• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Religion
 Filial Love
 Fraternal Love
 Early Discipline
 Docility
 Self-Control
 Decision of Character
 Patriotism
 Courage
 Presence of Mind
 Princely Bearing
 Reputation
 Kindness and Delicacy of Feeli...
 Humanity or Benevolence
 Forgiveness of Injuries
 Friendship
 Secrecy
 Truth
 Chapter
 Justice
 Generosity
 Gratitude and Attachment
 Laudable Emulation
 Beautiful Sayings
 Love of Knowledge and Early...
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Little princes.
Title: Tales and anecdotes about little princes
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024383/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tales and anecdotes about little princes and illustrious children of all ages & countries
Uniform Title: Little princes
Alternate Title: Little princes
Physical Description: xii, 196 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Slater, John
Horsley, John Callcott, 1817-1903 ( Illustrator )
Dean & Son ( Publisher )
Publisher: Dean & Son
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: [between 1865 and 1873]
Edition: New ed. / -- With illustrative sketches by John Calcott Horsley.
 Subjects
Subject: Princes -- Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Princes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Nobility -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Magnanimity -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Gratitude -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Secrecy -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Forgiveness -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Truth -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Kindness -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Patriotism -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Self-control -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1869   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1869
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. John Slater.
General Note: First published in 1843 under the title: Little princes. See BM, cited below.
General Note: Approximate dates inferred from dates of publisher's form of name and address according to Brown, P.A. London publishers and printers, p. 55.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Baldwin library copy p. 111 torn, affecting text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024383
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237605
notis - ALH8094
oclc - 13511751

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Frontispiece
        Page 6
    Title Page
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Frontispiece
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Preface
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Table of Contents
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Introduction
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Religion
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Filial Love
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Fraternal Love
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Early Discipline
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Docility
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Self-Control
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Decision of Character
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Patriotism
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Courage
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Presence of Mind
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Princely Bearing
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Reputation
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Kindness and Delicacy of Feeling
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Humanity or Benevolence
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Forgiveness of Injuries
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Friendship
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Secrecy
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Truth
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Chapter
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Justice
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Generosity
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Gratitude and Attachment
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Laudable Emulation
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Beautiful Sayings
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Love of Knowledge and Early Acquirements
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Index
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Back Matter
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Back Cover
        Page 219
        Page 220
Full Text
This page contains no text.


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TALES AND ANECDOTESABOUTjittle |rinnts,AND5 ll1trinuS filhreu nf anl 5gAg k nuntrire .DEDICATED (BY PERMISSION OF QUEEN VICTORIA) TO;' 6 'fouaf Xtiqftiei A&fezt 8twatZ3 PtIMce of 'Wafeb.Ir-: ~ BY MRS. JOHN SLATER.: tem dthitinn,WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SKETCHES,BY JOHN CALCOTT HORSLEY, ESQ.LONDON: DEAN & SON, 65, LUDGATE HILL, E. c.


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TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS,ALBERT EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES,BY PERMISSION OF HIS AUGUST MOTHER,VICTORIA, OUR GRACIOUS QUEEN,tf Uittle lOou,INTENDED TO BRING BEFORE HIS INFANT MINDTIITHE EXAMPLE OF ILLUSTRIOUS CHILDRENOF ALL AGES AND COUNTRIES,!IS, WITH THE MOST PROFOUND RESPECT AND LOYAL AFFECTION,INSCRIBED BYi--; ; HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS'S DEVOTED SERVANT,r>R-.t: 0ELIZA SLATER.


I:' <E%\ CK.


A t- PREFACE.IT is above eighty years since the birth of an heir-apparent to the throne was last celebrated inthese realms, and during this interval vast im-rovements have been made in infant literature.Perhaps a little book, expressly designed for the firsteading of a Royal child, has not hitherto existed, andthis work is a very humble attempt to supply such adeficiency.Before his Royal Highness can read fluently, he willProbably have been made acquainted, by means of con-rsation, with most of the great men, of whose youth:ave given anecdotes; but this is not necessary toi usefulness of the work: if he has already learnedjadmire these great princes, the incidents of theirFi1hood will be interesting to him: if not, wheneverjAge of history is opened to him, there will bePeady facts in his mind, with which to associate theJlowledge he is about to acquire.


llrVi PREFACE.My principal object in the Moral Reflections, whichwere necessary in order to introduce and connect theanecdotes, was to make them so short, that it mightnot be worth while to skip them, a habit that livelychildren always acquire, if they are kept too long fromfacts-the great object of interest to the infant mind.I hope I shall be approved, in not having changedthe quaint style and antiquated spelling of the oldauthors whom I have quoted. I have also consideredit better not to give a translation of two or three Latinand French letters that I have inserted: it is of littleconsequence, if they are not understood upon the firstreading of the book; but we all know with what plea-sure we have recurred to passages formerly unintelli-gible, but which, increased knowledge has enabled usto understand.All my hopes and wishes will be fulfilled,. if itshould be found that the cause of religion and virtuehas been upheld in these pages, and no sentimentsinculcated, but such as are worthy of a great Prince,destined to reign over a great nation.ELIZA SLATER.ST. JOHN'S WOOD,May, 1843.


gig' ?. .0 2 : 2' 0 i; \.'i::i; ..CONTENTS.INTRODUCTION .........................................................PageRELIGION ....................................... 3A Prince's Reverence for the Bible................................... 4A little Daughter of Charles the First.............................. 4The Princess Amelia...................................................... 5The Princess Charlotte of Wales....................................... 5Childhood of George the Third.......................................... 6Henry, Prince of Wales, Son of James the First.................. 7Son of Evelyn of Wotton................................................ 8FILIAL LOVE .................................................................. 13Singular Reward of Filial Love.......................................14Alexander the Great ...................................................... 14Scipio Africanus ............................................................ 1A Roman Son ............................................................... 15A Latin Letter from Henry, Prince of Wales, to his Father,James the First ......................................................... 16- Letter of Henry, Prince of Wales, to his father, James the First 17A Letter written by the Great Cond, in his Youth, to his Father18Another ..................................................................... 19Young George Staunton ........................................20The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth.........................20TFATERNAL LOVE .........................................................23The Sons of George the Third........................................24: ;: -Louis Philippe, King of the French.................................24The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth...........................25Letter of Charles, Duke of York, to his Brother, Prince Henry256


+Vli it f COtN E TS.Another Letter of Charles, Duke of York, to his Brother...Paye 26Another ..................................................................... 26Prince William, Son of Henry the First ........................... 27Cato the Younger......................................... 28EARLY DISCIPLINE ................................................29; The Children of George the Third ....................................30The Duke of Clarence, afterwards William the Fourth .........31The Princes of Orleans ...................................................31A useful Lesson to check the Pride of Princes .....................32The young Soldier's Pillow .............................................32Childhood of the Great Henry the Fourth of France ...........33Early Education of Sesostris, King of Egypt .....................34Cyrus the Great and his Grandfather............................. 35D O CILITY ...... .................................................................. 39Louis Philippe, King of the French ................................. 40The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ........................... 41Youth of Alcibiades .................................. ...... 41SELF-CONTROL ........................................ 43Charles the Twelfth of Sweden ...................................... 44Prince Henry, Son of Henry the Fourth ...........................44Sir Philip Sydney........................................45Alexander the Great ...................................................... 46Heroic Endurance....................... .... 47The Twin Sons of Sabinus...............................48P DECISION OF CHARACTER ........................................Charles the Twelfth of Sweden ...................................... 51Gustavus the Third of Sweden .......................................53Frederick the Great and his Nephew................................. 55Henry, Duke of Gloucester, Son of Charles the First ............56Isabella, afterwards Queen of Castile ..............................58Edward, Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward the Third....58Alexander the Third of Scotland .......................................60Cato the Younger and the Deputy ................................... 60


r 0' ~ CONTENTS. iI .PATRIOTISM ...........................................................Page 62Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia.................................63The Empress-Queen, Maria Theresa.................................67The Citizens of Calais................................................69COURAGE........................................................................ 73Letter from the Duke of Wellington to Lady Sarah Napier ... 74Young Napoleon.....................................................75Christina, Queen of Sweden.............................................76Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden.......................................77Henry, Prince of Wales, Son of James the First..................77Edward, the BlackPrince...............................................81The Chevalier Bayard...............................................82The Chevalier De Boufflers.............................................83Cato the Younger...............................................89Isadas, a Spartan Youth...............................................90Alexander the Great and Bucephalus.................................91PRESENCE OF MIND ...............................................94Richard the Second..............................................95Margaret of Anjou and her Son.......................................96PRINCELY BEARING.....................................................98George, Prince of Wales, afterwards George the Fourth.........99The Princess Amelia...............................................100Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James the First .................. 101Christina of Sweden ...................................................... 102Alexander the Great ..................................................... 104King Porus................................................105REPUTATION...... ...............................................106Young Napoleon............................................................ 107The Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fifteenth ...... 107The Emperor Augustus.................................................. 108


-. *rpEw"| I; X CONTENTS.XI KINDNESS AND DELICACY OF FEELING ...............Page 109The Princess Charlotte of Wales....................................... 110The Princess Sophia ...................................................... 111: Queen Caroline's Lesson to her Daughter ........................... 112The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ........................... 112The Dauphin, Father of Louis the Sixteenth........................ 114: The Duke de Chartres, Father of King Louis Philippe ......... 115Maria Leczinska, Queen of Louis the Fifteenth ................. 116The Empress-Queen, Maria Theresa ................................. 117A Russian Princess .................................................... 118Alexander the Great ...................................................... 119HUMANITY OR BENEVOLENCE .................................... 122The young Princes of Brunswick .................................... 123Napoleon, King of Rome ................................................ 123The Princess Charlotte of Wales....................................... 124The Children of George the Third .................................... 125The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ........................... 126The Duke de Chartres, King of the French ........................ 127A Letter from the Duke de Chartres to Mad. de Genlis, hisGoverness ........................................................... 128Pulcheria, Daughter of Mad. de Genlis .............................. 129Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria ................................. 131The Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fifteenth...... 131Geta, Son of the Emperor Severus .................................... 132FORGIVENESS OF INJURIES ....................................... 134' Louis the Seventeenth ................................................... 136FRIENDSHIP .................................................................. 137Henry, Prince of Wales, Son of James the First.................. 138i:SECRECY ....................................................................... 141Papirius Prtextatus..................................................... 142Hephwestion, Friend of Alexander the Great........................ 143


:' CONTENTS. Xi...........................................................Page 144Archduchess Marie-Antoinette .................................... 145n e Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ........................... 146lTohe Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fifteenth......146-:John, King of France ................................................... 147LATTERY .................................................148The Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fifteenth...... 149i Canute, the Great ........................................................149JUSTICE ................................................161Henry, Prince of Wales, Son of James the First .................. 152Gustavus the Third of Sweden .......................................... 154Cyrus the Great................................................ 154GENEROSITY ............................................................... 156The Comte de Beaujolais, Brother of Louis Philippe............ 157Louis the Twelfth of France ............................................. 157Edward the Sixth...........;............................167Cyrus the Great and Crcesus, King of Lydia..................... 168RATITUDE AND ATTACHMENT ................................. 160i- Louis the Seventeenth ................................................ 161The first Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ..................... 161I4 Alexander, Emperor of Russia .......................................... 162Letter from Henry, Prince of Wales, to his Father, James theFirst ........................................................................ 162LAUDABLE EMULATION ............................................... 164The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth ........................... 165Charles the Twelfth of Sweden ....................................... 166Kang-Hi, Emperor of China ......................................... 167Alexander the Great ...................................................... 168The embryo Historian ................................................ 168Cyrus the Elder ............................................................169


