six years on the Newfoundland Station.
He was promoted to Lieutenant 15th Feb.,
1739, and in 1742 was given the command of
the Plymouth. Appointed Governor of

Newfoundland 1749; attained flag rank
19th May, 1759 ; Commander-in-Chief,
Barbados and Leeward Islands 1761 ; made
a Baronet of Great Britain 21st Jan. 1764;
Commander-in-Chief Jamaica 23rd Jan. 1771
to 27th June, 1774: Knight of the Bath
1780, and was raised to the peerage as
Baron Rodney of Rodney Stoke 1782. He
was twice married, first to Lady Jane
Compton, sister of the 8th Earl of North-
ampton, and secondly to Henrietta Clies.
He was Member of Parliament at differ-
ent times for Saltash and Penryn in Corn-
wall, as well as for Westminster and North-
ampton, undoubtedly expending consider-
able sums in contesting these seats, thereby
involving himself in debt, and indirectly in
litigation, embittering the close of a life,
which had fairly earned ease and tranquility
as a reward for good and faithful service.
In appearance Rodney was slight, rather
above the middle height, with delicate and
refined features, his portraits by Reynolds
and Grimaldi were taken when lie was old
and are indicative of much suffering. Who
can guage how much he endured racked by


gout yet driven, by the exigencies of the
service he was on, to rest neither day nor
night, in striving to overcome his coun-
try's enemies, with heavy odds of ill-found
ships, neglected dockyards, and even dis-
affected captains to contend against?
That Rodney's treatment of his captains
to some extent explains, while it in no way
excuses, the very lukewarm support they
accorded him on more than one occasion, is
undoubted. His nature appears to have
been a somewhat unconciliatory one, though
between him and those brought most nearly
into contact with him, such as his own flag
captain and captain of the fleet, a warm
feeling of friendship existed.
His correspondence shews that within
the limits of his own family at least, he dis-
ployed an extremely affectionate disposition,
and the mutual regard existing between
himself and his dog Loup, betrays an
amount of feeling that perhaps few of his
subordinates credited him with possessing.
He was a terror to all who shirked their
duty, be it in the drudgery of preparing for
sea in the dockyards, or when forcing his
squadron to sea in the teeth of a S.W. gale,
and with green seas breaking over their
lofty decks, only just weathering the
dreaded Ushant; or when dealing with the
treacherous captains who robbed him of
victory on 17th April, 1780, when he had
M. de Guichen's fleet at his mercy.
The records of Rodney's three and-a-half
years spent in Jamaica are somewhat meagre.
He came out in the Princess Amelia, an
80-gunship, bringing five sail with him,
and calling at St. Kitts en route. He
reached Port Royal on 24th July, 1771, and
at once tackled the difficulty of watering the
ships which was then being done in a very
haphazard and expensive manner, the
water being purchased in Kingston where
it was pumped from a well, belonging to a
Mr. Payton and rolled in casks to the beach
for embarkation in the ship's boats. After
examining the Rio Cobre and other places,
he determined on purchasing the Rock
Spring, and building an aqueduct which
was completed on 1st September, 1773.
The great length of time occupied over
this work was probably caused to some
extent by the earthquake of 3rd September,
1771, which injured every house in Port
Royal and did much damage to the dockyard
and hospital buildings, and the making good
these injuries would necessarily have had
to be given precedence of the new watering

Traces of Rodney's energy are still to be
found at Green Bay and Salt Ponds Hills
opposite Port Royal, where he established a
look-out station which still bears his name,
and where we may well believe he studied
the momentous problem, since coupled
with his name, of breaking the enemies'
line;" for .the problem is a much more
serious one than appears at first, as in effect
unless performed by the leading ship, it is
allowing the enemy to divide your line,
the advantage resting with the fleet that
manoeuvres best and is best drilled at the
guns. In an action fought off Lissa in 1811
an English squadron under the command of
Sir William Hoste defeated a French squad-
ron under Dubonrdien after he had per.
formed this manoeuvre.
The active spirit of the Admiral shews
itself incidentally in the records of a mis-
creant named Hutchinson who murdered
no less than 41 wayfarers passing his
residence near Mount Diablo. Hutchinson
being detected fled in a merchant vessel
from Old Harbour but was chased and
captured by Rodney and hanged at Spanish
In spite of the peace existing during the
time of his command in Jamaica, the frag-
mentary records left to us shew that he was
ever on the alert preparing for the troublous
times in store, of whose advent he seemed
to entertain no doubt. The bringing the
Naval establishments at Port Royal into a
high state of efficiency, founding a system
of training pilots locally, preparing plans
for a dockyard on Navy Island, Port
Antonio, making contracts for the regular
supply to H. M. ships of turtle in lieu of
salt provisions, thereby most materially
improving the health of the squadron, may
be mentioned as specimens of his energy.
On his revisiting Jamaica eight years
afterwards he bitterly complained of the
neglect and ruinous condition of the dock-.
yard, nothing having been done to it since
he left., He finds the stores at Greenwich,
and the storekeeper residing in Kingston,
the buoys marking the shoals and channels
all gone, and several ships in consequence
ran on shore.
During Rodney's period of service in Ja-
maica the health of the GovernorSir William
Trelawny became so bad that it was evident
his life could not be long preserved, and
accordingly Rodney made application for
the appointment should the vacancy occur.
That he would have made an excellent
Governor there is little doubt, but it was
not to be, his interest though good was not


good enough, and Sir Basil Keith got the
coveted post.
Rodney accordingly returned to England
and struck his flag in September 1774.
Five years afterwards he hoisted it for
the last time in the Sandioich at Portsmouth
as Commander-in-Chief on the West Indian
Station returning on sick leave for six months
at the end of 1781 and sailing again in the
Formidable in Jan. 1782, for Barbados
where he arrived on 19th Feb. after a voyage
of five weeks. Here he remained only a
few hours, and then pushed on to Antigua
where he learnt that the French had cap-
tured St. Kitts, Nevis and Montserrat.
Joining Sir Samuel Hood at sea he col-
lected his forces at Gros Islet Bay, St Lucia,
for a terribly needed refit, the ships being
in need of "everything" as he expresses it.
During the month of March 1782, Count
de Grasse had been busy preparing his fleet
at Fort Royal in Martinique; the troops for
the conquest of Jamaica consisting of 5,400
men, as well as the battering train of heavy
guns,were put on board the ships of war, and
a large convoy of merchant vessels was ready
to sail under the protection of the French
fleet as far as San Domingo, where at Cape
Frangois the Count hoped to affect a junction
with his Spanish allies.
It was a critical moment for the British
nation, unequalled since the Invincible
Armada swept in crescent form into the
English Channel. Probably no one realized
this more clearly than did Rodney, who
worked day and night getting his fleet re-
fitted provisioned and watered, there was no
dockyard at St Lucia, no victualling yard, no
water-tank-vessels, everything had to be
done by the individual efforts of the ship's
Here it was that Rodney's victory was
really won; he was unequalled as an or-
ganizer; everything that could be done for
the efficiency of the fleet was done, and he
saw to it himself. Moreover he had with
him a sanitary reformer in the person of Dr.
Gilbert Blane, by following whose advice
the sick list of his ships was reduced to a
Last, though not least, he had drilled,
until the Captains could handle the ships,
and the seamen the guns.
The supreme moment: at length arrived,
and found Rodney ready. On the 8th of
April, the look-out frigate Andromache
was seen approaching with the longed for
signal flying that the French fleet was under
way, and in less than two hours Rodney

and his ships were crowding sail in chase to
the Northward.
SHere it may perhaps not be out of place
to compare the two fleets:-

5 ships of 90 guns
20 ,, ,, 74
1 ,, 70 ,.
10 ,, ,, 64 ,,

1 ship of 106 guns
5 ,,,, 84
3 80
19 ,, ,, 74
6 ... 64

36 2,640. 34 2,556
The French had, however, 16 frigates
to our ten. Their ships were also of
greater tonnage than the British and their
guns of larger caliber, the total weight of
shot from a broadside of the French fleet
exceeding one from our ships by no less
than 4,39~lbs; about equivalent to two
additional seventy-fours. Moreover the
French ships were manned with larger
crews than ours and had in addition a body
of trained troops on board, who should have
done good service.
On the other hand, they must have been
somewhat hampered by the battering train,
and extra stores. On the whole after care-
fully considering the pros and cons we
think that in all but the personal the two
fleets were as nearly equal in strength as two
fleets could be. Count de Grasse informed
Rodney after the action that he considered
his own fleet superior, but that in discipline
and order his ships were a hundred years
behind ours The much greater loss of life
on board the French ships proves how much
better our guns were served, and this more
than anything else gave us the victory.
It is. howe rer, only fair to point out that
the Zle (74) and Jason (64) through col-
liding on the night of the 10th had to be
sent to Guadaloupe ; while the Caton
(64) was also sent back to port for some
defect, thereby reducing the French fleet to
thirty ships.
At daylight on the 9th, both fleets were
off Dominica, Rodney's at the S. W. end,
Grasse with his convoy at the N. W.,
crowded into Prince Rupert's Bay. The
water is very deep all along the west side
of Dominica, the only anchorage being quite
close to the shore, and the land being high
the strength of the trade wind is much re-
duced by it.
Dominica is about twenty-seven miles from
north to south, and the channel between
it and the Saints Islets extending five miles
off the south end of Guadaloupe is sixteen
miles wide.
The fight which may be said to have
lasted from the 9th to the 12th was fought




(Rear Adml. Saml. Drake) Princessa

*Prince George

N Prothbe

*'. Resolution

(Adml. Rodney, Com.-in-Chief) *FORMIDABLE

St. Albans

(Commander Affleck) Bedford
Prince William
Warrior /
(Vice Adml. Saml. Hood) *Barfleur
Valiant /
Yarmouth /
Montague +
Alfred /
*Royal Oak /





6 Marsellois

V Duc de Burgogne

V Burgogne
f Triomphant (Flagship De Vandreuil)









SGi orieux
$ Sceptre
B Eveille
| Couronne
S *Ville de Paris (Fla i
5 Languedoc
V Dauphin Royal
B Chsar
8 Hector
$ Citoyen
V Brave
Auguste (Flagship DeBovgainville)
i Neptune
0 Northumberland
9 Palmier
i Souverain

.. J -i J ,,,


partly on the leeside of Dominica and partly
opposite the open passage between Dominica
and the Saints, where naturally the trade
would be felt in much greater strength.
Either of the fleets in close order line
ahead would extend in a straight line be-
tween four or five miles; through various
causes this distance would as a rule be ex-
ceeded by from one to two miles.
Interesting as it is, we have not space here
to recount all that passed on the 9th, 10th and
11th; suffice it to say, that de Grasse hurried
his convoy off to St. Domingo and that on the
9thhe missed grand opportunity of destroy-
ing the van of Rodney's fleet while the cen-
tre and rear were becaslihd under Dominica.
Calms and the necessity for repairing dam-
ages kept the opposing fleets in much the
same relative positions during the following
two days, the principal object of the French
being apparently to get to windward through
the channel north of Dominica, which object.
was, however, defeated, through the Zile
colliding with the Ville de Paris, Count de
Grasse's flagship, on the night of the 11th
and causing her to fdll to leeward.
Accordingly at daylight on, the2th the
British fleet -being on the starboard tack
standing to the N. Eastward found they had
the enemy at last on their lee bow.
,Who cani depict the wild wave of ex-
ufltatiof that burst on our ships as the truth
became apparent that the long delayed fight
was about to begin in earnest, or who
conjure up the magnificence of the scene on
which the sun rose on that 12th of April ?
Dominica, between four and five thousand
feet high, rising almost sheer out of the
depth of the blue Caribbean ; and scarcely
less than a hundred sail of ships with their
clouds of white canvas moving in stately
order from north and south, would together
make a picture far from war like and very
beautiful, destined alas in a few short hours,
and on closer inspection, to produce a scene
of carnage which we will not attempt to
describe in this paper: it may be read else-
where. But when the sun went down on
the 12th of April, de Grasse's fleet, as a
fleet, no longer existed, ivhile'of Britain's
sons 230 killed and 759 wounded was the
price we paid for the victory.
The French fleet then, heading about
south was approached by the English head-
ing N.E. Our leading ship was the Marl-
borough and she would; have cut into the
French line about the ninth ship, the Brave,
but instead kept away slightly and ran down
the French line close to leeward followed by
the whole fleet (7 a.m.), exchanging broad-



sides as they passed at point blank
The eight French ships ahead of the Brav
also kept away slightly at the same time s
as to exchange broadsides on passing wit
the English fleet. Somewhere about 9.1
the Marlborough had reached the last shi[
of the French rear, the centre ship of eac
fleet being nearly opposite each other, when
owing to a slight shift of wind to the S. E
and to the heavy fire the English ships had
poured into the Diademe, a gap occurred
between that ship and her next ahead the
This is the moment seized on by the artist
Richard Payton, for the accompanying re-
presentation, which from its treatment is
more effective perhaps from an artist's point
of view than from a sailor's.
Rodney's ship the Formidable, between
the Duke and Namur nearly abeam of her
occupy the left centre of the picture, and
are shewn as passing with the wind free
through the French line. On the extreme
left is the Agamemnon. and stern of the
Resolution, while on the extreme right are
the St. Albans, and the bow of the Canada ;
between the Namur and St. Albans, Count
de Grasse's flagship the Ville de Paris is
shewn. In reality she was at this time
beyond the Canada. She is also represented
as being on the starboard tack while the
Agamemnon is on the port, the exact op-
posite being the true condition of things.
The attached plan of the action shews
the position of the fleets at the same instant;
the Marlborough has passed the last ship of
the French rear after which she tacked,
while the Formidable and ships of the
centre after passing through the French
line wore round, thereby placing the ten
ships of De Vaudreuil under the fire of
twice that number of our fleet, the Bedford
also finding an opening in the French line
astern of the Cesar, passed through it,
favoured by the shift of wind, subjecting
the ships of the French centre to a series
of broadsides to windward immediately fol-
lowing on the heavy fire they had been
exposed to leewaid.
The result of these manoeuvres was that
the French fleet was broken up into three
groups, while our own having obtained the
weather guage were able to unite and attack
them in detail.0
In the Art Gallery of the Institute are several en-
gravings of this celebrated action by different
artists, most of whom have undertaken to illustrate
the "breaking the line."
The best in the writer's opinion is the one num-
bered 280 by Robert Dodd. Here the Duke is
shown to leeward of the Diadenme which ship has





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aF Y.'wtir. was fj lA-z rd I no & #fI rdha Vlon t Idr ,,i,, Y ,/, tv,,,f o
/ ^4....tr/ _/..... A

'**f .;







The wind, however, fell altogether for a
time, and it was not until the afternoon
when it freshened that the fruits of the
victory were gathered.
First, the dismasted Glorieux, then the
Cesar and Hector, followed by the .Ardent,
hauled down their colours, while ringing
cheers went up from our own vessels. The
magnificent flag ship of Count de Grasse the
Ville de Paris, however, was still untaken,
and the sun was fast going down when the
Barfleur Rear Admiral Hood-long helpless
in a belt of calm-was seen bearing down
with her boats ahead towing. The Barflear
came quite fresh to the fray while the Ville
de Paris was exhausted with much fighting:
the inevitable end soon came.
De Grasse with but two unwounded men
left on deck besides himself, seeing that
further resistance was hopeless, with his
own hand lowered the proud flag of France
and the great day was won.
A letter written by one present on that
occasion speaks of the indescribable thrill
of ecstacy that pierced the breast of each
one there.
Even after the lapse of a hundred and
twelve years I am sure that we of one kin
with those who fought so nobly on that day
still experience the vibrations of that thrill
within our breasts as we 'fight the battle
o'er again' of the never-to-be-forgotten 12th
April 1782.
Leaving Rodney to garner the fruits of
his victory we will see how it fared at this
critical epoch in Jamaica. But first of all,
let us briefly record the loss of two of the
prizes, the Diademe which sank, and the
Cesar which caught fire and was burnt with
all hands, including her prize crew. Sir
Samuel Hood, however, who was despatched
in chase of the retreating ships, captured
two of them in the Mona Channel, the Jason
and Caton, which to some extent compen-
sated the loss, and in addition he took two
frigates and a sloop.
In Jamaica, then, in these early April
days, the prospect was indeed a dark one.

fallen astern and is mixed up with the Destin and
Magnanime, throwing the whole French line into
confusion and compelling them to bear up to the
It is certainly impossible for the Duke to have
been where she is shewn in Paton's picture, who
also errs in having our ships under so much sail,
instead of topsails only.
Pocock's picture, taken from the opposite point
of view, namely, from the windward, also shews the
Duke away to the northward well clear of the
Formidable. Luny's picture would serve for any
sea-fight; honour was satisfied and could exact no
further sacrifices.

The militia had been called up for the
defence of the capital, heavy taxation was
put on to meet the cost of defensive pre-
parations, and the roads having been ren-
dered impassable by felling large trees across
them, trade was at a standstill.
In addition to this a fire in Kingston had
destroyed about a million's worth of pro-
perty while a hurricane had laid waste the
west end of the island.
At the meetings of the House of Assembly
every scrap of intelligence was eagerly de-
voured, letters from secret agents in the
adjacent islands provided plenty of material
for discussion. One of these dated 16th
February, 1782, and coming from St. Thomas
says The attack on Jamaica makes more
noise than all North America. Spain has
told France that cost what it may they
wish to have Jamaica."
But on the 24th April a letter was re-
ceived by the Governor from General
Mathews and read to the House. General
Mathews was commanding the troops at St.
Lucia, his letter is dated llth April and
reports that both fleets have sailed. The
suspense which this letter created was not
long drawn out, for on the following day
Rodney's letter of 14th April reporting his
victory was received and laid before the
House, and the people went wild with joy,
and the thanks of the House were voted to
Sir George Brydges Rodney and Command-
ers for their deliverance. The following is
the letter :-

"Formidable" between Guadeloupe and Mont-
serrat---the 14th April, 1782.
Sir,-I am at this moment favouret -.:ith your
Excellency's letter and have the honour to acquaint
you that after having had a partial engagement
with the enemy on the 9th, wherein sixteen of my
rear were prevented by calms from joining in the
action, on the 12th I had the good fortune to bring
them to a general action which lasted from seven
o'clock in the morning till half-past six in the after-
noon, without one moment's intermission. Conrte
de Grasse, with the Ville de Paris, and four other
ships of the line, and one sunk graced the victory.
The remainder of their fleet was so miserably shat-
tered and their loss in men so very great, trom
their having their whole army, consisting of five
thousand five hundred men on board the ships of
war, that I am convinced that it will be almost im-
possible to put them in a condition for service for
some considerable time.
1 am hastening with my whole fleet for the suc-
cour of Jamaica; and you may hourly expect me,
with such ships of my fleet as are in a condition to
keep the sea off the east end of your island. Not
a few will be obliged to repair to Port Royal.
I have the honour to be, with the highest regard,
Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant,


Then on Monday, April the 29th, Rodney
with his fleet and nine prizes was seen ap-
proaching, and though it was evident that
it would be near sunset before the ships
could be moored, we can imagine that that
would not restrain Kingston from starting
off to Port Royal by boat and buggy to
witness such a triumph.
Those, however, who remained behind and
lined every vantage spot of view and every
housetop witnessed a goodly sight, for a
long line of tall ships, on the tallest of
which flew the lilies of France with the
Red Cross of St. George of England sur-
mounting it, followed by ship after ship
each bearing similar signs of subjugation,
and attended by a brave show of their
captors, swept in slow but stately array past
the palisadoes with the last of the sea
breeze, and rounding the point brought up
in good order, their enormous wooden
anchor stocks causing such a plash as they
fell from their bows as to be visible by help
of a good glass from Kingston Church tower.
Addresses were presented to Rodney by
deputations from the Council of Jamaica,
(magistrates and inhabitants of Kingston,
&c.) but Rodney's hands were too full and his
health too precarious to allow of his land-
ing for several days. There was an enor-
mous amount of work to be done to get the
prizes and convoy sufficiently repaired to

proceed to England and as has already been
recorded the naval establishments had
been shamefully neglected.
IIe remained at Port Royal until 22nd
July, when being relieved by Admiral Pigot,
he sailed for England in the Jupiter where
his reception must have gone far to heal
the wounds caused by previous ill-treatment.
It was a real triumph.
The nation gave way to a burst of enthu-
siasm, and cheering crowds followed him
wherever he went.
Here we would fain bring this short
chronicle to a close, but the saddest part is
still untold. The Ville de Paris and the
other prizes taken on the 12th April,
encountered a hurricane on their way to
England on 17th September, and, being hove
to on the wrong tack, and perhaps overlaiden
with the captured battering train and other
stores,0 besides being weakened by the
heavy fire to which they had been exposed,
they with the exception of the Ardent found-
ered with I,200 men ; several ships of the
convoy also sank.
It is worthy of record that two sons of
Flora Macdonald went down in the late
flagship of the Count de Grasse.
The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
And all that beauty all that wealth e'er gave,
Await alike the inevitable hour:
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.
Shrewsbury's lower deck guns.


By the HON. Tnos. CAPPIII, B.A.

Tua Turks and Caicos Islands are two
groups of islands about 100 miles north of
San Domingo, forming an outlying depen-
dency of the Jamaica Government; but hav-
ing little communication with Jamaica, and
being little known there In 18:,4 the
Commissioner at Turks Islands applied to
the Jamaica Government to send an Inspec-
tor of Schools to visit the schools of the
Dependency, and to report as to their con-
dition. I was glad to avail myself of
the opportunity and took my passage by
the S.S. Alpha" which left Kingston at
4 p.m. on April 27th. The voyage to

Turks Islands was calm, pleasant, and un-
eventful ; the Alpha" being an excellent
seaboat, a 32 year old Cunarder, built spe-
cially for the West India trade, and recently
transferred to Messrs. Pickford and Black,
the present agents for the line of steamers
between Halifax, Turks Islands, and Ja-
maica. Being kept back a little by a north
breeze (which made the voyage, however,
very cool and pleasant) we did not arrive
at the anchorage at Turks Island till 8 p.m.
on the 29th, instead of 11 a.m. as we had
expected. It was my good fortune to have
the Commissioner for a fellow passenger,


d on our arrival at Grand Turk he took
e up with him to Government House at
aterloo, situated on the seashore, between
to and three miles from the town, which
was kind enough to invite me to make
y headquarters during my stay in the
The Turks Island group proper consists of
number of islets or sand banks, with a sort
Backbone of rook, the highest point in
ly of them being 75 feet above the sea,
wo only of these islands are inhabited,
rand Turk and Salt Cay; and the industry
which they are now entirely devoted, and

group they geographically belong, but since
that date they have been associated with
Jamaica. The climate is that of the ocean
in the same latitudes, equable and healthy;
rarely unpleasantly hot, owing to the con-
stant trade winds which sweep over the
island, and very dry, the latter circumstance
rendering the "salt-raking" industry possible.
One curious point about the group is that it
is one of the few inhabited places in the
world where the magnetic needle points al-
most directly north. The morning after our
arrival, the Commissioner drove me with
him into the town of Grand Turk, leaving

ScaP g 3 W IS

which forms practically the sole support of
the entire population, is the making of salt
from sea water by evaporation. One curious
minor export a few years ago was beches
de mer," or sea-slugs, for the tables of Chinese
epicures. These are found in abundance in
some of the creeks in Grand Turk. A
large part of the surface of both Grand
Turk and Salt Cay (231 acres in Grand Turk,
114 acres in Salt Cay,) is occupied by the
salt pon's. There are also 248 acres of
salt pond at Cockburn Harbour, on South
Caicos. Grand Turk has a population of
about 2,000, Salt Cay 500, whilst the Caicos
group contains about another 2,500. The
whole area of the Turks and Caicos Islands
is about the same as that of the county of
Rutland. Prior to 1848 these islands were
under the Bahamas Government, to which

me at the public school, whence, after an
interview with the master, I made my way
on foot to the public offices My way lay
along a good wide road, on either side of
which extended rectangular ponds divided
by foot paths, (the sides of the ponds being
built up with stone, supporting the paths),
and containing sea water of every degree of
concentration, and of every shade of colour,
from the natural colour of sea water to rose
pink, and even bright red. The strong
trade wind blowing over these salt ponds or
"salinas" saved me from experiencing on
this occasion the disgusting odour of sul-
phuretted hydrogen, which, as I subse-
quently found out by experience, is exhaled
by these ponds and their neighbourhood
when the wind is light, and especially after
a little rain. I took a walk along one of


these dividing paths, and was forcibly struck
by the singular resemblance of the whole
(except for the rose pink colour) to the usual
phenomena of frost and snow in a temperate
climate. The salt when it finally solidifies is
of course white, and the appearance of a salt-
pond just ready for raking is precisely that
of a frozen pond in England when a thaw
has set in. The heaps of raked salt are
exactly like heaps of semi.congealed snow ;
and the salt that is ground into the road by
the cart wheels, and that makes in wet
weather a sea of slush at the sides, simulates
to a remarkable degree the effects of snow
on English roads. The sea water is first
admitted through a public canal into a large
reservoir, of several acres in extent, but
only a foot to eighteen inches deep, where
it undergoes its first concentration. It is
then admitted to other smaller ponds where
the gypsum or sulphate of lime is deposited,
carrying down with it (as I believe) quan-
tities of animal matter in the form of visi-
ble or invisible sea creatures. This gypsum
is thrown out on the sides of the ponds,
where it does not drybut remains as a treach-
erous bog, with a surface like a hard high
road, but black and very offensive below that
surface. This it is, which gives out the
objectionable odours above referred to.
Being a stranger, I naturally trod on this ap-
parently firm ground and was instantly over
my shoes in the black fetid mass, whence 1
only extricated myself after much flounder-
ing. After the deposition of the gypsum,
the brine, now pretty strong, is conducted
into yet other ponds where it begins to turn
red, and to deposit pure common salt.
When the right stage in the deposition
is reached, the salt is raked up into
heaps in different parts of the pond, and
thence placed in carts and conveyed to
the beach, where it is either stored un-
der cover, or more commonly piled up
in great heaps, sometimes about thirty feet
high. These -white gleaminLr salt heaps
are the first thing one sees on approaching
the island, and form such a distinctive fea-
ture, that a representation of two of them
occupies the greatest part of the coat of
arms of the Turks Islands, the two being
surmounted by a ship in full sail. A Union
Jack with this in the centre is the Turks
Island Government flag, which is carried on
the Commissioner's boat, and hoisted on
every house he stops at on his tours.
The heaps stay on the beach until a ship
comes to take them off, when the salt is put
into bags, each holding exactly half a bushel,
carried.out to boats, and conveyed to the
ships (always sailing vessels) where the

bags are emptied in bulk into the hold.
Roughly speaking, each acre of salt pond
should yield 4,000 bushels of salt per annum,
but this is dependent on good weather. A
heavy thunderstorm will upset all calcula-
tions. Salt at present (May 1894) fetches five
and a half cents a bushel, which price the salt
rakers say,gives no profit whatever. Six cents
gives bare profit and seven cents they consi-
der a reasonable price. [Since this was
written I have learnt that the United States
Government has taken off the duty on salt,
and I believe prices have gone up consider-
ably in consequence]. The revenue of
Turks Island is largely derived from an
export duty on salt, (strictly a commutation
for rent, or royalty," the salt ponds having
been originally the property of the Crown),
of rather more than Id. a bushel, which on
the average export of 1,000,000 bushelsa year
gives about 2,000. I have seen heaps of salt
which had remained in the open air for more
than a year wasting with every shower.
But the chief loss from rain is in the ponds
where the salt has just been raked into
small heaps. A good heavy rain will
wash all these back into solution, and
means a loss of hundreds of pounds. One of
the principal salt rakers told me that it was
"a regular gambling business"; exceptional
weather, which no one could foresee, mean-
ing a considerable gain or loss as the case
might be. At the time of my visit they had
had an unusual spell of dry weather, which
had enabled them to make far more salt than
The town of Grand Turk consists for
the most part of a thin belt of houses on
the beach, between the sea and the salinas,
and directly after crossing the salinas on my
way from the school, I came to the Commis-
sioner's office, which is in the same building
with the Treasury, Post Office, and in fact
all the public offices of the Dependency.
Here I purchased a number of Turks Island
stamps, most of them in fulfilment of com-
missions given me by friends. It may seem
odd for a little place like Turks Island to
have its own stamps; but it pays well, as
may be inferred from the fact that the
stamps sold directly to collectors realize
nearly twice as much as those sold for postal
purposes; whilst of those bought over the
counter, which are supposed to be for postal
use, a large part is also for collectors. For
instance, of the stamps bought by myself,
which would be put down as sold for postal
purposes, nearly all were for collectors.
The Turks Island revenue benefits to the
extent of about 250 a year from the stamp
collecting mania, over and above the real


postal revenue. There is no internal post
between the islands, or even in the town of
Grand Turk; the stamps are only used for
foreign mails. Some of the old Turks
Island stamps, not now issued, fetch as
much as five to ten pounds a piece now-
I had imagined that on this little sand-
bank there would be no four-footed beasts or
vehicles of any kind, but I found that a large
number of mules and mule-carts are used in
the salt-making industry, and a few horses
and buggies are kept by private persons;
whilst what astonished me more than any
thing was to hear that about two hundred
cows were kept on the island. The mules
and horses are fed largely on imported food,
and on "cornblades," the blades of guinea-
corn, which is grown to a considerable ex-
tent; but what the cows feed on is a
mystery. The soil" of the island, if so
it may be called, is nothing but soft white
sand, for the most part bare, but with a
very little grass, a great deal of the cactus
called prickly pear, with a beautiful large
cup-like blossom, and a quantity of shrubby
vegetation which does not look like food for
any living thing. The cjmmonest shrub is
a bush which in many parts forms more
than half the vegetation, and which at first
I thought was either dead or burnt. The
leaves were all a rusty red, and there is not
(at least in the ordinary dry weather of the
islands) a particle of green about them.
These same leaves, however, when more
closely looked at, prove to be not faded at all,
but full of life, this rusty red being their
natural colour. Grasshoppers abound, fly-
ing with a whir from bush to bush, and
snails in places cover the bushes, looking at
a first glance like a sort of fruit. Of trees
there are practically none: a Casuarina tree
at Waterloo, some forty feet high, is a land-
mark from everywhere round. There is
however, a small plantation of cocoanut
palms near Waterloo, which shows that
these would flourish well. Roses and other
garden plants are cultivated near the houses
in tubs and pots, but the soil has to be
carefully collected from different parts and
brought great distances,-it is a rare and
costly commodity. Dogs used to be nu-
merous and a nuisance, but the law has re-
cently been amended so as to prevent the
evasion of the tax which was formerly com-
mon, and their numbers have since been
kept within reasonable bounds. The island
is infested with wild cats, the descendants
of course of tame cats run wild, which some-
times make havoc in the poultry yards.
On Monday afternoon I walked to the top

of the rocky ridge which runs along the back
of the salinas and the town, and descends
steeply on the other side to a rocky coast.
Here I ensconced myself in the shade of an
old wall and enjoyed the fresh strong trade-
wind and the lovely view, with cayss"
fringed with dazzling white beaches, and
every shade of green and blue in the sea
which stretches away in front, with no inter-
vening land between Turks Island and
Cornwall. On the other side is visible the
whole extent of the salinas, with every tint
from the light seagreen of the reservoir
through the dirty yellowish brown where
the gypsum is being deposited, and thence
through every shade of pink to a deep rose
red where the salt has begun to crystallize.
The liquor which is left is allowed to drain
off into the sea. As this liquor contains a
large quantity of bromide of magnesium,
from which is manufactured the valuable and
largely used drug, bromide of potassium, it
seems a pity that it is thus thrown away.
There may be of course difficulties in
the way of profitably extracting the
valuable portions of this by-product which
I do not appreciate.
On Tuesday and Wednesday I examined
the Grand Turk School. The population of
Grand Turk seems to be of a very different
type from that in the other islands. The
Clyde line of steamers from New York to San
Domingo touches here at irregular intervals,
and the frequent intercourse with the United
States seems to have considerably influenced
the manners and speech of the people. The
enunciation is much clearer, and the English
better than elsewhere in the West Indies, so
that new comers from England can under-
stand Turks Islanders, whilst they fail to
make out a word of what Jamaicans say.
Still there are terms and turns of expression
which, so far as I can make out, are peculiar
to these islands; and the accent whilst re-
sembling the American accent, has a distinct
character of its own. The wages in Grand
Turk are very high for the West Indies, 3s.
a day, twice or three times the wages of a
Jamaica labourer. The school children are
more unruly than any I have met with in
Jamaica schools; whereas in Salt Cay
and the Caicos they are on the contrary re-
markably quiet and orderly.
On Wednesday night we had a g'.:Ilrl i
of rain, but as it seemed to have cleared a
little by 10 o'clock on Thursday morning,
the Phoenix," the vessel in which my
voyagings were to be undertaken, came
round from Grand Turk to take me to tSalt
Cay. The "Phoenix" was bought in New
York by a former Commissioner to serve as


a Government yacht, for official trips round
the Dependency. When, however, it arrived
at Turks Island, the transport having been
a matter of great trouble and expense, her
timbers were found to be rotten in many
places. Nearly every part had to be re-
newed, and work upon her had just been
concluded, and her name of Phonix" given
her by the present Commissioners when 1
arrived. She certainly looked a nice spick
and span little craft as she sailed quietly
up to the anchorage opposite Waterloo, and
when 1 got into her, and set sail for Salt
Cay, she flew over the water under the im-
pulsion of the fresh breeze in a way that
seemed to augur well for our trip round the

rush through the pouring rain and pools
of water to his house. This house is
a massive structure of stone, with large
comfortable rooms, erected not very long
ago by the father of the present pro-
prietor Now the whole of the ground
floor is filled with salt, the moisture from
which occasionally makes its way through
the floor above. In the entrance hall
above were crotons and other ornamental
shrubs in pots and tubs, giving it almost
the appearance of a small green-house in
England. After lunch I interviewed the
crew of the Phoenix," and having rejected
ihe idea of going back with them, .1:_' -t:1
ibat they should remain at Salt CJay, a


