• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Past and present
 Present condition of groves
 Treatment of frozen trees
 Varieties
 Considerations






Title: Present condition and treatment of orange groves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024531/00001
 Material Information
Title: Present condition and treatment of orange groves
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 33
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Moremen, M. S
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City, Fla.
Manufacturer: Dacosta Printing House
Publication Date: 1896
Copyright Date: 1896
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024531
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab6188 - LTQF
aen0351 - LTUF
18154504 - OCLC
000919958 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of contents
        Table of contents
    Introduction
        Introduction
    Past and present
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Present condition of groves
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Treatment of frozen trees
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Varieties
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Considerations
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
Full Text






U4ORIDA


ARhICULTURAL EXPERIMENT


STAT'rION.


Present Condition and Treatment of


OretiaIge GrI


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Sent Station, Lake City, Fl




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.BOARD OF TRUSTEES..


Hon. :WALTE GwYN, Presiden . ... ... Sanford
SHoN. W. ,D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President Pensatcola
'14ON. F. E. HARRIS,' Ch'n Exqcutive Committee . Ocala
Hb A. B., HAGE Secretary . . Lake City
SHox. S. STRINGER ... ..... .. . .. Brooksville,
SHow. C. F. A. BIELBY ....... ...... Detan'd,







SCLUTE, M. S., LL. D .. Dirtor.
.P. H. RoLys, M. S. . ...Horticulturist and Biol ist
A. A. PERSON, M. S. .... . . . Chemist
C. A. FINLEY. . . . . Directors' Secretary
S HO A. L. QUAINTANCE, S .... ..Assistant in Biology i
S. K. MILLEP, M. S. Assistant in Chemistry"
JON F.'MITCHLLL . Foreman of Lae City Far
J. T. STUBBS ... Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH .... ... Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers.
F. B. MOODIE, Spe'l Experimenter with Tobacco, Lake City
'M. S. MORE3EN, Sp'l Ex. of Orange Groves, Switzerlaid



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^.. H. MLLER M.S. '. .. .Assitan in Cheisty"
















TABLE OF CONTENTS.

THE PRESENT CONDITION AND TREATMENT OF. ORANGE
GROVES.
PAGES.
Introduction . . . . . . . .
Past and Present .. . .. 209 211
Present Condition of Groves . ... . . 211
In Bradford ..... ... .. . 211
Hawthorne and Interlachen . .. 211 212
Orange Lake, Micanopy, and Southward 212
Leesburg ..... ..... ... 213
Western Orange County . . . . 213
Tangerine . . . . . 213
South and West of Kissimmee ..... 113
The Manatee Country .. . . . 213 214
DeSoto County. . . . . ... 214
Lee County, Ft. Myers, Orange River 214
On the Indian River Rockledge, City
Point, Titusville, New Smyrna, Day-.
tona, the "Old City" .' ... 215
St. Lucie, and Lower Indiai River. 25.
Orlando, Sanford . . . . . 215
DeLand, Cresent City . . .. . 216 217
Along the St. Johns .. .. .... 216
Treatment of Frozen Trees .. . . .. 217
Treatment of Seedlings . . . .. 217 218
Sprouts on Trunk and Limbs . 218
Sprouts from Roots . . . 218
Treatment of Budded Trees . ..... 219
Cultivation, Fertilizing . . . .. 219 220







No Cultivation ........ . 220
Mulching .. . . .. 220 221
Grafting the Stumps . . . 221
Mr. Adams' Method .. . . . 221 222
Banking . .... . . 222 223
Vari iet s . . . . ... . 223
Where Early Varieties Should Be Grown 223
Late 223
S Mid-Season 224
Read the Reports of the State Horticultural So-
ciety . . . . . . . 224
List of Varieties . . . ... . 225
Considerations .... . . . . . .225
The Freezes . ... ....... . 225
Will it Pay to Restore Groves? . . 225 226
Have We Not Fared the Best? .... .226 227
When Will Fruit be Shipped? 227 228
The Best Locality. . . ..... 228
Abandonment . . . . . .. 228
What Should Have Been Done ? . 228
What Killed the Trees? . . . . 228
Effects of Cultivation ... . . 228 229
Stumps that Have Not Sprouted . . 229
Prices . . . . . . . . 229
Acknowledgements . . . . 229
Mr. Fairbanks on Freezes in Florida 230 236









. .. 1.

INTRODUCTION.

In looking over the industrial interests of Florida it
seemed to me that no more valuable, work could be done
for the State than that the present condition of the orange :
groves should be carefully examined by an expert orange- i
grower, that he should consult with the most successful
owners of groves, and that the opinions as to the present
management reached by his observation and consultation
should be published for the common good. To do this
important work I was able to secure M. S. Moremen, of
Switzerland, whose long and successful experience in
orange culture, coupled with his conservative temperament '
>*' eminently fitted him for the service. The result of his
Work is herewith published, with the belief that it 'will
prove a valuable aid in the development of Florida.
Special acknowledgements should be made of the
kindness of the officers of the F. C. & P. R. R., and of the
J. T. & K. W. R., who willingly gave passes over their
lines to Fr. Moremen. Similar courtesies have often been
S given the Station staff of workers by these and all other
railroads in the State. Doubtless the other roads would
have been equally generous in this case, had they been
,asked.
O. CLUTE, Director.
Lake City, February 4, 1896.
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STHE PRESENT CONDITION AND TREATMENT
OF ORANGE GROVES.

