Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents

Title: Cassava, the velvet bean, prickly comfrey, taro, Chinese yam, canaigre, alfalfa, flat pea, sachaline
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024529/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cassava, the velvet bean, prickly comfrey, taro, Chinese yam, canaigre, alfalfa, flat pea, sachaline
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Clute, O
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1896
Copyright Date: 1896
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024529
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab6186 - LTQF
aen0353 - LTUF
18154697 - OCLC
000919960 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 334a
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 338a
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
Full Text

April, 186,.








The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in
Florida upon application to the Director of the Experi-
ment Station, Lake City, Fla.


3Eui;&114aotNjm 93W9


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President . .Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President . .Pensacola
HoN. F. E. HARRIS, Ch'n Executive Committee Ocala
HoN. A. B. HAGEN, Secretary . . Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER . . . .. Brooksville
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY . . . .. DeLand
HON. J. F. BAYA . . . . . Lake City


O. CLUTE, M. S., LL. D. Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S. . .Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S. . . . Chemist
C. A. Finley . . .. Director's Secretary
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S. . Assistant in Biology
J. P. DAVIES . . . Assistant in Chemistry
JOHN F. MITCHELL . Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUBS Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARS . Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers




boil for. ......
Fertilizer . . .
Seed . . . .
Preparing soil . .
Planting . . .
Sprouting the seed .
Cultivation . .
Harvesting, yield . .
Saving seed . . .
Feed for stock . .
Food for men . .

A source of starch and g
A scrap of science .
Analysis of roots of Flo
About the cuts . .

.lucose . .

.rida Cassava
. .o * * *
o. *
. o . .
lucose .,*
. . . .o *
ridCasav .


Planting. . . . . . .
Cultivation . . . . . .
Yield of green forage. . . ...
Chemical analysis . . . . .
Value for stock . . . . ..

Mr. A. P. Newheart's experience; Value as
fertilizer for orange groves . . .
Mr. W. C. Green's experience; Food for
stock .. . . .. ..
Largely grown in some sections .....
Grows well in Florida . . . . .
Worth further trial. . . . . .

S 340
S 340
S 340
S 341
S 342

Easily grown . . . . . .
Valuable for men and animals . . .
Many species . . . . . .
Easily grown .. ... . .. .. .
Gives a fresh vegetable food every day. in
the year ... ..... ... . .
Grown' to obtain tannic acid . . . .
Grows easily in Florida . . .
Is it equal- to Saw Palmetto as a source of
tannin?.. .. .........
Thus far a failure at Lake City . . .
No value in Florida, as yet . .....

S.Easily grown. . . . . .
Gives much forage. . .. ...
Stock like it. . . . . . .
Danger that it may become a pest. ..
Worth, trying, with caution...... .

. 347-)







CASSAVA-(Manihot Aipi).
Soon after coming to Florida my interest was awak-
ened in the cassava plant. The plant has been studied
somewhat carefully. It has been planted to some extent
at Lake City,and in smaller quantiy at De Funiak Springs
and Fort Myers. The evidence is strongly in favor of its
great value as a food for all kinds of stock, and as
a source for the production of starch, glucose and tapioca.
While it has long been cultivated in Florida, the fact that
it is usually grown on a rather small scale, and that
a great many farmers do not grow it all, indicate that its
worth is not fully appreciated. Moreover, many new
comers are quite unacquainted with it, and will be inter-
ested in learning of its culture and value.
A dry, loamy soil is best adapted to this plant. A
rich soil gives good returns, but the plant does well on a
light, sandy soil, if moderately fertilized. It will thrive on
almost any of the high pine land of Florida. The very
long, fleshy roots would probably not do well in a stiff,
clay soil. It is useless to plant it on springy, wet soils.
Muck lands, if well drained, will produce a crop, but not
as good a one as high pine lands with some fertilizer.
Any decomposed barnyard manure will be helpful.
Leaf-mold from the woods, decayed rubbish from the
fields, a compost of one-half good stable manure and one-