Caicos. In about an hour she had covered
the nine miles from Waterloo to Salt Cay,
and I landed in torrents of rain, and proceeded
to the Assistant Commissioner's office. Here
I waited for two hours and a half, during
which time the rain did not cease to pour.
Out of the window we could see the
salt heaps melting under the descend-
ing floods. Presently it became clear that
an examination of the school would be ab-
solutely out of the question on that day,
and the principal proprietor of the island
pressed me to accept his hospitality for the
night, assuring me of the prospect of a
fine day on the morrow, as two consecu-
tive days of rain were a rare occurrence
in these parts. As this seemed my only
chance of examining the school at all
unless I went back to Waterloo in the
" Phcenix" and returned the following day,
a course to which I (fortunately, as will
appear) felt the greatest possible aversion,
I gladly accepted his offer, and made a

course which was strongly urged upon
them by my kind host. However, (again
most fortunately for me, and perhaps
for the Commissioner, as I think the sequel
proved) they thought they would be ex-
pected back; and moreover they had left a
small boat at anchor at Waterloo which
might perhaps meet with a mishap should
the breeze strengthen, so they started off
at about 4 p.m. on their return journey with-
out me. Twenty minutes later my host
came into the drawing-room saying the
"Phenix" had turned bottom upwards ; and
on going to the front, sure enough with a
telescope we could see the three men stand-
ing on a dark line in the water holding up
a pole with a shirt attached as a signal of
distress. Had I been in the cabin it is very
doubtful if I should have escaped with my
life. and had the Phoenix" stayed over the
night and sailed the next day, and even ar-
rived at Grand Turk in safety, she would pro-
bably have turned over in the middle of the


deep channel between the Turks and Caicos,
and probably neither the Commissioner, the
crew, nor myself would ever have been
heard of again. At once four sailing boats
put off to the rescue, and after an interval
which appeared long to us, and must have
appeared much longer to the men standing
on the keel of the Phoenix" amidst the
rolling sea, she was reached, they were
taken off, and the work of righting her and
laboriously towing her back into the har-
bour began. Those on shore thought they
could not get her in before ten o'clock, but
soon after eight the rescuers, with my host's
brother in command, appeared, having safely
anchored the Phoenix," half under and all
full of water, in a safe spot till the morning.
Her rudder was gone, her mast had had to
be chopped down, and all chance of our
sailing in her for our Caicos cruise was
gone. The next day my host's brother took
me, with his sister-in-law, in his boat the
" Wave" across to Turks Island. It was
fortunately fine and bright, but the wind
was in its usual eastern quarter and we had
to "beat" all the way. We started at two,
and after six or eight tacks reached Water-
loo at seven, having taken just five times
the time we had occupied in coming over.
The Commissioner was of course much
annoyed at the loss of the yacht, and still
more annoyed that he had sent me in her. I
suggested that perhaps he would now not go
to the Caicos, but he remarked energetically
that now wherever I went he would go, in
whatever sort of craft it might be. The
day after my return we went into Grand
Turk and looked over an eight-ton schooner
that had just been built by the harbour-mas-
ter for his own private use. It was larger
than the Phoenix," but being meant for a
trading boat had a smaller cabin and less
comfort in every way; moreover its draught
of water was so much. greater that it would
be necessary to obtain smaller boats at most
of the places to take us over bars and shoals
over which the "Phoenix" would have floated
easily. However, such as it was, it was all
we could get, and we managed to start in her
early on Tuesday. We had a favourable
though light breeze, and expected to reach
Lorimer's in Grand Caicos about five. How-
ever five o'clock came, and it was clear we
could not possibly reach Lorimer's that day,
so we went inside the reef which forms a
fringe all round the Caicos and anchored
for the night off Jacksonville. Jacksonville
is a new settlement where since 1889 has
been made the first determined (modern)
attempt to make commercial use of the
natural resources of the Caicos. About one

thousand acres have been planted with the
Pita, or Bahamas hemp; a large factory has
been erected and supplied with some of the
best machinery; and the whole thing is now
in full swing. Labourers come from all over
the Caicos, except for whom there is no
population at or near Jacksonville. Men
get two shillings and three pence a day, and
women only one shilling for the same hours
and the same work, the greatest disparity
in the earnings of the two sexes which I
have ever heard of anywhere. In Jamaica
the difference is hardly ever more than three
pence a day. The managing director of the
East Caicos Company, which is doing all this,
came off to see us. He said he expected to
ship shortly 100 tons of prepared hemp, from
which he hoped to realize about 30 a ton.
All the profits are, however, for the present
to be put into the cultivation. The success
of the enterprise seems to be assured. I am
sorry to say that the truck system in its
most objectionable form seems to be in force
at Jacksonville. The Company seems to
have such an abundant supply of labour
that I am told they discharge those who de-
cline to spend nearly all their wages at the
Company's store.' This is what the labourers
on the spot say, and I repeat it for what it
is worth.
We slept this night on the deck of the
schooner, with nothing between us and the
sky, and with the strong breeze blowing
over us all night through. In the morning
we weighed anchor about 7 a.m. and
set sail for Lorimer's, again going out-
side the reef through one of the many
"cuts, or openings in the jagged barrier of
coral rock, with which the sailors in these
parts are familiar, and after about three
hours' sail came in through another "cut"
and landed on the beach at a place called
"Big Landing". From this a short walk
over a flat sandy bank brought us to a long
inland piece of salt water called "Hole
Grown Creek," with no surface communica-
tion with the sea, which enters it through
subterranean channels. Here we had to
take two other boats and sail over the creek
for another hour before we arrived at Lori-
mer's. This was my first opportunity of
closely inspecting the soil of the Caicos,
and a more forbidding spot I have seldom
seen. The country here seems nothing
but bare rock, with a few thin patches of
sand in shallow depressions, in which the
people plant corn and sweet potatoes. Grand
Caicos, thelargest island of the group, is almost
uninhabited. The population, according to
the last census, is 563, of whom about half
live at or near Lorimer's. There are, however,


hundreds of acres of "pine barrens" or pine
forests, which we would have visited, but
that they are not easy, to reach in a country
with no horses or beasts of burden of any
kind. The Caicos Islands are practically
one great island, of which the central por-
tion has been submerged a few feet under
the sea, forming the Caicos Bank. The
channels between all the islands, from North
Caicos down to East Harbour, are so shallow
that a man may go on foot from one end to
the other. East Harbour (or Cockburn
Harbour) is a salt-raking settlement like
Grand Turk and Salt Cay, with the advan-
tage of having a subterranean channel which
feeds the reservoir without the trouble and
expense of keeping up a canal, and like Grand
Turk and Salt Cay employs mule carts to
carry the salt ; but in no other part of the
Caicos is there a single beast of burden or
animal of any kind to ride; the only way of
getting over the land is by walking, and
boats are the only means of conveyance from
place to place. I must say for the Caico-
nians that they all appeared neatly dressed
and orderly, including the children in the
schools. Of course all were in their best
attire in honour of the Commissioner's visit,
but I should hardly have thought that they
could possibly dress so well. At Lorimer's,
at all events, they hardly raise enough food
to support themselves, and so far as I can
see, can only buy clothes and imported food
with what they get for a little firewood and
lime which they send to Grand Turk, and
what little savings they can now make out
of their wages when working at Jacksonville.
At Lorimer's, if what the people tell me is to
be believed, there is a very curious example
of the inheritance of physical defects. Some
fifty years ago a little girl came here from
Africa with her parents, and immediately
after they got here a sister was born. Both
girls grew up and married. Every one of
the sons of both marriages was born blind.
These sons married and their children can
see. The daughters, themselves with perfect
sight, also married, and all their sons are
blind, whilst the daughters can see.
We returned to Big Landing that after-
noon, and slept on board the vessel at the
anchorage that night. The vessel is so small,
with so little room to move, that neither of
us undressed. About one o'clock we were
awakened by a smart shower of rain.
My companion went down into the cabin,
which he had to quit ten minutes later
because of the insufferable heat; but as
I thought-or hoped-the shower would
soon pass, I returned to my sleeping place
on deck, and fortunately for me the rain

soon stopped. We left Lorimer's the first
thing the next morning, and had another
run outside the reef along the whole length
of Grand Caicos. The local boatman we took
with us wanted to take us inside the reef by
a passage called Juniper Hole which would
have saved us an hour; but our Grand Turk
man, the captain of the schooner, considered
this dangerous, and insisted upon our going on
to another passage called Rocky Cut, where,
however, we had to change into a smaller
boat, leaving the schooner to go on out-
side the reef to an anchorage off an island
called Parrot Cay. Our new boat took us
through Rocky Cut, shaving jagged rocks
so closely that it looked as if you could have
put down your hand at the side and touched
them; and then crossed a sandy bar at the
entrance to Bottle Creek, at the other end of
which was our next halting place. The
crossing was so shallow that unless we just
hit the high tide there was a very good
chance of our running aground. Once over
the bar we sailed straight ahead up the creek
for an hour till we reached our destination.
On the rocky banks were great heaps of conch
shells, such as are sometimes used as orna-
ments in England, piled up ready to burn into
lime, of which they make the best. Occa-
sionally in these shells are found pink pearls
of great value, for which these islands are
famed. A poor woman found a small one a
few days before my visit, for which she got
16 from the local trader. In old days
strangers would sometimes get these pearls for
a few shillings, but those days are gone. We
landed at Bottle Creek at about noon, and
transferred nearly all our belongings, (which
included cooking utensils, beds and bedding,
chairs, and food of all kinds), to an "old time"
house which is rented by the Turks Island
Government for the use of the teacher for the
sum of 8s. 4d. per month. Bottle Creek is a
much more promising looking place than Lor-
imers. Here are the remains of massive ma-
sonry buildings, barbecues, &c., huge towers
or cairns of stones collected from the land,
and long substantial walls bounding what
was once a good broad high road. In slavery
times the greater part of the soil of the
Caicos was cultivated in sugar, cotton, &c.,
and there were horses and mules, which only
the very oldest inhabitants cannow remember
seeing. The children in the schools have
never seen a horse or a donkey or a vehicle
of any kind, or even a wheel. All over the
Caicos the highest ambition of the scanty
population seems to be to obtain a bare sub-
sistence. There is, in relation to the popu-
lation, a practically unlimited supply of
land, most of which, though stony, could


be cultivated. The whole of the island of
North Caicos is covered with dense vegeta-
tion, on which tens of thousands of goats
would live andthrive. At one time afew were
kept, but now there is not a goat in the
Caicos, except at Cockburn Harbour.
The older people at Bottle Creek told me
that in the old days the land was kept quite
free from stones, which were piled in the
heaps I have referred to, but that since
slavery the stones have grown out of the
ground." There were 26 inhabitants of the
Caicos Islands outside of Cockburn Har-
bour, returned as "white" at the last census;
but [should not have supposed there were
more than a dozen at the most, the majority
being employed in superintending the fibre
industry. The people are left almost entirely
to themselves, and are hardly taxed at all,
the expenses of Government being almost en-
tirely met out of such taxes as the salt
tax and others which fall entirely on the
population of Turks Island and Cockburn
Harbour, and the result is that the islands
are going rapidly to ruin. There was a
large Indian population here once, as is
evidenced by the abundance of flint axes, &c.,
of exceptional size and finish, which are com-
paratively more numerous than in any other
The school at Bottle Creek is a new
one, only opened last September, and
is much more regularly and punctually at-
tended than the others. Whether this
is only on account of the novelty, time
will shew. The schoolmaster, (from Grand
Turk), an exceptionally intelligent man, has
a camera of which he makes good use,
and a nice little library. He gave us
a very bad account of the house, which he
said swarmed with scorpions, ants, mosquitos,
sand flies, &c., and as for cockroaches, he
said you could hear them flying about in
the roof over your head, making a rattling
noise. I seriously meditated sleeping out
in the open air, but finally decided to tuck
my mosquito net well round my mattress,
and put my bed lengthwise between two
open windows, through which a strong breeze
blew all night. The first thing I saw on going
up to bed was a great black object rising
up in the doorway and coming down with a
flop at my feet, whilst others chased each
other round the edges of the room and across
the floor. In broad daylight the next
morning the creatures flew about the dining-
room. The school is about a mile from the
house, and thither I proceeded immediately
on landing. All the way back we were
attended by a sort of native drum and fife,
or tom tom and conch, band, whilst numbers

of big women danced wildly in front of us
all the way chanting the following refrain
(as far as I could make out) :-
Oh my! Governa come again
Oh my! Governa gone again
Oh my Inspector come again
Oh my Inspector gone again
Oh my! Sugar come again
Oh my! Sugar gone again"
"Sugar" being, as I understand it, a sort of
term of endearment. At intervals a man
with an old musket fired off shots in all
directions, with occasionally startling effect.
The whole scene with the women in their
bizarre dresses and head-dresses dancing
frantically about was unique. Next morning,
at 5 o'clock, I was down at the little wharf
and had a splendid swim; having previously
ascertained that people constantly walked
through the water, by night and day,
without an accident from sharks having
ever been heard of. After breakfast we
went a little further up the creek to
where the people are erecting a fine stone
schoolroom, and were received with the
same music, musketry and dancing as on
the previous day. Here the people have,
without any assistance, built a teacher's
house, and have laid the foundation and
completed part of the walls of a fine large
schoolroom. All the people of any import-
ance from the whole district round were
there, and the Commissioner held a sort of
audience whilst they explained their troubles
and told him their wants. There were two
factions, the North and the South, one of
which had held aloof from the building work,
and the Commissioner gave them a little
lecture, promising that if he heard that they
all were working harmoniously together he
would see if the Government could give
them such of the material as would have to
be bought. This was received with great
applause. After the conclusion of the pro-
ceedings we went on board our little
skiff and sailed down the creek, out into
the passages inside the reef along and on
to our schooner at Parrot Cay, a long island
west of North Caicos, with a shallow creek
between them, up which the schooner could
not go. Here we took on board a few things
we had left behind the previous day and pro-
ceeded up the creek. North Caicos is by
far the most fertile and suitable for cultiva-
tion of the Caicos Islands, and on one of the
cays close to it is situated the sponge gather-
ing establishment which represents the prin-
cipal subordinate industry of the islands. It
is owned and worked by a Greek, his prede-
cessor having also been a Greek who retired
recently with a fortune. The whole of the
Caicos Bank, which as I have said, is only a


few feet under water, is covered with
sponges. These are collected by boatmen
armed with long poles with an arrangement
at the end for gripping the sponges, (they
say it is extraordinary to see the ease with
which these men manipulate poles sometimes
20 or 30 feet long), and they are then
brought into a central enclosure where
they are kept in the air a day or two for
the living matter to die, .and then for
a week or so in the sea water for it to
rot out of the sponge. The sponges col-
lected here are, for the most part, not of the
best quality, but there must be very little
expense in collecting them and a low price
therefore pays. Sailing up the creek we
passed the remains of two or three stone
forts which in former times were occu-
pied by white soldiers, and after going
about five miles we transferred ourselves
into a rowing boat which took us to
Belfield landing, two miles from Wade's
Green, our destination. Here we found
a considerable number of people wait-
ing for us, about a dozen of whom loaded
themselves with our goods, and we all
started off on foot. The natural fertility of
the country is evident from the great variety
of the trees and flowers which cover it. One
common shrub is a sort of myrtle with a
very fragrant leaf. I have never more
wished that I were a practical botanist
than on my visit to these islands. A con-
siderable proportion of the vegetation must
be, I should think, of species peculiar to the
islands, and most of it was new to me. In
Grand Turk I am told that after heavy rain
the usually barren expanses of sand become
covered with minute flowers of various kinds,
and amongst other things with a vegeta-
ble resembling spinach and very good
for the table. Even the lizards are quite
different from any we see in Jamaica, and
run about with their tails curled over their
heads. After 40 minutes' walking we came
to Wade's Green house, on about the highest
point of the island, perhaps about 150 feet
above the sea. Wade's Green is a roomy
solidly built stone house, with stone roof,
commanding a view over the entire island.
In slavery time it was the residence of one
Wade Stubbs, whose brother Richard lived
at a place called Dick's Hill on a neighbour-
ing elevation. There was certainly plenty
of money made in the islands in those days.
Slavery is of course absolutely indefensible
on any ground-it is inconceivable that it
should be re-established in any civilized
community-but no one can go through
these islands without seeing that the natu-
ral resources of the earth were utilized

under it as they probably never will be again,
or not at any rate for generations As to
the people, it is difficult to believe that
the majority of them are really better
or happier under present circumstances
than they were in slavery under favourable
conditions. Surrounded by soil of great
fertility, to be had almost for the asking,
with guinea grass and other feeding for
horses, cattle, goats, &c., in great abundance,
with good roads between massive stone
walls, and splendid wells lined with solid
masonry giving an unfailing supply of pure
and excellent water, these people keep no
animals of any kind except a very few pigs
and dogs, they cultivate just enough corn
and vegetables to keep them alive in
favourable seasons, occupying an insignifi-
cant fraction of their whole time; and in
unfavourable seasons, (nearly every year,)
apply to and receive from the Turks Island
Government gratuitous doles of cornmeal
and other imported provisions to keep them
from star ovation; and are, in a word, utterly
destitute of the least spark of energy or
ambition. Under slavery they at least were
certain of being clothed and well fed, as a
matter of right as well as policy, and many of
them, under favourable conditions as I said
before, were doubtless happy. As to religion,
practically the whole population of the
Caicos are nominally Baptists or Wesleyans,
(excluding a small Church of England con-
gregation at Co-kburn Harbour) but the
minister is resident in Grand Turk and
seldom visits the Caicos. I must do them
the justice to say that they are orderly,
honest (in pecuniary matters), and moral,
as compared with other West Indian is-
lands. As regards their honesty in money
matters, I am told that considerable sums
of money, amounting to 50 or 100,
are entrusted to an ordinary Caiconian boat-
man, without in some cases the formality
of a receipt, to take with him in his open
boat, for sometimes as long a time as twenty-
four hours, and deliver safely at the end for
a remuneration of 2s. I could only hear of
one occasion on which anything was lost,
when a boatman, with 50 in his boat, went
down in mid channel.
Wade's Green house, our destination, was
purchased by the Government as a dwell-
ing house for a Resident Magistrate, who
used to live here ; but this office has been
abolished and the house is now only
used as a temporary lodging for the Com-
missioner, and the Assistant Commissioner
at Cockburn Harbour, on their periodi-
cal visits. Here we were exceedingly
comfortable. Though the cloud of mos-





quitoes that seemed to rise out of the
ground in an instant as the sun went down
was very annoying, yet by going early to
bed and protecting ourselves with nets we
managed to escape with comparative im-
punity. Wade's Green is said to be un-
healthy for Europeans, otherwise it would be
a charming retreat for a man who wished to
live alone. The day after we reached Wade's
Green, Saturday the 12th of May, we walked
down to Kew, the nearest settlement,
where the Commissioner sat under a large
tamarind tree surrounded by the whole of
the inhabitants, and heard their troubles
and complaints. They seemed very anxious
to obtain Government employment at a
small cocoanut plantation near by. The
work would be light and easy; it would
be difficult for the Government to secure
such supervision as would ensure a fair
day's work being given for a fair day's
pay; and it would be practically relief work,
that is, work given out for the sole
purpose of providing employment and pay.
This is in a district where it ought not
to be necessary to import any food at
all; and where it ought to be quite as
easy to live as in Jamaica where the
wages are Is. to Is. 6d. a day. It must
be remembered that these people to earn 2s.
3d. and Is. a day travel to Jacksonville 30
miles away from their homes. The Commis-
sioner asked them what pay they would
expect, and they at first said "whatever
the Government chose to give;" but when
he insisted on a reply, a man who seemed
their chief spokesman said, they would be
" satisfied" with 75 cents (3s.) a day. The
Commissioner showed them that this was out
of the question, and after a while we went
on to the school. Here after the inspec-
tion I made the acquaintance of an old
woman believed to be over 100, named
Molly MacLeod. She was the servant in
the great house at Wade's Green when a
man of war was lying off Parrot Cay, and
waited on the officers at table when they
dined up at the house. The teacher and his
wife here were both natives of Jamaica, and
would like very much to get home again if
they could get the same pay there which
they are now receiving.
Next day, Sunday, we spent quietly at
Wade's Green. A number of people came up
to see the Commissioner, amongst whom was
a Mrs. King from Greenwich, about nine
miles off, who keeps about a dozen cows and
calves ; the only quadrupeds except dogs
in the island. The people, who make
not the slightest attempt to enclose their
cultivated ground in any way, complain that

Mrs. King's cows come and eat their green
corn, &c. She keeps her place fenced with
stone walls, but her neighbours come and
break down her walls to look for crabs.
Similar difficulties are not unknown in
Jamaica. The next morning we were
up before daylight, had all our goods
packed, and were at about seven o'clock
down at the landing place, where we
found a sailing vessel to transport us to our
own craft, the C. H. C., lying at anchor at
Parrot Cay. A large crowd assembled at
the landing place to see us off, and one man
explained his warm shake of the hand at
parting by the fact that "his name was
Thomas too." The schooner took us quickly
to the furthest point we were to visit,
Blue Hills, where there is a school
whose teacher is a Jamaica man like
the teacher at Kew. We arrived here at
about 1 p.m., and our "captain" (who com-
bined with his duties of navigation the
functions of cook, reminding us of Gilbert's
" NancyBell") unexpectedly informed us that
unless he could leave at 2 p.m., we should
have to spend the night there, as there was a
risky passage ahead of us. I had therefore
to hurry through my inspection, though
I could not quite manage it in the hour he
allowed us, and we did not really start till
3 p.m. He had been ultra cautious since
the Phenix" had turned upside down
under him, and we were through the passage
and on the bank long before dark. Going
through the passage the efforts we had been
making ever since leaving home to catch a
little fresh fish to vary our diet were re-
warded by the appearance of a fine Spanish
mackerel, something like the ordinary
mackerel in appearance, and though very
inferior in taste to a Scotch mackerel, yet
much better than most tropical fish. This
fish, fresh and corned, lasted us for two
days and nights until we got to Cock-
burn Harbour. On Monday evening we
anchored in a little bay about 200 yards
from the shore. I went on land for a
moment, but was almost devoured by mos-
quitoes, which I have never seen so
numerous and venomous anywhere. It is
very singular that mosquitoes are always
most numerous, vigorous and bloodthirsty
in places where animal diet is usually im-
possible for them. In spite of our distance
from the shore a number of these unwelcome
guests visited us during the night, but as
I lay in a thorough draught they (lid not
trouble me much, and Islept well, while
my companion, who was sheltered by
the hatchway, was tormented and could
hardly sleep at all. At daybreak we were


off again, and recommended our dreary beat-
ing across the banks. No awning couldbeput
up, as every few minutes we had to "bout
ship," and the great boom came swinging
across the deck. I had no umbrella and
the sun was scorching. For part of the
time I could get shelter from the sail, and
for part I covered myself from head to
foot with the awning, useless for its pro.
per purpose. When night came we both
said we had rather go ahead, and make
an end of it as soon as possible, and so we
kept on under full sail all night, using the
awning as a blanket to keep off salt water,
which occasionally splashed over us. Next
morning our captain told us we had run
a great risk, as he had only just been able
in the moonlight to distinguish and avoid
a number of dangerous shoals and "pom-
mels"; and we found that two small
schooners that had accompanied us the
previous day, which, with their crews, lived,
so to speak, on the Bank, had thought it
necessary to anchor at nightfall. At early
dawn we could distinguish Six Hill Cays,
and by 9 o'clock were in sight of Cock-
burn Harbour, which, however, having to
go right round Six Hill Cays and in from
the open sea outside, we did not reach
till 5 p.m. Here we were welcomed by
the Assistant Commissioner, who kindly
put us up for the night.
Cockburn Harbour is the finest place
in the colony for the salt manufacture
In the centre of the level plain laid out
in salt pans is a place called the "Boil-
ing Hole," communicating with the open
sea by a natural underground passage.
Through this they keep the central reser-
voir constantly supplied with fresh sea
water, and through this they discharge
all the offensive refuse which is such a
difficulty at Grand Turk. They do not
make anything like so much salt as they
could, indeed it would be difficult to fix
a limit to the amount that could be made;
but the production is now about the same

as that of Grand Turk. We were fortunate
enough next day, after the examination of
the school, to get a passage across the
channel in a four-masted schooner which
had left Grand Turk and crossed our course
the day we left Waterloo for Lorimer's, and
had taken on board 40,000 bushels of salt
for Boston. It was my first experience of
a large sailing vessel, and it was most
agreeable. Though of under 1,000 tons, the
ship had more open deck space than a
steamer of twice the capacity; the motion
was almost insensible, and there was an
entire absence of those smells which you
always met with on steamers. The cabins
were luxurious, and much more roomy than
those on ordinary passenger steamers. At
7.10 p.m. we were about five miles out from
Grand Turk and a pilot boat came alongside
which took us straight to Waterloo. It
looked the merest cockle-shell for a
five miles row at night over good sized
waves, but we got in safely at 8.30 p.m.
The H. C." left Cockburn Harbour at
2 p.m. and was fourteen hours in getting to
Waterloo. I awoke to hear drenching rain
in the night, and congratulated myself on
not being on the deck of the "C. H. C."
Next day there was a violent thunderstorm,
accompanied by a deluge of rain, which left
the surface of the island near Waterloo cov-
ered with sheets of water for more than a
day, showing that there is a rocky bottom
under the soft sand which covers the sur-
My duties now being ended I found
myself, just three weeks after my first
landing at Grand Turk, again a passenger
on the Alpha," this time homeward
bound. My experience in the Turks and
Caicos Islands is one I would not will-
ingly have missed, affording me as it did
an opportunity of learning something
about one of the least known corners of
Her Majesty's dominions.


By I. S.

AMONGST recent additions to the Library
is a work (of 30 pp.) of considerable rarity
entitled :-
A brief and perfect
The late Proceedings and
Success of the Einglish Army in the
Continued until June the 24th 1655
Together with
Some QuI'vres inserted and answered.
Published for satisfaction of all such who desire truly
to be informed in these particulars.
By I. S. an Eye-witnesse.

Veritas nudata celari wnnpotest.

London, Printed 1655.

THIRE is no indication of the identity of
"I. S." ; but he is mentioned by General
Venables in his Narrative of his Expe-
dition to the Island of Jamaica, and the
conquest thereof."0'
This pamphlet is not in the British Mu-
seum. There are, however, reprints of it
in the Harleian Miscellany" for 1744 and
also for 1808.
The following Extracts, taken from that
part of the Journal which relates to Jamaica,
form a fitting supplement to the Journal
of Henry Whistler, already published in
Journal (see vol. I. p.p. 290 and 33S.) Like
Whistler, I. S. returned home with Penn.
The first few pages are taken up by the
consideration of three queries.
1. Whether or not the setting forth of this
Army were really intended for the glory of God,
and propagation of the Gospel.
2. Whether those that were of this Army were
fit instruments to be employed in the exultation of
God's work, and pulling down of antichrist.
3. And lastly, whether the hand of Almighty
God hath not been plain and manifestly seen in
opposition te their acting and proceedings.
And then follows the Journal itself:
After it was absolutely resolved to send an
Army into the West Indies, preparations were
accordingly made as well by Land as Sea; the

*See "Interesting Tracts relating to the Island of
Jamaica" ( St. Jago. de la Vega 1800) p 37-" and
for the future we were constantly furnished with
beef, and this was not (as Mr. I. S. said) starving in
a cook's shop."

Generals appointed for both were His Excellency
Rob. Venables and the Right Honourable William
Pen; (men who had not seen much of God's
acting for his people, in going in and out before
them to their deliverance, and crowning their en-
deavours with many glorious and triumphant
Victories) Divers good Ships and Friggots were
allotted for this service, (had they been but as
well Victualled and Manned) and all Seamen that
were willing to proceed in the service, received
entertainment; but for want of a due complement,
many Fresh-water Sailors, and others, were prest.
Drums were also beaten up for such Voluntary
Souldiers as were willing to serve the Common-
wealth beyond Sea; which gave encouragement to
several who go by the name of Hectors and
Knights of the blade, with common Cheats,
Theeves, Cutpurses and such like leud persons,
who had long time lived by the slight of hand,
and dexterity of wit, and were now making a fair
progress unto Newgate, from whence they were to
proceed towards Tiborn; but considering the
dangerousnesse of that passage, very politickly
directed their course another way, and became
Soldiers for the State. Some sloathfull and
theevish servants likewise (to avoid the punish-
ment of the Law, and coveting a yet more idle
life) followed after in the same path; there was
also drawn forth out of most of the old standing
Regiments, (such as were newly enlisted) to com-
pleat the number. For those who were better
principled, and knew what fighting was, were,
(as it should seem) reserved for a better purpose,
some few only excepted, which were as a mixture
of little wine with much water, the one losing its
proper strength and vigor, and the other thereby
little imbettered. And thus went on the prepara-
tion by Land whilst the Ships were Rigging, Vic-
tualling and Manning; the general Randevow for
the Navy and Army was at Portsmouth and there-
abouts; where (by the 10 of November, 1654) most
of the ships were arrived, and such proportions of
Victuall and other necessaries ordered to be com-
pleated, as each Vessell could conveniently store;
some that was defective was also exchanged, not-
withstanding there remained much in the Fleet.
There likewise the Sailors and Souldiers received
some wages for better encouragement before their

