BULLETIN NO. 45.
Three Injurious Insects.
A. L. QUAINTANCE.
The Bulletins of this Station will be sent Free to any Address
in Florida upon Applica ion to the Director of the Ex-
periment Station, Lake City, Florida.
FROM THE PRESS OF
E. U. PAINTER & 00..
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
HON. S. STRINGER, President.................. Brooksville
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee.... Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGEN, Secretary ................ .Lake City
HON. F. R. OSBORN.... ...... .. .......... ... DeLand
HON. WM. FISHER .. .. ... ... ... ....... ...Pensacola
HON. H. S. REES.. .................... ... ....Live Oak
HON. E. J. VANN... ........ .... ... ...... ... Madison
W. F. YocuM, A. M., D. D............. ....... Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S... ...... ... .Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S .......... ......... ... Chemist
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE, Ph. D.,. ............... .Agriculturist
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S........... ... Assistant in Biology
J. P. DAVIES, B. S............ ...Assistant in Chemistry
W. P. JERNIGAN.. .... ... ... .... Auditor and Book-keeper
JOHN F. MITCHELL. ..... ... ... Foreman of Lake City Farm
LIBRARIAN .. ... ... ...... ..... .. ... Lake City
Summary. ........................................ 53
The Bean Leaf-Roller. ............. ..... ................. 55
Life History and Habits. ................ ........ 55
D escription........ ........ ........ ....... ..... 57
E gg ....... ........ ........ ........ ........ 57
Larva ............... .. . . ........ .... 57
Pupa...... ....... ....... ............... 59
Adult. ........ .......... . .. ......... .... 59
Treatment...... ...................... ....... ... 60
The Corn Delphax.............................. .... 61
Habits and Life History. ......................... 62
Description................. ................ ... 64
E gg ....... ........ ........ ........ ........ 64
N ym ph........ ........ ........ ........ .... 64
A dult...... ........ ........ ........ ........ 66
Treatm ent.......... ........ ........ ........ .... 66
The Canna Leaf-Roller .................. ........... 68
Life History Notes. ............................. 69
D escription..... ........ ........ ........ ........ 71
E gg .. ........ ........ ........ ........ .... 71
L arva...... ........ ........ ........ ........ 71
Pupa.. ................................. .... 71
A dult...... ........ ..... .. ....... ........ 71
T reatm ent.......... ........ ........ ........ .... 71
I. THE BEAN LEAF-ROLLER.
(a) The bean leaf-roller is quite destructive to beans
throughout the State. The larvae feed upon the leaves,
eating holes in them or eating along the edges.
Leaflets are folded over, to form a retreat, (see figure 5.
(b) The larva is about one and one-fifth inches in length,
fusiform in shape, the body being thickest in the middle,
with small neck and large head. The general color is yel-
lowish, with a dorsal black strip, and two lateral orange
stripes extending down the body (see figure 2, plate 1).
(e) The insect can be successfully treated. Use Paris green,
in the proportion of one pound to 150 gallons of water;
add to this one pound of quick lime, first made into a
thin paste, to destroy the burning effects of Paris green
on the foliage. Apply with spray pump, keeping mixture
II. THE CORN DELPHAX.
(a) The corn delphax has been observed in several localities
in the South, as very destructive to corn. It is a sucking
insect, feeding on the sap, which it sucks from the leaves
and stalk, thereby causing them to yellow, and frequently
die. The insect is injurious in all its stages.
(b) In earlier stages the insects are quite small, yellowish in
color, congregating in large numbers in protected places,
as between a leaf-sheath and the stalk. The adults are
about one-tenth of an inch in length, brownish yellow in
color, more or less clouded with dusky. There are two
forms of adults, a long, and short winged form. Adults
and more mature nymphs occur out on the leaves and
stalk. In all stages, save the first, they jump readily or
sidle around the stalk or leaf when disturbed. (See
figures 4 and 5, plate II.)
(c) The best treatment is probably to be found in the destruc-
tion of infested plants by burning. Fields infested with
this insect should not be planted to corn or other crops
belonging to the Gramineae.
III. THE CANNA LEAF-ROLLER.
(a) This insect has been very injurious to cannas for the past
three years at Lake City. The larvae are leaf rollers,
living within the roll, eating out the parenchyma of the
leaf. Infested leaves soon die, becoming brown and
ragged in appearance, thus destroying their value as
ornamentals. (See figure 7, plate III.)
(b) A full grown larva is about an inch in length, small
bodied, cylindrical, of yellowish white color. (See figure
2, plate III.)
(c) The destruction of the larvae is probably best accom-
plished by cutting off the dried up canna leaves during
the winter and burning them. Also in cutting off and
burning infested leaves when first noticed in the spring.
The Bean Leaf=Roller.
(Eudamus proteus, Linn.)
