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 The forests of the United States...
 General index














Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023668/00003
 Material Information
Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Alternate Title: Forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Report on forest trees of North America
Physical Description: ix, 612 p., 39 leaves of plates : maps (some folded) ; 30 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: Sargent, Charles Sprague, 1841-1927
United States -- Census Office
Publisher: G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1884
Copyright Date: 1884
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- United States   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Trees -- United States   ( lcsh )
Trees -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Census, 10th, 1880 -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles S. Sargent.
General Note: At head of title: Department of the Interior, Census Office.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023668
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - ANQ6646
oclc - 41571369
alephbibnum - 002778531

Table of Contents
    The forests of the United States in their economic aspects
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    General index
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Full Text

















PART III.


THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES
IN THEIR


ECONOMIC


ASPECTS.


k I \


_I














THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES IN, THEIR ECONOMIC ASPECTS.


GENERAL REMARKS.

The maps of relative average forest density joined to this report are intended to illustrate the present productive
capacity of the forest covering of the country (map No. 16, portfolio). They are based, except in the case of the
extreme western states and territories, upon the returns of enumerators. In states originally wooded all land not
accounted for in the returns as cleared or treeless, or otherwise known to be destitute of tree covering, is treated
as forest. The county is taken as the unit, and is seldom divided, unless varied topography or different natural
features in different parts makes further subdivision desirable. In the western states and territories, where
topography determines forest distribution, county lines are disregarded, and the estimates are based upon special
reports of census experts, or upon the published reports of the various government surveys, maps, etc. The
condition and productive capacity of the forest covering have been carefully investigated at many points in each
county or unit region, and the area covered with forest, obtained in the manner described above, is multiplied by
the average stand of timber or other useful wood. The results thus obtained are necessarily greatly generalized to
conform to the scale of the maps used.
The following statement represents the value of the forest crop of the United States for the census year, so far
as it has been possible to obtain it:
Saw logs ............................. $139,836, 869 Charcoal used as fuel- Wood used in the manufacture of-
Wood used for domestic purposes as fuel In manufacture of iron............ $4,726,114 Handles......................... $897,170
(estimated) ...................... 306,950,040 In manufacture of precious metals.. 29, 306 Wheel stock .....................- 1,360,892
Wood used by railroads as fuel ........ 5,126,714 In the twenty largest cities .....-- 521,316 Wood pulp ....................... 1,974, 074
Wood used by steamboats as fuel...... 1,812,083 Naval stores .......--........--.----- 5,000,000 Baskets ........... ............... 314, 125
Wood used as fuel- Southern moss ........................ 500, 000 Excelsior................. ......... 150, 800
In the manufacture of brick and tile 3,978,331 Railroad ties (29,554,694) ............... 9,806,247 Oars .............................. 81, 000
In the manufacture of wool........ 425, 239 Fence posts (for fencing railroads).... 180, 000 Shoe pegs......................... 72,000
In the manufacture of salt ......... 121, 681 Uncultivated vegetable substances used Hand-made shingles ............... 47, 952
In the production of precious metals 2, 874, 593 in the manufacture of medicines ..... 587, 000
In other mining operations ........ 673, 692 Uncultivated nuts ..................... 78, 540 Total............ .... ..... 490,073,094
Hoop-poles. .................. ...... 1,947,316
These returns are incomplete and often unsatisfactory. Many important items are omitted entirely. It was
found impossible to obtain statistics of the amount and value of the wood (posts, split rails, etc.) used in fencing,
with the exception of posts used by railroads. The amount of material thus consumed annually must be very large,
probably exceeding $100,000,000 in value. No returns of the amount and value of the bark of different trees used in
tanning leather have been received, and there are no statistics of the amount and value of the unsawed timber
produced-spars, piles, telegraph and other poles, hewed timber, hard wood exported in the log, ships' knees, etc.-
that is, all timber not manufactured in saw-mills into lumber. The value of the timber of this sort cut in the United
States every year must be very large. The returns include the railway ties laid down by completed roads, and do not
embrace those used in the construction of some 10,000 miles of new road built during the census year. It was
found impossible to obtain even an estimate of the amount and value of the cooperage stock produced outside of
regular saw-mills, and the returns of hand-made shingles only include those made from cypress at a few points
in the south Atlantic region. Maple sugar to the amount of 36,576,061 pounds and 1,796,048 gallons of molasses
were produced in the forests of the United States during the year 1879. No statistics of the value of these products
have, however, been received. Statistics of the value of material consumed in the manufacture of excelsior, wood
pulp, wheel stock, handles, shoe pegs, baskets, oars, and hoop-poles are incomplete, and do not fully represent the
value of the wood used. The statistics of the value of wild nuts and wild vegetable substances collected are
very incomplete, and it has been found impossible to separate the value of the imported from that of the native
wood used in the manufacture of veneers, an industry consuming a large amount of high-priced hard wood. Could
complete returns of the forest crop of the census year have been obtained it is not improbable that it would be
found to exceed $700,000,000 in value.
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY.
The following table represents the volume, by states and territories, of the lumber industry of the United States
for the census year, as derived from the returns of the enumerators on the schedule of manufactures, and from the
reports of special agents for manufactures in cities having at the time of the Ninth Census 8,000 or more inhabitants.
obo distinction between the different kinds of wood sawed was attempted in the enumeration:
485

(







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


STATISTICS OF THE LUMBERING INDUSTRY OF THE


States and Territories.







Tho United States ............---..

Alabama ..............................
Alaska.............. ........... .----
Arizona ................................
Arkansas .............................
California ..........................

Colorado ............................--
Connecticut............... ..........
Dakota....-............... ----...-.....
Delaware.........................---.---..--
Distriot of Columbia..................

Florida .....-............ ...........-----
Georgia .................................

Illinois ................. .............
Illinois ................. .............
Indiana ..........................- ....

Indian territory .....................
Iowa .................. .. ........... ..-
Kansas.................------...............
Kentucky ...............................
Louisiana ..............................

Maine..................--............--
Maryland ............. .............
Massachusetts .......................
Michigan................................
Minnesota ..............................

Mississippi............................
Missouri ...............................
Montana .............................
Nebraska .............................
Nevada..--.............---..--...........

New Hampshire ........................
New Jersey ........... ..........
New Mexico ............... ...........
New York..............................
North Carolina ........................

Ohio...........---......................
Oregon .................................
Pennsylvania ........................
Rihode Island..........................
South Carolina .........................

Tennessee...........................
Texas .................................
Utah ...................................
Vermont ................................
Virginia..................................

Washington............... ..........
West Virginia............................
Wisconsin..............................-
Wyoming .............................


i
a.



a0
:1

.1
a
0


25, 708


AVERAGE NUMBER OF hANDS EMPLOYED.



Capital. Males Females Children
time in above above and youth.
the year. 16 years. 15 years.



Dollars.
181, 186, 122 ........... 141, 564 425 5, 967


354 1,545, 655

13 102,450
319 1,067,840
251 6,454,718

96 481,200
300 657, 300
39 113,750
86 259,250
1 25,000

135 2,219, 550
655 3,101,452
48 192, 460
640 3,295,483
2, 022 7,048,088



328 4,946,390
146 262,975
670 2, 290, 558
175 903,950

848 6, 339, 396
369 1,237,694
606 2, 480, 340
1, 649 39, 260, 428
234 6,771,145

295 922,595
881 2, 867, 970
36 208,200
38 93, 375
9 132,000

680 3,745,790
284 1,657,395
26 74,675
2, 822 13, 230, 934
776 1,743,217

2,352 7,944,412
228 1, 577, 875
2, 827 21, 418, 588
49 144,250
420 1, 056, 265

755 2, 004, 503
324 1,660,952
107 272,750
688 3, 274,250
907 2,122,925

37 2, 456, 450
472 1, 668, 920
704 19, 824, 059
7 26,700


2,798

126
2, 985
4,945

1, 605
1,262
451
646
35

3, 240
4, 971
311
5,799
16,252 1



4, 155
831
5,140
1,514

9, 836
1, 769
3,130
30,886
3, 772

2,113
6, 678
S374
295
66


4, 765
1,066
282
17, 509
5, 334

15,277
1, 185
21, 160
260
2, 338

5, 587
4,579
845
4, 501
5, 812

891
3, 765
14, 079
68


1, 611 ............


77
1, 690
3, 423

870
699
286
378
26

1, 945
3, 298
169
3, 652
9, 926



2, 526
507
2, 506
943

6, 480
1,216
1,940
22,732
2, 732


3, 056
760
172
11,056
2,938

8,769
566
14, 443
139
1,431

3, 577
3,136
375
2, 411
3, 922

495
2, 057
7,748
38


------ ------
............

1







143
22


8






1








250


36
------------
2
54
11

7
8
4
13



85
94
4
199
413



463
9
94
33

183
23
30
1,360
100

47
95


48
8

389
91

548
13
463
13
37

141
40
10
100
89

4
126
467


424,156

33,375
237, 394
1, 095, 736

112, 931
178, 336
54,974
40, 694
6,000

562, 249
554, 085
33, 367
787, 867
1, 571, 740



825,244
66,757
671, 939
200,063

1, 161, 142
223,786
431, 612
6, 967, 905
924,473

197, 867
669,644
47,945
29, 313
9, 892

548, 556
179, 693
24,240
2, 162, 972
447,431

1,708, 300
242,154
2, 918, 459
33,143
221,963

549, 222
732, 914
65, 175
426, 953
540, 231

200, 539
459, 945
2, 257, 218
6, 380


486


11


MATERIALS.


LABOR.



Wages paid
during
the year.



Dollars.
31,845, 074


Value of logs.




Dollars.
139, 836, 869


Value of
mill
supplies.



Dollars.
6, 318, 516


1, 517, 986

126,486
1,009, 954
2, 055, 635

654, 500
609, 024
269, 235
229, 763
32,000

1,763,617
3,049,435
213,691
2, 959, 537
9, 290, 428



4,023,661
421,738
2, 238, 88
1,106, 280

4, 754, 613
1, 041, 836
1, 827, 497
30, 819,003
4,408,468

1, 190, 902
3,113, 049
257,320
153, 823
151, 70

2,159, 461
942,752
100, 145
8, 628, 874
1,490, 616

8,603,127
1,294,703
13, 378, 589
116, 085
1,170,088

2, 006, 124
1, 009, 794
216,619
1,939,775
1, 864, 288


1,174 005 14, 070
1, 307, 843 67, 529
12, 219,097 262,376
24,725 2,625


I II I


~1~ /i~CI_~I___/ 1 11____1_____


_/1


90, 649

5, 300
60, 441
186, 868

45, 794
32, 545
12, 640
13,612
2,000

103, 596
147, 720
16, 875
185, 368
336,669



118, 224
25,711
171,855
80,779

197, 344
64,959
76, 608
1, 432, 369
120, 587

28, 214
102, 243
20,778
11,055
11,020

113,530
47, 227
16, 910
490, 380
86, 523

292, 979
36, 639
576, 841
4,803
67, 273

130,761
186, 981
21,655
82, 093
110, 489









487


THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


UNITED STATES FOR THE YEAR ENDING MAY 31, 1880.


PRODUCTS. s


Rank
Spool and Value of all Total value of all according
Lumber (boa Laths. Shingles. Staves. Sets of headings. bobbin stock ote r s.l of all auue
measure). (board measure). products of
products.



Feet. Number. Number. Number. Number. Feet. Dollars. Dollars.
18, 091, 350, 000 1, 761, 788, 000 5, 555, 046, 000 1, 248, 226, 000 146, 523, 000 34,076, 000 2,682,668 233,268,729 ...........


13, 585, 000 .................
21, 545, 000 .................


251,851, 000


10,715,000
172, 503, 000
304, 795, 000


63, 792, 000
64,427, 000
29, 286, 000
31, 572, 000
4,000,000


a 247, 627, 000
451, 788, 000
18, 204, 000
b 334, 244, 000
915, 943, 000



c 412, 578, 000
45, 281, 000
305, 684, 000
133,472,000


566, 656, 000
123, 356, 000
d 205, 244, 000
4, 172, 572, 000
563, 974, 000


168, 747, 000
e 399, 744, 000
21, 420, 000


2,357, 000


300,000
1, 640, 000
2, 063, 000


437,000

.............--- --

350, 000
1,203, 000


. 270,00... 12, 000 3.,000
270,000 12,000 33,000


4,510, 000
-- ------ -


791,000
2, 014, 000


550, 000


. ...............- - 1,010


3,000


700
12, 930
500


................. 2,000


110,000 ..................
964,000 4,000


.................- -- ------------------ . . .
24,443,000 1, 385, 000 30,000
283, 071,000 26, 389, 000 1,957,000


5,335,000


650, 000


14,147, 000


150,000
6, 527, 000
2, 420, 000


4,925,000
1, 719, 000
564,000
317,000
1, 000, 000


20,101, 000
17, 438, 000
750,000
b 25, 977. 000
28, 031, 000



c 79, 924, 000
25, 000
26, 856, 000
7, 745, 000


184, 820, 000
7,955, 000
d 16, 947, 000
461,805, 000
88,088, 000


7, 908, 000
e 20, 839, 000
2, 620, 000


5,427,000


1,760,000
61,758,000
188, 718, 000


27,214,000
7,192,000
4, 823, 000
506,000



3, 061, 000
25, 32, 000
4,235, 000
b 15, 306, 000
26, 634, 000



c 128,100, 000
835, 000
25, 253, 000
30, 195, 000


426, 530, 000
4,429, 000
d 19, 667, 000
2, 584, 717, 000
194, 566, 000


5, 355, 000
e8, 832, 000
9, 627, 000
-- - ---------
485, 000


67,086,000
10,717,000
722,000
305, 711, 000
8, 707, 000


24, 876, 000
5, 040, 000
288, 561, 000
1, 986, 000
10, 036, 000


14, 205, 000
112, 523, 000
9,293,000
55, 711, 000
8, 223, 000


3, 10,000
3, 695, 000
862, 922, 000
805, 000


31, 354, 000
40, 000
20,000
62, 654, 00
45, 000


214,245,000


80,062,000
365, 000
385,000


4, 342, 000



13, 219, 000
14, 333, 000


23,666,000
41, 992, 000
,86, 545, 000


3, 312, 000
.......-..........
1, 880, 000
21, 897, 000
547, 000



3, 363, 000


3, 491, 000
155, 000


150,000
383,000



13, 426, 000
-.-.-..-...........
572, 000
6, 038, 000
- --- --- --..-----


3, 072, 000
883, 000


13, 999
3,975
60,200
16, 807
145,750


..................
38, 343
3,400
75, 655
15, 470


182, 618
149, 894
44, 395
531,406
21,100


5, 349
7, 097
1, 900
1, 100



58, 612
40,385


22, 136, 000 1, 003, 000 285, 263
571, 000 1, 25, 000 7, 195


25,779, 000


25, 000


..... ... .---...- .. .. -. .......- .-
10, 401, 000 326, 000
.................. 3, 700,000
93, 000 ..................


570, 000 6, 000
140,000 ...... ............


1,572,000 415,000
929, 000 800, 000


106, 788
10, 500
393,044
174
41,700


72, 998
10, 350
1,765
2, 575
30, 355


. . . .... ... .. ..... ....--- .- .... .. .. .... .... .-.
1, 952, 000 ..................40, 195
7, 498, 000 ................ 152,171
I ...--- .-- *---------i .--
. .. .. .. ... ...... .............. .. .. .... . ...... .


2,649,634


215,918
1, 793, 848
4, 428, 950

1, 051, 295
1,076,455
435, 792
411, 060
50, 000


3,060,291
4, 875, 310
349,635
5, 063, 037
14,260,830


.................... .
6,185, 628
682, 697
4, 064, 361
1, 764, 640


7, 933, 868
1,813, 332
3, 120, 184
52,449, 928
7, 366, 038


1, 920, 335
5, 265, 617
527,695
265,062
243, 200


3, 842, 012
1, 627, 640
173,930
14, 356, 910
2, 672, 796


13, 864, 460
2, 030, 463
22, 457,359
240,579
2, 01, 507


3, 744, 905
3, 673, 449
375,164
3, 258, 816
3, 434, 16


1,734,742
2,431,857
17, 952, 347
40, 990


44
29
13


34
33
37
38
46


5 15

........... 16
9 17
35 18
14 19
30 20


7 21
28 22
20 23
1 24
8 25


15 31
32 32
45 33
4 34
22 35


6 36
26 37
2 38
43 39
25 40


16 41
17 42
39 43
19 44
18 45


31 46
24 47
3 4S
47 49


a Including 77,500,000 feet manuf;-ctured from logs cut in Alabama.
b Including 73,700,000 feet lumber, 15,041,000 laths, and 11,226,000 shlingles, manufactured from logs cut in Wisconsin.
c Including 334,199,000 feet lumber, 78,728,000 Ilahs, and 127,591,000 shingles, manufactured from logs cut in Wisconsin.
d Including 26,000,000 feet lumber, 11,982.000 laths, and 800,000 shingles, mannfactnred from logs cut in Ne-w Hampshire and Vermont.
e Including 27,000,000 feet lumber, 12,400,000 laths, and 5,300,000 shingles, manufactured from logs cut in Wisconsin.


............. ----------------....
23,148, 000 8,174, 000
220, 000 33, 000


62, 376, 000
16,227,000
21, 062, 000
199, 821, 000
7, 825, 000


60,000
21, 426, 000


292, 267, 00
109, 679, 000
11,195,000
1, 184, 220, 000
241, 822, 000


910, 832, 000
177, 171, 000
1, 733, 844, 000
8, 469, 000
185,'772, 000


302, 673, 000
328, 968, 000
25, 709,000
322, 942, 000
315, 939, 000


160,176, 000
180,112, 000
1,542, 021, 000
2, 60, 000


49, 454, 000
8, 948, 000
107,000
79, 399, 000
13, 340, 000


50, 625, 000
18, 245, 000
183, 740, 000
10, 000
23, 133, 000


21, 275, 000
14, 131, 000
1,583, 000
19, 745, 000
14, 40N., 000


6, 550, 000
12, 071,000
215, 132, 000
300, 000










THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.



In the following table the average importance of the saw-mills located in the different states and territories is
Vn:

AVERAGE SIZE AND PRODUCT OF SAW-MILLS IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES.


States and Territories. a

'a

1 ,3
0


The United States.. 25, 708 7,48


Alabama................ 354
Alaska ................. ....
Arizona .............. 13
Arkansas ............... 319
California............... 251

Colorado................ 96
Connecticut ............ 300
Dakota ................. 39
Delaware ................ 86
District of Columbia ... 1

Florida ................. 135
Georgia.................I 655
Idaho...................! 48
Illinois ................. 640
Indiana...............i 2,022

Indian territory ........ .......
Iowa .................... 328
Kansas ................. i 146
Kentucky .............. 670
Louisiana ............... 175

Maine .................. 848
Marylandl............... 369
Massachusetts ......... I 606
Michigan.............. 1, 649
Minnesota .............. 234

Mississippi............. 295
Missouri................. 881
Montana................ :36
Nebraska............... 38
Nevada ................. 9

Now Hampshire ........ 680
New Jersey ............. 284
New Mexico............ .26
New York ............. 2, 822
North Carolina......... 776

Ohio..................... 2,352
Oregon .................. 228
Pennsylvania..........1 2, 27
Rhode Island........... 49
South Carolina.......... 420

Tennessee .............. 755
Texas ................. 324
Utah ................... 107
Vermont................ 688
Virginia............... 907

Washington ............ .37
West Virginia.......... 472
Wisconsin.............. 704
Wyoming............... 7


D ls.

Dolls.


4,366

7, 880
3, 347
25,716

5,013
2,119
2,917
3,015
25, 000

16,441
4,735
4,009
5,149
3,485



15,080
1,801
3, 418
5,165


NUMBER OF
HANDS
EMPLOYED.


(D





a





8.8

7.9


9.7 6.0
9.0 5.5
19.7 13. 7

16.6 9.0
4.0 2.0
11.6 7.5
7.5 4.5
35.0 25.0

24. 0 15. 0
7.5 5.0
6.5 3.6
9.0 6.0
8.0 5.0



12.6 9.0
5.7 3.5
7.7 3.8
8.6 5.6


5.8


MATERIALS AND LABOR.


value lu
logf f mill
logs. puip-.
lg.plies.


Wages
paid
during
the
year.


PRODUCTS.


Lumber
(board
measure).


Dolls. Dolls. Dolls. Feet.
5,43 24 1,235 703, 000


4. 6 4, 288 256 1,198 712, 000


9,729
3,166
8,190

6,808
2,030
6,903
2,672
32, 000

13,064
4,655
4,452
4, 624
4,600



12,267
2,888
3,341
6,321


408
190
744

476
108
324
158
2, 000

768
225
352
290
166



360
176
256
462


2,567
744
4,365

1,176
594
1,410
473
6, 000

4, 165
845
700
1,230
777



2,513
457
1, 003
1,143


824,000
541,000
1, 214, 000

664,000
215,000
751,000
367,000
4, 000, 000

1,834, 000
690,000
380,000
522,000
453,000



1, 258, 000
310, 000
456,000
762,000


Laths. Shingles.





No. No.
68,000 216,000


40, 000

11,000
20, 000
10,000

51, 000
6,000
15, 000
4,000
1, 000, 000

150,000
27, 000
16,000
40, 000
14,000



244,000
40, 000
40, 000
44,000


15,000

136,000
194,000
553,000

283,000
24,000
124,000
6, 000



23,000
39,000
88,000
24,000
13, 000



390,000
6,000
37, 000
170,000


Staves.


No.
48,000


Sets of Spool Value
head and of other
Sd-bobbin prod-
ngs. stock. nuts.


No.
5,700


6, 000 1,000

23, 000 .......
5,000 1,000
8, 000 5, 000



1,000 .......

52, 000 6, 000


Feet.
1,300


6,000 1,000 .......
3, 0 1,00 ........
.-.. ...... ..... -- --.. . .

140,000 13,000 .......



16,000 2,000 .....
.. ... ....... ........
34,000 12,000 .......
1, 000 ....... .......


7,475 11. 6 7.8 5, 607 I 282 1,369 668, 000 218, 000 503, 000 73, 000 4,000 ........ 215 9, 356
3,354 4.8 3.0 2,823 176 606 334,000 21, 000 12,000 44,000 ......... ....... 406 4,914
4,093 5.0 3.0 3, 015 126 712 338, 000 28, 000 32, 000 35, 000 3,000 ........ 73 5,149
23, 808 18.7 14.7 18, 700 868 4,225 2,530,000 280,000 1,568, 000 121,000 13,000 ........ 322 31,807
28,936 16. 0 12.0 18,839 515 3,950 2,410, 000 376, 000 831, 000 33,000 2, 000 ..... 0 31,478

3,127 7.0 4.0 4,037 95 671 572,000 27, 000 18,000 .......... ........... 18 6,500
3,255 7.6 4.0 3,534 116 760 453, 000 23, 000 10, 000 24,000 4,000 ..... 8 6, 000
5,783 11.0 4.0 7,148 577 1, 332 595, 000 73, 000 067, 000 ............... -.. ....- 53 14, 058
2, 457 8.0 3.7 4,048 200 771 357,000 .......... ....... .......... ................ 29 6,975
14,666 7.0 4.0 16,865 1,224 1,099 2,394,000 ............ 54,000 ............... .....- ....... 27,022

5,508 7.0 4.5 3,175 167 806 429,000 73,000 98,000 46,000 5,000 ........ 86 5,650
5, 836 3.7 2.7 3,319 166 633 386,000 31,000 38,000 ......................... 142 5,731
2,870 10.8 6.7 3,851 650 932 430,000 4,000 27,000 ..........................-.... 6,690
4, 88 6.0 4.0 3,057 173 766 419,000 28,000 108,000 22,000 8,000 ........ 101 5,087
2,246 7.0 4.0 1,921 111 576 311,000 17,000 11,000 ................ ........ 9 3,445

3,378 6.5 4.0 3, 658 124 726 387,000 21,000 10, 000 91, 000 11, 000 ......j 83 5,895
6,920 5.0 2. 5 5,678 160 1,062 777,000 80,000 2,000 ......... .............- 46 8,905
7,576 7.5 5.0 4,732 204 1,032 613, 000 65, 000 102, 000 28, 000 3,000 ...... 139 7,944
2,944 5.0 3.0 2,369 08 676 172,000 ............ 40,000 7,000 .-............... 3 4,909
2,515 5.5 3.5 2,785 160 528 442,000 55,000 24,000 ....................... 99 4,837

2,655 7.0 5.0 2,657 181 727 400,000 28, 000 18, 000 5, 000 1 .... ..... 96 4,960
5,126 14.0 9.8 5,894 577 2,262 1,015,000 43,000 347, 000 .......... 32 11,338
2,549 7.0 3. 5 2,024 202 609 240, 000 14,000 87,000 ............ .... 16 3,506
4,759 6.5 3.6 6 2,819 119 620 469, 000 28,000 80, 000 19,000 2,000 ... 3 4,736
2,340 1 6.0 4.0 2,055 131 595 348,000 16, 000 9,000 15,000 1,000 ..33 3,786


66,390 24 13.5 31,730 380 5,420 4, 329,000 177, 000 97,000 39, 000 ............... .......... 46,885
3, 535 8.0 4. O 2,770 143 974 381, 000 25,000 8,000 89,000 4,000 ........ 85 5, '52
28.159 i 20.0 12.0 17,356 358 3,206 2, 190,000 305,000 1,226,000 117, 000 10,000 ........ 216 25, 50O
3,814 9.7 5.5 3,532 375 911 423,000 43, 000 123, 00 .............................. 5,855


488




sho'


Total
value of
all
prod-
ucts.