March the 31, they set sail from'that Island
[Barbadoes] and within two dayes passed betwixt
the Islands of Martenieo and Sancta Lusia where
they anchored that night; the day following they
weighed from thence, and passing by the small
Islands-of Dominica, Guardo Lupo, AMonserrat and
.Meaves ; the 6 of Aprill came by the Lee under
Christophers, where those Voluntary Souldiers that
came off from that Island, and the next adjacent,
were already shipped in prizes there taken, and
awaited only the motion of the Fleet, the number
of these were about 1300, which together with the
other Barbarians (viz., men of Barbadoes) com-
pleated 5000 besides Women and Children, whom
(out of ill grounded confidence, and high presump-


tion) they had brought along with them, which
made them seem rather as a people that went to
inhabit some Country already conquered, than to
conquer: but for this perhaps they had too good a
What manner of Souldiers these Planters proved,
may soon be imagined, for if we look with an im-
partiall eye, upon the major part of those that
came out of England to be, (as indeed they were)
raw Souldiers Vagabonds, Robbers and runagate
servants, certainly these Islanders must be the
very scum of scums, and meer dregs of corruption,
and such upon whose endevours, it was impossible
to expect a blessing.
No sooner were they all landed [at St. Domingo]
(having no opposition) but they began to promise
to themselves mountains of gold, nothing busied
their minds and thoughts more than the riches of
the place, their talk was all of the money, plate
and gallant plunder they were like to have; but
they were soon taken off from their vain hopes,
Proclamation being then made (in the head
of the Army) to this effect, That when they
should enter into the Town, (not including the
pleasure of God in the business) they should not
plunder any money, plate or jewels, neither kill
any tame Cattell, upon pain of death."
After describing their unsuccessful at-
tempts to take a fort none of the strongest
fortifications, being only a plain brick wall,
triangular and without flankers" ie says
Major General Haines being then in ithe van of
the Army, was most unworthily and shamefully
deserted by the Souldiers, notwithstanding that he
earnestly entreated that for God's sake some few
of them would stand by him, if but ten in number,
but such was their vile cowardize and baseness of
spirit, that not one man would do it, wherrenpon
he sacrificed his life (amongst the thickest of his
enemies) at as dear a rat e as became a stout Soul-
dier and gallant Commander, who in his life time
was as much beloved of his friends, as feared by
his enemies, such was his worthiness, too worthy
indeed to be a member of so Antichristian an
The Spaniards pursuing this victory, made as
great a slaughter as they were able, and that with-
out the least resistance, near the one-half of the
Army flying before them, to the great amaze and
discouragement of the rest that were not as then
marched up Some having broken off the head of
their launces, continued still the pursuit, knocking
down some, beating and driving others along (with
their launce staves) like slaves and cow-hearted
villains,auntil at length (being tired with slaughter,
not able to proceed farther, like as the painful
workman, after a laborious and hard dales labour
goeth to rest) they returned to the Town, carrying
with them as sure Trophies of victory 7 English
The number (at this time) slain outright were
no lesse than 600 men, besides 200 more that crept
into bushes, and were left behind in the woods,
whom the Negroes and Alolattoes soon after dis-
patched ; there were also near 300 wounded.
whereof many were past recovery, most of them
all receiving their hurts in the back parts. As for
those who did all this spoyle and mischief (0
miracle to believe, and shame to think it 1) exceed-
ed not in all the number of 50 men. The pursuit
now ended, these running Regiments stood still,
taking opportunity (with sorrow and shame) to

look back on their miserable fellowes groaning
with wounds and weltring in bloud.
The army lying in the Bay (as formerly) had not
that supply of Victuall from the Ships as before
but were necessitated to go abroad in Parties
through the Woods to seek for Cattell; and often i-
times meeting with some few Negroes were by them
put to the rowt. and divers slain. *
What number of men had been lost in os small
Parties. and by stragling (besides at the totallrowt)
was not known, until by a general Muster was
found that 970') men first landed, there remained
then only 8000) ('he Sea Regiment included.)
Many of these were sick and wounded, and most
of them fainthearted, not fit for service. To have
advent ed a third time with such in the face of
th, Enemy were an act of no less rashnesse than
madness, for had the Commanders been ever so
valiant, able and worthy (except it had pleased
God miraculously to perform the Work by them
alone) (which could be as little expected as de-
served) these sheep-like Souldiers (I mean in cou-
rage, not innocence) would questionlesse have left
them in the larch, experience had already shewn
it, and too true they should have found it; And
again to have shipped this wretched rabble, not
well knowing whither to go, or how to dispose of
them, would also have been the destruction and
losses of the whole Fleet, having provisions for a
short time, for so great a multitude; of these two
evils (it pleased Providence) that the least was
chosen, and a place was now thought on, absolutely
fit indeed for such an Army, where they might
have food without fighting and a Land to inhabit
without opposition, and that within some few days
sale. This being resolved upon, care was taken
to ship the men ; the Mortar-piece, two small
Drakes, and two Iron Guns (which were placed in
a small Fortification by them made at the mouth
of the River for the better securing of the Watring-
place). Before the performance of these things, I
should have declared how Adjutant General Jackson
(that great man of little courage) was cashiered
for a coward, and the ceremony performed of
breaking his Sword over his head for example to
others; but my opinion is, that if all of like nature
had been so dealt with, there would not have been
many whole swords left in the Army.
The third of Mlay, all were shipped, except the
bodies of 1700 men (most of whose Armes, seven
Field-Colours, with all their honours (if any they
had) there left behind: It is also observable that
vs at their landing they had no opposition, so
neither at their shipping off, the Spaniards (with
their small numbers) rather sho, ed themselves
defensive, than offensive, resting content with
what they had already done, strongly fortifying for
the future; whereas, if they had taken but this
last opportunity (by the disability, weakness, and
cowardise of the Army) to have charged in with two
or three hundred able resolute men (within few days
before, or at their going off) certainly they had des-
troyed and spoiled the most part of them all who
were more willing and ready to run into the Sea,
and there perish, than to oppose or look upon their
After describing what he saw of St.
Domingo, he says:-
And this much of Hfispaniola. The island of
Jamaica must now be the subject of my following
discourse, whether the Fleet approaching : the 7.
of May, was observed as another day of Humiliation,
for all such whom hunger, thirst and the sword of
the Enemy had not yet given a sense of feeling of


their presumptuous wickedness and disobedience
towards God. And considering the great cow-
rdise that had lately possessed them, it was also
proclaimed to the whole Army, that whosoever
should be found to turne his back to the Enemy,
and run away, the next Officer (that brought up
the rear of that Division) should immediately run
him through, which if he failed to perform, him-
self was to suffer death without mercy. Which
strict order might have wrought better effect at
Hispaniola, there being little probability of en-
gaging with an Enemy in this place.
The 9 of May they drew nigh the island, and
having sailed about 16 Leagues within the South
side thereof, the day following came to an Anchor
in a spatious Harbour, called also Jamaica, where
there was good Ground, and deep Water, and
Manning all their small Vessels and Boats with
Soldiers, soon landed the Army in a Bay, that lay
yet further within the Harbour, and that without
the losses of one man, for the Spaniards having only
three or four small and slight Brest-workes, with
some few Guns, and seeing so numerous an Army
in readiness to Land, made not many shots, but
fled in hast to the Town of Oristano,* which was
altogether unfortified, and distance from thence 6
English miles, from whence they conveied away all
things of value and concernment together with
their Families, and departed further into the
Country, for such was their weakness, and disa-
bility for resistance, that their whole number (on
that part of the Island) exceeded not 500, Men,
beside some Negro slaves, but what they could not
act by force of Armes, they did by policy, as too
soon will appeared.
The English Army being possessed of the Brest-
workes, and Guns that commanded the landing
place ; A Forlorne hope was drawn forth, and sent
towards the Town, who that night would not ad-
venture to enter therein, until the morrow follow-
ing, at which time they found it destitute of in-
habitants, or anything else necessary for their
entertainment, or accommodation, except bare
walls, bedsteds, chairs, and Cow-hides; Soon after
the Generall with the whole Army (consisting of
about 7030 Men) marched up thither, where there
then came in divers Spaniards (which seemed to
be of quality) to treat, bringing with them (as
presents for the Generall) Wine, Poultry, divers
sorts of Fruits, and other rarities that the Countrey
yielded) promising also to send in Beeves sufficient
for the maintenance of the Army, with other large
overtures, and high complements.
This Treaty being continued for certain dales,
the Enemy had free egresse and regresse as well
into the Town, and English Quarters, as elsewhere.
continuing their welcomed presents, bringing Cat-
tell for the use of the Army. and behaving them-
selves with such civil and kinde (although feigned)
deportment, that they invited divers Souldiers of
the Army to visit them in their Quarters, where
they had Wine given them, and were much made
of; by which means they gained knowledge (by
some overcome with Liquor) that they had been
Oristano is a curious misprint for St. Jago de la
Vega. The now destroyed town of Oristano origin-
ally stood, it is thought, on the site of Bluefields.
Bridges was, however, evidently wrong when he
stated that Oristan itself had been demolished,
and deserted, some time previous to the arrival of
the British forces ; but the precise period we have no
means of ascertaining." It seems that Long was
right when he says the town of Oristana was known
to the English soldiers in 1657. [1ist. of Jam. Vol I.
p. 345] but the invading army had apparently not
reached Oristan when I. S. wrote.



at Hispaniola, and how they were thus dealt
withall, as also the extremities and wants they
were driven to in their marches, for want of water
and other necessaries in those hot Countreys,
whereby they were much disabled: The Spaniards
understanding this, and viewing the present weak
condition of the Army, (by which they guessed at
the future, if their wants were not supplied from
time to time) were now animated to put in prac-
tice their uttermost endeavours for preservation of
their goods and estates, and not to stand to any
Articles of agreement, to depart the Island, with
some few clothes only to their backs (as was ex-
pected) notwithstanding they fairly dissembled the
matter, and to avoid all suspicion, sent their
Governor (as they pretended) an old decrepit
Senior, full of the French disease, and brought in
betwixt two in a Hammack) to signe the Articles
of Agreement, which he (with some others) ac-
cordingly did.
In the meane season, these subtill and slye
Spaniards had conveyed farre away in the woods,
all their riches and best goods, which (in some
dayes after the Army was possessed of the Towne)
remained in the Spanish quarters neere at hand)
and might have been soone intercepted, they also
gathered up all the ablest and best Horses (during
the Treaty) as wellin the English quarters, as their
owne, and the time limited for their departure
from the Island (according to the Articles signed)
being neere expired, they drove away most of all
the Cattell neere the Towne, and following after
their Goods, Wives, children and servants
(which were gone before at least 3 days Journey)
swept and cleared the Countrey as they wentof all
vitall provisions, leaving their old Governour
as a Hostage for their return.
And thus they were overcome by the subtility
and deceit of the Spaniards at Jamaica, as well as
they had been lately vanquished by their Launces
at Hispaniola. and all the redresse that could be
now thought on, was to send a Party in pursuit
after them: Colonel Bullard, (with 2000 men)
was employed on the business, part of which
number were shipped in small vessels and shallops
and so conveyed'by Water unto a Bay (17 leagues
to the Eastward of that where the fleet lay) where
they came in conjunction with the rest that had
marched thither on foot. The politick intent of
this grand design being to surprise the Spaniard,
and their luggage (betwixt both parties) as they
were shipping off for the Main, which was sup-
posed would be at that place, but in that they
deceived themselves, for the Enemy had no such
intent, but rather directed their passage through
bywaies, thick woods, and over high hills, and
large Mountains, (of which there are Plenty)
having Scouts and Sentinels abroad in each possi-
ble way and path, to discover the approach of any.
It being almost an impossible thing for an Army
(except well acquainted with the Countrey) to
follow or fiade them out and again, the excessive
heat of the Sun, the want of water in many places,
with other defects and impediments naturally inci-
dent to the place, and disagreeing to English con-
stitutions more'enweakeneth and disables them in
ten miles march there, than forty in their own
Country. But I shall now leave this pursuing
party, to wander in the woods awhile, and there
kill Cattell (if any they finde) to preserve life,
(rather than hazard it at so great disadvantages
against the Spaniards) and shew in what posture
and condition those in the Town were in, who
(after the departure of the Spanish Cators) were
in so great want that Dogs and Cats was the best
part of their diet, with such sort of food as they


had formerly tasted at Hispaniola, as Horses, Asse
Necoes, and such like, there being strict order that
on pain of death none should presume to kill any
Cowes or Oxen, and if at any time there went
forth (by especial order) some small party that
brought in Beeves, they were distributed amongst
the superior Officers of the Army, the Inferiour
men having only inferior meat, the often use
whereof made them somewhat participate of the
nature of the Beasts, sometimes living the life of
Dogs, and at other times bearing the burthen of
Asses, and what other encouragement or comfort
could they have, than to ponder in their minds,
thus Solamen miseris socios habuisse dolores.
Jamaica Harbor, May the 24.
It was resolved (at a Councell of Warre) That
the Generall of the Navy, 'and Rear-Admirall, in
the Ships Swiftsure and Paragon (with most of the
Flemmish ships,) should return for England, Orders
being given for their speedy fitting, and recruit
with fresh water and other necessaries.
May the 25.
There happened an ill accident in the Fleet, the
ship called the Discovery (of the States) a vessel
of good force and burthen, was unhappily fired by
filling brandy-wine in the Steward-room, the flame
of the candle taking hold of that combustible
liquor, so vehemently increased the fury of the fire,
that there was no prevention. Wherefore (to avoid
further danger) most of the ships boats that could
be had in readinesse, towed her off on a bank of
sand some distance from the Fleet, where (after
she had consumed about four howres) her Magazine
of powder blew up, and did no more harm; the ship
Swiftsure being then ready to carreen, had most of
her best Guns there on board, which were all af er-
ward (by industry and art) taken up, notwithstand-
ing that they lay in above three fathome water.
June the 1.
Colonell Bullard (after a long march to little
purpose) returned with his par'y to the Town,
bringing with him some Cattel, and giving notice
of great abundance that are in the more remote
parts of the Countrey; since which time there hath
gone forth divers Parties, (who have also brought
in Droves of Cattell, and amongst the rest a Spanish
Lady (with some Attendants) who were she but as
good as great, as virtuous as ponderous, and as fair
as fat, certainly she would farre exceed any three
Ladies of England in worth, weight and beauty.
June the 6.
The ship Cardiffe set saile for England as the
Harbinger of the rest of the Fleet which were to
follow after.
.And the 9th following a general Muster was
taken of the Land Army, whose number wasfound
to be much diminished of late, not so much by
any pestilentiall as violent disease, as for meer
want of natural sustenance, which in common
reason may seem strange that (of all men) Soul-
diers should starve in a Cooks shops (as the saying
is) or perish for want of Food in a Countrey, so
abounding with Flesh, Fish, and other vitall pro-
visions; but it is to be hoped that for the future
they may have an allowance of better and more
wholesome diet than yet they have had, if the
tyranny of their Commanders (or slothfulnesse of
themselves, or both) prevent not.
There lately arrived at Jamaica divers Victualers
with provisions for the Fleet, also Armes and
Ammunition for the Army, but Hoes and Hatchets
were more fitter for them.
June the 20.
There came in hither 3 small vessels (Prizes)

which were taken by the Selby and Grantham
Frigots (who were ordered to lie plying to and
agen off the Island of Hispiniola) some Spaniards
(in them taken) reported that at the first appear-
ance of the English Fleet before the Town of
Doninlo, the Inhabitants deserted the place and
went all into the woods (where they continued three
daies) leaving their Magazine of powder behind,
which they had once intended to have blown up,
but perceiving that in that time neither the ships
approached the Harbor (which they much dreaded)
nor any else came to molest them, they re-
entered the Town, and being much encouraged and
strengthened by those of the Countrey (who daily
came in thither) fortified what they might, and
blocking up the moul.h of their Harbour wi'h some
Vessels which they there sunk, resolved to use
their uttermost endeavors to maintain the place.
Oristano,* June the 24.
There was this day a rumour that Generall
Venables was departed this life, which was but a
rumour not really; but His Excellency hath not been
currant since his being at Hispaniola. The grand
business that the Army is now upon is to settle
each Regiment in their several quarters, where
they have parcels of Land equally proportioned
unto them. which being subdivided amongst the
Officers, (according to theirrespective places) some
small share is like to fall unto the Common Soul-
diers; but what improvement may be made thereof,
or how it will please Almighty God farther to deale
with this Army, let time and truth manifest; the
good hand of Providence having taken me from
amongst them, that so (according to my earnest
desires) I might no longer be a spectator or re-
corder of their actions. I shall therefore now
conclude only including a brief description of the
Island of Jamaica, by comparing it (in divers
respects) with Hispaniola. together with some few
passages by the way homeward.
The Island of Jamaica is situate betwixt the
Main, and the Isle Cuba, distant from the one 96
Leagues, and from the other 20, the center whereof
lyeth directly in the same Lat: with the Town of
Sanet. Domingo (in Hispaniola) already described,
and hath Longitude West from thence, 2 deg.
18 min. Itts Magnitude, is scantly one 3. of the
said Islands being in length 46 and breadth 14
Leagues. Notwithstanding for the quality and
quantity of land, it is no lesse fruitfull and alto-
gether as plentiful in Fish, Fowle, and Cattell of
all sorts; It is more Mountainous and lesse Woody,
Rivers there are divers, but the Spring-heads of
some arising from Copper Mines, the Water is
somewhat unholesome and unsavory, unless
corrected by boyling (which the Spaniards used)
Its chiefest defects and impediments are these.
It produceth not any Mynes of Gold and Silver,
as doth Hispaniola and other parts of the Indies.
It is also ill-cituated for Traffique, lying such a dis-
tance to Leeward that it is a most difficult thing
for Vessels to turne up so far to Windward as to
get clear of the Islands and Rocks, and are there-
fore necessitated to make their passage through
the Gulfe of Florida, which is accounted dangerous,
except at some seasons of the year.
June the 25.
The Fleet bound for England,set sale from Jamaica,
Vice-Admirall Goodson (in the Torrington Frigot)
being left Admirall of that Squadron, ordered I to
remain in the Indies, they consisting of all the
English Frigots of this Fleet, also three of the best

See foot note on page 133.


sayling Flemish Ships, which completed the num-
ber of 12 sayle, besides victualers and prizes there
July the 8.
The Fleet gained the length of Cape St. Antho-
iia (being the Westermost Cape of the Isle Cuba)
and the thirteenth Foll: they plying to Windward
(having a fresh Gale Easterly) came never under
the Tropick, and short of the Cape of Florida,
about 30 Leagues, where there hapned another sad
disaster. The Paragon Navy (a Ship of the Second
Ranke, and (at that time Reare-Admirall) took
fire and consumed in her powder-room and so
blew up the Reare-Admiral Dakins (and some
others) with much danger and difficulty escaped,
divers Ships Boats (which were neerest) com-
ing in to their assistance, notwithstanding there
perished about 140 Men." By what means
this lamentable accident was first occasioned, is
not yet certainly known, but too certain it is,
that the chief neglect was in the Steward's roome,
from whence the fire brake forth, violently encrea-
sing (past remedy) as the people were assembled
together at Divine Exercise in the forenoon.
July the 19.
Having hitherto had (the Weather variously
inclined) many calmes and some stores, with
diversity of Winds (but all of short continuance)
the Fleet now entered the Gulfe of Florida and
the 22 Foll: passed forth of the same, the extent
thereof (being in length) from the Cape of Florida
to the uttermost Islands north of Cuba 68 Leagues,
and in breadth from those Islands to the main 20
Leagues, the current there setting N.N.E. the
swiftnesse or slackncsse whereof dependeth on the

falling of the Raines, (which about the month of
August are constantly very great) many exceeding
large American Rivers (being augmented thereby)
the spacious Bay of _Mexico, becomes their re-
ceptacle, and so disburtheneth its swelling Floods,
through this narrow strait, into the Virginian
Ocean, it is therefore of some called the Gulfe of
August the 4.
The Fleet gained the length of the Bermudas,
since when (for the generality) being favoured
with fair Windes and seasonable weather. The 22.
of this instant, they had also the length of the
Western Islands.
August the 30.
They discried the English Shore (near Lyzard)
and having a strong gale S.S.W. the day following,
the Fleet Anchored at Spithead, (near Portsmouth)
three sayle having been separated from the rest by
obscure weather in the night (before their en-
trance into the Gulfe) came in hither also this day,
some few hours before the other.
And now for ever blessed be the Divine Crea-
tor, who hath dealt thus mercifully with us, the
unworthiest of his servants, giving us so large ex-
perience of his abundant goodnesse towards us,
and bringing us once more into the Land of our
Nativity. The Lord in mercy so incline the hearts
of this Nation, that those grand sinnes of Presump-
tion and Covetousnesse may no longer reigne
amongst them, lest seeking after shadows, they
lose the really substance ; or coveting the good or
Gold of others, they incurred the high displeasure of
Almighty God upon themselves, and so become the
scorne and derision of their Enemies, and a by-
word to other Nations. Avertat Deus.


IN the year 1868, Mr. Castello of Fal-
mouth published a pamphlet professing to
give the history of Mrs. Palmer of Rose
Hall, a history of profligacy and crime which
would disgrace the pages of a transpontine
melodrama. The following is a brief ab-
stract of the pamphlet the description of the
house is given in its entirety, as it may be of
interest as descriptive of one of the finest of
the so-called "old time" houses of Jamaica,
erected before the science of the jerry-
builder had invaded the island:-
In the parish church of St. James at Montego
Bay directly over the pew appropriated to the
magistrates, is a small marble monument of the
purest white, without a speck or blemish, a
broken pillar, an overturned lamp, a dead tree, a
declining head-stone, a setting sun, and a skull
artistically grouped together, are all its orna-
ments. They are few and simple, but few and
simple as they are, they are beautifully and deli-

cately carved and sculptured, and in their very
plainness and simplicity, the chief beauty of the
monument consists. It is one of those monu-
ments that please the eye, and attract the atten-
tion, and you return again and again to it, but
perhaps if you were asked the question you would
be at a loss to state why you were so pleased with
it The superscription purports that it was erected
to the memory of Mrs. Ann Palmer, who was
exemplary in all the social relations of life, as a
daughter dutiful; as a wife affectionate and loving ;
as a parent kind and tender; that after a long and
lingering illness, which she bore with the most
christian patience and resignation, she was re-
moved from this to a better and happier world.
About ten miles from Montego Bay, on the
main road leading to the capital of the island,
you come to the remains of what formerly was a
magnificent gateway; a loose wall of stone now
usurps the place that the richly carved mahogany
gate once closed; the brazen portals are all that
remain of the massive hinges ; the sculpture that
adorned the marble pillars on which the huge
gates swung to and fro, is broken and defaced,


while the ornaments that adorned their tops have
entirely disappeared. Ruin has put her iron hand
upon the place, and the robber and plunderer are
fast completing what war and rebellion first began.
A few years more and these scanty remains will
have entirely disappeared, i and nought will be left
to point out to the wayfarer and the stranger, the
site where once stood the most costly and magni-
ficent gateway which the island of Jamaica, even
in its palmiest days, could afford.* A gap through
the boundary walls leads to avenues of trees
selected for their beauty and fragrance from the
endless variety which luxuriates in a southern
clime. There may still be seen the cocoa with its

large square stones (hewn), and so arranged that
the landing place serves as a portico, 20 feet square.
A few brass stanchions curiously wrought and
twisted, serve to shew what the railing had been,
but the few remaining are tarnished with verdigris,
and broken, bruised and turned in every direction.
Magnificent massive folding doors of solid ma-
hogany four inches thick with panels formed by
the carver's chisel, in many a scroll and many a de-
vice, are upheld by brazen hinges which, fashioned
like huge sea-monsters, seem to bite the posts on
which they hang. These doors are in front of the
main hall, a room of lofty dimensions and magnifi-
cent proportions, a hall forty feet long, thirty feet

-6 ~ iI-.

P. i '


(Copied front Hakeicell's Picturesque lour of the Island of Jamaica in 1825" )

fringy leaves, always graceful and always beauti- wide, and eighteen feet high, formed of the sam,
ful; the giant cotton, the king of the forest, from costly materials as the doors, carved in the same
whose huge limbs countless streamers of parasitical manner out of solid planks, and fashioned in curious
plants hang pendant exposed to the breeze; the and antique forms. while the top is ornamented
palm with its slender speckle of most delicate with a very deep cornice, formed after the arabeque
green, the spreading mahogany with its small pattern. The floor is of the same expression and
leaves of the deepest dye; and there may be highly polished wood. Three portraits in richly
found the ever-bearing orange with its golden carved frames and painted by a master hand im,
fruit and flowers of rich perfume. Neglect mediately: attract attention: indeed they are
too has been here, and the avenue once so almost the sole occupants of this lofty room, for of
trim and neat is now overgrown with weeds and furniture there is scarcely a vestige, and the fine
bushes, so much so that the remainder of the dark coloured woods of the floor, base and doors,
ancient road can scarce now be seen. Passing once so highly polished are now damp and mouldy.
about a half mile through the grove, you come The gilding which formerly adorned the frames
suddenly in front of a stately large stone mansion, is now tarnished and dull, but the pictures them-
prettily situated on the top of a gentle slope. The selves are fresh and fair, and the colours are as
first thing that strikes you is its size and magni- bright and vivid as the day they came from the
tude; the next, the imposing appearance of the painter's easel. They form a strange contrast to
flight of steps leading to the main entrance of the the neglect and decay of all around, and carry the
mansion. These are fourteen feet high. built of mind back to the time when their originals lived
________________________ in the old mansion; when that noble hall was
*Unless the gateway had been destroyed and re- filled with guests. when the song and dance went
built before Hakewill drew it in 1824, this description gaily on, when instead of damp, mould and decay,
of elaborate carving and ornamentation is pure fi-c all was bright and gorgeous, and India's riches
tion. glittered in profusion round the now bare and



uldering walls. One of these portraits repre-
its a hard and stern-featured man, clothed in the
rlet and ermined robes of a judge. Another is
a mild, benevolent-looking, gentlemanly person
ssed in the fashion of the olden times, with
wdered hair, lace cravat, ruffles and shirt bosom,
stockings and buckles, small clothes, brocaded
st and velvet coat. The third is a female of
ut five or six and twenty, and, if the painter has
t flattered her, she must have been of exquisite
auty. Like the raven's wing is her hair. the
ter falling in thick clustering ringlets uncon-
ed by comb down over her alabaster neck and
boulders of purest white, her brow high and com-
anding, her eyes are dark and expressive, a smile
ays sweetly round her rosy lips, and the ex-
ession of her countenance is pleasant, but at the
me time her eye andbrow shew great determina-
n of character. She is dressed in bridal robes;
reath of orange-flowers round that fair high
ow contrasts well with her dark locks, while her
und, that small fairy-like hand, is in the act of
Hitting aside the large bridal veil thrown loosely
'er her person. The frame of another picture is
ere, but the picture itself is gone. On the right
e of this hall are two doors leading into bed-
*oms. In the further one is an old-fashioned
Adstead, made of ebony, with tall posts, and very
w feet. The wood is quite black and old, but
,ry elaborately carved. This is the only object
interest. The rest of the furniture is simple
id modern. Examining closely the floor of the
-essing room, we find the remains of a door which
d to a subterranean passage, but the passage has
ng since been filled up, and the door is firmly
osed. Directly opposite to the main door are
vo others fashioned in the same costly and ex-
ensive manner, which lead into another hall of
theirr smaller dimensions than the banqueting
all, one end of which is entirely occupied by a
magnificent staircase, which still remains, and.
lough neglected and mouldy, seems to shew what
to rest of the mansion must have been. Every-
ling about it, rails, balustrades and mouldings,
carved out of sandal wood. So highly polished
d exquisitely designed is this piece of architec-
wre that a late Governor-General offered a large
m, five hundred pounds, for the staircase as it
ood, to be taken down and sent to England.
'his staircase leads to the upper rooms, eight in
umber, but these, though well proportioned, seem
mall in comparison with the rooms below. From
ach end of the portico, which extends the whole
length of the back part of the house, ran in semi-
ircular shape two suites of rooms each three in
umber. Those on the right side have all decayed
nd tumbled to ruin, and you can only trace their
foundations; those on the left are still entire,
hough supported by many a prop, while the yawn-
ng walls and gaping floors shew the time of their
all is not far distant. The first of these rooms
as a billiard room, the second was devoted to
music, and the third and further from the house
as a bedroom. These rooms were fitted up in the
uropean style, with hangings, and plastered; and
onsequently exhibit in a greater degree, by the
roken plaster and fluttering paper, the desolation
and ruin of the whole place, than the other apart-
ments that are all ceiled with wood. The bed-
chamber still has some of its furniture remaining,
a handsome bedstead, old-fashioned, low, quaintly
carved, with ebony inlaid with other woods still
remains tottering in one corner: these with a few
broken chairs, serve to show that time, not the
robber, has been the spoiler here.
Then follows the story of this Mrs. Anna

Palmer: how she, aided by her paramour a
negro, poisoned her first husband; then
flogged the negro to death to close his lips;
again married at Montego Bay amidst a
circle of admiring friends; poisoned 'her
second husband, whose death she hastened
by stabbing him with a knife; married her
second paramour, a mechanic, a rude and
unlettered man with whom she had con.
stant quarrels," and who disappeared mys-
teriously; and lastly wedded, for a fourth
time, a Mr. Palmer, who married her for her
money, and then, warned by the fate of his
predecessors, left her to her closing days of
dissoluteness, which were only ended by
her being strangled by her slaves, who
were "alternately the companions of her
orgies and the victims of her morning re-
The publication of this legend, caused
the late Hon. Richard Hill to write the fol-
lowing letter, which has hitherto remained
Spanish Town,
30th Nov., 1868.
The advertisement by Mr. Castello of the Fal-
mouth Post that.he has published a pamphlet
entitled "The Legend of Rose Hall," led me to
peruse the story of the events said to have hap-
pened at Rose Hall. I find the narration alto-
gether wrong. You know the beautiful monu-
ment, executed by Bacon, the sculptor, of Mrs.
Rosa Palmer-the Mrs. Palmer after whom Rose
Hall was called-and you know the inscription.
Mrs. Rosa Palmer, who was a Miss Rosa Witter,*
an aunt of the Chief Justice, Thomas Witter Jack-
son, whom your father will remember, was the
estimable wife, whose decease and memory,
Bacon's exquisite statuary refers to. There is a
second Mrs. Palmer, whose character and conduct
are the subjects of tradition and who perished by
the hands of her slaves, whom her cruelties as the
mistress of Rose Hall had driven to desperation. I
think Mr. Palmer had settled Palmyra t upon her,
and there she was strangled to death by her slaves
and it is on the floors of that house, that there existed
for years the stains of her blood. In the pam-
phlet entitled, "The Legend of Rose Hall," these
facts are all mis-stated, and what was true of one
Mrs. Palmer is ascribed to another. The Mrs.
Palmer who was murdered at Palmyra was an
Irish immigrant girl, whom Mr. Palmer. in
his infatuation, after the death of Mrs. Rosa
Palmer of the monument, married. In her ser-
vice, as the servant (I speak only of the probability
of things) of the first Mrs. Palmer, she had suc-
cessively become the wife of three husbands, whom
she had secretly got rid of. Mr. Palmer became
her fourth husband, and she is said to have worn
with her wedding ring, a ring with the inscrip-
tion, "If I survive, I will have five." Mr. Palmer
is said to have found, by the humiliation he suffered
by her secret licentiousness, and by her ceaseless
cruelties to her slaves, that she could kill by break-
ing hearts as well as by the administration of

*William Witter, was member for Hanover in 1764
and 1765, and for St. Elizabeth in 1772. See Roby.
" History of the Parish of St. James."
tThe estate adjoining Rose Hall.


poison; and she was removed out of the world by
midnight violence. I give the true history of the
murdered Mrs. Palmer. !She is not the Mrs.
Palmer of the figure in the monument in the
church. If my sister Ann was living she could
have cleared up all the mystifications about the
two wives bearing the name of Palmer. Is there
any one living at Montego Bay who could be
appealed to for the true traditionary facts? I
know no person more likely than your father,
except it be Mr. Neil Malcolm. My father and
mother lived in the times of Mr. and Mrs. Palmer,
and I have wiitton down what they had to say.
It is a narration of licentious cruelty. The young
negress remarkable for her beauty, was sen-
tenced to death, under the law of the times that
made plantation courts composed of two neighbour
magistrates, and three freeholders, a court inflicting
death and punishment of bodily mutilations: the
court had directed that the negress' head should
be cut off and kept for exposure on the estate.
Mrs. Palmer preserved it in spirits and exhibited
it to her friends who might visit her, saying, Look
at the pretty creature." My sister now with me
mentions as hearing this attested by Mrs. McHardy,
who lived at Montego Bay and by a second mar-
riage became a Mrs. Fitzgerald. I particularise
this because your father may likewise recollect it.
The negress who was so executed was the mistress
of young John Rose Palmer, the son of Mrs.
Palmer, who like Abraham's Hagar displeased her
mistress, but was not thrust into a desert to perish.
From tne plantation dungeon she was led out to
be strangled in the plantation yard, and to have
the head struck off in the presence of the estates'
gangs, and delivered into the hands of Mrs. Palmer
for preservation as a malignant trophy. The le-
gend printed by Mr. Castello represents this Mrs.
Palmer as Mrs. Ann Palmer whose monumental
record in Montego Bay Church is a marble tablet,
delicately carved, plain and simple, representing a
broken pillar, an overturned lamp, a dead tree, a
declining head-stone, a setting sun, and a skull
grouped together. What I want you to ascertain
for me is whether there is such a monument-what
is the date of it-and what does it record? My
mother used to tell my sisters, that riding down
from the back country-road to Rose Hall, she
sought shelter there from a coming shower of
rain; that the Mrs. Palmer of torturing ability was
seated superintending the domestic concerns of
the household; that she found her affable and
kind in her demeanour, but that while she
remained sheltered in the house with Mrs Palmer,
who was unmistakably Irish, she heard the inflic-
tion of punishment on the females about her with
a perforated patter that drew blood, and she was
then told that wooden soles of shoes charged with
blunted pegs were kept at hand for the standing
torture of the girls serving about her. It is possi-
ble that similar facts are known to your father,
Poor Mr. Palmer, on his deathbed, in his dis-
closures to the Rev. Mlr. Record, declared that his
privity to the murder of his wife was an indirect
intimation'that in his absence at some time his
slaves would rid themselves of the woman, whose
life of secret profligacy and open cruelty was an
unendurable infliction. Rose Hall, beautifully
and magnificently furnished, must have been
erected in 1760.* In 1767, Mrs. Rosa Palmer was,
by the records, married to the Honourable John
Palmer. According to Bacon's monument she
died in 1791. I think my mother's recollection of
Mrs. Palmer, the Irish immigrant, was in 1793.
Hakewell says .... at a cost of 30,000 sterling.