half good muck, four tons per acre will be valuable. On
our land at Lake City I have used 300 pounds per acre
of a mixture made up of 300 lbs nitrate of soda, 400 lbs
cotton and meal, 800 lbs superphosphate, 500 lbs muriate
of potash, applied in the drill, and well worked in. Al-
most any of our high pine lands will yield 6,000 to 8,000
pounds per acre of cassava, without any' fertilizer at all.
It will be more economical to give fertilizer and get 12,-
000 to 16,000 pounds per acre.
In the latitude of Lake City, cassava has a season
long enough to bloom and ripen some seed. This takes
a season of about nine months without frost. In the
neighborhood of Fort Myers it will doubtless ripen a large
quantity of seed every year. The matter of. bloom, and
of ripe seed from it, is of no importance, except as it in-
dicates a long season in which the fleshy roots may grow,
for the seed produced from the bloom is not usually
planted, unless, as in the case of the potato, one desires to
produce new varieties. Cassava, like sugar cane, is usu-
ally grown by planting the tops or canes. These branch
irregularly, and have many knots or protuberances, and
also "eyes" or buds, from which new plants spring.
These canes are bankedin the fall so as to be kept from
frost. About the tenth of March, in North Florida, they
are taken from the bank, cut into pieces six to eight
inches long, with several eyes or buds to the piece, and
these pieces are planted very much as we plant Irish po-
tatoes. In cutting the seed be careful that the pieces are
not split or shattered.
The soil should be well plowed, as for corn or pota-
toes. Lay off the rows four feet apart, and the hills four


rdpl I



dgij9QqqeaQ plU: Tf r Mpe s
piqfb .an hil, e gh'silipA
s n n.p ieating. q*aU ^S
r piee of seeodl xwhteo Mt A.:
telosewl into the soil, pd fims th 'c
ping Mo prevent the soil from drying 4
ioth re to four inches deep'by turning aaro
Run a rolle; over the iows to press the eil d*r4
sj el s is covered with a hoe Ie ,meo sh.
4lB 1s obfverted. Adry spell after ph
A i.w so ytiat it doei not grot, and 4*tb.
$ian'Itaan of -impotanbe. ::
&.0w gpalp prefer typiln* t seed si
S .w w eh.pieqe ust at, or .slightly akoyefr *aapi
be s.pil.'- This would usafly brig eab p4
#FnZtiag position in the furrow. This method do'Ai
Sit the firming of the soil s9 easily as the. "Pe.'f

r' spBoWr 'mTa she.
^gull edar^ ecasava ixd-s diflBB)^ t
tad. owne of the-bid have ra Htt
ao. nai*w. Or a dr spell afb rp a
out Orars. anad W.daiattMS bqe
tdb*4p To overcome thwe df
gr"6e adopt th beingig .wys
s&AtWuaud near tosetb*' oin a

*;, I ghly, -; Se .tfft

i .,* I
.' A .: '7 i.. /.
.,., .a -t', .- ,."'--
.* .,.. ...-. -- -

t 2 I . . . ..

1*rof 6*- *~L~Opit"

~~p ~in co~~
flw ro6tl1~. M

-4--.-to t

4 *i. ~
~k~~l~~t;~ -~ -t~~bt~ (:







i y\: 'frlioe6tanny WrCt4c 4 3ee bebAWl M^il
*JW^^ 6& to the:steypebe owf06bg
SAfteF they ae .taken up. tlb. roofte bAr, b
frs dClays in wara weathwr;hence it- ia bW S
ti.e mnlyetWdtb to lsht the apmtalsa fetr iq
et e-the' roots will ikeep tea d4yb 6f
i lWh u inury. W nheA- itat
the st, keep- intdn4titly, UteQai*t
s adjouth floridd.the plAnftsi may ieI
froni year to year, the grow erBi jp)W 1
the rows and digging ach'roots as -are
and leaving the plat.eto ftnea moes rqoj0
saeutba Fort Myers the ste"sd lodetb
bu4lin .bort Mye iand -furtferwstt 4it
*ed^ etep ifll^i4*nnes-ba'ti
i t ouci toewgrowthb. I Morth 'l&oth
itikve fite .by the last of November, or i, N0s
y severe to ki'l the .4avee and a
Sthere is not enough, Kest in Notthib;O
r6 tdhe'rodtia the groub, heoce these -n(i*y
a L^day. ito as needed fo~.tbhe stock. ..

A4 t&*Zr4a the ea ~ ivw nett
Ini^&^Pped ye an. .4rl pa ..
a d I-

A ... tw. ..-, K ..
'' S'.- ,t' "i :a;Z"tt^ .^
,A. . .
S"-A '

"Ye $44fl.^^

h .*


:< AwB gl I gawt of assav-il bBawe f-ltt
S TheWyiteld p ore ia so large and
A ll" is. eog tath ths fl te 'of ptirodaeBtie
.rosr tihe ot ih amy ImouBt VC'ix

g Lf);berin polid foam o' as -
in any. amount desired. Ab ith
l f.r pieed.the. plating of a large aereaget
th faetoerie requires a so-ewhat large p
i S yesr to provide the cane. Not msidlih
,AO yet, i growing plants .qm greda onu
the seeds produce,by the bloops. 1 do-
.ything, hps' been dbne -to' grow tplah .
aiw.@ grog-:Sweet potato planta' Perhapirt
$blh. hya tal. Theae m thodbfp
.tied at thbi experiment station in tbe aeF
iv& ,be."ngs to the same fittily of plant*P
$ bw^n'ne:f t iupherbkfew). Tlsto ate t
^**^ .UBeds 'widely cnltivated--4tw b14
eet. % .e bitter tstrva o4 baV
c atity to maker. itrpoa,
tIe VA ..that is e. .o

(.. ThrK4a ^
B B H ^^^Mr'.", t I... /is ..r. l'i".......... .. ^^'..t m,
P "% r tI- ,- .'" "- ." '-" ; -j



S i 4tt&fe" other food wilis a witit
6 ediso:ottt-eed meal, when fed to stock.
1 t would -be well for. parties who have ni v.
iple to-advertise the same in the Flodfu.
Thee.is some inquiry for it. Thb E
bn h senetirpes given away sed5 U4*:'is"A.-
I. o at prent.
:The first cut is from a photograph taken i .Qt
48#5 when the cassava was.ight'and one-half aofith
T TepreMeets the average otthe' field, and give.amy
*N oaf- the luuriant habit, ad the genera. ei
k plan.. t his plant was fgur feet ark iAchwe in
The setood'eht shews.the roots of one' cauarv p
g: nineteen pounds. A weight of root grester'
ljis frm one plant is by no means unusual. -With.
leaderr season and a better soil than- ours, the 'w"t
^tvaulw bib much greater.
i fTbe. thrd- out gives a view of .th4"a)6f s4ei
p laM d 9 oh a wheelbarrpw, th4 a
kj0e00t hdadred and nipneteep and oithalf
l ent; -showing. thie. to --;:
to of theroots is clearly seen. -
ST he -lat out, of the plant with rooteB h
frost and before the leaves fell,is given fri
"I0je'f. showing the branching of the ste"a am
4.&pr1 perSonSe. It shows alsathe aragee

eite'a" rfanete;. f tee- -

elmit, n d;,i'. 'i,.
4.il, *



wag e, the1
p.a k tot artys* in W
~i^^ibdty wetain.the lwas iand g
.raa b.beayOas t-^ MI'blah w19- .