BiEABA FUJL SAYINGS 171........ ,.,,,.......,,...Pye1 71.:; :The Dauphin, Son of Louis the Sixteenth................ 172M:J-: Louis Philippe, King of the French ........................... 174}:/ The Duke de Montpensier, Brother of King Louis Philippe ... 174i The Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fourteenth ... 175The Duke de Maine ................................... ..... 176Henry, Prince of Wales, Son of James the First .................. 176FranCois Beauchateau ...................................... 177Sir Francis Bacon ....................................................... 178LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE AND EARLY ACQUIREMENTS 179Childhood of Alfred the Great.......................................... 180Edward the Sixth ........................................................ 181Lady Jane Grey ............................................................ 183Queen Elizabeth ................................ ........................... 183Sir Philip Sydney .......... .................... .......... 184.The Admirable Crichton ................................................ 185The Duke of Burgundy, Grandson of Louis the Fourteenth... 186The Poet Pope ............................................ 188Metastasio ............................................ 189Sir William Jones ........................................ ..... 190Mad. de Stael .............................. ............. .. 191Childhood of Sir W. Scott .............................. .......... 191Augustus Csesar ................................. ...................... 193Alexander the Great ..................................... .............. 194


INTRODUCTION."Major in exiguo regnabat corpore virtus."-STATIUS.have evinced.;athP RINCE OF WALEs will doubtless, in his,B-^1of other children, who have practised the:which their instructors wish them to acquire; "1the PRINCE OF WALES will doubtless, in his '-~f?~-( B :jL :00:B


rSl'2i _asa?~-t~~,, 'j ;16INTROD OTION.turn, desire to hear of good little princes, I am goingto extract, from various histories that I have read, someanecdotes of illustrious children, which I think may beproductive of amusement and instruction to him.These little stories will all be true, and some ofthem so short that His Royal Highness will under-stand them as soon as he can read fluently. Thegreater part of them are anecdotes of young princes,but I have added a few of other illustrious children,and some striking ones of great and virtuous kings.Princes, in their early years, have great advantages:they are placed under the care of persons of knownintegrity, cultivation, and experience; and they areremoved from the example of all low and grovellingvices: hence it is, perhaps, that history furnishes uswith so many beautiful instances of young princes,distinguished by excellent qualities and great acquire-ments."I'ii 4s


RELIGION." A Christian is the highest style of Man."-YoUNG.. RINCES being less amenable than other men tohuman laws, should be early impressed with theirentire dependence upon the Divine Will. Tonone, in so eminent a sense as to Princes, does that sen-timent of an inspired writer belong, " Not that we aresufficient of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God."That illustrious monarch, Gustavus Adolphus of Swe-den, was so deeply sensible of this truth, that when hewas surprised by one of his officers in secret prayer in'his tent, he said to him, " Persons of my rank areanswerable to God alone for their actions; this givesthe enemy of mankind a peculiar advantage over us;an advantage which can only be resisted by prayer,and reading the Scriptures."


4 -ELIGION1,A PRINCE'S REVERENCE FOR THE BIBLE.:DWARD the Sixth began to reign young, likeJosias, the virtuous king of Judah, and theEnglish were fond of calling him their Josiah.Like him, he had a strong sense of religious duty andreverence, and he gave an instance of it at the earlyage of six years. He was playing one day with somechildren of his own age, and wishing to get somethingthat was beyond his reach, one of his little companionsplaced on the ground a Bible, for him to stand upon.He beheld the profanation with much displeasure, andremoved the book himself.A LITTLE DAUGHTER OF CHARLES THE FIRST.B LITTLE daughter of Charles the First diedat the age of four years. While on her death-bed, one of her attendants desired her to pray.She said she could not say her long prayer, meaningthe Lord's Prayer, but that she would try to say hershort one: " Lighten my darkness, 0 Lord God, andlet me not sleep the sleep of death." She had nosooner said it, than she laid her little head on thepillow, and expired.


RELIGION.5THE PRINCESS AMELIA.H E Princess Amelia, youngest daughter ofGeorge the Third, when about three years old,heard that Mrs. Delany, a venerable old lady, ofW hom she was very fond, was ill. When saying herprayers at night, to her nurse, she added, of her ownaccord, " Pray God make Lany well again."THE PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES.ii ~ HE following interesting anecdote of the Princess|. ~ Charlotte of Wales, at the early age of five years,is extracted from the journal of the venerableB. Porteus, Bishop of London. " Yesterday, thesixth of August, 1801, I passed a very pleasant day atShrewsbury House, near Shooter's Hill, the residence ofthe Princess Charlotte of Wales; the day was fine, theprospect extensive and beautiful, taking in a large reachof the Thames, which was covered with vessels of variousI sizes and descriptions: we saw a good deal of the youngprincess; she is a most captivating and engaging child;| and considering the high station she may hereafter fill,a most interesting and important one. She repeatedto me several of her hymns, with great correctness andpropriety; and on being told that, when she went to


'::/ 6 ~'--ELIIOT. : ?South End in Essex, she would then be in my diocese, fshe fell down on her knees, and begged my blessing. !I gave it to her with all my heart, and with my earnestsecret prayers to God, that she might adorn her illus- Xtrious station with every Christian grace, and that, if Sever she became the Queen of this truly great and fglorious country, she might be the means of diffusingvirtue, piety, and happiness through every part of herdominions."CHILDHOOD OF GEORGE THE THIRD.jRINCE George, afterwards George the Third,when scarcely six years old, displayed suchabilities, that he was taken from the nursery, andplaced solely under the care of his first tutor, Dr. FrancisAyscough, ,afterwards Bishop of Bristol. The Doctorappears, by his modesty and candour, to have been zwell qualified for his duty, as is exemplified in a letterto the learned and pious Dr. Doddridge, where hesays, "I thank God, I have one great encouragement :to quicken me in my duty, which is the good dispo- (sition of the childrenlentrusted to me; as an instance,I must tell you, that Prince George, to his honourand my shame, had learned several pages in your book-of verses, without any directions from me."


RELIGION.7v. Ferhaps these lines, which he committed to memoryhen a child, laid the foundation of that uniform zeal,:hich this good king discovered for the universal dis-'tibution of the Holy Scriptures, and the education of+- persons in the principles of Christianity. Never'if: a more generous, a more scriptural, or a moreProtestant principle expressed, than that uttered by'feorge the Third, that he wished every subject in hisi:ealms might be able to read the Bible, and might.: ave a Bible to read.HENRY, PRINCE OF WALES,:S 'SON OF JAMES THE FIRST., ENRY, Prince of Wales, son of James the First,had such an aversion to the profanation of thename of God, that he was never heard to take itin vain, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his funeralsermon upon him, mentionid, in testimony of his strict-ness in this point, that memorable answer of the Prince,when he was asked by one why he did not swear in playas well as others, that he knew of no game worthy ofan oath. The same kind of answer he gave on anotheroccasion: his Highness being once hunting the stag, ithappened that the stag, being spent, crossed the road,


8RELIGION.where a butcher and his dog were travelling. The doghaving killed the stag, which was so large that thebutcher could not carry it away, the huntsmen andcompany, when they came up, expressed great resent-ment, and endeavoured to incense the Prince againstthe butcher. But the Prince answered coolly, "Whatif the butcher's dog killed the stag; how could thebutcher help it ?" They replied, that if his father hadbeen so served, he 'would have sworn so, as no mancould have endured it. " Away," rejoined the Prince,"all the pleasure in the world is not worth an oath."SON OF EVELYN OF WOTTON.VELYN, of Wotton, in his Diary, gives aninteresting and pathetic account of a verypromising son, whom he lost at the early age offive years; and as the most beautiful feature in thissweet child's history is his piety, I shall give it here."January 27th, 1658, died my deare son Richard, toour inexpressible griefe and affliction, five years andthree days old onely, but at that tender age a prodigyfor wit and understanding; for beauty of body a veryangel; for endowment of mind of incredible and rarehopes. To give onely a little taste of some of them,


RELIGION. 9and thereby glory to God, who out of the mouths ofbabes and infants does sometimes perfect his praises:at two yeares and half old, he could perfectly read anyof the English, Latine, French, or Gothic letters, pro-nouncing the three first languages exactly. He hadbefore the fifth yeare, or in that yeare, not onely skillto reade most written hands, but to decline all thenouns, conjugate the verbs regular, and most of the ir-regular: learned out Puerilis, got by heart almost theentire vocabularie of Latine and French primitives andwords, could make congruous syntax, turne Englishinto Latine, and vice versd, construe and prove whathe read, and did the government and use of relatives,verbs, substantives, elipses, and many figures andtropes, and made a considerable progress in Comenius'sJanua; began himself to write legibly, and had a strongpassion for Greeke. The number of verses he couldrecite was prodigious, and what he remembered of theparts of playes, which he would also act: and whenseeing a Plautus in a person's hand, he asked whatbooke it was, and being told it was comedy, and toodifficult for him, he wept for sorrowe. Strange was hisapt and ingenious application of fables and morals, forhe had read .Esop; he had a-wonderful disposition tomathematics, having by heart divers propositions ofEuclid that were read to him in play, and he would


10RELIGIION.make lines and demonstrate them. As to his piety,astonishing were his applications of Scripture uponoccasion, and his sense of God; he had learned allhis Catechisme early, and understood the historicalpart of the Bible and New Testament to a wonder,how Christ came to redeeme mankind, and how, com-prehending these .necessarys himselfe, his godfatherswere discharged of their promise. These and the likeilluminations, far exceeding his age and experience,considering the prettinesse of his addresse and beha-viour, cannot but leave impressions in me at thememory of him. When one told him how many dayesa Quaker had fasted, he replied that was no wonder,for. Christ had said man should not live by breadalone, but by the Word of God. He would of himselfselect the most pathetic psalms, and chapters out ofJob, to reade to his maide during his sicknesse, tellingher when she pitied him, that all God's children mustsuffer affliction. He declaimed against the vanities ofthe world, before he had seen any. How thankfullywould he receive admonition, how soon be reconciled!He would give grave advice to his brother John, bearewith his impertinencies,. and say, he was but a child.If he heard of or saw any thing new, he was unquiettill he was told how it was made; he brought to us allsuch difficulties as he found in books, to be expounded.


RELIGION.11: g0Ie C ad learned by heart divers sentences in Latin andI Geeke, which on occasion he would produce even tofonder. He was all life, all prettinesse, far frommorose, sullen, or childish in any thing he said or did.The last time he had been at church, which was atGreenwich, I asked him, according to custome, what heremembered of the sermon; Two good things, father,said he, bonum gratia and bonum gloriae, with a justaccount of what the preacher said. The day before hedied, he call'd to me, and in a more serious mannerthan usual, told me that for all I loved him so dearly,I should give my house, land, and all my fine things,to his brother Jack, he should have none of them; andnext morning, when he found himself ill, and that Ipersuaded him to keepe his hands in bed, he demandedwhether he might pray to God with his hands unjoyn'd;and a little after, whilst in greate agonie, whether heshould not offend God by using his holy name so often,calling for ease. What shall I say of his frequent pa-thetical ejaculations uttered of himselfe; Sweete Jesus,save me, deliver me, pardon my sinnes, let thine angelsreceive me!' So early knowledge, so much piety andperfection But thus God, having dress'd up a saintfit for himselfe, would not longer permit him with us,unworthy of the future fruites of this incomparablehopefull blossome. Such a child I never saw! for


1Z RELIGION.such a child I blesse God in whose bosome he is.May I and mine become as this little child, who nowfollows the child Jesus, that Lamb of God, in a whiterobe whithersoever he goes. Even so, Lord Jesus,fiat voluntas tua Thou gavest him to us, Thou hasttaken him from us, blessed be the name of the Lord!That I had any thing acceptable to Thee was from thygrace alone, since from me he had nothing but sin,but that Thou hast pardoned blessed be my God forever, amen."