The "roller-worm" has been recognized as a garden pest in
Florida for many years. In the Annual Report of the United
States Department of Agriculture for 1880, Prof. Comstock men-
tions having observed this insect infesting various garden crops
in different parts of Volusia county; beans, turnips and cabbage
being seemingly preferred. Last year seems to have been a
"roller-worm" year, judging from the numerous complaints that
have come in from correspondents in various parts of the State
against it. In most cases it has been reported as destructive to
beans, but in two or three instances, it has been reported as
injurious to a number of different garden crops.
In the vicinity of Lake City the writer has not observed them
on other crops than beans, but on this plant it has frequently been
sufficiently abundant as to almost destroy promising bean fields.
Larvae have also been frequently observed on the "beggar-weed"
(Desmodium tortuosum, D. C.) and other species of this genus. It
seems possible that these Desmodiums are the natural food
plants of this insect. The first brood comes out earlyjnspring
and a successionof generations continue until stopped by cool
weather. In the southern part of the State, breeding may be
continuous throughout the year. The writer observed them in
considerable abundance in the bean fields along the East Coast
during the last of December and January.
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.
This insect has been studied repeatedly through its various
stages. During the summer the life cycle is quite short, requir-
ing in some cases only twenty-four days from the depositing of
eggs, until the emergence of the adult from the pupa. On June
3rd, adults were observed depositing eggs on the lower surface of
bean leaves. Several of these eggs were collected and brought to
the insectary. These hatched in four days. The larvae grew
rapidly, going through five moults, and fourteen days from the
time of hatching, five entered the pupal state. Six days later,
three adults emerged, one male and two females. The life cycle
was found to extend over a period of thirty-seven days, during
October and November, and specimens are now (Dec. 8th) in the
pupal stage, that were collected as eggs thirty-two days earlier,
and it is not improbable that these will continue as pupae until
the warmer weather of spring, when the adults will appear.
Eggs deposited on bean plants, are usually, if not invariably,
placed on the under surface of the leaflets, in groups of from one
to six. Frequently they are placed in columns, three or four eggs
high, usually two columns placed together, and evidently deposit-
ed by one female. The basal egg is quite firmly glued to the
surface of the leaf, and the superimposed egg, to the one next
below it. Curiously enough, so far as I have observed, the distal
egg is the first to hatch.
Upon hatching, the larvae soon begin to feed, eating out
small patches of parenchyma from the leaf. During the course of
the next twenty-fouir hours, a larva usually prepares a retreat, by
folding over a flap of the leaf. The flap is triangular in shape
and is formed by the larva cutting along two converging lines
from the margin of the leaf and inward a distance of five or six
millimetres (.23 in.) where the flap is left attached by a small con-
nection. This is then folded quite over against the surface of the
leaf and the larva spends much of its time within this retreat,
going out, however, to feed. When ready to moult, the flap is
fastened tightly down on all sides, and the moulting occurs
within this retreat. These triangular flaps are used until the
larva has passed into the third or fourth stage, when a retreat is
formed by folding over a leaflet parallel to its mid-rib. The
larvae do not usually feed within these rolls, but crawl out some-
times six or seven inches from the retreat and feed upon the
surrounding foliage. Instances are sometimes observed, how-
ever, where the retreat has been partially eaten. (See figure 5.
plate I.) The young larvae prefer the upper surface of leaves,
and these flaps are almost invariably folded upon the upper
Larvae bred in the insectary invariably pupated within a
folded leaflet, or several leaflets fastened together. Notwith-
standing diligent search, I have never been able to find a pupa
in the field, in a folded bean leaflet or elsewhere, and have been
led to suspect that the pupa state may possibly be passed in the
Considering the life cycle as averaging about thirty days,
eight or nine broods could occur during the year, since .they
appear early in March and continue breeding usually through
December, in this latitude. However, the broods are not distinct;
eggs, young and old larvae and adults are found in considerable
abundance by early summer, as before mentioned. In the more
southern parts of the State, where food is abundant, breeding
may be continuous throughout the year. Both larvae and adults
are diurnal in their habits, moving about freely at all times of
EGG-Sub-spherical in shape, flattened below, and slightly
so above; marked with raised lines or ridges, running vertically
up the egg, which converge at the polls. On the upper one-
fourth, numerous cross ridges occur (figure I, plate I); diameter
.966 mm. (.037 in.); length .825 mm. (.032 in.).
When first deposited, the eggs are clear glistening white in
color, which in the course of a few hours becomes clear
yellowish. The dark head of the embryo may be readily located
in the more advanced stages of embryonic development.
LARVA, FIRST STAGE-Length, 2.1 m m. (.o81 in.); width of
head, .566 m m.; width of body across third thoracic segment,
.4 m m. (.015 in.). Shape of head almost circular in outline, as
seen from in front. Body sub-cylindrical in shape, tapering
slightly caudad from about tenth segment. Color of head
brownish-black; V shaped suture extending about half way up in
front; strong median suture extending to top of head from the
apex of V. Antennae three jointed, distal joint very small, short
and cylindrical; basal joint bears a seta extending one-third its
length beyond distal joint. Second joint bears two or three short,
fleshy processes, and a long, slightly curved seta. Dis-
tal joint bears two or three short, fleshy, unequal
protuberances. Color of body, uniform yellowish
above, lighter below. Prothroacic shield, brownish-black.