Dolls.
9,078


....... .......- 7,485


16, 609
5,623
17,645

10,951
350
11,174
4,780
50, 000

22;668
7,443
9,346
7, 011
7,052



19,000
4,700
6,066
10,083


Dolls.
104


77

12

7
43
13

2, 000

104
6
1,254
26
72



S117
23
113
88


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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


489


Michigan is the greatest lumber-producing.state in the Union. The value of its lumber product, with that of
Wisconsin and Minnesota, exceeds one-third of the total value of all the lumber manufactured in the United States.
This enormous development of the lumber business in the lake region is due to the excellence of its forests, the
natural advantages of the country for manufacturing lumber, and the easy communication between these forests and
the treeless agricultural region west of the Mississippi river.
The extinction of the forests of the lake region may be expected to seriously affect the growth of population
in the central portion of the continent. The country between the Mississippi river and the Rocky mountains, now
largely supplied with lumber from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, must for building material soon depend
upon the more remote pine forests of the Gulf region or those of the Pacific coast. A great development in the
now comparatively unimportant lumber-manufacturing interests in these regions may therefore be expected. New
centers of distribution must soon supplant Chicago as a lumber market, and new transportation routes take the
place of those built to move the pine grown upon the shores of the great lakes. It is not probable, however,
that any one point will ever attain the importance now possessed by Chicago as a center for lumber distribution.
With the growth of the railroad system and the absence of good water communication from the great forests
remaining in the country toward the center of the continent, lumber will be more generally shipped direct by rail
from the mills to the consumer than in the past. In this way the pine of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas will
reach Kansas, Nebraska, and the whole country now tributary to Chicago. Western Texas and northern Mexico
will be supplied by rail with the pine of eastern Texas, and the prairies of Minnesota and Dakota must draw their
lumber by rail, not as at present from the pine forests covering the shores of lake Superior, but from the fir and
redwood forests of the Pacific coast.
FUEL.

The following table represents the consumption of forest products as fuel during the census year. The
estimates of the amount and value of the wood used for domestic fuel are based upon answers to letters of inquiry
addressed to persons living in every town in the United States. The average amount and value of the wood used
by a family of five persons, taken as a unit, is multiplied by the number of families in each state using wood for
fuel, and the result thus obtained is taken as the total state consumption:

WOOD USED AS FUEL FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES.


Use.

Fordomestic purposes as below ......................
By railroads....................... ................
By steamboats ...................................
In mining and amalgamating the precious metals ...
In other mailing operations.........................


Cords.

140, 537, 439
1, 971, 813
787, 862
358, 074
266, 771


Value.

$306, 950, 040
5,126,714
1,812,083
2, 874, 593
673,692


Use.

In the manufacture of brick and tile..............
In the manufacture of salt ........................
In the manufacture of wool .........................
Total-----..-------... -----------------.----


ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF WOOD FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.
Number of persons using wood for domestic fuel. 32,375,074.


States and Territories. Cords.


Value.


Alabama................ 6, 076,754 1 $8,727,377
Alaska .............................. ..
Arizona ................ 170,017 724572
170, 017 724, 572


Arkansas...-...-..........
I 'alifornia.--.............
Colorlado .......- ......
Connecticut ............
Dakota ..................
Delaware ................
"Disticit of Columbia.....
Flor; a ---..... ..........
G Idal ............ .. .....
Illiuoiis .................
ludi:in ...........--....


3, 922, 400
1,748,062
426,719
525, 639
422, 948
177, 306
26, 902
609,046
5, 910, 045


5, 095, 021
7, 693, 731
1, 638,783
2, 371, 532
3, 028, 300
751, 311
80, 706
1,230,412
8, 279, 245


99,910 383, 686
5,200,104 14,136, 662
7,059,874 13,334,729


Indi:i territoy ..... ... ... ...... ...............
IJ wa..................... 4,090, 649 14, 611,280


States and Territories.

Kansas. ............
Kentucky ............-
Louisiana......-.........
Maine (a) ...........
Mlaryland......---....
Massachnsetts (a) ......
Michigan ..---- ...---
Minnesota ........--..-
Mississippi ...........
Missothri..............
Montana..............
Nebraska .............
Nevada -...-. ..- ...
New Hampshire........
New Jersey.............
!New Mexco ............
New York ..........


Cords.

2, 095, 439
7, 994,813
1, 944, 858
1,215, 881
1,152,919
890, 041
7, 838, 904
1, 669, 568
5, 090, 758
4, 016, 373
119, 947
908, 188
155, 276
567, 719
642, 598
169, 946
11, 290,975


Value. States and Territories.

$7,328,723 N'orth Carolina..........
13,313,220 Ohio......................
4,607,415 Oregon ..................
4 A- i 6 Pennsylvania.............
., '1-,,' Rhode Island..............
4, 61,263 South Carolina.. .........
13,197,240 Tennessee ................
5,873,421 Texas ....................
7,145, 116 Utah ....................
8,633,465 Vermont..................
460,638 Virginia ................
3, 859, 843 Washington ..............
972,712 West Virginia............
1, 964, 669 Wisconsin ...............
2, 787,216 Wyoming..................
1,063, 60 Total ...............
37, 599, 364


Cords. Value.

7,434,690 $9, 019,569
8,191,543 16,492,574
482,254 1,254,511
7,361,992 15, 067, 651
154,953 706,011
3, 670,959 11,505, 997
8,084,611 I 10,674,722
4.883,852 10,177,311
171,923 418,289
782, 338 2,509,189
5,416,112 10,404,134
184, 226 499,904
2,241,069 3,374,701
7, 206, 126 11,863,739
40,213 224,848
140,537, 439 306, 950, 040


a Including a snimall amount imported from Canada.

CONSUMPTION OF CHARCOAL.


l)Dinestic anIld iaDiu:1111 tul in g ]I1urpoes.C

In the twenty l;rgt cities .............................
In the alnufacitur ie ofl iron ..-...............- .........
In tlie production of precious meta ls ..... .......... ......


Enshels. Value.

4,319,194 $521,316
69, 592, 091 4,726,114
97, 687 29, 306


........ ......... ................. .. ...... 74,008, 973 5, 276,736


Cords.

1, 157, 522
540,448
158, 208
145,778, 137


Value.

$3, 978, 331
121, 681
425, 239
321,92. 373


---------------~---- -


-------------------------


... .............
-- ..........
I .. ..............







490 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

The forests of the United States, in spite of the great and increasing drains made upon them, are capable of
yielding annually for many years longer a larger amount of material than has yet been drawn from them, even
with our present reckless methods of forest management. The great pine forest of the north has already, it is true,
suffered tftal inroads. The pine which once covered New England and New York has already disappeared.
Pennsylvania is nearly stripped of her pine, which once appeared inexhaustible. The great northwestern pineries
are not yet exhausted, and with newly-introduced methods, by which logs once supposed inaccessible are now
profitably brought to the mills, they may be expected to increase the volume of their annual product for a few
years longer in response to the growing demands of the great agricultural population fast covering the treeless
midcontinental plateau.. The area of pine forest, however, remaining in the great pine-producing states of
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota is dangerously small in proportion to the country's consumption of white
pine lumber, and the entire exhaustion of these forests in a comparatively short time is certain. The wide areas
now covered in New England by a vigorous second growth of white pine, although insignificant in extent and
productiveness in comparison with the forests it replaces, must not be overlooked in considering the pine supply of
the country. These new forests, yielding already between two and three hundred million feet of luifber annually,
are capable of great future development.
The pine belt of the south Atlantic region still contains immense quantities of timber unequaled for all
purposes of construction, although unsuited to take the place of the white pine of the north. The southern pine
forests, although stripped from the banks of streams flowing into the Atlantic, are practically untouched in the
Gulf states, especially in those bordering the Mississippi river. These forests contain sufficient material to long
supply all possible demands which can be made upon them.
The hard-wood forests of the Mississippi basin are still, in certain regions at least, important, although the
best walnut, ash, cherry, and yellow poplar have been largely culled. Two great bodies of hard-wood timber,
however, remain, upon which comparatively slight inroads have yet been made. The most important of these
forests covers the region occupied by the southern Alleghany Mountain system, embracing southwestern Virginia,
West Virginia, western North and South Carolina, and eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Here oak unequaled in
quality abounds. Walnut is still not rare, although not found in any very large continuous bodies, and cherry,
yellow poplar, and otherwoods of commercial importance are common. The second great body of hard wood, largely
oak, is found west of the Mississippi river, extending from central Missouri to western Louisiana. The forests of
Michigan, especially those of the northern peninsula, still abound in considerable bodies of hard wood, principally
maple. Throughoutthe remainder of the Atlantic region the hard-wood forests, although often covering considerable
areas, have everywhere lost their best timber, and are either entirely insufficient to supply the local demand of the
present population, or must soon become so.
In the Pacific region the great forests of fir which extend along the coast region of Washington territory and
Oregon are still practically intact. Fire and the ax have scarcely made a perceptible impression upon this magnificent
accumulation of timber. Great forests of pine still cover the California sierras through nearly their entire extent;
the redwood forest of the coast, however, once, all things considered, the most important and valuable body of
timber in the United States, has already suffered seriously, and many of its best and most accessible trees have
been removed. This forest still contains a large amount of timber, although its extent and productive capacity has
been generally exaggerated. The demand for redwood, the only real substitute for white pine produced in the
forests of the United States, is rapidly increasing, and even at the present rate of consumption the commercial
importance of this forest must soon disappear.
The pine forests which cover the western slopes of the northern Rocky mountains and those occupying the-
high plateau and inaccessible mountain ranges of central Arizona and southwestern New Mexico have not yet
suffered serious damage at the hands of man. The remaining forests of the Pacific region, of little beyond local
importance, are fast disappearing. The area of these interior forests is diminished every year by fire and by the
demands of a careless and indifferent population ; and their complete extermination is probably inevitable.
The forest wealth of the country is still undoubtedly enormous. Great as it is, however, it is not inexhaustible,
and the forests of the United States, in spite of 1heir extent, variety, and richness, in spite of the fact that the
climatic conditions of a large portion of the country are peculiarly favorable to the development of forest growth,
cannot always continue productive if the simplest laws of nature governing their growth are totally disregarded.
The judicious cutting of a forest in a climate like that of the Atlantic or Pacific Coast regions entails no serious
or permanent loss. A crop ready for the harvest is gathered for the benefit of the community; trees which have
reached their prime are cut instead of being allowed to perish naturally, and others take their place. The
permanence of the forest in regions better suited for the growth of trees than for general agriculture may thus be
insured. Two causes, however, are constantly at work destroying the permanence of the forests of the country
and threatening their total extermination as sources of national prosperity-fire and browsing animals inflict
greater permanent injury upon the forests of the country than the ax, recklessly and wastefully as it is generally used
against them.







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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


491


FOREST FIRES.

The extent of the loss which the country sustains every year from injury to woodlands by fire is enormous..
An attempt was made to obtain, by'means of circulars of inquiry addressed to enumerators of the census and
other persons living in every town of the United States, some estimate of the actual destruction of forest material
in this way. More than 30,000 of these circulars were sent out. The information obtained, often vague and
unsatisfactory, after a most critical examination, in which all doubtful or contradictory returns were entirely
thrown out, is presented in the following table and accompanying map. It must be borne in mind that estimates
based upon information obtained in this manner are liable to very considerable error, and due allowance must
therefore be made for inaccurate or incomplete returns. Many towns, and even counties, in which forest fires are
known to have occurred during the year 1880, made no returns whatever, and the returns of other counties were
excluded. It is therefore fair, perhaps, to assume that the following table, inaccurate and unsatisfactory as it
no doubt is in many respects, at least does not exaggerate the annual loss inflicted upon the country by.forest
fires:
TABLE OF FOREST FIRES OCCURRING DURING THE CENSUS YEAR.


CAUSES OF FIRE.


States and Territories.


Areas Value of
burned, in property de-
acres. stroyed.


The United States........ 10, 274, 089 $25,462,250


Alabama .....................
Alaska ........-...........
Arizona ......................
Arkansas -..................
California .....----- ...........

Colorado......................
Connecticut ..................
Dakota .................. .....
Delaware ..................


569, 160

10,240
858,115
356,815

113,820


District of Columbia ........... .......................


Florida........................
Georgia..-.....................
Idaho..........................
Illinois ........................
Indiana........................

Indian territory ...............
Iowa ..........................
Kansas ........................
Kentucky .....................
Louisiana .....................

Maine ........................
Maryland.....................
Massachusetts.................
Michigan ................-.....
Minnesota .....................

Mississippi ....................
Missouri......................
Montana....................
Nobraska...................
Nevada............... .......

New Hampshireo...............
New Jersey ...................
New Mexico..................
Now York ......................
North Carolina ................


105,320 69,900
705, 351 167, 620
21,000 202,000
48, 691 45,775
90,427 130,335

1,000 ............
11,017 45,470
7, 080 14, 700
556, 647 237, 635
64,410 6, 800

35, 230 123, 315
41,076 37,425
13, 890 102,262
238,271 985,985
250,805 1,395,110

222,800 78,505
783,646 294,865
88,020 1,128,000

8.710 19,000

5,954 3, 610
71,074 252,210
64,034 142,075
149.401 1,210,785
546, 102 357, 980-


Ohio ..............-...----..-. 74,114
Oregon ...................... 132, 320
Pennsylvania................... 685,738
Rhode Island...........................---.
South Carolina ................. 431,730


121, 225

56,000
259,470
440,750


a, 04 Pq P
1 1, 15 0 2 35 2 1
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197 1,152 508 628 72 35 262 12 9 32 56 10 2 2z S 3


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31
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797,170 ......i 94 27 57 ....
503, 850 ...... 7 ...... 12 ...
3,043,723 ...... 129 133 17 ......
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291,'2251 221 17 1 25 ..


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25 .... .. ... ... ........ .... ...... ...... ......

11 ...... ...-... .. -----. ------ --. - --- ---
102 ...................... .... ....................
. 2 ...... ... .. ... --- ------ -- ------ ------ -----
. . .-----. --- --. ; 2 . . .


4 1--.- ......







492 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

TABLE OF FOREST FIRES OCCURRING DURING THE CENSUS YEAR-Continued.

CAUSES OF FIRE.

Areas Value of | I
States and Territories. burned, in property de- 0 S I s
acres. stroy ed.

U2H 1 P4 U P In
Tenneas e ................. ........ 995,430 3 5,254,990 19 19 6 14 ...... 1 14 ..... ............ ................ .. ... ... .. .. -
Texas .--............---..--- .... 599, 359 273,990 19 3 .-- .. 7 .. 2 1 ..... .----- 7. . 4 1 -...... ...... .................. ..-.
Utah ........................... 42, 865 1, 042, 800 ...... ................ 3...... ...... .... .... ....... 4 ..... ...... ...... 3 3
Vermont......................... 3,941 48, 466 ...... 10 5 2 ........... .. .. ... ....... .................. ..... ......
Virginia ..................... 272, 319 32, 944 ...... 26 13 12 ... ............................. ...............................

W ashington ................... 37, 910 713, 200 ...... 5 ....... 3 .-- 2 ...... ...... 1 8 ...... .. ...........
W est Virginia .................. 476,775 155, 280 6 22 7 13 ...... ...... 6 ..... .... ..... .... ..........- ..........-
Wisconsin...................... 406, 298 725,610 20 58 1l 15 ... ... 3 ..... .... ......... ...... ..... .....
W coming ...... ......... 83, 780 3, 255, 000 ............. ... 1 ..... ...... ... ... ...... ...... 3 1 ......-..----- ----....

The largest number of these fires of any one class was traced to farmers clearing land and allowing their
brush fires to escape into the forest. The carelessness of hunters in leaving fires to burn in abandoned camps, next
to farmers, was the cause of the greatest injury. The railroads were responsible, too, for serious damage to the
forest from fires set by sparks from locomotives, while the intentional burning of herbage in the forest to improve
pasturage often caused serious destruction of timber.
Only the value of the material actually destroyed by fire is included in these estimates. The loss of timber by
fire, great as it is, is insignificant in comparison with the damage inflicted upon the soil itself, or with the influence
of fire upon subsequent forest growth. If a forest is destroyed by fire all trees, old and young, giants ready for the
ax, and germinating seedlings-the embryo forests of succeeding centuries-are swept away. Undergrowth essential
to protect the early growth of trees, the roots of perennial herbage, and the seeds of all plants are consumed. The
fertility, or rather the ability of the burned soil to produce again spontaneously a similar crop of trees to the one
destroyed, is lost, and the subsequent recovering of burned land with the species of the original forest is only
accomplished, if accomplished at all, through the restoration of fertility following the slow growth and decay of
many generations of less valuable plants. A northern pine and spruce forest when destroyed by fire is succeeded
by a growth of brambles, in time replaced by dwarf birch, poplar, and bird cherries, of no economic value; scrub oaks
and various hard woods follow these, and pine rarely reappears except upon land long mellowed in the various
operations of agriculture.
In the south Atlantic region a gradual change in the composition of the pine forests is steadily going on under
the influence of fire. Less valuable species now occupy the ground once covered with forests of the long-leaved
pine, through which annual fires have been allowed to run to improve the scanty pasturage they afford. Stockmen
have been benefited at the expense of the permanency of the forest. Fire, too, changes the composition of the
broad-leaved forests of the Atlantic region, although its influence is here less marked than upon forests of conifers,
which, unlike deciduous trees, rarely grow from stump shoots, and must depend entirely upon the germination
of seeds for their reproduction. Still, in regions continually burned over during a long period of time and then
covered again with forests, as is the case in some portions of Kentucky and Tennessee, valuable species, like the
white oak and the yellow poplar, are rare or entirely wanting in the new forest growth.
The forests of the north Pacific coast offer an exception to the law, otherwise general, for this continent at least,
that a change of forest crop follows a forest fire. The fir forests of western Washington territory and Oregon
when destroyed by fire are quickly replaced by a vigorous growth of the same species, and the fires which have
consumed great bodies of the California redwood have not prevented the reproduction of this species by seeds and
shoots. In the interior Pacific region forests destroyed by fire either do not reproduce themselves, or when, under
exceptionally favorable climatic conditions, a growth of trees recovers the burned surface, poplars and scrub pines
replace the more valuable species of the original forest.
The damage inflicted upon the permanency of the forests of the country by browsing animals is only surpassed
by the injury which they receive from fire.
The custom of turning domestic animals into the forest to pick up a scanty and precarious living, common in
all parts of the country, is universal in the southern and central portions of the Atlantic region and in California.
Sheep, cattle, and horses devour immense quantities of seedling trees, the future forests of the country. They bark
the trunks and destroy the vigor and often the life of larger trees. Hogs root up young pines and other plants to
feed upon their succulent roots, and devour the edible fruit of many trees. In this way not only is the permanence
of the forest endangered, but in the case of deciduous forests their composition is often seriously affected. Species
with thin-shelled edible seeds, pines, white oaks, chestnuts, and beeches, are unable to hold their own against species
with bitter or unpalatable fruit, on account of the excessive destruction of their seeds by hogs and other animals.








THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 493-

In the central portions of the Atlantic region the general replacement of the sweet-fruited valuable white oaks in
the young forest growth by the less valuable bitter-fruited black oaks is noticeable, and seriously endangers the
future value of the forests of this whole region. The damage inflicted upon the California mountain forests by sheep
is immense; they threaten the complete extermination of these noble forests, and with them the entire agricultural
resources of the state.
The pasturage of the forest is not only enormously expensive in the destruction of young plants and seeds,
but this habit induces the burning over every year of great tracts of woodland, which would otherwise be permitted
to grow up naturally, in order to hasten the early growth of spring herbage. Such fires, especially in the open
pine forests of the south, do not necessarily consume the old trees. All undergrowth and seedlings are swept
away, however, and not infrequently fires thus started destroy valuable bodies of timber. This is especially true,
also, in the coniferous forests of the Pacific region.
The railroads of the country, using in the construction and maintenance of their permanent ways vast quantities
of timber, inflict far greater injury upon the forests than is represented by the consumption of material. Railway
ties, except in California, are almost invariably cut from vigorous young trees from 10 to 12 inches in diameter;
that is, from trees which twenty or thirty years ago escaped destruction by fire or browsing animals, and which, if
allowed to grow, would at the end of fifty or one hundred years longer afford immense quantities of valuable timber.
The railroads of the United States, old and new, consume every year not far from 60,000,000 ties; the quantity of
lumber in 60,000,000 ties is comparatively not very great, and would hardly be missed from our forests; but the
destruction of 30,000,000 vigorous, healthy young trees, supposing that an average of two ties is cut from each tree, is
a serious drain upon the forest wealth of the country and should cause grave apprehensions for the future, especially
in view of the fact that in every part of the country there are now growing fewer seedling trees of species valuable
for railway ties than when the trees now cut for this purpose first started.
The condition of the forests of Maine is interesting. They show that forest preservation is perfectly practicable,
in the Atlantic region at least, when the importance of the forest to the community is paramount. The prosperity
of this state, born of the broad forests of pine and spruce which once covered it almost uninterruptedly, was
threatened by the prospective exhaustion of these forests, in danger of extermination by fire and the ill-regulated
operations of the lumbermen. The very existence of the state depended upon the maintenance of the forest. The
great forests of pine could not be restored, but the preservation of the few remnants of these forests was not
impossible. Fires do not consume forests upon which a whole community is dependent for support, and methods
for securing the continuance of such forests are soon found and readily put into execution. The forests of Maine,
once considered practically exhausted, still yield largely and continuously, and the public sentiment which has
made possible their protection is the one hopeful symptom in the whole country that a change of feeling in regard
to forest property is gradually taking place. The experience of Maine shows that where climatic conditions are
favorable to forest growth the remnants of the original forest can be preserved and new forests created as soon as
the entire community finds forest preservation really essential to its material prosperity.
The production of lumber is not, however, the only function of forests; and the future extent and condition of
those of the United States cannot, in every case, be safely regulated by the general law which governs the volume
of other crops by the demand for them. Forests perform other and more important duties in protecting the surface
of the ground and in regulating and maintaining the flow of rivers. In mountainous regions they are essential to
prevent destructive torrents, and mountains cannot be stripped of their forest covering without entailing serious
dangers upon the whole community. Such mountain forests exist in the United States. In northern Vermont and
New Hampshire they guard the upper waters of the Connecticut and the Merrimac; in New York they insure
the constant flow of the ludson. Such forests still cover the upper slopes of the Alleghany mountains and
diminish the danger of destructive floods in the valleys of the Susquehanna and the Ohio. Forests still cover the
upper water-sheds of the Missouri and the Columbia, the Platte and the Kio Grande, and preserve the California
valleys from burial under the debris of the sierras. The great mountain forests of the country still exist, often
almost in their original condition. Their inaccessibility has preserved them; it cannot preserve them, however,
much longer. Inroads have already been made into these forests; the ax, fire, and the destructive agency of
browsing animals are now everywhere invading them. Their destruction does not mean a loss of material alone,
which sooner or later can be replaced from other parts of the country; it means the ruin of great rivers for
navigation and irrigation, the destruction of cities located along their banks, and the spoliation of broad areas of
the richest agricultural land. These mountain forests once destroyed can only be renewed slowly and at enormous
cost, and the dangers, actual and prospective, which threaten them now offer the only real cause for general alarm
to be found in the present condition of the forests of the United States. Other forests may be swept away and the
country will experience nothing more serious than a loss of material, which can be produced again if the price of
lumber warrants the cultivation of trees as a commercial enterprise; but if the forests which control the flow of the
great rivers of the country perish, the whole community will suffer widespread calamity which no precautions taken
after the mischief has been done can avert or future expenditure prevent.




