H. M. STANLEY,
From a Photograph by Maull & Co., taken the week before his
departure from England, 1874.
THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT
THE SOURCES OF THE NILE
AROUND THE GREAT LAKES OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA
AND DOWN THE LIVINGSTONE RIVER
TO THE ATLANTIC OCEAN
HENRY M. STANLEY
AUTHOR OF COOMASSIE AND MAGDALA" ETC.
WITH TEN MAPS AND ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY WOODCUTS
IN TWO VOLUMES
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by
HARPER & BROTHERS,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
BEFORE these volumes pass irrevocably out of the
Author's hands, I take this, the last, opportunity of
addressing my readers. In the first place, I have to
express my most humble thanks to Divine Providence
for the gracious protection vouchsafed to myself and
my surviving followers during our late perilous labours
In the second place, I have to convey to many friends
my thanks for their welcome services and graceful
congratulations, notably to Messrs. Motta Viega and
J. W. Harrison, the gentlemen of Boma who, by their
timely supplies of food, electrified the Expedition into
new life; to the sympathizing society of Loanda, who
did their best to spoil us with flattering kindness; to
the kindly community of the Cape of Good Hope, who
so royally entertained the homeward bound strangers;
to the directorates of the B. I. S. N. and the P. and 0.
Companies, and especially to Mr. W. Mackinnon of the
former, and Mr. H. Bayley and Captain Thomas H.
Black of the latter, for their generous assistance both
on my setting out and on my returning; to the British
Admiralty, and, personally, to Captain Purvis, senior
officer on the West Coast Station, for placing at my
disposal H.M.S. Industry, and to Commodore Sullivan,
for continuing the great favour from the Cape to
Zanzibar; to the officers and sailors of H.M.S. Industry,
for the great patience and kindness which they showed
to the wearied Africans; and to my friends at Zan-
zibar, especially to Mr. A. Sparhawk, for their kindly
welcome and cordial help.
In the next place, to the illustrious individuals and
Societies who have intimated to me their appreciation
of the services I have been enabled to render to
Science, I have to convey the very respectful ex-
pression of my sense of the honours thus conferred
upon me-to his Majesty King Humbert of Italy, for
the portrait of himself, enriched with the splendid com-
pliment of his personal approbation of my services,*
which with the gold medal received from his royal
father, King Victor Emanuel, will for ever be
treasured with pride-to II.R.H. the Prince of Wales,
for the distinguished honour shown me by his personal
recognition of my work-to H.H. the Khedive of
Egypt, for the high distinction of the Grand Com-
mandership of the Order of the Medjidie, with the
Star and Collar-to the Royal Geographical Society of
London for its hearty public reception of me on my
return, and for the highly valued diploma of an
Honorary Corresponding Member subsequently re-
ceived-to the Geographical Societies and Chambers of
Commerce of Paris, Italy, and Marseilles, for the great
honour of the Medals awarded to me--to the Geo-
graphical Societies of Antwerp, Berlin, Bordeaux,
Bremen, Hamburg, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, and
The portrait has been graciously subscribed-
"All' intrepido viaggiatore
t I have received the honour of appointment as Officier de 1Instruc-
tion Publique, France; Gold Medallist of the Geographical Societies of
London, Paris, Italy, and Marseilles; Silver Medallist of the Chamber of
Commerce of Marseilles, and of the Municipality of Marseilles; Honorary
Member of the Geographical -ocieties of Antwerp, Berlin, Bordeaux,
Bremen, Hamburg, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Vienna, &c.
Vienna, and to the Society of Arts of London, for the
privilege of Honorary Membership to which I have
been admitted-to the very numerous distinguished
gentlemen who have lent the influence of their authority
in the worlds of Science, Letters, and Society to the
public favour so liberally extended to me--to all these
do I wish to convey my keen appreciation of the
honours and favours of which I have been the recipient.
And for yet another honour I have to express my
thanks-one which I may be pardoned for regarding
as more precious, perhaps, than even all the rest.
The Government of the United States has crowned my
success with its official approval, and the unanimous
vote of thanks passed in both Houses of the Legislature
has made me proud for life of the Expedition and its
Alas! that to share this pride and these honours there
are left to me none of those gallant young Englishmen
who started from this country to cross the Dark Con-
tinent, and who endeared themselves to me by their
fidelity and affection: alas! that to enjoy the exceeding
pleasure of rest among friends, after months of fighting
for dear life among cannibals and cataracts, there are
left so few of those brave Africans to whom, as the
willing hands and the loyal hearts of the Expedition,
so much of its success was due.
That the rule of my conduct in Africa has not been
understood by all, I know to my bitter cost; but with
my conscience at ease, and the simple record of my daily
actions, which I now publish, to speak for me, this
misunderstanding on the part of a few presents itself
to me only as one more harsh experience of life. And
those who read my book will know that I have indeed
had "a sharp apprehension and .keen intelligence" of
many such experiences.
Of the merits and demerits of this book it is not
for me to speak. The Publishers' Note prefixed to
the first volume explains how much I have had to
omit from even the simple narrative of the journey,
but it remains for me to state that this omission has
been due as much to the exigencies of space and time
as to the fact that in the running chronicle of our
eventful progress "Reflections" and scientific infer-
ences-all the aftergrowth of thought-would have
tediously interrupted the record. With reference to the
illustrations, I should mention that I carried a photo-
graphicoapparatus with me across the continent, and so
long as my dry plates held out I never lost an oppor-
tunity of obtaining a good view, and when my plates
were used up I found the reflection of the scenes on
the ground glass of my camera an invaluable aid to
my unpractised pencil.
In conclusion, I have to thank Mr. Phil. Robinson,
the author of In my Indian Garden,' for assisting me
in the revision of my work. My acknowledgments are
also due to Lieut. S. Schofield Sugden, R.N., for the
perseverance and enthusiasm with which he recalculated
all my observations, making even the irksome compila-
tion of maps a pleasant task. In their drawing and
engraving work, Mr. E. Weller and Mr. E. Stanford,
and in the intelligent reproduction of my pictures, Mr.
J. D. Cooper, have earned my thanks, and in no less a
degree Messrs. William Clowes and Sons, for the care
and despatch with which these volumes have been pre-
pared for the public.
H. M. S.
May 27, 1878.
TIE HEARTY ENCOURAGEMENT AND LIBERAL MEANS WHICH ENABLED ME
TO PERFORM TIE MISSION ENTRUSTED TO ME,
OF EXPLORING THE DARK CONTINENT OF AFRICA AND SOLVING MANY INTERESTING
AND TO FITTINGLY REWARD TIE FAITHFUL SURVIVORS,
INDUCE ME TO MAKE PUBLIC MY DEEP PERSONAL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS,
BY DEDICATING THESE VOLUMES, WIIICII RECORD ITS RESULTS, TO TIlE
PROMOTERS OF TIE ENTERPRISE,
MR. JAMES GORDON BENNETT,
PROPRIETOR OF THE "NEW YORK HERALD,"
MR. J. M. LEVY AND MR. EDWARD L. LAWSON,
PROPRIETORS OF THE "DAILY TELEGRAPH,"
AND IN CONSEQUENCE OF TIE GREAT AND CONSTANT INTEREST MANIFESTED
BY IIM IN TIE SUCCESS OF TIE UNDERTAKING, I MUST
BE PERMITTED TO ADD THE NAME OF
MR. EDWIN ARNOLD, C.S.I. AND F.R.G.S.
WITHOUT TIE PATRONAGE, FULL CONFIDENCE, AND CORDIAL SYMPATHY OF TIESE
GENTLEMEN, I SHOULD HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO ACCOMPLISH
THE TASK NOW HAPPILY COMPLETED.
II. M. STANLEY.
PART I.-My new mission The Daily Telegraph -" Yes; Bennett"
The Lady Alice My European staff- Disappointed ap-
plicants and thoughtful friends My departure for Africa.
PART II.-The Sources of the Nile--Herodotus on the Nile--
Burton on the Nile basin-Lake Tanganika-Lake Victoria-
Speke, Grant, and Cameron The Livingstone River The
work before me.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Arrival at Zanzibar Island -Life at Zanzibar- The town of Zan-
zibar, its roadstead and buildings The One Cocoa-nut Tree and
the red cliffs Selection and purchase of goods for the journey
--Residence of Prince Barghash Busy mornings -Pleasant
rides and quiet evenings ..... ... .... .. 28
Seyyid Barghash His prohibition of slavery, character, and reforms
-Treaty with British Government by Sir Bartle Frere Tram-
ways the need of Africa--Arabs in the interior-Arabs in
Zanzibar Mtuma or Mgwana ? The Wangwana, their vices
and virtues A Mgwana's highest ambition-The Wanyamwezi
"the coming race" .......... 9
Organization of the Expedition The shaur Poli-poli" -
Msenna's successful imposture Black sheep in the flock The
Lady Alice remodelled Sewing a British flag- Tarya Topan,
the millionaire Signing the covenants On the word of a
white man Saying good-bye Loading the dhows Vale!
Towards the Dark Continent .. ..... .. ....54
Bagamoyo Taming the dark brother Bagamoyo in a ferment -
An exciting scene The disturbance quelled The Universities
Mission, its origin, history, decline, and present condition- The
Rev. Edward Steero-Notre Dame de Bagamoyo -Westward
ho!--In marching order Sub Jove fervido Crossing the
Kingani-The stolen women ............ .70
On the march Congorido to Rubuti The hunting-grounds of
Kitangeh Shooting zebra Jack's" first prize Inter-
viewed by lions Geology of Mpwapwa Dudoma -" The
flood-gates of heaven" opened Dismal reflections The Salina
A conspiracy discovered Desertions-- The path lost Star-
vation and deaths Trouble imminent Grain huts plundered
Situation deplorable Sickness in the camp Edward
Pocock taken ill-- His death and funeral .......... 88
From Chiwyu to Vinyata-Kaif Halleck murdered-The magic
doctor Giving away the heart Deeds of blood -" The white
men are only women "-A three days' fight Punishment of
the Wanyaturu The ubiquitous Mirambo The plain of the
Luwamberri -In a land of plenty- Through the open country
-" I have seen the lake, Sir, and it is grand I" Welcomed at
Kagehyi ........ .. .. ... .. 118
A burzah held-Paying off recruits- Kagehyi becomes a great
trading centre A Central African toper "- Prince Kaduma
-Hopes of assistance from him relinquished- The boat ready
for sea--No volunteers- Selecting my crew-The start for
the circumnavigation of Lake Victoria .......... ..146
Afloat on the lake--We catch a guido-Saramba's terror--The
Shimeeyu Pyramid Point The island of Ukerew6 In the
haunts of crocodiles Shizu Island The hippopotami -Ururi
-The headlands of Goshi-Bridge Island -Volcanoes-
U-go-web The inebriates of Ugamba Treachery at Maheta
Primitive man The art of pleasing A night at Uvuma -
Mobbed by Wavuma armecide fare Message from Mtesa
--" In the Kabaka's name "- Camp on Soweh Island .... 156
An extraordinary monarch--I am examined -African "chaff"-
Mtesa, Emperor of Uganda-Description of Mtesa-A naval
review- Arrival at the imperial capital Mtesa's palace -
Fascination of the country -I meet a white man- Col. Linant
de Bellefonds The process of conversion A grand mission
field A pleasant day with Col. de Bellefonds Starting for my
camp ... .. ....... .. ....... 187
Parting with Colonel Linant Magassa's vanity and disloyalty -
The sailors' island- Jumba's Cove- Uganga- Dumo -The
Alexandra Nile--Lupassi Point-In danger at Makongo--
Alone with Nature Insect life Dreams of a happier future
--A dark secret--Murabo and the fish-Alice Island-A
night never to be forgotten The treachery of Bumbireh-
Saved! Refuge Island Wiru Go and die in the Nyanza!"
Back in camp Sad news... ......... ..211
Barker's illness and death Other deaths Traitors in the camp -
Rest! Sickness Rwoma blocks our passage by ]and -
Magassa fails us by water-A serious dilemma-Lukongeh
comes to the rescue History of Ukerew6 Educated amphi-
bians-Leaving Kagehyi with half the Expedition-The
foundering canoes--All saved--Ito conciliates us--Arrival
at Refuge Island with half the Expedition -I return for the
rest A murderous outbreak in camp Final departure from
Kagehyi All encamped on Refuge Island We ally ourselves
with Komeh A dance of kings Mahyiga Island (in the Bum-
bireh group) Interviewed by Iroba canoes- Our friendship
scorned The king of Bumbireh a hostage The massacre of
the Kytawa chief and his crew- The punishment of the mur-
derers- Its salutary effect upon their neighbours We arrive
in Uganda .............. .. ...... 242
We find Mtesa at war Jack's Mount" Meeting with Mtesa -
The Waganda army in camp and on the march The imperial
harem In sight of the enemy The Waganda fleet Pre-
liminary skirmishing The causeway The massacre of Mtesa's
peace party What do you know of angels ?" Mtesa's educa-
tion proceeds in the intervals of war Translating the Bible -
Jesus or Mohammed ? Mtcsa's decision The royal proselyte 297
The war-drum beaten The wizards play their part In full war-
paint-Bullets against spears The Wavuma baulked Mtesa's
fury-Victory or the stake!-Hard fighting-The captive
chief- A struggle between the pagan and the Christian A
floating mystery -" Rcturn, 0 spirit I the war is ended! -
The camp on fire: a race for life .. .... ......326
The legend of the Blameless Priest -The heroes of Uganda: Chwa;
Kimera, the giant; Nakivingi; Kibaga, the flying warrior;
Ma'anda; Wakinguru, the champion; Kamanya, the conqueror
of the Wakedi; Suna, the cruel; his massacre of the Wasoga;
Namujurilwa, the Achilles of Uganda; Setuba and his lions;
Kasindula, the hero, peasant, and premier-Mtesa the mild-
eyed .. ... .. ...... ........311
Life and manners in Uganda--The Peasant -The Chief- The
Emperor- The Land ..... ........... 381
TO MUTA NZIGf AND BACK TO UGANDA.
The ladies of Mtesa's family Sambuzi ordered to take me to Muta
Nzig6-- My last evening with Mtesa--En route for Muta
Nzig6 Sambuzi suffers from the big head"- We come to an
understanding The white people of Gambaragara War
music Through a deserted country Sinister auguries A
cowards' council of war Panic in the camp Sambuzi
announces his intention of deserting me The flight when none
pursued The Spoiler eaten up Mtesa tries to persuade
me to return At Kafurro .... ... 415
Kafurro and its magnates-Lake Windermere -Rumanika, the
gentle king of Karagw6 His country The Ingezi Among
the mosquitoes Ihema Island The triple cones of Ufumbiro
--Double-horned rhinoceros-- The hot springs of Mtagata -
The Geographical Society of Karagw6 The philosophy of noses
Rumanika's thesauron Some new facts about the rhinoceros
and elephant Uhimba Paganus, var. esuriens Retrospect 453
The twin rivers Mankorongo baulked of his loot--Poor Bull!
True to the death Msenna breaks out again The terror of
Africa appears on the scene Mars at peace Dig potatoes,
potatoes, potatoes Mirambo, the bandit chief, and I make
blood-brotherhood Little kings with "big heads "- Practical
conversion of the chief of Ubagw4 The Watuta, the Ishmaelites
of Africa Their history African nomenclature From Mscn6
across the Malagarazi to Ujiji -Sad memories ....... 483
INDEX .. ... .. .... ........ 510
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. Portrait of the Author .. .. .. .. .. .. Fronfispiece.
2. View from the Roof of Mr. Augustus Sparhawk's House. (IFrom
a photograph.) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. To fae 37
3. Burying our Dead in hostile Turn : View of the Camp .. .. 115
4. Reception by King Mtesa's Body-guard at Usavara .. .. 188
5. Mtesa, the Emperor of Uganda, Prime Minister, and Chief3.
(From a photograph.) .. .... .. .. IS9
6. Reception at Bumbireh Island, Victoria Nyanza .. .. .. ,, 229
7. The Strange Granite Rocks of Wezi Island, midway between
Usukumna and Ukcrewe. (From a photograph.) .. .. 248
8. View of the Bay leading to Rugedzi Channel from Ugoma,
near Kisorya. South Side of Ukerewd, Coast of Speke Gulf.
(From a photograph.) .. .. 257
P. View of Ripon Falls from the Uganda side. (From a photographh) 300
10. The Outfall of the Vic:oria Nyanza: Itip"n Falls, which give
birth to the Victoria Nile. Camp of Rear-guard on Hill.