Owing to the very unusual climatic conditions of the .
: season of 1894-'95 the orange growers of Florida passed '
through an ,experience unknown to this generation, and, in
fact, without parallel in the history of citrus culture in the
S State. .
S In preparing this bulletin upon the present condition
-and future treatment of the orange groves of Florida, every
effort has been made to secure the most accurate knowl-
edge',.by"personal examination in, the several sections, and
by interviewing as many as possible of the leading progres-
Ssive growers. It is not intended to give in detail the con-
'; editions of the various sections, or the treatment that may
best suit any special soil or district. Such a task would
6 b herculean and impracticable. The object is to convey
the best general knowledge of the present conditions and
'of the events that have produced them, and to suggest
;: treatment that will, in a large measure, be of'benefit in
' every locality, leaving to the growers to determine the spe-
cial differences that may exist in their groves from the con-
S(.ditions herein presented, and the special treatment needed
Other than that recommended. The importance and the
difficulty of-this work will at once impress the minds of
practical men, and the writer therefore asks for friendly
judgment.,

PAST AND PEESENT.

S Nothing can more forcibly call attention to the fatal
Effects of the severe weather of last winter than to contrast
the beautiful fruit-laden groves as seen in December, 1894,



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210


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with the seared and desolate scenes that remained after the
passage of the death-dealing blizzards of December, 1894,
and February, 1895. The horticulturist had acquired
knowledge of the skillful culture of citrus fruits, as was,
evidenced by the thriftiness of the trees and the abundance
of the harvest. The great freeze of 1835 had become a
dim tradition of the past. So complete was the confidence
S in the minds of men that few believed that these flourish-
S ing trees would ever be destroyed in their time. Therefore
cheerfulness and contentment, companions of prosperity,
were blessing the people. On the night of December 28,
1894, over this picture of beauty, prosperity and happiness,
the blighting north wind passed, stripping from the groves.
their beauty, and destroying the ripe fruit with which, the
S trees were laden, but doing no permanent-injury to the
S, trees. Remarkable for its recuperative powers, as soon as
exposed to the direct rays of the sun by the loss of foliage,
this wonderful tree sprung into active life, sending forth
new leaves, and, in many places, myriads of fruit buds.
The anxious husbandman, desiring an early restoration,
sought to hasten it by cultivation and fertilizing. Under.
these influences an early and exceedingly abundant flow of
sap in the trees was produced. While the freeze of Decem-
ber found the trees dormant and protected under a canopy of
matured foliage, on February 7, 1895, all conditions were
changed; so that the same degree of cold (140 at Jackson-
S ville), which did but little injury to the trees in December,
on this memorable night killed them to the ground, with
but few exceptions. The destruction in December was
about two-thirds of the fruit crop; in February it was almost
the total destruction of the tops of all the trees in the north-
ern and central parts of the State.
Slowly realizing the extent of the vast destruction
;'. wrought, men seemed dazed, and knew not what course
S was best to pursue. There was no past experience to guide
S them. An overwhelming calamity 'had come upon them






.. . .


spch-as seldom visits-a people. Destruction and ruin star-
-ing them in the face, these people did not give over to de-
'spair, but with a heroism much akin to. the tenacious vital-
Sity of their trees, they set forth to conquer adversity,.and
to rebuild their ruined fortunes as best they could. Un-
aided they will conquer, and woo back prosperity with all
of. her companions. Again these groves will give forth
Their fragrance and gladden the people with a golden, har-
vest.
PRESENT CONDITIONS.

Could a bird's-eye view be had of the orange country,
looking from the northern border to the far south, where
flow the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee Rivers, mutilated
and, destroyed groves would, for the most part, meet the .
gaze, until near this southern limit, where the trees were
but slightly injured. Passing southward from district to
district, the same general description is true, except that as .
the south is approached the number of trees killed to the
ground lessens, and the frost damage is to be seen mostly
in the tops and branches. A general description Of each
Section would be as follows, mention being made of special
conditions overlooked in the general view: '
On the northern border of orange production lies Brad-
'ford County, which has never been considered much of an
orange district. Yet while there are few, if any, large
groves, annually many thousand boxes of oranges were
shipped. The trees were principally seedlings, which grew i
near the farm houses and barns, and were fertilized by the
waste of the premises. With little expense to the owner,,
Soranges were produced, adding a satisfactory sum to his
income. Nearly all of thesetrees were killed to the ground,,
but have sprouted well upon the roots, and promise, wth '
normal winters, in a few years to be yielding their usual.
crop. So the acreage of this section will be restored.
Hawthorne and Interlachen, situated in a rolling pine


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212

country, also had their groves practically cut to the ground.
Here there is now in many instances a fine growth from
the roots, and it will in due time make thrifty trees. Here,
as elsewhere during the first months of the year, a vigorous
growth started on trunks and limbs. But these sprouts
from trunks and limbs for the most part died, and those
which remain are not considered a good foundation for the
S future tree, except in a few instances. These exceptions
promise bloom for the coming year.
Southward is the Orange Lake and Micanopy country,
famous for its rich soil, being principally hammock, and in,
the past.the greatest orange-producing area of the State,
SHere natural, groves of the wild or sour, orange abounded,
S During the '70's the greater portion of these native teres
were budded, and from them some of the most famous
groves of the world were produced.
Island Grove, Bishop, Hoyt & Co., Orange Lake Fruit -
S Company, White, Kells, Borland Bros., Sampson, Barr, ;
Montgomery, and many others too numerous to mention,
; , are names which suggest broad acres of orange trees,and
thousands of.boxes of luscious fruit. From this section .
something like 8o0,ooo boxes were annually marketed. Iin,
one night this vast industry'was swept from the earth. So:
closed an epoch of most wonderful prosperity to these peo-
Sple. Believing what has been done in the past can be re-
peated in the future, it is gratifying to see with what energy -
S and confidence the work of restoration is being pushed
forward so that flourishing groves will soon again cover
these fertile lands.
SrPassing southward the same history continues true of
the larger portion' of the groves, practically all being killed 's"
to thhe ground, or dying back to the roots after this freeze. .
a.ling new growth about the collar in all stages, from the
bii ting eye to the shoot of five feet or more.
S'; In the water-prqtected and forest-protected groves ini,'
thie viciiity of Leesburg the tops of many of the trees par-