Legs, yellowish; claws brown: pro-legs normal, each with com-
plete circle of brownish colored hooks, except in the case of the
anal prolegs, where the hooks are absent in the posterior one-
fourth of circle. Tubercles are well developed, I-V, each bearing
a well developed and somewhat blunt ended seta. VI and VII
are less developed with their respective seta pointed.
SECOND STAGE-Length, 3.16 m m. (.123 in.); width of head,
.866 m m.; width across third thoracic segment .7 m m. (.027
in.). Head circular in outline as seen from in front. Body sub-
cylindrical, tapering slightly cauded as in ist stage. Color yellow-
ish green, lighter below. Numerous blackish dots and splotches
sprinkled over dorsal surface. Prothoracic shield jet black; the
yellow lateral lines so conspicuous in the adult larva, are faintly
intimated in this stage. Ventral portion of first thoracic segment
reddish. Legs and prolegs as in first stage.
The tubercles of the first stage seem to have disappeared
with the first moult. The body dorsally, is thickly covered with
short hairs, with truncate, serrated or angled ends. Ventrally,
the hairs are pointed. Numerous hairs are also distributed over
THIRD STAC(.--Length, 1 c m. (.39 in.); width of head 2
m m.; width of third thoracic segment 1.5 m m. (.058 in.). Head
cordate in shape, distinctly lobed above. Body sub-cylindrical,
tapering slightly as in preceding stages. General color, greenish
yellow; dorsally, thickly peppered with black: lighter below, with
the black wanting. The yellow lateral lines much more distinct
than in stage.II, being now plainly marked. Posteriorly, these
merge into broader orange streaks, which extend from about the
tenth segment, caudad. A narrow black line extends down the
middle of the dorsum from prothoracic shield to tenth segment.
A f';nt whitish sub-spiracular line extends from prothoracic
~,, .w i. N:.
n ^ **
Endamus protews.-1, egg; 2, larva; :3, pupa; 4, adult; 5, bean
leaflet showing work of larva. Figure 1 greatly enlarged, from photo-
micrograph; Figures 2, : and 4, enlarged about two-thirds diameter.
All from photographs.
shield to caudal end. Prothoracic shield black; ventral portion
of first segment reddish. The first two pair of thoracic legs
blackish, third pair clouded with dusky. Each abdominal proleg
is marked on the outside with faint orange spots. Tubercles and
setae of first stage absent. Body and head covered with short
hairs as in stage second.
FOURTH STAGE-Length 1.5 c m. (.585 in.); width of head,
3 m m.; width across third segment, 2.25 m m. (.087 in.) Color
and shape about as in third stage, except the markings are more
pronounced. On the head, near the base of each mandible, is a
circular orange spot; the apical portion of the head is rufous;
thoracic legs shining black. Ventral portion of first segment
FIFTH AND LAST LARVAL STAGE-Length, about 3 c m.
(1.17 in.); width of head 4.5 m m.; width across third segment,
5 m m. (.195 in.). Shape of body somewhat fusiform, thickest
about the middle, and tapering slightly to each end. Head as in
preceding stages-somewhat cordate in shape, quite large.
Color yellowish, sprinkled with black as in preceding stages;
lighter below, without black markings. The lateral yellow lines
of the preceding stages, more orange colored. Narrow dorsal
line present. Two broken rings of orange on prolegs. Head
with the usual orange spots near the base of mandibles; the apical
third of head rufous, the rest black. Prothoracic shield black,
ventral portion of this segment dark red. Thoracic legs black;
head as in preceding stages; greatly constricted behind forming
a narrow "neck." Body and head covered with numerous short,
light colored hairs. (Figure 2, plate I.)
PUPA-Length about 2.25 c m. (.877 in.); width about 6
m m. (.234 in.). At first, greenish yellow in color particularly
the wings and thorax; at length, shining brown in color; eyes
brownish black. In the course of two or three days the pupa
becomes covered with a white flocculent excretion. The cremas-
ter consists of numerous brown hairs with curved tips, forming
hooks. (See figure 3, plate I.)
ADULT-The adult insect, or skipper, may be recognized by
reference to figure 4, plate I. The wings expand about 5 c m.
(1.95 in.). On the base of primaries, basal half of secondaries, and
on the dorsum of the abdomen, are metallic green hairs. The
primaries are marked with five to seven square rectangular, or
oblong white spots, confined to the distal half. The secondaries
extend caudad into long tail-like processes, making a total length
from head to tip of secondaries of about one and one-half inches.