(From a photograph.) .. .. .. .. 301
11. The Victoria Nile, North of Ripon Falls, rushing towards
Unyoro from the Usoga side of the Falls. (From a photo-
graph.) .. .. .,. 305
12. One of the Great Naval Battles between the Waganda and
the Wavuma, in the Channel between Ingira Island and
Cape Nakaranga .. .. .. .. .. .. ,, 332
13. The Napoleon Channel, Lake Victoria, from the Heights above
the Ihipon Falls. Flotilla of the Emperor of Uganda cross-
ing from Usoga to Uganda. (From a photograph.) .. .. .. 343
14. IRubga, the New Capital of the Emperor Mtesa.. .. .. ., 393
15. Mtesa's Amazons. (Fr,m a photograph.) .. .. .. 400
16 Marching through Unyoro: Mlount Gordon-Bcinnitt in the
distance .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,, 427
17. The Lady Alice in cvt'ons .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
18. View of a Portion of the Sea-front of Zanzibhr, fiom the \noter Palttery
to Si angani Point. (From a photograph.) .. .. .. .. 2S
19. Red Cliffs behind Universities Mission .. .. .. .. .. 36
20. The British Consulate at Zanzibar.. .. .. .. .. .. 39
21. Seyyid 3Brghash .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 40
22. Coxswain Uledi, and Manwa Sera, chief captain. (From a photograph.) 50
23. Nt w Church on Site of Old Slave Market, Zanz:hIr .. .. .. 53
XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
24. Tarya Topan .. .. .. .
25. Universities Mission at Mbwenni, Zanzib r. (From a photograph.) ..
26. Towards the 'ark Continent" ..
27. Wife of Manwa Sera. (From a photograph.)
28. The Expedition at Rosako. (From a photograph.)
29. View from the Village of Mamboya
30. Our Camp at Mpwapwa. (From a photograph.)
31. In Memoriam." Edward Pocock, (lied January 17, 1875
32. Mnynimwezi Pagazi .. ..
33. View of Kagehyi from the Edge of the Lake. (From a photograph.)..
34. Frank Pocock. (From a photograph.) ..
35. Bridge Island .. .. ..
36. Cairn erected to the Mcmrry of Frederick Barker: Majita and Ururi
Mountains in the Distance, across Speke Gulf. (From a photograph)
37. At the Landing-place of Msossi: View of Kitari Hill to the Left;
Majita Mountain to the Right. (From a photograph.)
38. Natives, Utensils, &c. of Ukerewd ..
39. Sktch Map: Cape Nakaranga
40. The Floating Fortlet moving towards Ingira Island
41. Fish found in Lake Victoria
42. Huts of East Central Africa
4H. Audience Hall of the Palace
44. Musical Instruments
45. Ngogo Fish .. ..
46. Implements and Weapons of Central Africa
17. Mount Edwin Arnold
48. House and Wooden Utensil of Uz;mba and Ankori
419. Canoes and Paddles of Africa
50. Rumanika's Treasure-house
51. A Native of Uhha .
.. .. .. 311
52. View of Ufumbiro Mountains from Mount near Mtagata Hot Springs 465
53. Ground Plan of King's House .. .. .. .. .. .. 474
54. Treasure-house, Arms, andi Treasures of Rumanika .. .. .. 475
55. "Bull." (From a photograph.) .. .. .. .. .. .. 487
56. Serombo Huts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 489
57. A Ruga-Ruga one of Mirambo's Patriots .. .. .. .. 491
58. One of the Watuta .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 501
1. Map of Eastern Half of Equatorial Africa.
2. lIap of Equatorial Africa (from Dapper, 1676).
3. ,, ,, ,, Krapf, Rebmann, Livingstone, and Erhardt's Map,
4. ,, ,, ,, Livingstone, Burton and Speke, Speke, Grant, and von
der Decken, 1853-63.
5. ,, ,. ,, Schweinfurth, Baker, Livingstone, Stanley, and Cameron,
(I. ,, ,, Stanley, 1874-77
EQUATORIAL AFRICA (FROM DAPPER'S MAP) 1676.
BL"ARA alli~ i1. b
~c BAGAMID111 -ATIGGA d
f~ -;. ~ -~. -nz o Olahi~eg. ~~
M A~J~I- B- JV i- ~a
c il C,-i ,
:" ., P~-LA A,,mt
Aga Zaire F ,a,
R A ut
C L.. Yb-...,
LAI%~ ( l d Zmre ""
30 40 D soO~
I, k ,-,
;I/r. I"4_ ^
I "r^ 'bp'I 1,
i vin 8 o 1 .
Bw~rtwi, X-Speke-, 1867-9~-
Von, (eler 1).,..k /662-8 :1 I. .
SCHWEINFURTH, BAKER, LIVINGSTONE, STANLEY & CAMERON 1866-75.
S10 15 O2 q a 30 a8 40 45
SSchweinf ,1868-71 -
.r;. .. ctor878 5
..0.., .. ".,. -.i ... as_, d ,
I__._[ Hw." __ ___ __ _..., ____ ti m u_
THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
My new mission-The Daily Telegraph-" Yes; Pen nett"-The Lady
Alice My European staff- Disappointed applicants and thoughtful
friends My departure for Africa. PART II. The sources of
the Nile-Herodotus on the Nile-Burton on the Nile basin-
Lake Tanganika- Lake Victoria- Speke, Grant, and Cameron-
The Livingstone River- The work before me.
WHILE returning to England in April 1874 from the
Ashantee War, the news reached me that Livingstone
was dead-that his body was on its way to England!
Livingstone had then fallen He was dead! He
had died by the shores of Lake Bemba, on the threshold
of the dark region he had wished to explore! The work
he had promised me to perform was only begun when
death overtook him!
The effect which this news had upon me, after the
first shock had passed away, was to fire me with a
resolution to complete his work, to be, if God willed it,
the next martyr to geographical science, or, if my life
was to be spared, to clear up not only the secrets of the
Great River throughout its course, but also all that
remained still problematic and incomplete of the
discoveries of Burton and Speke, and Speke and Grant.
The solemn day of the burial of the body of my great
friend arrived. I was one of the pall-bearers in West-
minster Abbey, and when I had seen the coffin lowered
into the grave, and had heard the first handful of earth
2 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
thrown over it, I walked away sorrowing over the fate
of David Livingstone.
I laboured night and day over my book,' Coomassie
and Magdala,' for I was in a fever to begin that to
which I now had vowed to devote myself. Within
three weeks the literary work was over, and I was free.
Soon after this I was passing by an old book-shop,
and observed a volume bearing the singular title of
' How to Observe.' Upon opening it, I perceived it
contained tolerably clear instructions of How and
what to observe." It was very interesting, and it
whetted my desire to know more; it led me to purchase
quite an extensive library of books upon Africa, its
geography, geology, botany, and ethnology. I thus
became possessed of over one hundred and thirty books
upon Africa, which I studied with the zeal of one who
had a living interest in the subject, and with the under-
standing of one who had been already four times on
that continent. I knew what had been accomplished
by African explorers, and I knew how much of
the dark interior was still unknown to the world.
Until late hours I sat up, inventing and planning,
sketching out routes, laying out lengthy lines of possible
exploration, noting many suggestions which the con-
tinued study of my project created. I also drew up
lists of instruments and other paraphernalia that would
be required to map, lay out, and describe the new
Regions to be traversed.
I had strolled over one day to the office of the Daily
Telegraph, full of the subject. While I was discussing
journalistic enterprise in general with one of the staff,
the Editor entered. We spoke of Livingstone and the
unfinished task remaining behind him. In reply to
an eager remark which I made, he asked :-
"Could you, and would you, complete the work ?
And what is there to do ?"
MY NEW MISSION. 8
I answered :-
"The outlet of Lake Tanganika is undiscovered.
We know nothing scarcely-except what Speke has
sketched out-of Lake Victoria; we do not even know
whether it consists of one or many lakes, and therefore
the sources of the Nile are still unknown. Moreover,
the western half of the African continent is still a
"Do you think you can settle all this, if we com-
mission you ?"
"While I live, there will be something done. If I
survive the time required to perform all the work, all
shall be done."
The matter was for the moment suspended, because
Mr. James Gordon Bennett, of the New York Herald,
had prior claims on my services.
A telegram was despatched to New York to him
"Would he join the Daily Telegraph in sending
Stanley out to Africa, to complete the discoveries of
Speke, Burton, and Livingstone?" and, within twenty-
four hours, my "new mission to Africa was determined
on as a joint expedition, by the laconic answer which
the cable flashed under the Atlantic: "Yes; Bennett."
A few days before I departed for Africa, the Daily
Telegraph announced in a leading article that its pro-
prietors had united with Mr. James Gordon Bennett
in organizing an expedition of African discovery,
under the command of Mr. Henry M. Stanley. The
purpose of the enterprise," it said, "is to complete
the work left unfinished by the lamented death of
Dr. Livingstone; to solve, if possible, the remaining
problems of the geography of Central Africa; and to
investigate and report upon the haunts of the slave-
traders." ... "He will represent the two nations
whose common interest in the regeneration of Africa was
so well illustrated when the lost English explorer was
4 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
rediscovered by the energetic American correspondent.
In that memorable journey, Mr. Stanley displayed the
best qualities of an African traveller; and with no
inconsiderable resources at his disposal to reinforce
his own complete acquaintance with the conditions of
African travel, it may be hoped that very important
results will accrue from this undertaking to the
advantage of science, humanity, and civilisation."
Two weeks were allowed me for purchasing boats-
a yawl, a gig, and a barge-for giving orders for pon-
toons, and purchasing equipment, guns, ammunition,
rope, saddles, medical stores, and provisions; for making
investments in gifts for native chiefs; for obtaining
scientific instruments, stationery, &c. &c. The barge
was an invention of my own.
THE "LADY ALICE" 1N SECTIONS.
It was to be 40 feet long, 6 feet beam, and 30
inches deep, of Spanish cedar inch thick. When
finished, it was to be separated into five sections, each
of which should be 8 feet long. If the sections should
be over-weight, they were to be again divided into halves
for greater facility of carriage. The construction of this
novel boat was undertaken by Mr. James Messenger,
boat-builder, of Teddington, near London. The pon-
toons were made by Cording, but though the workman-
ship was beautiful, they were not a success, because the
superior efficiency of the boat for all purposes rendered
them unnecessary. However, they were not wasted.
MY EUROPEAN STAFF. 5
Necessity compelled us, while in Africa, to employ them
for far different purposes from those for which they
had originally been designed.
There lived a clerk at the Langham Hotel, of the
name of Frederick Barker, who, smitten with a desire
to go to Africa, was not to be dissuaded by reports ot
its unhealthy climate, its dangerous fevers, or the
uncompromising views of exploring life given to him.
" He would go, he was determined to go," he said.
To meet the earnest entreaties of this young man, I
requested him to wait until I should return from the
Mr. Edwin Arnold, of the Daily Telegraph, also sug-
gested that I should be accompanied by one or more
young English boatmen of good character, on the
ground that their river knowledge would be extremely
useful to me. He mentioned his wish to a most worthy
fisherman, named Henry Pocock, of Lower Upnor,
Kent, who had kept his yacht for him, and who had
fine stalwart sons, who bore the reputation of being
honest and trustworthy. Two of these young men
volunteered at once.. Both Mr. Arnold and myself
warned the Pocock family repeatedly that Africa had
a cruel character, that the sudden change from the
daily comforts of English life to the rigorous one of an
explorer would try the most perfect constitution;
would most likely be fatal to the uninitiated and
unacclimatized. But I permitted myself to be over-
borne by the eager courage and devotion of these
adventurous lads, and Francis John Pocock and Edward
Pocock, two very likely-looking young men, were
accordingly engaged as my assistants.
I crossed over to America the guest of Mr. Ismay, of
the White Star" line, to bid farewell to my friends,
and after a five days' stay returned in a steamer
belonging to the same Company.
6 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
Meantime, soon after the announcement of the New
Mission," applications by the score poured into the
offices of the Daily Telegraph and New York Herald for
employment. Before I sailed from England, over 1200
letters were received from generals," "colonels,"
"captains," "lieutenants," "midshipmen," "engineers,"
"commissioners of hotels," mechanics, waiters, cooks,
servants, somebodies and nobodies, spiritual mediums
and magnetizers, &c. &c. They all knew Africa, were
perfectly acclimatized, were quite sure they would please
me, would do important services, save me from any
number of troubles by their ingenuity and resources,
take me up in balloons or by flying carriages, make us
all invisible by their magic arts, or by the science of
magnetism would cause all savages to fall asleep while
we might pass anywhere without trouble. Indeed
I feel sure that, had enough money been at my disposal
at that time, I might have led 5000 Englishmen, 5000
Americans, 2000 Frenchmen, 2000 Germans, 500
Italians, 250 Swiss, 200 Belgians, 50 Spaniards and
5 Greeks, or 15,005 Europeans, to Africa. But the
time had not arrived to depopulate Europe, and colonize
Africa on such a scale, and I was compelled to
respectfully decline accepting the valuable services of
the applicants, and to content myself with Francis John
and Edward Pocock, and Frederick Barker-whose
entreaties had been seconded by his mother, on my
return from America.
I was agreeably surprised also, before departure,
at the great number of friends I possessed in England,
who testified their friendship substantially by pre-
senting me with useful "tokens of their regard"
in the shape of canteens, watches, water-bottles,
pipes, pistols, knives, pocket companions, manifold
writers, cigars, packages of medicine, Bibles, prayer-
books, English tracts for the dissemination of
religious knowledge among the black pagans, poems,
tiny silk banners, gold rings, &c. &c. A lady for
whom I have a reverent respect presented me also with
a magnificent prize mastiff named Castor," an English
officer presented me with another, and at the Dogs'
Home at Battersea I purchased a retriever, a bull-
dog, and a bull-terrier, called respectively by the
Pococks Nero," Bull," and "Jack."
There were two little farewell dinners only which I
accepted before my departure from England. One was
at the house of the Editor of the Daily Telegraph, where
I met Captain Fred. Burnaby and a few other kind
friends. Captain Burnaby half promised to meet me at
the sources of the Nile. The other was a dinner given
by the representative of the New York Herald, at which
were present Mr. George Augustus Sala, Mr. W. G.
Stillman, Mr. George W. Smalley, and three or four
other journalists of note. It was a kindly quiet good-
bye, and that was my last of London.
On the 15th August 1874, having shipped the
Europeans, boats, dogs, and general property of the
expedition-which, through the kindness of Mr. Henry
Bayley, of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and
Mr. William Mackinnon, of the British India Steam
Navigation Company, were to be taken to Zanzibar at
half-fares-I left England for the east coast of Africa
to begin my explorations.
THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
THE SOURCES OF THE NILE.
"Yet still no views have urged my ardour more
Than Nile's remotest fountains to explore;
Then say what source the famous stream supplies,
And bids it at revolving periods rise;
Show me the head from whence since time begun
The long succession of his waves have run;
This let me know, and all my toils shall cease,
The sword be sheathed, and earth be blessed with peace."
Pharsalia (Ccesar log.).
IN the fifth century, before the Christian era began,
HIerodotus, the first great African traveller, wrote
about the Nile and its sources as follows:-
Respecting the nature of this river, the Nile, I was
unable to gain any information, either from the priests
or any one else. I was very desirous, however, of
learning from them why the Nile, beginning at the
summer solstice, fills and overflows for a hundred days;
and when it has nearly completed this number of days,
falls short in its stream, and retires ; so that it continues
low all the winter, until the return of the summer
solstice. Of these particulars I could get no informa-
tion from the Egyptians, though I inquired whether
this river has any peculiar quality that makes it
differ in nature from other rivers. Being anxious,
then, of knowing what was said about this matter, I
made inquiries, and also how it comes to pass that this
is the only one of all rivers that does not send
forth breezes from its surface. Nevertheless, some of
HERODOTUS ON THE NILE. 9
the Greeks, wishing to be distinguished for their
wisdom, have attempted to account for these inun-
dations in three different ways: two of these ways
are scarcely worth mentioning, except that I wish to
show what they are. One of them says that the
Etesian winds are the cause of the swelling of the
river, by preventing the Nile from discharging itself
into the sea. But frequently the Etesian winds have
not blown, yet the Nile produces the same effects;
besides, if the Etesian winds were the cause, all other
rivers that flow opposite to the same winds must of
necessity be equally affected and in the same manner
as the Nile; and even so much the more, as they are
less and have weaker currents; yet there are many
rivers in Syria, and many in Libya, which are not
all affected as the Nile is. The second opinion shows
still more ignorance than the former, but, if I may
so say, is more marvellous. It says that the Nile,
flowing from the ocean, produces this effect; and that
the ocean flows all round the earth. The third
way of resolving this difficulty is by far the most
specious, but most untrue. For by saying that the
Nile flows from melted snow, it says nothing, for this
river flows from Libya through the middle of Ethiopia
and discharges itself into Egypt; how therefore, since
it runs from a very hot to a colder region, can it flow
from snow ? Many reasons will readily occur to men
of good understanding, to show the improbability of its
flowing from snow. The first and chief proof is derived
from the winds, which blow hot from those regions:
the second is, that the country, destitute of rain, is
always free from ice; but after snow has fallen, it must
of necessity rain within five days; so that if snow fell,
it would also rain in these regions. In the third place,
the inhabitants become black from the excessive heat:
kites and swallows continue there all the year; and the
10 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
cranes, to avoid the cold of Scythia, migrate to these
parts as winter quarters: if then ever so little snow
fell in this country through which the Nile flows,
and from which it derives its source, none of these
things would happen, as necessity proves. But the
person who speaks about the ocean, since he has
referred his account to some obscure fable, produces no
conviction at all, for I do not know any river called the
Ocean, but suppose that Homer, or some other ancient
poet, having invented the name, introduced it into
Captain Burton the learned traveller has some
excellent paragraphs in his 'Nile Basin,' and remarks
on this topic in connection with Ptolemy:-
That early geographer placed his lake Nilus a little
to the south of the Equator (about ten degrees), and
50 E. long. from Alexandria-that is, in 340 or 350 E.
long. by our mode of reckoning. He was led into
an error in placing these portions of the interior,
bearing, as he conceived, from certain points in the
east. Thus he places Cape Aromatum (Cape Asser
or Cape Guardafui) in 6 N. lat., which we know to
be in 110 48' 50", being thus, say, 6 out of its true
place. He places the lake, the source of the western
branch of the river, 10 more to the north and 80 more
to the west than the one for the eastern branch;
subsequent inquiries may show us that these great
features of Africa may yet turn out to be substantially
We cannot here enter into any disquisition re-
garding the discrepancies that appear amongst the
very ancient authors regarding these parts of Africa.