Mr. Palmer's fascination with her must have been
within a year after the decease. The recording the
Bishop's office makes the death of Mrs. Rosa
Palmer an event of 1790. Here is one year of error.
Bacon finished his monument in 1794, accord-
ing to the inscription on it. Two years must be
allowed for shipment and the erection of it in the
church. In 1795 and 1796 was the Maroon war.
In 1798 the town of Montego Bay was two-thirds
burnt down. In the midst of delay in erecting
Bacon's memorable monument, occurred the mys-
tifications which mistook one Mrs. Palmer for the
other. In 1820, I see by the records that John
Rose Palmer married in Montego Bay in that year.
Yours sincerely,
There is now no monument in the parish
church at Montego Bay to the memory of
Mrs. Ann Palmer, such as that described by
Mr. Castello in his pamphlet.
The inscription on Bacon's monument0 is
as follows :-
Near this place are deposited the remains of
Mrs. Rosa Palmer who died on the 1st day of May
1790. Her manners were open, cheerful and
agreeable, and being blessed with a plentiful for-
tune, hospitality dwelt with her as long as health
permitted her to enjoy society. Educated by the
anxious care of a Reverend Divine, her father, her
charities were not ostentatious, but of a nobler
kind. She was warm in her attachment to her
friends, and gave the most signal proofs of it in
the last moments of her life. This tribute of
affection and respect is erected by her husband,
the Honourable John Palmer, as a monument of
her worth and of his gratitude.
The tombstone above her grave in the
churchyard of the same church, bears the
following inscription : -
Underneath this stone
are deposited the remains of
wife of the Hon. John Palmer
of this Parish
who died the 1st day May 1790
Aged 72 years.
Jamaica owns several examples of Bacon's
art. The principal is the Rodney memorial
at Spanish Town (1789) ; in the cathedral
are monuments to the Earl and Countess of
Effingham (179;); to Lady Williamson
(1798), wife of Sir Adam Williamson,
Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica, from 1791
to 1795 ; and to Dr. Broadbelt (1799) and
in Montego Bay Church is that to Mrs. Pal-
mer above-mentioned.
In the parish church of St. John, Antigua,
is a monument of Lord Lavington, Governor
of the Leeward Islands, voted by the Coun-
cil and Assembly of Antigua in 1807.
John Bacon, R.A., was born in Southwark
in 1740. His early life was spent in a
pottery factory, and in Qoades's artificial
stone factory, the products of which he did

*In Lawrence Archer's "Monumental Inscriptions"
it is falsely ascribed to Flaxman.


much to improve: and he thus acquired Society. On the formation of the Royal
fineness of touch and considerable taste in Academy, Bacon entered as a student. In
ornamental work generally. As early as 1769 he received from the hands of Sir

/ ,// j, / ,

,__-__---- _- -- -

By John Bacon, R.A.
1758, he gained a premium from the Society Joshua Reynolds the first gold medal for
of Arts for a figure of Peace: and he sculpture awarded by the Royal Academy,
received eight other awards from this and in the following year he was elected an


Associate, on account of his statue of Mars,
which, attracting the attention of the Arch-
bishop of York, led to the sculptor being
commissioned to make a bust of the King
for Christ Church, Oxford. From that time
forward Bacon's success was assured. He
won fifteen out of sixteen public competi-
tions for which he entered. At his death,
in 1799, he left 60,000-a proof of the
success of his art in pleasing his contem-
Bacon, who as a sculptor was in great
measure self-taught, was charged with
inability to produce classic work. The
charge was met by the execution of a piece

which his fellow sculptors mistook for a
genuine antique fragment.
Two of his sons followed his profession,
John, who on his father's death succeeded
to his business and completed his unfinished
works, including the statue of Lord Corn-
wallis ; and Thomas, whose statue of William
III. is in St. James's Square, London.
Bacon's was not perhaps the highest form
of iconic art; but his work compares more
than favourably with the nineteenth cen-
tury examples of sculpture erected in
Jamaica, and especially with that which
stands at the north-east corner of the Parade,



H I s interesting
hot spring should
be better known
and more widely
patronized than it
is. Perhaps there
is no more beauti-
ful road in Ja-
maica than the
one leading from
the ancient and
in corporate
Town of Bath"
to the spring.
Especially in the
month of April is it beautiful, as in that
month, Bath itself is resplendant with
crimson and green, the Tahaiti apple trees of
Bligh being in full blossom, while the wind-
ing road up the gorge beside the Sulphur
River, is brilliant with begonias, ferns and
flowering grasses. Wonderful banks may he
seen covered with mosses, ferns and lichens,
every turn of the road presenting a new
feature of beauty. The entomologist and the
botanist will be well repaid for a day in the
cool shades of this picturesque gorge. The
predestrianmay findprotection from any dis-
turbing shower of rain in one of the many
shelters erected along the road. Unfortu-
nately, the Botanic Garden in Bath, once a

fair spot, has been dismantled and with the
exception of some rarities worth seeing,
does not offer many attractions to the visit-
ors who has been to Hope or Castleton. If
one is inclined to botanize, however, its
cool shade, with the help of a borrowed
chair, may be very acceptable and many an
enjoyable hour spent there. With such a
neighbourhood, the Bath of St. Thomas the
Apostle might be rinide a success with the
expenditure of some money. For an invalid
with rheum-racked joints, the journey of a
mile and a half every day to his bath is the
reverse of agreeable. The existing arrange-
ments at the bath-house for lodgers are in-
adequate and thus invalids have to make a
daily journey from the Bath Lodging House
to the baths. With some reasonable expen-
diture for suitable accommodation and
catering this would be avoided; or the
water could be conveyed to the town or near
it, and then the invalid need not go so far.
This plan was once tried, but as single pipes
only were laid down, the warmth was lost
before the water reached Bath. With more
modern experience brought to bear upon
the carrying out of the plan, there is no
doubt of its success. The Directors have in
consideration the erection of a new build-
ing for the accommodation of the poor.
This is a long-felt want and is worth assist-


ance. The Government should be ap-
proached and asked to assist, by making a
money grant. Milk River, has been so helped.
Why not St. Thomas the Apostle? This
bath is now becoming very easy of access,
with the erection of good bridges over the
rivers in the Parish, and the constant steam-
ship traffic. There is a very strong plea for
this bath. Its usefulness is undoubted in
many cases, during the dry seasons of the
year. It is obvious that the Bath corpora-
tion cannot widely advertise, if necessary
accessories to treatment and comfort are
lacking. A commission for the purpose of

greatly to his liking he returned constantly
to the pool and after the lapse of some days
was astonished and delighted at the evidence
of healing in a long-standing ulcer on one
of his legs. With his ulcer healed he braved
the wrath of his master to communicate the
discovery of the pool of Siloam. Colonel
Stanton was presumably the master as he was
owner of the land whereon the spring was
found. Tradition does not say whether
Colonel Stanton forgave his slave's defection,
but history states that he sold his right in the
spring "to the public in the year 1699, for
a valuable consideration." The spring at

Prom the engraving by W. Walker in Long's "Hlistory of Jamaica" (1774.)

enquiring into the advisability of making a
money grant and having, a series of new
analyses made, might be appointed by His
Excellency the Governor and assist if possi-
ble in having the hath placed on a sound,
useful footing. The mutability of the
Parochial Board from which most of the
Directors come, constitutes a serious draw-
back to the bath, as those who take an
interest in the affairs of the corporation are
often removed by the fortune of elections
just when their usefulness is bearing fruit,
while the new members may not manifest
the same interest and may nullify all that
was done in the best interests of the institu.
Tradition says that a runaway slave
hiding in the gorge, came upon a spring in
which he bathed. Finding the temperature

that time was difficult of access and no at-
tempt was made before 1696 to put its
efficacy to the test. In that year we are
told that two invalids arrived, camped out,
built hut and stayed ten days. They were
cured of their disorders and shortly after-
wards an analysis of the water was made
according to the methods of that day. In
the presence of Governor Sir William
Beeston, some of the water was treated with
infusion of galls, the result proving the
absence of iron. The presence of sulphur
in the water was apparent to the sense of
smell. This completed the analysis. In
1699 when the Government bought the
land, a road was made, (a very rough road it
was,) buildings were erected and the public
began to make use of the bath. Shortly
afterwards lots were laid out and assigned,


a town sprang up which was granted its
own great seal and patents of incorporation.
Slaves were purchased to look after the roads
and the vegetable gardens which had been
planted for provisioning the hospital. The
hospital was built on the town square. The
foundation was in more modern days utilized
for supporting the present Court House and
the old baths are still to be seen on the
ground floor. The bath house at the spring
was first built on the bank of the river
opposite the point of issue of the water
which was conducted across the stream by a

sought for pastures new. The causes of dis-
agreement are to be found in the poli-
tics of the day--the Jacobites versus
the lanoverians. In 1774 we hear
Long complaining of the desertion of Bath;
the decline of Bath went steadily on and it
never regained its popularity. The billiard
hall went to decay. The club-house was
deserted. The hospital was converted for
a time into a barrack for some companies of
regulars. Only fifty-six people of the
better class sought the use of the bath in
the space of two years. The houses went

-T. 1 e 13t f,, ovse
less -

wooden gutter. An engraving from Long's
History is reproduced here in fac-simile
and shews the bath-house as it stood in
1774. Changes in the river bank afterwards,
made it possible to build the house on
the same side as the hot spring and so
near that the water retained its heat. The
baths grew fashionable and the town of Bath
rapidly became a society resort. People of
wealth built houses and brought their
amusements with them. A billiard room
was one of the great attraction, gaiety pre-
vailed and music, dancing and card-playing
were indulged in. It seems odd now to
picture Bath, as peopled with bewigged and
powdered men and women. The present
town seems incompatible with the stately
minuet or the rattle of the billiard balls.
The fashionables wearied, quarrelled and

to ruin and portions of some of the old
foundations still remain as mournful me-
mentoes of bygone days of grandeur and
fashion. There is a stone table affixed to the
portico of the Court House at Bath, bearing
this inscription:-
This Public Building was erected under the in-
spection of the Hon. Charles Price, Peter Valette
and William Forbes, Esqrs., appointed commis-
sioners for carrying on the same, the foundation
of which was begun on the 10th lay of March,
This tablet originally belonged to the
old bath house and was many years ago
picked out of the river bed and after lying
in a yard in the town for some time, was
rescued by the authorities and placed on the
front of the Court House. In 1761 Peter
Vallette who was much interested in the
bath and the question of affording the sick


poor the benefit of the use of the water
devised a sum of money to build a hospital
and to provide medical attendance and
nurses for these unfortunate ones, the trust
to cover a period of ten years. The hospital
was built a little above the bath house and
its foundations still remain. Valette's
wishes were carried out so faithfully that
after the lapse of the ten years, there was
a balance of about ninety pounds. They
built the hospital, equipped it, provided
nurses and found support and medical
attendance for over one hundred paupers.
So well had it worked that it impressed the
Government of the day, who continued the
work, but only for a short time. After
1789, the old Botanic Garden in Bath was
placed under the corporation. Dr. Dancer,
a worthy already described in this Journal,
was for many years Island Botanist and
Physician to the bath. During his incum-
bency he wrote a short work on these baths,
a copy of which has recently been added to
the Institute's Library. Quite recently the
foundations of his house were washed away
by the rising of the river.
The latest analysis of the water is that
given in the handbook of Jamaica and is as
Chloride of Sodium ... 13.8+
Chloride of Potassium ... 0.32
Sulphate of Calesium ... 5.01
Sulphate of Soda ... 6.37
Carbonate of Soda ... 1.67
Silica ... ... 2.72
Oxide of Sodium (combined
with Silica) 1.00
Organic Matter ... 0.99
The temperature of the water as it falls


from the rock-pipe into the "kettle," ranges
from 1268 F to 1310 F. The smell of sul-
phur at the kettle is unmistakable. From
this reservoir the water is conducted to the
suite of baths in concrete-covered pipes.
Some of the water is collected in a tank
and is kept cooled in order to regulate the
temperature of any bath as desired by
individual tastes or needs. The baths are
single and are private. The ladies division
comprises two baths and a dressing room,
the male division having four baths. Up-
stairs are the lodging apartments. An
attendant regulates the temperature of the
baths and assists invalids as may be neces-
sary. The fee for a bath is one shilling.
For those who desire to visit the baths
and particularly those who seek relief from
various ailments, it is advisable to choose
the dry seasons. Much disappointment has
resulted to invalids arriving during the
rainy seasons of May and October. The
dampness and the inconveniences during
these months only serve to aggravate pain-
ful complaints, and fever may be added to
the suffering of the invalid. During the
dry season patients may with safety have
recourse to the baths and in most cases will
enjoy their experience and benefit by the
course of bathing. For transient visitors
who suffer no joint-racking rheum even the
rainy season may not prevent the enjoy-
ment of a warm or hot bath, while those
who enjoy a moderate climb in the search
for wild scenery will find some fine cascedes
about three quarters of a mile above the
bath house. The Directorate would do well
to m-ke the paths leading to these falls,
more easy of access and thus add one more
natural attraction to this charming spot.


COLUMBUS IN JAMAICA.--M. H. has sent the
following notes on the Story of the Life of
Columbus" with reference to the indentifica.
tion of the various points and towns men-
tioned by Spanish historians. The references
in brackets are to the article on Colum-
bus in the last number of the Journal :-
The eastern point of the island, "the
extremity of the island as it is twice called
by Mendez who had to make his way from
Jamaica to Haiti, is certainly Morant Point;
and we may suppose that Mendez sailed
from Holland Bay (pp. 41, 42).
Mendez gives the distance between Santa
Gloria and Morant Point, as 35 leagues (p.
41). Fernando Columbus gives the dis-
tance between Maima, (which was near
Santa Gloria) and Morant Point as 34
leagues (foot note p. 41).
The Gulf of Good Weather" was at the
west end of the island; the Admiral coasted
westwards from Santa Gloria and Puerto
Bueno until they came to that gulf where
the wind wns contrary. This gulf is there-
fore Long Bay between the two Negril
Points (p. 28). The distance between Santa
Gloria and Puerto Bueno is 4 leagues (pp.
28, 29), and the distance between Puerto
Bueno and the Gulf of Good Weather is 34-
leagues (p. 28); so that the distance be-
tween Santa Gloria and the Gulf of Good
Weather is 38 leagues.
Consequently the whole distance from
Holland Bay to Long Bay is stated to be
72 or 73 leagues.
Now the coasting distance between Ilol-
land Bay and Long Bay is 170 miles; con-
seqently the league" used in Jamaica was
only 21 miles!
Therefore 34 or 35 leagues (80 miles)
from Holland Bay north-westward along
the coast will bring us to Mammee Bay, 3
miles east of St. Ann's Bay; and 38 leagues
(89 miles) from Long Bay eastwards brings
us to the same spot. Mammee Bay is there-
fore the modern name of the former Maima
which was near Santa Gloria.
Again, the town Sevilla Nueva was sub-
sequently built near Santa Gloria (p. 50) ;
and the foundations of many of the old
buildings may still be seen on Seville estate
near St. Ann's Bay. Santa Gloria is thus
identified with St. Ann's Bay; and there has
never been any doubt on the subject,
As for Puerto Bueno, a horse-shoe shaped
harbour, without water, about 4 leagues (9

miles) west of Santa Gloria (pp. 28,29, 40),
it is of course Dry Harbour. The true dis-
tance is 13 miles; but distances were not
always taken very accurately.
For instance, lanta, or Port Antonio, is
said to be 10 leagues (23 miles) west of
Holland Bay, while the true distance is 26
miles; the distance from lanta to Melilla, or
Port Maria, is also said to be 10 leagues (23
miles), while the true distance is 34 miles;
and the distance from Melilla to Seville,
according to Herrera (p. 30) is again 10
leagues (23 miles) or according to Mendez
(p. 41) 13 leagues (30 miles); while the true
distance is 23 miles.

(1721-1771.) -It is to be hoped that the
charitable public liberally responded to the
annexed touching appeal, inserted in the
London Chreonicle, September 12-14, 1782.
vol. 52, No. 4024, p. 262, which is reprinted
in Notes and Queries for November 25th,
FIRE AT JAMAICA-Anne Smollett, widow of
the late Dr. Tobias Smollett, humbly begs leave
to represent that by a letter received from her
agent Mr. Agnus Macbean, dated Kingston, 6th
March, 1782, she is informed of the melancholy
misfortune befallen her by the late dreadful fire
which has entirely consumed her tenements and pro-
perty at that place and reduced her into the most
deplorable state. Being in a foreign country, at a
great distance from her native island Jamaica, in
a very infirm state of health, far advanced in
years, and now deprived of every means of sup-
port; thus oppressed with grief which such a
dire and most unexpected stroke of Providence
has caused her, she is under the necessity to
recur to the known humanity and benevolence of
her country, and hopes she shall receive from
their generosity such support as may enable her
to finish with decency the few days which God
may be pleased to spare her, and which will be
employed in offering her prayers to the Supreme
for the protection and happiness of her humane
benefactors. Subscriptions are received at the
following Bankers:-Sir Robert Herries '& Co.,
St. James's-Street: Messrs. Crotts, Devaynes,
Dawes & Noble, Pall-mall; Lefevre, Curries,
James and Yallowley, Cornhill; and Sir William
Lemon, Bart., Furly. Lubbock & Co., Mansion
House Street.
ZACHARY MACAULAY, the philanthropist,
better known perhaps as the father of the
celebrated Lord Macaulay, was sent at the
age of sixteen, i.e. in 1784, to be book-
keeper on an estate in Jamaica, of which he
became manager. His experiences in this
island may be said to have coloured his life
and given him the impetus for his subse-


quent career, as abolitionist and philanthro-
pist. Deeply impressed by the miseries of
the slaves, he gave up his position in dis-
gust, and returned to England in 1792.
lie joined the Sierra Leone Company
founded in 1791, by Wilberforce and others,
to form a colony of liberated slaves. In
1793, he sailed for Sierra Leone, and soon
became Governor of the colony: which post
he held till 1797. He was secretary to the
company till 1808, when the colony was
transferred to the Crown.
On the abolition of the slave trade, he
became Secretary to the African Institute,
without salary. He co-operated with Sir
Thomas Fowell Buxton and others in
forming the Anti-Slavery Society in 1823,
and he wrote most of the Monthly Re-
porters" issued by the Society. He was
Honorary President of the French Society
for the Abolition of Slavery : an active mem-
ber of the British and Foreign Bible Society,
and of the Society for the Suppression of
Vice. He was one of the principal founders
of the London University, and a Fellow of
the Royal Society.
On his death in 1838, a bust was erected
to his memory in Westminster Abbey.

THE JAMAICA MAcEs.-The following
notes are given as supplemental to the
article on the Maces which has already
appeared in the Journal (vol. 1, p 262.)
F. S. S. writes:-" Here is a further trace
of the Mace. In April 1702, 'on the
death of Governor Selwyn, the Clerk of the
Council was sent to the late Governor's
Secretary for the Seal and Mace which soon
after he brought in accordingly.' This
shows it was safe ten years after the earth-
The newer of the two Maces evidently
came as the result of the resolution of the
House of Assembly (Journals vol. viii. p.
262) of the 22nd of December, 1786:-
"Thatthe Receiver-General do, immediately,
remit to the agent the sum of 300 to be by
him laid out in the purchase of robes for the
Speaker, and a Mace."

PRESIDENT WHITE.-In a previous num-
ber of the Journal (vol. 1, p. 286) F. S. S.
pointed out that the statement made on the
authority of Bridges, that President White
died in the earthquake of Port Royal, could
not be true, inasmuch as the Council minutes
show that he presided over that body as late
as the l(th of August, 1692. A corres-
pondent in continuation points out that Gard-
ner in his history (p. 101) says that he died
on the 22nd of August following the earth-

quake, as appears by the burials in St.
Roby, (from whom Gardner probably got
his information) in his "History of the
parish of St. James" (p. 34) says:-" It is,
however, stated in the Rector's narrative
[of the earthquake] that he escaped to a
ship, the Siam Merchant' in safety; and
the fact of his having survived the earth-
quake 75 or 76 days is indisputably proved
by the following entry in St Andrew's
Register of Burials :-1692, August 22nd,
President John White." This entry may
still be seen in the vestry of Halfway-Tree

PORT ROYAL Cnuacn.-The following
extract, from an answer made by the Earl
of Carlisle to charges brought against him
by Samuel Long, the Chief Justice, in a
petition to the King, has reference to the
building of the church of Port Royal which
was destroyed by the earthquake:-
Asto the objection of taking money of one Hewit
for a pardon, which is only circumstantially al-
leged, I say, in answer thereunto, that I took no
money directly or indirectly for granting the
same; but, having been moved on behalf of the
said Hewit, and having thereupon advised with
some of the council about it, who told me they
thought him a tit object of mercy, I did thereupon
grant him a pardon, and told him he would do
well to give 50 towards building the church at
Port Royal, which was then in hand, but was
delayed for want of money to carry it on; and the
50 was paid to Captain Beckford one of the
deponents, and not to me or any servant of mine,
and afterwards paid by Beckford to Colonel
Molesworth, churchwarden of the said parish, for
the use aforesaid: and whereas it seems to be
supposed that this fifty pounds had been paid in
lieu of fifty pounds subscribed by me towards the
building of the said church, I wholly deny it, and
say, I always intended and still do to. pay the
fifty pounds I subscribed, which never had any
limited timid, and will come as reasonably for the
finishing of it as the other did for building the
TIE ISLAND.-II Interesting Tracts" (page
187) is given a copy of the King's instruc-
tions to Sir Philip Howard, Knight, the
title of which is as follows:-
Instructions for our trusty and well-beloved sir
Philip Howard, Knight, our captain-general and
governor-in-chief in and over our island of Ja-
maica, and other the territories depending thereon
in America: Given at our court at Whitehall, the
25th of November, 1685, in the first year of our
This Sir Philip Howard never came to
Jamaica. He is probably the Sir Philip
Howard referred to in Foster's Pedigrees
of County Families of Yorkshire": -Sir
Philip Howard, brother of Charles 1st, Earl


of Carlisle, sometime of St. Martins in the
Fields, Co., Middlesex ; knighted at Canter-
bury 26th May, 1660; :married 23rd April,
1668, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert
Newton, widow of Sir John Barber of Sex-
inghurst, Kent. He was buried in Exeter
chapel, 15th April, 1686, will dated 7th
April and proved 3rd June 1686.
It will be seen that the date of his in-
structions is 1685, four years after his
brother the Earl of Carlisle relinquished
the Governorship of Jamaica on account of
ill-health. Ill-health, too, may have been
the cause of his non-arrival, for he died
within six months of his appointment.
of fairs or markets was early felt in Jamaica
is evident.
In the first Book of Patents kept at
Spanish Town is a charter, dated March
1662, in the time of Sir Charles Lyttelton,
Deputy Governor, for "a Faire to be held at
Snt. Jago de la Vega." The preamble runs as
Whereas the settlement of our Island of Ja-
maica is much hindered and obstructed for want of
a Faire or Markett for the sale and buying of Horses,
Mares, Mules, Assinegoes, Cowes, Bulls, and other
Catle and many other necessaries for the use of
our subjects there and whereas our Towne of Snt.
Jago de la Vega in our said Island is comodiously
scytuate for the keeping of such Faire or Markett
therein. Know ye that we for the more speedie
settlement of our said Island and for the ease and
convenience of our subjects now resideing or which
hereafter shall reside in our said Island of our
spetiall grace certain knowledge and meere mocion
have granted and confirmed and by this our present
Charter doe grant and confirm that Thomas
Fuller Esqre:, Peter Pugh Esqre:, Cornelius Bur-
rough Esqre:. William Dallyson Esqre:, Thomas
Balliard Esqre:, and the rest of the inhabitants of
our said Towne of Snt. Jago de la Vega and their
Successors inhabitants of our said Towne of Snt:
Jago de la Vega for ever have a Faire or Markett
in our said Towne of Snt: Jago de la Vega Foure
times in everie year (vizt:) On the feasts of the
Annuntiation of the blessed Virgin, the Nativity
of St. John Baptist, Snt: Michaell the Archan-
gell, and the Circumcision of our Lord anrd the
same Faire or Markett to continue for the space
of two dayes everie time for the sale of horses,
mares, mules, assinegoes, cows, bulls, and all or
any other castle and all or any other goods and
commodities whatsoever of the growth or pro-
duce of our said Island and all or any other goods
wares and merchandizes whatsoever with all
liberties: and free customers to such Faire or
Market belonging according to the usage and
customers of our kiugdome of England.

It goes on to say:
Nevertheless, It is our will and pleasure that our
Governor for the time being of our said Island of
Jamaica for ever shall be and we doe hereby de-
clare constitute and appoint our Governor for the
time being of our said Island of Jamaica to be
Lord and Governor of the said faire and to make
the rules and orders and to make and appointed
Officers for the better and more orderly govern-
ment of the same and to receive and have all
benyfitts, profits and advantages fitt or usually for a
Lord Governor or owner of a Faire to have and
receive and to appoint a fitt and convenient place
within the precincts of our Towne of Snt: Jago de
la Vega wherein the said Faire or Markett shall
from time to time be kept and to do all such or
any other such act or acts whatsoever as the Lord
Governor or owners of a Faire or Markett law-
fully may or might doe according to the usage
or customers of our said kingdom of England.

A tradition that the great Nelson was
at one time governor or captain (the
correct title) of Fort Charles at Port
Royal is not supported by fact, so far
as can be seen. Captain Nelson was on
the Jamaica station about 1778-80, and the
records show that from 1776 to 1777 Colo-
nel John Dalling (afterwards Lieutenant-
Governor of Jamaica) was the Captain of
Fort Charles, his lieutenant being Natha-
niel Farnall. Dalling was succeeded by
Edward FitzGerald who held the office to
August 1779, when it was filled by Mont-
gomery Mathan to April 1780, and Hans
Carden who held the office to 31st Decem-
ber 1780, shall close my list.
Besides, the office of captain of Fort
Charles was essentially one of a military
In connection with Nelson's presence on
the station, the following letter may be of
interest. It is from Admiral Sir Peter
Parker to Governor Dalling:
Admiral's Pen,
10th August, 1780.
Dear Sir,
Agreeable to the note which I had the
honour to receive from you this morning intimating
your kind intentions to give Captain Nelson a
strong letter to the different Custodes, I have
ordered him to proceed to sea with the James"
and put into the different ports of this Island
where there is any likelihood of procuring men.
I have, &c.,



Banbury, Rev. T. Jamaica Superstitions; or the
Obeah Book. A complete treatise of the absur-
dities believed in by the people of the Island.
8vo.; Kingston, Ja., 1895. I1 c.1
Barclay, David. An Account of the Emancipation
of the slaves of Unity Valley Pen, in Jamaica.
8vo. ; London, 1801. [1 c.]
Barrett, Lucas, F.G.S. On some Cretaceous Rocks
in the South-Eastern Portion of Jamaica. (In
Proceedings of the Geological Society of London,
Feby. 1st, lb60.") 8vo.; London, 1860. L1 0.]
Blyth, Rev. George. Reminiscences of Missionary
Life, with Suggestions to Churches and Mission-
aries. 2nd thousand. Edinburgh, Glasg n and
London, 1851. 1 c.]
Bridges, Rev. George Wilson, B.A. A Voice from
Jamaica; in reply to William Wilberforce, Esq
M.P. 2nd ed. 8vo.; London, 1823. [I o.1
a- Dreams of Dulocracy; or, the Puri-
tanical Obituary: "An appeal" not to the
Romantic Sensibility, but to the good sense of
the British Public. 8vo. ; London, 1824.
[Bound with the above] -The Statistical His-
tory of the Parish of Manchester, in the Island
of Jamaica. By the Rev. George W. Bridges.
8vo.; Jamaica, 1824. [1 c.1
Cocking, Ralph M. The Handbook of the Parish
of Saint Mary Published by authority of the
Parochial Board of Saint Mary; comprising
general information, a complete list of Bye-
Laws of the Board, the Parochial Roads, and,
the Parochial Laws up to 1894. 8vo. ; Kingston,
Ja,, 1894 [4 f.1
Cookery Book, The Jamaica. Three Hundred and
twelve simple Cookery Receipts and Household
Hints. collected by C. S. 8vo.; Aingston, Ja,
1893. [1 c.]
Oundall, Frank, F.S.A. The Story of the Life of
Columbus and the Discovery of Jamaica. (Special
Double Number of the Journal of the Institute
of Jamaica in commemoration of the four
hundreth anniversary of the Discovery of Ja-
maica by Columbus.) 4to.; Kingston. Ja., 1894.
[1 c.]
Dancer, Thomas, M D. A Short Dissertation on
the Jamaica Bath Waters, to which is prefixed an
Introduction concerning Mineral Waters in gene-
ral; Shewing the Methods of examining them
and ascertaining their Contents. 8vo.; Kingston,
Ja., 1784 [I c]
[Bound with the above]--Some observations
respecting the Botanical Garden. 8vo.; Ja., 1804.
De La Beche, H[enry] T[homas], F.R.S. Notes
on the present Condition of the Negroes in
Jamaica. 8vo. ; London, 1825. [1 c.]
Remarks on the Geology of Jamaica.
[In the "Transactions of the Geological Society
of London"; 2nd Series, Vol. II. Lt. 2nd.J 4to.;
London, 1827. [1 c.]
Duperly, Adolphs. Daguerian Excursions in Ja-
maica : being a Collection of Views of the most
striking Scenery, Public Buildings and other in-

teresting objects taken on the spot with the
Daguerreotype by Adolphe Duperly and litho-
graphed under his direction by the most eminent
artists in Paris, (oblong folio. Kingston, Ja.,
n.d. r38 a.]
Earthquakes, The Theory and History of: Con-
tainig I. A rational account of their causes and
effects ** II. A particular and authentic His-
tory of those which have happened in these
Kingdoms and the most remarkable of those
abroad, viz., in Sicily, Jamaica and Lima, with
the most considerable eruptions of Vesuvius and
AEtna ..... III. Some seasonable Refictions on
the two late Earthquakes 8vo.; London n.d,
[Bound with tke above.] An Historical Ac-
count of Earthquakes, extracted from the most au-
thentick Historians [telling of those at Port Royal,
Catania in Sicily, Lima and Calao, and Lisbon,]
and a Sermon preached at Weverham in Cheshire
on the 6th February last, by Rev. Mr. Thomas
Hunter, Vicar cf Weverham. 8vo.; Liverpool, 1756.
An account of the late dreadful Earthquake and
Fire, which destroyed the City of Lisbon, In a
letter from a Merchant resident there, to his friend
in England. 2nd ed. 8vo.: London, 1756.
A Second Letter from a Merchant of Lisbon to
his friend in England, on the late Destruction of
that City by an Earthquake and fire 8vo.;
London, 1756.
Impartial Remarks upon the preface of the Rev.
Dr. Wharburton, wherein that author has taken
some uncommon liberties with the character of the
Rev. Dr. Taylor, Chancellor ofLincoln. Together
with a fair review of the question and some ob-
servations occasioned by the additional part of
the Divine Legation. 8vo. ; Lndon, 1758.
A Complete Vindication of the Mallard of All-
Souls collegee against the injurious suggestions of
the Rev. Mr. Pointer, Rector of Slapton in North-
ampton. 2nd ed. 8vo.; London, 1751. [1 e.J
[Edwards, Bryan.] The Proceedings of the Governor
and A assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon
negroes. Publitlhed by order of the Assembly.
To which is prefixed, an Introductory Account,
containing observations on the disposition, char-
acter, manners, and habits of Life of the Maroons,
and a detail of the Origin, Progress; and Ter-
mination of the late war between those people
and the white Inhabitants. 8vo.; London, 1796.
[1 e.]
Fawcett, William, B.Sc., F.L.S. Castleton Gardens.
Notes on the most interesting plants. Being
parts 10, 11 and 12 of vol. I. (new series) of the
Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica.
8vo.; Kingston, Ja, 1895. [1 c.]
- -. A Provisional List of the Indigenous *
and Naturalised Flowering Plants of Jamaica.
8vo.; Kingston, 1893. [1 e.] fPamph.]
Finlason, W. F. Commentaries upon Martial
Law, with special reference to its regulation and
restraint; with an Introduction, containing Com-
ments upon the Charge of the Lord Chief Justice
in the Jamaica Case. 8vo, ; London, 1867. [1 c.]
-- A History of the- Jamaica case,
founded upon official or authentic Documents;
and containing an account of the Debatsa in Par-
liament and the Criminal prosecutions arising
out of the Case. 8vo.; London, [1868.] [1 c.]
Justice to a Colonial Governor'
or Some considerations on the Case of Mr. Eyre:


containing the substance of all the Documents,
Discussions, and proceedings relating thereto,
8vo.; London, [1868.] [1 c.1
Gurney, Joseph John. Reconciliation, respectfully
recommended to all parties in the Colony of
Jamaica, in a letter addressed to the planters.
8vo. Kingston, ,Ja, 1840. [32 j.1 [Pamph.]
Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de. [Three
volumes bound in one.] Rampspoedige Water-
Togt door Franciscus de Porras, met eenige
Muitlingen van Jamaica naa Hispaniola vrugte-
loos ondernoomen, in't Jaar 1504. Verhalendo
niet alleen des Ammiraal Kolumbus zeldzaam
wedervaren met gemelden de Porras, maar ook
zyne verdere Togten, en Wederkomst in Kastilien
tot aan zyn dood. Beneffens de Zee-Togt van
Fernandes Cortes, in 't zelve Jaar gedaan naar
Hispaniola. Uyt Koninglyk bevel eertyds in 't
Spaans beschreeven door Antonius de Herrera. .
8vo.: Leyden, 1706.
Aankomst van Jean d'Ezquebel ter
Bevolking van Jamaica, door den Ammiraal
Diego Kolumbus, van Hispaniola derwaards
gezonden, in 't Jaar 1510... Uit d'oorspronkelyke
berigten en Koninglyk bevel in 't Spaans besch-
reeven door Antonius de Herrera ... 8vo, : Ley-
den, 1706.
Drie verscheyde Togten ter Zee en to
Land in di West-Indien. gedaan in 't Jaar 1523
en vervolgens. De eerste door Franciscus de
Garay van Jamaica na Panuco ... Uyt d'eyge
berigten der Reysigers, en Koninglijk bevel
eertijds in 't Spaans beschreeven door den Heer
Antonius de Herrera. .. 8vo.; Leyden, 1707.
Jamaica. Brief Notice of the rise, progress, and
present state of the Jamaica Clergy Fund. 8vo.,
n.d.; [about 1835.] [32 j.] [Pamph.]
Blue Book, 1893-94, folio; Jamaica,
1894. [4j.]