Under side brownish purple; primaries about the same in color as
on upper surface. Secondaries marked with two oblique markings
of deep purple black, the inner strip much interrupted. Under
surface of tails deep brownish black; tails tipped with rufous.
Antenna terminates in a recurved hook.
The bean leaf-roller can be successfully controlled with Paris
green. Experiments made indicate that if the poison is used at
the rate of one pound to one hundred and fifty gallons of water,
this will be sufficiently strong to destroy the larvae. But under
certain conditions the foliage of the bean plant is scalded by
using a spray of even this low strength of Paris green. In one
case, where the insecticide was applied of the above strength, a
rain occurred about thirty-six hours.later, which resulted in the
killing of the plants, due, doubtless, to the increased amount of
arsenous acid put in solution by the rain. To obviate such results,
quick-lime should be used in the mixture, as the lime will nutra-
lize the arsenous acid, and so far as past experiences show, do no
harm to the plants. It is usually quite sufficient to use equal
amounts by weight of lime and Paris green. Before adding the
lime to the Paris green and water, it should be mixed with water
until it has about the consistency of paint, care being taken that
all particles are dissolved completely, and trash removed, so that
the nozzle of the pump will not become clogged up in spraying.
The Corn Delphax.
(Delphaz nmidis, Ashmead.)
During the latter part of August of the past year, a plot
of corn on the Experiment Station was found to be badly infested
with this insect. These insects suck the sap from the plants with
their strong beaks, thereby greatly retarding development, caus-
ing them to yellow and frequently todie. A notinfrequent result of
the puncturing of the plant by the insect, is the exudation of
drops of a clear, slightly sticky fluid from the wounds; ants at-
tracted by this saccharine fluid are usually to be observed in con-
siderable numbers, and their presence in undue abundance
should be cause for examination.
This is not the first instance in which this insect has been ob-
served to be a corn pest. In June, 1888 Mr. W. H. Ashmead
observed them as very severe on corn at Jacksonville, Fla.. and
during the past summer it has been recorded by Prof. H. A.
Morgan, of the Louisiana Experiment Station, as very destruc-
tive to Mexican June Corn growing upon the sugar Experiment
Station at Audubon Park.
Mr. Ashmead has contributed much to a knowledge of the
life history and habits of this insect in an article in the March-
April number of Psyche, 189o, page 321. An interesting state-
ment in this article by Mr. Ashmead is to the effect that many
years ago (1841) Prof. Westwood published an illustrated de-
scription of an insect very closely allied to the corn Delphax
which was seriously destructive to sugar cane in the West Indies.
We must consequently be rather suspicious of this corn pest as it
is liable to widen its range of food plants, and attack the sugar
cane. Feeding as it does on the saccharine juices of the corn, it
would possibly find the sugar cane even more palatable-and we
should take care that we do not import Westwood's insect from
the West Indies.
The abundance of the insects during late summer and fall of
the past season offered splendid opportunity for the study of this
pest both in the field and laboratory. The results of this study
are herewith given.
HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
Eggs are deposited mainly along the mid-ribs of leaves down
in the loose cellular tissue just beneath the epidermis. The mid-
rib of the lower leaves is usually quite packed with these eggs,
more numerous near the base, but frequently extending almost
out to the tip. These numerous punctures in the leaf are a
serious detriment to the plant, and doubtless help to hasten its
death. The number of eggs deposited together in the same slit,
and evidently by the same female, varies from two to four. Prob-
ably in the majority of cases but two eggs are deposited together,
but there are very frequently to be found three, and occasionally
four. (See figure I, plate II; illustrating three eggs as taken
from a slit in a corn leaf. From a photomicrograph; much en-
larged.) The young, when ready to leave the egg effect a rup-
ture at the top and gradually work their way out. This escape
requires from twenty minutes to a half-hour. Upon escaping
from the egg, the nymph moves around slowly for an hour or so,
in the vicinity of its birth. Usually by the end of the first twenty-
four hours, the nymph has taken sufficient food that it may be
detected by its color, in the alimentary canal. Considerable
agility is soon acquired and by the time the third stage is
reached, they are able to jump some distance. While in the
earlier stages, they prefer the leaf-sheaths or a protected part of
the leaf, as where one leaf overlaps another. In such places they
may frequently be found hidden away in great numbers, when the
plant is apparently free from them. In the latter stages, as from
the fourth on, they occur somewhat promiscuously on the leaves
and stem of the plant. The corn Delphax is quite active in its
latter stages, jumping with agility when disturbed. Adults
usually jump in preference to taking flight, when molested. On
the plant, the older nymphs and adults move readily sidewise,
and their attempts to sidle around a stem or leaf out of sight, is
Mr. Ashmead has found that the life cycle occupies about
one month during July, August and September. My own obser-
vations indicate that the life cycle may occupy con-
siderably more time than this, somewhat later in the season. On
November ioth breeding experiments were started with this
insect in the Station propagating house where the temperature
surrounding was kept at about 60 degrees F., or somewhat
A considerable number of adults were confined on young
corn plants, and egg depositing began in a few hours. By the
end of two days a considerable number of. eggshad been deposited
along the mid-ribs of leaves; the adults were now removed from
the plants, which were carefully protected from infestation from
the outside. By December 6th several young had hatched, prob-
ably from eggs first deposited. For several days succeeding,
young continued to appear. December 14th several moulted for
the first time; by the 19th, several had moulted for the second
time, and on the 28th many had moulted again, and hence were
in the fourth stage. This stage continued until January 7th,
when the last nymphal stage was attained by moulting for the
fourth time. On January I8th the adult stage was reached, by
moulting for the fifth time.