c ibly it ws imtaio ~edan
| ht ",bve comt ye % t .....
& f wner ethty fremt# t'itaiet pae
It ~* N aothy r6f"- t~e atr*t
I propat .b & at ped. blw.
| ? o / ALV e IM. s ""2. W.'
.' analySi .of the bean* not-includint
madebyAtof. A. A. iesone, gave the

o;i ds o the velvet bean--
4 ( 'twrewat 1000 C :. .**l1a.9
i . . . -
i, t . .* ; . o1' g, a .

a zroge4 .. S. .sL7l,
^ ^ 41 pt h.efr extract) O.2f l es
r. a e I '~.ir .. . .4 a
', ..aenfe extract) ; 53.0 p
: ^ e oan ai"r l < aie sn.',
:,O~T~i~ B1J O .- M! ..._
V i J A .

0 f

ft4 14

WI. -. II1



7 ;rWWuwT I,
9 u~ F jq

Ild fe 4


tb i~.mwe, mdnton 'y ~teo net.y
E ~~ c- 644.so abl~itmtplys~c~Fgi
ed to- _t maOGdlUtg.. I,&s
:~binit~fe sird ssishslih& ir
9f fblb*,,e.:aaA VAM-am~j~i
th a ojinp8rove; as -a M34nd*bjlb
ia ertiiser. Th'Pe repull wi!,iio*
1:*o:~sa indtleed to `e*9A c payeg~ii~i
M~hi, %nBT~B 14 think I con : g.Iy y ta t no .,c
d"-owa ~up Ainer-growth for the ofmme
et~i4 of.o t~helad: freem,. .- 9Y ii~~~a 8
s4N#,'yo)fy'ppiniQ i hatthe pDei
4 -rA~4 d to

~p~ S8is j~id 'caver wRilithe~ foHQ Auu~ln~
more. vi done uxti4l he pea 'VAuMe
.wIng lA.ont- t. time the grahs *a$ thrae &
d3~Rj Bi ~The cjtivalor' Iwt then pe4i 9
iheyget "6Wt burt -it

W14 w ay J4y;ae aemo





k f

4 r
W W7

Z Qmr



;Vtk v

N' 'T'nll- A



f'11~fl9i-e cf' -M 0
Imr.pkits,.b.Iwe tud %W iw
'* wB.y o'ebesjt ecnas'hbovft
~i~j~: ~ grpvg~ p f -44i 6.10is~

A1161061OU440"A by 11: ~16.."I3lwe~~~j~

,`~6i exem' sugegpiton as to forage and 8~a
~t~q~~pe~pnut. How shpI iyesko*p at

Lb~B$sCBI;99s M4tr*
n?. ~ ~ -.3 "

i; ~ B~Wf:8lf -lb

L r -

~klh~ra ~~:thie ao~ u

.#. i

,, ns

FP"`" I'



~iX :~G\gj'.~Z~'f~E~:Y~L;Ig~ppi~~hd~E~~n r

. . . . .

-VAN Zvi
9 Divot a
Y 6J, j ii;; i;
K toy A


y a

A 51-i

--g P
111', A

Nfm x 0


4, a


at they3 pve:i.vt .
d .o ha.t dL i ta te ,
',,.. "m~ay aber .t-ais ot'. h. :'>
..y .before thetawl 1hs .,.
r^at-ivm y tabledaus thotgfhtbeiw
i as swt potatoes. o Iriej pbtatoa .p I
i*Sflo Mqiatiea would make *bei acceptbile.4 t4
na afta a hbaot acquaigtaoce. After pa*Wt
i.ied they cawbe dgtip'a y,a e,
c o. sujp he tablLe w:.,
tthsley eeele'nbo at- bo& ko iadrl. 4i,
gyt. growth and yieMl for, odne's. al.
Sli-tgri.own profitably ftr this- purspete. l
Taro isntdoh grown in some sections.for food Ifr
pt4jioally a near relative of4 the Calladinnuq. whioh
Sit a~eh giwonr ornament in grounds and gre 'hoai
*fin-looking .plant,itsei, having '
pete. The Taro is fiwdcaaia a
sea>iB for ornament, i 00n
aitin mto many beautjful- arietu 4i
th statme as aea8ia a ewouLin .