__~_ ~.1


494 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.






NORTH ATLANTIC DIVISION.




MAINE.

The forests of the Northern Pine Belt once extended over the state of Maine. Pine and spruce, with which
were mingled maple, birch, and other deciduous trees, covered the entire state, with the exception of the immediate
coast region between the Kennebec and the Penobscot rivers, a region of hard-wood forest; hemlock was common.
The original pine and spruce forests of the state have been practically destroyed. Pine has been cut in every
township, and the largest spruce everywhere culled, except from the inaccessible region about the headwaters
of the Allaguash river. Scattered bodies of the original pine, often of considerable extent and generally connected
with farms, exist in the southern, and especially in the southeastern, counties, and fine hemlock of large size is
still an important element of the forest in the central and southern portions' of the region west of the Penobscot
river. Birch, maple, and oak, too heavy for transport by raft, are still common, except in the neighborhood of
manufacturing centers and the lines of railroad. Hard-wood timber is particularly fine and abundant through the
central portion of the state; farther north the forest is more generally composed of coniferous trees.
The lumber business of southern and central Maine attained its greatest importance as early as 1850. In that
year spruce was for the first time driven down the Kennebec with pine, and the proportion of spruce to pine has
since steadily increased, until, in the season of 1879-'80, only 20 per cent. of the lumber cut on that river was pine.
The lowest point of productive capacity of the forests of Maine has probably been. passed. The reckless disregard
of forest property which characterized the early lumbering operations of the state has been replaced by sensible
methods for preserving and perpetuating the forest. This change in public sentiment in regard to the forests has
followed naturally the exhaustion of the forest wealth of the state. As this disappeared the importance of preserving
some part, at least, of the tree covering, the source of the state's greatest prosperity, forced itself upon public
attention; for unless the forests could be perpetuated, the state must lose forever all commercial and industrial
importance. It has followed that the forests of Maine, as compared with those in other parts of the country, are
now managed sensibly and economically. They are protected from fire principally through the force of public
sentiment, and only trees above a certain size are allowed to be cut by loggers buying stumpage from the owners of
land. In the southern counties the young pine now springing up freely on abandoned farming lands is carefully
protected, and large areas are planted with pine in regions where the natural growth has not covered the soil. The
coniferous forests, under the present management, may be cut over once in every fifteen or twenty years, producing
at each cutting a crop of logs equivalent to 1,000 feet of lumber to the acre, of which"from 5 to 7 per cent. is pine,
thie rest spruce.
Forest fires, which formerly inflicted every year serious damage upon the forests of the state, are now of
comparatively rare occurrence. During the census year only 35,230 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by
fire, with an estimated loss of $123,315. These fires were set by farmers in clearing land, by careless hunters, and
by sparks from locomotives.
The following estimates of the amount of pine and spruce standing in the state May 31, 1880, were prepared
by Mr. Cyrus A. Packard, of Augusta, land agent of the state. They were made up from the results of actual
surveys, and have been reviewed by a large number of experts most familiar with the condition of the forests in
different parts of the state:

Basin of-- Pine (Pinls Strobuis). Spruce (Picea nigra).

Feet, board measure. Feet, board measure.
Saint John river and tributaries........... .....--- -- ........... ..---- .. ...- 75, 000,000 1,400, 000, 000
Penobscot river and tributaries................. ...........-- ---.--..-----. 100,000,000 1,600,000, 000
Kenneboo river and tributaries............ ......-----.--.....-- ........ 50,000,0,0 1,000,000,000
Androscoggin river and tributaries ...............-......-.......---- .... 50, 000, 000 5 00, 000, 000
Saint Croix, Machias, Narragaugns, and Union rivers and other small streams .. 200,000, 000 i 5:o, 010, COO
Total ........... .....--- -------- ------..-----.----- -------.----- ...-- 475, 000, 000 ,, 000, 000, 000

Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880 ...............--- -----...-..-...- 138, 825,000 t, 020, 000












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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 495

Quantities of logs cut in Aroostook county are driven down the Saint John river and manufactured in New
Brunswick. During the season of 1879-'80 there were handled in this way 70,000,000 feet of spruce, 4,500,000 feet of
pine, 2,800,000 feet of cedar, 1,500,000 feet of squared pine timber, 1,000,000 feet of squared birch timber, 110,000
feet of squared larch timber. Of this 70 per cent. of the spruce and 80 per cent. of the pine were returned to the
SUnited States manufactured into lumber, and the whole of the cedar in the form of shingles.
Important industries dependent for material upon a supply of hard wood have long flourished in the state.
Large quantities of cooperage stock, woodenware, handles, spools, bobbins, etc., are manufactured, and more
recently the production of wood pulp and excelsior, principally from poplar and other soft woods, has assumed
important proportions. Manufacturers from nearly every part of the state report a deterioration and scarcity of
the best timber, especially oak, which is now largely imported from Canada or replaced by southern hard pine.
Birch, however, is still abundant, and is largely exported in the form of spool and bobbin stock. The manufacture
of potash, once an important industry of the state, has been abandoned as unprofitable. Several establishments
engaged in the manufacture of tanning extracts from hemlock bark are located in the state, and the numerous
tanneries upon the Penobscot river consume large quantities of the same material. The demand for hemlock
lumber is now good, and the logs, after being stripped of their bark, are manufactured into lumber and not allowed,
as in other parts of the country, to rot upon the ground. A recently-established industry is the manufacture of
kegs, barrels, and woodenware from pulp made from chips, brush, and other waste material of the forest. Partial
estimates of the hoop-pole industry give a product of 5,449,200, valued at $75,612. During the year 1879 153,334
pounds of maple sugar were produced in the state.
ANDROSCOGGIN coUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, largely second growth; it
contains, however, considerable bodies of fine first-growth white pine. Manufacturers of cooperage stock report
oak exhausted, other hard woods scarce and of inferior quality, and that no second-growth timber is of sufficient
size for use. A large amount of excelsior is manufactured, principally from poplar.
AROOSTOOK coUNTY.- Nine-tenths of this county is reported covered with forests, the clearings being confined
to the neighborhoods of the rare settlements along the river bottoms. Logs cut in this county are largely rafted
down the Saint John river, and little lumber in proportion to the cut is manufactured within its limits. The
production of cooperage stock and other articles requiring hard wood in their manufacture is rapidly increasing,
and with abundant material such industries seem destined to great development.
CUMBERLAND COUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, principally of second growth.
Manufacturers of cooperage stock report a general deterioration and scarcity of material, especially hard woods,
now nearly exhausted. Spruce and poplar in large quantities are manufactured into wood pulp.
FRANKLIN COUNTY.-Three-fourths of this county is reported covered with woods, principally confined to
the northern portion. Staves, hoop-poles, handles, and excelsior are manufactured in large quantities.
HANCOCK COUNTY.-Seven-eighths of this county is reported covered with woods, largely composed, toward
the coast, of second growth white pine. The northern portions contain fine bodies of large hemlock. Manufacturers
of cooperage stock report deterioration of material ; ash especially has become scarce.
KENNEBEC COUNTY.-Four-tenths of this county is reported covered with woods, largely second growth.
Merchantable spruce and pine have been everywhere removed. Considerable areas are again covered with pine, and
the wooded area is increasing. Next to Penobscot this is the most important lumber manufacturing county in the
state. Numerous mills located on the Kennebec river saw logs driven from its upper waters and from beyond the
limits of the county. Large quantities of poplar and spruce are consumed annually in the manufacture of wood
pulp, excelsior, handles, etc. The supply of hard wood is small and of inferior quality. The poplar now used is
nearly all second growth.
KNOX coUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, generally of second growth. Heavy
timber, however, still exists in the towns of Washington, Appleton, and Union. White pine is scarce, and great
deterioration in timber of all kinds is reported. Scarcity in the near future is apprehended by manufacturers. A
large amount of cord-wood is consumed annually in burning lime.
LINCOLN couNTY.-About one-half of this county is reported covered with woods, nearly all second growth.
OXFORD COUNTY.-From one-half to two-thirds of this county is reported covered with woods. The northern
portion still contains large areas of original forest, although pine and spruce have been culled everywhere. In the
southern part of the county there are considerable bodies of second-growth white pine, and the wooded area is
increasing. Cooperage stock, handles, and wood pulp are largely manufactured. Manufacturers report that
timber of all kinds has deteriorated in quality and become scarce, with the exception of oak, which is still abundant
and of good quality.
PENOBSCOT COUNTY.-Nine-tenths of this county is reported covered with woods. The merchantable pine
and spruce have been removed from the'southern portion and everywhere culled. In the northern townships
hemlock is still abundant and of fine quality. Penobscot is the great lumber manufacturing county of the state,
]Bangor, once the principal market in the United States for pine lhu.ber, being still the most important saw-mill
center. Spruce and not pine, however, except in insignificant quantities, is now manufactured upon the Penobscot.
Manufacturers using hard woods report an abundant supply of excellent material.







496 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

PISCATAQUIS coUNTY.-From eight- to nine-tenths of this county is reported covered with forests, the southern
portion only being cleared of the original tree growth.
SAGADAHOC cOUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, principally second growth.
Considerable second-growth white pine is now growing up upon abandoned farm lands, and the wooded area of
the county is increasing. Manufacturers report all timber of sufficient size for use scarce and of inferior quality,
and apprehend early exhaustion of hard woods suitable for mechanical purposes.
SOMERSET COUNTY.-Five-sixths of this county is reported covered with woods, the southern portion only
being cleared of its forests of spruce and pine. Excelsior, handles, woodenware, etc., are largely manufactured.
Hard-wood timber of all sorts is abundant and of excellent quality, with the exception of black ash, now scarce
and in great demand.
WALDO COUNTY.-From one-quarter to one-half of this county is reported covered with woods, generally of
second growth. The wooded area is now gradually increasing by the growth of white pine on abandoned farming
lands. Manufacturers report a scarcity and deterioration of timber of all kinds of sufficient size for use.
WASHINGTON COUNTY.-From eight- to nine-tenths of this.county is reported covered with woods. In the
southern portion considerable areas contain scattered bodies of large pine, and through the center of the county
are large tracts of first-growth hemlock forests. No future scarcity of lumber is apprehended.
YORK COUNTY.-From one-third to one-half of this county is reported covered with woods; it contains large
quantities of scattered pine. Second-growth pine is spreading on abandoned agricultural land, and the forest area
is increasing. Wood pulp, cooperage stock, and handles are largely manufactured. Timber of all sorts is reported
as depreciating in both quality and quantity. No immediate scarcity, however, is apprehended.


NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The forests of New Hampshire were originally composed of a belt of spruce, mixed with maple, birch, and
other hard-wood trees, occupying all the northern part of the state and extending southward through the central
portion; the southeastern part of the state and the region bordering the Connecticut river were covered with
forests of white pine, through which considerable bodies of hard wood were scattered. The original white-pine
forests of New Hampshire are practically exhausted, although in the northern counties of the state there still
remain a few scattered bodies remote from streams and of small size; once of great extent and importance, these
forests have disappeared before the ax of the settler and lumberman, or have been wasted by forest fires. Large-
areas, however, once covered with forests of pine, have grown up again, especially in the southern part of the state,.
with this tree. No estimate of the amount of this second-growth pine standing in the state has been possible; it
furnished during the census year a cut of 99,400,000 feet of lumber, board measure. The remaining forests of the
state, considered as a source of lumber supply, are composed of spruce, more or less mixed with hard woods, of
which the sugar maple and the birch are the most valuable. In the northern part of the state large areas of the-
original spruce forest remain, although these bodies of timber are now only found at a considerable distance from.
streams.
Fires, which at different times have destroyed vast areas of forest, especially in the northern part of the state,.
are now less frequent and destructive. During the year 1880 but 5,9.54 acres were reported stripped of their tree
covering by fires. Of such fires twelve were set by sparks from locomotives, seven by the escape into the forest of
fires originally set in clearing land for agricultural purposes, six by sportsmen, one through malice, and one by the.
careless use of tobacco.
The basis of the following estimate of the amount of merchantable black spruce (Picea nigra) lumber standing
May 31, 1880, in Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties, where alone the spruce forests of the state are now of commercial
importance, was furnished by Mr. G. T. Crawford, of Boston, and verified by the testimony of other experts:

BLACK SPRUCE (Picea nigra).

Counties. Feet, board
Counties. Insure.

Carroll................. .......... ..... ......................... 60, 000, 000
Coos ............... ... ........................... ......... 1, 000, 000, 000
Grafton...................... ................................. 450, 000, 000
Tetal ................ .......................... ....... 1,510, 000,000

Cut for the census ?. .r ,i -,. May 31, 1880 (including 26,000,000 153,175, 000
feet sawed on the ( ..i .. r:,,r river, in Massachusetts).

It is roughly estimated that the spruce forests of the state contain over 33,750,000 cords of hard wood and
165,000,000 feet of hemlock.










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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 497

Partial returns of the hoop-pole industry give a production during the census year of 4,225,000, valued at
$29,280. New Hampshire is'fourth among the states in the importance of its maple-sugar product. During the
year 1879 it produced 2,731,945 pounds.
BELKNAP COUNTY.-From one-third to three-eighths of this county.is reported covered with woods.
CARROLL coUNTY.-Five-eighths of this county is reported covered with woods. In the northern portion
there are'still large areas covered with an original growth of spruce. Large quantities of charcoal are manufactured
in this county, and the usual method of lumbering adopted here and very generally in northern New
Hampshire is first to cut the spruce large enough for saw-logs, taking all trees 6 inches in diameter 25 feet from
the ground, and then cut for charcoal all the remaining growth, hard wood and soft, even the young spruce., As
the land cleared is of little value for agricultural purposes, it is allowed to grow up again with wood. Deciduous
trees come up at first, and these are sometimes, but not always, followed by spruce. It is necessary to exercise
great care in order to prevent the newly-cleared tracts from suffering from fire, as the material for charcoal, cut
into cord-wood, is often left on the ground until the second season. Mr. C. G. Pringle, who studied the forests of
this region, furnishes the following notes upon the forests of Carroll county:
The forests on the mountain sides between Crawford's and Bartlett are composed principally of the yellow
and paper birch, the sugar maple, the red maple, poplars, the black spruce, and the balsam fir. About Bartlett
scattering specimens of white pine make their appearance. In the more level part of'North Conway the red and
the pitch pine and the hemlock become common, while on the more sterile, sandy plains farther down the Saco
these pines with the white birch constitute the principal arborescent growth.
The tract known as Hart's location, lying partly in the White Mountain notch, includes 10,000 acres, 2,000 of
which bear 15,000 feet per acre of spruce and hemlock-rather more of hemlock than of spruce; 10,000 acres in this
tract will cut 25 cords of hard wood per acre. The town of Bartlett, partly cleared, still has 40,000 acres of
woodland, which will yield an average of 5,000 feet per acre of spruce and hemlock and 15 cords of hard wood.
Sargent's grant covers mount Crawford, Stair mountain, and a part of mount Washington. On this tract are 15,000
acres of timber-land, carrying 20,000 feet per acre, chiefly spruce. The Thompson and Meserve purchase comprises
portion's of mounts Washington, Jefferson, and Madison, and covers 12,000 acres. Two thousand acres of this will
yield 30,000 feet of spruce and hemlock per acre in nearly equal proportions. The remaining 10,000 acres will cut 25
cords of hard wood per acre. The Bean purchase lies north of the town of Jackson, and covers 40,000 acres. It is
occupied by a dense forest, amounting to 20,000 feet of spruce and hemlock and 20 cords of hard wood per acre.
Originally there was considerable pine on the streams and sides of the mountains in this vicinity, particularly on
mount Kearsarge, but now there is little left. Twelve and twenty-five years ago much of the town of Bartlett was
burned over, and a different growth has come up-white birch, poplar, bird cherry, etc."
A large amount of cooperage stock, excelsior, and an average of 1,000 cords of shoe pegs (from birch and
maple) are annually made in this county. Considerable damage to oak and poplar caused by the ravages of the
army-worm [1] arareported. The natural increase of timber is said, however, nearly to equal the present consumption
by local industries, and scarcity is not apprehended.
CHESHIRE COUNTY.-About one-half of this county is reported covered with woods.
Coos couNTY.-Nine-tenths of this county is reported covered with forests. The following is extracted from
Mr. Pringle's notes upon the forests of this county:
"Everything east of the Connecticut lakes and about the upper portions of Indian and Perry streams is
original forest. Such also is the condition of the Gilmanton, Atkinson, and Dartmouth College grants and the
towns of Dixville, Odell, and Kilkenny. All the eastern portions of Clarksville, Stewartstown, Colebrook,
Columbia, and Stratford are forest, and nearly all of Wentworth's location, Millsfield, Errol, Dummer, Cambridge,
and Success. In these forests the spruce will cut 5,000 feet and the hard wood about 50 cords per acre. There
is considerable hemlock, but even less pine than in Essex county, Vermont. Not much of the region has been
burned over, and spruce comes into the soil again but slowly after clearings and fires.
"In the township of Kilkenny, in the mountains east of Lancaster, there are 16,000 acres of forest still untouched,
though a branch railroad from Lancaster into this forest has been surveyed, and may be constructed in a few years,
for the purpose of bringing the lumber down to the mills at Lancaster. Lowe and Burbank's grant is a wilderness,
three-fourths well timbered and the remainder a mountain ridge of nearly bare rock. Bean's purchase is nearly
inaccessible and but little lumbered. Stark, on the upper Ammonoosuc, is badly cut over, only about one-quarter
remaining in virgin forest. About one-half of Berlin is uncut; also the northern half of Randolph, the south half
of Gorham, and the south quarter of Shelburne. Considerable land in Success was burned over some years ago, as
well as some in Stark and in the eastern part of Berlin, but fires have not lately been very destructive in the New
Hampshire forests."
A, large amount of cooperage stock, handles, wood pulp, shoe pegs, etc., is manufactured in this county.
Abundant material, with the exception of ash, is reported.
GRAFTON COUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly confined to the northern
and central portions. Shoe pegs, cooperage stock, wood pulp, and excelsior are largely manufactured. The amount
of material is considered abundant for the present consumption.
32 FOR







498 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly second growth. A
large amount of cooperage and wheel stock is manufactured. No deterioration in the quality of material is
reported, although at the present rate of consumption it must soon become exhausted.
MERRIMACK COUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods. Cooperage stock, handles,
and excelsior are largely manufactured. A slight deterioration in the quality of material is reported.
ROCKINGHAM COUNTY.-From one-quarter to five-eighths of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly
second growth.
STRApFORD coTNTY.-Four-tenths of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly second growth.
Hoop-poles, cooperage stock, etc., are largely manufactured. Wood of all sorts is reported scarce and rapidly
increasing in value.
VERMONT.

The forests of Vermont, as compared with those of New Hampshire and Maine, are varied in composition.
About the shores of lake Champlain several western trees' first appear, and throughout the state the forest is more
generally composed of deciduous than coniferous species. Forests of spruce, however, spread over the high
ridges of the Green mountains, their foot-hills being covered with hard-wood trees and little pine or hemlock
occurring in the valleys. A forest of white pine once stretched along the banks of the Connecticut, and great
bodies of this tree occurred in the northwestern part of the state, adjacent to lake Champlain. The original white-
pine forests of the state are now practically exhausted. They are represented by a small amount of second-growth
pine only, which furnished during the census year a cut of 6,505,000 feet of lumber, board measure.
The forests of Vermont now suffer comparatively little from fire, although at different periods during the last
fifty years very serious fires have laid waste great areas of forest in the Green Mountain region. During the year
1880 3,941 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with an estimated loss of $48,466. Of such fires ten
escaped from farms into the forest, five were set by locomotives, two were traced to the carelessness of hunters,
and one to malice.
Large amounts of cooperage stock, woodenware, furniture, paper pulp, excelsior, veneers, etc., are manufactured
throughout the state. Material for these industries is fast disappearing, -and a great deterioration in quality,
especially of oak, ash, and chestnut, is reported by manufacturers.
Vermont surpasses all other states in the manufacture of maple sugar. During the year 1879 11,261,077
pounds were produced in the state.
The following estimate of the spruce standing in the state May 31, 1880, has been prepared from Mr. Pringle's
report, and is based upon the statements of numerous timber-land owners and experts in different parts of the state:

BLACK SPRUCE (Picea nigra).

egions. Feet, board
egimeasure.

Green Mountain range.................-.-.. ---- ...-...-- ---.- 380, 000, 000
Valley of the Connecticut river --.................- ---......----.... 375, 000, 000
Total ...-.............----..---. ..- ..--- ...........------ 755, 000,000
Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880 (excluding 16,191,000 199, 086, 000
feet imported from Canada).

Partial returns of the hoop-pole industry give a production during the census year of only 43,900, valued at
$470.
ADDISON coUNTY.-About one-third of this county is reported covered with woods. Spruce and ash are scarce
and rapidly disappearing. Oak of sufficient size for the manufacture of cooperage stock is exhausted.
BENNINGTON COUNTY.-Two-thirds of this county is reported covered with woods. Manufacturers of woodenware
and cooperage stock consider the prospects for future local supply favorable.
CALEDONIA COUNTY.-From one-third to three-eighths of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly
confined to the northern and western portions.
CHITTENDEN COUNTY.-About one-fifth of this county is reported as woodland. The following extracts are
made from Mr. Pringle's note upon the forests of Vermont:
"Except on the summits of a few of the higher peaks of the,Green mountains, where black spruce and balsam
fir grow to the exclusion of other trees, the arboreal growth is composed of a large number of species. In the
valleys and on the foot-hills, and even on the slopes of the higher mountains in their lower portions, hemlocks
mingle with spruce, b2ech, maple, and birch (yellow birch chiefly, for there is little white birch seen in northern
Vermont); basswood, butternut, the ashes, red oaks, etc., are confined to the lower elevations and are less abundant
than the trees first mentioned. Between the isolated patches of spruce and fir about the summits of the mountains
and the region where hemlock is found, rock maple, yellow birch, and black spruce are the predominating species.