As will be observed from the above, the egg state continued.
for seventeen days; the first nymphal state for eight days the
second five, the third nine, the fourth ten and the fifth for eleven
days, thus making the life cycle sixty days.
This difference in time of life cycle as compared with the
summer broods is no doubt due to the lower temperature, and
well illustrates the effect of change of temperature on the devel-
opment of insects.
There is an interesting variation in the adult, in that there is
a short winged or brachypterous form, as has been pointed out
by Mr. Ashmead. The hind pair of wings in this form seem to
be wanting, and the first pair are very much reduced. (See figure
.6, plate II, showing above, a normal fore-wing from the right
side;below,a reduced fore-wingfrom the right side of thebrachyp-
terous form. From a photomicrograph, much enlarged.) Asic.-
from this reduction of wings, the short winged form seems to be
essentially the same as the normal form. Either sex may be bra-
chypterous, and mating was frequently observed between the two
forms. In the case of insects bred out in the forcing house dur-
ing December and January, the proportion of short winged forms
was considerably greater than that of the long winged forms.
For instance, under one jar twenty adults were bred out, and
fourteen of these were of the brachypterous form. This propor-
tion seems to be about reversed during the summer months, the
long winged form being much more abundant. Possibly the
somewhat lower temperature under which the specimens in the
forcing house were bred, may have some relation to the question
of the cause of this dimorphism.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT STAGES.
EGG-Length .75 m m. (.029 in.); width at center .18 m m.
(.007 in.:) shape oblong, curved, tapering slightly to apical end.
Color clear white, in fresh eggs, transparent: in advanced stages
embryo plainly visible; eye spots quite pronounced, at an early
Apical end of egg is deposited about even with surface of
leaf; slit cemented over; eggs, when in leaf, deposited on upper
side. (See figure I, plate II.)
FIRST NYMPHAL STAGE-Length .916 m m. (.035 in.); width
of head .2 m m.; width of thorax .283 m m. (.oIi in.); color, body
whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, legs and antennae lighter;
body containing numerous reddish granules. Eyes, reddish.
Shape, oblong, depressed. Antennae three jointed. Basal joint
very short, broad, somewhat disk shaped. Second about four
times length of first, pear shaped; third somewhat urn shaped,
with very narrow attachment at base. This joint is composed of
EXLPANATION OF PLATE II.
Delphax maidis.- I, eggs; figures 2, 3 and 4 nymphs, first,
second and fourth stages; 5, adult; 6, long and short wings of
adults. All from photomicrographs greatly enlarged. Figures
5 and 6 less enlarged than others.
Ie H tmiiw:c^-fl'
two distinct parts, the urn shaped basal portion, and a long fili-
form prolongation, somewhat longer than the remainder of an-
tennae. This prolongation of the third joint is marked
with numerous rings, some of which appear to divide
it into regular joints. The urn shaped base is about two-thirds
length of second segment, and about one-third its diameter. At
the distal end of basal part of third joint, are numerous spines
arranged more or less circularly, and curved inwards. Rostrum
three-jointed; basal joint short, about one-third length of second.
Second and third sub-equal in length; third tipped with brownish
black. Legs, well developed: coxae quite long; tarsi stout, coni-
cal, two jointed; the joints of first and second tarsi rather indis-
tinct, indicated by pronounced circular construction. On last
tarsi, the joint is much more distinct; the proximal segment bears
distally a circular row of short, broad-based spines, tipped with
dark-brown, and a much larger stout spine. Tarsus terminated
by two claws with a membraneous-like expansion. (See figure 2,
plate II, from a photomicrograph greatly enlarged.)
SECOND STAGE-Length 1.33 m m. (.051 in.); width of head
.3 m m.; wdth of thorax .46 m m. (.017 in.) Color whitish, abdo-
men somewhat yellow; eyes reddish, as in stage I. Shape as in
state I. Abdomen proportionately larger; head proportionately
smaller than in first stage; the dorsum of thorax is marked by six
quadrilateral plates. (See figure 3, plate II.)