-- -- Handbook of, for 1895. Published by
authority: comprising Historical, Statistical, and
General Information concerning the Island.
15th Year of Publication. Compiled from official
and other reliable Records, by S. P. Musson and
T. Laurence Roxburgh of the Colonial Secre-
tary's Office. 8rvo. ; Jaaica and London, 1895.
[4 t.]
--- -, [House of Assembly.] Catalogue
of the Library of the Assembly of. Published
by order of the Library Committee. 8vo ; Spanish
lown, Ja., 1865. [1 c ]
----- The Importance of, to Great Bri-
tain, considered. With some account of that
Island, from its discovery in 1192 to this Time :
and a list of the Governors and Presidents, with
an account of their Towns, Harbours, Bays,
Buildings, Inhabitants, Whites and Negroes, &c.
The Country and People cleared from Misrepre-
sentations, the Misbehaviour of Spanish Governors
by entertaining Pirates, and plundering the In-
habitants and Merchants of Jamaica, and the
Rise of the Pirates among them. An account of
their Fruits, Drugs, Timber and Dying-Woods,
and of the uses they are apply'd to there: With
a description of Excotick Plants, preserved in the
Gardens of the Curious in England, and of the
Kitchen and Flower-Gardens in the West-Indies.
Also of their Beasts. Birds, Fishes, and Insects ;
with their Eatables and Potables, Discempers and
Remedies. With an account of their Trade and
Produce; with the advantages they are of to
Great-Britain, Ireland, and the Colonies in North-
America, and the Commodities they take in re-
turn from them, with the danger they are in

from the French at Hispaniola, and their other
Islands and Settlements on the Continent, by
the encouragements they have over the British
Planters. With Instances of Insults they have
given his Majesty's Subjects in the West-Indies
and on the Main. With the representations of
his late Majesty when Elector of Hanover, and of
the House of Lords, against a peace which could
not be safe or honourable if Spain or the West
Indies were allotted to any Branch of the House
of Bourbon. In a letter to a Gentleman, In
which is added a postscript of the benefits which
may arise by keeping Carthagena to Great-
Britain and our American Colonies; with an
Account of what Goods are used in the Spanish
Trade, and Hints of settling it after the French
Method (by sending women there) and of the
Trade and Method of living of the Spaniards and
the English South-Sea Company's factors there.
8vo.; London, [1740.] 1. c.]
Interesting Tracts Relating to the
Island of. Consisting of Curious State-papers,
Councils of War, letters Petitions, Narratives,
&c., &c. which throw great light on the History
of that Island, from its conquest, down to the
year 1702. 4to.; St. Jago de la Vega, 1800. [1 c.]
Laws of. Passed in a Session which
began on the 7th day of March 1894 and ad-
journed on the 2nd day of May, 1891. Published
by Authority. 4to. ; Jamaica, 1891. [4 a.]
,Acts of Assembly, passed
in the Island of, from 1681. to 1787, inclusive.
folio; London, 1738. [4j.j

-- ---, An Abstract of the Laws of
Jamaica relating to Slaves (from 33 Charles II.
to 59 George III. inclusive) with the Slave Law
at length: also an appendix containing an ab-
stract of the Acts of Parliament relating to the
abolition of the Slave-Trade. By John Lunan.
4to.; St. Jago de la Vega, Ja., 1819. [4 j.]

-- Legislative Council; Minutes of
the. In a Session begun on te 7th day of March,
1894, and adjourned on the 2nd day of May, 1894,
sine die. During the Administration of His Ex-
cellency Sir Henry Arthur Blake, K.C.M.G folio.
Jamaica, 1894. [3 e.]

-- Pamphlets, Miscellaneous.
I. Remarks on the Present State of the Spanish
Colonies, and the Importance of Cuba to the
Interests of Great Britain, in the Caribbean
Sea. 8vo.; Jamaica, 1820.
II. An Essay on Task-Work, Its Practicability
and the Modes to be adopted for its application
to different kinds of Agricultural Labour. 8vo.;
Jamaica. n.d.
III. Proceedings ofthe General Court Martial
assembled by order of His Excellency General
Nugent, Lieut.-Governor of Jamaica for the
Trial of David Murray, Esq., a Commissioner
appointed for the parish of Westmoreland, for
procuring subsistence for the Militia, and for
other duties. Held in Spanish Town the 8th
and 9th July, 1805. (First published in the
Kingston Chronicle and City Advertiser) with
a preface, observations, &c. 8vo.; Kingqston,
Ja., 1805. [1lc.]

------ Slavery.
I. A Letter to the Members of the Im-
perial- Parliament referring to the evidence
contained in the proceedings of the House
of Assembly of Jamaica, and showing the
injurious and unconstitutional tendency of the
proposed Slave Registry Bill. By a Colonist.
8vo. ; London, 1816.


II. Negro Emancipation made easy; with re-
flections on the African Institution and Slave
Registry Bill. By a British Planter [of Jamaica ]
[London] 1816.
III. An address to the Right Hon. Geo.
Canning on the Present State of this Island
[Jamaica] and other matters. By Dennis Reid
of the Parish of Westmoreland. 8vo. ; Jamaica,
IV. The Rev. Mr. Cooper and his Calumnies
against Jamaica, particularly his late Pamphlet
in reply to Facts Verified on Oath. By a West
Indian. 8vo.; Jamaica, 1825.
V. Facts verified upon oath in contradiction of
the Report of the Rev. Thomas Cooper, concern-
ing the general condition of the Slaves in Ja-
maica ; and more especially relative to the
management and treatment of the slaves upon
Georgia Estate in the Parish of Hanover, in that
Island. [By R. flibbert.] 8vo.; London, 1821.
VI. An Appeal to the Christian Philanthropy
of the People of Great Britain and Ireland, in
behalf of the Religious Instruction and Con-
version of three hundred thousand Negro
Slaves. By the Rev. J. M. Trew, Rector of the
Parish of St. Thomas in the East, in the Island
of Jamaica. 8vo.; London, 1826.
VII. Notes in Defence of the Colonies, on the
increase and decrease of the Slave population of
the British West Indies. By a West-Indian.
8vo.; Jamaica, 1826. [1 c.]
[Parliamentary] Papers relative to
the affairs of the Island of Jamaica presented to
both Houses of Parliament August 10, 1854.
folio ; London, 1854 [3 d.]
-- -- -- Papers relative to the
West Indies, 1840 and '41. Pts. 1 and 2, Jamaica.
2 vols. folio ; London, 1840-41. [3 d ]
-- A Reply to the Speech of Dr.
Lushington in the House of Commons, on the
12th June, 1827, on the condition of the Free-
coloured people of Jamaica. 8vo.; London, 1828.
[l c.]
R- report of the Commissioners ap-
pointed under the 3rd Victoria, chapter 62, to
ascertain and report what Laws of this Island
it would be expedient to repeal, amend and con-
solidate. folio ; Spanish Town, Jar aica, 1842.
[4 j.]
Reports on the Intended Light-
House at Morant Point. Submitted to the
IHonble. the Commissioners for erecting the same.
By Alexander Gordon, Civil Engineer, London.
8vo.; Jamaica, 1841. [32 j.] [Pamph.]
Slave Law of, with Proceedings and
Documents relative thereto. 8vo.; London, 1828.
[1 c.]
---. The Speech of Mr. Sergeant
Merewether at the Bar of the House of
Commons, against the Bill intituled An
Act to make temporary provision for the
Government of. Tuesday, 23rd April, 1839.
8vo. ; London, 1339. [1 c.]
Kingston Public Hospital. Report and Examina.
tions, also the Remarks in the Visitors' Book,
and the proceedings at the respective Meetings
of the Board of Visitors of the Public Hospital,
with copies of the correspondence which have
arisen out of such proceedings, &c. &c., laid before
the Committee appointed to visit and inspect the
Buildings and Premises of the Public Hospital of
Kingston. folio ; [Kingston] 1864. F4 j.]
[Labatt, Philip Cohen], Posthumous Writings of:
(Title page missing.) 8vo.; Kingston, Ja., 1855.
[1 c.]

Leon, Emi. X. P.M., P.P.Z. The History ot
the RoyalLodge No. 207, Dist. No. 1. Kingston,
Jamaica. Constituted on the 3rd September,
1789, No. 699, by the Grand Lodge of Ireland;
reconstituted on the 10th May, 1794, No. 283, by
the Grand Lodge of the "'Ancient" Freemasons
of England. 8vo.; Jamaica, 1894. [32 j.J
[Leslie, Charles.] A New History of Jamaica from
the Earliest Accounts to the Taking of Porto
Bello by Vice-Admiral Vernon. 8vo. ; London,
1740. [1 b.]
--- A New and Exact Account of Jamaica
wherein the antient and present state of that
Colony, its Importance to Great Britain, Laws,
Trade, Manners and Religion, together with the
most remarkable and curious Animals, Plants,
Trees, &c., are described: With a particular ac-
count of the Sacrifices, Libations, &c., at this day
in use among the Negroes. 3rd ed. To which is
added an appendix, containing an account of
Admiral Vernon's success at Porto Bello and
Chagre. 8vo.; Edinburgh, 1740. L1 c.]
Lynch, Mrs. Henry. Maude Effingham. A Tale
of Jamaica. 6mo. ; London, 1849. [1 e.]
- The Cotton-Tree; or Emily, the Little
West-Indian. A Tale for Young People. 6mo.;
London, 1847. [1 e.]
-- The Mountain Pastor. 6mo.; London,
1852. [1 e.]
McGeachy, Edward. Suggestions towards a gene-
ral plan of Rapid Communication by Steam Navi-
gation and Railways: Shortening the time of
transit between the Eastern and Western Hemis-
pheres. By Edward McGeachy, Crown Surveyor,
Jamaica. Illustrated with Maps. 8vo.; London,
1846. [1 b.]
Marsh, Florence L. What I have seen in Jamaica.
A Lecture delivered in Kingston and other towns
in Jamaica in 1876, after a visit of nineteen
months. Kvo.; Kingston, 1876. [32 j. [Pamph.].
Maunsell, S[amuel E[dward], Brigade-Surgeon.
Medical Staff. Contribution to the Medico-
Military History of Jamaica. A "Retrospect,"
(an expansion of a paper read before the Ja-
maica Branch of the British Medical Associa-
tion, Kingston). folio ; Jamaica, 1891. [1 c.]
Moore, Thomas C., A.S.M., 3rd W.I.R. A Manual
of [Jamaica] Geography compiled for the use of
beginners. 8vo. ; Kingston. 1866. f32 j.]
Negro Education in Jamaica. Report from C. Je
Latrobe on Negro Education in Jamaica, with
Correspondence relating thereto. (Parliamentary
Report.) folio; London, 1838. [4 j.J
Ogle, Sir Chaloner, Knt. The Tryal of: 8vo.;
Spanish Towna, Ja., 1742. [1 c.]
---- A True and genuine Copy of the Trial of Sir
Chaloner Ogle, Knt., Rear Admiral of the Blue,
before the Chief Justice of Jamaica for an as-
sault on the person of His Excellency Edward
Trelawny, Esq., Captain-General, General and
Commander in Chief of the said Island. Now
published in order to correct the errors, and sup-
ply the defects of aThing lately published called
The Trial of Sir Chaloner Ogle, Knt., &c. 8vo.;
London, 1743. [1 c.]
Parkhurst, V. P. Picturesque Jamaica: in ten parts
[5 only published.] 4to.; Kiniqston, Ja., 1887.
[1 c.]
Ray, John, F.R.S. Three Physico-Theological Dis-
courses, concerning, I. The Primitive Chaos, and
Creation of the World. II. The General Deluge,
its causes and effects. III. The Dissolution of
the World, and future Conflagration. Wherein


are largely discussed the production and use of
Mountains; the original of Fountains, of formed
stones, and Sea-Fishes, Bones and Shells found in
the Earth ; the effects of particular Floods and
Inundations of the Sea; the Eruptions of Vulca-
io's; the Nature and Causes of Earthquakes:
With an Historical Account of those two late Re-
markable ones in Jamaica and England. With
practical Inferences. 2nd ed. corrected, very
much enlarged, and illustrated with copper-
plates. 8vo.; London, 1693. [1 c.]
Rippingham, John. Jamaica Considered in its
Present State, Political, Financial, and Philoso-
phical. 8vo.; Kingston, Ja., 1817. [1 c.]
Robson, George, D.D. The Story of our Jamaica
Mission with sketch of our Trinidad Mission.
(Missions of the United Presbyterian Church.)
r8o.; Edinburgh, 1894. [1 c.]
Roby, John. The History of the Parish of St.
James. in Jamaica, to the year 1740; with notes
on the General History, Genealogy, and Monu-
mental Inscriptions of the Island. 8vo.; King-
ston, Ja., 1849. L1 d.]
--- The History of the Parish of St. James,
in Jamaica, with notes on the General History,
Genealogy and Monumnntal Inscriptions of the
Island. l'art I. [ Vith mns. notes by the author.]
8vo.; Jamaica, 1848. [1 d. I
[Russell, Thomas.] The Etymology of Jamaica
Grammar. By a Young Gentleman. 8vo.; King-
ston, Ja., 1868. [32 j.1
Samuel, Lionel L. The Justice's Pocket Guide, a
handy book of Reference for Justices of the
Peace. 8vo.; Kingston, Ja.., 1894. [1 b.]
Samuel, Rev. Peter. The Wesleyan.Methodist Mis-
sions in Jamaica and Honduras delineated, con-
taining a description of the Principal Stations.
Together with a consecutive account of the Rise
and Progress of the Work of God at each. Illus-
trated by a Map and 33 Lithographic Views exe-
cuted from Drawings taken on the spot. By the
Rev. Peter Samuel, twelve years a Missionary in
Jamaica. 8vo.: London, 1850. [1 c.]
[Scott, Michael.] The Cruise of the Midge. By
the authorof'Tom Cringle's Log.' 2 vols. 8vo.;
Edinbu.rgh and London, 183 [1 c.]
[Spencer], Aubrey Georga. A Chargd delivered at
the primary visitation of the Clergy of the Arch-
deaconry of Jamaica in the Cathedral Church of
St. Jago de la Vega, 12th Dec. 1841, by Aubrey
Georve, Lord Bishop of Jamaica. 8vo.; Janmai-
ca, 1845. [32 j.]
Williamson, John, M.D. Medical and Miscella-
neous Observations relative to the West India
Islands. 2 vols. 8vo.: Edinburgh and London,
1817. [1 e.]

Adderley, Sir Augustus, K.C.M.G. A Romance of
a Governorship and its Refutation. 8vo. ; Lon-
don, 1894. [32 j.]
Alvarez de Abreu, Antonio Joseph. Victim real
legal, discurso unico juridico-historico-politico
sobre que las vacantes majors y menores de las
Iglesias de las Indias Occidentales pertenecon &,
la Corona de Castilla y Leon con pleno y absolute
Dominio. segunda ediccion corrigida y
augmentada por el mismo Autor, que dl mieva-
mente a luz el Actual Marquis su hijo. 4to;
Madrid, 1769. [3 c.]
America, An Act for encouraging the Growth of
Coffee in His Majesty's Plantations in : 4to.;
London, 1732. [3 b.]
American Traveller, The. Being a new Historical
Collection, carefully compiled from original Me-

moirs in several languages, and the most authen-
tick Voyages and Travels. Containing a com-
pleat account of that part of the world, now
called the West.Indies, from its discovery by
Columbus to the present time. To which is pre-
fixed an Introduction, showing the rise, progress,
and improvement of navigation, the use and pro-
perties of the Loadstone, and an enquiry con-
cerning the first inhabitants of America. With
an account of Admiral Vernon's taking Porto
Bello, Fort Chagre, and Carthagena, as also of
the damages done on each side, and the number
of British ships taken by the Spaniards, and
Spanish ships taken by the English since the
commencement of the war. Illustrated with the
Heads of the most eminent Admirals, Command-
ers, and Travellers, neatly engraved. 8vo.; Lon-
don, 1745. [2 a.]
Barclay, Alexander. A Practical View of the Pre-
sent State of Slavery in the West Indies. *
2nd ed. 8vo.; London, 1827. [2 b.J
Benzoni, Girolamo. History of the New World,
Shewing his Travels in America, from A.D. 1541
to 1556: with some particulars of the Island of
Canary. Now first translated, and edited by
Rear-Admiral W. Sm) th, K.S.F., D.C.L. 8vo.;
Lindon, 1857. [2 g.]
rBlome, Richard]. The Present State of His Ma
jetes Isles and Territories in America, viz': Ja-
maica, Barbadoes, St. Christopher's, NeN is, Ante-
go, St. Vincent, Dominica, New Jersey, I'ensilva-
nia. Monserat, Anguilla, BTrmudas, Carolina,
Virginia, New-England. Tobago, Now-found-
land, Mary-land, New-York. With new maps of
every place, together with Astronomical Tables.
which will serve as a constant Diary or Calendar,
for the use of the English inhabitants in those
Islands; from the year 1686 to 1700. Also a
table by which, at any time of the day or night
here in England, you may know what hour it
is in any of those parts And how to make sun-
dials fitting for all those places. Licens'd July
20, 1686. Roger L'Estrange. 8vo. ; London,
1687. [23 a.]
Borde, Pierre Gustav Louis. Histoire de L'lle de
La Trinidad sous le Gouvernement Espagnol.
2 vols. Paris, 1876-1882. [3 c.]
Brett. Rev. W. H. The Indian Tribes of Guiana;
their Condition and Habits. With researches
into their past History, Superstitions, Legends,
Antiquities, Languages, &c. [Illustrated.] 8vo.;
London., 1868. [3 c.]
Legends and Myths of the Aboriginal
Indians of British Guiana. 8vo.; London, n.d.
[3 b.]
Brinton, D. G., M.D. The Arawack Language of
Guiana in its linguistic and ethnological rela-
tions. 4to.; Philadelphia, 1871. [3 c.]
Burnley, William Hardin. Observations on the
present condition of the Island of Trinidad, and
the actual state of the experiment ofnegro eman-
cipation. 8vo. ; London, 1842. [3 b.]
Charlevoix, Pierre Frangois Zavier de. Iistoire
de L'Isle Espagnole ou de S. Domingue. Ecrite
particulierement sur des Memoires manuscrits du
P. Jean-Baptiste le Pers, Jesuite, Missionnaire A
Saint Domingue et sur les Pieces originales, qui
se conservent au D6pht de la Marine. 2 vols.
4to.; Paris, 1731. [3 c.J
Cockburn, John. The Unfortunate Englishmen: or
a faithful narrative of the Distress and Adven-
ture of John Cockburn, and five other English
Mariners, viz: Thomas Bounce, John Holland,
Richard Banister, John Balman, and Thomas
Robinson, who were taken by a Spanish Guarda
Costa, in the John and Anne, Edward Burt


Master, and set ashore at a place called Porto-
Cavallo, naked and wounded. Containing a
journey over land from the Gulph of Honduras
to the Great South Sea, wherein is some new and
very useful discoveries of the Island of those
almost unknown parts of America. As also an
account of the Manners, Customs and Behaviour
of the several Indians inhabiting a Tract of
Land of 2,400 miles; particularly of their Dispo-
sitions towards the Spaniards and English. 3rd
ed. Gmo.; London, 1773. [2 a.]
[Coleridge, Henry Nelson.] Six months in the
West Indies in 1825. 8vo. ; London, 1826.
[2 a.]
Collens, J. H. A Guide to Trinidad. A Handbook
for the use of Tourists and Visitors. 2nd ed. re-
vised and illustrated. 8vo.; London, 1888.
[3 b.]
De Laet, Joannes. Beschryvinghe van West-Indien.
Tweede druck. In ontallijcke plaetsen verbotert,
vermeerdert, met eenige nieuwe Caerten, beelden
van verscheyden dieren ended planten verciert.
4to.; Leyden, 1630. [3 b.]
Dominica, Report of the Royal Commission (ap-
pointed in September 1893) to inquire into
the Condition and Affairs of the Island of:
And correspondence relating thereto. Presented
to Parliament, August 1891. folio; London,
'Edinburgh and Dublin, 1894. [3 d.]
Edwards, Bryan. An Historical Survey of the
Island of Saint Domingo, together with an ac-
count of the Maroon Negroes in the Island ofJa-
maica; and a history of the War in the West
Indies in 1793 and 1794. Also a tour through
the several Islands of Barbadoes, St. Vincent,
Antigua, Tobago, and Grenada, in the years
1791 and 1792. By Sir William Young, Bart.
Illustrated with copperplates. 4to.; London,
1801. [3 c.J
SGeschichte des Revolutionskriegs in
Sanct Domingo. 8vo. [2 vols. bound in one.]
Leipzig, 1798. [3 a.]
Hi-toire de L'Ile Saint Domingue, ex-
traite de L'Histoire Civile et Commerciale dos
Antilles, et continue jusqu'aux derniers 6v6ne-
mens. Contenant de nombreux details sur ce
qui s'est pass dans cette important colonies,
pendant la Revolution. Traduite de L'Anglaip,
par J. B. J. Breton, auteur du Voyage dans la
BAlgique. Orn6e d'une carte de Saint Domingue.
8vo.; Paris and Amsterdam. An. XI=1802.
[3 a.]
-- The History Civil and Commercial of
the British Colonies in the West Indies. 2nd ed.
Illustrated with Maps. 2 vols. 4to.; London,
1794. [3 a.]
-- The History Civil and Commercial of
the British Colonies in the West Indies. To
which is added an Historical Survey of the
French Colony in the Island of St. Domingo.
Abridged from the History written by Bryan
Edwards. Illustrated with a map. 8vo.; Lon-
don, 1799. [3 a.]
Emerson, R[alph] W[aldo]. The Emancipation of
the Negroes in the British West Indies. An Ad-
dress delivered at Concord, Massachusetts, on 1st
August, 1844. 8vo.; London, 1844. [2 g.]
English Pilot, The. The fourth Book describing
the West India Navigation, from Hudson's Bay
to the River Amazones. Particularly delineating
the Sea Coasts, Capes, Headlands, Rivers, Bays,
Roads, Havens, Harbours, Straights, Rocks, Sands,
Shoals, Banks, Depths of Water, and Anchorave,
with all the Islands therein, as Jamaica, Cuba,

IIispaniola, Barbadoes, Antigua, Bermudas, Porto
Rico, and the rest of the Caribbee and Bahama
Islands. Al o a new Description of Newfound-
land, New England, New York, East and West
New Jersey, Dellawar Bay, Virginia, Maryland,
Carolina, &c., brewing the courses and distances
from one place to another; the ebbing and flow-
ing of the Sea, the setting of the Tides and Cur-
rents, &c. With many other things necessary to
be known in navigation. The whole being much
enlarged and corrected, with the additions of
several new Charts and descriptions. By the in-
formation of divers able Navigators of our own
and other Nations. folio; London,1778. [14a.]
Flinter, Colonel. An Account of the present state of
the Island of Puerto Rico. Comprising numer-
ous original facts and documents illustrative of

the state of commerce and agriculture, and of the
condition, moral and physical, of the various
classes of the population in that Island, as com-
pared with the Colonies of other European
Powers; demonstrating the superiority of the
Spanish Slave Code-the great ,I ,Mfn. r
Free over Slave Labour, &c. 8vo.; L. ..'. ., l1- l,
[3 c.]
Ford, Isaac N. Tropical America. Illustrated. 8vo.;
London, 1893. [3 b.]
Franklin, James. The Present State ofHayti(Saint
Domingo),with remarks on its Agriculture, Com-
merce, Laws, Religion, Finances and Population,
&c. 8vo.; London, 1828. [3 b.]
Glover, Mr. The Evidence delivered on the peti-
tion presented by the West India Planters and
Merchants to the lion. House of Commons, as it
was introduced at the Bar, and summ'd up by Mr.
Clover. [1775.] 8vo. [3 b.]
Hay, John. A Narrative of the Insurrection in the
Island of Grenada which took place in 1795.
With an Introduction by a Military man, resi-
dent for nearly 80 years in the West Indies. 8vo.;
London, 1823. [3 c.]
Hillary, William, M.D. Observations on the Changes
of the Air, and the concomitant epidemical Di-
seases in the Island of Barbadoes. To which is
added, a Treatise on the Putrid Bilious Fever
commonly called the Yellow Fever; and such
other diseases as are indigenous or endemial, in
the West India Islands, or in the Torrid Zone.
With Notes by Benjamin Rush, M.D. 8vo.;
Philadelphia, 1811. [2 h.]
Hovey, Sylvester. Letters from the West Indies:
relating especially to the Danish Island St.
Croix, and to the British Islands Antigua, Bar-
badoes and Jamaica. 8vo.; New York, 1838.
[2 h.]
Humboldt, Alexander von. The Island of Cuba.
Translated from the Spanish, with notes and apre-
liminary Essay by J. S. Thrasher. 8vo.; London,
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Iles, John Alexander Burke. An Account Des-
criptive of the Island of Nevis, West Indies.
[With map.] 4 to.; Norwich. [1871.] [3 b.]
Johnson, Charles W. List of the Diptera of Ja-
maica, with descriptions of new species. 8vo.;
[Philadelphia] 1894. [32 j.]
Kirke, Vernon. "Zorg." A Story of British Gui-
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Lavayss6, J. J. Daurion. Beise nach dem Inseln
Trinidad. Tobago and Margaretha; so wie in
verschiedene Theile von Venezuela in Sud-
America. Von .1. J. Daurion Lavayss6 in das
Deutsche fibersetzt und mit Noten begleitet von
E. A. W. von Zimmermann. Mit einer Charte.
(Neue Bibliothek der Wichtigsen Reisebeschreib-
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Lynch, Mrs. Henry. The Wonders of the West In-
dies. 8vo.; London, 1856. [2 a.1
M'Donnell, Alexander. Consideration on Negro
Slavery, with Authentic Reports illustrative of
the actual condition of the Negroes in Demerara.
Also, an examination into the propriety and effi-
cacy of the regulations contained in the late
Order in Council now in operation in Trinidad.
To which arn added, suggestions on the proper
mode of ameliorating the condition of the Slaves.
8vo.; London, 1824. [2 a.]
McKenzie, Charles, F.R.S., F.L.S. Notes on Haiti
made during a residence in that Republic. 2 vols.
8vo.; London, 1830. [3 c.]
Madeira and the West Indies, The Travellers'
Guide to: Being a Hieroglyphic Representation
of appearances and incidents during a voyage out
and homewards, in a series of engravings from
original drawings taken on the spot A
short account of the most interesting of the
West India Islands together with remarks on
their climates to which are added occa-
sional notes, &c., by a young traveller o.
Iladdingtonl [1815]. [3 b.]
Marryat, Joseph, M.P. More thoughts still on the
state of the West India Colonies, and the proceed-
ings of the African Institution: with observations
on the Speech of.Tames Stephen, Esq., at the An-
nual AMe ting of that Society, held on the 26th
March, 1817. 8vo.; London, 1818. [3 b.]
Maycock, James Dottin, M.D., F.L.S. Flora Bar.
badensis: a Catalogue of Plants indigenous, na-
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8vo.: London. 1830. [3 b.]
Nau, Baron Emile. Histoire des Caciques d'Haiti.
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Islands. I. I'opy of a Report from C. J. La-
trobe to Lord Glenelg on Negro Education in
the Windward and Leeward Islands. II. Sched-
ule, showing the Appropriation, in detail, of the
sum of 30,000 voted by Parliament in 1837 for
the Promotion of Negro Education; also the
amount of Aid out of such Grant applied for by
the different Societies co-operating with Her
Majesty's Government in carrying that object in-
to effect. III. Report of the Trustees of Lady
Mico's Charity. folio; London, 1838. [4 j.]
Ober, Frederick A. Aborigines of the West In-
dies. (From proceedings of the American Anti-
quarian Society, at the Semi-annual Meeting,
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the Committee of Secrecy, appointed to enquire
into the conduct of Robert, Earl of Orford, dur-
ing the last ten years of his being First Commis-
sioner of the Treasury, and Chancellor and Un-
der-Treasurer of His Majesty's Exchequer. De-
livered 30th June, 1742. 8vo.; London, 1742.
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Poey, Don Felipe. Enumeratio Piscium Cubensium.
(Anal. de la Soc. Esp. de Hist. Nat. Tom. IV.
1875). [32 k.1
Porteus, Beilby, D.D., Bishop of London. A Letter
to the Governors, Legislatures, and Proprietors of
Plantations, in the British West India Islands.
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St. Domingo, History of the Island of: From its
first discovery by Columbus to the present pe-
riod. 8vo.; Londun, 1818. [3 b.]

Shephard, Charles. An Historical Account of the
Island of St. Vincent. 8vo.; London, Livepool
and Glasgow, 1831. [3 b.]
-- The Colonial Practice of St. Vin-
cent, containing an abstract of the Court
Acts, and the Rules of the several Courts in the
Island; also observations on the common as-
surances in general use in the West Indies. With
an appendix of precedents. 8vo.: London, 1822.
[3 a.]
Spanish America, A Concise History of the:
Containing a succinct Relation of the Discovery
and Settlement of its several Colonies: a Circum-
stantial Detail of their respective Situation, Fx-
tent, Commodities, Trades, &c., and a full and
clear Account of the Commerce with Old Spain

by the Galleons, Flota. &c., as also of the Contra-
band Trade with the English, Dutch, French,
Danes and Portuguese. Together with an appen-
dix, in which is comprehended an exact descrip-
tion of Paraguay. Collected chiefly from Span-
ish writers. 8vo.; London, 1741. [2 a.]
State Paper s, Calendar of: Colonial Series. A meri-
ca and West Indies 1669-1674. Preserved in Her
Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited by W.
Noel Sainsbury. 8 o.; London, Edinburgh and
Dublin, 1889. [4 i.]
- 1675-1676. Also Addenda 1574-1674,
preserved in the Public Record Office. Edited
by W. Noel Sainsbury, late an Assistant Keeper
of the Public Records Under the direction
of the Master of the Rolls, and with the sanction
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James Anthony Froude. 8vo. ; London, 1889.
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Wafer, Lionel. A new Voyage and Description of
the Isthmus of America, giving an account of the
Author's abode there, the forms and make of the
Country, the Coasts, Hills, Rivers, &c., Woods.
Soil, Weather, &c., Trees. Fruit, Beasts, Birds,
Fish,&c. The Indian Inhabitants, their features,
complexion, &c., their manners, customs, employ-
ments, marriages, feasts, hunting, computation.
language, &c. With remarkable occurrences in
the South Sea and elsewhere. 2nd ed. To
which are added the Natural History ot those
parts, by a Fellow of the Royal Society: and
Davis's Expedition to the Gold Mines in 1702.
Illustrated with several copper-plates. 8vo.;
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Walker, James. Letters on the West Indies. 8vo.;
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Waller, John Augustine, Surgeon R.N. A Voyage
in the West Indies: containing various observa-
tions made during a residence in Barbadoes, and
several of the Leeward Islands; with some
notices and illustrations relative to the City of
Paramarabo, in Surinam. With engravings.
8vo.; London, 1820. [3 c.]
West India Merchant, The. Being a series of
papers originally printed under that signature in
the London Evening Post. With corrections and
notes by the author. 8vo.; London, 1778.
[3 b.]
-- Sketch Book. 2 vols. 8vo. ; Lon-
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West Indies, A brief and perfect Journal of the
late Proceedings and Successe of the English
Army in the: Continued until June the 24th,
1655, together with some quares inserted and
answered. Published for satisfaction of all such
who desire truly to be informed in these particu-
lars. By I. S,, an Eye-witnesse. 4to. ; London,
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Empire in America: Containing an Historical,
Political, and Commercial view of the English
Settlements; including all the Countries in
North-America, and the West Indies, ceded by
the peace of Paris. 2 vols. 8vo.; London
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Nuttall, Most Rev. Enos, D.D. The Churchman's
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Bartholomew Anglicus. Medieval Lore: An Epi-
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plant Folk-Lore and Myth of the Middle Age;
being classified gleanings from the Encyclopedia
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Benjamin, S. G. W. Persia. (Story of the Nations.)
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James, William. A full and correct account of the
chief Naval occurrences of the late war between
Great Britain and the United States of America;
preceded by a cursory examination of the Ameri-
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Japan, The Climate of: 4to.; Tokin, 1893. [3 d.]7

Lawless, Hon. Emily. Ireland. (Story of the
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Lockyer, J[oseph] Norman. The Dawn of Astro-
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Lucas, C. P., B.A. A Historical Geography of the
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Macaulay, Thomas Babington Lord. The com-
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land. Vols. V.-VI. Critical and Historical
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says, Biographies, Indian Penal Code and Mis-
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The Influence of Sea Power upon
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Masson. Gustave, B.A., Medieval France, from the
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-- --- Chaldea, from the earliest times to
the rise of Assyria. (Treated as a general intro-
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Rawlinson, George, with the collaboration of
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Remington, Cyrus Kingsbury. The Ship-Yard of
the Griffon, a Brigantine built by Rend Robert
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by Views and Maps, Ancient and Modern, to-
gether with the most complete Bibliography of
Hennepin that has ever been made in any one
list, and containing some editions not mentioned
by Sabin and other Authorities. 8vo.; Buffalo,
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Robinson, Comminder Charles N., R.N. The
British Fleet. The Growth, Achievements and
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Salinas, Adolfe Ducl6s. The Riches of Mexico
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Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius, K.C.M.G. New Zealand:
Its Past, Present and Future. A Paper read at
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Berndldez, Andr6s. Historia de los Reyes Cat6li-
cos D. Fernando y Dofia Isabel, escrita por el
Bachiller Andrds Berunldez, cura quoe fu de la
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Blinde, Mathilde. [Life of] Madame Roland. (Emi-
nent WomenSeribs). 8vo.; London, 1883. [20 d.1
Burton, Isabel. The Life of Captain Sir Richard
F. Burton, K.C.M.G., F.1R.G.S. With numerous
portraits, illustrations and maps. 2 vols. 8vo.;
London, 1893. [21 d.]
Clarke, Eliza. [Life of] Susanna Wesley. (Emi-
nent Women Series). 2nd ed. 8vo. ; London and
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Curtis, WilliamEleroy. The Relies of Columbus.
An Illustrated Description of the Historical cjol-
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of La Rabida-World Columbian Exposition.)
8vo.; Wlashington [1893.] [21 e.]
Dallas, R[obert] C[harles]. Recollections of the Life
of Lord Byron, from the year 1808 to the end of
1814 ; exhibiting his early character and opinions,
detailing the progress of his literary career, and
including various unpublished passages of his
works. Taken from authentic Documents in the
pu.aession of the Author. To which is prefixed
an account of the circumstances leading to
the suppression of Lord Byron's correspondence
with the author, and his letters to his mother,
lately announced for publication. 8vo.; London,
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Dickey, J. M. Christopher Columbus and his Monu-
ment Columbia; being a Concordance of choice
tributes to the Great Genoese, his grand dis-
covery, and his greatness of mind and purpose.
The testimony of ancient Authors, the tributes
of Modern Men. Adorned with the sculptures,
scenes, and portraits of the Old World and the
New. 8vo.; Chicago and Newv York, 1892. [21 i.]
Drew, Samuel. The Life of the RIv. Thomas Coke,
LL.D, including in detail his various travels
and extraordinary Missionary exertions in Eng-
land, Ireland, America, and the West-Indies:
With an account of his Death, on the 3rd of May
1814, while on a Missionary voyage to the Island
of Ceylon, in the East-Indies Interspersed with
numerous reflections; and concluding with an
abstract of his writings and character. 8vo.;
London, 1817. [20 b.]
Etheridge, J.W., M.A. The Life of the Rev. Thomas
Coke, D.C.L. With a portrait. 8vo. ; London,
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Evelyn, John, F.R.S., Diary of: To which are
added a selection from his familiar letters and
the private correspondence between King Charles
I. and Sir Edward Nicholas and between Sir
Edward Hyde (afterwards Earl of Clarendon) and
Sir Richard Browne. Edited from the original
MSS. by Wm Bray, F.S A. A new edition with
a life of the author: by Henry B. Wheatley,
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Hamilton. J. A. Life of Daniel O'Connell. (States-
men Series.) 8vo.; London, 1888. [20 d.]
Ingram, John H. [Life of] Elizabeth Barrett
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Leyva y Aguilera, Herminio C. Primer Viaje de
Colon: Ettudio acerca del primer puerto visitado
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Major, Richard Henry. The Discoveries of Prince
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[20 d.]
Malleson, Colonel G. B., C.S.I. Life of Prince
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[Bound with the above] Mozart, by Dr. F.
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Roby of Castle Donington, Co. Leicester. Pedi-
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iManchester, 1889. [21 b.]_
Sanders, Lloyd C. Life of Viscount Palmerston.
(Statesmen Series). 8vo. ; London, 1888. [20 d.]
Scott, Sir Walter, Familiar Letters of: 2 vols.
8vo.; Edinburgh, 1894. [21 d.]
Seacole, Mrs. [Mary]. Wonderful Adventures of
Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands. Edited by W. .. S.
with an Introductory Preface by W. H. Russell,
8vo.; London, 1857. [20 h.]
Searight, William. In Memoriam. 8vo.-; [Rich-
mond, Indiana.] n.d. [1893 ?] [21 a.J
Thomas, Bertha. [Life of] George Sand. (Emi-
nent Women Series). new ed. London, 1890.
[20 d.