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 499

"To estimate the area of valuable original forest still standing in the Green mountains is not an easy task.
The belt extends from the Canada line to Massachusetts, and even into that state. The outlines of this belt are
made very irregular by the cleared and settled valleys which run up among the mountains, and by reason of forest
clearings, so that its width is constantly varying as we proceed from one end to the other.
"The woodlands of the plateau, some 10 miles broad and elevated from 200 to 300 feet above lake Champlain,
lying between the foot-hills of the Green mountains and the lower plain beside the lake, occupy, for the most part,
rocky hills, and are composed principally of sugar maple, beech, basswood, white ash, black birch, and red oak.
Certain limestone hills offer a favorable situation for the butternut, the ironwood, the slippery elm, and the bitter
hickory. The swamps and other lowlands yield the red maple, the black ash, the white elm, and the black willow.
The latter, especially along streams, is associated with alders and the sheepberry. The colder, sphagnous swamps
are covered with a growth, more or less dense, of yellow cedar, black spruce, balsam, and larch; sometimes in the
higher portions the white pine mingles with these, scattered or in groves. When grown in such soil this wood is liable
to be extremely hard and brittle. The poplars occupy hillsides and ridges where the soil is a light, cold, sandy loam;
with them the bird cherry is perpetually associated. The black cherry is scattered in a diversity of soils. White
oak and hickory attain their best development on clayey soil or glades of slight elevation; on the red sand-rock hills
they are smaller. Certain slopes of cold clay are still here heavily wooded with hemlock, while warm clay lands are
the favored site of the burr oak. In the vicinity of the lake and its tributaries low, wet shores are scattered over
with the swamp white oak and the burr oak. The chestnut oak is common on the thin, poor soil of the red sand-rock
hills, ranging through the valley from the lake as far back in some places as the foot-hills of the Green mountains.
The red pine appears on the sandy shores of lake Champlain, and extends far up the Winooski river. The moister
and more fertile portions of the sandy plain are still occupied to some extent by white pine, the poorer portions
by pitch pine. The white birch occurs on cold, wet, sandy soil near the lake; and in the mountains the black
spruce becomes the most common tree; with it in stronger soil are associated the yellow birch and the sugar maple.
"Burlington.-This place is believed to rank as third, or next to Albany, among the lumber markets of the
United States. More lumber may enter some ports, as Oswego and Tonawanda, for transshipment, but all lumber
brought to this market is stored and sold here. The kind is chiefly white pine brought up the lake from Canada,
a little of it being cut in Michigan (perhaps one-tenth); all the rest is of Canadian growth. A few of the lumber
companies here own lands of limited extent among the Green mountains, from which they obtain spruce for
clapboards, etc. The general direction which the lumber sent from here takes is to the older portions of New
England, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, considerable pine being sent even to Maine, which once
supplied to commerce so much of this material. Much lumber is dressed here and sent to Boston for shipment to
foreign countries. The business still enjoys the highest prosperity, and during the census year, under the stimulus
of general commercial prosperity, it was especially active. As yet no lack in the supply is felt, the loggers only
having to go farther back in the Canadian forests than formerly to obtain timber enough to meet the demand. The
proportion of lumber worked up here is small, there being merely a few factories producing doors, sash, blinds,
packing boxes, etc."
ESSEX COUNTY.-Five-sixths of this county is reported covered with forest. The following is extracted from
Mr. Pringle's report:
"Four-fifths of that part of the county of Essex lying north of Guildhall and Victory is still in virgin forest,
which will yield 5,000 feet of spruce per acre. The towns of Lewis and Averill are entirely unlumbered, and
so is Avery's Gore. Colton is mostly covered with forest, and so is Ferdinand. Timber-lands compose about
two-thirds of Granby and East Haven, and cover the back parts of the river towns and those crossed by the
Grand Trunk railroad. South of Guildhall and Victory the towns of Concord and Lunenburg are mostly cleared
and settled. The proportion of hemlock in these forests is not large; there is considerable yellow cedar and a
large amount of maple, birch, and beech-probably 50 cords per acre. There is but little pine in all this region,
principally confined to the township of Lewis; elsewhere only occasional pine trees occur."
FRANKLIN COUNTY.-From one-fourth to three-tenths of this county is reported covered with forest, mostly
confined to the hills in the northeastern and northern portions. In the village of Montgomery a large establishment
for the manufacture of butter tubs is located, and at East Richford birch is largely manufactured into turned ware.
GRAND ISLE COUNTY.-About a quarter of this county is reported covered with woods.
LAMOILLE COUNTY.-About one-third to one-half of this county is reported covered with woods, very generally
distributed over its entire surface.
ORANGE COUNTY.-One-quarter of this county is reported covered with forest.
ORLEANS COUNTY.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods. The following is extracted.from
Mr. Pringle's notes:
"At Newport, situated at the southern extremity of lake Memphremagog, are several mills for cutting
veneering from birch. The product of these mills is closely packed in boxes, so that it cannot warp, and sent to
the manufactories near the large cities, to be used for chair bottoms and other purposes. Southward from Newport,
in the valleys of the Barton and Black rivers, which flow northward into lake Memphremagog, and of the
Passumpsic river, which runs southward and joins the Connecticut, are almost continuous swamps of yellow








500 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

tedar, black spruce, and larch, from which the cedar timber is now being largely drawn to be sawed into shingles.
At Barton the hard woods are largely cut into material for furniture, which is shipped toward the sea-board before
being pnut together.
"The valley of the Clyde river from Newport to Island Pond is cleared for the most part and improved for
farms. The usual species of the northern forest occupy the summits of the low hills on either side of the valley.
Eastward from Island Pond, down the Neipegan river to the Connecticut by the line of the Grand Trunk railroad,
we pass through the wild region from which the lumbermen have only taken some of the spruce and pine. Here,
beginning 2 or 3 miles back from the railroad, or in some places much nearer to it, a virgin and unbroken forest
stretches over the slopes and summits of the hills for many miles to the northward and southward; black spruce,
yellow birch, sugar maple, and beech are its chief component species. In a few places, where the soil is sandy,
white pine occurs in straggling groves or isolated specimens, and the swamps, as well as those of all of northern
Vermont, are occupied by the black spruce, yellow cedar, and by a few scattering pines. The pine being the kind
of lumber first secured, is seldom found now in these Vermont swamps. The cedars are now cut and manufactured
into shingles, fence posts, railway ties, etc., for which purposes the lasting quality of the wood makes it eminently
suited. There is little hemlock in northeastern Vermont, and it is believed to indicate poor soil wherever it occurs.
The soil of this entire region presents a marked contrast to that of northern New York, being fertile and in other
respects well adapted to agriculture. On this account land once lumbered over is generally occupied by the farmer
and not allowed to come up again to forest, except in the more hilly portions."
Staves, tubs, pails, buckets, and hoops are largely manufactured from spruce, cedar, and ash. The quality of
the material used is said to have deteriorated, and manufacturers report that at the present rate of consumption it
will soon be consumed.
RUTLAND coUNTY.-Four-tenths of this county is reported covered with woods, principally in the eastern
portion. Elm, formerly largely used in manufacture of tubs, etc., is reported exhausted, and basswood has become
scarce.
WASHINGTON coUNT'Y.-One-third of this county is reported covered with woods, principally situated in belts
along its eastern and western borders. The following is extracted from Mr. Pringle's report:
"Reaching Montpelier from the west we have left behind the Green Mountain gneiss and entered a granitic
formation. Here is an extensive burned region; the fire, in consuming the forest and vegetable mold upon the
surface of the land, has exposed granite bowlders thickly embedded in the soil. To replace the forest growth thus
removed there is only an occasional little spruce or balsam to.be found among the thickets of bird cherry. The
hilltop and hillside forests east of Montpelier show hemlocks everywhere mingled with sugar maples, yellow birches,
and spruce; farther east the spruce and birch predominate. Approaching the Connecticut river, hemlocks and
maples again appear and second-growth white pine and paper birches take the place of the other species."
WIND HA- cOUNTY.-Three-eighths of this county is reported covered with woods, mostly confined to ridges
of the Green mountains. Ash and white pine are reported very scarce.
WINDsor coU NTY.-From one-fourth to one-third of this county is reported covered with woods, quite generally
distributed over the hills. Tubs, barrels, kegs, and buckets of white and red oak, white pine, spruce, and ash are
manufactured. Oak is reported by manufacturers to be already practically exhausted, spruce to be fast disappearing,
and ash very scarce and in danger of speedy extermination.

MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, AND CONNECTICUT.

The original forest which once covered these states has disappeared and been replaced by a second, and
sometimes by a third and fourth growth of the trees of the Northern Pine Belt. The area covered by tree growth
in these states is slowly increasing, although, with the exception of the young forests of white pine, the productive
capacity of their woodlands is, in view of the heavy demands continually made upon them, especially by the
railroads, rapidly diminishing. Abandoned farming land, if protected from fire and browsing animals, is now
very generally, except in the immediate vicinity of the coast, soon covered with a vigorous growth of white pine.
The fact is important, for this new growth of pine promises to give in the future more than local importance to the
forests of this region.
These states sustain a considerable annual loss from forest fires. In Massachusetts during the year 1880
13,899 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $ li ,2'1;.. Of these fires fifty-two were set
by locomotives, forty by fires started on farms and escaping to the forest, thirty-seven by hunters, nineteen by the
careless use of tobacco, eight through malice, and three by carelessness in the manufacture of charcoal. No returns
in regard to forest fires in Rhode Island and Connecticut have been received, but it is believed that in proportion
to their forest area such fires are not less destructive in these states than in Massachusetts. Numerous important
industries using hard wood have been driven from these states or forced to obtain their material from beyond
their limits. On the other hand, industries like the manufacture of certain sorts of woodenware, using second-
growth pine, are rapidly increasing in volume. The principal forests now found in these states are situated in
Berkshire, Hampden, and Worcester counties, Massachusetts.








THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 501.

BEICKSHIRE COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.-From one-third to one-half of this county is reported covered with
woods, largely second growth. The high ridges of the hills are still covered with forests of black spruce, their
slopes and intervening valleys with hard woods or hemlock, now often replaced by a growth of young white pine.
Cooperage stock, baskets, and wood pulp are largely manufactured. Spruce is reported to have deteriorated in
quality; manufacturers consider the supply of material, however, abundant for all present local demands.
FRANKLIN COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, largely
second-growth white pine.
WORCESTER COUNTY, MAssACHUSETTS.-One-half of this county is reported covered with woods, largely
second-growth white pine. Winchendon, the most important point in the United States for the manufacture of
woodenware, small cooperage, etc., is supplied with material from the young pine forests of this and the neighboring
counties. Timber is reported to have deteriorated. The supply of pine is not equal to the demand, and is rapidly
increasing in value.
In Barnstable county, Massachusetts, numerous experiments in forest planting have been made. In South
Orleans and neighboring towns fully 10,000 acres of sandy, barren soil have been successfully and profitably planted
with pitch pine. Similar plantations have been made upon the island of Nantucket; and many large groves of
white pine planted many years ago in Bristol and Plymouth counties demonstrate the entire practicability of forest
culture in this whole region.
The only important lumber manufacturing establishments found in these states are situated upon the Connecticut
river, in Massachusetts and Connecticut. They are entirely supplied with material from the forests of northern
New Hampshire and Vermont. Partial returns of the hoop-pole industry give a production during the census year
in Massachusetts of 11,507,600, valued at $95,009; in Connecticut, of 191,000, valued at $9,660.

NEW YORK.

That portion of the state north of the forty-third degree of latitude, including within its limits the elevated
Adirondack region, was once covered with a dense forest of maple, birch, basswood, and other northern deciduous
trees, through which were scattered spruce and pine. The low hills bordering the Hudson and extending along
the southern boundary of the state west of that river were covered with the coniferous species of the Northern Pine
Belt. Over the remainder of the state the broad-leaved forests of the Mississippi basin spread almost uninterruptedly,
except where an occasional sandy plain or high elevation favored the growth of pines. The original forest still
covers large areas in the northern counties, and protects the hills through which the Delaware river forces its way
in crossing the southern part of the state. With these exceptions, however, the forests of New York are now
almost exclusively of second growth.
The forests of the state, especially in the north, have at different times suffered great damage from fire. During
the census year 149,491 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $1,210,785. Of these
fires thirty-seven were set by farmers clearing land for agricultural purposes and allowing them to escape to the
forest, forty-three were set by locomotives, and twenty-two by the carelessness of sportsmen.
With the exception of the spruce of the Adirondack region, the forests of the state are no longer important
as a source of general lumber supply; and many industries depending upon hard woods have in late years decreased
in importance, owing to the want of sufficient material, or have been forced to obtain their supply of timber from
the west. White oak, largely consumed by the railroads, has become scarce, and has advanced at least 50 per
cent. in value during the last twelve years. Elm, ash, hickory, and other woods are reported scarce in all parts of
the state. Partial returns of the hoop-pole industry give a production during the census year of 10,948,258,
valued at $155,764.
New York is only surpassed by Vermont in the amount of maple sugar produced by its forests. During the
year 1879 10,693,619 pounds were manufactured in the state.
The following extracts are taken from Mr. Pringle's report upon the forests of northern New York:
"One who enters northeastern New York at Port Kent, and takes stage by way of Keeseville to the Saranac
lakes, finds himself, as long as his route runs up the Au Sable river, which is as far as the Au Sable forks, passing
through a region which gives evidence of having been formerly covered with pine. The white, the red, and the
pitch pine are all represented here. The pitch pine is confined chiefly to the sterile sandy plains between the Au
Sable and the Saranac rivers. The red pine mingles with this species, and grows on the rocky hills of the region
and on the river cliffs, while the abundance of white pine in nearly all situations must have made this quarter of
the state, like the region of Vermont lying opposite, a valuable pinery in former times. But fifty or seventy-five
years have passed since the pine of the Champlain valley was harvested and shipped to England by way of the
Saint Lawrence.
In the valleys of the Au Sable and the Saranac rivers white pines spring up numerously whenever permitted
to do so, and I am told that farmers, realizing that much of their soil is not suitable for profitable agriculture, are
seriously considering whether it be not to their highest advantage to surrender much of their land to timber growing,
and encourage the growth of the more valuable species, such as white pine, white oak, etc. Of non-coniferous trees




. -~~-:; -- -: -; --I __l-:-;-__ 1;_.~.._~__ L~: ~ ____- _-.----- -~---


502 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

the white, red, and black oaks are conspicuous among the pines, and in the colder and wetter sands the white birch
is common. But through all this region the trees are all of second growth, and lumber for building purposes is
largely imported.
The forest on the upper waters of the Au Sable and of the divide between this river and the Saranac is
principally devoted to supplying fuel to numerous iron furnaces. The best butt logs only of spruce are sorted out
and sent to the saw-mills as the forests are mowed down; the hemlock bark is removed for the tanneries, but
everything else, young pine, spruce, and poplar, fall clean with maple and birch. Here and there, even far up on
the hillsides, are seen the charcoal kilns, and around and about them, quite to the crest of the foot-hills of the
Adirondacks, the woods are cut down in great swaths to feed them. Lands once cut over are left to grow up to
timber again, though fires originating in the dead brushwood and consuming the sun-dried vegetable mold on the
surface of the soil generally interfere with any new growth of trees.
Little Tupper lake is situated in the heart of the Adirondack wilderness, and is surrounded by some of the
most valuable timber lands to be found in all this region. The woods about the lake have never heard the lumberman's
ax. The stream which connects it with Tupper lake, by way of Round pond, is not adapted to driving, and before
lumber could be brought down it would be necessary to clear out the stream by blasting away much rock and building
a dam with flood-gates at the foot of Round pond. The shores of this beautiful lake present a marked contrast to
those of any I have as yet visited. On other shores and river banks I had seen scattering pines, but on all the points
and bluffs of this lake throughout its entire circuit, and even following the ravines far back in the hills, are great
groves and belts of white pine with straight and clean shafts towering high above all other trees, unless is excepted
the red pine, of which a few specimens are mingled with them on the gravelly banks of the lake, vying with the
white pines in height and beauty of trunk. At certain places on the shores of this lake, and particularly along
the sluggish streams connecting it with Round pond below, are considerable swamps occupied chiefly by larch.
It is pleasing to observe and to learn from guides that this lake region of the Adirondack woods has suffered but
little from forest fires. It is only limited areas here and there on the shores of the lakes and ponds or along the
rivers that have been devastated by fires originally started in hunters' camps. Seldom do these fires spread far
back from the water, a fact which is to be attributed, it is believed, to the wet and mossy condition of these woods;
yet, when they have been lumbered, as is the case lower down the Racket river, and a considerable proportion of the
trees have been removed so as to expose the brushwood, etc., to the drying influences of the sun, much the usual
liability to fire exists here.
It is safe to assume that 2,500 square miles fairly represent the area of the virgin forests of the Adirondack
wilderness. This area will average 3,000 feet of spruce (board measure) per acre, or about five billion feet in the
aggregate. The amount of hemlock, variously estimated from 300 to 10,000 feet per acre, will cut at least 2,000
feet per acre, or 3,000,000,000 feet in the aggregate, or its equivalent; when the bark alone is considered, 3,000,000
cords of bark. The pine hardly, if at all, exceeds 200 feet per acre, or 320,000,000 feet in all. The hard wood
growing over this entire region will fairly average 40 cords per acre, or 64,000,000 cords.
Glens Falls is the great sawing center for the lumber cut upon the upper Hudson. This business here has
passed the point of maximum prosperity and begun to decline; not that there was any necessity for a diminution
of the yearly crop of logs from this field, if the forest could be protected from devastating fires. The lumberman
leaves standing, as far as possible, the spruce trees too small for the ax, and these, the overshadowing growth being
removed, grow with increased vigor, so that good crops of timber could be harvested from the soil every thirty or
forty years, were it not that over at least one-half of the area lumbered fire follows the ax, burning deep into the
woody soil and inducing an entire change of tree covering. Poplars, birches, and bird cherries, if anything, succeed
the spruces and firs. From this cause alone the lumbering industry of the region must dwindle. A large area utterly
unadapted to agriculture is being made desolate and nearly valueless, and its streams, the feeders of the water
privileges and canals below, become every year more and more slender and fitful. These fires are largely set by
reckless sportsmen and hunters, with whom this region peculiarly abounds in summer. They are careless in their
smoking; they neglect to watch and properly extinguish the fires lighted for camp and cooking purposes, and
sometimes they even delight to set fire to the dry brushwood of lumbered land in lawless sport. Again, to some
extent, a class of petty pioneers follow the lumberman, obtaining for a trifling sum a title to a little land, or, squatting
without rights, set fire to the dry brushwood left by the lumberers, and allow the fire to spread at will, devastating
thousands of dollars' worth of property for the mere convenience of saving themselves the trouble of burning
boundary strips around their fields, which might not cost them labor to the amount of $10. The laws of New York
in respect to the setting of forest fires are totally inadequate to protect the forests. The opinion prevails in the
forest region of northern New York that a growth of trees removed is followed by a similar growth, the result of
young seedling trees left in the soil, except in the case of pine. Pine once cleared off is never renewed,' was the
invariable remark. This of course presumes that fire is kept out of the clearing, for after a fire has consumed
the brushwood and much of the 'duff' or vegetable mold, and with this all the young seedling trees, and even
the seeds of trees that may be in the soil, an entirely different growth from the hemlock and spruce springs up.
Raspberry bushes are the first to appear, the seeds of which are dropped by birds flying over the clearing. Bird
cherries generally appear among the first trees, the seeds being dropped everywhere in a new country by birds;








THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 503

poplars and small willows also appear early in a burned district, their downy seeds being widely distributed by the
wind. It is only through the agency of the wind that the seeds of birches and conifers can be disseminated, and
spruces and hemlocks must needs appear, if they return at all, as tardy stragglers.
"Not many miles above Glens Falls the Hudson flows out from among the lowest outposts of the Adirondacks
and winds through a plain which reaches from near Troy to the vicinity of the southern ends of lakes George and
Champlain. The soil of this plain is sand deposited by the waters of former periods. The hills which bound this
plain on the northwest are piles of sand, gravel, and bowlders, evidently the moraines of a glacier which once flowed
through the course of the Hudson. All this region, from Troy to Luzerne, among the foot-hills of the Adirondacks,
must formerly have been covered with pine; among the hills and near the streams white pine, and in the more sterile
central portions of the plain, red and pitch pine. To-day there exists of these species scarcely more than a scanty
and scattered second growth.
"Thirty or forty years ago it was thought that all the accessible spruce in the valley of the upper Hudson had been
harvested, but there is to-day nearly as much sawed at Glens Falls as there was at that time. At that time nearly
all the timber standing near this river and its larger tributaries had been cut. Such as stood 5 or 10 miles back
from these streams and all that was growing in the valleys of the smaller streams, or higher up the mountain slopes,
would not pay the cost of hauling to the larger streams; but it is this timber which now furnishes the present
supply. Logs are now driven out of streams which were then thought incapable of being driven. By damming
streams so small that they may almost dry up in midsummer, throwing the logs into their courses during the winter,
either above or below the dams, and in spring-time, when the dams are pouring with the floods resulting from the
melting of deep mountain snows, tipping the planks of the dams and letting loose the torrents, the logs from remote
places are got out to the large rivers where they can be driven. All the rivers of this region, however, are steep
and rocky. The logs come down with their ends badly battered, and often with gravel and fragments of rock
driven into the ends in a manner to injure the saws. They must, therefore, be 'butted' before being sawed;
that is, a thin section is cut from each end, and on this account the logs are cut in the woods 4 inches or, for the
worst streams, 6 or more inches longer than the standard length. The standard length for all logs brought down
the Hudson is 13 feet. The character of these streams is such that long logs, for spars or other purposes, cannot
safely be driven through them. Such sticks are certain to get fastened among rocks and cause bad jams. As
already stated, the lumber business upon the upper Hudson is well advanced in its decline, and a score of years
hence it must become insignificant under the practices now pursued, and the future of this valley gives little
promise of prosperity; the soil is inferior in quality and not adapted to agriculture, while the timber, once the chief
source of its prosperity, is nearly exhausted.
As a lumber market Albany ranks second in the United States, or next to Chicago. White pine is the variety
of lumber most largely handled here, and two-thirds of it comes from Michigan by way of the Erie canal, the
remaining one-third coming from Canada through lake Champlain, the white pine contributed by New York being
an inappreciable quantity. Most of the lumber firms here are merely commission dealers, although in two large
mills considerable lumber is dressed before being shipped. The region supplied by this market includes the banks
of the Hudson, New York city, New Jersey, and the shores of Long Island sound. A little reaches Philadelphia,
and much is shipped to foreign ports from the city of New York. A great deal of the lumber handled by Albany
dealers, however, does not go to Albany at all, but, sold by runners, is sent direct by railroad from the Michigan
mills to points south of New York. The lumber trade here is still in fullprosperity.
Leaving the beautiful Mohawk valley at Rome, the traveler by the Rome and Watertown railroad soon notes
a less improved region, and one, indeed, less capable of improvement. For a long time the road stretches over a
sandy plain; in the higher portions of this plain, not far from Rome, the red and pitch pines are seen, and in the
wetter places hemlocks and black spruces appear, with white birch, black ash, etc. On the higher, undulating
lands, 20 or 30 miles north of Rome, white pine and hemlock seem once to have been the most abundant species of
the forest; they now exist only in broken and scattered ranks, although numerous stumps give evidence of a former
heavy growth of these two species. Northward from Albion the country gradually rises, hard wood becoming
more and more common until on the limestone banks of the Black river at Watertown the patches of woodland
are mainly composed of birch and maple. Yet the soil continues sandy, and at a little distance from the river is
favorable to the growth of pine, and I can readily believe that all this sandy tract east of lake Ontario was
originally covered with a heavy growth, principally of pine and hemlock. The pine was long since harvested, and
now the mills and tanneries are consuming the hemlock. On each of the small streams that flow into lake Ontario
are established saw-mills which cut quantities of hemlock yearly. Little, however, is sawed at Watertown,
although a limited amount of logs is driven down to Dexter at the mouth of the Black river, and there sawed;
yet once the neighborhood of Watertown and Dexter was a great center for the production of pine lumber. This
region (chiefly its swamps) still yields a little black spruce. The lumber sawed along the Rome and Watertown
railroad at Williamstown, Richmond, etc., is mostly sent southward to Syracuse and other places to meet the
demand there for coarse lumber. The lumber yards at Watertown are mostly filled with Canadian pine.
"Carthage, in Jefferson county, was once an important lumber center. The ILong falls' of the Black river
furnished unlimited water power. Immense quantities of pine and hemlock lined the banks of the river and covered