S.,.... .
A 1,








213

tially escaped. In some instances a few oranges were seen
This winter among the rank growth. From appearances it
is fair to predict that' Lake County will have oranges to ,
S ship in 1896. "Indeed the crop for next" year is'estimated
at about io,ooo boxes. Beybnd the region of the large
lakes of Leesburg is western Orange County, a locality
Heretofore peculiarly exempt from injurious frosts. How-
ever, the general condition of groves is now about the same
as found elsewhere. Every district has its favored places,
so on Lake Apopka as at Leesburg, forest-protected and
water-protected trees will yield some fruit next year. One
thing to be particularly noticed in this section is the success '
of the'root-grafting practiced by Mr. D. W. Adams, near
Tangerine. These grafts, put in last February, made a fine
growth .appearing in December as well-grown trees of five
or six years. Mr. Adants anticipates bloom next spring,
S and possibly some fruit may set.
From Wildwood southward there is no reason to
S change the general description as to condition of groves,
since all have fared about alike, until near the Tampa sec-
S tion, where it is noticeable that the number of trees that i-
partially escaped has largely increased. Especially is this
true of the sub-peninsula, there being some oranges in the
neighborhood of St. Petersburg this season.
The section of country south of the South Florida '
Railroad from Kissimmee westward can show a much '
larger proportion of partially injured and uninjured trees
than any other part of .the State. It is noticeable that, as
you travel southward, the proportion of trees killed to the
ground grows smaller, while the number sustaining injury
S only-in the top rapidly increases.
S Entering the Manatee River section the first trees, are
seen that escaped the blizzard's touch. Probably it is not
'quite correct to say "escaped," for on account of the dam- '
,age done by frost, little or no fruit was produced this year
on the north side of the trees. Nor must it be supposed

.. ,.








214

that all the trees escaped. For the most part the trees im-
mediately upon the banks of the river were but little
__' damaged, while back on either side of the river many trees
lost from one-half to two-thirds of their tops, and not infre-
quently trees were killed to the ground even here. So far
as observed lemon trees were universally killed to the
ground. From this Manatee country about one-third of
the usual crop of fruit is being shipped this season-esti-
mated at 28,000 boxes. It will take the groves of the
S Manatee country some two years or more to reach normal
conditions and produce the former amount of fruit. It is
i proving indeed a golden harvest to these people, prices
obtained being from $2.25 to $2.75 per box on the trees.
SEntering DeSdto County we find many groves show-
ing but little injury and producing some fruit this season.
Though so favored there was still damage done, for some,
S trees here are also killed to the ground. The growth here
this summer has been fine. -The crop of DeSoto was about,
2,000 boxes. There is every reason to believe that the
S crop will be much greater next season.
Lee and Manatee Counties stand in marked contrast
to the balance of the orange-producing sections. In Lee,
as described for Manatee, are trees practically without any
frost damage. Upon the broad Caloosahatchee River these
trees are safely beyond the visitations of injurious frosts.
: While the blizzards reached this section they touched it
lightly. Lemons and limes record its passage by the'loss
of a portion of their tops. There is n'o injury to orange
trees to mention, more than that some bloom was cut off
S in February, lessening the crop slightly. One is impressed
that this is the ideal orange country on beholding the mag-
nificent trees and rich soil as seen in the high hammock
S lands along the river and tributary creeks.
A visit to Orange River, just above Ft. Myers, gives
an insight to the future prosperity that has already dawned
upon this country. The crop of oranges shipped from the
A -








215

Caloosahatchee this year was about 20o,oo boxes. It will
rapidly increase, as changed conditions have .made this sec-
Stion an orange center.
Indian River has in the past been a synonym for trop-
ical growth and balmy breezes of the Southland; but the
ruthless freezes of last winter heeded not tradition, neither
Stayed the work ofdestruction when entering this favored
region. Rockledge, where the famous Indian 'River orange
was grown in greatest abundance, withits groves nestled in
the protecting care of a forest of palms, felt the blighting
touch of the blizzards. Its groves are as others-killed to
the ground, with more or less exceptions, as is the story
of nearly all sections. 'Thus it is at City Point, Titusville,
Niew Smyna and Daytona, and so on northward to the "Old
City." The path of destruction is marked by the same
frost-prints. "Dead to the ground," here and there a more
hardy or more fortunate tree was partially spared, with
now and then a section of a grqve. Throughout this region
there has been, during the past summer, a good growth sb
from rootor; trunk, and in some instances such has been
the'growth from trunk or limb above the bud that fruit
will mingle with the foliage next year.
Away to the southward upon- the banks of the St. Lucie
a'nd lower Indian Rivers, are lime, lemon and orange trees
S showing but little injury from frosts, as wel, as trees upon
'the southern end of, Merritt's Island-all of these places e
having some fruit.
Orlando 'and the eastern section of Orange County
present about the same features as described for Western
Orange,, and sections to the northward. Trees are prac-
tically dead to-the ground, with some noticeable exceptions.
The Anchorage at Winter Park has something of the ap-
pearance of a grove. Some other groves look nearly as
well. There will be some oranges in this county ip '96, .
and no doubt some shipments in '97.
Passing from Sariford to DeLagid, 'we come :tor the .