FILIAL LOVE" Good my Lord,You have begot me, bred me, loved me: IReturn those duties back, as is right fit,Obey you, love you, and most honour you."SHAKSPEARE.EXT to his religious duties, are those which ayoung prince owes to his earthly parents: theyclaim, indeed, a double duty from him-that of achild, and of a subject; and we have examples, amongthe highest and the bravest, of persons who have beeneminent, from their earliest years, for respect and affec-tion towards those to whom they owed their being.The first and greatest example that is recorded, forthe humble imitation of us all, from the prince to thepeasant, is that of our Blessed Saviour. The Evan-gelists have informed us but of two particulars of theearly years of the Saviour, the one, that at twelveyears old, he disputed with the doctors in the Temple;the other, that he dwelt with his parents, "and wassubject unto them."


14 FLIAL LOviSINGULAR REWARD OF FILIAL LOVE.L YRUS, king of Persia, having conquered Croesus,king of Lydia, in battle, the latter fled into Sardis:but Cyrus following, took the city by storm; anda soldier running after Croesus with a sword, youngCroesus, his son, who had been born dumb, and hadso continued to that hour, from the mere impulse ofnatural affection, seeing his father in such imminentdanger, suddenly cried out, "0 man, kill not Croesus !"-and continued to enjoy the faculty of speech the restof his life.ALEXANDER THE GREAT.LYMPIAS, the mother of Alexander, was of sounhappy a disposition, that he would neversuffer her to have any concern in the governmentofi.Macedon. She complained of this as a hardship,and he bore her ill-humour with great mildness andpatience, and was continually sending her very mag-nificent presents. Antipater, his viceroy in Macedon,once wrote him a long letter, full of heavy complaintsagainst her: when he had read it, he observed,"Antipater knows not that a single tear of a mothercan blot out a thousand such complaints."


FILIAL LOVE.SCIPIO AFRICANUS.HE Romans considered the Oaken Crown as themost desirable of all rewards. It was necessarythat the candidate for it should have killed anenemy, have restored a lost battle, and have saved thelife of a Roman citizen. All these acts Scipio Africanusperformed at the battle of Trebia, but he refused thecivic crown, because it was the life of his father thate: had saved, and he said, that the consciousness ofhaving discharged a sacred duty appeared to him to bea sufficient reward.A ROMAN SON.X WJ HEN Cicero and his brother Quintus wereproscribed by the Second Triumvirate, theyi resolved to retire to a country house belong-to Cicero, on the sea-coast, whence they might taketo repair to Brutus in Macedonia. Stopping inir separate litters on the road, however, to condolegedther on their misfortunes, they found they had!: slender a provision for such an undertaking, antia-ssettled that Quintus should return home and getme supplies, while Cicero should go on to secured vssel for their passage.


-o PIL>:FILIAL. LOYVXThe return of Quintus, however, was quickly known,and his house filled with soldiers, anxious to obtainthe reward offered for his head. He effectually eludedtheir search, but they seized his young son, and afterquestioning him in vain, they put him to the torture,to make him discover the place of his father's conceal-ment. The young Roman was proof against the mostdreadful torments, but Quintus, who was within hearingof his groans, was unable to bear his sufferings, andpresenting himself before the assassins, he and thenoble child were beheaded together.A LATIN LETTER FROMHENRY, PRINCE OF WALES, TO HIS FATHER,JAMES THE FIRST, WRITTEN ON THE DAY WHENHE COMPLETED HIS EIGHTH YEAR.Feb. 19th 1601-2.REX SERENISSIME ET AMANTISSIME PATER,I @NTE biennium septima scilicet meo natali ad ma-jestatem tuam ccepi primum scribere, ut primosconatus meos, & quasi rudimenta scriptionis stu-diorumque meorum, tur temporis ostenderem. Nunc-idem nono meo natali facio, cum ut majestas tua, quemin utrisque ab eo tempore progressum fuerim, intelligat,


FILIAL LOVE. 17t;tton obscurum officii mei testimonium habeat. Pa-'i :est enim bene incepisse, nisi primis extrema re-spodeant: Quod quidem de me futurum, modo Deus. max. mihi, ut ccepit, pergat esse propitius, confido;& majestatem tuam isthuc ipsum de me existimarevehementer cupio. Nam post discessum tuum Te-rentii .Hecyram, Fabularum Phsedri Librum tertium,et duos Libros selectarum Epistolarum Ciceronis edi-dici, ut jam in commendatario Epistolarum genereprsestare aliquid per me possim. Sed qualecunque idsit, Majestas tua, cum advenerit, judicabit, cui salutemego perpetuam ex animo precari non desino.Majestatis sum observantissimus, &c.LETTER OF,HENRY, PRINCE OF WALES, TO HIS FATHER,.':<f" .JAMES THE FIRST.~ -P'LEASE YOUR MAJESTY,AM glad to hear of your Majesty's recovery,:;| ? before I understood of your distemper by the heatpf the weather. I have sent this bearer of pur-ito return word of your Majesty's good health, whichI*bseech God long to continue, as also to rememberI |nost humble duty. He is likewise to acquaint yourC


1te8- fy Ira jiLOrE.Majesty that Mons. le Grand hath sent me a horse bya French gentleman, wherewith I hope your Majesty(|^, /will be well pleased. The next week I mean to use 0.-: the benefit of your Majesty's gracious favour of huntingI: in Waltham Forest, the place appointed as fittest for:I the sport being Wansted. In the mean while, and| after, I will employ my time at my book the best I can~' to your Majesty's satisfaction; whereof hoping yourr M Majesty will rest assured, I kiss most humbly yourhands, as,Your Majesty's dutiful and obedient son,HENRY.A LETTER WRITTEN BY THE GREAT CONDE,|K: ~ IN HIS YOUTH, TO HIS FATHER.DOMINE MI PATEB,I ^ ECIMO quinto kalendas Novemb. Morono redii;'~{: ~dissimulare non possum sensus animi mei; cui,R enim candidius loquerer, quam Parenti optimo!Non sine dolore locum ameenissimum reliqui, cujus nevel: elevissimum quidem fastidium fecerat trium prop8 men-sium commoratio; invitabat quoque ad longiorem mo-ram serenitas temporis, et adolescentis autumni jucundatemperies ; at parare oportebat imperiis tuis, quibus totovitse decursu, carius mihi atque antiquius erit nihil.


FILIAL LOVE.19Cseterim, satis valeo si vales, sum enim de tuA vale-tudine sollicitus, cum a multis diebus nihil certi inau-dierim: Deum precor ut te mihi servet incolumen.Vale, Domine mi Pater, Celsitudinis tuae,Servus humillimus et filius observantissimus,LUDOVICUS BORBONIUS.Biturgibus, 1 Nov. 1635.Another.DOMINE MI PATER,U AEREBANT a te priores litterse, an latinA linguAin posterum adscriberem, an gallica; consuetummorem retineo, dum quid ea de re constituas,expecto. Aliud etiam est quod petam, an pomeridia-num tempus studiis liberum esse velis. Miraberis id amewquaeri, neque me silentio uti tuo tanquam vacandifacultate; verim non ita mihi studendi labor insuetus-est, aut injucundus, quin admodum placeat, si jubeas:e*ime incumbere, neque ita jucundus, quin eum libenterdimittam si dimitti velis: itaque quidqiid, ea super re,statues, sequar, non invitus. Vale, Domine mi Pater,Celsitudinis tuse, servus humillimus et Filius, semperobservantissimus,LUDOVICUS BORBONIUS.' Biturgibus, 8 Januarii, 1636.r


20Q FILIAL LOVE.:-YOUNG GEORGE STAUNTON.BOUNG George Staunton, son of Sir GeorgeStaunton, when twelve years old, accompaniedthe embassy to China, as page, and was muchnoticed by the emperor of China, for his knowledge ofthe Chinese language. During the voyage back toEngland, a large vessel hove in sight, and Sir George,imagining it might be a French man-of-war that wouldengage them, desired his son, in Latin, the language inwhich they always conversed, to go below: " Mi Pater,"replied the affectionate and spirited boy, "nunquamte deseram."THE DAUPHIN, SON OF LOUISTHE SIXTEENTH.Y.lVEN while Marie Antoinette was yet surroundedby all the luxury and magnificence of a court,S she paid unremitting attention to the educationand well-being of her children. It was her habit, aftersuperintending the lessons of the Dauphin, to amusehim, by singing to him little simple airs, which shecomposed on purpose for him, and which she accom-panied on the harpsichord or harp: he loved musicexceedingly, and had a very delicate ear. One even-


FILIAL LOVE.21inig at St. Cloud, this tender mother was singing thattouching romance of Berquin,Dors, mon-enfant, clos ta paupiere,Tes cris me d6chirent le ccur;Dors, mon enfant, ta pauvre mereA bien assez de sa douleur.The charming voice of the august princess, and thewords, thy poor mother, uttered with an expression ofsadness, made a deep impression upon the heart of herson; sitting silent near the instrument, he was quiteabsorbed, and remained immoveable in his little arm-chair. Madame Elizabeth, surprised to see him soquiet and silent, said laughing, "Ah,,pour le coup,voila Charles qui dort!" Raising his head, he replied:"Ah, ma chore Tante, peut on dormir quand onentend chanter Maman Reine !"In the park of Versailles, the Dauphin had a littlegarden, which he cultivated entirely himself: it was-he who dug, and raked, and watered it, and everymorning during the season, he came to gather hissweetest roses and most fragrant carnations, to makea bouquet for his mamma. When Marie Antoinetteawoke, she always saw before her the flowers whichthe little gardener of six years old had placed readyfor her. The prince, hidden behind a curtain, saw


22 FILIAL L-OVE.her smile with delight at his present, and then hecame from his hiding-place, to receive the kiss whichwas his reward: neither frost nor rain prevented himfrom going to his little garden, so long as it producedany flowers."One day," says M. Maill6, his governor, " whenthe sun was very hot, I saw the Dauphin digging withso much exertion about a jessamine, that the perspi-ration dropped from his forehead. Let me call thegardener,' said I; 'it is too hard work for your royalHighness.' 'No, let me do it,' said the prince;'Mamma likes the flowers the better when she knowsthat I have attended to them?'"


FRATERNAL LOVE."We have still lived together,Rose at an instant, learn'd, play'd, eat together;And wheresoe'er we went, like Juno's swans,Still we went coupled, and inseparable."SHAKSPEARE.RINCES have so few equals, that the pleasuresof a familiar intercourse with a few chosen com-panions are less open to them than to other men.To cultivate, therefore, affectionate feelings towardstheir brothers and sisters, is of great importance totheir future happiness.