We notice only those that are consistent and most
valuable, and as bearing upon the priority of discovery
and geographical knowledge. The earliest period we
hear of Ethiopia is in the capture of the capital thereof
BURTON ON THE NILE BASIN. 11
by Moses 1400 years before our era, and 90 or 100
years before the departure of the Israelites from
Egypt. Josephus calls it Saba, and states that it was
very strong, situated on the River Astosabos, and that
the name was changed to Meroe, by Cambyses, in honour
of his sister Meroe. There were known to ancient
writers three great tributaries to the Nile in Ethiopia,
namely, the Astaboras (Tacazze), the Astosabos (Blue
River), and the Astapus (White River). Herodotus says
the source of the Nile, Astosabos, was twenty days' jour-
ney to the south of Meroe, which will bring it to Lake
Dembea or Tzana. According to Ptolemy, the position
of Meroe was in 160 25' N. lat., but the ancient
astronomer Hipparchus has placed it in 160 51', which
may be taken as the most correct. Caillaud found the
vast ruins in 160 56'. Under Psammeticus, the first
Egyptian king that reigned after the final expulsion of
the Ethiopian kings from Egypt, 240,000 emigrants
from Egypt settled in an island south of the island of
Meroe, that is beyond Khartoum, between the Blue
and the White Rivers, and at eight days' journey east
of the Nubsa, or Nubatae. Subsequently the Roman
arms extended to those parts. Petronius, the Roman
general under Augustus, thirty years before our era,
took and destroyed Napata, the ancient capital of
Tirhaka, situated on the great northern bend of the
Nile at Mount Barkhall, where vast ruins are still
found. Meroe certainly, the capital of Queen Candace,
mentioned in the New Testament (Acts viii. 27), also
fell under the Roman yoke. Nero, early in his reign,
sent a remarkable exploring party, under two centurions,
with military force, to explore the source of the Nile
and the countries to the west of the Astapus or White
River, at that early day considered to be the true Nile.
Assisted by an Ethiopian sovereign (Candace, no
doubt), they went through the district now known as
12 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
Upper Nubia, to a distance of 890 Roman miles from
Meroe. In the last part of their journey they came to
immense marshes, the end of which no one seemed to
know, amongst which the channels were so narrow
that the light boat or canoe in use was barely sufficient
to carry one man across them. Still they continued
their course south till they saw the river tumbling
down or issuing out between the rocks, when they
turned back, carrying with them a map of the regions
through which they had passed: for Nero's guidance
and information. This, it may be remarked, is exactly
the case still. The Dutch ladies told us last year that
they found the channels amongst these marshes so
thick that the lightest canoe, made of bulrushes, scarcely
fit to carry one man, could not find room to pass on
them or across them. After this, Pliny, Strabo, and
other Roman authors took notice of this portion of
Africa, but without giving us anything important
I quote from Captain Burton once more certain
passages. Edrisi, who was born in Nubia, but who
wrote in Egypt about A.D. 1400, says, in that part of
Ethiopia south and south-west of Nubia is first seen the
separation of the two Niles. The one flows from south
to north into Egypt, and the other part of the Nile
flows from east to west; and upon that branch of the
Nile lie all, or at least the most celebrated kingdoms of
the Negroes. 'From the Mountains of the Moon,'
says Scheadeddin, 'the Egyptian Nile takes its rise.
It cuts horizontally the equator in its course north.
Many rivers come from this mountain, and unite in
a great lake. From this lake comes the Nile, the
greatest and most beautiful of the rivers of all the
earth. Many rivers derived from this great river
water Nubia,' &c.
From the Arabs we may fairly descend to our own
BURTON ON THE NILE BASIN. 13
times. The early Portuguese discoverers obtained a
great deal of geographical information regarding the
interior of Africa, and especially regarding two lakes
near the Equator, from one of which, the most northern,
the Egyptian Nile was stated to flow. This inform-
ation was largely used by the French geographer
(D'Anville), and the Dutch geographers of that time.
Subsequently Bruce and others told us about the great
disparity in magnitude between the Blue and the
White Rivers; the latter, they asserted, rose far to the
south, near to the Equator, and amongst mountains
covered with eternal snow. Twenty-five years ago,
Mohammed Ali, the clear-sighted and energetic ruler of
Egypt, sent an expedition, consisting of several barques
well provided with everything necessary, and under
able naval officers, to explore the White Nile to its
source, if possible. They did their work so far well,
but were forced to turn back on the 26th January
1840, in lat. 30 22' N., for want of sufficient depth of
water for their vessels. At lat. 30 30' they found the
river 1370 feet broad and say six feet deep. In every
day's work on the voyage they gave the width of the
river, the depth of the river, the force of its current,
its temperature, and the miles (geographical) made
These quotations bring us down to our own times.
A few of the principal characters, through whose
agency the problem of the Sources of the Nile has
been solved, still live. The old African Association
became merged in 1831 into the Royal Geographical
Society. The change of title seems to have evoked
greater energies, and the publications of the new
society, the position of its President, his influence,
learning, and tact, soon attracted general public
attention. In the midst of this, Messrs. Krapf and
Rebmann and Erhardt, missionaries located at Mombasa,
14 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
on the east coast of Africa, announced that Arab traders
and natives acquainted with the interior informed
them that far inland there was a very large lake, or
several lakes, which some spoke of under one collective
title. The information thus obtained was illustrated
by a sketch map by Mr. Erhardt, and was published in
the 'Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society'
in 1856, "the most striking feature of which was a
vast lake of a curious shape, extending through 120 of
The Royal Geographical Society was induced to
despatch an expedition to East Africa for the explora-
tion of this interesting inland region, the command of
which it entrusted to Lieutenant Richard Francis
Burton, and Lieutenant John Hanning Speke, officers
of the East Indian Army.
Lieutenant Burton was already distinguished as an
enterprising traveller by his book, Pilgrimage to
Mekka and Medina.' Speke had, until this time, only a
local reputation, but bore the character of being a
very promising officer, and an amiable gentleman with
a fondness for natural history and botanical studies,
besides being an ardent sportsman and an indefatigable
Burton and Speke's expedition landed at Zanzibar
on the 20th December 1856. On the 13th February
1858, after a journey of 950 miles, and at a distance
of 540 lineal geographical miles from the point
of departure on the Indian Ocean, they first sighted
and discovered Lake Tanganika. How much they
explored of the lake is best illustrated by their map,
which is appended to this present volume. Speke first
crossed Lake Tanganika to the western side to Kasengd,
LAKE YICTOBIA. 15
an island, then returned by the same route to Kaweld,
the district or quarter occupied at that time by Arabs,
in a large straggling village on the shores of the lake,
in the country of Ujiji.
On the second exploration of the lake, Lieutenant
Burton accompanied Lieutenant Speke to a cove in
Uvira, which is about thirteen miles from the north
end of the lake. Unable to reach the extremity of the
lake, they both returned to Ujiji. Lieutenant Speke
was most anxious to proceed on a third tour of ex-
ploration of the lake, but was overruled by his chief,
Lieutenant Burton. On the 26th of May 1858, the
expedition turned homewards, arriving in Unyanyembe
on the 20th of June.
While Lieutenant Burton preferred to rest in
Unyanyembe to collect the copious information about
the Lake Regions from Arabs and natives, which we
see set forth in a masterly manner in his book, Lieu-
tenant Speke, of a more active disposition, mustered a
small force of men, and, with his superior's permission,
set out northward on July 9, 1858, on an exploring
tour, and on the 30th of the same month arrived at
the south end of a lake called by the Wanyamwezi
who were with him the N'yanza, or the Lake, and by
the Arabs, Ukerewe.
At Muanza, in Usukuma, he took a survey of the
body of the water, such as might be embraced in
a view taken from an altitude of 200 feet above
In his reflections on the magnitude of the water
expanse before him, Speke wrote :-" I no longer felt
any doubt that the lake at my feet gave birth to that
interesting river, the source of which has been the
16 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
subject of so much speculation, and the object of so
And again: This is a far more extensive lake
than the Tanganika; so broad you could not see across
it, and so long that nobody knew its length." To this
magnificent lake Lieutenant Speke, its discoverer, gave
the name of Victoria N'yanza.
From this short view of the Victoria Lake, Speke
returned to Unyanyembe, and announced to Lieutenant
Burton that he had discovered the source of the White
Nile. Lieutenant Burton did not acquiesce in his com-
panion's views of the importance of the discovery, and
in his Lake Regions' and' Nile Basins,' in lectures,
speeches, and essays in magazines, and conversations
with friends, always vigorously combated the theory.
On the 30th February 1859, Burton and Speke's
task of exploration, which had occupied twenty-five
months, terminated with the arrival of the expedition
at the little maritime village of Konduchi, on the Indian
On opening John Hanning Speke's book, 'Journal of
the Discovery of the Source of the Nile,' we are informed
on the very first page that his second important expedi-
tion into Africa, which was avowedly for the purpose
of establishing the truth of the assertion that the
Victoria N'yanza (which he discovered on the 30th
of July 1858) would eventually prove to be the
source of the Nile, may be said to have commenced on
the 9th of May 1859, the first day of his return to
England from his last expedition, when, at the invita-
tion of Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, he called at his
house to show him his map, for the information of the
Royal Geographical Society."
Mr. Speke, who was now known as Captain Speke,
LAKE VICTORIA. 17
was entrusted with the command of the succeeding
expedition which the Royal Geographical Society
determined to send out for the purpose of verifying
the theories above stated. He was accompanied this
time by an old brother officer in India, Captain James
The expedition under Speke and Grant set out from
Zanzibar on the 25th September 1860. On the 23rd
January 1861, it arrived at the house occupied by
Burton and Speke's Expedition, in Tabora, Unyan-
yembe, having traversed nearly the entire distance
along the same route that had been adopted formerly.-
In the middle of May the journey to Karagwe began.
After a stay full of interest with Rumanika, king of
Karagwe, they followed a route which (lid not permit
them even a view of Lake Victoria, until they caught
sight of the great lake near Meruka, on the 31st January
1862. From this point, the expedition, up to its arrival
at the court of Mtesa, emperor of Uganda, must have
caught several distant views of the lake, though not
travelling near its shores. During a little excursion
from the Emperor's capital, they also discovered a
long broad inlet, which is henceforth known as Mur-
chison Bay, on its northern coast.
On the 7th July 1862, the two travellers started in
a north-easterly direction, away from the lake, and
Speke states that he arrived at Urondogani on the
21st. From this point he marched up the river along
the left bank, and reached the Ripon Falls at the outlet
of Lake Victoria on the 20th July. He thus sums up
the result and net value of the explorations of himself
and companion in the years 1860-62:-
The Expedition had now performed its functions.
I saw that old Father Nile without any doubt rises in
the Victoria N'yanza, and as I had foretold, that Lake
is the great source of the holy river which cradled the
18 TIIIOUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
first expounder of our religious belief. The most
remote waters, or top-head of the Nile, is the southern
end of the lake, situated close on the 30 lat., which
gives to the Nile the surprising length in direct
measurement, rolling over 34 degrees of latitude, of
above 2300 miles, or more than one-eleventh of the
circumference of our globe. Now, from the southern
point round by the west, to where the great Nile stream
rises, there is only one feeder of any importance, and
that is the Kitangule River; while from the southern-
most point round by the east, to the strait, there are no
rivers of any importance." .
He christened the falling effluent where it drops
from the level of the lake, and escapes northerly into
the Victoria Nile-" Ripon Falls," in honour of the
Earl of Ripon, who was President of the Royal
Geographical Society when the expedition was or-
ganized, and the arm of the Lake from which the
Victoria Nile issued-Napoleon Channel, as a token of
respect to the Paris Geographical Society, who had
honoured him with a gold medal for the discovery of
Following this paragraph, Captain Speke makes an
important statement, to which I beg attention:-" One
thing seemed at first perplexing, the volume of water
in the Kitangule (Alexandra Nile) looked as large as
the Nile (Victoria), but then the one was a slow
river, and the other swift, and on this account I could
form no adequate judgment of their relative values."
On the 4th June, Captains Speke and Grant em-
barked at Alexandria, Egypt, for England, where they
arrived after an absence of 1146 days.
Though one might suppose that the explorers had
sufficient grounds for supposing that Lake Victoria
covered an enormous area, quite as large, or approach-
ing to the 29,000 square miles extent Captain Speke
LAKE TANGANIKA. 19
boldly sketched it, there were not wanting many
talented men to dispute each point in the assertions he
made. One of the boldest who took opposing views to
Speke was his quondam companion, Captain R. F.
Burton, and lie was supported by very many others,
for very plausible reasons, which cannot, however, be
touched upon here.
Doctor David Livingstone, while on his last expedi-
tion, obtained much oral information in the interior of
Africa from Arab traders, which dissected Speke's
Grand Lake into five; and it really seemed as if, from
the constant assaults made upon it by geographers and
cartographers, it would in time be erased from the chart
altogether, or'become a mere "rush drain," like one of
those which Speke and Grant found so numerous in
that region. It was evident, therefore, that a thorough
exploration of Lake Victoria was absolutely necessary
to set at rest, once and for ever, one of the great
problems that was such a source of trouble and
dissatisfaction to the geographers of Europe and
LAKE TANGANIKA AGAIN.
The next European to arrive at the shores of Lake
Tanganika, after Burton and Speke, was Dr. David
Livingstone. He first saw it as he stood on the verge
of the plateau which rises steeply from the surface of
the Tanganika at its south-west corner, on the 2nd
April 1867; and on the 14th March 1869, and after
traversing nearly the whole of the western shore from
the extreme south end of the lake to Kasenge, the
island which Speke visited in 1858, he crossed over to
the east side and reached Ujiji.
On the 15th July 1869, after camping at Kaseng6,
when on his way to Manyema. he writes in his journal
the following opinion of Lake Tanganika :--" Tan-
20 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
ganyika narrows at Uvira or Vira, and goes out of sight
among the mountains ; then it appears as a waterfall
into the Lake of Quando, seen by Banyamwezi."
In his letters home Dr. Livingstone constantly made
mention of two lakes, called Upper Tanganika, which
Burton discovered, and Lower Tanganika, which Sir
Samuel Baker discovered, and which formed, as he said,
the second line of draiinge trending to and discharging
its waters into the Nile.
He makes record in his Journals of the causes which
induced him to verify his opinions by a personal in-
vestigation of the north end of Lake Tanganika on the
16th November 1871, a few days after my arrival at
Ujiji, I being the fourth European who had arrived on
the shores of the Lake, in this manner:-
16th Nocember 1871.-As Tanganika Explora-
tions are said by Mr. Stanley to be an object of interest
to Sir Roderick, we go at his expense and by his men
to the north end of the lake."
24th November.-To Point Kisuka in Mukamba's
country. A Mgwana came to us from King Mukamba,
and asserted most positively that all the water of
Tanganika flowed into the river Lusiz6, and then on
to Ukerewe of Mteza; nothing could be more clear
than his statements."
"25th November.-Our friend of yesterday now de-
clared as positively as before, that the water of Lusizd
flowed into Tanganika, and not the way he said
yesterday Tanganika closes in except at one point
N. and by W. of us."
"26th November.-The end of Tanganika seen
clearly, is rounded off about 4' broad from east to
On the 29th November, Livingstone and I, in a
canoe manned by several strong rowers, entered into
the Lusiz6, or Rusizi, and discovered that it flowed
LAKE TANGANIKA. 21
into Lake Tanganika by three mouths with an im-
The explorations of Livingstone and myself in
November 1871 to the north end of Lake Tanganika
resolved that portion of the problem, but described only
about thirteen miles of coast unvisited by Burton and
Speke. On our way back, however, by a southern route
to Unyanyembe, we added to the knowledge of the
Tanganika coast-line, on the eastern side from Kabogo
Point as far as Urimba, about twenty miles farther
south than Speke had seen.
In August 1872, about five months after I had
departed from him homewards, he recommended his
last journey. On the 8th October of the same year
he saw the Tanganika again about sixty miles south
of the point where he and I bade farewell to the lake
.eight months previously. Clinging to the lake, he
travelled along the eastern shore, until he reached the
southernmost end of it.