Trotter, Captain L. I. Life of the Marquis of
Dalhousie. (Statesmen Series). 8vo. ; London,
1889. [20 d.]
Wakeman, Henry Offley, M.A. Life of Charles
James Fox. (Statesmen Series). 8vo.; London,
1890. [20 d.]
Winsor, Justin. Christopher Columbus and how
he received and imparted the spirit of Dis-
covery. [with illustrations.] 8vo. ; London,
[1890.] [L2 e.]
Wolseley, General Viscount, K.P. The Life of John
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough : to the accession
of Queen Anne, 2nd ed. 2 vols. [illustrated.]
London, 1894. [20 i.]
Woolward, Robert. Nigh on Sixty Years at Sea.
With portrait. 8vo. ; London, [1894.] [21 c.]
Wraxall, Sir N[athaniel W[illiam]. Posthumous
Memoirs of His own Time. 2nd ed. 3 vols. 8vo.;
London, 1836. [15 e.]
Zimmern, Helen. [Life of] Maria Edgeworth.
(Eminent Women Series). Svo. London, 18,3.
[20 d.J

[Beckford, William.] Italy; with Sketches of
Spain and Portugal. By the author of "Vathek.'
2 vols. (bound in one). 8vo., London, 1834.
[13 f.]
-- -- Recollections of an Excursion to the
Monasteries of Alcobaca and Batalha. By the
Author of "Vathek." [Portrait.] 8vo; London,
1835. [13 f.]
Bligh, Lieut. William. A Voyage to the South Sea
undertaken by command of His Majesty for the
purpose of conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree to the
West Indies in His Majesty's Ship the Bounty,
commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh in-
cluding an account of the Mutiny on Board the
said ship and the subsequent Voyage of part of
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the Friendly Islands to Timor, a Dutch Settle-
ment in the East Indies. The whole illustrated
with charts, Ac. Published by permission of the
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. [Por-
trait.] 4to.; London, 1792. [13 d.]
British Columbia Its present resources and
future possibilities. A Brief Attempt to De-
monstrate the value of the Province. Published
by direction of the Provincial Government. 8vo.;
Victoria, B.C., 1893. [37 b.]
Brydone, P[atrick], F.R.S. A Tour through Sicily
and Malta, in a series of letters to William
Beckford, Esq., of Somerly in Suffolk. 2 vols.
8vo. ; London, 1773. [24 a.]
Burton, Captain Sir Richard F., K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S.
First Footsteps in East Africa, or an Explo-
ration of Harar. Edited by his wife Isabel
Burton. Memorial Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. ; London,
1894. [24 f.]
Cooper, J. Fenimore. A Residence in France
with an Excursion up the Rhine, and a second
Visit to Switzerland. 2 vols. 8vo.; London. 1836.
[21 a.]
Cubas, Antonio Garcia, C.E. Mexico, Its Trade,
Industries and Resources. Translated by William
Thompson, assisted by Charles B. Cleveland.
8vo.; Mexico, 1893. [37 c.]
Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Blackwood,
Marquis of. Letters from High Latitudes; being
some account of a voyage in the schooner yacht
"Foam," 85 O.M, to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and

Rpithn-r'en in 1856. [illustrated.] 3rd ed. 8vo.;
./ ,.'.' 1 .17. [24 g.]
Dunmore, Charles Adolphus Murray, Earl of
F.R.G.S. The Pamirs; being a narrative of a
year's expedition on horse back and on foot
through Kashmir, Western Tibet, Chinese Tar-
tary, and Russian Central Asia. With maps and
illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1893. [24 j.]
Ellis, Lieut.-Col. A[lfred] B[urdon] A History of
the Gold Coast of West Africa. 8vo. ; London.
1893. [2t 1.]
The Ewe-Speaking Peoples of the
Slave Coast of West Africa, their Religion,
Manners, Customs, Laws, Languages, &c. 8vo.;
London, 1890. [24 e.]
James, Bushrod W., A.M.,M.D. AmericanResorts;
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tion from the German, by Mr. S. Kauffmann, of
those chapters of "Die Klimate der Erde"
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18. [Vol. 18 is Historical Sketch of the Progress
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Jdinburgh, 1811-1824. [13 e.J
Lorne, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell,
Marquis of, K. T. Canadian Pictures. Drawn
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trations from objects and photographs in the
possession of, and sketches by the Marquis of
Lorne, Sydney Hall,- &c. Engraved by Edward
Whymper, 4to.; London, n.d. [13 h.]
Maundevile, Sir John, Kt. The Voiage and Travaile
of Sir John Maundevile, Kt., which treateth of
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Inde, with other Hands and Countryes. Re-
printed from the edition of A.D. 1725. With an
introduction, additional notes, and glossary by
J. O. Halliwell, F.S A., F.R.A.S. 8vo.; London,
1866. [reprint of the ed. of 1839.] [24 a.]
Nelson, Wolfred. Five Years at Panama. The
Trans-Isthmian Canal. 8vo.; New York, [18S9J.
[13 h,]
Philadelphia, City of. As it appears in the-year
1893: A compilation of facts for the information
of Business Men, Travelers, and the World at
large. 1st ed. Prepared under the auspices of
the Trades League of Philadelphia. Illustrated.
4to.: Philadelphia, 1893. [37 f.]
Rampini, Charles; Advocate, F.S.A., Scot. Shet-
land and the Shetlanders. Two Lectures de-
livered before the Philosophical Institution,
Edinburgh, 1884. With additions, notes, and
appendices. 8vo ; Kirkwall, London, Edinburgh,
1884. [24 a.].
Rogers, Thos. L: Mexico? Si, Seior. 8vo.; Boston,
[U.S.A.] 1893. [37 d.J
Sitgreaves, Capt. L. Report of an Expedition down
the Zuni and Colorado Rivers. Accompanied by
maps, sketches, views and illustrations. 8vo.;
Washington, 1853. [13 b.]


IV. a.-LAW.

Pyke, Vincent. The Land-Laws of New Zealand as
enacted by the Land Act, 1892." 8vo.; Wel-
lington, 1o93. [37 b.]

Colonial Service, Rules and Regulations for Her
Majesty's. 8vo.; London, 1856. [7 m.]
Legion. A Second Letter from : to His Grace the
Duke of Richmond, &c., Chairman of the
Slavery Committee of the House of Lords: Con-
taining an analysis of the Anti Slavery Evidence
produced before the Committee. 8vo.; London,
1833. [35 g.]
Curzon, Hon. George N[athaniel], M.P. Problems
of the Far East: Japan, Korea, China. [Maps and
illustrations.] 2nd ed. 8vo.; London, 1891.
[24 b.]
Harvey, Rev. M. Where are We and Whither Tend-
ing? Three Lectures on the Reality and Worth
of Human Progress. 8vo.; Boston, U.S.A.,
1886. [5 h.1
Musgrave, Sir Anthony, K.C.M.G. Studies in Po-
litical Economy. I. Introduction. II. A Plea
for some Facts, 1874. III -Money-a Function,
1874. IV. A Review of Mr. Mill's Fundamental
Propositions respecting Capital, 1874. V. Some
Thoughts on Value, 1874. VI On International
Trade, 1874. VII. On Foreign Exchanges and
Distributionofthe Pre ious Metals. VIII. What
isCapital? 1874. IX. Economic Fallacies. Free
Trade and Protection, 1875. X. Economic Fal-
lacies. The Functions of Money, 1885. XI. The
Functions of Money: Bi-metallism, 1886. [Ii
pamphlets bound in one.] 8vo.; Adelaide and
London, 1874-1886. [35 e.]
Spencer, Herbert. The Study of Sociology. Li-
brary edition (being the 9th). With a Post-
script. 8vo ; London and Edinburgh, 1880.
[5 h.]

American Patent System, Celebration of the
Beginning of the Second Century ofthe. At
Washington City. D.C.. April 8, 9,10, 1891. (Pro.
ceedings and Addresses.) Published by the Ex-
ecutive Committee. 8vo.; IWashington 1892.
[32 k ]
Coghlan, T. A., A.M. Inst. C.E. A Statistical Ac-
count of the Seven Colonies of Australasia.
With map and Diagrams. 8vo.; Sydney, 1894.
[35 h.]
The Wealth and Progress of New
South Wales, 1892. Sixth issue. 8vo.; ,ydney,
1893. [35 h.]
Gibbins, H. De B., M.A. British Commerce and
Colonies from Elizabeth to Victoria. 8vo.;
London, 1893. [35 f.]
Imperial Institute, Annual Report for 1893.
8vo.; London. 1893. [32 j.]
Series. Handbooks of Commercial Pro-
ducts. Indian Section :-I. Padauk Wood II.
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India (Dalbergia Latifolia ) 29 pamph. 8vo.:
Calcutta, 1892-93. [37 b.]
Japan, General View of Commerce and Industry
in the Empire of. Published by the Bureau of
Commerce and Industry, Department of Agri-
culture and Commerce, Japan 8vo.; Tokyo,
1893. [37 d. I
Mexico. Estados unidos Mexicanos Secretaria de
formento, Colonizaci6n a Industria. Seccion 2a.
Dates Mercantiles compilados por Ricardo de
Maria y Campos. Nvo.; lMexico, 1892. 137 d.]

Minneapolis, Tenth Annual Report of the Trade
and Commerce of, for 1892. 8vo. [37 c.]
Perceval, Westby Brook. Farming and Labour in
New Zealand. 8vo.; [London] n.d. [37 b.]
Tsunashiro. Wada. The Mining Industry of Japan
during the last 25 years. 1867-1892. 4to.; Tokyo,
S1893. [37 d.]
Vera Cruz. Materials of Construction of the Ve-
getable and Mineral Kingdom of the State
of: and particularly the County of Cordoba.
8vo.; Mexico, 1893. [37 d.]
Wolff, Henry W. Agricultural Banks: Their Ob-
ject and their Work. 8vo.; London, 1894.
[35 d.]
Wyckoff, Wm. C. The Silk Goods of America: A
Brief Account of the Recent Improvements and
Advances of Silk Manufacture in the United
States. (Published under the auspices of the
Silk Association of America.) 8vo. 1879. [35 f.]


Cambridge University Calendar, 1893-94, and
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[30 f.]
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1893-94. 2 vols. Svo.; Edinburgh, 1893. [300.]
London University Calendar, 1893-94. 8vo.;
London, Edinburgh and Dublin, 1893. [30 k.]
MacLeod, Alexander. A New Mode of Conduct-
ing Agricultural Schools. Or the outlines of an
Infant Agricultural Training School, proposed
for, and dedicated to the Royal Agricultural So-
ciety of Jamaica, which was respectfully submit-
ted to their Vice-Patron, His Excellency the
Earl of Elgin, Governor of Jamaica, in December
1845, and which is still with him. 8vo.; King-
ston, Ja., 1846. [32 j.]
Oxford University Calendar, 1893, 1894 and 1895
3 vols. 8vo.; Oxford and London, 1893-94-95.
[30 d.]
Sauer, C. M. Spanish Conversation Grammar. 5th
ed. 8vo.; London and IHeidelberg, 1891. [7 h.J
Key to the Spanish Conversation"
Grammar. 3rd ed. 8 vo.: London and Heidel"
berg, 1891. [7 h.]


United States Bureau of Education. Circular of
Information No. 2, 1892. Benjamin Franklin
and the University of Pennsylvania. Edited by
Francis Newton Thorpe, Ph.D. 8vo.; WVashling-
ton, 1893. [37d.]
--- Rport of the Commissioner of Educa-
tion for the year 1889-90, 2 vols. 8vo.; 1Vash-
ington, 1893. [30 e.]

V. a-ARTS.
Bentley, Charles. Twelve Views in the Interior of
Guiana: from drawings executed by Charles
Bentley, after sketches taken during the ex-
pedition carried on in the years 1835 to 1839
under the direction of the Royal Geographical
Society of London, and aided by Her Majesty's
Government. With descriptive letter-press, by
Robert 1I. Schomburgk, accompanied by illustra-
tions on wood. folio; London, 1841. [23 h.]
Carter, A. C. B. The Year's Art, 1894, A concise
epitome of all matters relating to the Arts of
Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, which
have occurred during the year 1893, together
with information respecting the events of the
year 1894. With full-page illustrations. Com-
piled by A. C. I Carter. (15th annual issue.)
8vo.; London, 1894. 123 a.]
Holmes, William H. Ancient Art of the Province
of Chiriqui, Colombia. 8vo. [23 a.]
Hullah, John, LL.D. The History of Modern Music.
A Course of Lectures delivered at the Royal In-
stitution of Great Britain. 6th ed. 8vo ; Lon-
don, 1891. [23 e.]
Justi, Carl. Diego Valazquez and his Times. Trans.
lated by Prof. A. H. Keane, B.A., F.R.G S., and
revised by the author. With a frontispiece of
Valazquez' own portrait, etched by Forberg;
fifty-two wood engravings, and a plan of the old
Palae of Madrid. 8vo.; London, 1889. [23 a.
Michel, Emile. RWmbrandt: His Life, His Work.
and His Time. From the French, by Florence
Simmonds. Edited by Frederick Wedmore. With
67 full-page plates and 250 text illustrations.
2 vols. 4to.; London, 1894. [23 a.]
Moore, George. Modern Painting. 8vo.: London,
18!:3. [2.1 a.]
Storer, James. A Description of Fonthill Abbey,
Wiltshire. Illustrated by views drawn and en-
graved by James Storer. 4to.; London, 1812.
[23 a.]
Wood, Esther. Dante Rossetti and the Pre-Ra-
phaelite Movement. [Illustrated.] 8vo.; Lon-
don, 1893. z[3 a.]

Bengough, Major-General HLarcourt] M[ortimer I.
Night Fighting. A 1'ranslation from the "Rus-
sian Military Magazine" (Svoennei Sbornik) for
December, 1885.] 2nd ed. Svo.; London, 1893.
Bota-iy, Annals of: 1887-8S to 1893. 7 vols. Vols.
I.-IV. Edited by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A.,
M.D., F.R.S., Sydney Howard Vines, D.Sc.,
F.R.S., and William Gib on Farlow, M.D., as-
sisted by other Botanists. Vols. V.-VI. Same,
with the addition of W. T. Thiselton-Dyer,
C.M.G, M.A., F.R.S. Vol. V III. Same as Vols.
I.-IV., with the addition of D. H. Scott. M.A.,
Ph.D., F.L.S. 8vo.; London and Oxford, 1887-
1893. [11 i.]
Carpenter, William Lant, B.A., B.Sc. Energy in
Nature, being with some additions, the substance
of a course of six Lectures upon the forces of Na-

ture and their Mutual Relations. Delivered undei
the auspices of the GilchristMutual Trust, in the
Autumn of 1881. 8vo,; London, 1883. [9 h.]
Fitzgerald, W. W. A. The Agricultural Resources
of the coast lands of British East Africa. A
Paper read at the Imperial Institute on January
29th, 1894. 8vo.; London, 1894. [37 b.J
Japan, Organization of the Meteorological Sys-
tem in. 4to.; Tkio, 1893. [7 d ]
-- -- Report on Earthquake Observations
in. 4to.; Totio, 1,92. [37 d.]

Bowrey, J. J., F.C.S., F.T.C. Garden Pests. A Pa.
per read before the Kingston Horticultural So-
ciety, llth January, 1887. Pamphlet. 8vo.;
Iingslon, 1887. [Boundl ith the abore]: Straw-
berries, their cultivation. By G. J. DeCordova.
A Paper read before the Kingston Horticultural
Society. Pamphlet. 8vo.; K ngston, lt87. [ ]
Challenger, Report on the Scientific Results of
the Voyage of H.M.S. During the years 1873-
76, under the Command of Capt. George S.
Nares, R.N., F.R.S, and 'Capt. Frank Tourle
Thomson, R N. Prepared under the superin-
tendence of the late Sir C. Wyville Thomson,
Knt., F.R S., &c, and now of John Murray,
F.R.S.E., one of the naturalists of the Expe-
Physics and Chemistry. Vol. T. I. Report on
Researches into the composition of Ocean Water,
collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years
1873-1876. By Prof. William I)ittmar, F R.S.
II. Report on the Specific Gravity of samples of
Ocean Water, observed on board I.M.S Challen-
ger, during the years 1873-1876. By J. Y.
Buchanan, M.A., F.R.S.E. III. Report on the
Deep-sea Temperature Observations of Ocean
Water, taken by the Officers of the Expedition,
during the years 1873-1876. 4to.; London, Edin-
burg/l and Dublin, 1884. [11 1.J
Claus, Dr. C. Elementary Text Book' of Zoology.
Translated and edited by Adam Sedgwick, M A.,
F.R.S., with the assistance of F. G. Heathcote,
M.A. 2 vols. I. General Part and SpecialPart;
Protozoa to Insecta. With 491 woodcuts. 2nd
ed. II. Special I'art: Mollusca to Man. With
706 woodcuts. 8vo.; London, 1889 and 1885.
[10 g.]
Cockerell, Prof. T. D. A., F.Z.S., and R. R. Larkin.
On the Jamaican Species of Veronicella. (From
the "Journal of Malacology." Vol. II Pt. 2,
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Dallas, R[obertJ C harles]. ElementsofSelf-know-
ledge: intended to lead youth into an early ac-
quaintance with the Nature of Man, by an anato-
mical displayof the Human Frame, a concise view
of the Mental Faculties, and an inquiry into the
Genuine Nature of the Passions. Compiled, ar-
ranged, and partly written by R C. Dallas. 8ro.;
London, 1802. [10 in.]
Drummond, Henry. The Lowell Lectures on the
Ascent of Man. 1lth thousand. 8vo.; London,
1894. [10 h.J
French C., F L.S, F.R.H.S. A Handbook of the
Destructive Insects of Victoria, with notes on
the methods to be adopted to check and extirpate
them. Prepared by order of the Victorian De-
partment of Agriculture. Parts 1 and 2. 2 vols.
8vo.; Aelbourne, 1891 and 1893. [10 g.]
Hagen, Dr. Hermann August. Bibliotheca Ento-
mologica. Die Litteratur ober das ganze Gebiet
der Entomologie bis zum Jahre 1862. 2 vols.
(bound in one.) 4to.; Leipzig, 1862-63. [10 m.]


Henshaw, Samuel. List of the Coleoptera of
America, north of Mexico. 4to.; Philadelphia,
1885. [10 g.]
Hornaday, William T. Taxidermy and Zoological
Collecting. A complete Handbook for the Ama-
teur Taxidermist, Collector, Osteologist, Museum
Builder, Sportsman, and Traveller. With chap-
ters on Collecting and Preserving Insects, by
W. J. Holland, Ph.D., D.D. Illustrated by
Charles Bradford Hudson and other artists. 24
plates and 85 text illustrations. 8vo.; London,
1891. [10m. I
Hyatt, Alpheus, and J. M. Arms. Guides for
Science-Teaching. No. 8 Insecta. ( Boston Society
ofNatural History.) 8vo ; Boston, 1891. [10 g.J

Massee, G. On Trichosphaeria Sacchari, Mass.; a
Fungus causing a Disease of the Sugar-cane.
With plate. 8vo.; [Oxford] n.d. [32 j.]
Seaman, William H., M.D- The Victoria Regia.
(Fromthe Proceedings of the American Society of
Microscopists.) 4to.; [ lashinlton, b.C.] [32 k.]
Tufts College Studies, No. II. Development of
the Lungs of Spiders. By Orville L. -immons.
Published by the OCarles Hyd- Olmstead Fund.
4to.; Tafts College, Mass., 1894. [32 k.]

Calderon de la Barca, Pedro. Dramas of. Tragic.
Comic and Legendary. Translated from the
Spanish, principally in the metre of the original
by Denis Florence McCarthy. 2 vols. 8vo.;
London, 1853. [12 h ]
Camoens, Luiz de. The Lusiads of Camoens.
Translated into English Verse by J. J. Aubertin.
[Portrait.] 2nd ed. 2 vols. London, 1884.
[12 f.]
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The complete Works of: Edited
from numerous manuscripts by the Rev. Walter
W. Skeat, Litt. D., L.D Vol. I. and II.
I. Romaunt of the Rose: minor poems. Vol. II.
Poethuis and Troilus. Vol. IIl. The House of
Fame: The Legend of Good Women. The Trea-
tise on the Astrolab-, with an Account of the
sources of the Canterbury Tales. Vol IV. The
Canterbury Tales: Text. Vol. V. Notes to the
Canterbury Tales. Vol. VI. Introduction, Glos-
sary, and Indexes. 6 vols. 8vo.; Oxford, 1894.
[19 b and c.]
Congreve, William. The Works of: New ed.
ornamented with copper-plates, to which is pre-
fixed the life of the Author. 2 vol. The Old
Bachelor; The Double Dealer; Love for Love.
II. The Mourning Bride; The Way of the World;
The Judgment of Paris; Semele, and Poems on
several occasions. 8vo.; London, 1788. [19 b.]
Dallas, Robert Charles. Ode to the Duke of Wel-
lington, and other Poem", by Robert Charles
Dallas, of St. Margaret's, Titchfield, Hants. writ-
ten between the ages of eleven and thirteen
years. [Portrait ] 8vo.; London, 1819. [12 a.)
Delevante, Michael. First Blossoms. Poems and
Rhymes; Sentiment and Humour. 8vo.; New
York and lVashington in 1894. [12 d.]
Grainger, James, M.D., &c. The Sugar Cane: a
Poem in four Books, with notes. 8vo.: London,
[Bound with the above] An essay on the more
Common West India Diseases; and the remedies
which that country itself produces. To which
are added some hints on the Management, &c., of
Negroes. By James Graniger, M.D. 2nd ed.

With practical notes and a Linnean Index, by
William Wright, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo.; Edinborgh
and Jamaica, 1802. [1 e.]
Herrick, Robert, The Poetical Works of: Edited by
George Saintsbury. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1893.
[!9 c.]
[Lewis, Matthew Gregory.] Tales of Terror; with
an introductory Dialogue. 8vo. ; London, 1801.
[ Hound with the above : Tales of Wonder. 2ud
ed. 8vo.; London, 1801. [19 b ]
Morris, Lewis Songs of Two Worlds. 13th ed.
8vo.; London, 1888. [19 b.]
P[anton], D[avid] M[orrisonl. Julian the Apostate
and other Poems. 8vo.; Caumbrsdqe and London,
1891. [19 c.]
Virgil, The Georgicsof. Translated by R. D. Black-
more, M.A, 8vo.; London, 1886. [28 b.]

Morley, Henry. English Writers. An attempt
towards a history of English Literature. Vols. 8.
9 and 10 Vol. VIII. From Surrey to Spenser.
Vol. IX. Spenser and hi- Time. Vol. X. Shakes-
plare and his Time: Under Elizabeth. 8vo.
LLondon, Paris and Melbourne, 1892-1893. L5 n.]

Besant, Walter. Armorel of Lyonesse. A Ro-
mance of To-day. New ed., with 12 illustrations
by Fred. Barnard. 8vo. ; London, 1894. [25 o.]
- Fifty Years Ago. New ed. revised
with 144 plates and woodcuts. 8vo. ; London,
1892. [15 e.]
St. Katherine's by the Tower. New
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London, 1892. [25 o.]
-- The Rebel Queen. A new edition
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London, 1894. [25 o,]
Black, William. Donald Ross of Heinira. "New and
revised ed. 8vo.; London, 1894. [25 o.]
Sabina Zembra. New and revised
ed. 8vo.; London, 1893. [25 o.]
The Maid of Killeena and the Mar-
riage of Moira Fergus. New and revised ed.
8vo.; London, 1892. [25 o.]
White Heather. New and revised
ed. 8vo.; London, 1893. [25 o.]
Blackmore, R. D. Kit and Kitty. A Story of
West Middlesex. 2nd ed. 8vo. ; London, 1891.
[25 p.J
Borrow, George. The Romany Rye; A Sequel to
Lavengro" New ed. 8vo. ; London, 1888.
[27 e.]
Corelli, Marie. Thelma, A Norwegian Princess.
9th ed. London, 1894. [25 o.
The Soul of Lilith. 7th ed. 8vo.;
London, 1894. [25 o]
Vendetta : or The Story of One for-
gotten. 8th ed. London, 1893. [25 o.]
Crawford, F [rancis] Marion. A Tale of a Lonely
Parish. 8vo.; London, and New Ylirk, 1893. [25 o.J
Khaled. A Tale of Arabia. 8vo.;
London and New York, 1891. [25 o.]
Sant'Ilario. 8vo.; London and New
York, 1893. [25 o.]


The Witch of Prague. A Fantastic
Tale. 8vo.: London and New York, 1893. [25 o.]
Dumas, Alexandre. The Count of Monte-Cristo.
8vo.; London, n.d. [25 o.]
The Three Musketeers. 8vo.; London
n.d. [25 o.]
The Vicomte de Bragelonne or Ten
Years Later. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, n.d. [25 o.]
- Twenty Years After. 8vo. ; London,
n.d. [25 o.]
Eliot, George. Essays and Leaves from a Note-
Book. 8vo.; Edinburgh and London, [1883.]
[27 d.]
Silas Marner. The Lifted Veil.
Brother Jacob. 8vo.; Edinburgh and London,
n.d. [25 d.]
Hardy, Thomas. The Woodlanders. 8vo. ; London,
and New York, 1889. [25 o.]
- Wessex Tales. Strange, lively and
commonplace. 8vo,; London and New York,
1893. [25 o.]
Howells, William D. A Foregone Conclusion.
Author's ed. 8vo.; Edinburgh, 1893. [25 p.]
The Lady of the Aroostook. Author's
ed. 2 vols. in one. 8vo. ; EdinburgLh. 1891.
[25 p.]
[Hughes, Thomas]. Tom Brown at Oxford. With
illustrations by Sydney P. Hall. 8vo.; London
and New York, 1892. [25 p.]
[- ] Tom Brown's School Days. With
illustrations by Arihur Huughes and Sydney
Prior Hall. 8vo. ; London and New York, 1892.
[25 p.]
James, Henry, jr. The American. 8vo.; London,
1879. [25 o.]
The Europeans. A Sketch. New ed.
8vo. ; London, 1879. [25 o.]
Jokai, Maurus. Midst the Wild Carpathians.
Translated by R. Nisb't Bain, from the first
Hunghrian edition. Authorized Version. 8vo.:
London, 1894. [25 o.]
Normanby, Constantine Henry, Earl of Mu'grave
afterwards Marquis of. Matilda; A Tale of the
Day. 8vo. ; London, 1825. [1 d.]
Norris, W. E. Miss Shafto. 8vo.; London, 1890.
[25 p.]
--- The Rogue. 8vo. ; London, 1889, [25 p.]
Radcliffe, A. F. Out of it A Story for Children.
8vo. ; London, 1893 [26 c ]
Radcliffe, Anne. The Mysteries of Udolpho. A
romance. 8vo. ; London, Manchester and New
York, n.d. [25 p.]
Saint-Pierre. Bernardin de. Paul and Virginia
with illustrations by Maurice Leloir. 4to.;
London, Glasgow and New York, 1888. [23 a.]
" Spinner, Alice." A Study in Colour. (The Pseu-
donym Library.) 8vo. : London, 1894. [1 e.]
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin; or
Life among the Lowly. With Introductory re-
marks by the Rev. James Sherman. Illustrated
by Havelock K. Browne and John Leech. 8vo.;
London, 1891. [26 e.]
Twain, Mark" (Samuel L. Clemens). A Yankee
at the Court of King Arthur. New ed., with
illustrations by Dan Beard. 8vo. ; London, 1890.
[25 o.]
Walpole, Horace. The Castle of Otranto. 16mo.
London, 1892. [25 p.]