FRATKRNAL LOVE.THE SONS OF GEORGE THE THIRD.jEORGE the Third, intending that his second son,Frederick, Bishop of Osnaburg, and afterwardsDuke of York, should enjoy the advantages offoreign travel, and a Prussian military education, senthim, accompanied by Col. Greville, to the continent,in the year 1781. Nothing could be more affectingthan the parting between his royal highness and theother members of his august family. Both theirMajesties wept, and the Prince of Wales was so muchaffected at being now deprived, for so long an expectedperiod, of the sole companion of his youth, that he wasunable to give vent to his feelings by words, and couldonly express them by tears, which burst from him inspite of his manly resolution to restrain them.LOUIS PHILIPPE, KING OF THE FRENCH.AID. de Genlis says: " At the commencement ofthe Revolution, my eldest pupil, the Duke deChartres, gave utterance to a first impulse ofgenerosity and greatness of soul, that I must not passover in silence. It was mentioned in his presence,that a decree had passed annulling the rights of


FRATERNAL LOVE.25primogeniture: he turned to the Duke de Montpen-sier, his next brother, and embracing him, said, 'Ah,how delighted I am to hear it!' "THE DAUPHIN, SON OF LOUISTHE SIXTEENTH.*i WHEN cruelty and neglect had brought the un-fortunate Louis the Seventeenth to the laststage of weakness and disease, M. Pelletan,the physician who was ordered to attend him, expressedhimself in animated and indignant terms to the muni-cipal officers who were present, upon the causes thathad led to the state in which he found the patient. Theyoung prince, who thought that his sister, MadameRoyale, was still a prisoner in a neighbouring apart-ment, begged the physician to speak very low: " Mysister," said he, " may hear you, and she would be verysorry if she knew I was ill."LETTER OF CHARLES, DUKE OF YORK, TO HISBROTHER, PRINCE HENRY.THE following is probably the earliest letter writtenby Prince Charles (Charles the First): the signature'only is his.


26FEATERNAL LOVE.SWEET, SWEET BROTHER,jB THANK you for your letter, I will keep itbetter than all my graith: and I will send mypistolles by Maister Newton. I will give aniething that I have to you; both my hors, and mybooks, and my pieces, and my cross-bowes, or aniething that you would have. Good Brother loove me,and I shall ever loove and serve you.Your loving brother to be commanded,YORK.Another.Goon BROTHER,HOPE you are in good helth and merry, as Iam, God be thanked. In your absence I visitsometimes your stable, and ride your great horses,that at your return I may wait on you in that nobleexercise. So committing you to God, I rest,Your loving and dutifull brother, YORK.To my brother the Prince.Another.H IHIL possit mihi esse gratius, Frater charissime,tuo ad nos reditu; te enim frui, tecum equitare,tecum venari, summse erit mihi voluptati. Egojam lego Erasmi Colloquia, ex quibus et Latinse linguae


FRATERNAL LOVE.27pritatem et morum elegantiam discere posse me con-fido. Vale. Tuse Cels"' frater amantissimus,1609. CAROLUS, Eb. et Alb. Dux.PRINCE WILLIAM, SON OF HENRYTHE FIRST.HEN William, son of Henry the First, waseighteen years old, he accompanied his fitiOr_ to Normandy, that he might be acknowledgedby the barons of that duchy as his successor. Henry wasreturning to England with a numerous train, andmany ships; one of which, called the White Ship, wasallotted to the prince and his retinue. The prince hadordered some wine to be given to the ship's crew, ofwhich'they drank so freely that many of them becameintoxicated. The rest of the fleet had meanwhilesailed, and Fitz-Stephen, the commander of the WhiteShip, crowding all his sails, and plying all his oars, toovertake them, the vessel suddenly struck upon a rock.A boat was immediately let down, into which the princeand some of the young nobles were hurried; and theymight have reached the shorejin safety, had not theprince insisted on going back to rescue his sister Maud,the Countess of Perche, whose shrieks he heard from


28FRBATERNAIL a OVi.-the ship, where all *as teiror and confusion. As soonas the boat approached the vessel, so many personsjumped into it, that it instantly sunk, and every crea-ture perished. Thus died Prince William, with manyof the young nobles, and several ladies of rank.CATO THE YOUNGER.*S HEN Cato was but a child, he was asked one~A5lE l day whom lhe loved most, and he answered,_2T/ ," My brother Coepio." The person who put thequestion then asked him whom he loved next, and againhe said, his brother: whom in the third place, and stillit was his brother, and so on, as long as he put thequestion to him. This affection increased with hisyears, insomuch, that when he was twenty years old,if he supped, if he went out into the country, if heappeared in the Forum, Caepio must always be withhim.


EARLY DISCIPLINE."Of fertile genius, him they nurtured well,In every science, and in every art,By which mankind the thoughtless brutes excel,That can or use, or joy, or grace impart,Disclosing all the powers of head and heart:Nor were the goodly exercises spared,That brace the nerves, or make the limbs alert,And mix elastic force with firmness hard:Was never knight on ground mote be with him compared."THOMSON.1..~IMPLICITY of diet and regular exercise areessential to health; and health of body is notonly necessary to the enjoyment of life, but is so:intimately connected with vigour of mind, that manyroyal parents have with great wisdom accustomed theirchildren to habits of as simple living, and as constantindustry, as the child of the peasant pursues fromnecessity.


30 -EARiLY DIStLINIB.THE HILDREN OF GEORGE THE THIRD.|||||HE extreme simplicity with which the children ofjljl George the Third were brought up, at a time!2 when luxury seems to have pervaded all ranksof society, from infancy to old age, is proved by ananecdote related of the Duke of Montague. The firsttime he attended the levee after a visit to his daughter'sfamily at Dalkeith House, his Majesty inquired aboutthe health of his grandchildren. His Grace, thankinghis Majesty, told him they were all well, and making ameal of oatmeal pottage every day. The King askedif they got good oatmeal. The Duke told him theyhad it excellent from some mills near Laswade; uponwhich his Majesty desired the Duke to order some forhim; and from that time the Royal Family were sup-plied with oatmeal from the same mills.UiRiHE early education of the sons of George themf t| Third was, in another point, very judiciously con-ducted: habits of activity and useful labour werepractically established. In the garden at Kew, a plotof ground was dug by the Prince of Wales and theDuke of York, and they then sowed it with wheat,attended to the growth of their little crop, weeded,


EARLY DISCIPLINE. 31reaped, and laid it up. They then thrashed it them-selves, and separated the wheat from the chaff, andt1hus learned, from their own experience, the variouslobours of the husbandman and farmer.THE DUKE OF CLARENCE, AFTERWARDSWILLIAM THE FOURTH.c jI HE first actual service in which the Duke ofi Clarence was engaged, was when Lord RodneyO: captured the Spanish fleet, commanded by Lan-a gara. On this occasion, when the English admiral'sI boat was manned to bring Langara on board, his RoyalHighness was one of those at the oar, a circumstancewhich struck the Spanish admiral so forcibly, that he| exclaimed, " That nation must be invincible by sea,t whose king's sons are sailors."THE PRINCES OF ORLEANS.j: iHE Princes of Orleans, during the time that their| Si education was conducted by Mad. de Genlis, weretaught, during their hours of recreation, the artsof the carpenter, the turner, and the joiner, and neverwere boys so happy as while they were engaged inthese exercises.L:15


3.pEARLY DISCIPLINE.... The Duke de Valois and the Duke de Montpensiertcoqpleted for the cottage of a poor woman at Saint-1eu, of whom they took care, a large chest of drawers,and a table, which were as well finished as if they. had:come out of the hands of the best cabinet-maker.A USEFUL LESSON TO CHECK THE PRIDE OFPRINCES.HE Dauphin, father of Louis the Sixteenth, onceshowed-to his three sons the register of their bap-tism in the parish books, and made them observethat their names were inserted with those of other.children. "You see," said he, "that your names are heremixed and confounded with those of the common peo-ple this ought to prove to you, that the distinction youpaoy does not coue from nature, which has made allmen equal: virtue alone establishes a real differenceamong them; and perhaps the name of the peasant'schild which stands above yours shall hereafter bemore worthy in the sight of God than yours!"THE YOUNG SOLDIER'S PILLOW.HEN Turenne was but ten years old, his pre-,ceptor missed him, and at length found himasleep upon a cannon, which he embraced with


EARLY DISCIPLINE.33his little arms, as far round as they would reach. Whenawakened, he said, that he intended to have sleptthere all night, in order to convince the Duke, hisfather, that he was hardy enough to undergo thefatigues of war.CHILDHOOD OF THE GREAT HENRY THEFOURTH OF FRANCE.~iHIHE great Henry the Fourth of France passedj his childhood in the castle of Coarasse, in Beam,~ situated amidst rocks and mountains. HenryD'Albret, his grandfather, would not have him broughtup with the delicacy usually practised with childrenof high rank, knowing that in a soft and tender body,there generally lodges a weak and timid soul. Hewould not allow him to be richly clothed, nor uselessplaythings given to him, nor would he have him flat-tered, because all these things tend to inspire vanity,and incline the hearts of children rather to pride, andto trifling pleasures, than to sentiments of generosityand useful occupation. This young prince was clothedand fed like the children of the country, and likethem was accustomed to clamber up and down therocks, barefooted and bareheaded. It is said that hisordinary food was brown bread, beef, cheese, andgarlic.D


34 EARLY DISCIPLINE,- By these means, his good grandfather accustomedhim to fatigue, and rendered his body strong androbust, qualities which were no doubt necessary to aprince, who had to suffer much in reconquering hisdominions.EARLY EDUCATION OF SESOSTRIS, KING OFEGYPT.IMENOPHIS, King of Egypt, caused all the malechildren in his kingdom, who were born on thesame day as his eldest son, Sesostris, to be broughtto his court. Here they were educated as if they hadbeen his own children, and with the same care that wasbestowed upon Sesostris, with whom they were broughtup. He could not possibly have provided for his sonmore faithful ministers, nor officers who more zealouslydesired the success of his arms. With the view ofmaking them great warriors, the chief part of theireducation was the inuring them, from their infancy,to a hard and laborious life, in order that they mightone day be capable of sustaining with ease the toilsof the field. They were never suffered to eat till theyhad run, on foot or horseback, a considerable race.Hunting was their most common exercise, but whenthey were more advanced in years, the king sent themagainst the Arabians, in order to acquire practical


: \ -EARLY DISCIPLINE. 35military knowledge. Here the young prince learnedto bear hunger and thirst, and subdued a nation which,till then, had never been conquered: the youthseducated with him, attended him in all his campaigns,and upon his father's death, he became one of thegreatest conquerors that antiquity boasts.CYRUS THE GREAT AND HIS GRANDFATHER.S YRUS, when about twelve years old, went with hismother Mandane on a visit to his grandfather, theKing of the Medes. Astyages, being at table withhis daughter and with Cyrus, and being desirous to treatthe boy with all delight and pleasure, that he might theless miss what he enjoyed at home, set before him seve-ral dishes, with sauces and meats of all kinds; uponwhich Cyrus is reported to have said, " What a deal ofbusiness and trouble, grandfather, have you at yourmeals, if you must reach out your hands to all theseseveral dishes, and taste of all these kinds of meats !""What, then," said Astyages, "do not you think this en-tertainment much finer than what you have in Persia ?"Cyrus replied, "No, grandfather; with us we have amuch plainer and readier way to get satisfied than youhave; for plain bread and meat bring us to our end;but you, in order to the same end, have a deal of busi-