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9216

country of transplanted groves. As the Orange Lake coin ,,:
try is pre-eminently the home of the natural groves, De- -.
Land is equally notable as a transplanted. grove section.
Over the greater portion of thecorangedistricts it issim ply '
wonderful how" evenly the work of the frost was done.
Excepting the extreme southern localities; there is little dif-
ference to record, whether in transplanted or natural
groves. Here at DeLand, as elsewhere, the same sad story ,
is true. Nearly too per cent. have been killed to the
ground. Here also are trees and parts of groves that are
exceptions, for on trunk and limb some good growth is.'
. seen, giving promise of early fruitage. In fact, near Lake-
Beresford, in a forest-protected grove, a few oranges hang
amongst the rich foliage this-winter. The work of restor-
ation will be undertaken here in earnest.
Coming northward to Crescent City, the groves upon'
the river and the ridge both felt the freeze alike-allk or-
nearly all, "dead to the ground." Here and there a9 trie
or clump of trees with vigorous growth was seen through-
out this section, with almost universal sprouting from the--
S roots. Groves immediately on the shores of Crescent Lake'
showed the influence of water protection.
SFrom Palatka northward the St. Johns River spreads :;.
'. its broad expanse, forming in the past a secure frost bar-
'rier. The blizzards of last winter regarded not its influ,
ence, but swept over its bosom, bringing destruction to '
some of the oldest groves in the State. Here were to be te '
found great giants that linked this time with the dim, dies-
S tant '35. N6w, as then, all yielded to the arctic blast. Yet
not all, for here also stand trees in clumps and alone, whose- :
tops are more or less mangled, but not entirely dead, to' .
tell the story of what had been once prosperous days. ,
Upon these shores it is probable that orange culture, was
first undertaken. Many a tale of orange lore is told. On :
this northeastern border of the Orange Belt large groves.
S flourished, producing abundant crops of, fruit' In the.


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-; months of spring the trees put forth on trunk, and limb, l
Only in most instances to die back, to come again from root
,and stump, making a fine growth foreshadowing the com-
ing tree. This section will also restore its groves, not lag-
ging behind other sections. Here also are a few trees
which will produce fruit next season, being scattered along
I/ the banks of the river nearly as far north as Jacksonville,
Sin, goves favorably located as regards water aird forest pro-
tection.
From district to district was the journey made. I
have given in description the conditions as seen. It will
require a few years of labor .ad patient toil to restore that
which was destroyed in a night.-'
TREATMENT.
Now the difficult part of this task is reached. Under
normal conditions, theories and practices regarding the
treatment of groves differ widely; hence to secure agree-
ment, or rather to outline a course of treatment that will
receive the endorsement of a majority, under the present
abnormal conditions, seems'a hopeless undertaking. How-
Sever, the ideas of those who, heretofore, have been success-
Sful inaioran.ge'ctlture wilt be giveti. -Itis hBjidthat aid
-will be thus afforded to those undertaking to rebuild their .,
groves.
There can scarcely be a doubt but that the first orange
tree cultivated in Florida was a sweet seedling, and it is
quite as true that oranges from these trees laid the founda-
tion of the good reputation the Florida fruit has for super-
ior. qualities. The sweet seedling tree is held in high
esteem by many growers, and its treatment is of first im-
portance,.
Many seedling trees partially resisted the cold, so that
on trunk and limb a growth of sprouts appeared early in
he spring of '95. Many of these. during the summer-Aied.
On examination large blisters would be found on the trunk,' ,I


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or .perhaps a portion of the'trunk would be dead to i
the ground; other trunks were perforated by bores.
Sprouts upon such truriks will not form satisfactory trees;
they will, for several years, give promise, but iq the end be
Sa disappointment. Slch trees should be cut close to the
ground in order to force a vigorous growth from, the roots, ',
and stop the waste of energies by sprouting upon injured :
wood. There are seedling trees that have fine growth on
trunk and limb that have no injury. There is no doubt 'i
that these will make reliable trees. There can ,be no ad-
vantage to the tree in cutting away the dead wood, since a
growth on sound wood is already secured. In fact,. leav- ,
ing the old top on is.an advantage, being a support to the
,long growth that will come. ,Again, mary seedlings were .
killed to the ground. In this case nothing will be gained
by cutting away the dead wood, since the growth must and
wll start from the sound roots. These old topS will fall
away, gradualy' decaying.'thus furnishing a little food for
the coming tree.
By far the greater portion of'the seedling trees will'
come from sprouts upon the roots of the old trees.. In- i
stead of selecting one of these sprouts and training it for -'
rhe future tree, with.a trunk several feet' up to thecotch, it
it better to let several' of these sprouts grow, distributed
about the stump, forming a head without a trunk. In or- I
,der to be secure against the splitting off of any of these ,\
sprouts, when in the 'future they are bearing fruit, take, .
lateral .branches, near the base of these sprouts and intwine
and insert their enls under the bark of opposite sprouts.
These will grow and make a fine base for the head of the
tree. Where sprouts upon the trunk of the old tree are "
left to form, the new head, it will be beqt' to leave it-to
nature to dispose of the old wood and provide for the heal-
i ng of the part where the dead wood will ultimately fall
away from the live wood. '
After the sweet-seedling, comes the budded tree. Many


j , -







S219

needling trees that produced fruit before the calamity were .
aot prolific, or failed to produce fruit of a desirable quality.
All such trees, with all sour stock, should now be budded
to such varieties as are known to be profitable. There is no
new feature in budding the trees, beyond this: that, instead
of training trees to have trunks of. several.feet in height,
Sth6 top should be formed at the ground, as is indicated for
the seedling. Sprouts for budding should be selected, dis-
tributed about the old stump, and budded in the usual way.
Lateral, branches may be inserted into opposite sprouts for
the purpose of securing a strong head to the tree, as with
the seedling. .
Budding should be done as early in the season as pos-
sible. The difficulty of securing budwood after the spring : -
growth begins delays budding until May or June. To pro- -.
S vide against this delay, select budwood the latter part of
January or first 6f February, before the sap has started. -
Wax the ends of the sticks, put into dampened, not ?pet, *
moss, or partially dry sand, and put away in a dry, cool .i
place. Examine occasionally to see that the sticks do not
get too dry. These buds will be ready foruse as soon as "
the stock is in condition for budding.
Proceeding to the matter of cultivation, two methods .
;, re pursued. Both seem equally efficient in obtaining the
desired result ofproducing fruit.
SMany successful growers think the groves should have
thorough cultivation, beginning with plowing, and contin-
uing to late in the summer, with frequent surface cultiva. .
tion. Their reasons for this are that there are no fibrous
or feeding roots in the soil; by a thorough working the '
trees can more readily replace these roots than can be done
in an upbroken soil; also that a better supply of moisture '
S will be secured, and some nitrogen will be gained. r,
Those advocating no culture, mulch the ground with-
vegetable matter in some form, claiming that the soil is
; lightEi 4 efficiently for the fonirthoi of fibrous roots, and


f." ..;A. , ',; ... '..' ".,. *,'r ,' A .L





. r -' .;- "' '': ". .'" .. . . . " -- .