ST. -IO4AL.YAM-4iobookw )r'
-:EsiPki^^^^ ^^y^^51^^^ ~i~eci

A "osRlP I
,**v -s

~". ti' .*W4
Qd I er

/ Si 0 fqp ,4s POO 'u3"
ii4 *i:.3l

m.w t-c.

CANAIGRE.--(Rumex hymenosepalus.)

Canaigre belongs to the same genus of plants as the
common dock which is so abundant in some parts of the
States. It grows wild in Arizona, New Mexico, and some
other sections of the great Southwest. Its leaves grow in
a cluster at the surface of the ground. They are light
green in color, quite succulent, and may be boiled for
"greens" like the leaves of the yellow dock. On pine
land here in Florida it throws up a flower-spike of two to
two and a half feet high, and produces an abundance of
seed. Its roots when young are yellowish-red outside,
and darker red within; they are shaped somewhat like a
sweet potato, tapering at both ends. As the roots grow
older they become darker in color. These roots are very
rich in tannic acid. In the Southwest the wild roots are
gathered in large quantities, are sliced, dried in the sun,
and shipped to markets in the East or to Europe, to be
used for tanning. Near localities where large quantities
of the wild roots grow, factories have been built, in a few
instances, to extract the tannin from the roots. The
tannin is then shipped in barrels to the markets, thus
making a great saving in the cost of transportation.
Attention has been turned within a few years to the
cultivation of Canaigre, and large plantations of it are al-
ready planted, and many others are planned and will soon
be planted. It can be grown from seed; but, usually,
wild roots are obtained and planted. As the roots in-
crease somewhat rapidly, the planting of roots has thus
far been the best way of starting. Should the demand
for the plant increase rapidly it will, doubtless, be easily
grown from seed on a large scale. If grown from seed,

probably the best way will be to sow the seed about as
onion seed is sown, cultivate carefully for a year, and then
transplant to the fields.
In the spring of 1894 I obtained a few roots through
the courtesy of the Directors of the Experiment Stations at
Mesilla Park, New Mexico, and Tucson, Arizona. These
came to me by mail. They were small, dry and wrinkled,
having little appearance of life. They were planted in
rows three feet apart, and two feet apart in the rows.
About a shovelfull of stable manure was given each root.
They grew at once, gave some bloom, and seemed in all
respects healthy and at home. The seeds were ripe about
the middle of May, and soon after the leaves turned yel-
low and died. Through the summer there was no sign
of the plants above ground, but the roots seemed all right.
In the fall of 1894, in October, the leaves again
appeared, and grew well all winter. The freezes cut them
somewhat, but they recovered immediately, and made a
good growth. Again, after the seed was ripe in May, 1895,
the plants died to the ground. Examination showed the
roots in healthy condition, the old ones increased in size,
and many new ones formed. In October, 1895, the
growth begun again, and now (February, 1896,) the plants
are looking well. There are a good many small roots,
about the size of the thumb. The old roots are much
larger, and of a much darker color. The ground has
been kept free from weeds, and a shovelful of manure
given once a year.
There is every promise that this plant will grow well
in Florida. The roots have a very acrid taste, indicating
that they are well charged with tannic acid. We have in
Florida great quantities of saw palmetto, the roots of
which are rich in tannin. It would be well to be quite

sure that it is more profitable to cultivate Canaigre, as a
source of tannin, than to secure it from the saw palmetto,
before going extensively into the growth of Canaigre.,
Why not establish factories to extract the tannin from
the palmetto?
The Florida Experiment Station has only a few roots
of Canaigre. It has none for sale, or to give away. Prob-
ably any one who desires to try the plant can learn the
names of parties from whom roots can be obtained by ad-
diessing the Directors of the Experiment Stations in Ari-
zona and New Mexico.