36AERLY DISCIPLINE.ness upon your hands, and wandering up and downthrough many mazes, you at last arrive where we havelong got before you." To this Astyages answered," Well, child, if this be your opinion, eat heartily ofplain meats, that you may return young and healthyhome;" and at the same time he ordered to be pre-sented to him various meats, both of the tame andwild kinds. Cyrus, when he saw this variety of meats,said, " And do you give me all these meats, grand-father, to do with them as I think fit ? " " Yes, truly,I do," said Astyages; then Cyrus, taking the severalmeats, distributed them around to the servants abouthis grandfather, saying to one, " This for you, becauseyou take pains to teach me to ride: This for you, be-cause you gave me a javelin, and I have it yet: Thisfor you, because you serve my grandfather well: Thisfor you, because you honour my mother:" and thushe did till he had distributed all he had received.Astyages then said, " And do you give nothing to thisSacian, my cup-bearer, that I favour above all? " Cy-rus answered, "For what reason is it, grandfather, thatyou favour this Sacian so much ?" Astyages repliedin a jesting way, " Do you not see how handsomelyand neatly he pours me my wine ? " For these cup-bearers to kings perform their business very cleverly;they pour out their wine very neatly, and give the cup,


EARLY DISCIPLINE. 37bearing it along with three fingers, and present it inI such a manner as it may best be received by the person' who is to drink. "Grandfather," said Cyrus, " bid| the Sacian give me the cup, that, pouring you yourwine to drink, I may gain your favour if I can." As-tages bids the Sacian give him the cup; and Cyrus,taking it, is said to have washed the cup as he had ob-;-served the Sacian to do; and settling his countenance: in a serious and decent manner, brought and presentedthe cup to his grandfather in such a manner as affordedmnuch laughter to his grandfather and his mother.Then Cyrus, laughing out, leaped up to Astyages, andkissing him, cried out, " Oh, Sacian, you are undone;iI will turn you out of your office, for I can do the busi-ness better than you." Now these cup-bearers, when:they have given the cup, dip with a dish and take alittle out, which pouring into their left hand, they swal-low; and this they do that in case they mix poison inthe cup, it may be of no advantage to themselves.Therefore Astyages, in a jesting way, said, "And why,Cyrus, since you have imitated the Sacian in everything else, did you not swallow some of the wine? ""Because, truly," said he, " I was afraid there had beenpoison mixed in the cup; for when you feasted yourfriends upon your birthday, I plainly found that hehad poured you all poison." "And how, child," said


38EARLY DISCIPLINE,he, " did you know this?" "Truly," said he,-' becauseI saw you all disordered in body and mind; for, first,what you do not allow us boys to do, that you didyourselves, for you all bawled together, and couldlearn nothing of each other: Then you fell'to singingvery ridiculously; and without attending to the singer,you swore he sung admirably; then every one tellingstories of his own strength, you rose up, and fell todancing; but without all rule or measure, for you couldnot so much as keep yourselves upright. Then you allentirely forgot yourselves; you, that you were king,and they, that you were their governor. And then Idiscovered for the first time that you were celebratinga festival, where all were allowed to talk with equalliberty; for you never ceased talking." Astyages thensaid, " Does your father, child, never drink till he getsdrunk?" "No, truly," said he. "What does he,then?" "Why he quenches his thirst, and gets nofarther harm; for, as I take it, grandfather," says he,"it is no Sacian that officiates as cup-bearer abouthim."wt~"~~


DOCILITY." He made a blushing cital of himself,And chid his truant youth with such a grace,As if he nlaster'd there a double spirit,Of teaching, and of learning, instantly."SHAKSPEARE.H|i OCILITY, or a willingness to be led by thoseii who are older and wiser than themselves, is aquality in the young, very favourable to theiradvancement in virtue; nor is there a greater proof ofsuperior sense, than a ready yielding of the inclinationsto the voice of Reason. A prompt obedience impliesa degree of Self-command, and is therefore peculiarlygraceful in young princes. Nor is any one fit tocommand, who has not first learned to obey.


DOCILITY.LOUIS PHILIPPE, KING OF THE FRENCH.W E read in the Memoirs of Mad. de Genlis:" When first I entered upon the education ofthe princes, I found them very ignorant, andthe eldest of them, the Duke deValois, then eight yearsold, extremely wanting in application. I began by read-ing history with them: M. the Duke deValois stretched,gaped, and I was greatly surprised to see him throw him-self back upon a sofa, and put his feet up upon a table thatwas before him. That we might at once understand eachother, I put him immediately into penance: he did notresent it at all. He had by nature a degree of good sense,that struck me from the first days of our acquaintance:he loved rational conversation, as other children lovefrivolous tales: as soon as good reasons were clearlypresented to him, he listened with interest: he becamewarmly attached to me, because he always found meconsistent and reasonable. I had to cure him of manyugly expressions and foolish habits. He was afraidof dogs, and his former governor had had the absurdattention, when they walked in the Bois de Boulogne,to send on two footmen, to drive away all the dogs thatmight be in their route. I found one single conversa-tion sufficient to convince the young prince of the follyand weakness of this prejudice: he listened to me


DOCILITY.41attentively, kissed me, and begged me to give him adog, which I did: he conquered his dislike at once,and from that day has never shown any aversion todogs."THE DAUPHIN, SON OF LOUIS THESIXTEENTH.B ~ PON the first breaking out of the French Revolu-tion, Marie Antoinette impressed upon the littleDauphin, the necessity of treating with affabilitythe officers of the National Guard, and all the Parisianswho might approach him. The child took great painsto please all such persons, and when he had had occa-sion to reply obligingly to the Mayor, or to the mem-bers of a Commune, he would go and whisper to theQueen, " Was that well ?"YOUTH OF ALCIBIADES.*j ANY persons of rank made their court to Alci.biades, the Athenian, charmed and attracted byhis birth, riches, and beauty of person. Socrateswas the only one whose regards were fixed upon themind, and who bore witness to the youth's vritueand ingenuousness: and fearing lest the pride ofriches and high rank, and the crowd of flatterers,


42 tOCILITt.should corrupt him, he used his best endeavours toprevent it, and took care that so hopeful a plantshould not lose its fruit, and perish in the very flower.From his childhood, Alcibiades was surrounded withpleasures, and with a multitude of admirers, who weredetermined to say nothing but what they thoughtwould please him, and who wished to keep him fromall admonition and reproof: yet by his native pene-tration he distinguished the value of Socrates, andattached himself to him: he perceived that he studiedto correct the errors of his heart, and to cure himof his empty and foolish arrogance, and he learnedto despise himself, and to admire his friend, adoringhis wisdom, and revering his virtue. It surprised allthe world to see him constantly sup with Socrates,take with him his exercises, and lodge in the sametent with him; and though Socrates had many rivals,yet he kept possession of the heart of Alcibiades,by the excellence of his genius, and the pathetic turnof his conversation, which often drew tears from hisyoung companion. And though sometimes he gaveSocrates the slip, and was drawn away by flatterers,yet the philosopher took care to hunt out his fugitive,and brought him away from the haunts of idlenessand dissipation.


SELF-CONTROL."The world's great master, and his own."-PoPE.ELF-COMMAND is one of the most importanthabits to be formed in every human being: it isessential to all genuine virtue and real happiness;but more especially should those learn to restrainthemselves, who hereafter shall be subject to littlerestraint from others.


44SELF-CONTROL.CHARLES THE TWELFTH OF SWEDEN.;tIHARLES the Twelfth of Sweden, when scarcely^ seven years old, being at dinner with the queen,his mother, and handing a bit of bread to hisfavourite dog, the animal, snapping at it too eagerly,bit his hand in a serious manner. The blood flowedcopiously; but the young hero, without crying, orappearing to take any notice of what had happened,merely wrapped his hand in his napkin. The queeninquired why he did not eat, and he answered that hewas not hungry: at length, however, he grew palefrom the loss of blood, and an officer, who attended attable, discovered the cause; but the prince wouldsooner have died than have betrayed his dog.PRINCE HENRY, SON OF HENRY THEFOURTH.DURING the reign of Henry the Fourth, a riotouscompanion of the Prince of Wales had been in-dicted before the chief justice Gascoigne,for somedisorders, and the prince was not ashamed to appear atthe bar with the criminal, in order to give him counte-nance and protection. Finding that his presence had notoverawed the chief justice, he proceeded to insult that


SELF-OONTROL.magistrate on his tribunal; but Gascoigne, mindful ofthe character which he then bore, and the majesty ofthe sovereign, and the laws which he sustained, orderedthe prince to be carried to prison for his rude behaviour.The spectators were astonished and pleased when theysaw the heir to the crown submit peaceably to thissentence, making reparation for his error by acknow-!' ledging it, and checking his impetuous nature in themidst of its extravagant career.When this transaction was reported to the king,who was an excellent judge of mankind, he exclaimed,in words to the effect of those which Shakspearegives us:"Happy am I, that have a man so bold,That dares do justice on my proper son;And no less happy, having such a son,That would deliver up his greatness soInto the hands of justice."SIR PHILIP SYDNEY.IR Philip Sydney, at the battle near Zutphen, dis-played the most undaunted courage. He had twohorses killed under him; and whilst mounting athird, was wounded by a musket-shot out of the trenches,which broke the bone of his thigh. He returned abouta mile and a half, on horseback, to the camp; and, being


46SELF-CONTROL.faint with the loss of blood, and parched with thirst,through the heat of the weather, he called for drink.Some water was presently brought him; but as he wasputting the vessel to his mouth, a poor wounded soldier,who happened to be carried by him at that instant,looked up to it with wishful eyes. The gallant andgenerous Sydney took the bottle from his mouth, justwhen he was going to drink, and delivered it to thesoldier, saying, "Thy necessity is yet greater thanmine."ALEXANDER THE GREAT.B URING Alexander's long and laborious pursuitafter Darius, the army often suffered more forwant of water than by fatigue, and many of thecavalry were unable to hold out. While they wereupon the march, some Macedonians had filled theirbottles at a river, and were bringing the water uponmules. These people, seeing Alexander greatly dis-tressed with thirst, for it was the heat of the day,immediately filled a helmet with water, and presentedit to him. He asked them to whom they werecarrying it: they said, "To our sons: but if our princedoes but live, we shall get other children, if we losethem." Upon this, he took the helmet in his hands;


saa KSELF-CONTROL.47but looking round, and seeing all the horsemen bend-ing their heads, and fixing their eyes upon the water,he returned it without drinking. However, he thankedthe people that offered it, and said, " If I drink alone,these good men will be dispirited." The cavalry,who were witnesses to this act of temperance and mag-nanimity, cried out, " Let us march! We are neitherweary nor thirsty, nor shall we even think ourselvesmortal while under the conduct of such a king." Atthe same time they put spurs to their horses.HEROIC ENDURANCE.l N one occasion, when Alexander the Great wassacrificing to the gods, one of the noble youthswho waited upon him was so severely burnedby a piece of hot coal which fell upon his artomthe censer he carried, that the smell of the scorchedflesh was sensible to all who stood by. Yet the boyshrunk not, exhibited no symptom of pain, but kepthis arm immoveable, lest by shaking the censer heshould interrupt the sacrifice, or by his groaning, giveAlexander any disturbance.