Youge, Charlotte Mary. An Old Woman's Outlook
in a Hampshire Village. 8vo.; London and New
York. 1892, [25 o.J
Acland, S:r Henry W. Bart. K.C.B., F.R S. The
Unveiling of the Statue of [Thomas] Sydenham,
in the Oxford Museum, August 9th, 1894. By
the Marquess of Salisbury, K.G. With an address
by Sir Henry W. Ackland. 8vo.; Oxford, 1894.
[23 a.]
Burton, Captain Sir Richard F., K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S.
Vickram and the Vampire, or Tales of Hindu
Devilry. Adapted by Sir F. Burton. Edited
by his wife Isabel Burton. Memorial ed.
With 33 illustrations by Ernest Griset. 8vo.;
London, 1893. [27j.
King Arthur and His Knights of the Round
Table, Legends of. Compiled and arranged by
J. T. K. With illustrations. 8vo.; London and
New York, 1880. [27 a ]
Knatchbull, Sir D. Norton, Bart. Animadver-
siones in Libros Novi Testamenti jam Tert;,
curd aucte et emendatw. Author D. Nortono
Knatchbull, Eq. et Bar. 8vo. ; Oxoniee, 1677.
[23 e ]
Library Association. Year Book for 1893. 2nd
ed. revised. 8vo ; London, 1893. [27 n.]
Oxford, Aspects of Modern. By a Mere Don.
With illustrations by J. H. Lorimer, Lancelot
Speed, T. H. Crawford and E. Stamp. 8vo.;
London, 1894. [27 j.]
Radcliffe. Rev. J[ohn]. Solvitur Ambulando. A Lec-
ture delivered on behalf of the Reading Society,
Kingston, April 9th, 1870. 8vo. ; London, 1870.
[32 j ]
Australia. The Year-Book of: 1892. 8vo.; Sydney,
1892. [37 f.J
Boutell, Charles, M.A. English Heraldry, with
450 illustrations drawn and engraved on wood
by R. B. Utting. 5th ed. 8vo.: London, 1889.
[7 k.]
Canada, The Statistical Year-Book of, for 1892.
Issued by the Department of Agriculture. 8vo.;
Ottawa, 1893. [37 e.J
Colonial Office List for 1894. Comprising Histori-
cal and Statistical Info-mation respecting the
Colonial Dependencies of Great Britain, an ac-
count of the services of the Officers in the Colo-
nial Service, a transcript of the Colonial Regula-
tions, and other information. With maFs.
Compiled from official Records, by the permis-
sion of the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
By John Anderson. 33rd publication. 8vo.:
London, 1894. [7 1.]
English and Swedish Languages, A new Pocket
Dictionary of the. new stereotype ed. Revised
and enriched. 3rd impression. 8vo. ; Leipzig,
1893. [7 c.]
Hazell's Annual for 1895. A Cyclopodic Record of
Men and Topicsofthe Day. Edited by W. Palmer,
B.A. (Lond.) Revised to Nov. 26th, 1894. 10th
year of issue. 8vo.; London. 1895. [7 m.]
Imperial Institute Year-Book 1894. of the United
Kingdom, the Colonies and India. A Statistical
Record of the Resources and trade of the If olonial
and Indian possessions of the British Empire.
Compiled chiefly from official sources. 3rd is-
sue. 8vo.; London, 1894. [7 m.]
Lowndes, William Thomas. The Bibliographer's
Manual of English Literature, containing an ac-


count of rare, curious, and useful books, pub-
lished in or relating to Great Britain and Ire-
land, from the Invention of Printing : with
bibliographical and critical notices, collations
of the rarer articles, and the prices at which they
have been sold. New ed. revised, corrected and
enlarged; with an appendix relating to the books
of Literary and Scientific Societies. By Henry
Bohn. 4 vols. 8vo.; London, 1864. [8 g.]
Morris, Valentine. A Narrative of the Official Con-
duct of: Late Captain-General, Governor in
Chief, &c of the Island of St. Vincent and its
dependencies Written by himself. Supported
by his official correspondence with the Secretary
of State, Lords of the Treasury, and other of his
Majesty's servants, Admirals, Governors, &c. The
originals to be found in the respective offices, and
the duplicates now in his possession. Also by
other documents equally authentic. 8vo.; Lon-
don. 1787. [3 b.]
Murray, Dr. James A. H. A new English Dic-
tionary on Historical Principles; founded mainly
on the materials collected by the Philological
Society. Vol. III. Deceit-Deject. 4to.; Ox-
ford and London, 1895. [8 d.]
---and others. Everybody-Ezod. Forming
part of Vol. III. 4to.; Oxford and London,
1891. [8 d.]
-__--- and others. .2 Parts. D-Deceit com-
mencing Vol. III. F-Fang commencing Vol.
IV. By HImry fames Bradley, Hon. M.A., Oxon.
4to.; Oxford, 1891. 8 d.]
National Biography, Dictionary of. Edited by
Sidney Lee. Vols. XXXVII.-XLI. Mas-O'Du-
gan. 5 vols. 8vo.; London, 1894-95. [8 h.]
Naval Annual, 1894, The. Edited by T. A. Bras-
sey. 8vo ; Portsmouth and London, 182 [7 i.]
New Zealand Handbook. With map. Issued by
the Emigrants' Information Office. 8vo.; Lon-
don, 1893. [37 b.
North Carolina, Handbook of. With illustrations
and maps. 8vo.; Raleigh, 1893. [37 d.]
Palgrave, Sir Reginald F. D., K.C B. The Chair-
man's Handbook: Suggestions and Rules for the
conduct of Chairmen of Public and other Meet-
ings, based upon the procedure and p-actice of
Parliament. With an introductory letter ad-
dressed to the Right Hon. Viscount Hampden,
G.C.B., when Speaker of the House of Com-
mons. 9th ed. 8vo.; London, [1887.] [7 d.J
Times Newspaper, Index to the, 1893. 8vo.;
London, 1893-94. [7 j.
Ward, Anna L. A Dictionary of Quotations in
Prose from American and Foreign Authors, in-
cluding translations from ancient sources 8vo.;
New York, [1889 ] [8 g.]
Watts, [Henry, B.A.] Dictionary of Chemistry.
Revised and entirely rewritten. By M. M.
Pattison Muir, M.A., and H. Forster Morley,
M.A., D.Sc., assisted by eminent contributors.
Vol. 4. With addenda. 8vo. ; London, 1894.
[8 k.]
Whitaker, Joseph, F.S.A. Almanack for 1894 and
1895. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1891-95. [7 1.] -

American Entomological Society, Transactions
of the. Vol. XX. 8vo. ; Philadelphia, 1893.
[10 g.]
----- Synopsis of the Hymenoptera ofAmeri-
ca, North of Mexico, by E. T. Cresson. Part I.
Families and Genera. Part II. Catalogue ofSpe-
cies and Bibliography. 2 pts. 4to.; Philadelphia,
1887. [10 g.]

American Historical Association. Annual Re-
ports 1889 and 1890. 8vo.; Washington, 1890-
91. [32 k.]
- --- Museum of Natural History, Bulle-
tin of the. Vol. V., 1893. 8 vo.; New York,
1893. [32j.]
-- Philosophical Society. Proceedings
of the. Held at Philadelphia for Promoting
Useful Knowledge. Vol. XXXI., July to De-
cember, 1893. No. 142. 8vo.; Phliladellphia,
1893. [32 k.]
Amherst, Mass. Board of Control of the State
Agricultural Experiment Station at : Eleventh
Annual Report of the 1893. 8vo ; Boston, 1894.
[32 j.]
Anthropological Society of Washington, Trans-
action of the. Vol. III. November 6th, 1883,
May 19th, 1885. Published with the co-ope-
ration of the Smithsonian Institution. 8vo.;
IVashinagton, 1885. [32 j.]
Australian Museum. Guide to the Contents of
the. Printed by order of the Trastees. 8vo ;
.., ... ,, 1890. [37 c.]
Catalogue of Australian Mammals;
with Introductory Notes on General M, i.. -il...i..
by J. Douglas Ogilby. 8vo.; I.:,'... I ',.
[37 c.]
British Museum: Catalogues.
Birds in the collection of the British
Museum. [With coloured plates.] Vols. XXI.-
XXIII. 3 vols. 8vo. ; 1893-94:--ColumbE. or
Pigeone, by T. Salvadori, 189:1. Vol. XXII.
Game Birds. (Pterocletes, Gallinm, Opisthocomi,
Hemipodii) by W. R Ogilvie-Grant, 1893. Ful:-
carim and Alectorides, by R. Bowdler Sharpe.
1894. [32 f,]
--- --- English Coins in the. Anglo-Saxon Se-
ries, Vol. II. (Wessex and England to theNorman
Conquest.) By Herbert A. Grucbar, F.S.A. and
Charles Francis Keary, M.A., F.S.A with map
and 32 plates. 8vo. ; London, 1893. [32 f.]
- -- Madreporarian Corals in the. (Natural
History.) Vol. I. The Genus Madrepora, by
George Brook. 4to. ; London, 1893. [28 f.]
-- Fan and Fan-leaves presented to the
Trustees of the. British Museum by the Lady
c'harlotte Schreiber. Compiled by Lionel Cust,
M.A., F.S.A 8vo.; London, 1863. [32 f.]
--- ,Romances in the Department of Manu-
scripts in the. By H. L. D. Ward, B.A. Vol. II.
8vo.; London, 1893. [32 f.]
--- Manuscripts in the Spanish Language :
by Don Pascual de Gayangos. Vol. IV. 8vo.;
London. 1893. [32 f.]
- ---- Index of Artists represented in the De-
partment of Prints and Drawings in the. Vol. I.
Dutch and Flemish Schools. German Schoolr.
by Lionel Cust, M.A., F.S.A. 8vo ; London,
11893.] [32 f.]
-------- Snakes in the. Vol.I. Containing the fa-
milies Typhlopide.Glauconiidm, Boidw, Ilysiidam.
Uropeltidi, Xenopeltidc, and Colubridm Agly-
pha part by George Albert Boulenger. 8vo.;
London, 1893. [ [28h.J
The Greek and Etruscan Vases. Vol. I.
Vol. II. Black-figured Vases. By H. B. Walters,
M.A. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1851 and 1893.
[32 f.]


Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. The
Fifth Year-book of the, 1892-93. Contain-
ing the names of the Officers and Members,
Copies of the Constitution and By-Laws, a brief
History of the Institute, an Account of the Work
of 1892-93, and a copy of the Charter. 8vo.;
Brookly, 1893. [35 h.]
Canadian'Institute, Fifth Annual Report of the.
Session 1892-93, being an appendix to the Report
of the Minister of Education, Ontario. 8vo.;
Toronto, 1893. [32 j.J
---- Transactions of the. September
1893. 8vo.; Toronto, 1l93. [32 j,]
Chicago Columbian Exposition. Catalogues
and Guides *-
AUSTRALIA. Australia and America
in 1892: A Contrast. By Edward Dowling.
8vo.; .>._/, 1893. [37 d.]
--- Australian Timbers. By W.
H. Warren, Wh. So., M.lnst. C.E., &c. 8vo.;
Sydney, 1892. [37 c.]
i-- AMAZON. Catalogue of Woods exhi-
bited by the State of Amazon, Brazil. 8vo.;
Chicago, 1893. [.7 d.J
The State of Amazon, Brazil.
By Laura B. Bitancourt. [A brief general notice
and description of the various resources of the
t3tate. 8vo. ; [37 d.]
----- BRITIS GUIANA. Ilandbook of British
Guiana by James Rodway, F.L.S. Prepared
under the direction of the Columbian Exposition
Literary Committee of the Royal Agricultural
and Commercial Society. 8vo. ; GeoryetwCin,
British Guiana, 1893. [37 d.]
GERMANY. Catalogo Oficial
de la Exposici6n del Imperio Alemin. [37 d.]
EYLON. Official Handbook and Cata-
logue of the Ceylon Courts. 8vo. ; [37 c.]
-- DENMARK. Official Catalogue with
illustrations, issued by the Royal Danish Com-
mission. [37 c.]
Meetings of Foreign Commissioners to the World's
Columbian Exposition. ** hicago, Ill, U.S.A.
Svo. ; [37 c.]
- GREAT BRITAIN. Official Catalogue
of the British Section. 1st ed. 8vo.; London,
1893. [37 d.]
2nd ed. 8vo. ; London, 1893. [33 1.
rial for International Arbitration. Official Copy.
4to.; [27 c.1
JAPAN. Japanese Forage Plants. A
Descriptive Catalogue of. Exhibited in the
World's Columbian Exposition. Published by
Agricultural Bureau, Dapartment of Agricul-
ture and Commerce. Japan. 8vo. ; Tokyo, 1893.
(37 c.]
Details of the Industrial
Specimens exposed at the World's Columbian
Exposition by the Bureau of Commerce and
Industry, Department of Agriculture and Com-
merce, Japan. 8vo.; Tokyo, 1893. [37 c.]
-- Details of the Weights and
Measures exposed at the World's Columbian Ex-
position by the Bureau of Commerce and Indus.
try, Department of Agriculture and Commerce,
Japan. 8vo.; Tokyo, 1893. [37 c.]
-- A Descriptive Catalogue of
the Agricultural Products of Japan exhibited

in the World's Columbian Exposition. 8vo.
Tbkio, Japan, 1893. [37 c.]
MINNESOTA: A Brief Sketch of its
History, Resources and Advantages. 8vo.; St.
Paul, linin. 1893. [37 d 3
MEXICO. Mnxico ante los Congresos
internacionales penitenciarios, por el Lie. Anto-
nio a De Medina y Ormaechea. Edici6n especial
destinada a la Exposici6n de Chicago. 8vo.;
Alexico, 1892. [37 d.]
Catilogo de las principles obras im-
presas en la oficina tipogrdfica de dicha Secreta-
ria y quo se remiten A. la Exposicion Internacion-
al de Chicago. (Secretaria de Fomento.) 8vo.;
Alixico, 1803. [37 d.]
e New GUINEA. The South Pacific and
New Guinea, Past and Present; with Notes on
the Hervey Group, an illustrative song and va-
rious myths. By Rev. Wm. Wyatt Gill, B.A.
(Lon.) LL.D. 8vo. ; Sydney, 1892. [37 d.]
------ NEW SOUTH WALES. Catalogue of the
Exhibits in the New South Wales Courts. 8vo.;
*. ., ,. 1893. [37 e.]
-- Geographical Encyclopadia of
New South Wales, including the counties, towns
and villages, within the Colony, with the sources
and courses of the rivers and their tributaries.
ports, harbours, light-houses, and mountain
ranges, &c., &c. With a map, and diagram of
light-houses on the coast. By Wm. Hanson
A.L.S., Lond. Svo.; Sydney, 1892. [37 e.]
-- Wool Exhibits nrrng-drl "iccord-
ing to Wool Districts. 8vo. .. .... ., 1893.
[37 c.]
--- The Aborigines of. By John
Fraser, B.A., L.L.D. 8vo.; Sydney, 1882. [37 d.]
The Drama and Music in. By
F. C. Brewer. 8vo.; .*-../., .. 1892. [37 d.]
--- A sketch of the Progress and
Resources of New South Wales. By Greville
Tregarthen. With coloured diagrams. 8vo.;
Sydney, 1893. [37 d.]
Social, Industrial, Political.
and Cooperative Associations, etc., in New
South Wales, Australia: Compiled by E. W.
O'Sullivan, M.P. 8vo.; Sydney, 1892. [37 d.]
-- Statistics. History and Re-
sources. Compiled by the Editor of the Year-
Book of Australia. 8vo. ; *. n.d. [37 c.]
-- Notes on the Aborigines ofs
Bythe Hon. Richard Hill, M.L.C. and the Hon.
George Thornton, M L.C. With personal re-
miniscences of the tribes formerly living in the
neighbourhood of Sydney and the surrounding
districts. 8vo ; Sydney, 1892. [37 c.]
-- Physical Geography and Cli-
mate of. By H. C. Russell, B.A, C.M.G., F.R.S.
2nd ed. 8vo. ; Sydney, 1892. [37 c.
-- The Marine Fish and Fish-
eries of : Past and Present, in their Commercial
Aspect. By Philip Cohen, 8vo.; Sydney, 1892.
[37 d.]
-- The Rise, Progress, and Pre-
sent Position of Trade and Commerce in. By
Edward Pulsford. 8vo. ; ., 7... 1892. [37 d.J
NORWAY. Catalogue of the Exhibit
of : 8vo.; Chicago, 1893. [37 c.1
Directory of the. A Reference Book of Exhi-
bitors and Exhibits; of the Officers and Mem-
bers of the World's Columbian Commission,


the World's Columbian Exposition and the Board
of Lady Managers ; a complete history of the
Exposition. Together with accurate descriptions
of all statb, territorial, foreign, departmental
and othor buildings and exhibits, and general
information concerning the Fair. Edited by
Moses P. Handy. Illustrated. 4to.; Chicago,
1893. [37 f.]
-- PENNSYLVANIA. Catalogue of the Ex-
hibits of the State of Pennsylvania and of
Pennsylvanians at the World's Columbian Ex-
position. Illustrated. Prepared und r the Di-
rection of A. B. Farquhar, Executive Com-
missioner. 8vo.; Pennsylvania, 1893. [37 d.]
S- RUSSIA. Catalogue of the Russian
Section, published by the Imperial Russian Com-
mission, Ministry of Finances. 8vo. ; St. Peters-
burg, 1893. [37 e.)
SPAIN. Catitlogo de la Seccion Ei-
pariola publicado por la comisi6n general de
Espatia. 8vo.; Madrid. 1893. [3 7d.]
SIAM. The Siamese Exhibits at the
World's Columbian Exposition, by Frederic
Mayer, Member of the Board of Judges. 8vo.
[37 c.]
SWEDEN. Swedish Catalogue. Part
I. Exhibits: Part II. Statistics by Dr. S. A.
LGqstr6m. 8vo.; Stockholm, 1893. [37 d.]
TRINIDAD. "Ilre." The Land of the
Humming Bird: Being a sketch of the Island
of Trinidal. Specially written for the Trinidad
Court of the World's Fair, Chicago, by Henry
James Clark, F.S.S. 8vo.; Trinidad, 1893. [37 d.1
- VENEZUELA. The United States of
Venezuela in 1893. 8vo. ; New York, 1892. [17 c.]
WEST VIRGINIA. The Mountain State.
A description of the Natural Resources of. Pre-
pared for distribution at the World's Columbian
Exposition by Geo. W. Summers, B. Ph. 8vo.;
Charleston, 1V. Va., 1893. [37 d.]
Connecticut Boardof Agriculture. Twenty-sixth
Annual Report of the Secretary of the. 8vo.;
Hartford, Conn.. 1892. [37 e.)
Edinburgh, The Royal Society of. Proceedings of
Vol. XIX. November 1891 to July 1892. 8vo.;
Edinburgh, 1893. [32 k.]
Elisha Mitchell. Scientific Society. Journal of
the. Vol. VI. Part 2nd, July to Dec. 1889.
Vol. VIII. Part 2nd, July to Dec. 1891,
Vol. IX. Part 1st, Jan. to June 1892. 3 parts.
8vo. ; Raleigh N.C., 1890-92. [32 j.]
Hamilton Association, Journal and Proceedings
for Session of 1893-94. Number 10. 8vo. ; Hlamil-
ton, 1894. [32 j.]
Illinois State Museum of Natural History.
Bulletin No. 3. Description of some new Spe-
cies of Invertebrates from the Palaeozoic Rocks
of Illinois and adjacent States. By S.A. Miller
and Wm. F. E. Gurley. 4to. ; Springfield,
Illinois, 1893. [32 k.1
Meriden Scientific Association. Annual Address.
A Review of the year 1N93. By the President
Rev. J. T. Pettee, A.M1. 8vo.; Meriden, Conn.,
1894. [32 k.]
Missouri Botanical Garden. Fifth Annual Report
1894. 8vo. ; St. Louis, io., 1894. [10 g.]
New Mexico, Collere of Agriculture and the
Mechanic Arts. Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. Bulletin No. 10. September, 1893. Insects
of 1893. 8vo.; Las Crcues, N.M., 1893. [3! j.]
New South Wales. Department of Mines and
Agriculture. Memoirs of the Geological Survey

of. Geology No. 5. Geology of the Broken Hill
Lode and Barrier Ranges Mineral Field, New
South Wales; with Maps, Plates and Sections.
By J.B. Jaquet A.R.S.M., F.G.S. 4to.; Sydney,
1891. [32 3.1
S The Royal Society of. Journal and
proceedings of for 1893. Vol. 27. Edited by
the Honorary Secretaries. 8vo. ; Sydney and
London. n.d. [32 j.]
-- Physical Geography and Climate of.
By H. C. Russell, B. A., C. G. (World's
Columbian Exposition, Chicago.) 2nd ed. 8vo.
Sydney, 1892. [37 c.]
_-. The GeologicalSurvey of. Records of
Vol. IV. Part I., 1894. 8vo.; Sydney, 1894.
[32 k. I
The Drama and Music in. By F. C'
Brewer.( World's olunbian Exposition, Chicago.)
8vo. ; Sydney, 1892, [37 c J
-- The Prison System of. By George
Miller, (World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago)
8vo.; Sydney, 1893. 3[7 c.]
New York Agricultural Experiment Station.
(Geneva, Ontario Co.) Eleventh Annual Re-
port of the Board of Control of the : for the year
1892, with reports of Director and other officers.
Transmitted to the Legislature, April 1893. 4to.;
Albany, 1893. [10 g.]
State Museum. Forty-fifth and forty-
sixth Annual Reports of the Regents for the years
1891 and 1892. 2 vols. 8vo.; Albany, 1892-93.
LI0 g.J
University of the State of. 8th and
9th Report on the injurious and other Insects of
the State of New York, 1891 and 1892. By J. A.
Lintner, Ph.D. [From the 45th and 46th Reports
on the New York State Museum]. 2 vols. 4to.;
Albany, 1893. [10 g.]
New Zealand Institute. Transactions and Pro-
ceedings of the: 1893. Vol. XXVI. (Ninth of
New Series.] Edited and published under the
authority of the Board of Governors of the In-
stitute. By Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D.,
F.R.S., Director. Issued May 1891. 8vo.; Wel-
lington, 1894, [312 k.J
Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletins
of the, No. 45. Insects affecting the Blackberry
and Raspberry, No. 46. Underground Insect
Destroyers of the Wheat Plant. By F. M.
Webster. 8vo. ; WVooster, Ohio, 1893. [10 g.]
--- Bulletin of the. Technical Series,
Vol. 1. No. 3. Entomological and Botanical
Papers. 8vo.; Norwalk, Ohio. 1893. [10 g.]
Paris Universal Exposition, 1878. Reports of the
United States Commissioners. Published under
direction of the Secretary of State by authority
of Congress. 8vo. ; 1ashington, 1880. [37 e.]
1889. Reports of the United States
Commissioners. Published under Direction of
the Secretary of State, by Authority of Congress.
5 vols. 8vo. ; Washington, 1t90-91. [37 e.
Pennsylvania, Catalogue of Exhibits of, at the
World's Columbian Exposition : see Chicago
World's Columbian Exposition.
University of. Catalogue and an-
nouncements 1892-93. 8vo. ; Philadelphia, 1893.
[37 e.]
Quelch, J.J., B.Sc. (Lond), C.M.Z.S. Catalogue of
the Exhibits of British Guiana, with notes.
(World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.)
8vo.; Chicago, 1893. [33 1.]


Rhode Island, Report of the Joint Special Com-
mittee of the General Assembly of: appointed to
examine into the Fisheries of Narragansett Bay,
May Session. 1870. 8vo.; Paw tucket, 1870. [32 k.]
Rio De Janeiro. Archives do Museu Nacional.
Vol. VIfI. 4to. ; lio de Janeiro, 1892. [32 k.]
Royal Colonial Institute, Proceedings. Vol. I.
1869. Vol. VII. 1875-6, and Vol. XIV. 1882-83.
3 vols. 8vo.; London, 1870, 1876, 1883. [7 n.]
-----, Proceedings of the: Edited by the
Secretary. Vol. XXV.. 1893-94. 8vo.; London,
1894. [7 n.
St. Louis. The Academy of Science of. Trans-
actions of: Vol. VI. Nos. 1 to 8. 8vo. ; St.
Louis, 1892-93. [32 k.]
Sanitary Commission. An Account of the Execu-
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the Sanitary Commission." By the General
Secretary of the Commission (Bound together
with other papers and Reports of the Sanitary
Commission.) 8vo. ; Washinyton, Nen York.
&c., 1861, 1862 and 1863. [9 n.]
Smithsonian Institute. Annual Reports of the
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3 vols. 8vo.; Washinyton, 1893, 1894. [33 c ]
Annual Report of the Board of Regents
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June 30th, 1891. Report of the U. S. National
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M u. Bulletin of the United States National
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h, Bibliography of the Chinookan
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S Bibliography of the Salishan
I.',nI.oI.Io. By James Constantine Pilling. 8vo.;
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The internal work of the wind, by
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[32 j.]
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-- Vol. 36, A Select Bibliogra-
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ningen i Stockholm. Pts. 1-4. 8 vo.; Stock-
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den. Afhandlingar och uppsatser. Ser. c. No.
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[32 k.]
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--- SSveriges Geologiska UndersOkning-
Sveriges Kambrisk-Siluriska Hyolithidoe och
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summary. Stockholm, 1893. [32 k.]
- -- Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens for-
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S Bihang till Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps
Akademiens handlingar. Sjuttonde bandit.
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Tuft's College Studies. No. 1. The Anterior Cra-
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United States Department of Agriculture. A
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---- --- (No. 27.) Reportson the Damage by
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-- (No. 28.) The more Destructive Lo-
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1893. [37 d.1
[Wood's Holl, Mass], Marine Biological Laboratory,
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Jamaica, Royal Gazette. 1781, January to June
1791,:1793, 1795, 1799, 1800, 180.1, 1804, 1805;
January to June 1806, 1809, 1811-1831, 1834, 1835,
1837, 183R. 40 vols. 4to.; [no place of publica-
Bowen, Eman. A New and Accurate Map of Ja-
maica, divided into its principal Parishes. Drawn
from Surveys and regulated by Astronomical
Observations. With a Draught of the Harbours
of Port Antonio and St. Francis on the North-
East Coast of Jamaica, and Port Royal, or King-
ston Harbonr in Jamaica. [1780 P]
Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, S. Joannis, Margarita,
Insula. Atasterdaon, [P 1613.]
Geologisk Jordartskarta of\er Hallands Lan, med
bidrag af linets Hushallningssallskap utgifven
afSveriges Geologiska Undersikning.
Insulae AmericanseinOceano. Septentrionali cum
Terris adiacentibus. D, Alberto Conradi Vander
Burch, J. V'. Reip, Amsterdamensis Senatori,
Collegii Scabinorum Prasidi, Societatis Indice,
qua ad Occidentem militat. bebori, et nuper
ad Magnum Moscovimo Ducem Legato, Tabulam
bane inscribit Guiljelmus Blaeu.
Jamaica. Nova Designatio Insule Jamaicm ex An-
tillanis Am'ricn S'ptentrion. Non postremie
secundum Gub-rnationes suas accuratas eri in-
cisa et public juris fact it Matthamo Seuttero,
Sac Ces et Reg. Cathol. Maj. Geogr. Augustas
Vindel. [? 1743.]
Kingston, Jamaica. Rough sketch of Country
round Kingston, Jamaica, compiled from Maps,
and corrected by reference to the Admiralty
Charts; Sketches by T. Harrison; Capt. Wood-
ford, York and Lancashire Regiment; Capt.
Thwaytes, Lieut. Phillips and Lieut. Climo, W.
India Regiment, and personal observation by
Major C. E. de la Peer Beresford, D.A.A.G.


Published on behalf of the War Office. Lon-
don, 1891.
Port Royal in Jamaica (Plan.) Engraved for Luff-
man's select plans of the principal Cities, Ports.
Harbours and Forts in the World. London,
1799. [38 a.1
Hotchkin, native of Bristol, an infant and an
Estate or Plantation in Jamaica, Brief Petition
to confirm Report of Guardians (Hotchkin, Mark-
land, Bernard,) &c. 1790.
JAMAICA. DEED between Peter Martinean of Lon-
don, merchant, and John Morse, late of Lon-

don, relates to a large Plantation and Sugar
Works, called the Y. S. Ipswich Unity, St. Eliza-
beth's Parish in the Island of Jamaica, dated
I)- DEED between John Vanheelen
of the Parish of St. Elizabeth, in Jamaica, Joseph
Royal of London, Esqs., Edmund Green of Lon-
don, William Mitchell of Jamaica, Esq., Robert
Moose of London, James Thomas of London,
[with a map of the land and works, 467 acres,
with seven signatures and seals, dated 1790.]
---- MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT between Joseph
Buckeridge of Windsor, and Catherine Hotchken
ofDatchet, Co. Rerks. Estate in Jamaica. [Per-
sons interested, Markland, Scarfe, Hotchkin, &c.]



By the Curator, J. E. DUERDEN, A.R.C.Sc.(Lond.).*
troglodytes niger. On March
19, a live baby Chimpan-
zee, on its way from the
West Coast of Africa to the
Zoological Gardens, Lon-
don, was, through the cour-
tesy of Dr. Nitche-Smith,
exhibited in the Museum, and visited by
several thousands of the inhabitants of
Lacertilia. During the month of March
many lizards have been brought into the
Museum and kept alive, being fed princi-
pally on insects and spiders.
Anolis lineatopus, Gray. (A. maculatus,
Gosse). This, the "Zebra anolis" or "Fence-
lizard," is by far the most abundant lizard
around Kingston, being generally found run-
ning about the walls and outhouses. Seve-
ral specimens have been sent us from differ-
ent contributors, the variations in colour are
from all shades of dark to light brown, with
irregular bands of light yellow above.
Anolis Edwardsii, Merr. (Dactyloa
Edwardsii, Gosse). The "Green Lizard," or
"Green Venus." The beautiful figure of
this lizard in Gosse's Nat. Souj. Jamaica,
pl. iv., was drawn by Dr. Cargill. The ani-
mal was caught by him, when a boy, at
"Berry Pen," Spanish Town, and sketched
while alive. Mr. Richard Hill afterwards
painted the sketch, and added the leaves in
the background.
A fine specimen of the green lizard was
sent to the Museum by Mr. Gray, Inspector
of Poor, Kingston, and seems to be doing
well in confinement. The snout in our spe-
cimen is not so pointed as in Dr. Cargill's
figure. Gosse mentions that he was never
able to induce one to eat in captivity, but
the one we now have certainly seems to en-
joy the flies, spiders, and beetles given him.
All the specimens in the British Museum,
from known localities, are Jamaican.
Commenced Museum duties 12th March, 1895.

Mabuia sloanii,(Daud.) Gray. "The Wood
Slave," or Snake waiting-boy." A specimen
of this has just been sent us by Mr. Crad
wick, of Hope Gardens, having been caught
in his dining-room. It is of a bronze colour
above, with small dark brown spots.
Urolopus torpedinus, (Desm.) M. & H.
This sting ray," not very common in
Kingston Harbour, is an addition to the col-
lection of Jamaican fishes in the Museum.
It was found lying flat upon the sea bottom
in quite shallow water, and was unable to
swim quickly. The fishermen were in dread
of it from the well-known poisonous nature
of the wound produced by the serrated
spine on the tail. It seems that the malady
set up is due in great part to the poisonous
nature of the mucus inoculated. The genus
is characterized by having the tail armed
with a serrated spine. In our specimen we
found two spines were present, a small one
immediately behind the larger, serrated,
and shaped in the same manner.
The species is limited in its distribution
to the West Indies and Pacific Coasts of
Central America.
Ilippocampus guttulatus, Cii v.'Sea-horse."
An example of this species lately added;
agrees in markings, as do other four speci-
mens in the collection, with those generally
obtained in the Caribbean Sea, as given by
Dr. Gunther ; "Light or dark brown, mar-
bled with darker on the back, all parts with
numerous small black and still smaller white
dots." The dorsal fin in all our specimens
has a median black transverse line running
the whole length of the fin.
Echeneis naucrates, L. "Sucking-fish." In
the collection of the Museum I have found
an Echeneis, without any history, which on
examination turns out to be the above. It
is very probably a Jamaican specimen.
The suctorial disk has 24 lamine, a number
which, though common in forms obtained
from other parts of the globe, is apparently
not so for the West Indian forms. In Mr.
Cockerell's list of Fishes of Jamaica, he
gives the suctorial disk as having only 22
to 23 lamine, the latter probably a mis-
print for 25.


The three following fishes are new to the
Museum :-
Gobius banana, C. and V. From West
River, Lucea.
Citharichthys spilopterus, Gunth. King-
ston Harbour.
Murcena ocellata, (Agass.) Jenyns. King-
ston Harbour.

Mr. B. D. Gilbert, of Utica, New York, a
contributor to the Botanical Bulletin, has,

for the last two months (February and
March) been in Jamaica, making a collec-
tion of native ferns. He estimates that he
will take home with him about 225 species,
principally from the lower part of the Blue
Mountains, and from Mandeville and Bath,
including the Cuna Cuna Gap. Of course,
in gathering such a number of species in a
short time, the work of collecting and
pressing has prevented any close examina-
tion of them; but there are several rare
species, such as Ophioglossum palmatum,
and Acrostichum coinitum, together with
about a dozen tree-ferns, of which stipes,
rachises, and tips of fronds were gathered, as
well as single pinna. At comparatively
low elevations, the eastern end of the island
was found to be peculiarly rich in tree-
ferns, as it has probably the most tropical
climate to be met with in Jamaica. Blue
Mountain, Manchester, at an elevation of

3,000 feet, also yielded some desirable
spoils; while woodlands in other parts of
the parish gave such fine species' as Aspi-
dium aureovestitum and A spidium ascendens,
the latter of which it seems difficult to find in
fruit at this time of the year. Mr. Gilbert
considers Jamaica the paradise of fern-collec-
tors, and expresses a hope that he may
return next year.
ing note has been received from Mr. T.
D. A. Cockerell:-" The accompanying
figures illustrate three interesting Cocci-
die lately discovered by Mr. Urich in

Trinidad. Asterolecanium urichi, found on
palms, is slightly over 1 mm. long, and is
something like a very diminutive A. bam-
busce. It is easily distinguished from A.
palmce by being much broader in proportion
to its length, and from A. miliaris by its
shape and by the rounded (not narrowed)
end of the scale. Pulvinaria pyriformis is
the type of a new subgenus, which I call
Protopulvinaria. It forms a link between
true Pulvinaria, and the flat species of
Lecanium-especially L. mangiferce. It is
found on guava. P. simulans is very much
like P. camellicola, but has 7-jointed anten-
na. Another interesting new species
received from Mr. Urich, but not now
figured, is Inglisia vitrea: the first true
Inglisia described from America. It is
about 3 mm. long, and is found on Acaria;
it is most nearly allied to I. inconspicua of




Mutilla, sp.-A single specimen of a beau-
tiful species of this genus was taken at
Gordon Town, by Dr. Cargill. It was
determined by Dr. Riley as belonging to
this genus, and may be recognized in future
by the following description:
Wingless female. Nearly 10 mm. long.
Legs, antennae, pedicel, and anus rufous.
Eyes and mandibles jet black. Head
clothed with dense silvery white silken
hair. Thorax jet black, pleurte shining
polished, dorsum hairy. Abdomen black
and back hairy, pedicellate basal segment
rufous; next segment very long and broad,
oval, with two white spots on middle of
dorsum; next segment silvery white,-except
black in middle, next itwo segments also
silvery white. Anal segment rufous. No
white on venter.
Ophion, sp. ?-On December 5, 1893, Mr.
John T. Morris, of Kingston, sent me a
specimen of a, hymenopteron, which either
belongs to this genus or is very near it
with the report that it was caught in bed
after it had stung both himself and his son,
adding that both were suffering from the
effects. This genus has occasionally been
recorded as stinging, but the sting is not
at all serious.
Cyclopsis simocenta, Felder.--This is a
large moth with transparent wing-spots,
taken in Jamaica. Mrs. Swainson tells me
that it was determined by Mr. G. A.
Ehrman, who wrote that Dr. Felder has
figured it in his work Die Nova Reise."
It does not seem to be recorded from
Eunica tatila, H. S.- I believe that Cyb-
delis hyperipte, Gosse, Nat. in Jamaica, p.
491, is a synonym of this species. Gosse's
very brief but characteristic description
tallies perfectly with a specimen of E.
tatila in the Museum. I am indebted to
Mrs. E. M. Swainson for suggesting this
synonymy. Mrs. Swainson has taken this
species near Bath.
Oiketicus abbottii, Grote ?-Mr. Robert
S. Weston, of Yallahs Bay, sent me in
December a specimen of the Jamaica bag-

worm which he had picked from a coffee
tree. In his 45 years of experience as a
coffee planter, Mr. Weston writes that he
had never before seen a specimen of this
Attelabus dentipes, Fab.-Mr. R. K.
Tomlinson, of Lacovia, sent in January
specimens of these weevils taken on Euca-
lyptus robusta and E. microthea. iHe
writes that they eat the leaves of E. robusta
Caryoborus, sp.n.---This species was sent
by Mr. Bowrey to the British Museum,
where it was determined by Waterhouse as
Caryoborus, sp. n., and appears as such in
the list of insects of Jamaica published in
the Jamaica Hand-book for 18-. Three
specimens were found by Mr. W. Fawcett
boring nuts of a palm, probably Oreodoxa
sp. (asdeterminedfrom nut by Mr. Fawcett).
The nuts are eaten out on the inside, the
beetle escaping through a hole 5 mm. in
diameter in the side of the nut. The habit
is the same as that of Caryoborus Arthri-
ticu., which the writer has bred in Southern
Louisiana from the seeds of the dwarf pal-
metto (Sabal adansonii, Guerns).
Dinoderus brevis, Honr.-In March, Mr.
E. Campbell sent me from Castleton Gar-
dens pieces of dry bamboo which were
simply riddled on the whole inside surface
with the small tunnels of this beetle. Mr.
Campbell writes that the bamboo is
much used for house building among the
lower classes, and that it gets very badly
attacked by these small beetles. There
were also some specimens present of what
seemed to be Lasioderma serricorne.
Mecynotarsus, sp. ?-Specimens of this
very small beetle were taken on the dry
sand of the Palisadoes in the heat of the
day in August or September.
Metachroma, sp.-Miss T. Moulton-B-r-
rett, of Brown's Town, sent specimens in
March, through Mr. Harris, of a small
beetle injuring roses. These have been
identified by Mr. M. L. Linell, at the
direction of Mr. L. O. Howard, as "Meta-
chroma sp., probably one of those described
by Suffrian from Cuba."