ALFALFA--(Medicago sativa).
Several sowings of Alfalfa seed were made in the fall
of 1894 and the spring of 1895. It was sown on sandy
land, fertilized with 350 pounds per acre of the following
Acid phosphate, . . .. 150 lbs.
Sulphate of potash, ...-100 lbs.
Cotton-seed meal, . . .. -100 lbs.

350 lbs.
As the main purpose was to learn if Alfalfa would
thrive at all, the seed was sown in drills, so as to be able
to keep it free from weeds, and give it every chance to do
well. The seed germinated quickly. The young plants
were quite tender, easily cut down by frost. But the seed
sown so late that the plants were not touched by frost
grew well. By July it was twelye to fifteen inches high,
with a healthy look, A part of it was mown, and a part
left uncut. During the summer and fall the plants nearly

all died. This spring only a few roots show any sign of
life. Perhaps on other soils in Florida it may do better.
Thus far it gives no promise here.

FLAT PEA,.-(Lathylus silvestris.)
Great claims are made for this plant as a forage crop.
I grew it at the Experiment Station in Michigan with
success. In the spring of 1894 seed were procured and
sown on our Station farm at Lake City. It germinated,
but as soon as it appeared above ground it died. Apparently
it was killed by the sun.
In the fall of 1894 and the winter of 1895 several
sowings were made. The seed grew well whether sown
early or late. The earliest sowings were three or four
inches high when the severe freeze of December, 1894,
came. The plants were not killed, but during the colder
portion of the winter they made very slow growth.
Plants from seed sown February 1st were as large inMay
as were those from seed sown in the previous October. In
late spring and early summer the plants grew slowly, and
gave little promise. In mid-summer, and later, they
turned yellow and withered. All died. By November
not a plant was alive.
In the spring of 1895 I obtained a few roots of this
plant from Michigan and a few from Nebraska. Good
care was given them, and they grew well; looked healthy.
But during the winter just passed they grew very little,
and now (February, 1896), some of them are dead, and
others look as if preparing to follow their dead compan-
ions. Many dealers in seeds now offer the seed of this
plant, and anyone wishing to try it can probably procure
seed through them. It would be well to try the plant on

some of the soils of West Florida. Its forage has a very
high feeding value, and it yields heavily when it grows
well. It is a perennial. Once established it would con-
tinue indefinitely. It is a misfortune that it does not
seem to be at home on our soil and in our climate.

SACHALINE.-(Polygonum Sachalinense.)

In the spring of 1894, when so much was said in the
agricultural press about this new forage plant, I sent for
some roots of it. They grew at once, with no special care.
After a few months the party of whom I bought wrote that
he had been misled by a dealer, and had not sent me the
true scahaline. In the spring of 1895 some true roots
were obtained. These grew well, though not with special
luxuriance. But they formed the most astonishing mass
of roots.
The young stems are very vigorous and succulent.
When two or three feet high the stems begin to get woody,
but still are readily eaten by all kinds of stock. Probably
they should be cut for green forage before the stems have
become too woody. The foliage was killed by the first
frosts. The new gA h showed above ground February
20. The new shoots are very numerous. Examination
of the roots at different times during the winter had
shown that they were thickly set with buds.
It is clear that this plant once established will be very
difficult to eradicate. But it produces a large amount of
foliage which is eaten by stock with avidity. If the foli-
age proves to have a high nutritive value for animals, a
grower having a field of it would not want to eradicate it.
On most farms there are locations that could be profita-

bly given to a plant that required no attention, and that
would yield a fair amount of stock food. The permanent
value of this plant remains to be proven. Those liking
to experiment might secure a few plants and try it in
locations from which they will not want to dislodge it.
Most of the nurseries now offer for sale both plants and


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