504 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

the plains of the vicinity; northward lay a heavy pinery. Canal-boats laden with lumber were towed through the
river to Lyon's falls and thence by canal to Utica. Now the pine is nearly all gone from this region, the saw-mills
are rotting down and only a little hemlock is sawed here.
That portion of the state which lies along the Saint Lawrence river as far east as the vicinity of Malone, and
extending some 25 miles back from the river, seldom exceeds 250 feet above the sea-level and is, for the most
part, clayey loam, flat and well adapted to agriculture. This tract is now pretty well settled. Proceeding to
the southeastward and rising to an altitude of 250 feet a wide region of sandy soil is entered, cold, damp, and
unfit for agricultural purposes. This is the region of forest lying northwestward of the mountains in the southern
portions of Saint Lawrence and Franklin counties, and has not yet been badly encroached upon by the ax and
fire. The destruction of this forest would be a public calamity, so useless is the soil for any other purpose than
the production of timber, and so harmful to the settled country below would be the consequences resulting from
clearing it. This forest is, no doubt, capable of yielding, perpetually, an annual crop double that now drawn from
it. This estimate, of course, is based upon the supposition that fires are prevented. But this side of the forest is
less invaded by fires than the valley of the Hudson river, and fires do not burn so deeply into the soil nor consume
so much of the vegetable matter; they are, consequently, less fatal to the continuance of timber growth.
At Canton, in Saint Lawrence county, and in its vicinity as far down as Buck's bridge, below Morley, is
sawed all the lumber cut on the Grass river. From this point the lumber is shipped principally to Massachusetts
and Connecticut by rail, both via Rome and via Plattsburgh and Rouse's Point.
Colonel Colton, of Norwood upon the Racket river, explained to me at length the methods employed by him
in the lumber business, and, as nearly the same methods are pursued throughout this region, I give his account.
Several weeks of the summer he devotes to exploring the lands of his company, to decide from what tract the stock
of logs for the following year shall be drawn. In the settlements near the margin of the forest are men whose
business it is to cut and haul onto the ice of the river during winter the timber desired by the lumber companies.
Contracts are made with these men to harvest the timber above a certain diameter on certain specified tracts belonging
to the company. The contractors go to their respective fields of labor as soon as the snow is of sufficient depth, taking
into the woods a force of men, horses, and supplies, and building camps in the vicinity of their work. When a
full stock of logs is placed on the river, and the spring floods break up the ice and set the logs going, other contracts
are made with the same or other men to drive the logs into the booms of the different mills at a stipulated price
per log. If, as is usually the case, logs of several different companies are on the same river, all are driven down
in common, and the drive is called a 'union drive'. Arrived at the uppermost boom-formed by chaining together
logs floating on the surface of the water and held in place by occasional piers, strong but rude structures of logs
filled in with rocks, located above the first sawing station-the logs belonging to these mills are sorted out and
turned into the different booms, while those belonging below are sent on their way down the channel. Once within
the boom of the mills to which they belong, they are again assorted; the pine, hemlock, and the spruce are separated,
and the different grades are floated into separate booms or pockets which lead down to the different mills or saws
which are to cut up each separate class. At the mills inclined planes lead down to the water from each gang
of saws, up which, chains being attached to the logs, they are drawn by the machinery into the mill. After
sawing, the sorting of the lumber into different grades is completed with care. The boards are run through
planing-mills which smooth both sides, then through other machines which tongue and groove their edges, and finally
fine saws neatly trim their ends. This dressing of the lumber at the mills makes a saving in freight when it is
shipped, besides greatly facilitating sales. Colonel Colton invited me to accompany him 20 or 30 miles up the
river to see the drive' which was just coming out of the woods. The highway by which we drove led near the
river, and we could see the logs everywhere coming down, advancing endwise with the current. In many places
of still water the entire breadth of the river for some distance was closely covered with them. These were not so
small as those usually seen in the Maine rivers, but were from full-grown trees of the original forest-spruce from
1 foot to 2 feet in diameter. With the spruce logs were a few hemlocks, usually of larger size; a few pine logs,
sometimes 2 or 3 feet in diameter, floated with the others. As the water was lowering, stranded logs were seen
everywhere along the shore. They covered gravel banks and bars in the middle of the river, and were piled in
disorder on the rocks of the rapids, or, pushing over the waterfalls, stood on end in the midst of the white, pouring
torrent.
"A few miles above Potsdam we entered upon a sandy soil; the farms appeared less productive and the farm
buildings and fences gave evidence of less thrift. As we advanced toward Colton, a region near the borders of
the forest some twenty years settled, less and less prosperity amcng the settlers was manifest. The tilled fields
appeared incapable of yielding even passably good crops; some of them could do no more than give a small crop
of rye once in three years. The grass lands were red with sorrel, which comes up everywhere over this region as
soon as the forest is cleared and the ground burned over. The sandy soil is cold and sour, in some places so light
as to be blown about by the wind. Above South Colton we drove over sandy plains utterly incapable of sustaining
the meager population, which ekes out a wretched existence by means of fishing and lumbering. My companion
affirmed that settlements had been pushed farther into the forest than they can be maintained, and that they must
in most places be abandoned and the land given up to forest again. All along our way the woodlands were








THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 505

straggling and sadly ravaged by the ax, fire, and wind. The spruce and pine had been culled out and most of the
hemlock had been cut down and barked. Half-burned stumps and logs and gaunt and blackened trunks still
standing disfigured the landscape on every side.
"The species of trees observed embraced all those common in northern woodlands. In one locality black
cherry was remarkably abundant. Formerly the saw-mills of Colton cut pine, as there was a larger proportion
df this lumber upon the Racket than is usually found in northern New York; now they do little business in any
lumber.
"As we passed up along the river I saw small squads of 'drivers' stationed in a few places where the character
of the river was such that it was liable to, become obstructed with logs. By assisting the logs to pass such places
great jams are prevented. The main body of the men, however, worked at the rear of the drive, scrambling over
the disordered piles of logs which accumulate upon the shore or lodge against the rocks in the midst of the current.
With their cant-hooks the men pry and roll the logs into the current, springing about on the pile as the logs roll
from under their feet. Not unfrequently logs are left by the subsiding waters among the rocks at some distance
from the main channel of the river. Files of men on each side then seize them with their cant-hooks and, splashing
through the shallow water, bring them by main force into the channel. Sometimes logs become fastened among
the rocks where the current is so swift that they cannot be reached by a boat or in any other way. Then hooks
attached to ropes are thrown out from the shore; the logs are grappled and thus hauled off into the current. The
drivers work Sundays and week days, fair weather or foul; their occupation is full of peril, and men are lost every
year. Such are usually, as a driver assured me, 'men who do not know where it is safe to go.' But sometimes
the most careful men become mixed with the rolling logs or seized by the current of the waterfalls and are swept away.
"Franklin county contains 995,279 acres, and 347,500 acres are still believed to be timbered. The timbered
portion lies in the south end of the county, and because it is not watered through much of its area by streams of
sufficient size for driving out the logs, much of the timber is inaccessible, or rather, the prices of lumber do not
yet warrant hauling the logs long distances. The country across the line of the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain
railroad appears exhausted of its spruce and hemlock. Some tracts of hard wood are still standing, but the poplars,
whose young growth often conceals the stumps and prostrate trunks of dead hemlocks, really seem in many places
the most common species. But little timber land remains in Clinton county and, until the present season, lumbering
on the Saranac had been for several years nearly suspended. This year, however, a company was cutting a few
million feet of lumber drawn from the woods of Essex and Franklin counties. The lumber of the eastern side of
the Adirondack wilderness mostly comes out by the way of the Saranac and the Hudson rivers. The mountain
sides about lake George are being denuded of their spruce, which is sawed in the vicinity of Ticonderoga, and here,
as elsewhere, fires follow the ax in their usual fashion."
The forests of the Adirondack region have suffered severe loss at different times, particularly in 1878, by
the sudden death of great blocks of black spruce. Mr. Pringle carefully studied the extent of this destruction
and the causes which produced it. In regard to these, great diversity of opinion exists among woodsmen and
others familiar with the Adirondack forests. It has been generally supposed that the trees were killed by an
unusually severe summer drought, or by the attacks of a boring insect working under the bark; but the testimony
gathered by Mr. Pringle points to other causes of destruction. The spruce occupies dry mountain slopes and
ridges and deep wet swamps never greatly affected by drought. It is noticed that as many trees have died in
the swamps as upon the dry slopes. It is evidently not drought, then, which has caused them to perish. The
opinion, too, is firmly held by the most intelligent observers that insects do not attack the trees until they are
dead or nearly dead, and are never found in vigorous living specimens.
The black spruce is not a long-lived tree, and this dying out may indicate that the old trees of this forest, probably
all of nearly the same age, had so nearly reached the limits of their natural existence as to be unable to withstand
some unusual or severe climatic state, such as a period of intense winter cold or late spring frost. The following
extracts from Mr. Pringle's report will indicate the opinions of those best able perhaps to form an opinion upon
this subject:
Mr. Mark Moody, residing at the foot of Tupper lake, a hunter and woodsman who has passed his life in the
forest, testifies as follows: The spruce died fearfully in his vicinity about two years ago; he tried to learn the cause.
Sixteen years ago the spruce had died out much in the same way as it has been doing lately. It is the older trees
which die. They seem to die by crops, successively. Under the large trees were always springing up small trees
to take the places of those that perish. There seems to be a narrower limit to the life of the spruce than to that
of any other species. Other trees do not die in the same manner, by crops. The spruce does not seem to enjoy the
same green old age, long drawn out, as other trees do, but when it has reached its full growth seems to relinquish
its vitality without any apparent or sufficient cause, and before giving evidence of decay or any diminution of
vigor.'
"Mr. Wardner, of Bloomingdale, Essex county, an old hunter, woodsman, and guide, testified as follows: 'The
spruce timber on this side of the forest has failed clear through to its northern borders, in the same manner and
during the same seasons as in other portions of the region.' Mr. Wardner first noticed the leaves falling and
covering the ground in 1878; the destruction was continued through 1879, but during the past season he had met








506 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

with very few trees that were dying. Spruce timber had perished in this manner before, and he pointed out a
broad valley in which most of the trees were dead and falling wheh he came into this region, twenty-five years
before. He had carefully endeavored to ascertain the cause; was positive that insects either under the bark or
upon the leaves had nothing to do with the death of the spruce trees, and he is sure that it is not due to drought,
as he has seen the greatest destruction on the northern slopes. No active destructive agent being apparent, he
inclines to the opinion that the spruce trees die because they have reached the limit of their life, and that it is
some peculiarity of the winter rather than the summer that turns the scale against them; for this reason they
perish in quantities, sometimes in sections. He has counted the rings of many trees, and considers 100 to 150 years
the average lifetime of the spruce."
Whatever has caused the destruction of these forests, the damage thus occasioned, both in the loss of valuable
timber and in the increased danger of forest fires from the presence of such a body of dead wood is enormous. It
is believed by Mr. Pringle that from one-third to one-half of the fully-grown spruce timber left in the Adirondack
region is dead.
NEW JERSEY.

The original forests of New Jersey have disappeared, except from some of the highest and most inaccessible
ridges situated in the northwestern part of the state, and these, with the increased demands of the railroads
for ties and other material, are now fast losing their forest covering. The forests of New Jersey are insufficient to
supply the wants of the population of the state, and nearly all the lumber it consumes is brought from beyond its
limits. The forests of pitch pine, which once covered large areas in the southern counties, have now generally
been replaced by a stunted growth of oaks and other broad-leaved trees.
The forests of New Jersey, especially those on the dry sandy soil of the southern part of the state, have long
suffered from destructive fires. During the census year 71,074 acres of forest were reported destroyed by fire,
causing a loss of $252,240. Of these fires twenty-eight were set by locomotives, seven through malice, seven by
fires set on farms escaping to the forest, and six each by the carelessness of hunters and charcoal-burners.
The manufacture of cooperage stock and other industries using hard woods have been largely abandoned,
owing to the decrease of the local supply of timber.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Pennsylvania once possessed vast forests of white pine and hemlock stretching over both flanks oi the
Alleghany mountains and extending from the northern boundaries of the state to its southern limits. East and
west of the Alleghany region the whole country was covered with a heavy growth of broad-leaved trees mixed
with hemlocks and occasional groves of pines. Merchantable pine has now almost disappeared from the state,
and the forests of hard wood have been either replaced by a second growth or have been so generally culled of
their best trees that comparatively little valuable hard-wood timber now remains. Large and valuable growths of
hemlock, however, are still standing in northwestern Pennsylvania. From all parts of the state manufacturers
using hard wood report great deterioration and scarcity of material, and Pennsylvania, which during the census
.year was only surpassed by Michigan in the value of its forest crop, must soon lose, with its rapidly disappearing
forests, its position as one of the great lumber-producing states.
The following estimates of merchantable pine and hemlock standing in Pennsylvania May 31, 1880, have been
prepared by Mr. H. C. Putnam. They are based upon the reports of a large number of timber-land owners and
-experts familiar with the forests of the state:
WHITE PINE (Pinus Strobus).

Regions. Feet, board
measure.

Alleghany river and tributaries...................................... 500, 000, 000
W est Branch of the Susquehanna river and tributaries.............. 1, 300, 000, 000
Total.......................................................... 1,800,000,000

Estimated amount cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880..... 380, 000, 000

HEMLOCK (Tsuga Canadensis).

Estimated amount of hemlock standing May 31, 1880 ................ 4, 500, 000, 000
Estimated amount cut for the census year, exclusive of trees cut for 30, 000, 000
their bark alone.

Of lumber of all kinds 1,848,304,000 feet, including 288,561,000 shingles and 183,740,000 laths, were manufactured
in the state during the census year; the nature of the returns, however, prevents anything beyond an estimate,
tased upon extended correspondence, of the amount of pine and hemlock sawed.








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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 507

Numerous bodies of pine too small to be indicated on the map, of no great commercial importance and not
included in these estimates, still remain scattered over the region originally occupied by pine forest.
The forests of Pennsylvania, especially through the mountain regions, have long suffered from destructive fires.
During the census year 685738 acres of forest were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $3,043,723. Of these
fires a large proportion were traced to locomotives and the escape of fires from farms to the forest.
The forests of Pennsylvania produced during the year 1879 2,866,010 pounds of maple sugar.
The following extracts are made from Mr. Pringle's report upon the principal lumber-producing regions of
the state:
"Originally the broad pine belt of northern Pennsylvania, occupying the region drained by the numerous
streams constituting the headwaters of the Susquehanna, extended from Susquehanna county, in the northeastern
corner of the state, westward through Bradford and Tioga counties to Potter county, although this county never had
as.much pine as the others, and thence southwestward over Cameron, Elk, and Clearfield counties. The heaviest
growth of pine in all this region was on Pine creek, in the southwest part of Tioga county. Now there is but
little pine left in Susquehanna and Bradford counties, these counties being thickly settled; and in Tioga county,
from which one firm alone has cut four billion feet, there now remain standing but little over one billion feet. The
greatest part of the pine now standing in the Pennsylvania forests is on the upper waters of the West Branch of
the Susquehanna, in Cameron, Elk, and Clearfield counties. In some of the counties adjoining these, as McKean,
there was once, and still may be, a little pine timber.
"Active lumbering operations on the West Branch of the Susquebanna were begun in 1850, when the boom
of the Susquehanna Boom Company was constructed at Williamsport. At this place the greatest part of the
lumber on the West Branch is sawed. At Lock Haven, 25 miles above, on the same river, advantage was taken of
the feeder-dam of a canal to construct another boom, and a few companies operating in lumber are now located
there, about one-tenth as much lumber being sawed as is handled at Williamsport. Some of the companies,
however, are removing from Lock Haven to the larger center of Williamsport. Below Williamsport no logs are
driven, but a little timber squared by the ax in the woods and left at full length is made into rafts and taken
down the main Susquehanna. Some of this is sawed in the towns on the river, and the remainder is taken to the
large markets to supply the demand for squared timber for ship-building, etc.
"Williamsport is situated on the north or left bank of the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and for 2 or 3
miles along the river side are ranged the mills and lumber-yards of the thirty-four lumber companies operating here.
We visited a large number of mills and found much the same methods employed in all. The logs are first slit up
by gang-saws; then each board or plank is put through an edger, where two circular saws cut a strip from each
side to give the board a square and straight edge; the boards are then assorted into two or more grades, loaded
on trucks, and moved over tramways which ramify through the lumber-yards adjacent to each mill. The fragments
of boards and better portions of the edgings are made into fence pickets and other portions into laths, and the
fragments and strips which will not even make laths are carried to one side and added to a burning pile. The
fragments thus burned (rather than thrown into the river) constitute the only waste, for the sawdust supplies the
engines with fuel. This being cut chiefly from heart-wood makes better and more easily handled fuel than the sap-
wood strips. Even these are, however, often cut and put up into bundles of kindling-wood for city use.
"In the woods the trees are sawed into logs 12, 16, or 18 feet in length, as can be done to the best advantage
and the least waste of timber.
"The West Branch of the Susquehanna must be an exceptionally fine river to drive, judging from the
comparatively unbattered condition of the logs seen about the mills. The smaller streams in the woods are
furnished with flood-dams, and from these extend throughout the timber belt numerous narrow-gauge railroads,
tramways, and slides for bringing down the logs. Little hauling is done upon wagons or sleds, the ground in the
woods being too rough, it is said, for hauling logs with teams. It is probable that snow does not fill up the
depressions and smooth the surfaces to the same extent as in the northern woods.
The lumbermen of this place at first were content to send their lumber to market in the simplest shape, but
of late, as the supply diminishes more and more, mills and shops are being built for the manufacture of doors,
sashes, blinds, packing-boxes, furniture, etc. Some companies have so exhausted their pine lands that they can in
future only carry on business in this way, buying the rough timber from their neighbors. As the pine lands of one
firm after another are exhausted the pine remaining comes to be held by a very few parties, who know its value.
Not all of these are operators, but, living at a distance, sell stumpage to manufacturers.
"The following table, giving the amounts of lumber rafted out of the Susquehanna boom at Williamsport
since the record has been kept, may be of interest as showing something of the rise and decline of the lumber
business at this important center. The greatest prosperity or fullest development of the business was attained,
as will be seen, in 1873. After that year, with the steady decrease of the supply of pine and the consequent
increase of expense in securing logs, the annual stock steadily diminished until 1877. During the past three years
the increasing demand for lumber has stimulated the operators to greater activity, but more than to this cause the
recent gain in the yearly stocks is due to the substitution of hemlock for pine, the ratio of hemlock to pine








508 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

being at present as 1 to 4, although the average for the last seven years is but as 1 to 10. As the supply of pine,
timber is exhausted, hemlock will be more and more handled until it will become the most important timber of this'
region. The summary is made for the last eight years only:

ei e Feet, board
Years. Number logs. t, ard Years. Number logs. Fee oard
lne Sure. measure.

1862........................ 196,953 37,853,621 1875....................... 1, 096, 897 210,746,956
1863........................ 405,175 76, 475, 826 1876..................... .. 715,087 134,396,293
1864........................ 511, 549 96, 595, 681 1877........................ 589, 827 106, 944, 257
1865........................ 379, 392 72, 421,468 1878........................ 617, 552 112, 069, 602
1866.........4 1879 ... ... ..... 6......... ........... 1,040,278 190,549,111
3867........................ 833, 38 163, 196,511 1880 (to November 21)...... 763,768 128,558,959
1 1868...................... 853, 663 165, 338, 389
18609.................... .... 3, 60805 11 3, 338, 300 05 873 to i88o (eight years) ... 7,395,455 1, 382,342,272
189 ........................ . 1,060,511 223,060,305 Los rc3ain g in river i
Loss rTiEaining in river
87 .................... 1,009,777 225, 180, 973 november 21, 1880..................... 25,000,000
1871....................... 842,129 116,661,181
1872 ........................ 1,484, 103 297, 185, 652 1,407,342,272
1873........................ 1,582,460 318, 342, 712 :Deduct hemlock ..... ............... 140,734,227
1874........................ 989,586 180, 734, 32 W illiamsport pine, 1873-1880 .............. 1,266, 608, 045

"It is proper to add that the variations in the yearly stock of logs shown above are in some measure due to a
greater or less proportion of each annual cut being left behind in the woods or in the streams, from varying supplies
of water or from other peculiarities of the season.
"The lumber manufactured at Lock Haven and Williamsport is shipped by railroad and canal to Baltimore and
Philadelphia and to intermediate cities and stations.
"I .found it more difficult to obtain information of the extent and limits of the hemlock woods of Pennsylvania,
and of the amount of the standing timber and the annual crop of hemlock, than I did to get the same facts respecting
the pine. Lumbermen agree that there was originally far more hemlock in this state than pine, and they speak of
it now as inexhaustible, which is not strictly true, for it is doubtful if it holds out to supply the increasing drain
made upon it by tanneries and saw-mills for more than twenty-five years to come. Large quantities of hemlock
have been wasted. Much that grew intermingled with the pine has died after the pine has been removed, partly
from exposure to fuller sunlight and summer drought, and partly to forest fires induced by and following lumber
operations. In the early days of the tanning industry of this region, when hemlock lumber was esteemed of little
value, and whenever of late years the lumber trade has been so dull as to offer no inducement to send to market
the trunks of the trees felled for their bark, large quantities of these have been left in the woods to decay. Now,
however, with a good market for hemlock lumber, tanning companies owning hemlock lands, or the contractors who
furnish the tanneries with bark, buying for this purpose stumpage from the proprietors of the timber-lands, often
own saw-mills in the timber region, and cut and ship this lumber to market by railroad.
'Inasmuch as hemlock, besides mingling more or less with pine throughout the pine belt, seems to have formed
a border entirely around the pine, the extent of the hemlock woods, as well as the quantity of hemlock timber, has
always been much greater than of pine. Beginning in Wayne county, in the extreme northeastern corner of the
state, the original hemlock forest extended westward through the northern tier of counties as far as Warren
county, in the vicinity of lake Erie. Thence its bounds may be traced southward through Forest, Clarion, and
Jefferson, and thence eastward through Clearfield, Center, Clinton, Lycoming, and Sullivan counties. Now the
northeastern counties are for the most part cleared, and not only have the outskirts of these woods been cut off
on all sides, but their continuity has been completely broken up throughout its whole extent by countless clearings
and settlements. Yet, however much the hemlock forest has suffered, it possesses to-day greater value than did all
the pine standing in 1850. Quite neglected a few years ago, hemlock is appreciating rapidly in value and importance,
and ere many years shall have passed it will be almost the only kind of lumber known in the Williamsport market.
The best grades of hemlock bring as high a price as scrub pine, the product of the shorter and more knotty trees
grown on high land. Although as a rule Pennsylvania hemlock is of superior quality, much of it being nearly as
good as spruce, yet here, as well as elsewhere, considerable variation in quality is noticed. Lumbermen classify
hemlock into two kinds, red and white, according to the character of the wood, but the more intelligent among
them attribute the difference to soil and situation. White hemlock, being sounder, firmer, and straighter grained,
constitutes the highest grade. Red hemlock is more brittle, more inclined to splinter, and liable to be found more
or less decayed when the trees have gained full size. In this condition trees are said to be' shaky'. Such timber is
generally found on bottom lands, while the hemlock of high hillsides is apt to be short and scrubby. The quality
of the hemlock seems to deteriorate west from the center of the state. The Pine Creek hemlock is considered better
than that of the Sinnamahoning, and this better than that on the Alleghany. Seldom more than two good logs can
be obtained from a trunk, the third and fourth logs being generally inferior and knotty; 8,000 feet per acre is here
considered a good yield of hemlock, and 10,000 feet a large yield.
From Williamsport to Lock Haven the valley of the West Branch of the Susquehanna is usually less than a
mile in width, being bounded by abrupt and rocky ridges a few hundred feet in height. At Lock Haven we