that moisture is even more certainly secured and some fer-
I: ilization is obtained from the decay of the vegetable '
matter.
'No matter which method is pursued, the guarantee of'
success is made good by an abundant supply of plant food.
The question to be determined by each individual grower
': forhiztlf- is this.---hether cuiGatioae, with-perehase of
,;: fertilizer, or mulching, 'ith more or, less purchase of fettil-
S izing elements, is the cheaper method of furnishing the
S requisite plant food. If properly pursued, either plan pro-
duces fine trees, with abundant fruit. 'Economy of method
should determine the selection.
In the event cultivation is the plan adopted, the soil
should at once be stirred to the depth of four or five inches;
by the first of March an application of fertilizers should be
made where.sprouts are starting. Nitrogen should pre-
S dominate in all applications during the first months of the
,. season; afterward less nitrogen and more potash. The ap-
plications should not be in large quantities, but in mall
doses frequently administered, beginning in February, or
.early in' March, April or first of May, and six weeks after
inJune. Then potash should be applied in August to
harden'theNwood."' After.the-firstdeep4stirping, sutaoe'cul-
tivatipn should be followed up until late it summer, in or-
der to hold grass and weeds in check so that trees may
have first chance at the fertilizer applied.
:i In mulched groves there Is a mass of decaying weeds,
leaves, brush, etc., furnishing food for, the trees. ,Those
who advocate this method believe the supply of potash is
: sufficient, but nitrate of soda should be added in small
quantities from time to time, say, beginning in February,
S* and every six weeks 'add another portion.' From two t6'
four pounds to the tree will be enough for the' season.
Grass and weeds will be allowed to grow throughout the
year, being mowed at the close of summer and in':,theau-
tumn. The' work of adding debris is done at any time toi



*. ' '-.
^ .- -;.-,'11'/ '/ ^ ; '-. / i * .' .









suit convenience. The one thing to be remembered is,
plant food must be supplied. The success of either method
in the production of fruit depends upon the supply of pro-
per plant food.
Which method is best to pursue depends upon that
which to:you is the most economical.
After this season, provided our winter is normal, no
unusual conditions will occur. The methods heretofore in
vogue will answer all purposes.
Those stumps that have not sprouted could be grafted
to advantage during February. Thse grafts will in many
instances start before the sprouts. Much time can thus be
saved over the plan of waiting for shoots into which to bud.
I here print the greater part of Mr. Adams' article giving
direction for root grafting.
GRAFTING THE ORANGE.
I am just in receipt of your note asking me to give in-
formation about grafting the orange. I am very glad in-
deed to use your columns for this purpose, as I am receiving
so many letters of inquiry on this subject it has become
quite a tax on my time to answer them separately.
The orange is one of the easiest trees to graft, and any
of the numerous methods of grafting can be successfully
used. The same principles are involved in all, however-
much the mechanical devices may vary.
I. The cions should be of perfectly dormant, well-
ripened wood, that of the last year's growth being prefer-
able. If the stock is dormant, or nearly so, all the better,
though some measure of success with citrus fruits may be
expected after the stock has begun to grow.
2. The cion and stock must be joined so the inner
bark or cambium of the two shall join at some point, and
the more points the better.
3. By some means enough pressure must be had to.
press thosepoints together quite firmly.









4. The union must then be protected from drying by
applying wax, clay, moist soil, or any other substance that
will prevent drying of the cut surface.
Any method of grafting that will fulfill these simple
requirements will be successful.
In grafting very small stocks, one-half inch or less, I
use a side cut; then tie tightly bywrapping, twine .or mat-
ting several times-tightly around and tie securely; then wax
air-tight, or cover to top of the cion with moist soil, well
packed down.
Stocks YJ to I inches are readily grafted by the old-
fashioned cleft graft.
Very large stocks are more readily worked by cutting
off smooth and inserting the cion between the bark and
wood. The cion is sloped off to a point with a slope g
to i inches long (owing to the size of the cion), all on
one side, and inserted the whole length of the cut, with the
cut side next to the wood.
It will be noticed that all citrus stumps are not round
but irregular.
If the cion is inserted at a convex place the bark is
apt to split, but if inserted in a flat or con'cayteplace, this-
danger is avoided.
Grafting can be done under the ground, or at any con-
venient height, but if frosted trees are grafted, be sure and
go down to perfectly sound wood.
DUDLEY W. ADAMS.
Tangerine, Fla., Jan. 6, 1896.

Throughout most parts of the State banking was re-
sorted to in the fall by many of the careful men, to protect
the tender sappy growth from damage by frost. Very little
of the late sprouting was sufficiently matured to resist a
light frost. Under normal conditions matured dormant
wood will ot' be injured by a temperature of 20 above
zero. As every effort will be made the coming season to









force a rapid growth, very much of it will neither be ma-
tured nor dormant when next winter comes. The prudent
grower will insure at least a portion of this growth by bank-
ing. There is no insurance so cheap or half as good as
banking with earth.
VARIETIES.