SELF-CONTROL.THE TWIN SONS OF SABINUS.BABINUS, a noble Gaul, headed a revolt of his^ ,countrymen, in the time of Otho and Vitellius.Vespasian, as soon as he was made Emperor,marched against him, and Sabinus, finding it impossibleto resist the great army that was approaching, set fireto his house, and causing it to be reported that he hadperished in the flames, fled with his wife and his faith-ful freedman, taking refuge, at length, in those vastquarries of white marble, that still exist, at some littledistance from Rome.Here the unfortunate but courageous Eponina gavebirth to twin sons: the one was named Fortis, fromhis superior strength, the other Blandus, on accountof his gentleness of disposition. The faithful Martialwas the only purveyor to these illustrious fugitives: hewaited upon them, and watched over their safety withindefatigable attention. Now and then he went bynight to Rome, to purchase provisions and other neces-saries, returning by the least frequented roads.But the greatest disquietudes that the unhappy pa-rents experienced, were from the cries of the infants,which resounded through these gloomy caverns: count-less echoes repeated these sounds, and terrified theanxious mother, lest they should guide occasional tra-


r: .. WSELF-CONTROL.49VIIilvellers to their retreat. Before these innocent recluses,however, were two years old, they learned to under-stand the danger of their parents: they mastered theirlittle feelings, and in all the painful diseases to whichchildhood is liable, they restrained themselves, andsuffered not a complaint to escape them. Little Blan-dus having once been attacked with severe internalpains, his sufferings were so intense, that he bent him-self double upon his mother's knees his body, nowburning with fever, was soon covered with a cold sweat:yet still had the child the force to constrain himself:he pressed his little hands upon his mouth, and thussuppressed the complaints that his sufferings wereforcing from him. " Dear child," said his father, " donot try to restrain yourself: it will relieve you to cryout." "Papa," said the child, "if I do, you andmamma will be taken: I would rather die than makea noise."For seven years this unfortunate family inhabitedtheir dismal dwelling, but at length they were disco-vered, and, to the eternal disgrace of Vespasian, theparents were executed: the twins, after languishing ashort time in prison, died, and were found stretchedside by side, in each other's arms.E


DECISION OF CHARACTER."All thy virtue dictates, dare to do."-MASON.B ECISION of character, or the power of adheringfirmly to the judgment formed upon calm andconscientious deliberation, is a quality very im-portant to the prince, and is quite opposed to obstinacy,which implies a headstrong adherence to the will, with-out reference to reason or principle. Fickleness andirresolution, which seem to be little more than pardon-able weaknesses in private persons, may, by their con-sequences, prove in princes fatal errors.History furnishes us with instances of very youngprinces, who have shown this power of adhering towhat they believed right, and fitting the position inwhich they found themselves.


.DECISION OF CHARACTER.51CHARLES THE TWELFTH OF SWEDEN.H- f8 HARLES the Twelfth of Sweden succeeded hisI i Hf father, Charles the Eleventh, at the early age of;~ Syfifteen. Three powerful kings, presuming uponhis youth, threatened his dominions: Sweden was inconsternation at their preparations, and the privy coun-cil of the king was alarmed: their great generals wereno more, and every thing was to be dreaded under ayoung king, who, as yet, had given but bad impressionsof his abilities. When present at the council, he wasin the habit of sitting with his legs crossed, and hisfeet upon the table before him: abstracted and indif-ferent, he appeared to take interest in nothing thatpassed.The council was deliberating in his presence uponthe danger of the kingdom; some of the counsellorsproposed to divert the threatened tempest by negotia-tions; on a sudden the young king rose, with thegravity and confidence of a superior mind, " Gentle-men," said he, " I have determined never to carry onan unjust war, but never to end a just one, except bythe destruction of my enemies. My resolution is taken;I will march to attack the first power that declares


52-DECISION OF CHARAOTEU.against me, and when I have conquered that, I hopethe others will respect me."These words astonished all these old counsellors:they looked at each other without daring to reply.At length, astonished to find what a king they had,and ashamed to hope less than he did, they receivedwith admiration and alacrity his orders to prepare forwar.HEN Charles the Twelfth of Sweden was quitea child, he was one day amusing himself in hisfather's apartment, in looking over some maps.One was a plan of a town in Hungary, which had beentaken by the Turks from the Emperor, and under itwere written these words from the book of Job: " TheLord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, blessed bethe name of the Lord." Another was a plan of Riga,the capital of Livonia, conquered by the Swedes abouta century before. The young prince, having read thewords under the Hungarian town, took a pencil, andwrote under the plan of Riga, "God gave it me, andthe devil shall not take it from me." Thus in his very-childhood, his unconquerable spirit showed itself.


DECISION OF-CHARACTER.53GUSTAVUS THE THIRD OF SWEDEN.USTAVUS, the young king of Sweden, was fixedupon by Catherine the Second, Empress of Rus-sia, as a proper consort for her grand-daughter,the grand-duchess Alexandrina. She was just fifteen,but with a mind and person which had outgrown heryears; she was tall and well-formed, with noble andregular features, a profusion of beautiful hair, and eyesthat beamed with intelligence and sensibility. Hergoverness, Mademoiselle Willanof, had educated herin retirement, and with the most devoted care andaffection.; and in person, manners, and mind, Alex-andrina was at this time one of the most lovely andaccomplished princesses in Europe.The young king, of Sweden was about eighteen ; hewas well-looking and well-bred, with a fine martialpresence, and frank, captivating manners; the youngpair had been allowed to suppose that they were in-tended for each other, and they soon became mutuallyand strongly attached; proposals of marriage were for.mally made; the treaty drawn up; the day of betroth-ment fixed, and a splendid fete prepared for the occasionsThe morning arrived, and Catherine had assembled1ll her family and court in her presence-chamber;Alexandrina, adorned in bridal pomp, stood at her side ;


54 DECiSION OF CBARACTER.all was in readiness; but the royal bridegroom appearednot;-they waited-there was a chill and ominoussilence-the courtiers looked upon each other.The articles of marriage had been carried to theyoung king, for his signature. Perhaps Catherinesupposed that, in the hurry of the moment, he wouldnot pay particular attention to their tenor. She wasmistaken: the chancellor read them over quickly, asif a mere matter of form; but the king, who listened,became aware that certain articles were introduced,which had not been previously agreed upon. By afundamental law of Sweden, the queen of that countrymust profess the faith of the nation, and AlexandrinaNtherefore, ought to have exchanged the Greek for theLutheran church. The Empress, not from principlesbut from pride and arbitrary power, was resolved thather imperial grand-daughter should be made anexception to this law; and had introduced into themarriage treaty a clause to that purport. The kingexpressed his disapprobation, and refused to sign thecontract. The ministers of Catherine, thunderstruckby this resistance to the will of their despotic sove.reign, under such circumstances, and on the part of amere boy, knew not what course to take; they flattered,they implored him only to sign the paper, and leavethe matter to be arranged afterwards, promising that


bE D ISION OF CHARACTEIL.his wishes should be acceded to in every thing. ButGustavus was immoveable; and enraged at the atitempt to deceive him, he at length flung from them,repeating, " Non-je ne veux pas! Je ne le puis pas !Je ne signerai point!" and shut himself up in his ownapartment. It was some time before any one daredto tell the Empress of this unexpected contretems: atlength, one of the courtiers approached, and whisperedit to her. She had sufficient power over herself toutter a few words, dismissing her court, and then re-tired to her cabinet. The King of Sweden returnedto his own country a few days after.FREDERICK THE GREAT AND HIS NEPHEW.REDERICK the Great was very fond of child.ren, and his little nephews had free access to him.The eldest, one day, playing at ball in the cabinetwhere the king was writing, let the ball fall upon thetable; the king threw it upon the floor, and wrote on;presently the ball again fell upon the table, and Frede-rick threw it down once more, casting a serious lookupon the prince, who promised to be more carefuLBut at last the ball fell upon the very paper uponwhich the king was writing, and he, now rather angry,


LACTEl L.DECISION OF eCH Iput it into his pocket. The little prince begged par-don, and entreated to have his ball returned, but wasrefused. He continued praying for it in a very piteousmanner, but to no purpose. At length, tired of ask-ing, he placed himself before his majesty, and puttinghis little hands to his sides, said, in a menacing tone,"Do you choose, sire, to restore the ball, or not ?"The king laughed, took the ball from his pocket, andgave it to the prince, saying, " Thou art a brave fellow:Silesia will not be retaken whilst thou art alive."HENRY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER, SON OFCHARLES THE FIRST.S FTER sentence had been pronounced uponCharles the First, such of his family as remainedin England were allowed access to him. Theywere only the Princess Elizabeth and Henry Dukeof Gloucester, the latter of whom was but seven yearsof age: the princess, only a few years older, showedan advanced judgment, and that the calamities of herfamily had made a deep impression upon her.The king first gave his blessing to the princess, andbegged her not to forget to tell her brother James,whenever she should see him again, that the last willof his father was, that he should not content himself


RL, ~DECISION OF CHARACTER. 57f with considering Charles merely as his elder brother,but that he should obey him as his sovereign:, thatthey should all love one another, and forgive theenemies of their father. Then the king said to her,"My dear love, shall you forget this ?" "No," saidshe, " I shall never forget it while I live ;" and shed-ding a torrent of tears, she promised him to committo writing the details of their interview.Then the king, taking the Duke of Gloucester uponhis knee, said, " My dear child, they are going to cutthy father's head off." Upon this, the child lookedvery steadfastly upon him. "Mark, dear, what I say:They will cut off my head, and perhaps make thee:aking But mark what I say; thou must not be a king,as long as thy brothers Charles and James are alive.They will cut off thy brothers' heads when they cancatch them: and thy head, too, they will cut off at lastsTherefore, I charge thee, do not be made a king bythem." The duke replied, "I will be torn in piecesfirst !" So determined an answer, from one of suchtender years, filled the king's eyes with tears of joyand emotion.


DECISION OF CHARACTER.ISABELLA, AFTERWARDS QUEEN OF CASTILE.K WHEN the nobles of Castile, disgusted with theIE( misgovernment of their king, Henry the< Fourth, waited upon his sister Isabella, thenabout eighteen, with an offer of the crown, she replied,that it was not theirs to give; and that while her bro-ther Henry existed, nothing should induce her to assumea title which was his by the laws of God and man; atthe same time she claimed her right of succession, andthe title of Princess of Asturia, which belonged to heras heiress to the throne. The chiefs were astonishedand disconcerted by a reply which left them withoutan excuse for revolt, and having in vain endeavouredto overcome her scruples, they concluded a treaty withHenry,EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES, AFTERWARDSEDWARD THE THIRD.ON after the execution of his favourite, HughDe Spencer, the weak and incapable Edward theSecond was imprisoned by his rebellious barons,and his eldest son, Edward, then twelve years of age,dwas made guardian of the kingdom, and brought for-


DECISION OF CHARACTER.59ward on all occasions, to the great gratification of thepeople, with whom he was very popular.Hurried on from one new and dazzling scene toanother, and excited by the applause he was conti-nually receiving, little time was left the young princeto reflect upon the position in which he was placed, orto give a thought to the condition of his unhappyfather. He did not, however, allow himself to beentirely led away from his duty, but began to have aperception of the real nature of the scenes he wasrequired to sanction.The Parliament assembled at Westminster, thePrince of Wales taking his place at the head of hispeers; and here the king's numerous acts of misgo-vernment were recounted and denounced, and it wasunanimously agreed that he should be deposed, andhis eldest son elected king in his stead. The prince,however, resolutely refused the crown, unless hisfather chose voluntarily to resign it. This conductcreated some surprise and great confusion amongst thebarons, who were unprepared to meet, in one soyoung, so much principle and determination. Theywere obliged to adjourn, and their rebellious anddisloyal projects were, for that time, defeated.