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 509

ascended the ridge on the south side of the river, some 800 feet in altitude, in order to examine the moderate forest
growth with which it was covered. In favorable places scattering specimens of white pine indicated the crop these
hills have yielded the lumberman in former years.. Hemlock, also, was scattered over the hillsides, but even as
late as the present year most of the trees in this immediate neighborhood had been felled for their bark; their
peeled trunks lay strewn over the hillsides, being left to decay within a mile or two of the saw-mills of Lock
Haven. The summit of the ridge afforded a good view of the surrounding country. Parallel ridges of a similar
altitude, and which appeared more heavily timbered, lay back of the one on which we stood; between them were
seen narrow valleys occupied by farms. On the north or opposite side of the river successive ridges rose higher
and higher as they receded from the river, and in the distance seemed to lose themselves in a plateau whose
altitude was equal to that of the ground on which we were standing. The gentle slopes and rounded summits
immediately above the river showed smooth, cultivated fields interspersed among woodlands of deciduous trees.
The more distant heights displayed a darker forest growth where hemlock and pines predominated.
From Lock Haven to Warren, the county-seat of Warren county, even on the hillsides overlooking the river,
,close to the banks of which the railroad crept, but especially where we were able to look into the deep runs coming
down to the river by a gradual descent from the table-lands of the divides, seldom more than a few miles back
above the river, we saw much original forest still standing and principally composed of hemlock. Some white
pine appeared as scattering trees or in groves, and some hard wood. The proportion of hard wood increased as
we ascended the divide between the waters of the Susquehanna and those of the Alleghany river.
On the summit of this divide the forest had a truly northern aspect, except that we missed the spruce, not
seen in Pennsylvania. The dark foliage of the hemlock mingled with sugar maples, beeches, and birches. For
many miles above Lock Haven it was a second growth which occupied the hillsides, a thin growth of white oak,
chestnut, locust, etc., which had followed the lumberman and forest fires. Considerable second-growth white pine
was seen in a few places, but on this none of the present generation seem to set much value, and I have yet to
meet any one in the state who gives a thought to encouraging and preserving such growth. To consume the forcsts
as speedily as possible, satisfied with what can be realized from them in the operation, appears to be the spirit
which rules this region. Alternating here and there with the original forest mentioned above were seen all along
the railroad leading through this timber belt, but especially in the vicinity of the settlements and lumbered districts,
tracts which have been ranged by fire. Sometimes the fires had spread from the clearings into unculled timber,
killing everything, large and small. Sometimes 'hemlock slashes' had burned over after the trees had been cut
.and 'peeled'. Always the charred stumps thickly dotted the ground, and the blackened, half-consumed trunks
strewn over the soil in confusion gave to the landscape an aspect of complete desolation. The bird cherries and
poplars, which in the forests farther north soon cover and hide from view such wastes of ruin, are wanting here.
I learned that the best hemlock grows on the steep sides of the deep runs, and that upon the summits of the
divides were considerable barrens, the soil of which was sometimes too poor to support any arboreal growth.
Farther to the west the summits of the dividing ridges are occupied by hard wood chiefly, although hemlocks
mingle with the beeches and maples.
Arrived at Warren, we find that we have passed through the woods and are in a long-settled and well-
improved country, and, judging from the scattered patches of woodlands occupying the low hills within view, the
region of hard-wood forest has been reached. The coniferous forest belt only extends into the southeastern quarter
of Warren county; the northern and western portions, lying beyond the Alleghany river, yield oak, chestnut,
hickory, etc. Originally there was a little pine scattered over the southeastern portion of Warren county, but this
has been mostly cut, and hemlock remains, as it ever has been, the most important timber in this part of the county.
In Forest county, next south of Warren, pine is local, being scattered in small quantities throughout the county.
On the highlands there is much hard wood, beech, maple, and white wood existing in belts between the streams.
This, however, may be called a hemlock county. In McKean county a central table-land is covered principally by
a growth of maple, beech, etc. In the remaining portions of the county the timber is chiefly hemlock. The valley
of the Alleghany river, in the eastern part of McKean county, is mostly cleared and improved. Elk county is
one of the best counties for hemlock. Through Elk, the southwestern corner of McKean, and the southeastern
corner of Warren runs the Philadelphia and Erie railroad. Along the line of this road, as it passes through this
portion of the timber belt, are located the largest tanneries of the United States. These are consuming the hemlock
of this region at an enormous rate, and, in addition to the vast amount of bark which they consume, large quantities
are shipped out of the region by railroad. The first important tanneries of Warren county were established, 12 or
15 years ago, and at the present rate of consumption the hemlock of this county can hardly hold out 20 years
longer. The land, after the forest has been removed, is excellent for agricultural purposes throughout this region,
and on all sides pioneers are making themselves farms. These men prefer to begin in the undisturbed forest rather
than locate on the slashes, because they can pay for their land with the hemlock bark which it yields; and from a
radius of 15 miles bark is drawn and sold at from $4 50 to $5 a cord to the tanneries. On an average, four trees yield a
cord or ton of bark, the equivalent of 1,000 feet of lumber, board measure. In Warren county from 5,000 to 6,000
acres of hemlock were cut down in 1880, and there is no possibility of this growth being renewed, for every foot of
slashed land is eventually burned over, and sometimes the burnings are repeated until the soil is nearly ruined for
agricultural purpose. From the dry slashes the fires extend to a greater or less distance through the living








510 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

woods, ruining not only heavy bodies of hemlock, but also destroying the belts of hard wood intermixed with the,
hemlock. Notwithstanding stringent legislation in this state upon the subject of forest fires, they seem inevitable,
and especially so in the slashes. They spread from the clearings constantly made throughout this timber belt by
the settlers, and, as the forest abounds in deer and its streams are stocked with fish, hunters and fishermen are
always in the woods, and from their camp fires spread many conflagrations. Many fires here also are set by a tribe
of half-civilized Indians residing in this region, to burn over the huckleberry fields in order that the bushes may
renew themselves and yield fuller crops; or, where it is so easy to start a fire and conceal its origin, many doubtless
arise from malice.
In this region the aspen springs up on land upon which the hemlock has been destroyed, but this tree
manifestly does not thrive as it does in northern woods. Yellow, and black birch, bird cherry, beech, maple, white
oak, chestnut, black cherry, etc., are the trees which spring up slowly among the briers, and cover burned land
with a rather meager second growth. If a few pines have been left on the hilltops they may scatter a few seeds and
give rise to some saplings, but as regards hemlock, fires kill it out clean, seedlings and seed; and if the 'peelers'
and the fires happen to leave any scattering trees standing, these, being more sensitive to changed conditions
than pines, are seldom able long to survive as seed bearers. The bird cherry only thrives on cold, wet soils
here. There is another phase of the slaughter of the hemlock forest: As the pine forest gives out, large numbers
of laborers turn to the hemlock woods and find employment as bark peelers. In the pine woods work is mostly
suspended when spring arrives; then larger numbers of men come into the hemlock woods than can find work at
satisfactory wages, and these sometimes set fires in the slashes, which spread into the living woods and kill large
quantities of hemlock. To save the bark it must be peeled at once, or before it adheres to the wood and becomes
injured by worms, and thus employment is given to a larger force of men.
The pine now remaining in Clearfield county is mostly found in the northern and the southwestern portions
of the county. The eastern and southeastern portions are now principally cleared and improved, as the entire
county is destined to be, the soil being principally a strong, clayey loam, excellent for farming purposes. Already
four-fifths of the pine timber originally standing in the county has been removed; most of the hemlock, which
originally about equaled in amount the pine, remains. There are no tanneries in this region, and after the pine is
cut the hemlock is next harvested, the bark being saved and shipped to the tanneries below to the amount of from
5,000 to 6,000 cords annually. Fires are here sometimes started by hunters in order to clear away the young second
growth, that they may be able better to see the deer. One important reason which lumbermen have for planting
their saw-mills near the woods, in preference to driving all their logs to the sawing centers below, is that they can
then work into shingles, etc., many trees which, being defective by reason of rotten spots or other blemishes, would
not be worth driving down the river. Such trees are seen standing here and there all through the woods, having
been left behind by the lumbermen. Sometimes persons buy this culled timber and erect shingle-mills, etc., to
work it up.
"With respect to the maximum yield of pine per acre, it would seem that 10,000 feet was a good yield for tracts
of 400 or 500 acres in extent, although smaller tracts of 50 acres and upward will often cut 25,000 feet to the acre,
and even a yield of 100,000 feet to the acre has been reported. The rough'nature of the surface in all this region
often necessitates the use of slides to bring the logs from the forest to the streams. They are constructed by
pinning to ties of hemlock some 3 feet in length hemlock logs about a foot in diameter placed side by side,
their inner sides above the point of contact being hewn with care to form a broad V-shaped trough along which the
logs may be slid. Except where there is considerable descent logs cannot be slid unless the weather is frosty,
when the slide can be kept icy by means of water sprinkled over it from time to time. Slides sometimes are
built for 6 or 8 miles back into the woods, usually following up some run so as to get an even and gentle grade.
By this means the greatest part of the logs come down to the streams, for sleds are not used in this country. Most
of the hazard of lumbering depends upon the lumberman's ability to slide his logs successfully. They can be cut
at any time in the woods, and almost any year can be driven to the mills when once in the water, but mild weather
interrupts sliding and deep snows impede the operation; so that in open winters lumbermen are sometimes
compelled to do their sliding in the night time, when ice will form on the slide. The logs, stripped of their bark, are
drawn singly, by horses with chains, from the places where they have fallen to the upper end of the slide. When
a sufficient number-from 6 to 40, according to the grade and the size of the logs-have been placed end to end in
the slide, the hook of a chain is driven into the rear log near its forward end, and horses are attached which walk
a tow-path formed on one side of the slide, and push ahead of them the I trail7 of logs, thus bringing them down to
the stream.
"Only in the late autumn and in the winter is it thought expedient in Pennsylvania to fell pine; if cut in summer,
when the bark will part from the wood, the sap-wood soon assumes a blackish appearance and disfigures the
lumber. As a rule hemlock is here cut and peeled in summer, at the time when operations in pine are suspended;
thus by alternating operations in pine and hemlock the hands are kept employed throughout the whole year. In
cutting trees the several parts of the work are allotted to different men; some merely fell the trees, others measure
them off into suitable lengths and cut away the limbs as far as the upper end of the last log taken, where they
sever the top of the tree from the trunk by means of the ax; others follow in pairs with cross-cut saws and cut
the trunk into logs."


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TENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES


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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 511






SOUTH ATLANTIC DIVISION.




DELAWARE.
The northern portion of the state, comprising New Castle and Kent counties, was once covered with the
deciduous forests of the Atlantic plain. Conifers, with the exception of the red cedar, were rare. In the sandy
soil of the southern part of the state various pitch pines flourished, forming fully one-half of the forest growth.
These pine forests were long ago consumed and are now replaced by a second growth, generally composed of the species
which originally occupied the ground; and throughout the state the best hard-wood timber has been culled from
the forest. Large quantities of wheel and cooperage stock were formerly manufactured in the northern counties;
but of late years these and other industries using the products of the forest have, for want of material, generally
decreased in importance. The manufacturers report a general scarcity of timber.
During the census year 3,305 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $15,675. Of
such fires six were set by locomotives, six by the careless burners of brush upon farms, and two through malice.
KENT COUNTY.-About one-quarter of this county is reported covered with forest. A few small mills saw oak
from the immediate neighborhood into shipstuff and car lumber, shipping to Wilmington, Philadelphia, and even
to New York.
NEW CASTLE COUNTY.-About one-quarter of this county is reported covered with woodland, mostly of second
growth and attached to farms. The large establishments for the manufacture of gunpowder, located in the
neighborhood of Wilmington, consume large amounts of willow wood, generally grown for the purpose upon farms
in their immediate vicinity.
SussEx COUNTY.-One-third to one-half of this county is reported covered with woodland. Numerous small
mills, obtaining their supply of logs from the immediate neighborhood, saw oak for shipstuff.

MARYLAND.

The northwestern portion of the state, crossed by the ridges of the Appalachian system, was once covered with
the forests of white pine, hemlock, birch, and maple peculiar to this mountain region. The central portion of the
state, extending from the mountains to the shores of Chesapeake bay, was covered with oaks, hickories, gums, and
other deciduous trees in great variety, the eastern peninsula largely with different species of pitch pine, occupying
sandy plains, or mixed with deciduous trees.
In the mountain region considerable bodies of the original forest remain upon the highest and most
inaccessible slopes; in the remainder of the state this, where the land has not been permanently cleared for
agriculture, is now largely replaced by a second growth, or-the best timber at least-has been everywhere culled.
A large amount of cooperage stock was formerly manufactured in this state. This industry has, however,
greatly suffered from the deterioration and exhaustion of the local supply of timber; manufacturers report the
best stock nearly exhausted and the substitution for oak, formerly exclusively used, of elm and other inferior
woods now brought from beyond the limits of the state.
During the census year 41,076 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by forest fires, with a loss of $37,425.
These fires were traced to the carelessness of hunters, to locomotives, and largely to the'escape from farms to the
forest of fires set in clearing land. The principal lumber manufacturing establishments using Maryland logs are
situated in Garrett county; these saw white pine, hemlock, and oak to supply a limited local demand and ship to
Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Wheeling; considerable oak timber is sent to Europe from this county.
During the year 1879 the northern counties produced 176,076 pounds of maple sugar.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
The original forest has disappeared from the District of Columbia and has been replaced by a second and
third growth of oaks, scrub pines, and other trees. The area occupied with woods is probably slowly increasing.
A single saw-mill, situated in the city of Washington, saws logs grown beyond the limits of the District.

VIRGINIA.

The forests of Virginia, like those of the Carolinas and Georgia, fall naturally into three divisions, dependent
upon the elevation and soil of the different parts of the state. The mountains and ridges of its western border are






512 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

covered with a heavy growth of pine, hemlock, white oak, cherry, yellow poplar, and other northern trees; over
the region extending east of the mountains oaks, principally black oaks, once formed the prevailing forest growth;
through these are now mingled long stretches of various pitch pines, occupying exhausted and barren soil once
devoted to agriculture. The eastern counties are covered with the forests of the Maritime Pine Belt, generally
confined to the Tertiary deposits of the coast and extending inland to the head of tide-water of the principal
streams; along the western borders of this pine belt the forest growth is nearly equally divided between the pines
and the broad;leaved species.
The inaccessible mountain region in the southwestern part of the state still contains immense quantities of the
original oak, hickory, walnut, and cherry, the scanty population of these mountains having made but slight inroads
upon the forests. Railroads have hardly penetrated them, while the streams which head here are unsuited to carry
to market the hard woods of which this forest is largely composed. The most valuable hard-wood forest remaining
on the continent exists in southwestern Virginia'and the adjacent counties of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee,
and North Carolina. From the central and eastern portions of the state the original forest has almost entirely
disappeared, and is now replaced by a second growth, in which the Jersey pine and the old-field pine are characteristic
features, generally replacing more valuable species of the original growth.
During the census year 272,319 acres of woodland were reported ravaged by fire, with a loss of $326,944. Of
such fires the largest number was traced to the careless burning of brush upon farms and to locomotives.
The manufacture of cooperage stock is increasing rapidly in the western part of the state, and great quantities
of staves are exported thence directly to Europe, as well as oak, yellow poplar, and walnut in the log. The
manufacture of tobacco cases-from sycamore lumber is an important industry in the neighborhood of Lynchburg
and other tobacco-distributing centers. Considerable quantities of hand-made shingles are produced in the
cypress swamps which occupy a large portion of Norfolk and other eastern counties. A large amount of second-
growth pine (Pinus TIeda) is shipped from the different Virginia ports by schooner to New York for fuel, and,ms
second-growth pine furnishes the principal building material used throughout the state. The grinding of oak and
sumach bark and the manufacture of tanning extracts are important and profitable industries of the state.

WEST VIRGINIA.
The forests of West Virginia, with the exception of the belt of pine and spruce confined to the high ridge
.of the Alleghany mountains, are principally composed of broad-leaved trees, the most important of which are the
white and chestnut oaks, the black walnut, the yellow poplar, and the cherry. The white pine and spruce forests
reach within the state their southern limit as important sources of lumber supply.
The forests have been largely removed from the counties bordering the Ohio river, and the most valuable hard-
wood timber adjacent to the principal streams, especially black walnut, cherry, and yellow poplar, has been culled in
nearly every part of the state. But slight inroads, however, have yet been made into the magnificent body of
hard-wood timber covering the extreme southern counties, which still contain vast quantities of oak, cherry, and
poplar.
The black walnut found scattered everywhere in West Virginia is least plentiful in the northwestern and Ohio
River counties, and most abundant along the upper waters of the rivers flowing into- the Ohio through the
southwestern part of the state. Yellow poplar is found throughout the state, and is still abundant about the
headwaters of nearly all the principal streams. Large bodies of cherry are found in Greenbrier, Nicholas, Webster,
and other counties immediately west of the mountains, and a large amount of hemlock is scattered through the
valleys and ravines of the northeastern part of the state and along the western slopes of the Alleghanies. The
area still occupied by white pine is estimated to extend over 310 square miles, and to contain about 990,000,000 feet
of merchantable lumber. The principal centers of lumber manufacture are along the Kanawha river at Ronceverte,
in Greenbrier county, at Parkersburg, and along the upper Potomac.
Partial returns of the hoop-pole industry gave a product during the census year of 3,549,000, valued at $146,000.
During the census year 476,775 acres of woods were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $155,280. Of
these fires the largest number was traced to the careless clearing of land for agricultural purposes, although many
had their origin in sparks from locomotives.
The manufacture of cooperage stock is fast increasing in importance, and seems destined, with the exhaustion
of the more accessible hard-wood forests of the country, to assume a much greater development than at present
Large quantities of black walnut, yellow poplar, and oak in the log are shipped to northern markets and to Europe.
The following notes upon the forests of West Virginia are extracted from Mr. Pringle's report:
"Entering West Virginia at Keyser (New Creek) by way of Cumberland, Maryland, we find ourselves in one
of the narrow valleys lying among the low abrupt ridges of the northern Alleghanies, among which we have been
traveling since we reached the vicinity of Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Coming south from middle Pennsylvania,
however, the forest growth covering the long mountain chains within view from the railroad becomes heavier and
heavier, the evidences of fire and ax largely disappearing. On the hills above Keyser fewer evergreens appeared
than I had previously seen. A few slopes were principally occupied by pine in variety, but the mountains of this













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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 513

region were covered with a growth of deciduous trees, white, black, red, Spanish, and chestnut oaks, hickories,
butternuts, black walnuts, yellow poplars, locusts, elms, sugar maples, etc. At Piedmont some $200,000 have been
expendedin the construction of a boom on the North Branch of the Potomac. At this point, as well as at Swanton and
Deer Park, on the Maryland side, there are mills sawing chiefly white oak, and also considerable white pine, spruce,
hemlock, poplar, white ash, etc. Some spruce which had not been seen or heard of in the timber belt of Pennsylvania
is found20 miles above Piedmont. The market for lumber manufactured here is chiefly eastward. Mucb of the oak
is sent to Europe, partly in the form of squared timber, partly cut 5 by 12 inches and from 15 to 20 feet long. The
mills at Swanton and Deer Park are located on the railroad, and cut timber is hauled to them from the vicinity.
The mills at Piedmont are fed by logs driven down the river from the western portions of Mineral and Grant counties,
West Virginia. This lumber is chiefly oak, spruce, and hemlock. Great difficulty is experienced in driving this
part of the Potomac, as it is a swift and rocky stream. Logs, especially oak, constantly lodge on the rocks or
banks, and there has been great difficulty in maintaining the boom and dam at this point.
Rowlesburg, in Preston county, owes its existence as a lumber depot to the fact that the Cheat river, upon
which it is situated, as it passes through the Briery mountains, for a distance of 25 miles below this point has so
narrow and rocky a channel and so swift a current that it is not possible to get the logs farther down the stream.
Above Rowlesburg the Cheat river is a good stream to drive, and any one of its branches can be driven from a
point 125 miles above that point. From the mouth of the Black Fork, 30 miles above, the timber is brought down
in rafts rather than as separate logs; this is because there is no boom as yet at Rowlesburg to stop the logs. There
are small booms on Black and Shaver's Forks, many miles above Rowlesburg. Scattered along the river at some
distance above Rowlesburg there are a few small mills, the product of which is floated down the stream on rafts.
The timber of Preston county between Rowlesbung and the vicinity of the mouth of the river is oak, poplar,
chestnut, ash, beech, yellow beech, hemlock, basswood, and hickory.
The timber of Canaan valley, in Tucker and Randolph counties, is largely hemlock on the lower lands, on
the higher situations and slopes sugar maple and beech ; and, as soon as a suitable elevation is reached, spruce is
mingled with black cherry. In other portions of Tucker county and on the tributaries of the Cheat river, flowing
out of Randolph county, the timber is chiefly oak, poplar, ash, spruce, cherry, black walnut, white pine, etc. This,
however, is not a black-walnut region, and there are here nowhere more than scattered trees; a careful search has
failed to find any great body of this timber here. It is estimated that 2,500,000,000 feet of yellow poplar are still
standing in the valleys of the Cheat and its tributaries.
Shaver's Fork is heavily timbered with spruce. A boom has been constructed at Grafton, on Tygart's Valley
river, a main branch of the Monongahela. It is a rough stream, unfavorable for lumber operations, and for a
distance only of 10 miles above Grafton is smooth enough to admit of the passage of rafts. All lumber has, therefore,
to come down in separate logs, and only such kinds as are light enough to float well can be got down. For this
reason there is very little except poplar sawed at Gratton. Oak is too heavy to be driven successfully, and as it
cannot be tied up in rafts with poplar, as is done on the Cheat, the stores of oak timber growing in the valleys
drained by this river must wait the building of a railroad to bring them to market. The yellow poplar still standing
in this region is estimated at 300,000,000 feet, and on the higher grounds, especially about the headwaters of
streams, there are fine bodies of black cherry mixed with other trees.
"At Parkersburg are located the mill and shops of the Parkersburg Mill Company, situated on the banks of
the Little Kanawha, a short distance above its confluence with the Ohio. This is the only company operating
in lumber within the city of Parkersburg. It manufactures about 6,000,000 feet of lumber annually, mostly poplar,
some oak, and about a quarter of a million feet of beech. Little black walnut can now be obtained here, and
that of inferior quality. Rough lumber and manufactured articles of wood find a market in nearly every direction,
west, north, and east. I was astonished and delighted to see how closely the lumber was worked up and the great
variety of articles manufactured from slabs, edgings, culls, etc., which in other mills are so generally thrown into
the waste pile. Broom handles, corn-popper handles, brush handles, brush heads, tool handles of many descriptions,
and fly-trap bottoms are but a few of the articles which are turned out by millions from odd bits of wood, few of
which are too small to make something or other from. The company executes orders for articles used in
manufactories widely distributed over the country from Cincinnati and Chicago to Boston and New York. Poplar
is used for broom handles, and beech, maple, sycamore, black walnut, cherry, etc., for smaller articles. This company
does not own and operate timber lands, but buys its logs from parties who deliver rafts to its mill. Formerly
much lumber was wasted in this region in clearing lands for farms, but now proprietors of land find it to their
advantage to cut and save their logs, which they bring down in rafts themselves or sell to parties who make a
business of rafting. Once out of the small streams, the logs are easily rafted down the Little Kanawha during
favorable seasons.
"There are no booms on the Little Kanawha, except temporary constructions for special purposes, which are
broken up by every flood. Several years ago it was supposed that the timber on this river was nearly exhausted,
but it continues to come down in undiminished quantities to the value of some hundred thousand dollars annually,
in addition to railroad ties, staves, etc. It is only about 40 miles up the main river, and to no great distance back
from the stream, that the supply of oak is exhausted. The river is a hundred miles long, and about its upper
33 FOR






514 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

waters and those of its tributaries the oak is comparatively untouched. Much of Wirt county and the greater part
of Roane, Calhoun, and Gilmer, in the upper part of the valley of the Little Kanawha, are a vast virgin forest of oak
and poplar, containing a good deal of black walnut and sugar maple and some black cherry. Baxter county is
magnificently timbered, as is Webster, although the timber here is yet inaccessible.
"The Guyandotte is a good river for lumbering operations. Rafts can come down from a point 100 miles from
its mouth. There are yet no booms on this river, except strings of logs occasionally stretched across it for temporary
purposes. On its course above Guyandotte are four or five mills, doing for the most part a local business, their
product for export being only about 1,000,000 feet of sawed lumber. The rafting of this sawed lumber is attended
with some risk of loss, and therefore a much greater amount is brought down in unsawed logs bound together in
rafts, which are taken down the Ohio and sold to various mills along its course. These rafts are usually made 11
logs wide, and three or four of these courses are placed end to end. White oak is made up into rafts with a poplar
log in the center of each course, and thus the raft is made light enough to float easily. Along the Guyandotte, in the
lower part of its course, the oak and poplar have been cut for a distance of from 1 mile to 2 miles from the stream, the
black walnut for some 5 miles back; but nine-tenths of the area drained by this river is still in original forest,
composed of white, chestnut, and other oaks, poplar, walnut, several hickories, beech, sugar maples, sycamore, ash,
etc. In this region there is, in the aggregate, a good deal of black walnut, but it exists as scattered trees rather
than in groves or tracts.
Coal river is 160 miles long, and for 36 miles, or to Peytona, is navigable for barges. The valley of this river
is covered with truly magnificent forests, in which the trees of the several species composing them attain remarkable
dimensinsis. Popl.r and white oak here exist in nearly equal proportions, and together constitute about a third of
the timber. Besides these there is a good deal of black cherry, lin, and locust, as well as hemlock, the latter not
being( considered valuable in this country. Black walnut appears more abundant in this region than in any other
of similar extent of which I have yet heard. But little timber has yet been removed from the valley of this river,
and it is chiefly the lower portion and the immediate vicinity of the banks which have been lumbered.
-- The Elk iver empties into the Kanawha at Charleston. About 2 miles above its mouth are located a boom and
several saw-mills, and here are also a dam and lock which secure slack-water for some 20 miles. The river is about
180 miles in length; logs have been driven from a point 150 miles above its mouth, but its valley has only been
lumbered to any great extent in the immediate vicinity of the main river, and to a distance of some 110 miles from
its mouth. Most of the original growth of the forest of the Elk basin still remains, and is composed largely of white
oak, hickory, chestnut, and poplar. Black walnut here, as everywhere else in this state, is scattered, although it
is estimated that 10,000,000 feet of this lumber still remain in this region. Above a certain altitude and about
the upper waters of this river considerable black cherry, sugar maple, and birch is found. Here also beech
and basswood abound, by the streams hemlock occurs, and on the mountains a little black spruce. About the
upper settlements on this river miles of fence constructed with boards of black cherry and farms fenced with black-
walnut rails may be seen. Formerly large numbers of coal-boats and salt-boats were built upon the Elk river.
Once, also, the salt-works of the Kanawha required vast numbers of barrels; these were made of black as well as
white oak; now but five of the sixty furnaces once boiling brine in this vicinity are in operation, and there is little
demand for black oak for staves. The country along the Kanawha between the Elk and the Gauley rivers has been
lumbered for 5 or 6 miles back from the streams, and about one-fourth of the timber has been cut from these valleys.
The Gauley river with its several large tributaries drains a valley which covers nearly 5,000 square miles; its length
is about 110 miles, much less than that of the Elk, which is a long, slender stream, but it occupies a much broader
valley and has twice the volume of water of the Elk. Unlike the rivers just considered, which wear out for
themselves smooth channels through the soft sandstone, the Gauley is a rough stream, tumbling rapidly over hard
conglomerate rock, its bed being full of bowlders and ledges. For the first 10 miles from its mouth the fall averages
4 feet to the mile; above that 20 feet to the mile, while its upper waters are so swift and rough as to be unnavigable
even for small boats. For these reasons the Gauley does not admit of the passing of rafts, and it is a difficult river
upon which even to drive single logs. Its valley is but little settled, except on Meadow river and along its right
bank below that stream. Above a point 15 miles from its mouth no timber has been touched except by the few settlers.
In the lower part of the valley of the Gauley for 15 or more miles the timber is chiefly oak, poplar, walnut, etcr
The Gauley and its large affluents, the Cherry, Cranberry, and Williams rivers, all head back in the forests of black
spruce, which sometimes take entire possession of the mountain tops; a little lower, yet often mingled with the
spruce, hemlocks and black cherry abound. On Cherry river the cherry trees so predominate over all others as to
have given their name to the stream. Here are trees often 4 feet in diameter. The region intermediate between
the upper and the lower districts of the Gauley thus described contains much beech, sugar maple, and black
cherry. The white oak which abounds in the lower basin of this river disappears above an altitude of 2,000 feet.
I was informed that, although lumbering operations were but lately begun on the Gauley, nearly 1,000,000 feet of
poplar were brought out of the river in 1879, and that it had yielded 50,000 feet of black walnut in 1880, while
there were now in the river poplar logs enough to make 3,000,000 feet of lumber. About one-fourth of the cut of
late years has been sawed at mills near the falls; the rest is rafted to Charleston.