Through years of experience and the labors of the
Horticultural Society, the question of variety has been sat-
isfactorily determined. The growers of each locality have
grown one or more varieties that have been eminently sat-
isfactory. Of course, these will be rebudded. Such trees
as failed to yield fruit of a desirable quality should be
budded to such varieties as are known to be excellent.
Should advice be offered on this subject it would be to the
effect that the best early varieties should predominate in
those places where freezing weather is feared, and where
low temperatures do not frequently occur, the later varieties
should be grown. Now it is not within the province of this
bulletin to name the frosty or frostless districts where the
early and late varieties should be grown, since every one
knows the frost record of his own section, and should not
deceive himself in this matter. Should the budding of early
and late varieties be entered into to any great extent, the
marketing season would be materially lengthened, and there
would be no occasion for crowding the market, even when
5,ooo,ooo boxes are again produced.
The reputation of the Florida orange has been gained
by the matured oranges sent to market. For the most part
shipments of fruit from any section, previous to December,
generally realize green-fruit prices, while the fruit held un-
til perfect maturity was reached, sold for remunerative
prices. Some localities became famous for their matured
fruit, which resulted in great pecuniary gain. So the point'
is, if you intend to ship your fruit in the autumn, select suc
varieties as will reach maturity sufficiently early to suit suc







practice. However, it must be remembered that at this
season the markets are full of apples, pears, late peaches
and other.Northern fruits. Besides, the fruit-eating public
is scarcely ready for the orange until December and later.
Yet matured autumn oranges will bring remunerative prices
as has been shown in the past. The mid-season oranges
should form by far the larger proportion of the new bud-
ding, since among these is found the acme of perfection,
and they retain their superior qualities during several
months without deterioration, giving ample time to mar-
ket a large production without any need of causing a glut.
Many locations will carry the orange well into the spring,
thus keeping up a constant supply until the late varieties
are ready to go forward. Could the new budding be so
regulated as to furnish oranges from October until July, an
over supply in the markets could be avoided, and the profits
of the industry maintained throughout the season, and even
when the crop again becomes large.
It is hardly profitable to discuss in this place the sev-
eral varieties suited for the successive seasons, since this
has been so ably and completely done by the Horticultural
Society of the State, the report of which is now available
for every grower in the State, it being in pamphlet form.
Grapefruit shipments formed about one-fourth oirbe-
tween 6 and 7 per cent. of the,citrus fruits shipped from the
State. For this quantity there was a good demand and
paying prices received. This fruit had not, however, en-
tered into general consumption, or become a staple like the
orange. While exceeding popular amongst those by whom
it was known, yet doubts are entertained whether or not -
an increase of production to any great extent would not be
over-production, and cause it to be unprofitable.
From data collected it is fair to infer that some 15 to
2o per cent. of the new budding is intended to be grape-
fruit, thus more than doubling the future production.
Of course this discussion of the profitableness is based











upon the assumption that in a few years great crops will
Again be produced. In the meantime, while production is
far below demand, the fruit of all seasons and varieties will
be remunerative. But we are laying the foundatation of
Another epoch thatwill doubtless extend over sixty ormore
years. Let us, therefore, lay it wisely, giving to each sea-
son its proper supply, as well as making a judicious selec-
tion of varieties to be grown.
For the benefit of those who may not procure a report
of the Horticultural Society, a brief list of reliable varieties
suitable for the different seasons is given:
For the autumn shipping, the Centennial, Parson
Brown, Boone's Early, Nonpareil, Homosassa, Tangerine,
Mandarin and Satsuma.
For the mid-season, Jaffa, St. Michael, Maltese Blood,
Majorca; and in rich hammock lands, Pineapple.
For late, Hart's Tardiff, King, Valencia Late.

CONSIDERATIONS.
S The Freezes.-The trees were but little injured by the
cold wave of December, 1894, being dormant and pro-
tected by the foliage. Had this freeze not have occurred,
then that of February would have done but slight, if any,
damage to the trees, since they would have remained in a
large measure dormant, and have had their protecting
leaves. The intervening warm, damp weather, and the de-
foliated condition of the trees induced a sappy growth, thus
preparing the tree to become anr easy victim to the power
Sof the blizzard. It took twin blizzards to damage Florida'a
orange groves.
Will It Pay to Restore Gnroes?-Some twenty years
Sago men thought it would pay to purchase land, clear away
: the forests, buy nursery stdck, plant groves, cultivate and
fertilize them for seven or eight years in order to produce
*this Florida orange. Did it pay them? Could you look
back some twenty years or more and see the hardy pioneer










enduring his hardships in his rough surroundings and com-
pare the scene with the beautiful homes now scattered all
over the land, filled with cultivated and refined people, your
answer would be: "Those men did better than they knew."
All now realize how excellent was the investment. Groves,
judiciously managed, had a value of five hundred dollars
an acre, and for many groves this price would have been
declined.
These pioneers had everything to do; a large venture
to make, requiring years to complete it and test its value;
homes to build; the soil to test; transportation to secure.
In nothing did they fail. Their fruit has now a world-wide
reputation. These pioneers toiled through weary years up
to their success.
The orange grower of to-day finds much in readiness
for him. The land is in order; there are well-established
roots in the soil. To restore these groves will be far less
labor and expense than the .pioneer undertook. Surely it
will pay to restore them, since so much is already done in
that direction.
Have We Not Fared the Best?-As I passed from sec-
tion to section this question was often asked. The mercury
fell to such a point throughout the peninsula, that local in-
fluences, which heretofore afforded protection against frost-
injury, proved to be of but slight value this time. The
number of partially escaped trees increases as the southern
limit is neared. Over the whole northern and central parts
of the State the frost-work was quite evenly done. It is
not until well south of the South Florida Railroad, west of
Kissimmee, that any marked change in the condition of the
groves is noticed. This probably results from the fact that
in this section the day, the 8th of February, succeeding the
cold night was cloudy, with frequent showers of rain or
snow. Thus the intensity and damaging effects of the last
blizzard were, in this portion of the State, partially neutral-
ized. The record at Ft. Myers shows 240 above zero in