60 DECISION OF CHARACTER.ALEXANDER THE THIRD OF SCOTLAND.i ARGARET, eldest daughter of Henry theThird and Eleanor of Provence, was married,when in her tenth year, to Alexander theThird, the young King of Scotland, then about twelveyears old.Henry endeavoured to persuade the young. Alexan-der to pay him homage for the realm of Scotland; butthe princely boy excused himself with good addressfrom the performance of this important ceremony, byreplying, that he came to York to be married, not todiscuss an affair, on which he, being a minor, coulddetermine nothing, without consulting the states of hiskingdom.CATO THE YOUNGER AND THE DEPUTY.HILE Cato the younger was yet a child, theItalian allies demanded to be admitted citizensof Rome. Popedius Silo, a man of greatname as a soldier, and powerful among his people, hada friendship with Drusus, the uncle of Cato, and lodgeda long time in his house during this application. As hewas familiar with the children, he said to them one day," Come, my good children, desire your uncle to assist


DECISION OF CHARACTER.61us in our solicitation for the freedom." Csepio smiled,and readily gave his promise; but Cato gave no an-swer. And as he was observed to look with a fixedand unkind eye upon the strangers, Popedius con-tinued, " And you, my little man, what do you say ?Will you not give your guests your interest with youruncle, as well as your brother?" Cato still refusingto answer, and appearing by his silence and his looksinclined to deny the request, Popedius took him to thewindow and threatened, if he would not promise, tothrow him out. This he did in a harsh tone, and atthe same time gave him several shakes, as if he wasgoing to let him fall. But as the child bore this along- time without any marks of fear or concern,Popedius set him down, and said softly to his friends,"This child is the glory of Italy. I verily believe, ifhe were a man, we should not get one vote among thepeople."


PATRIOTISM."There lives nor form nor feeling in my soul,Unborrow'd from my country."COLERIDGE.ATRIOTISM, or the love of country, was con-sidered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as thegreatest of virtues; and every young person, onfirst becoming acquainted with the classical historians,feels his imagination warmed by the wonderful acts theyrecord of Courage, Fortitude, and Self-devotion.In moder days, the sacrifice of a Leonidas, of aDecius, of a Curtius, is seldom demanded, and theprinciples of Christianity would condemn the acts ofa Marcus Brutus and of a Cato of Utica.The love of country is still, however, a living andactive principle in the mind of a good man, and in thehearts of the Great Ones of the world, to whom thehappiness of millions is entrusted, it should be care-fully cultivated; nor are the personal sacrifices of their


PATRIOTISM. 63time, their ease, and their private opinions, less merit-orious, or less pr6ofs of devotedness, than the morebrilliant acts recorded'of the heroes of antiquity.Alfred the Great, Queen Elizabeth, Henry theFourth of France, and the Empress-Queen MariaTheresa, are all instances of sovereigns, who havebeen imbued with an habitual feeling of kindness andconsideration for the welfare and happiness of theirsubjects: a sentiment into which, perhaps, the love ofcountry may be resolved.PETER THE GREAT, EMPEROR OF RUSSIA.Full of great aims, and bent on bold emprize;The work, which long he in his breast had brew'd,Now to perform he ardent did devise;To wit, a barbarous world to civilize."THOMSON.*i1 ETER the Great, on coming to the throne of; Russia, at the age of nineteen, found himselfsovereign of a people slavishly observant of


64PATRIOTISM.ancient usages, most of them barbarous and stupid, butso fondly cherished by the nation, that the task of re-form appeared almost hopeless. He himself had beenbrought up in the grossest ignorance; but his naturalpowers were very great; he had an enterprizing, activemind, and he was filled with the highest ambition ofa great monarch, that of improving his people andtheir condition. A very gifted foreigner, named LeFort, chanced to enter his service, and soon obtainedhis confidence; Le Fort showed him that there wasanother mode of living and reigning than that whichwas unhappily established in Russia: he explained tohim the advantages to a nation that are derived fromcommerce; the superiority of a regular army overundisciplined troops; the command of the sea thatEngland and Holland sustained by their navies. Thenoble soul of Peter at once threw off the prejudices inwhich he had been brought up: he felt he had to forma nation and an empire; but he had no help aroundhim: other sovereigns have but to direct improvements;Peter had himself to do all he wished to have done.His first attempt was to teach the Russian soldiers themilitary discipline then practised by the rest of Europe.He enlisted as a common soldier in one of his ownregiments, procured German officers, and set the ex-ample of learning the German i exercise. His next


PATRIOTISM..65desire was that of forming a navy, and he spent manymonths at Archangel, which was then the great re-sort of foreign ships, that he might himself examinethe different methods in which they were built andequipped.His design was also to visit foreign countries, andlearn the arts he wished his subjects to practise, butbefore he was at liberty to do this, he had to carry ona 'war against the Turks: he conquered them, andthen set out upon his travels, in the train of his ownambassadors.He first visited Holland, and that he might perfecthimself in the knowledge of ship-building, he workedas a common ship-carpenter at Saardan, where theshed in which he worked and a boat of his makingare still preserved. He was astonished at the multi-tude of workmen constantly employed; the order andexactness observed in their various departments; thegreat despatch with which they built and fitted outvessels, and the incredible quantity of stores for theease and security of labour. Clad and fed like therest of the carpenters, the czar worked in the forges,A/ the rope-walks, and the mills. These occupations did' not prevent him from attending lectures on anatomy,surgery, mechanics, and other branches of practicalphilosophy cultivated in Holland. At his workshopF


66 PATRIOTISM.at Saardan, he received the news of the division ofPoland, promised thirty thousand men to King Au-gustus, and gave orders to his army assembled in theUkraine, against the Turks. From Amsterdam hesailed to England, and he always declared, that hehad learned more during his visit to this country,than any where else. The Dutch carpenters hadtaught him the practical part of ship-building, but theEnglish instructed him in the fundamental principlesof the art: his attention was also directed to arith-metic, watchmaking, hydraulics, and astronomy. Wish-ing to introduce every species of knowledge within hisdominions, he sent into Russia a colony of betweensix and seven hundred ingenious men, in the severalarts and professions.After visiting Vienna, he returned to his owncountry, where he carried into effect surprising reformsin every branch of the Church and State. Aware,likewise, that politeness and civilization cannot be in-troduced or preserved without the intercourse ef thetwo sexes, he established assemblies, at which he him-self appeared, and to which he invited ladies, whodressed after the manner of the southern nations ofEurope.Convinced that while the capital of the empire wasan inland city, Russia would never become a maritime


PATRIOTISM.67and commercial nation, he laid the foundations of theimportant city of St. Petersburg, in a marshy spot ofground, close to the Baltic Sea, where not a cottageexisted, and at a time when he was carrying on anobstinate war with the neighbouring country, Sweden.He worked with his own hands at the first house, andhimself drew the plan of a small fort, upon an islandfacing the town. The Swedes looked with indifferenceupon this establishment in a marsh, which large shipscould not approach; but they soon saw the fortifica-tions advancing, a great city forming, and at lengththe little island of Cronstadt become an impregnablefortress, under the cannon of which the largest fleetsmay ride in safety.St. Petersburg gradually became a splendid city,and Russia has, since the time of the patriotic andpersevering Peter, ranked among the other kingdomsof Europe, both as to power and civilization.THE EMPRESS-QUEEN MARIA-THERESA.HE illustrious Maria Theresa had scarcely beeninvested with the regal purple, when she foundherself encompassed by enemies, each more eagerthan another to devour the possessions bequeathed to


PATRIOTISM.her by her ancestors. In this distressing situation, sheacted with becoming magnanimity, nor once betrayedthe weakness or the terrors of a woman. She quittedVienna, and threw herself into the arms of the Hun-garians. Having assembled the four orders of thestate, with her eldest son, afterwards the EmperorJoseph, in her arms, she addressed them in Latin, alanguage which she perfectly understood; telling themthat, abandoned by her friends, persecuted by her ene-mies, attacked by her nearest relations, she had noresource left, but to stay in that kingdom, and commither person, her children, her sceptre, and her crownto the care of her faithful subjects. The Palatines, atonce softened and inflamed by this pathetic speech,drawing forth their sabres, exclaimed as one man," Moriamur pro regina nostra, Maria Theresa."Supplied with money from England, Holland, Flan-ders, and Venice, but principally supported by herown magnanimity, and the desperate ardour of hertroops, this great queen stood out against, and finallytriumphed over, the combination against her.After the death of her consort, the Empress MariaTheresa had never appeared either at court diversionsor in the theatre; when in the evening of the 19thof February, 1768, whilst employed, in her dressing-gown, in her cabinet, she received information, by a


PATRIOTISM.69courier from Florence, of the birth of her grandson,Francis. Without any attendants, she rushed throughthe ante-room and the adjoining corridors to thetheatre, contiguous to the palace, burst open the doorof the imperial box, pushed through all the chamberlains, archdukes, and archduchesses, to the front ofthe box, and enthusiastically cried out to the pit, in.the homely dialect of her people, " Der Leopold hatein Bueb'n !" Language is inadequate to express-theeffect produced by these words. This mother of herpeople was sure of the sympathy of her subjects, andshe could not rest till she had made them participatorsin her happiness.THE CITIZENS OF CALAIS.FTER his great victory over the French at.Crecy, Edward the Third marched to Calais,with the intention of besieging it, and finding ittoo strong to be taken by storm, sat down before it,determined to subdue it by famine.John de Vienne, a valiant knight of Burgundy, wasthe governor of Calais, and being supplied with everything necessary for defence, he encouraged the towns-men to perform to the utmost their duty to their king


70 PATRIOTISMand country; and to make the provisions that were inthe town last the longer, he turned seventeen hundredold people, women, and children, out of it. WhenEdward saw all these forlorn wretches thrust out atthe gates, he had compassion on them, gave them foodand money, and let them pass through his army insafety. After the siege had lasted eleven months, thegarrison were in so much distress for want of food, thatthey were reduced to eat horses, dogs, and cats, till eventhese failed, and De Vienne found himself obliged tocapitulate: he offered to deliver to Edward the city,with all the possessions and wealth of the inhabitants,provided he allowed them to depart with life andliberty. As Edward had long before expected toascend the throne of France, he was exasperated tothe last degree against these people, whose sole valourhad defeated his warmest hopes, and he was determinedto take an exemplary revenge. He answered by SirWalter Manny, that they all deserved capital punish-ment, as obstinate traitors to him, their true and nota-ble sovereign; that, however, in his wonted clemency,he would pardon them, provided they would deliverup to him six of their principal citizens, with ropesabout their necks, as victims of due atonement forthat spirit of rebellion with which they had inflamedthe common people.