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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 515

"The valley of the New river is only lumbered for from 3 to 5 miles from the stream, although the walnut has
been gathered 10 miles farther back. This is a rough country in which to lumber, since the streams cut deep into
the earth, and New river cannot be driven.
"Ronceverte is situated on the Greenbrier river at the point where the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad first
meets this stream as it descends from the Alleghany mountains. Here is the boom of the Saint Lawrence
Boom Company, and here are located three or four lumber firms operating steam-mills. One of these, the New
York Hoop Company, uses two million hoop-poles per annum, chiefly hickory, manufacturing hoops for flour
barrels, pork barrels, hogsheads, and tierces, besides strips for boxes, etc. The process of manufacturing hoops
was explained to me as follows: The poles, of assorted lengths and sizes, are passed through machines which split
each of them into two, three, or four pieces, and these are put through other machines which plane flat the inner side
of each strip, leaving the bark intact. The hoops thus made are tied into bundles and shipped to New York.
"The Greenbrier river rises in the limestone sinks in Randolph county, whence it flows southwesterly through
the fertile limestone valley between the Alleghany and the Greenbrier mountains for a distance of 120 miles,
emptying into the New river at Hinton. Flowing through such a valley it is not a rapid stream, but from a point
12 miles below Travelers' Rest, on its headwaters, it is fine for rafting. Yet the stream needs some improvement,
especially by the closing up of back channels into which the logs are borne by high water, to be left in swamps
when the flood recedes.
Only a small proportion of the timber of the Greenbrier river has been removed as yet, and it is estimated
that in its valley white oak, white pine, poplar, cherry, hemlock, walnut, and ash enough remain to make 1,000,000,000
feet of boards, and that there are not less than 500,000,000 feet of white pine in this region, occupying i
belt through the center of both Greenbrier and Pocahontas counties. The eastern limit of the black-spruce belt
on the headwaters of the Elk and Gauley rivers, the most extensive and valuable in West Virginia, coincides
with the western limits of the white-pine belt lying in Pocahontas county. Its southern line runs northwesterly
from the south end of Pocahontas to near the center of Nicholas county. From this point its western line runs
northeasterly through the center of Webster county to the vicinity of Huttonville, in Randolph county, the northern
end of the belt covering the upper waters of Shaver's Fork of the Cheat river. Over this belt black spruce is scattered
more or less densely, sometimes occupying almost exclusively the high slopes, particularly the northern slopes
and the summits of the mountains.
"It is believed that 10,000,000 feet of black walnut, in paying quantities, could still be gathered in this part
of the state, and that there would then be left an equal amount so scattered that it could not be profitably collected
at present prices."

NORTH CAROLINA.
The forests of North Carolina were once hardly surpassed in variety and importance by those of any other
part of the United States. The coast region was occupied by the coniferous forests of the southern Maritime Pine
Belt; the middle districts of the state by a forest of oaks and other hard-wood trees, through which the old-field
pine is now rapidly spreading over worn-out and abandoned farming lands. The high ridges and deep valleys of
the Appalachian system which culminate in the western part of the state are still everywhere covered with dense
forests of the most valuable hard-wood trees mingled with northern pines and hemlocks. The inaccessibility of
this mountain region has protected these valuable forests up to the present time, and few inroads have yet been
made into their stores of oak, cherry, yellow poplar, and walnut. The hard-wood forests of the middle districts,
however, have been largely removed or culled of their finest timber, although the area of woodland in this part of the
state is now increasing. These new forests, usually composed of inferior pine, are of little economic value, except as a
source of abundant fuel and as a means of restoring fertility to the soil, preparing it to produce again more valuable
crops. A larger proportion of the pine forest of the coast has been destroyed in North Carolina than in the other
southern states. This part of the state has long been the seat of important lumbering operations, while the manufacture
of naval stores, once almost exclusively confined to North Carolina, and always an important industry here, has
seriously injured these forests. The original forests have been practically removed from the northeastern part of
the state, the great region watered by the numerous streams flowing into Albemarle and Pamlico sounds; and
although some lumber, largely second-growth pine trees of poor quality, is produced here, the importance of these
forests is not great. The merchantable pine, too, has been removed from the banks of the Cape Fear and other
rivers flowing through the southern part of the state, and although these streams still yield annually a large
number of logs, they are only procured at a constantly increasing distance from their banks and with a consequent
increasing cost for transport.
Forest fires inflict serious damage upon the pine forests of the south. During the census year 546,102 acres
of woodland were reported destroyed by forest fires, with a loss of $357,980. The largest number of these fires
were traced to the carelessness of farmers in clearing land, to locomotives, hunters, and to malice.
Manufacturers of cooperage and wheel stock, industries which once flourished in the eastern and central
portions of the state, already suffer from the exhaustion and deterioration of material. Such industries, however,
are increasing in the extreme western counties, and promise to attain there an important development.








516 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

The following estimate, by counties, of the merchantable pine standing May 31, 1880, south of the Neuse
river, the only part of the state where it is of commercial importance, was prepared by Mr. Edward Kidder, of
Wilmington. It is based upon actual surveys and the reports of a large number of timber-land experts familiar
with the different counties still occupied by the forests of long-leaved pine:

LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinus palustris).

Counties. Feet, board
measure.

Bladen ................. ... .. .... ............... ---- 288, 000, 000
Brunswick ............................. .............. 141,000, 000
Chatham ...................... .................... 448, 000, 000
Columbus ...................... ......................... 288, 000, 000
Cumberland ............................................. 806, 000, 000
Duplin................................. .............. 21, 000, 000
narnett--. ..--.................... .. .. ................... 48, 000,000
Johnston ................................................ 563,000,000
M oore ................................................... 504,000,000
New Hanover........................................... 96,000,000
Ouslow ........................... ............ ........ 34, 000, 000
Robeson ................................................ 864,000,000
Sampson ----....................-.........-------- 602, 000, 000
Wake -----.--......--...---.....---..--..---------.-----------------............ 48,000,000
Wayne .............. ............................. 40,000,000

Total ............................................. 5, 229, 000, 000
Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880, exclusive of 108, 411, 000
50,190.000 feet cut in the counties adjacent to Al Iemarle
and Pamlico sounds and along the Pamlico iind Neuse
rivers, which is largely loblolly pine (Pinus Tcda).


NAVAL STORES.

Small quantities of crude turpentine were produced upon the coast of North, Carolina, between the Pamlico
and Cape Fear rivers, soon after the earliest settlement of the country. It was sent to Great Britain or converted
into spirits of turpentine and rosin for home consumption. The demand for ships' stores had greatly increased
the North Carolina production as early as 1818, although the field of operations was not extended south of the
Cape Fear river, nor more than 100 miles from the coast, until 1836. The large demand for spirits of turpentine
created during that year induced manufacturers to test the yield of trees on the west side of the Cape Fear river,
up to that time considered unproductive. The result was satisfactory, although overproduction and low prices
deferred until 1840 the development of this region. Since 1840 this industry has been gradually carried southward.
Naval stores were produced in South Carolina in 1840, and in Georgia two years later. Turpentine orchards were
established in Florida and Alabama in 1855, and more recently in Mississippi and eastern Louisiana.
The naval stores manufactured in the United States are principally produced from the resinous exudations of
the long-leaved pine (Pinus palustris), and in small quantities from the loblolly pine (Pinus Tcda), and the slash
pine (Pinus Cubensis) of the Florida coast. The trees selected for "boxing" are usually from 12 to 18 inches in
diameter, although trees with trunks only 8 inches through are now sometimes worked. A deep cut or "box" is
made in the trunk of the tree, by a cut slanting downward, some 7 inches in depth, and generally 12 inches above
the ground, and met by a second cut started 10 inches above the first and running down from the bark to meet it.
In this manner a segment is removed from the trunk and a triangular trough formed 4 inches deep and 4 inches
wide at the top.
Two such boxes, or upon a large trunk sometimes four, are made on each tree. A "crop", the unit of production
among large operators, consists of 10,000 such boxes. The boxes are cut early in November with a narrow-bladed
ax specially manufactured for the purpose, and the trees are worked on an average during thirty-two weeks. As
soon as the upper surface of the box ceases to exude freely, it is "hacked" over and a fresh surface exposed, the
dried resin adhering to the cut having been first carefully removed with a sharp, narrow, steel scraper. The boxes,
especially after the first season, are often hacked as often as once a week, and are thus gradually extended
upward until upon trees which have been worked during a number of seasons the upper surface of the box is often
10 or 12 feet above the ground. For these long boxes the scraper is attached to a wooden handle, generally
loaded with iron at the lower end to facilitate the operation of drawing down the resin. Once in four weeks, or
often less frequently, the resin caught in the bottom of the box is removed into a bucket with a small, sharp, oval
steel spade attached to a short wooden handle. The product of these dippinggs, as this operation is called, is
placed in barrels and transported to the distillery. The first season a turpentine orchard is worked boxes are
usually dipped eight times, yielding an average of 300 barrels of turpentine to the crop. The second year the







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 517

number of dippings is reduced to five, the product falling off to 150 barrels, while for the third season 100 barrels
are considered a fair yield from three dippings. To this must be added the yield of the "scrapes", which for the
first year is estimated, for one crop, at from 60 to 70 barrels of 280 pounds each, and for succeeding years at 100
barrels.
Trees can be profitably worked in North Carolina by experienced operators during four or five years, or, upon a
small scale, in connection with farming operations and by actual residents, several years longer; farther south the
trees seem to possess less recuperative power, and in South Carolina four years is given as the outside limit during
which an orchard can be profitably worked, while in Georgia, Florida, and Alabama they are .often abandoned at
the end of the second and always at the end of the third year. Twenty-five men, including overseers, wagoners,
distillers, coopers, and laborers can work ten crops. The average wages of such a force is $1 a day per man, so
that the cost of labor necessary to work a crop during the season of thirty-two weeks is $480.
The following grades of turpentine are recognized in the trade: "Virgin dip", or "Soft white gum turpentine"-
the product the first year the trees are worked; "Yellow dip"-the product of the second and succeeding years, and
becoming darker colored and less liquid every year; Scrape" or Hard turpentine "-the product of the scrapings
of the boxes.
Rosin is graded as follows: "W"-Window-glass; "N "-Extra pale; "M "-Pale; K"-Low pale; L I"l-
Good No. 1; H"-No. 1; "G -Low No.1; "F "-Good No. 2; "E "-No. 2; "D"-Good strain; "C "-Strain;
" B "-Common strain; A"-Black.
Window-glass is the lightest grade, and is only produced from the first dippings of virgin trees-that is,
trees worked for the first time. The resinous exudation becomes darker colored and less volatile every year, as the
box grows older, and the rosin produced is darker and less valuable. Trees worked during several years produce
a very dark brown or black rosin. Spirits of turpentine made from virgin trees is light colored, light in weight,
and free from any taste; the resinous matter yielded in succeeding years gains more and more body, and the
additional heat required in distilling it throws off some resin combined with the spirits, producing in it a strong,
biting taste and greater weight.
Tar, produced by burning the dead wood and most resinous parts of the long-leaved pine in covered kilns, is
graded as follows: "Rope yellow", or Ropemakers' tar-the highest grade, produced with a minimum of heat from
the most resinous parts of the wood; Roany," or "Ship smearing "-the next running of the kiln; "Black" or
"Thin"-the lowest grade, made from inferior wood, or the last running of the kiln, and therefore produced with
the maximum of heat.
The following statistics of the production of naval stores during the census year were prepared by Mr. A. H.
Van Bokkelen, of Wilmington, North Carolina, to whom I am indebted for much information in regard to the
methods used in carrying on this industry:

States. Turpentine. Rosin.

Gallons. Barrels.
Alabama............................. 2, 005, 000 158, 482
Florida .............................. 1,036,350 68,281
Georgia.............................. 3,151,500 277,500
Louisiana............................ 250,000 20,000
Mississippi ...... .................. 250,000 20,000
North Carolina...................... 6, 279, 200 663, 967
South Carolina....................... 4, 593, 200 333, 940
Total ... ..................... 17, 565, 250 1, 542,170

Eighty thousand barrels of tar were manufactured during the census year in North Carolina, and 10,000 barrels
in the other southern states.
The total value of this crop of naval stores at centers of distribution, and of course including freight from the
forest and different brokerage charges, was not far from $8,000,000. The net profits of the industry, even in the
case of virgin trees, is very small, and at present prices is believed to be unprofitable except to the most skillful
operators. The low price of southern timber-lands and the facility with which rights to operate tracts of forest for
turpentine have been lately obtainable in several states have unnaturally stimulated production. The result of
this has been that manufacturers, unable to make a profit except from virgin trees, abandon their orchards after
one or two years' working and seek new fields of operation; the ratio of virgin forest to the total area worked
over in the production of naval stores is therefore constantly increasing. It is estimated by Mr. Van Bokkelen
that during the years between 1.870 and 1880 an average of one-third of the total annual product of the country
was obtained from virgin trees, and that in 1880 one-fourth of the crop was thus produced, necessitating the boxing
in that year of the best trees upon 600,000 acres of forest. The production of naval stores is carried on in a
wasteful, extravagant manner, and the net profits derived from the business are entirely out of proportion to the
damage which it inflicts upon the forests of the country; the injury is enormous. Lumber made from trees






518 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

previously worked for turpentine is of inferior quality, although it is probably less injured than has been generally
supposed. Comparatively few trees, however, once boxed are manufactured into lumber. It is estimated that 20
per cent. of them, weakened by the deep gashes inflicted upon their trunks, sooner or later are blown down and
ruined; fires, too, every year destroy vast areas of the turpentine orchards, in spite of the care taken by operators
to prevent their spread. It is customary in the winter, in order to prevent the fires which annually run through
the forests of the Southern Pine Belt from spreading to the boxes, to "racket" the trees; that is, to remove all
combustible material for a.distance of 3 feet around the base of each boxed tree. Fire, carefully watched, has then
been set to the dry grass between the trees, in order to prevent the spread of accidental conflagrations, and to give
the box-chopperd a firmer foothold than would be offered by the dry and slippery pine leaves. In spite of these
precautions, however, turpentine orchards, especially when abandoned, are often destroyed by fire. The surface
of the box, thickly covered with a most inflammable material, is easily ignited, and a fire once started in this way
may rage over thousands of acres before its fury can be checked.
The manufacture of naval stores, then, decreases the value of the boxed tree for lumber, reduces the ability of
the tree to withstand the force of gales, and enormously increases the danger to the forest of total destruction
by fire.
Wilmington, the most important distributing point for this industry in the United States, handles 80 per cent.
of all the naval stores manufactured in North Carolina. Previous to 1870 Swansboro', Washington, and New
Berne were also large shipping points.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

The forest covering of South Carolina resembles in its general features that of the states immediately north
and south of it. The pine forest of the coast, nearly coinciding in area with that of the Tertiary deposits, covers
the eans-rn portion for a distance of 150 miles from the coast. The middle districts are occupied with hard-wood
forests, or forests in which pines of various species are mixed with oaks, hickories, and other deciduous trees. The
forests of the Alleghanies, rich in species and magnificent in the development of individual trees, spread over the
mountains and valleys, which occupy the extreme western part of the state. The streams which flow through the
Coast Pine Belt, often bordered by wide, deep swamps, are ill-suited to lumber operations, and less serious inroads
have therefore been made into the pine forests of South Carolina than into those of North Carolina or Georgia.
The merchantable pine, however, has been removed from the immediate neighborhood of the coast, from the banks
of the Little Pedee river, and from along the lines of railroad.
The most accessible hard-wood timber has been cut from the forests of the middle districts, although vast
quantities still remain remote from railroads or protected in deep river swamps, inaccessible except during a few
months of summer. The western counties still contain great bodies of hard-wood timber, yet undisturbed except
to supply the wants of the scattered population inhabiting this almost inaccessible mountain region.
The manufacture of rough red and white oak split staves and headings for the European and West Indian
trade, already an important industry in this state, is capable of large development; rice tierces and rosin barrels
are also largely made in the coast region from pine. At Plantersville, in Georgetown county, and at other points
along the coast quantities of hand-made cypress shingles are manufactured in the swamps.
During the census year 431,730 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by forest fires, with a loss of
$291,225. These fires were set by careless hunters, by the careless burning of brush upon farms, and by sparks
from locomotives.
BURNING OFF DEAD HERBAGE.

The pine belt of the coast, in South Carolina as well as through its entire extent from Virginia to Texas, suffers
from fires set every spring by grazers for the purpose of improving the scanty herbage growing among the trees
of this open forest. These fires run rapidly over the surface stripped by the fires of previous years of any
accumulation of vegetable material, without inflicting any immediate injury upon the old trees of the forest unless
a turpentine orchard is encountered, when, the resinous surfaces of the boxes being once fully ignited, nothing can
save the trees from total destruction. If the mature trees of the forest are not under normal conditions greatly
injured, however, by this annual burning of the dead herbage beneath them, the forest itself, as a whole, suffers
enormously from this cause. Slight and short-lived as these fires are, they destroy the vegetable mold upon the
surface of the ground, all seeds and seedling trees, and all shrubbery or undergrowth, which, in protecting the
germination of seeds, insures the continuation of the forest. They deprive the soil of fertility and make it every
year less able to support a crop of trees, and in thus robbing the soil they influence largely the composition of
succeeding crops. Few young pines are springing up anywhere in the coast region to replace the trees destroyed,
but where seedlings protected from fire appear upon land long subjected to annual burning, they are usually,
although not universally, of less valuable species, and not the long-leaved pine which gives to this forest its principal
economic importance. These annual fires are slowly but surely destroying the value of the Southern Pine Belt.
They destroy all seeds and seedling trees, the fertility of the soil, and its power to produce again valuable species.







TENR CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES


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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 519

The following estimates of the amount of long-leaved pine standing in the state were made up from information
obtained from Mr. Edward Kidder, of Wilmington, North Carolina, in regard to that part of the state north of the
Edisto river, and from Mr. W. G. Norwood, of Blackshear, Georgia, for the southern part of the state. They are
based on what is believed to be less accurate information respecting the northern part of the state than has been
obtained in regard to the pine forests of the other states, and allowance should be made for possible large errors.
The estimates are, however, probably largely below the actual productive capacity of the pine forests of the state
which may be expected to exceed by 25 or 30 per cent. the following figures:

LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinuspalustris).

Counties. Feet, board Counties. Feet, board
measure. measure.

Aiken ......................................-- 209, 000, 000 Kershaw.................................... ... 171, 000, 000
Barnwell........................ ..........----- 340, 000, 000 Lancaster....................................... 5,000,000
Beanfort ............................---------- 49,000,000 Lexington ...................................... 76,000,000
Charleston.....................- ............-- 458,000,000 Marion ......................................... 326,000,000
Chesterfield..................-.... .. .......--.- 183,000,000 Marlborough ................................-.. 191,000,000
Clarendon ...................... ........ ....- 332,000,000 Orangebnrgh.................................... 465,000,000
Colleton ....................................... 453,000,000 Richland......................-................. 88,000,000
Darlington .................................... 337,000,000 Sumter ......................................... 380,000,000
Fairfield .................. ............... 7,000,000 W illiamsburgh ................................. 536,000,000
Georgetown ................................... 128, 000,000 Total .--- --................. -5,316,000,000
Hampton ------------- ------ 202, 000, 000 __.___.
Hampton ...................................... 202, 000, 000
Horry--......-... ......-...........-- 380,000,000 Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880... 124,492,000


The principal centers of lumber manufacture are Georgetown, Charleston, and various points in Hampton and
Barnwell counties, where small railroad mills are located. Charleston and Georgetown are the distributing centers
for naval stores manufactured in the state.

GEORGIA.

The northern counties of Georgia are covered with the forests of the Alleghany Mountain region, here and in
northern Alabama reaching the southern limits of their distribution and considerably reduced in the number of
species composing them, the pines, firs, beeches, and other northern trees being generally replaced by the broad-
leaved species of the Mississippi basin. From the base of the mountains forests of oak mixed with pines extend
southward, occupying the central portion of the state and mingling with the trees of the Maritime Pine Belt along
its northern limits. In the southern and coast counties great areas of swamps are still covered with forests of
cypress, protected by their inaccessibility from the attacks of the lumberman.
The merchantable pine in the immediate vicinity of the principal streams and along the lines of railroad has
been removed, and serious damage has been inflicted upon the pine forests of the state by the reckless manufacture
of naval stores. Vast areas covered with pine, however, still remain, while the hard-wood forests of the central
and northern portions of the state contain a large quantity of the most valuable hard woods.
The manufacture of cooperage stock is still in its infancy, and this and other industries requiring an abundant
and cheap supply of hard wood seem destined soon to reach an enormous development in the upper districts of
Georgia and the other states of the south Atlantic division.
During the census year 705,351 acres of woodland were reported devastated by fire, with a loss of $167,620.
The greatest number of these fires was traced to carelessness in clearing land, to sparks from locomotives, and
to hunters.
The following estimates of the amount of long-leaved pine standing in the state of Georgia May 31, 1880,
were prepared by Mr. W. G. Norwood, of Blackshear, in that state, a timber viewer and expert of high standing.
He obtained his results by dividing the whole pine belt into irregular regions over which the average cut per acre
could be obtained, allowance being made for clearings, farms, areas of culled forests, streams, swamps, etc. The
area in each of these regions, by counties, was measured upon a large-scale map and the standing timber computed.
These estimates include merchantable pine still standing on land partly cut over, or which has been worked in the
manufacture of turpentine. The boxed areas include nearly all the regions from which any pine has been removed,
and extend beyond them in all directions into the uncut forests and along rivers and railroads.
Similar methods, practically, were adopted in preparing the estimates of the amount of pine standing in Florida
and the other Gulf states. The results thus obtained are not, of course, strictly accurate, and are not supposed
to be so. The estimates are intended to show the average productive capacity of the pine forests over large areas,
and to indicate generally in what part of the state the principal bodies of pine still occur. Liberal allowance has
been made in computing areas of swamp and cleared land, and it will probably be safe to add 10 per cent. to
these estimates of the pine standing in any of the southern states.