From this it will appear evident that the only portion
of Lake Tanganika remaining unvisited was that
part of the west-end shore, between Kasenge Island
and the northernmost point of what Burton and Speke
called Ubwari Island, and what Livingstone- and I
called Muzimu Island. Doubtless there were many
portions of Livingstone's route overland which rendered
the coast line somewhat obscure, and in his hurried
journey to Ujiji in 1869, by canoe from Mompara's to
Kasenge, a portion of the Uguha coast was left un-
explored. But it is Livingstone who was the first to
map out and give a tolerably correct configuration to
that part of Lake Tanganika extending from Urimba
round to the south end and up along the eastern shore
to Kasenge Island, as it was Burton and Speke who
were the first to map out that portion of the Tanganika
extending from Ujiji to a point nearly opposite Ubwari
22 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
and the north-west, from Ubwari's north end as far as
In February 1874, Lieutenant Verney Lovett
Cameron, R.N., arrived at the same village of Ujiji
which had been seen by Burton and Speke in 1858,
and which was known as the place where I discovered
Livingstone in 1872. He had traversed a route
rendered familiar to thousands of the readers of the
' Lake Regions of Central Africa,' the 'Journal of
the Discovery of the Nile,' and 'How I found
Livingstone,' through a country carefully mapped,
surveyed and described. But the land that lay before
him westerly had only been begun by Livingstone, and
there were great and important fields of exploration
beyond the farthest point he had reached.
Lieutenant Cameron procured two canoes, turned
south, and coasted along the eastern shore of the
Tanganika, and when near the southern end of the
Lake, crossed it, turned up north along the western
shore, and discovered a narrow channel, between two
spits of pure white sand. Entering this channel,
the Lukuga creek, he traced it until farther progress
was stopped by an immovable and impenetrable barrier
of papyrus. This channel, Lieutenant Cameron wrote.
was the outlet of Lake Tanganika. Satisfied with
his discovery, he withdrew from the channel, pursued
hic course along the west coast as far as Kasenge
Island, the camping place of both Speke and Living-
stone, and returned direct to Ujiji without making
Lake Tanganika, as will be seen, upon Lieutenant
Cameron's departure, had its entire coast-line described,
except the extreme south end, the mouth of the Lufuvu
and that portion of coast lying between Kasenge Island
and the northern point of Ubwari, about 140 miles in
THE LIVINGSTONE RIVER.
LIVINGSTONE'S GREAT RIVER.
What we knew distinctly of this great river began
with Livingstone's last journey, when he wrote from
Ujiji in 1869, repeating what he had already written
in 1867, at the town of Cazembe, in a despatch to Lord
Briefly, this last journey began, let us say, at
Zanzibar, the date of his arrival being the 28th
January 1866. On the 19th March he sailed in
H.M.S. Penguin for the mouth of the Rovuma river,
after invoking the blessing of the Most High upon his
meditated intercourse with the heathen. Effecting a
landing at Mikindini Bay, he directed his course in a
south-westerly direction, arriving within view of Lake
Nyassa on the 13th September 1866.
On the 16th January 1867, he reached the most
southerly streams emptying into the Chambezi, after
crossing the mountains which separate the streams
flowing east to the Loangwa. He describes the
northern slope which gives birth to the affluents of the
new river thus :--" It is needless to repeat that it is all
forest on the northern slopes of the mountains-open
glade and miles of forest; ground at present all sloppy,
oozes full and overflowing, feet constantly wet.
Rivulets rush with clear water; though they are in
flood we can guess which are perennial and which
.are torrents that dry up; they flow northwards and
westwards to the Chambezi."
Eight days later, in S. lat. 100 34', he reached the
main river-the Chambezi-a stream flooded with
clear water-banks not morethan 40 yards. apart, showing
abundant animal life in its waters and on its banks as
it flowed westwards." Just at the point Livingstone first
24 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
saw the Clambezi, numerous streams are gathered from
all points-northerly, easterly, and southerly, from the
westerly slope of the uplands of Mambwe into the main
river, which presently becomes a formidable river, and
which subsequent explorations proved to enter Lake
Bemba on its eastern side.
On the 8th November 1867, the traveller makes a
very comprehensive statement. It is the evening of
his arrival at Lake Mweru or Moero. Lake Moero
seems of goodly size, and is flanked by ranges of moun-
tains on the east and west. Its banks are of coarse sand,
and slope gradually down to the water; outside of
these banks stands a thick belt of tropical vegetation, in
which fishermen build their huts. The country called
Rua lies on the west, and is seen as a lofty range of
dark mountains; another range of less height, but more
broken, stands along the eastern shore."
The northern shore has a fine sweep, like an unbent
bow, and round the western end flows the water that
makes the river Lualaba, which, before it enters Mweru,
is the Luapula, and that again (if the most intelligent
report speak true) is the Chambezi before it enters
Lake Bemba or Bangweolo."
On page 261, vol. i., of 'Livingstone's Last Journals,'
lie sums up very succinctly what knowledge he has
gained of the country which was the scene of his
exploration 1866-67. First of all the Chambezi runs
in the country of Mambwe N.E. of Molemba. It then
flows S.W. and W. till it reaches 11 S. Lat. and Long.
29' E., where it forms Lake Bemba or Bangweolo.
Emerging thence, it assumes the new name Luapula, and
comes down here to fall into Mweru. On going out of
this lake it is known by the name Lualaba as it flows
N.W. in Rua to form another lake with many islands
THE LIVINGSTONE RIVER. 25
called Ulenge or Urenge. Beyond this, information is
not positive as to whether it enters Tanganika, or
another lake beyond that."
On the 18th July 1868, the discovery of Lake Bemba
or Bangweolo was made by Dr. Livingstone.
On page 59, vol. ii.,' Last Journals,' we think we have
an explanation of the causes which led him to form
those hypotheses and theories which he subsequently
made public by his letters, or elaborated in his journals,
on the subject of the Nile Sources.
Bambarre, 25th August 1870.-One of my waking
dreams is that the legendary tales about Moses coming
up into Lower Ethiopia, with Mierr his foster mother,
and founding a city which he called in her honour
Meroe,' may have a substratum of fact."
"I dream of discovering some monumental relics of
Meroe, and if anything confirmatory of sacred history
does remain, I pray to be guided thereunto. If the
sacred chronology would thereby be confirmed, I would
not grudge the toil and hardship, hunger and pain, I
have endured-the irritable ulcers would only be
The old explorer, a grand spectacle and a specimen
of most noble manhood, in these latter days of his life,
travels on and on, but never reaches nearer the solution
of the problem which puzzles his soul than the Arab
depot Nyangwd, which is situate a few miles south of
4 S. lat. and a little east of 260 E. long. where he
leaves the great river still flowing north.
Livingstone never returned to this point, but
retracing his steps to Ujiji, thence to the north end of
Lake Tanganika and back again to Ujiji and Unyan-
yembe, directed his course to the southern shore of Lake
Bemba, where he died of dysentery in the beginning of
26 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
In the month August 1874, Lieutenant Cameron,
whom we left at Ujiji after the delineation of that part
of Lake Tanganika south of Ujiji, after traversing
Livingstone's route to Kasongo's, Manyema, and
travelling by canoe about thirty-five miles, reaches
Nyangwe, his predecessor's farthest point. Though
he does not attempt to resolve this problem, or
penetrate the region north of Nyangwd, Lieutenant
Cameron ventures upon the following hypothesis :
"This great stream must be one of the head-waters
of the Kongo, for where else could that giant amongst
rivers, second only to the Amazon in its volume,
obtain the 2,000,000 cubic feet of water which it
unceasingly pours each second into the Atlantic? The
large atiluents from the north would explain the
comparatively small rise of the Kongo at the coast;
for since its enormous basin extends to both sides of the
equator, some portion of it is always under the zone of
rains, and therefore the supply to the main stream is
nearly the same at all times, instead of varying as is the
case with tropical rivers, whose basins lie completely
on one side of the equator." In this map Lieutenant
Cameron illustrates his hypothesis, by causing Living-
stone's great river to flow soon after leaving
Nyangw6 straight westward, the highest part of which
is only 30 30' S. lat.
At Nyangwd, Lieutenant Cameron crossed the river,
proceeded south with some Arab traders a few days'
journey, then, accompanied by guides, travelled still
south to Juma Merikani's or Kasongo's, thence, after a
stay of nearly nine months, accompanied by some Por-
tuguese traders, he proceeded to Benguella, a small
port belonging to the Portuguese government on the
Atlantic Ocean, having crossed Africa from east to west
south of S. lat. 40.
The above is a brief sketch, which, with the aid of
TIlE WOrK BEFORE ME. 27
the small maps attached to this volume, explains and
illustrates the several geographical problems left by
my predecessors. I now propose to describe how these
problems were solved, and the incomplete discoveries
of Burton and Speke, Speke and Grant, and Doctor
Living.stone were finished, and how we sighted the
lake Muta N'zigd, by its broad arm, which I have called
Beatrice Gulf; by a comprehensive exploration, lasting,
from sea to sea, two years eight months and twenty
days; the results of which are to be found embodied
in these two volumes, entitled: Through the Dark
Continent; the Sources cf the Nile, around the Great
Lakes of Africa, and down the Livingstone" to the
VIEW OF A PORTION OF THE SEA-FRONT OF ZANZIBAR, FROM THE WATER
BATTERY TO SHANGANI POINT.
(From a photograph by Mr. Buchanan, of Natal.)
Arrival at Zanzibar Island Life at Zanzibar The town of Zanzibar,
its roadstead and buildings The One Cocoa-nut tree and the red
cliffs Selection and purchase of goods for the journey-- Residence
of Prince Barghash Busy mornings Pleasant rides and quiet
1874. TWEXTY-EIGHT months had elapsed between my de-
Sept. 21. parture from Zanzibar after the discovery of Livingstone
Zanzibar. and my re-arrival on that island, September 21, 1874.
The well-remembered undulating ridges, and the
gentle slopes clad with palms and mango trees bathed
in warm vapour, seemed in that tranquil drowsy state
which at all times any portion of tropical Africa
presents at first appearance. A pale blue sky covered
the hazy land and sleeping sea as we steamed through
ARRIVAL AT ZANZIBAR ISLAND.
the strait that separates Zanzibar from the continent. 1874.
Every stranger, at first view of the shores, proclaims se't. 21.
his pleasure. The gorgeous verdure, the distant purple
ridges, the calm sea, the light gauzy atmosphere, the
semi-mysterious silence which pervades all nature,
evoke his admiration. For it is probable that he
has sailed through the stifling Arabian Sea, with the
grim, frowning mountains of Nubia on the one hand,
and on the other the drear, ochreous-coloured ridges of
the Arab Peninsula; and perhaps the aspect of the
thirsty volcanic rocks of Aden and the dry brown
bluffs of Guardafui is still fresh in his memory.
But a great change has taken place. As he passes
close to the deeply verdant shores of Zanzibar Island,
lie views nature robed in the greenest verdure, with a
delightful freshness of leaf, exhaling fragrance to the in-
coming wanderer. He is wearied with the natural deep-
blue of the ocean, and eager for any change. He remem-
bers the unconquerable aridity and the dry bleached
heights he last saw, and, lo! what a change! Re-
sponding to his half formed wish, the earth rises before
him verdant, prolific, bursting with fatness. Palms
raise their feathery heads and mangoes their great
globes of dark green foliage; banana plantations with
impenetrable shade, groves of orange, fragrant cinna-
mon, and spreading bushy clove, diversify and enrich
the landscape. Jack-fruit trees loom up with great
massive crowns of leaf and branch, while between
the trees and in every open space succulent grasses
and plants cover the soil with a thick garment of
verdure. There is nothing grand or sublime in the
view before him, and his gaze is not attracted to any
special feature, because all is toned down to a uniform
softness by the exhalation rising from the warm heaving
bosom of the island. His imagination is therefore
caught and exercised, his mind loses its restless activity,
30 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. and reposes under the influence of the eternal summer
Presently on the horizon there rise the thin upright
shadows of ships' masts, and to the left begins to
glimmer a pale white mass which, we are told, is the
capital of the island of Zanzibar. Still steaming
southward, we come within rifle-shot of the low green
shores, and now begin to be able to define the capital.
It consists of a number of square massive structures,
with little variety of height and all whitewashed,
standing on a point of low land, separated by a broad
margin of sand beach from the sea, with a bay curving,
gently from the point, inwards to the left towards us.
Within two hours from the time we first caught
sight of the town, we have dropped anchor about 700
yards from the beach. The arrival of the British India
Company's steamer causes a sensation. It is the monthly
mail" from Aden and Europe! A number of boats
break away from the beach and come towards the
vessel. Europeans sit at the stern, the rowers are
white-shirted Wangwana* with red caps. The former
are anxious to hear the news, to get newspapers and
letters, and to receive the small parcels sent by friendly
hands per favour of captain."
The stranger, of course, is intensely interested in this
life existing near the African Equator, now first revealed
to him, and all that he sees and hears of figures and
faces and sounds is being freshly impressed on his
memory. Figures and faces are picturesque enough.
Happy, pleased-looking men of black, yellow, or tawny
colour, with long white cotton shirts, move about with
quick, active motion, and cry out, regardless of order,
to their friends or mates in the Swahili or Arabic
language, and their friends or mates respond with
equally loud voice and lively gesture, until, with fresh
Wangwana (freed negroes).
LIFE AT ZANZIBAR. Z31
arrivals, there appears to be a Babel created, wherein 1874.
English, French, Swahili, and Arabic accents mix with Sept. 21.
Hindi, and, perhaps, Persian. bar.
In the midst of such a scene I stepped into a boat to
ble rowed to the house of my old friend, Mr. Augustus
Sparhawk, of the Bertram Agency. At this low-built,
massive-looking house near Shangani Point, I was
welcomed with all the friendliness and hospitality of
my first visit, when, three years and a half previously,
I arrived at Zanzibar to set out for the discovery of
With Mr. Sparhawk's aid I soon succeeded in housing
comfortably my three young Englishmen, Francis John
and Edward Pocock and Frederick Barker, and my
five dogs, and in stowing safely on shore the yawl
Wave, bought for me at Yarmouth by Mr. Edwin
Arnold, the gig, and the tons of goods, provisions, and
stores I had brought.
Life at Zanzibar is a busy one to the intending
explorer. Time flies rapidly, and each moment of
daylight must be employed in the selection and purchase
of the various kinds of cloth, beads, and wire, in
demand by the different tribes of the mainland through
whose countries lie purposes journeying. Strong,
half naked porters come in with great bales of un-
bleached cottons, striped and coloured fabrics, handker-
chiefs and red caps, bags of blue, green, red, white
and amber-coloured beads small and large, round and
oval, and coils upon coils of thick brass wire. These
have to be inspected, assorted, arranged, and
numbered separately, have to be packed in portable
bales, sacks, or packages, or boxed according to their
character and value. The house-floors are littered with
cast-off wrappings and covers, box-lids, and a medley
of rejected paper, cloth, zinc covers and broken boards,
sawdust and other debris. Porters and servants and
32 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. masters, eml)loyes and employers, pass backwards and
Sept. 21. forwards, to and fro, amid all this litter, roll bales over,
or tumble about boxes; and a rending of cloth or
paper, clattering of hammers, demands for the marking
pots, or the number of bale and box, with quick, hurried
breathing and shouting, are heard from early morning
Towards evening, after such a glaring day of glaring
heat and busy toil, comes weariness: the arm-chair
is sought, and the pipe or cigar with a cup of tea
rounds off the eventful hours. Or, as sometimes
the case would be, we would strike work early,
and after a wholesome dinner at 4.30 P.r. would
saddle our horses and ride out into the interior of
the island, returning during the short twilight. Or
we would take the well-known path to Mnazi-Moya-
the One Cocoa-nut Tree, where it stands weird and
sentinel-like over humble tombs on the crest of an
ancient beach behind Shangani Point. Or, as the last
and only resource left to a contemplative and studious
mind, we would take our easy-chairs on the flat roof,
where the cowhides of the merchant are poisoned and
dried, and, with our feet elevated above our heads, watch
the night coming.
If we take our ride, in a few minutes we may note, at
the pleasantest hour, those local features which, with the
thermometer at 950 Fahr., might have been a danger-
ous pleasure, or, at any rate, disagreeable. Through a
narrow, crooked, plastered lane, our horses' feet clatter-
ing noisily as we go, we ride by the tall, whitewashed,
massive houses, which rise to two and three stories
above our heads. The residences of the European
merchants and the officials here stand side by side,
and at the tall doorway of each sits the porter-as
comfortable as his circumstances will permit. As
we pass on, we get short views of the bay, and then
THE RESIDENCE OF PRINCE BARGQHASH. 33
plunge again into the lane until we come in view of 1874.
the worm-eaten old fort, crumbling fast into disuse and Sept. 21.
demolition. Years ago, behind it, I saw a market
where some slaves were being sold. Happily there
is no such market now.
We presently catch sight, on our right, of the
entrance to the fort at which sit on guard, a few lazy
Baluchis and dingy-looking Arabs. On our left is the
saluting battery, which does frequent service for the
ignition of much powder, an antique mode of exchanging
compliments with ships of war, and of paying respect to
government officials. The customs sheds are close by,
and directly in front of us rises the lofty house and
harem of Prince Barghash. It is a respectable-looking
building of the Arab architecture which finds favour
at Muscat, three stories high and whitewashed-as all
houses here appear to be. It is connected by a covered
gangway, about 30 feet above cur heads, with a large
house on the opposite side of the lane, and possesses
an ambitious doorway raised 3 feet above the street,
and reached by four or five broad and circular steps.