These beetles eat the young leaves and
buds of the rose plants. The specimens
sent were caught on the rose bushes at
night. The species may be recognized by
the following brief description : Length,
over 4 mm. Brown, elytra punctulate in
longitudinal rows, grayish flavous, with
three principal brown spots on each elytron,
and one or two smaller ones at base.
O.xccis, sp.-Several specimens were sent
me in June by Mr. H. McDermot, from
Grand Cayman, where they appear in
swarms from March to middle of May, and
cluster in almond (so-called) and other
trees. Local name, cocoanut" or "blister
Polycaon, sp. probably gonagra, Fall.-
Early in February, Mr. A. C. Bancroft sent
me, from Lucea, a dead branch of "black
grape vine," which contained two trans-
formed beetles in a tunnel inside.
The length of one was 14 mm., of the
other 10mm. They were both dark brown,
nearly black, elongate, with elytra pitted.
Elytra posteriorly bent downward at end,
so as to cover the extremity of the abdomen,
boat-shaped, leaving a lateral oblique carina
where bent.
These two specimens, which I regarded
as the same species, were sent to Mr. L. O.
Howard, and determined at his direction by
Mr. Linell, one as above, and the other
(which seems to have lost its head and
thorax en route) as "probably belonging
to Bostrychus."
Sitones, sp. ?-Sent by Mr. R. Tomlinson
in January, from Lacovia, with report that
it was destroying the leaves of Eucalyptus
Sphenophorus, n. sp. aff. sericeus, Oliv.-
Grubs of this species in sugar-cane were
sent me in January by Mr. E. S. Panton,
from the Higher Clarendon mountains
(3,000 feet) in Manchester. From these an
adult was bred, in February. Mr. Panton
later sent perfect specimens found in their
cells in the cane, and wrote that they are
very common from October to December,
being brought in from the field in numbers
mixed with the berries of the coffee crop.
In January, Mr. Fawcett sent a speci-
men from Cinchona (50,000 feet) taken in
sugar-cane. It is somewhat smaller and of
a duller color than above. Length, 12 mnm.
Black, elytra red across bases. Head,
thorax, and legs mostly dull red; the thorax
with a median vitta, an anterior lateral
vitta, and two elongate triangular spots on
posterior border, black.

The specimens from Manchester (Higher
Clarendon mountains) are same as above.
only the dull dark red portions are all
yellow. Length, about 14 mm. There is
yellow on sides of abdomen, and a yellow
area between each pair of legs.
For note on this species, see Ckll., Jn.
Inst. Ja., i, 134-5.
Aspidiotus biformis, Ckll.-On Oncidium
sp. Castleton Gardens. November.
A. ficus, Ashm.-On Cucuma longa and
Pandanus vandermeaschii. Castleton Gar-
dens. November.
Ceroplastes albolineatus,Ckll.-On Excoe-
caria bicolor. Kingston, March-April.
Dactylopius, n. sp. ?-On wild carrot,
Cinchona, November 1.
Ischnaspis filiformis, Dgl.--On Pandanus
falcatus, P. vandermeaschii, and Areca gran-
diformis. Castleton Gardens. Nov.
Lecanium hemisphcericum, Targ --Badly
infesting stems of Ixora (G. F. Judah),
Spanish Town, Nov. Also massed on out-
side of fruit of sweetsop (W. Ramsay-
Thomas), in Kingston, in Sept. Their
attack causes the fruit to become dry and
hard in time.
L. mangiferne, Green. -On Otaheite apple
(L. L. Samuel). Kingston, Nov.
Cerataphis lataniae.-On leaf of orchid
(Miss Moulton-Barrett). Brown's Town,
February. Mr. Cockerell writes that he had
known this heretofore from palms only,
and says the specimens appear to be this
All of the above were determined by
Prof. Cockerell.
Meroncidius, sp. ?-Specimens of a locus-
tid of moderate size, apparently belonging
to this genus, were found at night in flowers
of calla lilies (Richardia africana), feeding
on the flower spathes, at Cinchona, in
November and December. These locustids
do much injury to the flowers after eating
them badly. Specimens have been sent by
Mr. Fawcett and Mr. Harris, these being
in many cases very young specimens appa-
rently the same species.
Strongylosoma coarctatum, Sauss.-Re-
ported by Mr. J. J. Bowrey to be eating
young lima beans, before they got above
ground, in his garden in Kingston, Novem-
ber 27. A widely spread species in the


tropics. It has been introduced into Eng-
land, so Mr. Pocock, of the British Museum,
Otocryptops ferrugineus, Linn.-Peters-
field, Westmoreland, (E. M. Swainson).
Spirobolus, sp. nov.-Petersfield, West-
moreland, (Swainson).
Strongylosoma, n. sp.-Cincbona (5,000
feet.) Dr. J. W. Plaxton.
All of the above were determined by Mr.
R. I. Pocock.
Peripatus jamnaicensis, Gr.- and Okll.
Mr. W. Harris found another specimen of
this species in February, 1894, amongst
some filmy ferns, below Morse's Gap, near
Cinchona. This is the third locality at
which Peripatus has been found in Jamaica.
Glossiphonia sp.--In August, 1893, Mr.
W. H. Hall, of the Institute, brought from

Manchester numerous specimens of a small
leech, taken in a fresh-water tank. Many
of the specimens had numerous young
clustered on the ventral surface. Some of
these were sent to Dr. R. Blanchard, of
Paris, France, who replied that they are an
interesting species of Glossiphonia, most
probably new to science. This is the first
leech of which we have authentic deter.
mination, from Jamaica, at least in recent
Rhynchodemus, sp. ?-In a jar in the
Museum there was found a large specimen
of a planarian, labelled "Leech, from Hope.
Presented by J. Hart, Esq., 20th April,
1885." This was also sent to Dr. Blan-
chard, who returned it with the following
reply :-" The great worm was not a leech,
but a planarian not unlike a Rhynchodemus.
Mr. Lewis Joubin, in Rennes, our specialist
for worms, to whom I communicated this
specimen, was unable to determine it more
exactly." The specimen is over 10 cm.
long, and about 4 mm. wide.



IT is my object in the present communi-
cation to simply invite the attention of
the Institute to the mounted collection of
certain Invertebrates which were prepared
by the experts at the United States National
Museum and sent on to Chicago for ex-
hibition at the World's Columbian Exposi-
The proper preservation of all kinds of
animals for scientific museums and other
educational institutions, is a question that
more or less interests all zoologists, and in
reality is one of paramount importance.
This being so, I feel it hardly demands an
apology from me here for undertaking to
bring before the Institute methods we are em-
ploying in the Government museums of the
United States, with very marked success, by
means of which such animals as an Octopus,
or a Squid, and many of the smaller marine

forms are being modelled with great fidelity
to nature, and in a manner that insures
their almost indefinite preservation. I am
not altogether unfamiliar with what is being
done in Jamaica in this direction, and in
consequence feel that it is hardly likely
that anything will be lost to science by a
comparison-of the methods employed by
the two countries. Our interests along such
lines are identical, we have our large govern-
ment museums to look after, great educa-
tional institutions as they are and through
which stream the annual host of visitors
seeking information there to be found, and
which it is the duty of science to make
presentable and available there, after the
best known and most approved methods.
If we choose for our first example such an
animal as an ordinary sized Octopus, it was,
as every one knows, formerly the practice to


plunge the creature into a great glass jar of
alcohol, which soon robbed it of its natural
colour; required constant changing of the
fluid in order to preserve the specimen; but
what was worse than all by the curvature
of the glass, and the animal being in con-
tact with it upon the entire internal surface,
no idea whatever could be gained of either
the shape or colour of an Octopus when
seen in such a receptacle by the museum
visitor not familiar with such forms in
nature. Alcoholics constitute material of
the very highest value, but they are more
particularly for the use of the experts in
science-the morphologist, dissector and des-
cribers-and it is only in the most ex-
ceptional cases where they can be employed
with advantage in the museum cases for ex-
hibition ; and to present a faithful idea of
what the animals really look like in nature.
We now employ, as I have just said, other
methods to carry out the latter object.
In the workshops of the United States
National Museum the vast majority of the
invertebrata thus far, have been modelled
from the most reliable figures, although
whenever it has been practicable, the animal
itself is used.
To model the Octopus, a plaster-of-
paris cone is made, of the proper size,
and with an altitude about equal to its
base. When forming the model, the central
point of the under side of the animal coin-
cides with the apex of this cone, and the
limbs or arms rest upon its curved surface at
convenient distances apart. The material
used to form the model is the ordinary
modeller's wax, a composition formed of
wax, tallow, &c., and it admits of reprodu-
cing in great detail every structural charac-
ter in such a type as Octopus vulgaris.
After the exterior of the animal is modelled,
a plaster-of-paris mould is made of it, and
thereafter the inner or nether structures
modelled, and the plaster mould completed.
From this it will be seen that everything
depends upon the trueness to nature of the
model that is made, and the skill in getting
an absolutely perfect plaster mould from it.
These objects are accomplished by having
the first made under the direct supervision
of a competent biologist, and the second
undertaken by a caster of the first class.
With respects to these cephalopods, they
were modelled after Verany's celebrated
figures given in his 'Mollusks of the Medi-
terranean," which indeed were the same
coloured figures copied by Blaschkainmak-
ing his famous glass models. In a great many
cases a portion of the animal is modelled and

a mould made of this part; then still resting
in the mould the model is completed, and
the mould finished. From these finished
moulds, gelatine casts are made. After a
great many experiments undertaken with the
view of discovering a gelatine compound
that would make the most endurable cast,
the following combination was found to give
the best results:-
Best Irish glue ... 4 ounces.
Gelatine (photographer's) 2 ,,
Glycerine ... 4
Boiled linseed oil ... }
To properly combine these substances we
must in every step use just as little water
as possible, for it is evident that that fluid
must eventually dry out of the finished cast,
whereupon shrinkage and consequent dis-
tortion follow, a result to be most carefully
avoided. Therefore in our first step in
softening the glue and gelatine we use only
sufficient alcohol to barely cover those in-
gredients. Some operators even resort to a
moist cloth only, to melt them, wrapping
them in it for a few hours. After the glue
is melted the glycerine is stirred in, and a
few drops of carbolic acid added, or as a
substitute, the oil of cloves.
This compound dries with great rapidity,
owing to the small proportion of water in it,
so it is quite necessary in most cases to
thoroughly warm the mould before filling
it; or fill the two halves separately, when
there are only two, and then press them
firmly together. This last recommendation
applies especially to the making of the
combs and wattles of mounted specimens
of fowls, structures for which this method
has been proved to be of the very highest
Of course one of the gelatine casts upon
first having been taken out of the plaster
mould, has to be neatly trimmed down with
a sharp pair of scissors, and lines or eleva-
tions of any kind not seen in the animal
itself are to be dressed off skilfully
with a warm iron modelling tool. The cast
as it now stands is of a rather dark glue
colour;" perfectly plastic, and nearly as
tough as India rubber. Next the services
of the artist are called into requisition, and
by the use of the most suitable and best oil
paints the cast is coloured to exactly resem-
ble the animal or structure in life. When
conipleted, it is very remarkable how closely
one of these casts resembles the animal it
is intended to represent. This is especially
true of snakes, certain fishes, batrachians,
etc,-and possessing about the due amount


of plasticity,-the handling of one of them
still further enhances the resemblance to
the real thing.
In the Government collection at the
World's Fair, there was a case showing a
number of specimens of Octopus vulgaris
in their native haunts, and while standing
near it, I heard several people, after view-
ing it for some time, ask whether or no the
creatures were alive.
Casts thus made of the combs and wattles
of domestic fowls have, for a whole sum-
mer, been exposed to the sun, and kept in
a dry room for the balance of the year
without the slightest deterioration of any
kind whatever.
At the National Museum the method has
been applied to everything falling within
its scope, all the way from the comb of a
cock, to a large-sized Opah.
With respect to casting specimens of
Sepia, the arms and head are made in one
piece, the b >dy in another, and the two parts
subsequently united. The exterior of the
arms are then moulded, the mould being
in several pieces, the m'del being left in
the cast; then the central plaster cone is
removed and the inner sides of the arms
finished, and then the centre of the mould
made. Where the animal itself is not the
model, accuracy is obtained by the use of
the dividers; the same being done when

the model is made from a figure, in the
presence of a natural specimen and a pub-
lished description. It is quite possible in
the case of a large squid, to make a plaster
mould direct from the specimen, and thus
absolute accuracy is assured. These casts
then can be made to meet two or three great
requisites in so far as a series of specimens
for museum exhibition are concerned.
When properly cared for they will last
indefinitely; next, they can be made to
exactly resemble the originals and of any
desired size; finally, by the use of acces-
sories, the animals can be represented in
their natural haunts. This leaves but very
little to be desired in such matters.
On closing this brief account it gives me
great pleasure to thank my friend Mr. F.
A. Lucas of the United States National
Museum, not only for allowing me free
access to his work-shops in that institution,
where these models and casts are made.
but also for pointing out to me some of the
minor details of modelling and casting in
gelatine. I have also been assisted by
observing the method here described, as
performed by Mr. J. W. Scollich, one of
Mr. Lucas's skilled preparateurs, as well as
I have by reading a short article by him in
the proceedings of the National Museum.0
SCOLLICH, J. W. On the making of Gelatine
Casts. Proc. U. Nat. Mus. Vol. xvi. (No. 926) pp.
61, 62. (Extract).



WHEN Dr. Strachan visited the island of
Grand Cayman he obtained a few insects,
which I was permitted to examine. Of
these, a dragon-fly, Trithemis umbrata, L.,
and a butterfly, Euptoleta hegesia, Cr.,
were identical with those found in Jamaica,
though interesting as coming from a new
locality. There were, however, two speci-
mens of a butterfly different from anything
we have in Jamaica, but apparently refer-
able to the genus Anaea. I wrote out a

description of this, but hesitated to publish
it without having seen the Cuban Anaea
echemus, which it might very possibly prove
to be. Finally, being unable to get the
matter settled myself, I forwarded the des-
cription to Dr. H. Skinner of Philadelphia,
asking for his opinion He replied on Dec.
2, 1893.
From description and drawing I would
say it is Anaea echemus, Doubl., but can't
be absolutely certain unless I saw a speci.


men .. your description agrees fairly
well with specimens in Coll. Am. Ent. Soc.
and also with fig. in Doubl. and Hew."
As no description of Anaea echemus is
available to entomologists resident in Ja-
maica, and as the Cayman form may be a
little different from that found in Cuba, it
will be as well to give the details relating
to Dr. Strachan's specimens :-
Anaea from Grand Cayman.
Expanse, 64 mm.; antenna, length 11
mm.; abdomen, length abt. 7 mm.; tails of
hind wings, length 6 mm.; outer margin of
fore-wing, length 20 mm.
Primaries arched on cosa, not falcate, outer
margin wavy. Secondaries with outer mar-
gin wavy, tails broad and obliquely trun-
cate. Antenna rather short; abdomen
shorter than thorax; palpi directed up-
wards, bristly.
Upper side of wings dark sooty brown, with
the bases broadly suffused with purplish-
ferruginous. Hind wings along the lower
margin rather bright red-brown; with the
tails of the same colour, their edges darker
than the intermediate portion. Near the

base of each tail is a large oval black spot,
with a bright white dot at its upper edge;
and on the inner side of this spot is another
similar but less distinct and rounder one,
also showing the white dot.
Under side of wings purplish, finely and
regularly lineolate all over with silvery-
white; except the lower portion of the
secondaries, which is purplish.grey, bounded
above by a darker purplish brown band,
and below, along the margin, first by pale
ochreous, and then by ferruginous. On this
purplish-grey portion the black spots with
white dots of the upper side are repeated,
but the white dots are more suffused, and
the spots are bordered below by greenish.
Antennae reddish; legs rather pale; palpi
longitudinally striped black and white; eyes
shiny brown.
The other specimen, in poor condition,
differed as follows :-Expanse 55 mm.
Basal half of wings above (more than
half of hind wings) rather bright ferru-
Palpi hardly striped. Under side of
upper wings with a white band indicated
somewhat obscurely.



UNDER the caption of "A bot-like bird
parasite," a cyclostyled note (No. 70) was
issued from the Museum in Nov., 1893.
From this note the following account of the
breeding of the anthomyiid parasite de-
scribed below is taken, with slight change.
On Nov. 8, Mr. S. M. Jones brought to
the Museum a live specimen of a young
grass-quit, which presented a most peculiar
appearance owing to the presence of a para-
sitic dipterous larva beneath the skin on
the right side of the head at the base of the
mandibles. The bird was a nearly matured
specimen of the genus Spermophila, with
little doubt the black-faced grass.quit (S.
bicolor, L.). It was captured in Kingston.
The anal end of the larval parasite, show-

ing the stigmata or breathing pores, was
protruded, being encircled by the white
marginal skin at the angle of the mouth at
base of mandibles. The larva extended
longitudinally backwards beneath the eye,
extending some distance posterior to the
latter, being about 9 mm. long, and nearly
5 mm. in thickness. It was dirty yellowish
white in color, and had protruded the
skin wonderfully, showing the bare surface
of the latter without any feathers upon it.
It could be seen to move its cephalic por-
tion about, evidently causing the bird some
anxiety. The latter seemed more or less
dazed, lively if touched, keeping more
quiet and with its eyes usually closed if
left alone, and emitting a regular faint


chirrup of alarm. It was put in a glass
jar, with earth at bottom, at 4 p.m.
On Nov. 9, at 9.30 a.m., the parasite was
discovered to have changed its position,
being found exactly on top of the head
between the skin and the skull, giving the
bird a false crest. It had the anal portion
protruded, as before, this being the only
part visible. The bird was very lively,
constantly chirruping, and was still alive
at 7 p.m.
On Nov 10, at 9 a.m., the bird was found
dead, and the larva had left it and made for
itself a slight cocoon beneath a match box,
that had been placed on top of the earth in
the jar. It had not entered the earth, but
had formed around itself a thin whitish
covering, to which particles of earth and
debris had stuck, the whole being attached
to the surface of the match box. Upon de-
taching it, the whitish larva was seen in-
side. It was then replaced, and muslin
tied over the top of the jar, which was
watched daily for the appearance of the
adult fly.
On Nov. 22, at 9 a.m., the fly was found
to be emerged. It proved to be a moder-
ately large anthomyiid.
A brief account of ,this breeding was
also given in a note in the Journal, i, 381-
2. The occurrence of these larvae in nest-
ling birds at Cinchona (5000 ft.,) and in
nestlings of the nightingale" or mock-
ing bird (Mimus orpheus) at Duncans, is
there recorded.
Mr. E. Stuart Panton later confirmed the
occurrence of the larvae in Mimus orpheus
(probably in Manchester), having noticed
them on several occasions in past years in
the nestlings of this bird.
The adult fly, which was bred Nov. 22,
has been determined to belong to the genus
Mydaea. The American species of this

anthomyiid genus have not been worked up
at all, and I believe the present is the first
American species to be described. Dr. R.
H. Meade, of England, many years ago, in
examining a collection of American Antho-
myiidae, recorded that he found ten species
of Mydaea, only one of which was similar
to any in Europe. Nothing has since been
done upon the American species of the
Mydaea spermophilae, n. sp.-Eyes light
cinnamon brown. Frontal vitta light
brown, sides of front narrow and silvery.
Face and cheeks silvery, with a yellowish
tinge. Antennae orange-yellow, third
joint about three times as long as second.
Arista brown, yellowish at base, feathery.
Palpi yellow. Proboscis yellowish, brownish
at base. Occiput cinereous. Thorax black-
ish silvery, with four dark vittae, outer
ones interrupted. Scutellum and abdo-
men black, thinly silvery, somewhat
marmorate on abdomen. Venter yellowish
in middle basally. Legs brownish or black-
ish, yellowish at base and knees. Wings
clear, much longer than abdomen. Length,
about 8 mm.
The cocoon, if it may be so called, is
14 mm. long, and composed of particles of
earth adhering to a thin whitish membrane
immediately enclosing the puparium. An
aperture was kept in it at the posterior end,
so that, the air could reachbthe anal stigmata,
which may be seen through the aperture.
The puparium is about 9 mm. in length,
and of a light chestnut brown color.
This case of sub-cutaneous anthomyiid
parasitism in birds is a most interesting
one. The only similar case ever recorded
is that of Hylemyia pici,MIacq., an anthomyiid,
the larva of which is said to live in a swell-
ing on the wing of a wood-pecker, Picus
striatus. in Santo Domingo.



ON the 22nd of February, 1894, Mr. wilted condition, and was believed to be
John Tillman brought me a flower-stem of attacked by some insect. On examination
an orchid from Kingston Gardens. The I found that it contained two or more small
stem was noticed to be in a somewhat dipterouss larvae, which were boring longi-


tudinally along inside the stem. The latter
was thereupon placed in a closed tin box
to secure the adult if possible.
On opening the box, March 19, a trans-
formed adult fly was found dead. It had
therefore issued sometime in March. Two
empty puparia were found, so that a second
adult had no doubt issued and escaped.
The specimen was determined to be a
species of the acalyptrate muscid genus
Lotchaeu, a group of small, moderately
stout, shining metallic, blue black or green-
black flies. But two species have been
described from the West Indian region,
both by Wiede:nmn. Our species belongs
to none of the three described by WViedemann
from the neotropical region, and is des-
oribed below as new. L. glaberim, Wd. is
recorded from the West Indies, L. chalybea,
Wd. from Brazil, and L. wiedemanni, Towns.
(syn. L, nigra,Wd. preocc.) from Brazil and
Lonchaea orchidearum, n. sp.-Eyes
greenish brown, probably greenish in life.
Front and face blackish. Front with several
bristles near vertex. Antennae black, short,
third joint short and rounded. Thorax
shining metallic black, with a slight greenish
tinge, soutellum with a plainer greenish

tinge. Abiomen deep metallic green, short
and somnwhiat pointed at extremity. Legs
blackish. Wings much longer than abdo-
men, hyaline, more or less iridescent.
Length, 1 mm.m
Bred from wilted flower-stem of Onci-
dium luridun. Very likely it infests other
species.of orchids as well. The flies have
been noticed swarming about the orchid
stems in Kingst in.
Puparium. Small, moderately slender.
Tawny yellowish in color, darker at
anal end. Ventral surface quite straight
in profile, dorsal surface in profile des-
cribing a quite even curve from head to
anal stigmata. Somewhat stouter on anterior
portion, the posterior portion a little more
tapering. The fly escapes by breaking out
the whole ventral portion of about the first
three segments.
The habits of certain European species of
Lonchaea are known, and are very similar
to those of L. orchidearum. The larvae of
L. nigra, Meig. bore in the stems of Verbas-
cum, Angelica, and (ardiuus. Larvae of L.
parvicornis, Meig. live in stems of Triticum,
in which they form swellings; while the
larvae of L. lasioohthalma, VMeig. live simi-
larly in stems of Cynodon.



A cyclostyled note (No. 77) was sent out
in March, 1891, from the Museum, on the
subject of the swarming of small fishes on
rocks. From this note the following is
quoted :
"Under date of Oct. 12, 1886, Mr. Thos.
Hendrick, Clerk of the Court, wrote to Mr.
J. J. Bowrey, then Curator of the Museum,
concerning the appearance in great numbers
of certain small fishes on rocks in the Hope
river below Gordon Town. His letter is as
follows :
I have been staying a few days at the
Grove Parsonage, about a mile below the

I find within the last day or two that
the rocks in the river are many of'them
thronged with enormous masses, millions
upon millions, of small fishes. The people
in the neighbourhood say that they accom-
pany epidemics of common sickness, such as
cholera or small-pox. Some say that they are
sui generis, and never grow larger. Others
say that they are young mud fish, and others
that they are mullets.
I send you specimens in a bottle and
shall be glad if you will let me know what
they are, or if you ever heard of their ap-
pearance in such enormous masses.' 0 1 :,
"Mr. Bowrey states that on one or more


occasions many years ago he witnessed the
same occurrences, but in much smaller num-
bers. He believes them to have been young
mud fish, as they wereprovided with a sucker
under the throat by means of which they
held to the surface of the rocks. The speci-
mens noticed by Mr. Bowrey were about
one and one-half inches in length. The
mud fish belongs to the genus Eleotris."
The above mentioned specimens, sent by
Mr. Hendrick, at first could not be found.
They were discovered later, however, and
sent to Dr. D. S. Jordan, of the Stanford
University in California. In his absence Dr.
C. II. Gilbert replied as follows:
"The little fish which you send belongs
to the genus Sicydium, of which but one
species is certainly known from America,
Sicydiium plumieri, from the fresh waters of
the West Indies. Your specimens are so
immature, that 'I cannot state positively
that they belong to this species. The den-
tition is divergent, and they show no trace
of the ribbon-like elongation of the dorsal
spines characteristic of the adult S. plumieri.
Adults of this fish might throw light on the
mooted question of the existence of more
than one species in the West Indies."
It should be mentioned that the speci-
mens sent were very small, not more than
an inch in length. Several communications
on the subject have been received, and are
Mr. W. Harris, of Cinchona, under date
of March 20, 1894, writes as follows :
In reference to your note about the
swarming of small fishes in the Hope river,
you may be interested to hear that the same
thing takes place in the Wag Water river
at Castleton, as far as I can remember in
the month of July, and I believe every
year. I am not quite certain of the month,
but have witnessed the strange sight on
three occasions. Myriads of tiny fish form

a dense black line in shallow water along
the edges of the river, the whole mass mov-
ing up stream. The people in the Castle-
ton district call these fishes 'ticky-ticky,'
by which I inferred they meant "sticky-
sticky" in allusion to the clammy nature of
the living mass. This curious procession
lasts a fortnight or thereabouts, and when
progress is impeded by a rock or large
stone, the numbers increase to such an ex-
tent through the mass pressing onwards,
that they may be literally shovelled out of
the water. The people in the district
almost live upon the fish cooked whole
with flour, plenty of pepper, etc., during the
time the procession lasts; and they eat so
excessively of this mixture that many of
them are made ill, and diarrhoea and other
complaints prevail amongst them at this
Mr. C. T. Dewar, of Duncans, under date
of March 21, 1894, writes as follows:
I saw your letter on the swarming of
small fishes on rocks. I may mention that
this is a yearly occurrence in rivers in a
certain time of the year, and is generally
spoken of by the people as the fry have
come up." I have eaten them, and they are
very good. They appear in myriads and
cover every stone and rock, and gradually
work their way up the river. Should a
stick touch the water, they will swarm up
the stick as far out of the water as it is quite
wetted, say one-half inch or so."
Finally, Dr. Maunsell, of Buff Bay, reports
that the small fishes are very abundant at
certain seasons in the White river near Buff
Bay. They are called ticki ticki" and are
good eating. Dr. Maunsell has also been
told that the same thing occurs in a river
in Hayti, probiblynear Jacmel, where they
are also eaten as a delicacy.
Note.-The tickyy ticky" of Gosse (Nat.in Jamaica,
p. 48) is a different species entirely.


IN August, 1894, the General Officer com-
manding the Forces in Jamaica asked the
Rev. Horace Scotland for his opinion as to
the probability of obtaining fresh water at
Port Royal, if boring were continued to a
depth of, say 2,500 feet. Mr. Scotland in

two communications, the one dated 26th
May and the other 14th August, while not
professing to be more than an amateur in
geology, gives his opinion after having sam-
ples of rocks from the borings submitted to
him. From his study of the district he was


led to think that boring for fresh water in
the town of Port Royal would be eventually
successful if carried deep enough. The
depth would depend, of course, upon the
nature of the soil encountered, which was
known only from a depth of from 6 to 10
feet. He shows that the normal river flow
in Jamaica does not sufficiently account for
the rainfall; there must be large volumes
of fresh water finding exit below sea-level
and round the coast, and even the con-
glomerates and trap may, below sea-level,
be super-saturated here and there with
fresh water. The following samples of the
borings were submitted to Mr. Scotland,
who was greatly assisted in his conclusions
by Mr. Bowrey.
1. From a depth of 150 feet. Mostly ma-
rine and littoral coral-rock, geologically
2. From a depth of 190 to 206 feet. La-
goon clay, saturated and indurated by infil-
trated lime. This clay was carefully ex-
amined for Eocene fossils, but without any
3. From a depth of 270 feet. Fragments
of limestone, which Mr. Scotland afterwards
considered may have been derived from
some boulder, not from the stratified rock.
In his later communication on the matter,
after the boring had been continued to a
depth of 336 feet, he formulates the follow-
ing conclusions :-
I. Nothing has yet happened and no indication
has presented itself unfavourable to the advisa-
bility of continuing the boring.
II. Nothing like Tertiary stratification has yet
been touched. I cannot say if any be really Post
Pliocene or Early Quarternary, for I have had no
experience of that formation.
III. The formations already gone through by
the Port Royal boring-naming them in the order
of their descent-seem to be (a) Coralline, (b)
Salt Lagoon deposits, (c) Triturated sand-stone
from the result of wave action.
IV. All the water that percolates into the bot.
tom of the boring, at present,has (from Mr. Bowrey's
analysis) proved to be only sea-water; so no other
source of water has yet been tapped; nor will it
be tapped until the soil gets sufficiently closely
compacted to exclude the salt-water.

V. The geological formation of Jamaica, justi-
fies the deduction that abundant supplies of water,
and under sufficient pressure, ought to be ob-
tainable at Port Royal ; if only the boring be sunk
deep enough, and care be taken to scientifically
examine and identify the successive strata or beds
passed through, until the water-bearing forma-
tions are approached, viz: the interstices of the
Miocene limestone, and the (lower than the Mio-
cene) deposits of the Eocene clay.
VI. But, further, it must be stated as a fact, that
the geology of Jamaica is still very imperfectly
known, despite the very able, and (as far as it
went) carefully-made survey of Messrs. Barrett,
Sawkins, Brown, Lennox, &c., in 1863 to 1866:
and what of it is known, shows that it is not very
regular in the sequence of its stratifications.
Links are missing. It is also further to be
noticed that in different and not widely
separated places the regular stratifications
differ much in thickness, and in their dip.
Thus the Miocene limestone in the Long Moun-
tain, about 8 miles east of Port Royal: dips
towards Port Royal, and so also does the same
limestene, 2 miles west of Port Royal, at Port
Henderson, all which is favourable for artesian
boring at Port Royal; but the dips although they
are synclinal, are by no means at the same
angles, or at very favourable ones,for easily touching
the limestones below the town of Port Royal, even
if they be there But to compensate for this, the
deeper we have to go to get at this limestone the
more likely will its mass be water-collecting, and
its firmness and inter-stratifications be water-
yielding, even without going down to the Eocene
below. This Miocene limestone in the Long
Mountain to the east of Kingston ranges from
about 500 feet of thickness in the north, to 1,500
feet in the south, in a length of about 31 or 4
miles; and in Mount Diablo, going to Moneague,
it is at least 3,000 feet thick-whereas, 1 know
places, e.g., Roaring River in St. John's, and Lud-
low and Look-out in Upper Clarendon, where this
Limestone is very thin: one has only to go
through it, 100, 50, or even 10 feet in some places,
to get to the water-bearing yellow Eocene clay.
VII. The deductions are, I think, favour-
able, and the deeper it is determined to carry the
boring the better will be the chances of success;
but when at any depth the Eocene clay is reached,
the boring should stop, for the fresh water will
then assuredly be got; but if this happen no great
distance from the present surface, the supply
of water at Port Royal will not be under much
rising pressure, nor very copious in volume. The
deeper the Eocene clay is broached, the
thicker (up to 20 or 30 feet) it is likely to be:
also the better the pressure, the greater the
volume of water, and the purer its nature may be
expected to be.

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