THIRD STAGE-Length 2 m m. (.078 in.); width of head .366
m m.; width of thorax .666 m m. (.025 in.). Color light yellow;
dorsally, a general clouding with dusky, deeper on sides of abdo-
men. Legs and antennae lighter. Eyes deep red, much deeper
centrally. The quadrilateral plates of the mesothorax and meta-
thorax prolonged slightly on outer corners of caudal margin,
thus indicating the beginning of wing-pads. Legs as in previous
stages, except that in the hind pair the large spur on tibial
joint is movable, and proportionately larger. The spur bears on
its inner margin, three or four short stout spines.
FOURTH STAGE-Length 2.86 m m. (.III in.); width of head
.6 m m.; width of thorax I m m. (.039 in.). General color, yellow,
clouded dorsally, deepest on sides of abdomen. Eyes reddish
black. Shape essentially as in previous stage. Wing pads con-
siderably elongated reaching middle of first abdominal segment.
First pair of wing pads not quite reaching tip of second. The
suture on tarsi of first and second pair of legs, much more dis-
tinct and nearer tibia than in first stage. The last tarsus is three
jointed; proximal joint with a row of short stout spines on its
inner margin. On distal portion of second tarsal joint are one,
two or three stout spines like those on proximal joint. (See figure
4, plate II.)
FIFTH STAGE-Length 3.23 m m. (.095 in.); width of head
.566 m m.; width of thorax 1.166 m m. (.045 in.). Color, essen-
tially as in previous stage. Second pair of wing pads reaching
third abdominal segment; first not quite reaching tip of second.
THE ADULT-Female, length 2 and 3-5 mm. (.I in.): wing ex-
panse 7 m m. (.27 in.). Greenish to brownish yellow in color,
with cloudings of smoky black on apex of first and apical half of
second antennal joint, clypeus, frons, and coxae. The abdomen is
more or less clouded with smoky, and with lateral stripes of yel-
lowish. Caudal margin of segments also yellowish. Legs pale,
femora brownish; on apical end of posterior tibia several black
tipped spines and a large movable spur; tarsi three jointed. Beak
evidently but two jointed, extending beyond the middle coxae.
Front wings are pale greenish brown, sub-hyaline, with apical
portion more or less clouded with fuliginous. (See figure 5,
SHORT WINGED FORM-Differs from the normal form in the
reduced wings, in being slightly longer (3 m m.), in possessing a
somewhat broader and more depressed abdomen. The aborted
front wing is shown in figure 6, plate II.
This insect will not yield readily to ordinary insecticides.
Being sucking insects, arsenical poisons would not of course, be
of value against them. Kerosene emulsion would be valuable
no doubt destroying those reached, but as will be remembered,
the nymphs during the earlier stages live down in the leaf
sheaths, where they would quite escape spraying. The numerous
eggs also, in the leaf tissue, would probably (not be effected by
spraying. In view of these facts, it would probably be best to
quite destroy infested plants by burning them. In a field of corn,
so badly infested as to become stunted and yellow, it would no
doubt be more profitable to destroy the crop, and plant the land
to something else not attacked by the insects. The exact natural
food of the insect has not been recorded. Prof. Morgan, how-
ever, mentions having swept it from various grasses. Judging
from the habits of its near relatives, its food is probably limited
to the grasses. It would seem safe to replant an infested field to
almost any crop not belonging to the Gramineae.
The Canna Leaf=Roller. *
(Hydrocampa cannabis, Fernald, MSS.)
For the past three years the cannas (Canna Indica) in the
neighborhood of Lake City have been badly infested with a leaf-
rolling larva which by eating out the parenchyma from the inner
(upper) side of the leaves has occasioned very serious damage to
these plants. Leaves infested soon become so badly eaten that
they die, becoming brown and ragged, thus changing them from
beautiful ornamentals to unsightly objects. The insect
doubtless occurs throughout the State. Those having beds or
terraces of cannas which have been 'dying, or browning, would do
well to look for this insect in connection with the trouble, and
follow the treatment herein advised if it is observed to be present.
Leaves may either be rolled up from one side, by the larvae
or, as is more frequently the case, younger leaves are fastened,
before they have unrolled to any extent. The caterpillars feed
within the rolled up leaves eating out the soft tissue to the epider-
mis of the lower surface. Rarely is the epidermis of the lower
surface of the leaf eaten into, it being left usually quite intact. In
the case of younger unrolled leaves, the margin of the outer leaf
is firmly fastened to the roll by short silken threads. On the in-
terior leaves of the roll the larvae feed, usually quite consuming
the parenchymatous tissue within. In other cases, fully ex-
panded leaves are rolled up parallel to the mid-rib. This is done
much after the usual manner of leaf rolling larvae by spinning a
thread from the margin of the leaf to a point farther
in toward the mid-rib. Several of- these cords
are spun along the margin of the leaf and by their subse-
quent contraction, the margin is pulled over, and finally touches
I am under obligations to'Dr. C. H Fernald for the determination of
this insect, which he has found to be new to science; Dr Fernald will
doubtless publish a description of the insect in the near future.
the leaf, thus forming a tube within which the larvae feed. When
the parenchyma within this tube is eaten out, the leaf is rolled
again, the larva coming out along the lateral margin of the tube,
and spinning threads from the tube to points yet nearer the mid-
rib. In this way a large canna leaf may be quite rolled up. (See
figure 7, plate II.) Usually but one or two larvae occupy a single
leaf. However, as many as five or six were found'in a few cases.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.