Within the lower hall are some soldiers of the same
pattern as those at the fort, armed with the Henry-
Martini rifle, or matchlock, sword, and targe. A
very short time takes us into a still narrower lane,
where the whitewash is not so white as at Shangani,
the European quarter. We are in the neighbourhood
of Melindi now, where the European who has not been
able to locate himself at Shangani is obliged to put up
with neighbours of East Indian race or Arabs. Past and
beyond Melindi is a medley of tall white houses and
low sheds, where wealth and squalor jostle side by
side, and then we find ourselves at the bridge over the
inlet of Malagash, which extends from the bay up to
Mnazi-Moya, or the One Cocoa-nut, behind Shangani.
The banks on either side are in view as we pass over
34 THROUGH TEE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. the bridge, and we note a dense mass of sheds and
Sept. 21. poor buildings, amid hills of garbage and heaps of refuse,
nziband numbers of half naked negroes, or people in white
clothes, giving the whole an appearance somewhat re-
sembling the more sordid village of Boulak, near Cairo.
Having crossed the bridge from Melindi, we are in
what is very appropriately termed Ngambu, or "t'other
side." The street is wide, but the quarter is more
squalid. It is here we find the Wangwana, or Freedmen,
of Zanzibar, whose services the explorer will require
as escort on the continent. Here they live very
happily with the well-to-do Coast man, or Mswahili,
poor Banyans, Hindis, Persians, Arabs, and Baluchis,
respectable slave artisans, and tradesmen. When the
people have donned their holiday attire, Ngambu
becomes picturesque, even gay, and yields itself up to
a wild, frolicsome abandon of mirth. On working
days, though the colours are still varied, and give
relief to the clay walls and withered palm-frond roofs,
this poor man's district has a dingy hue, which black
faces and semi-naked bodies seem to deepen. However,
the quarter is only a mile and a half long, and, quicken-
ing our paces, we soon have before us detached houses
and huts, clusters of cocoa-nut palms and ancient mango
trees crowned with enormous dark green domes of foli-
age. For about three miles one can enjoy a gallop along
an ochreous-coloured road of respectable width, bordered
with hedges. Behind the hedges grow the sugar-cane,
banana, palm, orange, clove, cinnamon, and jack-fruit
trees, cassava, castor-oil, diversified with patches of
millet, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, and egg-plant, and
almost every vegetable of tropic growth. The fields,
gently undulating, display the variety of their vegeta-
tion, on which the lights and shadows play, deepening
or paling as the setting sun clouds or reveals the
charms of the verdure.
THE ROADSTEAD AND TOWN. 35
Finally arriving upon the crest of Wirezu hill, we 1874.
have a most beautiful view of the roadstead and town Sept. 21.
of Zanzibar, and, as we turn to regard it, are struck Zanzibar.
with the landscape lying at our feet. Sloping
away gradually towards the town, the tropical trees
already mentioned seem, in the bird's-eye view, to
mass themselves into a thin forest, out of which,
however, we can pick out clearly the details of tree
and hut. Whatever of beauty may be in the scene,
it is Nature's own, for man has done little; he has
but planted a root, or a seed, or a tender sapling care-
lessly. Nature has nourished the root and the seed and
the sapling, until they became sturdy giants, rising one
above another in hillocks of dark green verdure, and
has given to the whole that wonderful depth and variety
of colour which she only exhibits in the Tropics.
The walk to Mnazi-Moya will compel the traveller to
moralize, and meditate pensively. Decay speaks to
him, and from the moment he leaves the house to the
moment he returns, his mind is constantly dwelling
upon mortality. For, after lounging through two or
three lanes, he comes to a populous graveyard, over
which the wild grass has obtained supreme control,
and through the stalks of which show white the fading
and moss-touched headstones. Across the extensive
acreage allotted to the victims of the sad cholera years,
the Prince of Zanzibar has ruthlessly cut his way to
form a garden, which he has surrounded with a high
wall. Here a grinning skull and there a bleached
thigh bone or sunken grave exposing its ghastly
contents attract one's attention. From time im-
memorial this old beach has been the depository of the
dead, and unless the Prince prosecutes his good work
for the reclamation of this golgotha (and the European
officials urge it on him), the custom may be continued
for a long period yet.
36 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. Beyond this cemetery is to be seen the muddy head of
Sept. 21. Malagash inlet, between which and the sea south of
znzibar. Shargani there lies only this antique sand bar, about
two hundred yards in breadth. On the crest of the
sand bar stands the One Cocoa-nut Palm which has
given its name to this locality. Sometimes this spot
is also known as the fiddler's" grave. It is the
breathing-place of the hard-worked and jaded European,
and here, seated on one of the plastered tombs near the
RED CLIFFS BEHIND UNIVERSITIES MISIb N.
base of the One Cocoa-nut Palm, with only a furtive
look now and then at the sleep and a forgetting"
which those humble white structures represent, he may
take his fill of ocean and watch the sun go down to
his daily rest.
Beyond Mnazi-Moya is Mbwenni, the Universities
Mission, and close behind are some peculiar red cliffs,
which are worth seeing.
From the roof of the house, if we take the "last
resource already-mentioned, we have a view of the road-
1A 44-- '
TIHE HARBOUR AND BEACH. 37
stead and bay of Zanzibar. Generally there ride at 1874.
anchor two or three British ships of war just in from a Sept. '1.
hunt after contumacious Arabs, who persist, against the Zanzibar.
orders of their prince, in transporting slaves on the
high seas. There is a vessel moored closer to French-
man's Island, its "broken back" a memento of the
Prince's fleet shattered by the hurricane of 1872.
Nearer in-shore float a number of Arab dhows, boats,
lighters, steam launches, and two steamers, one of which
is the famous Deerh'ound. One day I counted, as a
mere matter of curiosity, the great and small vessels in
roadstead and harbour, and found that there were 135.
From our easy-chairs on the roof we can see the
massive building occupied formerly by the Universities
Mission, and now the residence of Captain Prideaux,
Acting British Consul and Political Resident, whose
acquaintance I first made soon after his release from
Magdala in 1868. This building stands upon the
extremity of Shangani Point, and the first line of
houses which fronts the beach extends northerly in a
gentle sweep, almost up to Livingstone's old residence
on the other side of Malagash inlet.
During the day the beach throughout its length is
alive with the moving figures of hamals, bearing clove
and cinnamon bags, ivory, copal and other gums, and
hides, to be shipped in the lighters waiting along the
water's edge, with sailors from the shipping, and black
boatmen discharging the various imports on the sand.
In the evening the beach is crowded with the naked
forms of workmen and boys from the "go-downs,"
preparing to bathe and wash the dust of copal and
hides off their bodies in the surf. Some of the Arab
merchants have ordered chairs on the piers, or bunders,
to chat sociably until the sun sets, and prayer-time
has come. Boats hurry by with their masters and
sailors returning to their respective vessels. Dhows
38 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. move sluggishly past, hoisting as they go the creaking
Sept. 21. yards of their lateen sails, bound for the mainland
ports. Zanzibar canoes and matepes" are arriving
with wood and produce, and others of the same native
form and make are squaring their mat sails, outward
bound. Sunset approaches, and after sunset silence
follows soon. For as there are no wheeled carriages
with the eternal rumble of their traffic in Zanzibar,
with the early evening, comes early peace and rest.
The intending explorer, however, bound for that
dark edge of the continent which he can just see lying
low along the west as he looks from Zanzibar has
thoughts at this hour which the resident cannot share.
As little as his eyes can pierce and define the details
in that gloomy streak on the horizon, so little can he
tell whether weal or woe lies before him. The whole
is buried in mystery, over which he ponders, certain
of nothing but the uncertainty of life. Yet will he
learn to sketch out a comparison between what he
sees at sunset and his own future. Dark, indeed, is
the gloom of the fast-coming night over the continent,
but does he not see that there are still bright flushes of
colour, and rosy bars, and crimson tints, amidst what
otherwise would be universal blackness ? And may he
not therefore say -" As those colours now brighten
the darkening west, so my hopes brighten my dark
.. -.- -. -
THE BRITISI CONSULATE AT ZANZIBAR.
Seyyid Barghash His prohibition of slavery, character and reforms -
Treaty with British Government by Sir Bartle Frere -Tramways
the need of Africa- Arabs in the interior Arabs in Zanzibar -
Mtuma or Mgwana ? The Wangwana, their vices and virtues -
A Mgwana's highest ambition-The Wanyamwezi the coming race.''
THE foot-note at the bottom of this page will explain all 1871.
that need be known by the general reader in connection Zanzibr.
with the geography of the island of Zanzibar.* Any
student who wishes to make the island a special study
will find books dealing most minutely with the
subject at all great libraries. Without venturing,
therefore, into more details than I have already given
in 'How I found Livingstone,' I shall devote this
"The fort of Zanzibar is in S. lat. 60 9' 36" and E. long. 390 14' 33"."
-East African Pilot.
40 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINGENT.
chapter to the Sultan of Zanzibar-Barghash bin
Sayid-the Arabs, the Wangwana, and the Wanva-
mwezi, with whose aid the objects of the Anglo-
American Expedition were attained.
It is impossible not to feel a
the spectacle must necessarily create
kindly interest in
and to wish him
in the reforms he
is now striving
to bring about in
his country. Here
we see an Arab
in the strictest
school of Islam,
and accustomed to
regard the black
natives of Africa
as the lawful prey
of conquest or
lust, and fair ob-
jects of barter,
round at the re-
quest of European
and becoming one
of the most active
opponents of the
for him many well-
wishers and friends.
Though Prince Barghash has attributed to myself
the visit of those ships of war under Admiral Cumming,
all who remember that period, and are able, therefore,
CHARACTER OF PRINCE BABGHASH. 41
to trace events, will not fail to perceive that the first 1874.
decided steps taken by the British Government for the October.
suppression of the slave-trade on the east coast of
Africa were due to the influence of Livingstone's
constant appeals. Some of his letters, they will re-
member, were carried by me to England, and the
sensation caused by them was such as to compel the
British Government to send Sir Bartle Frere in the
Enchantress, as a special envoy to Zanzibar, to con-
clude a treaty with Prince Barghash. When the
Prince's reluctance to sign became known, the fleet
under Admiral Cumming made its appearance before
Zanzibar, and by -a process of gentle coercion, or
rather quiet demonstration, the signature of the Prince
was at last obtained. One thing more, however, still
remained to be done before the treaty could be carried
into full effect, and that was to eradicate any feeling
of discontent or sullenness from his mind which might
have been created by the exhibition of force, and this,
I was happy to see, was effected by the hospitable
reception he enjoyed in England in 1875. There was
a difference in the manner and tone of the Sultan of
1874 and of 1877, that I can only attribute to the
greater knowledge he had gained of the grandeur of
the power which he had so nearly provoked. We
must look upon him now as a friendly and, I believe,
sincere ally, and as a man willing to do his utmost
for the suppression of the slave-trade.
The philanthropist having at last obtained such
signal success with the Prince, it is time the merchant
should attempt something with him. The Prince must
be considered as an independent sovereign. His
territories include, besides the Zanzibar, Pemba, and
Mafia islands, nearly 1000 miles of coast, and extend
probably over an area of 20,000 square miles, with
a population of half a million. The products of
Zanzibar have enriched many Europeans who traded
4Z. THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. in them. Cloves, cinnamon, tortoise-shell, pepper,
October. copal gum, ivory, orchilla weed, india-rubber, and
hides have been exported for years; but this cata-
logue does not indicate a tithe of what might be pro-
duced by the judicious investment of capital. Those
intending to engage in commercial enterprises would
do well to study works on Mauritius, Natal, and the
Portuguese territories, if they wish to understand what
these fine, fertile lands are capable of. The cocoa-nut
palm flourishes at Zanzibar and on the mainland, the
oil palm thrives luxuriantly in Pemba, and sugar-cane
will grow everywhere. Caoutchouc remains unde-
veloped in the maritime belts of woodland, and the
acacia forests, with their wealth of gums, are nearly
untouched. Rice is sown on the Rufiji banks, and yields
abundantly; cottofi would thrive in any of the rich
river bottoms; and then there are, besides, the grains,
millet, Indian corn, and many others, the cultivation
of which, though only in a languid way, the natives
understand. The cattle, coffee, and goats of the interior
await also the energetic man of capital and the com-
First, however, the capitalist must find means of
carriage, otherwise he will never conquer African diffi-
culties. Cutting roads through jungles, and employing
waggons, are mere temporary conveniences, requiring
great outlay, patience, and constant reinforcement of
work and energies. Almost as fast as the land is
cleared, it is covered again-so prolific is the soil-with
tall wild grasses of the thickness of cane, and one season
is sufficient to undo the work of months of the pioneer.
Cattle die, tormented out of life by the flies or poisoned
by the rank grasses; natives perish from want of proper
nourishment, and, while suffering from fatigue and
debility, are subject to many fatal diseases.
A tramway is the one thing that is needed for Africa.
All other benefits that can be conferred by contact with
TRAMWAYS THE NEED OF AFRICA. 43
civilization will follow in the wake of the tramway, 1874.
which will be an iron bond, never to be again broken, October.
between Africa and the more favoured continents.
However energetic the small merchant may be, he
can effect nothing permanent for the good of a country
that has neither roads nor navigable rivers, whose
climate is alike fatal to the starved hamal as it is to the
beast of burthen. The maritime belt must first be
crossed by an iron road, and another must tap the very
centre of the rice-fields of the Rufiji valley, in order
to insure cheap, nutritious food in abundance. To a
company, however, which can raise the sum required
to construct a tramway, East Africa holds out special
advantages. The Sultan himself offers a handsome
sum, five lakhs of dollars or, roughly, 100,000, and
there are rich Hindis at Zanzibar who, no doubt, would
invest large sums, and thus the company would become
the principal merchants along the line. The Sultan
has also poor subjects enough who would be only too
glad of the opportunities thus afforded to work for
reasonable pay, so that very little fear need be
entertained of lack of labour. Besides, there are
the natives of the interior who, after two or three
bold examples, would soon be induced to apply for
employment along the line.
Those whom we call the Arabs of Zanzibar are either
natives of Muscat who have immigrated thither to
seek their fortunes, or descendants of the conquerors
of the Portuguese. As the present Sultan calls himself
Barghash the son of Sayid, the son of Sultan, the son of
Hamed, so all Arabs, from the highest to the lowest of
his subjects, are known by their proper names-Ahmed,
or Khamis, or Abdullah, as being the sons of Mussoud,
of Mustapha, or of Mohammed. Some of them boast
of unusually long pedigrees, and one or two I am
acquainted with proclaimed themselves of purer and
more aristocratic descent than even the Sultan.
44 THROUGH TEE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. The Arab conquerors vwho accompanied Seyyid
October. Sultan, the grandfather of the present Seyyid Barghash,
took unto themselves, after the custom of polygamists,
wives of their own race according to their means, and
almost all of them purchased negro concubines, the
result of which we trace to-day in the various com-
plexions of those who call themselves Arabs. By
this process of miscegenation the Arabs of the latest
migration are already rapidly losing their rich colour
and fine complexions, while the descendants of the
Arabs of the first migration are now deteriorated so
much that on the coast they can scarcely be distinguished
from the aborigines. While many of the descendants
of the old settlers who came in with Seyyid Sultan, still
cling to their homesteads, farms, and plantations, and
acquire sufficient competence by the cultivation of
cloves, cinnamon, oranges, cocoa-nut palms, sugar-cane,
and other produce, a great number have emigrated into
the interior to form new colonies. Hamed Ibrahim has
been eighteen years in Karagw6, Muini Kheri has
been thirty years in Ujiji, Sultan bin Ali has been
twenty-five years in Unyanyembe, Muini Dugumbi
has been eight years in Nyangwe, Juma Merikani has
been seven years in Rua, and a number of other
prominent Arabs may be cited to prove that, though
they themselves firmly believe that they will return to
the coast some day, there are too many reasons for.
believing that they never will.
None of the Arabs in the interior with whom I am
acquainted ever proceeded thither with the definite in-
tention of colonisation. Some were driven thither, by
fhlse hopes of acquiring rapid fortunes by the purchase
of slaves and ivory, and, perceiving that there were
worse places on earth than Africa, preferred to remain
there, to facing the odium of failure. Others borrowed
large sums on trust from credulous Hindis and Banyans,
and having failed in the venture now prefer to endure
ARABS IN THE INTERIOR. 45
the exclusion to which they have subjected themselves, 1874.
to returning and being arrested by their enraged October.
creditors. Others again are not merely bankrupts, but Zanzibar.
persons who have fled the vengeance of the law for
political offences, as well as ordinary crimes. There
are many who are in better circumstances in the
interior than they would be on their own island of
Zanzibar. Some of them have hundreds of slaves,
and he would be a very poor Arab indeed who pos-
sessed only ten. These slaves, under their masters'
direction, have constructed roomy, comfortable, flat-
roofed houses, or lofty cool huts, which, in the
dangerous and hostile districts, are surrounded by
strong stockades. Thus, at Unyanyembe there are
sixty or seventy large stockades enclosing the owner's
house and store-rooms, as well as the numerous huts of
his slaves. Ujiji, again, may be described as a long
straggling village, formed by the large tembes of the
Arabs; and Nyangwe is another settlement similar to
Ujiji. Many of the Arabs settled in the pastoral dis-
tricts possess large herds of cattle and extensive fields
where rice, wheat, Indian corn, and millet are culti-
vated, besides sugar-cane and onions, and the fruit
trees of Zanzibar-the orange, lemon, papaw, mango,
and pomegranate-now being gradually introduced.