December, and only 300 in February, while in nearly all
sections north of this district the record is about the same
temperature for each cold wave. It is fair to infer, had
precisely the same temperature been recorded at all points
in February as occurred-in December, the damage would
have been about the same.
When Will Fruit Be Shipped.?--Early in the '70's,
when the great orange growing period began, the crop of
the State was about 10,ooo0 boxes. Groves were rapidly
increased in number, both by transplanting nursery stock
and by budding directly into the native sour trees as they
stood. Behind this work was capital and hope, which
pushed it forward with astonishing rapidity. Indeed the
developments were marvelous. Under these auspicious
conditions nearly twenty years were required before a crop
of five million boxes was reached. This epoch of produc-
tion was closed upon the night of February 7th, 1895. The
crop of the State for this season does not exceed fifty thou-
sand boxes. Instead of from new material, as was the case
before, the coming groves must be made from the wreckage
left by the wave of adversity. It is true the people are
rallying from the blow, and hope springs again, backed by
indomitable courage and energy. While recuperation in
some instances must of necessity be slow, for the most part
the growth on these well-established roots will be rapidly
developed into fruit bearing trees. There will be no marked
increase in the crop of the State until the budding done in
'95 begins bearing, which is not probable earlier than '98.
Of course, the trees that were not killed to the ground
will, in the meantime, add their production, and thus give
some increase. These trees, however, will not reach their
full bearing for at least five years. Ninety-five per cent. of
the old orange producing surface was destroyed. The re-
maining five per cent. was so injured that, instead of pro-
ducing 250,000 boxes, its proportion, only 50,000 boxes
were marketed. The crop of '96 may reach 125,000. This









will, increase each year, so that I,ooo,ooo boxes wil-pos-
sibly be the crop for 19oo.
The Best Locality.-In any district ask the question:
What proportion of the groves will be abandoned ? Most
generally the reply will be: That this section in the past
has shown itself to be eminently adapted to the growth of
the orange, and our people believe there is no better place."
So universal is this sentiment, one must conclude that many
places are the best in which to have a grove.
Abandonment.--This is a sad contemplation. After all
these years of labor, hope and realization, how sad it must
be to say-it must be given up. By reason of the course of
natural events, which no human power could stay, and be-
cause of no fault of theirs, some will be forced to abandon
or so to conduct the work of recuperation that restoration
will be delayed. So we see many a grove neglected, not
from choice, but from necessity, and it may be correct to
say that as much as one fourth of the old orange area will
not again produce fruit (or many years to come. It is more
than probable that a decade, or even a longer period, will
elapse before Florida produces such a crop as the blizzard
of December 28th, 1894, destroyed.
What Should Have Been Done-It is the consensus of
opinion that last February, immediately after the freeze, the
damaged trees should have been cut to the, ground, forcing
a growth from the sound roots instead of allowing the ener-
gies of the tree to be wasted in the effort to produce growth
upon injured wood, ultimately to die back. Failing to do
this, a year has been lost for many trees. Since the dying-
back process has occupied the entire season, the growth
that will make the tree has yet to come from the sound
roots.
What Killed the Trees-As remarked, many trees put
forth a fine growth on trunks and limbs. During.the sum-
mer by far the greater portion died back. Some said the
fermented sap killed this growth; others that the borers did










the work. -Neither fermented-sapndf borer killed the tree;
it was sick unto death when the sap fermented, and the
'borers knew it.
Effects of Cultivation.--Undoubtedly the cultivation of
the groves promoted the growth of the the trees; so that
it is generally believed that regular cultivation should have
been followed. Those who had followed the mulching
method also have generally a fine growth. The groves
that were neither cultivated nor mulched have not in many
instances given a satisfactory show of sprouts.
Stumps That Have Not Sprouted.-On examination of
such stumps the roots will still be found to be green. If
the earth be removed so as to expose a portion of the live
roots, in the coming spring there is no doubt of their
sprouting. The orange is a tree that is wonderfully tena-
cious of life. Like the cat, it will "come back."
Prices.-As to prices for the unequaled Florida orange
in the coming years there is but one opinion. The presence
of Florida oranges in the market in limited quantities em-
phasizes the truth that this fruit is wanted, as is shown by a
comparison of prices of fruit received from other parts. As
production for many years will be far below the demand,
prices will no doubt be remunerative for years to come.
Those who, therefore, will rebuild their groves have the
strongest assurance of a period of prosperity, even surpass-
ing that just closed.
Throughout the tour of the orange-growing country
the writer received most courteous attention from 'all with
whom he came in contact. Every facility was given to pro-
mote the business in hand. It is fitting in this place to
extend thanks for the many favors received, and to give as-
surance that they were highly appreciated.











freeze of 1835 was the 8th of February, and the mercury
stood at 8 degrees above zero, and that about 185o, the
day not given, the temperature was down to 16,degrees.
In 1857 the mercury fell to 26 degrees at Tampa, i29;at- Ft.
Pierce, and 30 at Ft. Dallas on the Miami. At Jacksonville
the thermometer indicated as follows:


December 28, 1872 . .
January 19, 1873 ..
December 28, 1875 . .
December 3, 1876 ..
December 28, 1878 . .
January 7, 1879 .. . .
December 30, 188o .
January 6, 1884 . .
January 12, 1886 ..
Sorrento, January 12, 1886


. 27 degrees
* 24 degrees
. 28 degrees
, 24 degrees
. 27, degrees
* 25 degrees
. 19 degrees
. 21 degrees
. 15 degrees
. 19 degrees


With the foregoing statistics before us we are prepared
to institute a comparison of the severe freezes we have had
in Florida in one hundred and twenty-five years-at Jack-
sonville as a basing point.