PATRIOTISM..,71- When Sir Walter Manny had delivered his mes-sage, consternation and dismay were impressed onevery face, and to a long and dead silence, sighs andgroans succeeded. At length, Eustace de St. Pierre,one of the principal citizens, rose, and addressed theassembly. " My friends and fellow-citizens, you seethe condition to which we are reduced: is there anyexpedient by which we may avoid the desolation andhorrors of a sacked city ? My friends, there is one.Are there any here to whom virtue is dearer than life ?Let them offer themselves an oblation for the safety oftheir people !"He spake-but a universal silence followed : atlength he resumed: "It had been base iil me, myfellow-citizens, to promote a sacrifice in others, whichI was not willing to make in my own person; andindeed the station I occupy gives me a right to be thefirst in giving my life for your sakes. I give it freely,I give it cheerfully: who comes next?" "Your son,"exclaimed a youth, not yet come to maturity. " Ah,my child," cried St. Pierre, " I am then twice sacrificed.But no-I have rather begotten thee a second time.Who next, my friends? this is the hour of heroes.""Your kinsman," cried John de Aire. " Yourkinsman," cried James Wissart. "Your kinsman,"cried Peter Wissart. "Ah," exclaimed Sir WalterManny, " why was I not a citizen of Calais."


72 PATRIOTISM.The sixth victim was still wanting, but- was quicklysupplied by lot, from numbers who were now emulousof following so noble an example. The keys of thecity were then delivered to Sir Walter: he took thesix prisoners into his custody, and led them into theking's presence. Edward, who was highly incensedat the length and difficulty of the siege, ordered themto be led to execution; but Queen Philippa fell onher knees before him, and besought him to spare them.He granted the request of a wife whom he loved, andto whom he was recently indebted for an importantvictory over the Scots: she had the six brave citizensconducted to her apartment, where she entertainedthem honourably, and sent them back to the town,bestowing on them many rich presents., :


COURAGE."True nobility is exempt from fear."-SHAKsPEARE.ERSONAL courage is truly a princely quality,and I can scarcely note down all the instancesthat occur to me, in which it has been exhibited,even at an early age, by illustrious persons, both inancient and modern days.:5


COURAGE.LETTER FROM THE DUKE OF WELLINGTONTO LADY SARAH NAPIER,INFORMING HER OF A WOUND RECEIVED BY HER SON.Gallegos, 29th Jan. 1812.MY DEAR MADAM,AM sorry to tell you that your son George wasagain wounded in the right arm so badly last night,in the storm of Ciudad Rodrigo, that it was neces-sary to amputate itabove the elbow. He, however, borethe operation remarkably well, and I have seen himthis morning, free from pain and fever, and enjoyinghighly his success before he had received his wound.When he did receive it, he only desired I-might beinformed that he had led his men to the top of thebreach before he fell. Having such sons, I am awarethat you expect to hear of those misfortunes, which Ihave more than once had to communicate to you;and notwithstanding your affection for them, you haveso just a notion of the value of the distinction they aredaily acquiring for themselves, by their gallantry andgood conduct, that their misfortunes do not make sogreat an impression upon you. Under such circum-stances, I perform the task which I have taken uponmyself with less reluctance, hoping at the same time,


OURE.COURAGE.75that this will be the last occasion on which I shallhave to address you upon such a subject; and thatyour brave sons will be spared to you. Although thelast was the most serious, it was not the only woundthat George received during the siege of Ciudad Ro-drigo; he was hit by the splinter of a shell in theshoulder, on the 16th. Believe me, &c.YOUNG NAPOLEON.HERE was at Schoenbrun in 1816, a young lion,which had been presented to the Emperor ofAustria, and which, being very young, wasnursed by two goats. The emperor, his two daughters,and his grandson, the King of Rome, went one day tosee this lion, and the archduchess approaching verynear, one of the goats came forward in a menacingattitude. Young Napoleon, seeing this, ran to thegoat, took hold of her horns, and said to his aunt,".Vous pouvez vous approcher maintenant, ma tante:je laretiens." The emperor was extremely pleasedwith the spirit of his grandson, and said, " That is well,my boy: I see you choose the right way, where thereis danger."


COURAGE.CHRISTINA, QUEEN'OF SWEDEN.IHRISTINA of Sweden, from her very infancy,made excursions with her father, Gustavus Adol-phus: before she was two years old, he carriedher to Calmar. The governor, fearing to terrify theprincess, desired to know if it was his majesty's:pleasurethat the cannon of the fortress and garrison shouldmake the accustomed salutes. Gustavus at first hesi-tated, but after a few moments' silence, " Let themfire," said he; " she is the daughter of a soldier, andit is proper the sound should be familiar to her."The child was so far from being frightened at thismilitary explosion, that she laughed, clapped her hands,and by her gestures and joy, expressed a desire thatthey would fire again. Gustavus- observed with com-placency these marks of natural intrepidity in hisdaughter. From this time he always took her withhim when he reviewed his troops, and remarking thepleasure she discovered at these martial appearances,he once said to her, " We will go away now, but I pro-mise you, that one day or other, I will carry you to afield, where you shall see finer sights." " To my mis-fortune," says this princess in relating the fact, " deathprevented him from keeping his word, and me fromthe happiness of serving an apprenticeship under socomplete a master."


COURAGE. 77GUSTAVUS VASA, KING OF SWEDEN.Meme quand roiseau marche, on sent qu'il a des ailes.*0ANE day, when Gustavus Vasa was only five yearsold, he was running among some low bushes ina wood, when his preceptor, to deter him, toldhim to be careful, for that he had heard there weresnakes in that wood. " Then," said the young princecourageously, " give me a stick, and I will kill them."HENRY, PRINCE OF WALES, SON OF JAMESTHE FIRST.HE courage and fearlessness of Henry, Prince ofWales, son of James the First, showed them-selves from his earliest years. Being asked, veryyoung, what instrument of music he liked best, he an-swered, a trumpet, in the sound of which and of drums,and of small and great pieces of ordnance shot off nearhim, he took great delight. He was scarce sevenyears old, when a boy of good courage, and almost ayear older, falling by accident to blows with him, andexerting his whole strength, his Highness not only hadthe superiority in the contest, when they were parted,but loved his antagonist the better ever after, for his


78COURAGE.spirit. While he was a child, he wept much less thanmost others of his age. Having once hurt both hishands with a fall, so that they bled, though the severityof the pain extorted some tears, yet he rose up witha smile, and dissembled what he suffered. Lookingonce upon some who were hunting a deer, and beingasked whether he liked that sport, he answered, " Yes,but I love another kind of hunting better: hunting ofthieves and rebels with brave men and horses."He was hardly ten years of age, when being desirousto mount a horse of prodigious mettle, and refused theassistance of his attendants, who thought it too hazar-dous an attempt, he got up himself from the side of abank, and spurred the animal to a full gallop, in spite-of the remonstrances of those who stood by; and atlast, having thoroughly exercised the horse, he broughthim in a gentle pace back, and dismounting, said: tothem, " How long shall I continue to be a child in youropinion ?" None of his pleasures, indeed, savoured theleast of the child. He was a particular lover of horses,and what belongs to them, and it appeared that whenhe went hunting, it was rather for the pleasure of gal-loping than for that which the dogs gave him. Heplayed willingly at tennis, and at another Scots diver-sion very like mall; but this always with persons elderthan himself, as if he despised those of his own age.


COURAGE.79AfM& hours devoted to study, he employed the restof th ay in tossing the pike, or leaping or shootingwith the bow, or throwing the bar, or vaulting, or someother exercise of that kind, and he was never idle.He showed himself likewise very good-natured to hisdependants, supporting their interests against anypersons whatever: any thing that he undertook forthem or for others, he pushed with such zeal, as wassure to give success to it, for he exerted his wholestrength to accomplish whatever he desired.From his childhood he took great interest in navalaffairs, and when about ten years old, a small vesselwas built for his amusement and instruction, in thebusiness of shipping and sailing. He also gave thestrictest application to his own improvement in militaryexercises, and the whole theory of war. He practisedtilting, charging on horseback with pistols, and causednew pieces of ordnance to be made, with which helearned to shoot level at a mark. He delighted toconverse with men of skill and experience in war,both of his own country and foreigners, concerningevery part of their profession, and entertained in hishouse a Dutch captain, who was an engineer, and hadbeen recommended to him by Count Maurice. Hecollected in his court a number of young gentlemen ofthe greatest spirit and courage ; and he contracted


4.':=. ?80 COtRAGE.and cultivated an acquaintance with the most cele-brated officers of Upper and Lower Germany, andindeed throughout Europe.When he was about fifteen years old, his Highness,not only for his own recreation, but likewise from alaudable ambition of showing the world what might beexpected from him, under the name of Mceliades,*Lord of the Isles (an ancient title, due to the first-bornof Scotland), did by some persons appointed for thatpurpose, in the chamber of presence before the King,Queen, and whole court, deliver a challenge to allknights of Great Britain, and on the appointed day,the great feat of arms was performed at the palace ofWhitehall, in the presence of the King and Queen,the Ambassadors of Spain and Venice, and of all thepeers and great ladies of the kingdom, with a multi-tude of others of inferior rank. His Highness main-tained the barriers against all adventurers, assistedonly by six young noblemen. Against these challengerscame six and fifty defendants, consisting of earls,barons, knights, and esquires. Every challengerfought with eight several defendants, two combats at* The prince was wont to use that name in the challenges of hismartial sports and masquerades, which in anagram maketh a wordmost worthy of such a knight as he was, Miles a Deo.


oOURAGE. 81two different weapons, push of pike and single sword.The prince himself gave and received thirty-twopushes of pike, and about three hundred and sixtystrokes of swords, and performed his part very welland gracefully, and to the admiration of all the spec-tators.EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE.SiDWARD, the Black Prince, then about sixteen~X years of age, made his first essay in arms at the3 battle of Crecy. He led his line to the chargewith so much bravery, that the Earl of Warwick, appre-hensive of the event, from the superior number of theFrench, despatched a messenger to the king, and en-treated him to send succours to the relief of the prince.Edward had chosen his station on the top of a hill,and surveyed in tranquillity the scene of action. Whenthe messenger accosted him, his first question was,whether the prince was slain or wounded. On re-ceiving an answer in the negative, " Return," said he,f to my son, and tell him that I reserve the honour ofthis day to him: I am confident that he will showhimself worthy of the honour of knighthood, which I solately conferred upon him: he will be able, withoutmy assistance, to repel the enemy." This speechG


82 COURAGi.being reported to the prince and his attendants, in-spired them with fresh courage : they made an attackwith redoubled vigour on the French, and soon en-tirely routed them.THE CHEVALIER BAYARD.AYARD, afterwards surnamed Le Chevalier sanspeur et sans reproche, had scarcely attained histhirteenth year, when his father, oppressed wJtyears and with wounds, and feeling his end approach;sent for his four sons, and in presence of their mother,asked them what mode of life they would embrace.The eldest said, he would live with his parents, aslong as heaven should preserve them to him, andwould then live in tranquillity upon his paternal es-tates. Bayard, the second, spoke after his brother,and said, with a decision and vivacity beyond his age,that, inheriting from his father and a long line ofancestors, a name illustrious in arms, and great exam-ples of warlike virtues, he entreated him to approve ofhis imitating them: that this was his inclination, andthat he hoped, by. God's help; not to derogate from theglory of those of his house, whose great acts he hadoften heard cited. At this discourse, his father couldnot restrain his tears, and said to him, " My son, may


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