The Arabs of Zanzibar, whether from more frequent
intercourse with Europeans or from other causes, are
undoubtedly the best of their race. More easily
amenable to reason than those of Egypt, or the shy,
reserved, and bigoted fanatics of Arabia, they offer
no obstacles to the European traveller, but are sociable,
frank, good-natured, and hospitable. In business they
are keen traders, and of course will exact the highest
percentage of profit out of the unsuspecting European
if they are permitted. They are staunch friends and
desperate haters. Blood is seldom satisfied without
blood, unless extraordinary sacrifices are made.
46 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. The conduct of an Arab gentleman is perfect. In-
October. delicate matters are never broached before strangers;
Zanzibar. impertinence is hushed instantly by the elders, and
rudeness is never permitted. Naturally, they have the
vices of their education, blood, and race, but these
moral blemishes are by their traditional excellence of
breeding seldom obtruded upon the observation of the
After the Arabs let us regard the Wangwana, just
as in Europe, after studying the condition and character
of the middle classes, we might turn to reflect upon
that of the labouring population.
Of the Wangwana there will be much written in
the following pages, the outcome of careful study and a
long experience of them. Few explorers have recorded
anything greatly to their credit. One of them lately
said that the negro knows neither love nor affection;
another that he is simply the "link" between the
simian and the European. Another says," The wretches
take a trouble and display an ingenuity in opposition
and disobedience, in perversity, annoyance, and villainy,
which rightly directed would make them invaluable."
Almost all have been severe in their strictures on the
negro of Zanzibar.
The origin of the Mgwana or Freeman may be briefly
told. When the Arabs conquered Zanzibar, they
found the black subjects of the Portuguese to be of
two classes, Watuma (slaves) and Wangwana (free-
men). The Freemen were very probably black people
who had either purchased their freedom by the savings
of their industry or were made free upon the death of
their masters: these begat children who, being born
out of bondage, were likewise free. Arab rulers, in
classifying their subjects, perceived no great difference
in physique or general appearance between those who
were slaves and those who were free, both classes
belonging originally to the same negro tribes of the
WATUMA OR WANOWANA. 47
interior. Thus, when any of these were brought before 1874.
the authorities convicted of offences, the question october.
naturally asked was, "Are you a Mtuma, a slave,
or a Mgwana, a freeman ?" A repetition of these
questions through a long course of years established
the custom of identifying the two classes of Zanzibar
negroes as Watuma-slaves-andWangwana-freemen.
Later, however, came a new distinction, and the word
Watuma, except in special and local cases, was dropped,
for, with the advent of the free native traders direct
from the mainland, and the increase of traffic between
Zanzibar and the continent, as well as out of courtesy
to their own slaves, the Arabs began to ask the black
stranger, Are you Mgwana, a freeman, or Mshensi, a
pagan ?" In disputes among themselves the question
is still asked, Are you a slave or a freeman ?" but
when strangers are involved, it is always, "Are you
Mgwana, a freeman or a native of Zanzibar, or a
Mshensi, a pagan or an uncircumcised native of the
mainland ? "
It will be thus seen that the word Wangwana is
now a generic, widely used, and well understood for
the coloured natives of Zanzibar. When, therefore,
the term is employed in this book, it includes alike both
the slaves and the freemen of Zanzibar.
After nearly seven years' acquaintance with the
Wangwana, I have come to perceive that they represent
in their character much of the disposition of a large
portion of the negro tribes of the continent. I find
them capable of great love and affection, and possessed
of gratitude and other noble traits of human nature:
I know too that they can be made good, obedient
servants, that many are clever, honest, industrious,
docile, enterprising, brave and moral; that they are,
in short, equal to any other race or colour on the face
of the globe, in all the attributes of manhood. But to
be able to perceive their worth, the traveller must
48 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. bring an unprejudiced judgment, a clear, fresh, and
actoiber. patient observation, and must forget that lofty standard
of excellence upon which he and his race pride them-
selves, before he can fairly appreciate the capabilities
of the Zanzibar negro. The traveller should not forget
the origin of his own race, the condition of the Briton
before St. Augustine visited his country, but should
rather recall to mind the first state of the "wild
Caledonian," and the original circumstances and sur-
roundings of Primitive Man.
Louis Figuier says :-" However much our pride may
suffer by the idea, we must confess that, at the earliest
period of his existence, man could have been but little
distinguished from the brute. His pillow was a stone,
his roof was the shadow of a wide-spreading tree, or
some dark cavern, which also served as a refuge against
And again, in his chapter on the "Iron Epoch," he
notes how "From the day when iron was first placed
at man's disposal, civilization began to make its longest
strides, and as the working of this metal improved,
so the dominion of man-his faculties and his intellect
-real activity-likewise enlarged in the same propor-
tion." And at the end of a most admirable book, he
counsels the traveller, Look to it, lest thy pride cause
thee to forget thy own origin."
Being, I hope, free from prejudices of caste, colour,
race, or nationality, and endeavouring to pass what
I believe to be a just judgment upon the negroes of
Zanzibar, I find that they are a people just emerged
into the Iron Epoch, and now thrust forcibly under
the notice of nations who have left them behind by
the improvements of over 4000 years. They possess
beyond doubt all the vices of a people still fixed deeply
in barbarism, but they understand to the full what and
how low such a state is ; it is, therefore, a duty imposed
upon us by the religion we profess, and by the sacred
THE WANOWANA. 49
command of the Son of God, to help them out of the 184.
deplorable state they are now in. At any rate, before Octobr.
we begin to hope for the improvement of races so long
benighted, let us leave off this impotent bewailing
of their vices, and endeavour to discover some of
the virtues they possess as men, for it must be with the
aid of their virtues, and not by their vices, that the
missionary of civilization can ever hope to assist them.
While, therefore, recording my experiences through
Africa, I shall have frequent occasion to dilate upon
both the vices and the virtues of the Wangwana as
well as of the natives of the interior, but it will not
be with a view to foster, on the one hand, the self-
deception of the civilized, or the absurd prejudices
created by centuries of superior advantages, nor, on
the other hand, to lead men astray by taking a too
bright view of things. I shall write solely and
simply with a strong desire to enable all interested in
the negro to understand his mental and moral powers
The Mgwana or native of Zanzibar, who dwells at
Ngambu, is a happy, jovial soul. He is fond of company,
therefore sociable. His vanity causes him to be am-
bitious of possessing several white shirts and bright red
caps, and since he has observed that his superiors use
walking-sticks, he is almost certain, if he is rich enough
to own a white shirt and a red cap, to be seen sporting
a light cane. The very poorest of his class hire them-
selves, or are hired out by their masters, to carry
bales, boxes, and goods, from the custom house to the
boat, or store-room, or vice versd, and as a general beast
of burden, for camels are few, and of wheeled vehicles
there are none. Those who prefer light work and
have good characters may obtain positions as door-
keepers or house-servants, or for washing copal and
drying hides for the European merchants. Others,
50 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. trained as mechanics, obtain a livelihood by repairing
October. muskets, manufacturing knives, belts, and accoutre-
ments, or by carpentering and shipbuilding. There is
a class of Wangwana living at Ngambu, in the small
gardens of the interior of the island, and along the
coast of the mainland, who prefer the wandering life
offered to them by the Arab traders and scientific
COXSWAIN ULEDI, AND MANWA SERA, CHIEF CAPTAIN.
(From a photograph.)
expeditions to being subject to the caprice, tyranny,
and meanness of small estate proprietors. They
complain that the Arabs are haughty, grasping,
and exacting; that they abuse them and pay them
badly; that, if they seek justice at the hands of the
Cadis, judgment, somehow, always goes against them.
A MGNWANA'S HIGHEST AMBITION. 51
They say, on the other hand, that, when accompanying 1874.
trading or other expeditions, they are well paid, have ctober.
abundance to eat, and comparatively but little work.
But the highest ambition of a Mgwana is to have a
house and shamba or garden of his own. The shamba
may only be large enough to possess a dozen cocoa-nut-
trees, a dozen rows, thirty yards long, of cassava
shrubs, half a dozen banana plants, half a dozen rows
planted with sweet-potatoes, and two or three rows of
ground-nuts; nevertheless, this would be his garden
or estate, and therefore of priceless estimation. At one
corner of this tiny but most complete estate, he would
erect his house, with an exclusive courtyard, which he
would stock with half a dozen chickens and one goat,
which last he would be sure to spoil with kindness.
Three hundred dollars would probably be the total
value of house, garden, chickens, goat, domestic uten-
sils, tools, and all, and yet, with this property, he would
be twice married, the father of four or five children,
and even the owner of a domestic slave or two. If
such be his condition, he will snap his fingers at the
cruel world, and will imagine himself as prosperous,
well-to-do, and comfortable as any Arab in Zanzibar. *
But he is seldom spoiled by this great prosperity. He
is a sociable, kindly disposed man, and his frank, hearty
nature has won for him hosts of friends. Beer made
of fermented mtama or Indian corn, wine of the palm
or cocoa-nut milk, or the stronger eau de vie sold by
the Goanese in the town at twenty-five cents the
bottle, serve to diffuse and cement these friendships.
It is to the Wangwana that Livingstone, Burton,
Speke and Grant owe, in great part, the accomplish-
ment of their objects, and while in the employ of those
explorers, this race rendered great services to geo-
graphy. From a considerable distance north of the
Equator down to the Zambezi and across Africa to
52 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. Benguella and the mouth of the Livingstone, they
October. have made their names familiar to tribes who,. but
Zanzibar. for the Wangwana, would have remained ignorant to
this day of all things outside their own settlements.
They possess, with many weaknesses, many fine qualities.
While very superstitious, easily inclined to despair, and
readily giving ear to vague, unreasonable fears, they
may also, by judicious management, be induced to
laugh at their own credulity and roused to a courageous
attitude, to endure like Stoics, and fight like heroes. It
will depend altogether upon the leader of a body of
such men whether their worst or best qualities shall
There is another class coming into notice from the
interior of Africa, who, though of a sterner nature,
will, I am convinced, as they are better known, become
greater favourites than the Wangwana. I refer to the
Wanyamwezi, or the natives of Unyamwezi, and the
Wasukuma, or the people of Usukuma. Naturally,
being a grade less advanced towards civilization than
the Wangwana, they are not so amenable to discipline
as the latter. While explorers would in the present
State of acquaintance prefer the Wangwana as escort,
the Wanyamwezi are far superior as porters. Their
greater freedom from diseases, their greater strength
and endurance, the pride they take in their profession
of porters, prove them born travellers of incalculable
use and benefit to Africa. If kindly treated, I do not
know more docile and good-natured creatures. But
the discipline must not be strict, until they have had
opportunities of understanding their employer's nature
and habits, and of comprehending that discipline does
not mean abuse. Their courage they have repeatedly
proved under their Napoleonic leader Mirambo, in many
a well-fought field against the Arabs and Wangwana.
Their skill in war, tenacity of purpose, and determi-
THE COMING RACES. 50
nation to defend the rights of their elected chief 1874.
against foreigners, have furnished themes for song October.
to the bards of Central Africa. Tippu-Tib has led 500
of these men through distant Bisa and the plains
of Rua: Juma Merikani has been escorted by them
into the heart of the regions beyond the Tanganika:
Khamis bin Adallah commanded a large force of them
in his search for ivory in the intra-lake countries. The
English discoverer of Lake Tanganika hnd, finally, I
myself have been equally indebted to them, both on
my first and last expeditions.
From their numbers, and their many excellent
qualities, I am led to think that the day will come
when they will be regarded as something better than
the "best of pagazis "; that they will be esteemed as
the good subjects of some enlightened power, who will
train them up as the nucleus of a great African nation,
as powerful for the good of the Dark Continent, as they
threaten, under the present condition of things, to be
for its evil.
NEW CHURCH ON SITE OF OLD SLAVE-MARKET, ZANZIBAR.
THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
Organization of the Expedition-The siauri-"Poli-poli"-Msenna's
successful imposture Black sheep in the flock The Lady Alice
remodelled- Sewing a British flag--Tarya Topan, the millionaire
Signing the covenants-" On the word of a white man"-
Saying good-bye Loading the dhows Vale! Towards the Dark
1874. IT is a most sobering employment, the organizing of
November. an African expedition. You are constantly engaged,
Zanzibar. l .
mind and body; now in casting up accounts, and now
travelling to and fro hurriedly to receive messengers,
inspecting purchases, bargaining with keen-eyed, relent-
less Hindi merchants, writing memoranda, haggling
over extortionate prices, packing up a multitude of
small utilities, pondering upon your lists of articles,
wanted, purchased, and unpurchased, groping about
in the recesses of a highly exercised imagination for
what you ought to purchase, and cannot do without,
superintending, arranging, assorting, and packing.
And this under a temperature of 950 Fahr.
In the midst of all this terrific, high-pressure exercise
arrives the first batch of applicants for employment.
For it has long ago been bruited abroad that I am
ready to enlist all able-bodied human beings willing
to carry a load, be they Wangwana or Wanyamwezi,
Wagalla, Somali, Wasagara, Wayow, Wajindo,
Wagogo, or Wazaramo. Ever since I arrived at
Zanzibar, since which date I have -been absent
SELECTING THE EXPEDITION. 55
exploring the Rufiji river,* I have had a very good is74.
reputation among Arabs and Wangwana. They have November.
not forgotten that it was I who found the "old white Zanzibar.
man "-Livingstone-in Ujiji, nor that liberality and
kindness to my men were my special characteristics.
They have also, with the true Oriental spirit of exag-
geration, proclaimed that I was but a few months
absent; and that, after this brief excursion, they
returned to their homes to enjoy the liberal pay
awarded them, feeling rather the better for the trip
than otherwise. This unsought-for reputation brought
on me the laborious task of selecting proper men out
of an extraordinary number of applicants. Almost
all the cripples, the palsied, the consumptive, and the
superannuated that Zanzibar could furnish applied to
be enrolled on the muster list, but these, subjected to
a searching examination, were refused. Hard upon
their heels came all the roughs, rowdies, and ruffians of
the island, and these, schooled by their fellows, were
not so easily detected. Slaves were also refused, as
being too much under the influence and instruction
of their masters, and yet many were engaged of whose
character I had not the least conception, until, months
afterwards, I learned from their quarrels in the camp
how I had been misled by the clever rogues.
All those who bore good characters on the Search
Expedition, and had been despatched to the assistance
of Livingstone in 1872, were employed without delay.
Out of these the chiefs were selected: these were,
Manwa Sera, Chowpereh, Wadi Rehani, Kachech6,
Zaidi, Chakanja, Farjalla, Wadi Safeni, Bukhet,
Mabruki Manyapara, Mabruki Unyanyembe, Muini
Pembe, Ferahan, Bwana Muri, Khamseen, Mabruki
Speke, Simba, Gardner, Hamoidah, Zaidi Mganda,
For account of this exploration, sec brief account in Appendix.
56 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
s87. But before real business could be entered into, the
November. customary present had to be distributed to each.
Zanzibar Ulimengo, or the World, the incorrigible joker and
hunter in chief of the Search and Livingstone's expedi-
tions, received a gold ring to encircle one of his thick
black fingers, and a silver chain to suspend round his
neck, which caused his mouth to expand gratefully.
Rojab, who was soon reminded of the unlucky accident
with Livingstone's Journal in the muddy waters of the
Mukondokwa, was endowed with a munificent gift
which won him over to my service beyond fear of
bribery. Manwa Sera, the redoubtable ambassador of
Speke and Grant to Manwa Sera-the royal fugitive
distressed by the hot pursuit of the Arabs-the leader
of my second caravan in 1.871, the chief of the party
sent to Unyanyemb6 to the assistance of Livingstone in
1872, and now appointed Chief Captain of the Anglo-
American Expedition, was rendered temporarily speech-
less with gratitude because I had suspended a splendid
jet necklace from his neck, and ringed one of his fingers
with a heavy seal ring. The historical Mabruki Speke,
called by one of my predecessors Mabruki the Bull-
headed," who has each time in the employ of European
explorers conducted himself with matchless fidelity, and
is distinguished for his hawk-eyed guardianship of their
property and interests, exhibited extravagant rapture at
the testimonial for past services bestowed on him; while
the valiant, faithful, sturdy Chowpereh, the man of
manifold virtues, was rewarded for his former worth
with a silver dagger, gilt bracelet, and earrings. His
wife was also made happy with a suitable gift, and the
heir of the Chowpereh estate, a child of two years,
was, at his father's urgent request, rendered safe by
vaccine from any attack of the small-pox during our
absence in Africa.
All great enterprises require a preliminary de-
"POLIl POLI!" 57
liberative palaver, or, as the Wangwana call it, 1874.
" Shauri." In East Africa particularly shauris are November.
much in vogue. Precipitate, energetic action is
dreaded. Poll, pol or Gently is the warning
word of caution given.
The chiefs arranged themselves in a semi-circle on the
day of the shauri, and I sat a la Turque fronting them.
"What is it, my friends ? Speak your minds." They
hummed and hawed, looked at one another, as if on
their neighbour's faces they might discover the purport
of their coming, but, all hesitating to begin, finally broke
down in a loud laugh.