In order that the insect might be studied during its entire
life cycle, about two dozen pupae were collected
and brought to the laboratory, and placed in a breeding cage,
October 16, 1896. Moths appeared October 23th, 24th and 25th.
Eggs were found on the 24th in considerable abundance fastened
to the glass doors and elsewhere, of the case. The eggs were
placed in patches of six to fifteen, firmly fastened, and with but
little show of order in their arrangement some overlapping, some
directly above others. The embryo could plainly be detected by
noon of the 27th. The development from this date seemed quite
rapid. By October 31st nearly all of the eggs had hatched. An
hour or two after hatching the larvae began looking around for
food. Specimens of just hatched larvae were placed on fresh
canna leaves, and after crawling around for a few minutes began
to eat greedily of the leaf. By the end of the next twenty-four
hours, many had eaten down to the lower epidermis, and had
then mined out an inch, or an inch and a quarter, between the
lower and upper surfaces of the leaf. These could be readily ob-
served with a hand lense, feeding within. The mines behind the
larvae soon became quite filled with brownish colored excrement.
As these larvae grew, their tunnels became too small for them
and they were forced to leave them, eating a circular hole to the
upper surface of the leaf. From this time until they began rolling
the leaves, the larvae fed more or less gregariously, eating out
patches of parenchyma to the lower epidermis. In some cases,
the larvae crawled to the base of the leaf, and fed between the
growing stem and the petiole. On November 7th, the first leaf-
rolling tendency was observed. The margins of the leaf were
pulled over somewhat by silken cords thus forming a protection.
From this date leaves were rolled more or less completely, and
young and unfolded leaves were fastened so that they did not
Before pupating the larva usually fastens some portion of
the leaf tightly around itself, and spins within this a slight lining
of silk. The first pupa was observed November 25th, quite firmly
fastened to the silken lining on the inside of its case, by the eight
hooked spines on the caudal end of the abdomen. In the course
of two or three days, many more larvae had pupated. From this
it is observed that the life cycle in this instance is approximately
forty days. Adults emerged from several of these pupae, during
several days of warm weather during the latter part of December.
Many adults, however, did not appear until the first of March,
and it would seem that the winter may be passed in the pupal
A study of the insect in the field also indicates that the
winter is passed in the pupa state. However, a few larvae were
observed snugly fastened up, which probably passed the winter
in that condition. By the latter part of February, the moths were
quite numerous among dried canna leaves on the terraces. By
the tenth of March they were much more abundant, and as the
cannas were now sprouting up through the ground, eggs were
doubtless deposited about that date. On March 19th, the young
leaves of the cannas were observed to be badly infested with
larvae, many leaves having been already rolled and fastened to-
gether. By April 3rd many of the larvae had pupated within the
rolled up leaves, and in the course of ten or twelve days, the
adults from these began to appear. In this instance the life cycle
was approximately thirty-five days. The difference in time re-
quired for the life cycle in the fall and spring broods is probably
due to more favorable weather during the spring. During mid-
summer, it is not improbable that life cycle is somewhat less than
in the case of the first spring brood, possibly as short as twenty-
eight or thirty days. Succeeding the first brood, these do not oc-
cur as distinct broods, but soon become quite confused so that
the insect in all stages may frequently be found at the same time.
During the present season ('97) the insect has not been quite
so abundant as last, but it has still been sufficiently abundant to
be a serious pest. The adults are rather shy, and if disturbed fly a
short distance and usually alight on the under side of the leaf, as
much in the shade as possible. Not infrequently they alight on
the dead leaves with which they agree so closely in color that
they become exceedingly difficult to detect. The moths are prob-
ably nocturnal, as in no case were they observed to fly voluntarily
during the day.
EGG-Size, .85x.925 m m. (.o33x.o36 in.). Slightly longer
than broad; even outline, very flat. Deposited in patches of from
six to fifteen (in breeding case) many overlapping others; firmly
cemented by slightly opaque glistening substance. Color, clear
whitish yellow, the embryo plainly visible within, at the proper
stage. The surface is marked with numerous slightly raised lines
forming small irregular polygons.
LARVA, FIRST STAGE-Length about 1.4 m m.(.546 in.);
width across base of head .23 m m. (.008 in.); length of head .216
m m. (.- in.); width across third abdominal segment .166 m m.