1766-February 3, probably . . . .. 20 degrees
1835-February 8 .. ......... 8 degrees
1886-January 12 . .. .. . .15 degrees
I894-December 29 . . . ... 14 degrees
1895-February 8. . .. . . 14 degrees
In 1766 the effects of the freeze were confined to loss of
tropical plants, etc. That of 1835 destroyed all oranges,
lemons, etc., north of the 280. That of 1886 destroyed
many young trees and some old trees, but did not affectthe
crop of fruit in the following year in quantity, though it
did in quality. The freezes of 1894-5 appear to have pretty
generally killed down lemon trees, grape fruit and young
budded stock and many large trees; but, according, to
present appearance old bearing trees will fruit for part of








a crop the coming year. The following table gives the
comparative temperature in 1886, 1894 and 1895 at diffe--
ent points in Florida, so fai as we have been able to obtain
reliable data:
Record of temperature official, and reported, at date
of freezes of 1886, 1894and 1895:

1886. 1894. 1895.
Jan. 12, Dec. 29, Feb. 8,
Jacksoiville 15 deg. 14 deg. 14 deg.
Lake City . -deg 17 deg. 15 deg.
Tallahassee .- deg. 12 deg. i deg.
Pensacola . 15 deg. 14 deg. 12 deg.
Fernandina. 16 deg. 15 deg. 15 deg.
Green Cove Spri's- deg. 14 deg. 13 deg.
St. Augustine deg. 16 deg. 16 deg.
Federal Point .. deg. 17 deg. 16 deg.
Palatka .. deg. 17 deg. 7 deg. ? deg.
Fruitland . 1 6 deg. 6 deg.
DeLand . .. 17 deg. 16 deg. 17 deg.
Eustis . . 18 deg. 17 deg. 16 deg.
Citra .. .- deg. 13 deg. 16 deg.
Archer . . deg. 13 deg. 15 deg.
Volusia .. 18 deg. 17 deg. deg.
New Smyrna. d g. 17 deg. 17 deg.
Oak Hill .. deg. 21 deg. deg.
Ocala . .. 18 deg, 19 deg. 16 deg.
Orange City .- deg. 18 deg. 18 deg.
Sanf .rd . . 21 deg. 18 deg. 18 deg.
Orlando . 19deg. I8 deg. 19 deg.
Plant City . .-deg. 19 deg. 21 deg.
Kissimmee . deg. 19 deg. 19 deg.
Brooksville . .8 deg. 17 deg. 18 deg.
Tarpon Springs deg. 19 deg. 22 deg.
Titusville. . .-deg. 18 deg. 19 deg.
Rockledge . deg. 19 deg. deg.







234

Manatee . deg. 22 deg. 23 deg.
Avon Park . .- deg. 21 deg. 23 deg.
Myers . -- deg. deg. 30 deg.
Fort Meade .- deg. 22 deg. 24 deg.
Jupiter. . .- deg. 24 deg. 28 deg.
Kyv*West . 41 deg. 44 deg. 54 deg.
Minneola. . .- deg. 20 deg. deg.
Leesburg 213 deg. 17% deg. 163 deg.
Sumterville deg. 19 deg. deg.
Waldo ..... deg. 16 deg. deg.
Longwood . deg. deg. 20 deg.
Daytona . .--deg. deg, 15 deg.
SWildwood . deg. deg. 16 deg.
Bartow . deg. deg. 20 deg.
Palm Beach . deg. deg. 30 deg.
Quincy . deg. deg. 7 deg,
Tampa . . deg. 19 deg. 22 deg.
Lake Helen . deg. 20 deg. 16 deg.
Merritt's Island deg. deg. 22 deg.
Umatilla. . deg. deg. 15 deg.
Tavares .. deg. deg. 16 deg.
Ormond .. .- deg. dag. I8deg.
Welaka .. deg. 16 deg. deg.
Melbourne .- deg. 22 deg. deg.
Sanford . . deg. 19 deg. deg.
Seville . . deg. 19 deg. deg.

The conclusion to be drawn from past experience in
Florida, is that orange growing in Florida is not any more
precarious than agricultural pursuits elsewhere. That but
once in one hundred and twenty-five years have all bearing
trees been killed to the ground, which was in February.
1835. That the freezes which have produced more or less
injury have with two exceptions occurred between the 20th
of December and i5th of January, at which season the
trees are usually in a dormant condition and well prepared










to withstand a very low temperature. The freeze of 1835,
sixty years since, did not entirely destroy the trees, and a
new growth from the roots came into bearing within six to
eight years, while in 1886, the entire crop was in fact larger
than the whole crop of that year. Lemon culture has
always been regarded: as precarious and, cap. onlrkbe vea-
tiured upon in especially favorable and protected locations
north of 28.
Nursery stock and budded fruit not well matured is, of
course, liable to be killed when the temperature goes as
low as in the recent freeze.
The fruit on the trees will be hurt by cold, whenever
the temperature goes for several hours below 260, some-
times only partially chilled and rendered lighter, or, as in
the recent freeze when the temperature was, at some points
as low as 140, and virtually destroyed, because no large
amount of frozen fruits could ever be marketed to any
advantage.
After the freeze of December 29th, 1894, the condi-
tion of the trees was generally dormant, for from three to
four weeks, when sprouts began to appear on all the older
trees, and it seemed probable that half a crop might be
borne, if they met with no other disaster. By the 7th of
February the sap was well up in the trees, grove owners
were hopeful and commenced fertilizing and working their
groves.
On the night of the 7th of February, just sixty years
to a day from the great freeze of 1835, the mercury fell
rapidly with very little previous warning, and the trees
being leafless, and the sap having generally risen and stim-
ulated new growth, were subjected to as low temperature
as on the 29th of December. The effect was not at first
perceptible and the younger trees gave for a while some
promise of revival, holding their color, but in the course of
from four to six weeks, it became apparent that nearly all
the lemon, tangerine and grape fruit trees and all trees un-








der ten years of age, had perished to the ground. About.
April' ist, old bearing trees began to show signs of revival .
and sprouts put out on the trunks and large limbs a short
distance above the bud, and the promise now is that in the
central portion of the orange district, new heads will form
during the present year, and some fruit be borne in 1896.
The young trees are throwing out shoots from the root and
will no doubt replace themselves in two or three years on
the least injured groves. In the lower portion of the
peninsula south of latitude 280 it is thought there will be a
crop the present year whieh may amount to 250,000 boxes.

GEO. R. FAIRBANKS,
President Florida Fruit Exchange.
May 8, 1895.




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