Manwa Sera, always grave, unless hit dexterously
with a joke, hereupon affected anger, and said, You
speak, son of Safeni; verily we act like children! Will
the master eat us?"
Wadi, son of Safeni, thus encouraged to perform
the spokesman's duty, hesitates exactly two seconds,
and then ventures with diplomatic blandness and
qraciosity. We have come, master, with words.
Listen. It is well we should know every step before we
leap. A traveller journeys not without knowing whither
lie wanders. We have come to ascertain what lands you
are bound for."
Imitating the son of Safeni's gracious blandness, and
his low tone of voice, as though the information about
to be imparted to the intensely interested and eagerly
listening group were too important to speak it loud, I
described in brief outline the prospective journey, in
broken Kiswahili. As country after country was men-
tioned of which they had hitherto but vague ideas, and
river after river, lake after lake named, all of which I
hoped with their trusty aid to explore carefully, various
ejaculations expressive of wonder and joy, mixed with a
little alarm, broke from their lips, but when I concluded,
each of the group drew a long breath, and almost
5 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. simultaneously they uttered admiringly, All, fellows,
November. this is a journey worthy to be called a journey! "
But, master," said they, after recovering themselves,
"this longjourney will take years to travel-six, nine,
or ten years." Nonsense," I replied. "Six, nine, or
ten years! What can you be thinking of? It takes
the Arabs nearly three years to reach Ujiji, it is true,
but, if you remember, I was but sixteen months from
Zanzibar to Ujiji and back. Is it not so ?" Ay,
true," they answered. "Very well, and I assure you I
have not come to live in Africa. I have come simply
to see those rivers and lakes, and after I have seen
them to return home." "Ah, but you know the old
master, Livingstone," rejoined Hamoidah, who had fol-
lowed the veteran traveller nearly eight years, "said
he was only going for two years, and you know that he
never came back, but died there." That is true enough,
but if I were quick on the first journey, am I likely to
be slow now? Am I much older than I was then?
Am I less strong ? Do I not know what travel is now ?
Was I not like a boy then, and am I not now a man?
You remember while going to Ujiji I permitted the guide
to show the way, but when we were returning who
was it that led the way ? Was it not I, by means of
that little compass which could not lie like the guide ?"
"Ay, true, master, true every word !" Very well,
then, let us finish the shauri, and go. To-morrow we
will make a proper agreement before the consul;" and
in Scriptural phrase, "they forthwith arose and did as
they were commanded."
Upon receiving information from the coast that there
was a very large number of men waiting for me, I
became still more fastidious in my choice. But with
all my care and gift of selection, I was mortified to
discover that many faces and characters had baffled the
rigorous scrutiny to which I had subjected them, and
A SPECIOUS IMPOSTOR. 59
that some scores of the most abandoned and depraved 1874.
characters on the island had been enlisted by me on November.
the Expedition. One man, named Msenna, imposed
upon me by assuming such a contrite penitent look,
and weeping such copious tears, when I informed him
that he had too bad a character to be employed, that
my good-nature was prevailed upon to accept his ser-
vices, upon the understanding that, if he indulged his
murderous propensities in Africa, I should return him
chained the entire distance to Zanzibar, to be dealt
with by his Prince.
The defence of his conduct was something like this:
"Bwana,* you see these scars on my head and neck.
They are from the sabres of the Seyyid's soldiers.
Demand of any, Arab or Freeman, why I received
them. They will tell you they were inflicted for rebellion
against Prince Majid at Melinda. The Arabs hate me
because I joined the coast men against their authority.
Can any one charge me with worse deeds ? "-appealing
to the Wangwana. All were silent. I am a free-born
son of the coast, and never did any man or woman who
did not molest me the smallest injury. Allah be praised !
I am strong, healthy, and contented with my lot, and if
you take me you will never have cause to regret it. If
you fear that I shall desert give me no advance pay, but
pay me when I come back to Zanzibar according to my
This appeal was delivered with impassioned accents
and lively gestures, which produced a great effect
upon the mixed audience who listened to him, and
gathering from their faces, more than from my own
convictions, that poor scarred Msenna was a kind of a
political refugee, much abused and very much mis-
understood, his services were accepted, and as he
appeared to be an influential man, he was appointed a
60 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. junior captain with prospects of promotion and higher
Subsequently, however, on the shores of Lake Victoria
it was discovered-for in Africa people are uncommonly
communicative--that Msenna had murdered eight
people, that he was a ruffian of the worst sort, and that
the merchants of Zanzibar had experienced great relief
when they heard that the notorious Msenna was about
to bid farewell for a season to the scene of so many of
his wild exploits. Msenna was only one of many of
his kind, but I have given in detail the manner of his
enlistment that my position may be better understood.
Soon after my return from the Rufiji delta, the
B. I. S. N. Company's steamer Euphrates had brought
the sectional exploring boat, Lady Alice, to Zanzibar.
Exceedingly anxious for the portability of the sections,
I had them at once weighed, and great were my
vexation and astonishment when I discovered that four
of the sections weighed 280 lbs. each, and that one
weighed 310 bs.! She was, it is true, a marvel of
workmanship, and an exquisite model of a boat, such,
indeed, as few builders in England or America could
rival, but in her present condition her carriage through
the jungles would necessitate a pioneer force a hundred
strong to clear the impediments and obstacles on the
While almost plunged into despair, I was informed
that there was a very clever English carpenter, named
Ferris, about to leave by the Euphrates bfr England.
Mr. Ferris was quickly made acquainted with my
difficulty, and for a consideration" promised, after a
personal inspection of the boat, to defer his departure
one month, and to do his utmost to make the sections
portable without lessening her efficiency. When the
boat was exhibited to him, I explained that the narrow-
ness of the path would make her portage absolutely
THE "LADY ALICE" BEMODELLED. 61
impossible, for since the path was often only 18 inches 1874.
wide in Africa, and hemmed in on each side with dense Novem'be
jungle, any package 6 feet broad could by no meansZanzibar.
be conveyed along it. It was therefore necessary
that each of the four sections should be subdivided, by
which means I should obtain eight portable sections,
each 3 feet wide, and that an afterpiece could easily
be made by myself upon arriving at the lakes. Mr.
Ferris, perfectly comprehending his instructions, and
with the aid given by the young Pococks, furnished
me within two weeks with the newly modelled Lady
Alice. But it must be understood that her success
as a safe exploring boat is due to the conscientious
workmanship which the honest and thoroughly reliable
boat-builder of Teddington lavished upon her.
The pride which the young Pococks and Frederick
Barker entertained in respect to their new duties, in
the new and novel career of adventure now opening
before them, did not seem to damp that honourable
love of country which every Englishman abroad
exhibits, and is determined to gratify if he can. Their
acquaintance with the shipwright, Mr. Ferris, who
had evidently assisted at the ceremony of planting the
British flag at the masthead of many a new and noble
structure, destined to plough strange seas, reminded
them, during one of the social evening hours which
they spent together, that it would be a fine thing if
they might also be permitted to hoist a miniature
emblem of their nationality over their tent in camp,
and over their canoes on the lakes and rivers of Africa.
The Pococks and Barker accordingly, a few days
before our departure, formed themselves into a deputa-
tion, and Frank, who was spokesman, surprised me
with the following request:-
."My brother, Fred Barker, and myself, Sir, have
been emboldened to ask you a favour, which no doubt
62 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
s874. you will think strange and wrong. But we cannot
November. forget, wherever we go, that we are Englishmen,
and we should like to be permitted to take something
with us that will always remind us of who we are,
and be a comfort to us even in the darkest hours of
trouble, perhaps even encourage us to perform our duties
better. We have come to ask you, sir, if we may be
permitted to make a small British flag to hoist above
our tent, and over our canoe on the lakes."
My dear fellow," I replied, "you surprise me by
imagining for one moment that I could possibly
refuse you. This is not an American Government
or a British Government Expedition, and I have
neither the power nor disposition to withhold my
sanction to your request. If it will be any pleasure to
you, by all means take it, I cannot have the slightest
objection to such an innocent proceeding. All that I
shall require from you in Africa is such service as you
can give, and if you prove yourselves the highly recom-
mended lads you are, I shall not interfere with any
innocent pleasure you may feel yourselves at liberty to
take. If one British flag is not enough, you may take
a thousand so far as I am concerned."
"Thank you kindly, Sir. You may rest assured
that we have entered your service with the intention
to remember what my old father and our friends
strictly enjoined us to do, which was to stick to you
through thick and thin."
The young Englishmen were observed soon after-
wards busy sewing a tiny flag, about 18 inches square,
out of some bunting, and after a pattern that Mr.
Ferris procured for them. Whether the complicated
colours, red, blue, white, were arranged properly,
or the crosses according to the standard, I am ignorant.
But I observed that, while they were occupied in the
task, they were very much interested, and that, when
THE TRUE STORY OF THE BRITISH FLAG. 63
it was finished, though it was only the size of a lady's
handkerchief, they manifested much delight.
Zanzibar possesses its millionaires also, and one
of the richest merchants in the town is Tarya Topan
-a self-made man of Hindostan, singularly honest
and just; a devout Muslim, yet liberal in his ideas;
a sharp business man, yet charitable. I made Tarya's
acquaintance in 1871, and the righteous manner in
which he then dealt by me caused me now to proceed
to him again for the same purpose as formerly, viz. to
sell me cloth, cottons, and kanikis, at reasonable prices,
and accept my bills on Mr. Joseph M. Levy, of the
Honest Jetta, as formerly, was employed as my
vakeel to purchase the various coloured cloths, fine
and coarse, for chiefs and their wives, as well as a
64 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1574. large assortment of beads of all sizes, forms, and
November. colours,* besides a large quantity of brass wire I inch
The total weight of goods, cloth, beads, wire, stores,
medicine, bedding, clothes, tents, ammunition, boat,
oars, rudder and thwarts, instruments and stationery,
photographic apparatus, dry plates, and miscellaneous
articles too numerous to mention, weighed a little over
18,000 lbs., or rather more than eight tons, divided
as nearly as possible into loads weighing 60 lbs. each,
and requiring therefore the carrying capacity of 300
men. The loads were made more than usually light,
in order that we might ravel with celerity, and not
fatigue the people.
But still further to provide against sickness and
weakness, a supernumerary force of forty men were
recruited at Bagamoyo, Konduchi, and the Rufiji delta,
who were required to assemble in the neighbour-
hood of the first-mentioned place. Two hundred and
thirty men, consisting of Wangwana, Wanyamwezi,
and coast people from Mombasa, Tanga, and Saadani,
affixed their marks opposite their names before the
American Consul, for wages varying from 2 to 10 dollars
per month, and rations according to their capacity,
strength, and intelligence, with the understanding
that they were to serve for two years, or until such
time as their services should be no longer required
in Africa, and were to perform their duties cheer-
fully and promptly.
On the day of" signing the contract, each adult re-
ceived an advance of 20 dollars, or four months' pay, and
each youth 10 dollars, or four months' pay. Ration money
was also paid them from the time of first enlistment, at
the rate of 1 dollar per week, up to the day we left the
For list of cloths, beads, wire, &c., and their prices, see Appendix.
SIGNING THE COVENANTS. 65
coast. These conditions were, however, not entered 1874.
into without requiring the presence of each person's Novembr.
friends and relatives to witness and sanction the engage- bar.
ments, so that on this day the parents, uncles, cousins,
and near and distant relatives, wives and children,
were in attendance, and crowded every room and
court at the American Consulate. The entire amount
disbursed in cash for advances of pay and rations at
Zanzibar and Bagamoyo was 6260 dollars, or nearly
The obligations, however, were not all on one side.
Besides the due payment to them of their wages on
demand, and selling them such cloths as they would
require for dress while in Africa at reasonable prices,
which would be a little above cost price at Zanzibar,
I was compelled to bind myself to them, on the word
of an honourable white man," to observe the follow-
ing conditions as to conduct towards them:-
1st. That I should treat them kindly, and be patient
2nd. That in cases of sickness, I should dose them with
proper medicine, and see them nourished with the best
the country afforded. That if patients were unable to
proceed, they should not be abandoned to the mercy of
heathen, but were to be conveyed to such places as should
be considered safe for their persons and their freedom,
and convenient for their return, on convalescence, to
their friends. That, with all patients thus left behind,
I should leave sufficient cloth or beads to pay the native
practitioner for his professional attendance, and for the
support of the patient.
3rd. That in cases of disagreement between man
and man, I should judge justly, honestly, and impar-
tially. That I should do my utmost to prevent the
ill-treatment of the weak by the strong, and never
permit the oppression of those unable to resist.
66 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. 4th. That I should act like a father and mother"
Nov.12. to them, and to the best of my ability resist all
anzibar. violence offered to them by "savage natives, and
roving and lawless banditti."
They also promised, upon the above conditions being
fulfilled, that they would do their duty like men, would
honour and respect my instructions, giving me their
united support and endeavouring to the best of their
ability to be faithful servants, and would never desert
me in the hour of need. In short, that they would
behave like good and loyal children, and "may the
blessing of God," said they, be upon us."
How we kept this bond of mutual trust and forbear-
ance, and adhered to each other in the hours of sore
trouble and distress, faithfully performing our duties
to one another: how we encouraged and sustained,
cheered and assisted one another, and in all the services
and good offices due from man to man, and comrade to
comrade, from chief to servants and from servants to
chief, how we kept our plighted word of promise, will
be best seen in the following chapters, which record the
strange and eventful story of our journeys.
The fleet of six Arab vessels which were to bear us
away to the west across the Zanzibar Sea were at last
brought to anchor a few yards from the wharf of the
American Consulate. The day of farewell calls had
passed, and ceremoniously we had bidden adieu to the
hospitable and courteous Acting British Consul, Captain
William F. Prideaux, and his accomplished wife,* to
friendly and amiable Dr. James Robb and Mrs. Robb,
to Dr. Riddle, and the German and French Consuls.
Seyyid Barghash bin Sayid received my thanks for his
courtesy, and his never failing kindness, and my sincere
No lady was over more universally respected at Zanzibar than rai
Prideaux, and no death ever more sincerely regretted by the European
community than was hers.
SAYING GOOD-BYE. 67
wishes for his lasting prosperity and happiness. Many 1874
kind Arab and Hindi friends also received my parting Nov. 12.
salaams. Grave Sheikh Hashid expressed a hope that ZLazibar.
we should meet again on earth, Captain Bukhet, the
pilot, wished me a quick and safe return from the dread
lands of the heathen, and the princely Indian mer-
chant, Tarya Topan, expressed his sincere hopes that I
should be prosperous in my undertaking, and come
back crowned with success.
The young Englishmen, whose charming, simple
manners and manly bearing had won for them a
number of true friends at Zanzibar, were not without
many hearty well-wishers, and received cheerful fare-
wells from numerous friends.
At the end of the Ramadan, the month of abstinence
of Mohammedans, the Wangwana, true to their promise
that they would be ready, appeared with their bundles
and mats, and proceeded to take their places in the
vessels waiting for them. As their friends had
mustered in strong force to take their final parting
and bestow last useful hints and prudent advice, it
was impossible to distinguish among the miscellaneous
crowd on the beach those who were present, or to
discover who were absent. The greater part of my
company were in high spirits, and from this I inferred
that they had not forgotten to fortify themselves with
stimulants against the critical moment of departure.
As fast as each dhow was reported to be filled, the
Nak/uda or Captain was directed to anchor farther
off shore to await the signal to sail. By 5 P.m. of the
12th November, 224 men had responded to their names,
and five of the Arab vessels, laden with the personnel,
cattle, and materiel of the expedition, were impatiently
waiting with anchor heaved short, the word of
command. One vessel still lay close ashore, to convey
myself, and Frederick Barker-in charge of the personal
68 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. servants-our baggage, and dogs. Turning round to
Zovanr.. my constant and well-tried friend, Mr. Augustus Spar-
hawk, I fervently clasped his hand, and with a full
Leart though halting tongue, attempted to pour out
my feelings of gratitude for his kindness and long
sustained hospitality, my keen regret at parting and
hopes of meeting again. But I was too agitated to
be eloquent, and all my forced gaiety could not carry
me through the ordeal. So we parted in almost total
silence, but I felt assured that he would judge my
UNIVERSITIES MISSION AT MBWENNI, ZANZTBAR.
(From a photograph by Mr. Buc7anan, of Natal. Seepage TS.)
emotions by his own feelings, and would accept the
lame effort at their expression as though he had
listened to the most voluble rehearsal of thanks.
A wave of my hand, and the anchors were hove up
and laid within ship, and then, hoisting our lateen
sails, we bore away westward to launch ourselves into
the arms of Fortune. Many wavings of kerchiefs and
hats, parting signals from white hands, and last long
looks at friendly white faces, final confused impressions
of the grouped figures of our well-wishers, and then 1874.
the evening breeze had swept us away into mid-sea ov. 12.
beyond reach of recognition. Zanzibar.
The parting is over! We have said our last words
for years, perhaps for ever, to kindly men! The sun
sinks fast to the western horizon, and gloomy is the
twilight that now deepens and darkens. Thick shadows
fall upon the distant land and over the silent sea, and
oppress our throbbing, regretful hearts, as we glide
away through the dying light towards The Dark
" TOWARDS THE DARK CONTINENT."
THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
Bagamoyo Taming the dark brother Bagamoyo in a ferment -
An exciting scene--The disturbance quelled--The Universities
Mission, its origin, history, decline and present condition The Rev.
Edward Steere-Notre Dame de Bagamoyo-- Westward ho!-
In marching order Sub Jove fervido -Crossing the Kingani -
The stolen women.
1S74. BA AMOYO, Whindi, and Saadani, East African villages
Nov. 13. on the mainland near the sea, offer exceptionally good
starting-points for the unexplored interior, -for many
reasons. First. Because the explorers and the people
are strangers to one another, and a slight knowledge
of their power of mutual cohesion, habits, and relative
influences, is desirable before launching out into the
wilds. Second. T-he natives of those maritime villages
are accustomed to have their normally languid and peace-
ful life invaded and startled by the bustle of foreigners
arriving by sea and from the continent, Arab traders
bound for the interior and lengthy native caravans
from Unyamwezi. Third. An expedition not fully
recruited to its necessary strength at Zanzibar may be
easily reinforced at these ports by volunteers from
native caravans who are desirous of returning to their
homes, and who, day by day, along the route, will
straggle in towards it until the list is full and complete.
These, then, were the principal reasons for my
selection of Bao'amoyo as the initial point, from whence,
after inoculating the various untamed spirits who had
TAMING THE DARK BROTlER. l7
now enlisted under me, with a respect for order and 1874.
discipline, obedience and system (the true prophylactic Nov. 13.
against failure) I should be free to rove where dis- oyo.
coveries would be fruitful. This "inoculation will
not, however, commence until after a study of their
natures, their deficiencies and weaknesses. The ex-
hibition of force, at this juncture, would be dangerous
to our prospects, and all means gentle, patient, and
persuasive have, therefore, to be tried first. What-
ever deficiencies, weaknesses, and foibles the people
may develop must be so manipulated that, while they
are learning the novel lesson of obedience, they may
only just suspect that behind all this there lies the
strong unbending force which will eventually make
men of them, wild things though they now are. For
the first few months, then, forbearance is absolutely
necessary. The dark brother, wild as a colt, chafing,
restless, ferociously impulsive, superstitiously timid,
liable to furious demonstrations, suspicious and un-
reasonable, must be forgiven seventy times seven, until
the period of probation is passed. Long before this
period is over, such temperate conduct will have
enlisted a powerful force, attached to their leader by
bonds of good-will and respect, even, perhaps, of love
and devotion, and by the moral, influence of their
support even the most incorrigible mauvais sujet will
be restrained, and finally conquered.
Many things will transpire during the first few
weeks which will make the explorer sigh and wish that
lie had not ventured upon what promises to be a
hopeless task. Maddened by strong drinks and drugs,
jealous of their status in the camp, regretting also, like
ourselves, that they had been so hasty in undertaking
the journey, brooding over the joys of the island fast
receding from them, anxious for the future, susceptible
to the first and every influence that assails them with
72 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. temptations to return to the coast, these people require
Nov. 13. to be treated with the utmost kindness and considera-
agamoyo. tion, and the intending traveller must be wisely
circumspect in his intercourse with them. From my
former experiences of such men, it will be readily
believed that I had prepared for the scenes which I
knew were to follow at Bagamoyo, and that all my
precautions had been taken.
Upon landing at Bagamoyo on the morning of the
13th, we marched to occupy the old house where we
had stayed so long to prepare the First Expedition.
The goods were stored, the dogs chained up, the
riding asses tethered, the rifles arrayed in the store-
room, and the sectional boat laid under a roof close by,
on rollers, to prevent injury from the white ants-a
precaution which, I need hardly say, we had to observe
throughout our journey. Then some more ration money,
sufficient for ten days, had to be distributed among the
men, the young Pococks were told off to various camp
duties to initiate them to exploring life in Africa, and
then, after the first confusion of arrival had subsided, I
began to muster the new engages.
But within three hours Bagamoyo was in a ferment.
The white man has brought all the robbers, ruffians,
and murderers of Zanzibar to take possession of the
town," was the rumour that ran wildly through all the
streets, lanes, courts, and bazaars. Men with bloody
faces, wild, bloodshot eyes, bedraggled, rumpled and
torn dresses, reeled up to our orderly and nearly silent
quarters clamouring for rifles and ammunition. Arabs
with drawn swords, and sinewy Baluchis with match-
locks and tinder ready to be ignited, came up threatening,
and, following them, a miscellaneous rabble of excited
men, while, in the background, seethed a mob of
frantic women and mischievous children.
"What is the matter ?" I asked, scarcely knowing
AN EXCITING SCENE. 73
how to begin to calm this turbulent mass of passionate 1874.
beings. Nov. 13.
Matter!" was echoed. "What is the matter?" magmoyo.
was repeated. Matter enough. The town is in an
uproar. Your men are stealing, murdering, robbing
goods from the stores, breaking plates, killing our
chickens, assaulting everybody, drawing knives on our
women after abusing them, and threatening to burn
the town and exterminate everybody. Matter indeed !
matter enough! What do you mean by bringing this
savage rabble from Zanzibar ? So fumed and sputtered
an Arab of some consequence among the magnates of
"Dear me, my friend, this is shocking; terrible.
Pray sit down, and be patient. Sit down here by
me, and let us talk this over like wise men," I
said in soothing tones to this enfant terrible, for he
really looked, in feature, dress, and demeanour, what,
had I been an imaginative raw youth, I should have
set down as the "incarnate scourge of Africa," and he
looked wicked enough with his bare, sinewy arms, his
brandished sword, and fierce black eyes, to chop off my
The Arab, with a short nod, accepted my proposition
and seated himself. We are about to have a Shauri
-a consultation." Hush there! Silence! Words! "
"Shauri! Words-open your ears "Slaves !"
"Fools! "List, Arabs!" "You Baluch there, rein
in your tongue !" &c. &c., cried out a wild mixture
of voices in a strange mixture of tongues, commanding,
or imploring, silence.
The Arab was requested to speak, and to point out,
if he knew them, the Wangwana guilty of provoking
such astonishing disorder. In an indignant and eloquent
strain he rehearsed his special complaint. A man
named Mustapha had come to his shop drunk, and had
74 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. abused him like a low blackguard, and then, snatching up
Bagamoyo. a bolt of cotton cloth, had run away with it, but, being
pursued and caught, had drawn a knife, and was about
to stab him when a friend of his opportunely clubbed
the miscreant and thus saved his life. By the mouths
of several witnesses the complaint was proved, and
Mustapha was therefore arrested, disarmed of his knife,
and locked up in the dark strong-room, to reflect on
his crimes in solitude. Loud approval greeted the
Who else ?"
A score of people of both sexes advanced towards
me with their complaints, and it seemed as though
silence could never be restored, but by dint of threaten-
ing to leave the burzah from sheer despair, quietness
was restored. It is unnecessary to detail the several
charges made against them, or to describe the manner
of conviction, but, after three hours, peace reigned in
Bagamoyo once more, and over twenty of the Wan-
gwana had been secured and impounded in the several
rooms of the house, with a dozen of their comrades
standing guard over them.
To avoid a repetition of this terrible scene, I des-
patched a messenger with a polite request to the
Governor, Sheikh Mansur bin Suliman, that he would
arrest and punish all disorderly Wang ana in my
service, as justice should require, but I am sorry to say
that the Wali (governor) took such advantage of this
request that few of the Wangwana who showed their
faces in the streets next day escaped violence. Acting
on the principle that desperate diseases require des-
perate remedies, over thirty had been chained and
beaten, and many others had escaped abuse of power
only by desperate flight from the myrmidons of the
now vengeful sheikh.
Another message was therefore sent to the Governor,
TIE DISTURBANCE SUPPRESSED. 70
imploring him to be as lenient as possible, consistent 1874.
with equitable justice, and explaining to him the nature Nov.14-1
and cause of these frantic moods and ebullitions of
temper on the part of the Wangwana. I attempted to
define to him what "sprees" were, explaining that all
men, about to undergo a long absence from their friends
and country, thought they were entitled to greater
freedom at such a period, but that some weak-headed
men, with a natural inclination to be vicious, had, in in-
dulging this privilege, encroached upon the privileges
of others, and that hence arose collision and confusion.
But the Governor waxed still more tyrannical: beatings,
chainings, and extortionate exactions became more
frequent and unbearable, until at last the Wangwana
appeared in a body before me, and demanded another
The result of this long consultation-after an earnest
protest from me against their wild conduct, calculated,
as I told them, to seriously compromise me, followed
by expostulation with them on their evil course, and
a warning that I felt more like abetting the Governor
in his treatment of them than seeking its amelioration
-was an injunction to be patient and well-behaved
during our short stay, and a promise that I would lead
them into Africa within two days, when at the first
camp pardon should be extended to all, and a new life
would be begun in mutual peace and concord, to
continue, I hoped, until our return to the sea.
There is an institution at Bagamoyo which ought
not to be passed over without remark, but the subject
cannot be properly dealt with, until I have described
the similar institution, of equal importance, at Zanzibar :
viz. the Universities Mission. Besides, I have three
pupils. of the Universities Mission who are about to
accompany me into Africa-Robert Feruzi, Andrew,
and Dallington. Robert is a stout lad of eighteen
76 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
s174. years old, formerly a servant to one of the members of
Nov.14At. Lieutenant Cameron's Expedition, but discharged at
Unyanyembe for not very clear reasons, to find his
way back. Andrew is a strong youth of nineteen
years, rather reserved, and, I should say, not of a very
bright disposition. Dallington is much younger, pro-
bably only fifteen, with a face strongly pitted with
traces of a violent attack of small-pox, but as bright
and intelligent as any boy of his age, white or black.
The Universities Mission is the result of the sensa-
tion caused in England by Livingstone's discoveries on
the Zambezi and of Lake Nyassa and Shirwa. It was
despatched by the Universities of Oxford and Cam-
bridge in the year 1860, and consisted of Bishop
Mackenzie, formerly Archdeacon of Natal, and the
Rev. Messrs. Proctor, Scudamore, Burrup, and Rowley.
These devoted gentlemen reached the Zambezi river
in February 1861.
When the Universities Mission met Livingstone,
then engaged in the practical work of developing
the discovery of the Zambezi and other neighboring
waters, a consultation was held as to the best locality
for mission work to begin at. The Bishop and his
followers were advised by Livingstone to ascend the
Rovuma river, and march thence overland to some
selected spot on Lake Nyassa. But, upon attempting
the project, the river was discovered to be falling, and
too shallow to admit of such a steamer as the Pioneer,
and as much sickness had broken out on board, the
Mission sailed to the Comoro Islands to recruit. In
July 1861 they reached the foot of the Murchison
Cataracts on the Shire. Soon after, while proceeding
overland, they encountered a caravan of slaves, whom
they liberated, with a zeal that was commendable
though impolitic. Subsequently, other slaves were
forcibly detained from the caravans until the number
TEE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 77
collected amounted to 148, and with these the mis- 1874.
sionaries determined to begin their holy work. Nov.14-o6.
While establishing its quarters at Magomero, the
Mission was attacked by the Ajawas, but the reverend
gentlemen and their pupils drove off the enemy.
Shortly after this, a difference of opinion arising with
Livingstone as to the proper policy to be pursued, the
latter departed to pursue his explorations, and the
Bishop and his party continued to prosecute their work
with every promise of success. But in its zeal for
the suppression of the slave-trade, the Mission made
alliance with the Manganjas, and joined with them in
a war against. the Ajawas, whom they afterwards dis-
covered to be really a peaceable people. Thus was the
character of the Mission almost changed, by the com-
plicated politics of the native tribes in which they had
meddled without forethought of the consequences.
Then came the rainy season with its unhealthiness
and fatal results. Worn out with fever and privations,
poor Bishop Mackenzie died, and in less than a month
the Rev. Mr. Burrup followed him. Messrs. Scuda-
more, Dickinson, and Rowley removed the Mission to
the banks of the Shire, where the two former died and
the few remaining survivors, despairing of success,
soon left the country, and the Universities Mission to
Central Africa became only a name with which the
succeeding Bishop, the Rev. Mr. Tozer, continued to
denominate his Mission at Zanzibar.
Nor is the record of this hitherto unfortunate and
struggling Mission in the city of Zanzibar, with access
to luxuries and comforts, brighter or more assuring
than it was at primitive Magomero, surrounded by
leagues of fen and morass. Many noble souls of
both sexes perished, and the good work seemed
far from hopeful. I am reminded, as I write these
words, of my personal acquaintance with the venerable
7t THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. figure of Pennell, and the young and ardent West.
No-.14-t. The latter was alive in 1874, full of ardour, hope, and
agamoyo. zealous devotion. When I returned, he had gone the
way of his brother martyrs of the Zambezi.*
Almost single-handed remains the Rev. Edward
Steere, faithful to his post as Bishop and Chief Pastor.
He has visited Lake Nyassa, and established a Mission
halfway, and another I believe at Lindi; he keeps
a watchful eye upon the operations of the Mission
House established among the Shambalas; and at the
head-quarters or home at Mbwenni, a few miles east
of Shangani Point, the old residence, he superintends,
and instructs lads and young men as printers, car-
penters, blacksmiths, and in the practical knowledge
of other useful trades. His quarters represent almost
every industrial trade useful in life as occupations
for members of the lower classes, and are in the truest
sense an industrial and religious establishment for the
moral and material welfare of a class of unfortunates
who deserve our utmost assistance and sympathy. This
extraordinary man, endowed with piety as fervid as
ever animated a martyr, looms grander and greater in
the imagination as we think of him as the one man
who appears to have possessed the faculties and gifts
necessary to lift this Mission, with its gloomy history,
into the new life upon which it has now entered.
With all my soul I wish him and it success, and while
he lives, provided he is supported, there need be no
fear that the Mission will resume that hopeless position
from which he, and he alone, appears to have rescued it.
From the same source that the Universities Missions
have drawn their pupils, namely, the youthful victims
of the slave-trade, her Majesty's Consul has supplied to
a great extent the French Catholic Missions at Zanzibar
and Bagamoyo. The mission in the island which has
See illustration on page 68.
NOTE DAME DE BAGAMOYO. 79
now been established for years is called the St. Joseph's, 1874.
that at Bagamoyo bears the title of Notre Dame de Nov.14-16.
Bagamoyo." The first possesses two priests and four Lagamoyo.
brothers, with one lay professor of music; the other,
which is the principal one, consists of four priests, eight
brothers, and twelve sisters, with ten lay brothers
employed in teaching agriculture. The French fathers
superintend the tuition of 250 children, and give em-
ployment to about 80 adults; 170 freed slaves were
furnished from the slave captures made by British
cruisers. They are taught to earn their own living
as soon as they arrive of age, are furnished with com-
fortable lodgings, clothing, and household utensils.
"Notre Dame de Bagamoyo" is situated about a
mile and a half north of Bagamoyo, overlooking the
sea, which washes the shores just at the base of the
tolerably high ground on which the mission buildings
stand. Thrift, order, and that peculiar style of neat-
ness common to the French are its characteristics. The
cocoa-nut palm, orange, and mango flourish in this
pious settlement, while a variety of garden vegetables
and grain are cultivated in the fields; and broad roads,
cleanly kept, traverse the estate. During the Superior's
late visit to France he obtained a considerable sum for
the support of the Mission, and lie has lately, during
my absence in Africa, established a branch mission at
Kidudwe. It is evident that, if supported constantly
by his friends in France, the Superior will extend his
work still farther into the interior, and it is, therefore,
safe to predict that the road to Ujiji will in time possess
a chain of mission stations affording the future Euro-
pean trader and traveller safe retreats with the con-
veniences of civilized life.
There are two other missions on the east coast of
Africa, that of the Church Missionary Society, and the
Methodist Free Church at Mombasa. The former has
80 THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT.
1874. occupied this station for over thirty years, and has a
Nor.14-16. branch establishment at Rabbai Mpia, the home of the
Bagamoyo. Dutch missionaries Krapf, Rebmann, and Erhardt.
But these missions have not obtained the success which
such long self-abnegation and devotion to the pious
It is strange how British philanthropists, clerical and
lay, persist in the delusion that the Africans can be
satisfied with spiritual improvement only. They
should endeavour to impress themselves with the
undeniable fact that man, white, yellow, red or black,
has also material wants which crave to be understood
and supplied. A barbarous man is a pure materialist.
He is full of cravings for possessing something that he
cannot describe. He is like a child which has not yet
acquired the faculty of articulation. The missionary
discovers the barbarian almost stupefied with brutish
ignorance, with the instincts of a man in him, but yet
living the life of a beast. Instead of attempting to
develop the qualities of this practical human being, he
instantly attempts his transformation by expounding to
him the dogmas of the Christian Faith, the doctrine of
transubstantiation and other difficult subjects, before
the barbarian has had time to articulate his necessities
and to explain to him that he is a frail creature requiring
to be fed with bread, and not with a stone.
My experience and study of the pagan prove to me,
however, that, if the missionary can show the poor
materialist that religion is allied with substantial benefits
and improvement of his degraded condition, the task to
which he is about to devote himself will be rendered
comparatively easy. For the African once brought
in contact with the European becomes docile enough:
he is awed by a consciousness of his own immense
inferiority, and imbued with a vague hope that he
may also rise in time to the level of this superior being