(.064 in.); shape of body, almost cylindrical, tapering gradually
caudad from head. Head cordate, large in proportion to rest of
body. Color, yellowish, somewhat transparent; head yellow;
eyes brown. Mandibles well toothed, brownish black at tips. An-
tennae short, stubby, each having distally three or four finger
like processes, and a long terminal seta. Thoracic legs well de-
veloped, terminating in a hook, and a blade like structure which
acting together may form a clasper. Pro-legs normal; each
with a single row of rather stout, brownish colored hooks; anal
The tubercles are arranged as illustrated in the diagram,
figure 5, plate III: a, the third thoracic segment; b, the third ab-
dominal segment. Tubercle I of the third thoracic segment, has
the normal sub-dorsal position, and bears a single, well developed
blunt ended seta. Tubercle II is less developed than tubercle I,
and its seta is shorter. It is situated slightly ventrad of a line
drawn directly caudad of number I. Tubercle III is similar to
number I in development; its seta is also of about the same
length. It is situated a short distance dorso-cephalad of the
spiracle. Tubercle IV is ventrad, and slightly caudad of the spira-
cle; it bears a well developed and blunt ended seta. Tubercle
V is much reduced, and somewhat closely approximated to tuber-
cle IV. Its seta is reduced and sharp pointed on the end. It is
slightly cephalad of a line directly ventrad from tubercle IV. Tu-
bercle VI seems to be wanting at this stage. Tubercle VII is re-
presented by two quite well developed tubercles and setae. Tu-
bercle VIII is near to the inner base of the pro-leg. It bears a
short pointed seta.
LARVA, LAST STAGE-Length about 23 m m.(.897 in.);
width of head at base I m m.(.039 in.); width across third ab-
dominal segment 3 m m. (.117 in.). Shape of body, cylindrical,
tapering somewhat cephalad and caudad. Head, cordate in shape.
General color of larva, yellowish white; quite transparent, so
much so that in a live specimen the pulsation of the dorsal tube
may be easily observed. A greenish appearance is given to the
caterpillar from the green food within the alimentary canal. Head
yellow; clypeus, yellowish brown; tips of mandibles, brownish-
black. Antennae as in stage I, except slightly elongated. Ocelli,
five or six on each side. Thoracic legs well developed, terminat-
ing in short brownish claws. Abdominal pro-legs each supplied
with a circle of stout brown hooks. Anal pro-legs with but the
cephalic half of circle of hooks present.
Supra-spiracular tubercles surrounded by yellow corneous
areas. In the thoracic region these areas may extend below the
line of spiracles, (see figure). These areas have on the whole, a
circular outline with slightly raised lines converging to the base
of the tubercle. In the thoracic region, however, these areas
show a tendency to coalesce, thus forming more or less irregular
corneous areas. Numerous pigment spots occur in these cor-
neous areas. Prothoracic shield well developed.
Tubercles of the third abdominal segment are much the
same as in stage I, except that tubercle III has moved slightly
caudad, and is now almost directly dorsad of the spiracle; IV and
Hydrocamjpa cannalis.-1. adult (from photograph. enlarged about % diameter);
2, larva; 3, pupa; 4. caudal end of pupa. more enlarged; 5, enlarged segment of larva
in first stage; a. third thoracic segment; b. third abdominal segment; 6, same as 5.
bu in last larval stage: 7. canna leaf. as rolled by larva.
V are approximately the same. Tubercle VI is present at this
stage, and is situated directly ventrad of tubercle IV, about
equally distant from both IV and VII. Tubercle VII is compos-
ed of three somewhat reduced tubercles and setae; VIII is
present in approximately the same position as in stage I, (see fig-
ure 6, plate III, A and B).
PUPA-Length 11.5 m m. (.448 in.); width across the thorax
2.75 m m. (.107 in.); color of thorax, head and wings, chocolate
brown; abdomen somewhat lighter. By the use of a lense the
caudal end of the pupa is seen to be rounded, bearing eight rather
stout dark brown hairs, curved on the end into hooks, forming an
organ for holding the pupa to the silken threads which the larva
spins within the leaf case (see figures 3 and 4, plate III).
ADULT-Female, wing expanse about 25 n m. (.975 in.);
length of body II m m. (.429 in.); length of antennae 7 m m.
Color, quite uniform light brown, varying in different specimens
to lighter; lines of brownish black extend across both primaries
and secondaries respectively one-third and two-thirds the length
of the wing distant from its base. A small angular patch of white
is found near the distal portion of the discal cell of the primaries.
(See figure I, plate III, which illustrates the moth about two-
thirds enlarged; from a photograph.)
The canna leaf-roller can doubtless be best controlled by carefully
cleaning off and burning the dead plants and trash from the beds
during the winter season. By this procedure, most of the pupae
and larvae, which pass the winter in these leaves and trash will be
destroyed. The rolled up leaves should be watched for in the
spring, and cut off and burned. Figure 7 illustrates the appear-
ance of a leaf rolled up .by these larvae.
I am under obligations to Prof. P. H. Rolfs for looking over
my manuscript, and to my wife, Nellie M. Quaintance, for the
drawings in plate III.