520 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

The following is an estimate of the amount of pile timber standing in the state May 31, 1880:

LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinus palustris).


Counties. Feet, board Counties. Feet, board Counties. Feet, board
measure. measure. measure.

Appling ............. 543, 000, 000 Floyd ................ 19, 000, 000 Polk ................. 36, 000, 000
Baker .............. 134,000,000 Glascock ............ 17, 000, 000 Pulaski............... 408, 000, 000
Baldwin ............ 35, 000, 000 Glynn ................ 47,000, 000 Randolph............. 126, 000, 000
Berrien.............. 410,000,000 Hancock............. 76,000,000 Richmond............ 21,000,000
Bibb................. 38, 000, 000 Haralson ............. 21, 000, 000 Scbley ............... 28, 000, 000
Brooks.............. 281, 000, 000 Harris ............... 22,000,000 Screven............. 188,000,000
Bryan ............... 60, 000, 000 Houston .............. 191, 000, 000 Sumter ............... 191, 000, 000
Bulloch.............. 733,000,000 Irwin................ 488,000,000 Talbot..... ......... 44,000,000
Burke ............... 298, 000, 000 Jefferson ............. 206,000, 000 Tattnall .............. 768, 000, 000
Calhoun ............. 117, 000, 000 Johnson .............. 291, 000, 000 Taylor................. 53, 000, 000
Camden.............. 82, 000, 000 Jones................. 40, 000, 000 Telfair............... 598, 000, 000
Charlton ............. 246,000,000 Laurens ............. 1, 064, 000, 000 Terroll ............... 104,000,000
Clay ................. 96, 000,000 Lee................... 128,000,000 Thomas............... 311,000, 000
Clinch............... 350,000,000 Liberty............... 236, 000, 000 Twiggs ............... 84,000,000
Coffee................ 578, 000, 000 Lownde ............. 236, 000, 000 Upson ................ 32, 000, 000
Colquitt ............. 339, 000,000 McDuffie ............. 10,000,000 Ware ................. 161,000,000
Crawford ............ 45, 000, 000 McIntosh............. 65, 000, 000 Warren............... 80, 000, 000
Decatur ............. 653, 000, 000 Macon................ 52,000, 000 Washington .......... 240,000,000
Dodge ............... 417,000,000 Miller ............... 164,000,000 W ayne ............... 160,000,000
Dooly................ 334,000,000 Mitchell.............. 379,000,000 W ebster.............. 48,000,000
Dougherty........... 90, 000, 000 Monroe .............. 18,000,000 W ilcox............... 292,000,000
Early................ 299, 000, 000 Montgomery.......... 791,000,000 Wilkinson............ 152,000,000
Echols .............. 183,000,000 Muscogee... ....... 35,000.000 W orth............... 512,000,000
Effingham ........... 6,000,000 Paulding ............. 2, 000, 000 ............16, 778 000 000
Emanuel............. 956,000,000 Pierce................. 220,000,000
Cut for the census year ending May 31, 18FO (excluding 28,335,000 feet cut in the region of short- 272,743,000
leaved pine and mixed growth).


The principal centers of lumber manufacture are situated along the coast at Brunswick, Darien, Savannah, and
Saint Mary's. Logs sawed at these points are now driven down the various streams for a considerable distance from
the coast. Large quantities of pine lumber are also manufactured in different mills located along the lines of
railroad in Appling, Polk, Floyd, and other pine counties. Savannah and Brunswick are the principal points of
distribution n of the naval stores manufactured in the state.

FLORIDA.

The forests of the Southern Pine Belt cover the state as far south as cape Malabar and Charlotte harbor. The
long-leaved pine is replaced along the sandy dunes and islands of the coast by oaks (of which the live oak is alone
of commercial importance), scrub pines, and palmettos, while a deciduous forest, largely of northern composition,
occupies the high, rolling lands in a large part of Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, and Madison counties. The pine
forests gradually decrease southward in density and value, and south of latitude 290 N. are of little present
commercial value. Forests of pitch pine (Pinus Cubensis), however, extend far south of the region occupied by the
more valuable long-leaved pine bordering the coast and covering the low ridges of the Everglades. Great areas of
swamp occur everywhere through northern and central Florida, covered with forests of cypress, red cedar, gum, and
bordered with bays, magnolias, and other broad-leaved evergreens; while the hummocks or low elevations, covered
with rich soil and everywhere common, bear oaks and other deciduous trees, often of great size.
South of cape Malabar and Tampa bay the character of the vegetation changes, and the North American
arborescent species are replaced by the semi-tropical trees of the West Indies. These occupy a narrow strip along
the coast, cover the keys and reefs, and spread over some of the hummocks of the Everglades. This semi-tropical
forest is confined to the saline shores of the innumerable bays and creeks of the region, or to the coral and sedimentary
calcareous formation of the keys and hummocks. The species of which it is composed are here at the northern
limits of their range; individual trees are comparatively small and the forests of the southern extremity of the
Florida peninsula are commercially unimportant, although sufficiently extensive and varied to supply the scanty
population of this region with lumber, fuel, and material for boat-building and the manufacture of fishing apparatus.
The forests of Florida have not suffered greatly from fire. Much of the state is uninhabited and unfit for
agriculture or grazing. The danger, therefore, of fires set in clearing land for farms spreading to the forest is less
than in other parts of the south, while the numerous streams and swamps everywhere intersecting the pine forests
and the natural dryness of the sandy ridges, thinly covered with vegetable mold, check the spread of fires
when started.
During the census year 105,320 acres of woodland were reported as burned over, with an estimated loss of
$69,900. The largest number of these fires was set by grazers to improve the pasturage for their stock.






THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 521

The following estimates, by counties, of the long-leaved pine still standing in Florida east of the Apalachicola
river were prepared by Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Jacksonville; those for west Florida by Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile,
Alabama:
LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinus palustris).

Counties. Feet, board Counties. Feet, board Counties. Feet, board
measure. measure. measure.

Alachua ............. 525,000,000 Holmes ............... 150, 000,000 Putnam.............. 121, 000, 000
Baker................ 144,000,000 Jackson .............. 233, 000, 000 Saint John's .......... 66, 000, 000
Bradford.............. 138,000,000 Jefferson ............. 23,000,000 Santa Rosa ........... 213, 000, 000
Brevard............. 63,000,000 Lafayette............. 425,000,000 Sumter .............. 103,000,000
Calhoun ............. 81, 000, 000 Levy................. 346, 000, 000 Suwannee ............ 622, 000, 000
Clay ................. 77, 000, 000 Liberty ............... 75,000,000 Taylor............... 218, 000, 000
Columbia ............ 455,000,000 Madison ............. 122, 000, 000 Volusia ............... 59, 000, 000
Duval ............... 67, 000, 000 Manatee.............. 200,000,000 Wakulla.............. 72, 000, 000
Escambia............ 0, 000, 000 Marion............... 315, 000, 000 Walton ............... 409, 000, 000
Hamilton ............ 311,000, 000 Nassau ............ 104, 000, 000 Washington .......... 187, 000; 000
Hernando........... 142, 000,000 Orange ............... 87, 000, 000 Total ............
6, 615, 000, 000
Hillaborough ........ 62, 000, 000 Polk.................. 210, 000, 000 6,61 000,
Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1881 (excluding 77,500,000 feet, estimated, grown in Alabama 208, 054, 000
and sawed in western Florida).

In this estimate no account is made of timber remaining on lands which have been cut over, or of that injured
by the manufacture of turpentine.
The principal centers of lumber manufacture are Pensacola, Millview, and Blackwater, in Escambia and
Santa Rosa counties. The logs sawed here and at other points upon Pensacola bay are driven down the streams
from the forests of Alabama, the accessible pine in this part of Florida having been long exhausted. A large
amount of pine lumber is also manufactured at Ellaville, in Madison county, upon the upper Suwannee river, and
at Jacksonville, Saint Mary's, and at various points upon the lower Saint John river. Logs driven from the lower
Suwaunnee river are sawed at Cedar Keys, where are situated the most important mills in the United States devoted
to the manufacture of red cedar into pencil stuff.
Jacksonville, Saint Mary's, and Fernandina are the largest centers of distribution for the naval stores
manufactured in the state.
The following extracts are taken from Mr. Curtiss' report upon the forests of Florida:
"In visiting western Florida I have had particularly in view the examination of the timber of a part of the state
which is unlike all others in physical conformation, and consequently in vegetation. This region differs but little
from the country bordering the southern Alleghanies, and may perhaps be regarded as the southern terminus of
the Appalachian range. It commences about 40 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico, and extends northward between
the Chipola and Okalokonee rivers into southwestern Georgia and southeastern Alabama. North of this there is
little to connect it with the southern mountains except the rugged banks of the Chattahoochee river. The surface
is undulating, hilly, often precipitous. The soil, like that of the Piedmont region of Virginia and Carolina,
abounds in red clay, and is therefore adapted to crops which do not succeed in other portions of Florida. The
vegetation is extremely varied and interesting, comprising most of the plants of northeastern Florida, a large
portion of those found in the Piedmont country and in the rich river bottoms of the interior, and a considerable
number found only on the limestone with which much of this country is underlaid. In the river bottoms, which are
inundated at seasons, there is found a great variety of trees, some of which attain a size probably not equaled
elsewhere. In this small portion of the state of Florida is to be found nearly every species of tree growing
within the limits of the state, except those semi-tropical species found on the coast south of Cedar Keys and Mosquito
inlet. Fully fifty American arborescent species here reach their southern limit. A few species show marked
diminution in size, and all northern species which extend southward of this Chattahoochee region here attain in
Florida their largest dimensions.
"There are two trees in this region of particular interest, as they are not known to grow anywhere else; these
are the stinking cedar (Torreya taxifolia) and the yew (Taxus Floridana). There is reason to believe that the
Torreya occurs also along the Wakulla river, and perhaps elsewhere in the state, but there is no positive knowledge
of its occurrence except along the Apalachicola river, on the limestone hills which border it at intervals on the east
"The forests of this region are still almost intact. Some poplar and tulip wood is cut from the river banks
for northern markets, but the valuable timber on these rich shores is as yet almost untouched. The country
southwest of this region, though of very little agricultural value, contains an immense quantity of the best cypress
timber, hardly yet disturbed by the lumberman.
"Two mills have recently been established at Apalachicola, one of which saws nothing but cypress lumber.
The product of this mill is sent to New Orleans. As white-pine lumber must soon become scarce, the attention of
dealers ought to be directed to southern cypress, which will prove a good substitute for it. Although there is
plenty of valuable pine in this country the swamps render it somewhat inaccessible, and the mills at Apalachicola







522 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

are more easily supplied with logs rafted down the river from Georgia. Many hewed logs of large dimensions 'are
shipped from this point. The country near Apalachicola in surface and timber growth is much like that of
northeastern Florida, all the good timber having been cut.
"PENCIL CEDAR.

"The favorite variety of red cedar, of tall and straight growth, is becoming scarce, but there remains a large
quantity of quality sufficiently good for pencils in nearly all sections of the state north of a line drawn from cape
Canaveral to the north end of Charlotte harbor. There is no red cedar in southern Florida, the Dixon mill at
Tampa having exhausted the supply within reach of that place; but new mills have been established near Webster,
in Sunter county, and at the head of Crystal river, at present the best source of supply.

CYPRESS.

"The main body of cypress in southern Florida is located in the 'Big Cypress', a region of which I have heard
much from persons who were in an expedition which went through it during the last Indian war. They entered it at
the 'Little Palm hummock', 18 miles northeast of cape Romano. Traveling east about 12 miles they came to the
'Big Palm hummock', when they turned and traveled nearly due north for six days, averaging 12 miles a day.
Their guide then informed them that the cypress extended 12 miles farther north; so it would seem that the main
body of the 'Big Cypress' has a length of about 85 miles and a width, as they think, of about 20 miles. The cypress
grows in belts running north and south, the main central belt being about 6 miles wide and consisting of large
timber. There are narrow strips of cypress and pine alternating with prairie, although probably two-thirds of the
whole region is covered with cypress. According to these estimates there must be at least 1,000 square miles
covered with cypress timber in this region, which in times of high water could be floated out by the numerous
creeks and inlets flowing toward the Gulf. There are also large quantities of heavy cypress on the swampy borders
of Peace creek, the Hillsborough river, the Withlacoochee, etc., many trees squaring from 2 to 4 feet.
"The long-leaved pine extends south to Prairie creek, in about latitude 270 N. The pine between Prairie and
Peace creeks, which is sawed at the mill near Ogden, belongs to this species. Timber in this region is quite shaky,
and from all reports it is evident that the yellow pine in Manatee, Orange, and Hillsborough counties is quite
inferior, being mostly of the rough-barked, sappy variety called in this region bastard pine. The long-leaved pine
occupies nearly the whole of the interior of the peninsula north of a line drawn from Charlotte harbor to cape
Malabar. At its southern limit I saw trees which measured over 2 feet in diameter and which would furnish logs
30 feet long.
"Pitch pine (Pinus Cubensis) appears on the west coast at Margo, 10 miles north of cape Romano, and extends
northward to Prairie and Fishhead creeks, being the only pine of this region. From Charlotte harbor northward
it is confined to a belt from 10 to 15 miles wide, bordering the Gulf, extending to Tampa and as far northward
as Pensacola, being also scattered through the interior. This tree seldom exceeds 2 feet in diameter or 50 feet in
height, and will afford a great quantity of framing timber, although it will be probably generally used in the
production of naval stores, for which it is nearly or quite equal to the long-leaved pine.
"One of the most important facts in regard to the pine forests of Florida is their permanence. Owing to the
sterility of soil and the liability to inundation of most of the state, it is certain that but a very small portion of
Florida will ever be cleared of its forest covering. Taking into consideration the great area covered with valuable
pine forests, and the fact that there will be a continuous new growth if the spread of forest fires can be checked,
only trees of the largest size being cut, it is evident that Florida will furnish a perpetual supply of the most
valuable pine lumber."
The following notes upon the pine forests of western Florida were furnished by Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile,
Alabama:
"The pine forests occupying the region between the valley of the Apalachicola river and the banks of the
Choctawhatchee, and from the headwaters of the Chipola to the bay of Saint Andrew's, are yet mostly in their
primeval condition and contain a vast body of valuable timber. The district between the Choctawhatchee and
the Perdido is the seat of the oldest and most active lumbering industry of the whole Gulf coast. The numerous
streams flowing through the pine forests of eastern Alabama to the large bays upon the coast of western Florida
make fully 4,000 square miles of southeastern Alabama comparatively accessible and tributary to the region from
which the lumber finds an outlet by way of the bay of Pensacola.
"The better class of the somewhat elevated and undulating timber-lands which surround Escambia, Blackwater,
and Saint Mary de Galves bay were long since stripped of their valuable timber. These forests having been culled
time after time during the last quarter of a century, are now completely exhausted. The low, wet pine barrens,
with their soil of almost pure sand, which trend eastward along the shores of Santa Rosa sound and Choctawhatchee
bay, have never borne a growth of pine sufficiently large to furnish more than a small supply of. timber of very
inferior quality. The ridges between the Choctawhatchee river and the Yellow river are also, for the most part,
arid, sandy wastes, never yielding more than a few hundred feet of lumber per acre.




i r 'i t .' '. .

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WA


II MA]" "


FLORI () I DA

SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION 01F THE PINE FORESTS,
WITH SPECIAL. HEI FIl'ENCE(' TO TUE
LUMBER INDUSTRY
coriMpILD UINDER THI DIIE):C'ION or
C.S.SARGENT, SPECIAL. AlGE;NT.
1881.







L E GIND.

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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 523

"The well-timbered portion of west Florida commences with the southern border of Holmes county. This
region is now, however, nearly exhausted along water-courses large enough for rafting, while of late years canals
and ditches dug into the forest afford facilities for floating timber growing remote from streams to the mills.
According to those best informed regarding the amount of timber still standing in this section, there is scarcely
enough left between the Escambia and Choctawhatchee rivers, in western Florida, to keep the mills on the coast
supplied for another half-dozen years, even if the whole of the pine standing could be made available.
The lumber business of Perdido bay is entirely concentrated at Millview, where three large saw-mills are
established. The production of lumber commenced here in 1865, increasing rapidly from 10,000,000 feet, board
measure, in that year, to three and four times that amount. All the lumber manufactured upon Perdido bay is
sent to Pensacola by a railroad constructed for the purpose. Only about 400 pieces of hewed timber are shipped
from Millview, although the railroad has carried an average of 37,000,000 feet of lumber annually to Pensacola,
the maximum annual yield of the Millview mills having been 45,000,000 feet.
Pensacola is the most important port of lumber export on the Gulf coast. During the year ending August
30, 1879, 403 vessels, of a combined capacity of 217,487 tons, carried from the harbor of Pensacola 3,090,469 cubic
feet of hewed square timber, 3,769,527 cubic feet of sawed square timber, and 60,000,000 feet of sawed lumber,
board measure. Of the squared timber four-fifths is shipped to Great Britain.
"' The peninsula between the junction of the Escambia and the bay of Saint Mary de Galves is low, and, along
the shore-line, bordered with marshes. The timber needed to supply the mills located upon the shores of these
waters has during the past forty years been drawn from this region, and when new forests have replaced the
original growth they have been cut over and over again, and still furnish a small amount of timber, as the
turpentine-distiller has not followed the log-getter in these regions. The supply of timber here, however, at present
is too small to be taken into account in view of the enormously increased demands of the mills. There are three
large mills on Blackwater bay producing 40,000,000 feet of lumber a year. Three-fourths of this lumber is produced
in the establishment of Messrs. Simpson & Co., near the mouth of the Blackwater river, at Bagdad, about half a
mile below Milton. Mills sawing square timber are situated 20 or 30 miles above the mouth of the Blackwater and
use mostly water-power. The mill of Messrs. Milligan, Chaffin & Co., on this river, 20 miles above Milton, sends
28,000 pieces of square sawed timber to Pensacola, averaging 32 cubic feet each; 5,000 such pieces are furnished by a
few very small water-mills higher up, swelling the whole amount of square timber to 33,000 pieces. The last-named
firm has acquired by purchase large tracts of public land along Black and Coldwater rivers. To reach the timber
growing on their land a canal 20 miles long, with sluices that intersect the small tributaries of these streams, has
been dug. By means of this canal a sufficient supply of logs is secured to keep the mill running through the year.
The large manufacturers of Bagdad have adopted a similar system, and by these means, and by the construction of
tramways tapping the more remote and isolated regions tributary to the waters of Black and Yellowwater rivers
toward the northern part of the state, the exhaustion of the timber-lands through the whole breadth of western
Florida, as far as the banks of the Choctawhatchee river, will certainly be accomplished before the end of the next
five years. A sash, door, and blind factory located at Bagdad consumes a large amount of cypress lumber. This
is procured from the mills situated along the shores of the upper Choctawhatchee bay, and is grown along the banks
of the Choctawhatchee river. The cypress lumber is exclusively used in the manufacture of sashes, blinds, doors,
moldings, and particularly in the construction of houses, of which every year a considerable number is shipped
by the way of New Orleans to the treeless regions of western Louisiana and Texas. This establishment manufactures
a large amount of fencing, the rails of cypress, the posts of red and white cedar, rounded and capped. This is
shipped to New Orleans and to the settlements in southern Florida. Of late years it has commenced sawing pencil-
boards of red cedar. The logs, of very superior quality, are obtained from the hummocks and bottom lands bordering
upon the Choctawhatchee. The lumber for this purpose must be entirely free from knots, of even, close grain, the
woody fibers perfectly straight. These logs are cut in sections 6 inches in length, and the carefully-selected pieces
sawed into slabs 2 inches broad and a quarter of an inch in thickness. Fifty gross of these slabs are packed in a
case, and the establishment produces about six hundred cases annually. These are mostly shipped to a pencil
factory in Jersey City, a small number going also to Germany.
"The saw-mills situated on the shores of Choctawhatchee bay extend from the mouth of Alaqua creek to
Freeport, and westward to Point Washington; the logs sawed at these mills are for the most part brought down
by raft from the upper waters of the Choctawhatchee and its tributaries. The lumber sawed here is mostly long-
leaved pine, with a small amount of cypress. The product of these mills is mostly shipped to New Orleans in small
schooners carrying from 15,000 to 20,000 feet each. The capacity of the mills upon this bay is in excess of their
production, the difficulty of obtaining logs causing most of them to remain shut during half the year.
"The causes which up to the present time have prevented the destruction of the pine forests about Saint
Andrew's bay, which is traversed by one fine river and bordered by another, must be traced to the difficulty of
navigating these streams and to the want of a convenient outlet to the Gulf at Apalachicola. There are few saw-
mills upon this bay, supplying only the local demand, and even these are furnished with logs floated down the
Chattahoochee from beyond the confines of the state."







524 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.







SOUTHERN CENTRAL DIVISION.



ALABAMA.

The northern and northeastern portions of Alabama, embracing the foot-hills of the southern Alleghany
mountains and the valley of the Tennessee river, are covered with a rich and varied forest growth of broad-leaved
trees, in which oaks, hickories, ashes, walnuts, and cherries abound. South of the Tennessee river the rolling
country is covered with oaks, through which belts of short-leaved pine occur. In Cherokee and Saint Clair
counties isolated bodies of long-leaved pine appear, while a narrow strip of the same species stretches nearly
across the state between the thirty-third and thirty-second degrees of north latitude. South of this central belt
the country is again covered with forests of hard woods, which farther south, in the rolling pine-hill region, are mixed
with a heavy growth of the long-leaved pine; and this species occupies, or once occupied, almost exclusively,
outside of the numerous river bottoms, the sandy plain extending along the coast and reaching nearly 100 miles
inland from the shores of the Gulf. Great regions of swamp covered with heavy forests of cypress occur in the
southern part of the state, especially in the region watered by the lower Tombigbee and Alabama rivers.
The forests of northern Alabama still contain great bodies of hard-wood timber, although the demands of the
rapidly-increasing iron industry located here have already stripped of their tree covering many of the low hills of
northeastern Alabama. The best pine has been gathered from Mobile and Baldwin counties, in the neighborhood
of Mobile bay, from the lines of railroads and the banks of streams heading in the southern part of the state and
flowing to the Gulf through western Florida.
The pine forests of southern Alabama have long suffered from the reckless manufacture of naval stores.
During the census year 569,160 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with an estimated loss of
$121,225. Of these fires the largest number were set to improve grazing, or by careless farmers and hunters.
The manufacture of cooperage and wheel stock, furniture, and other articles of wood is still in its infancy in
Alabama and the other Gulf states. Such industries, in view of the magnificent forests of hard wood covering
great areas in this region and the rapid exhaustion of the best material in the north and west, must in the near
future be largely transferred to the southern states.
The cypress swamps adjacent to Mobile bay yield a large number of hand-split shingles and give employment
to many persons, principally blacks.
The following estimate of the amount of pine standing in the state May 31, 1880, was prepared by Dr. Charles
Mohr, of Mobile, who carefully examined the whole pine region of the Gulf states:

LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinus palustris).


Regions. Feet, board
measure.

East of Perdido river........................ ...................... 4, 055, 000, 000
West of Perdido river............................................... 2,000,000,000
In the region of mixed growth.-..............................-...... 10, 000, 000, 000
In the Central Pine Belt........................ .................... 1,750, 000, 000
In the Coosa River basin ........................................... 900, 000, 000
In the Walker County district ...................................... 180,000, 000
Total ...... ............................... ................... 18,885,000,000

Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880 (including 77,500,000 245,396,000
feet, estimated, grown in Alabama and sawed in western Florida).


SHORT-LEAVED PINE (Pinus mitis).

In the Central Pine Belt ---......... ............................... 1,875,000,000
In the Coosa River basin .......................................... 432, 000, 000
Total ............... ........................................ 2, 307, 000, 000
Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880, none reported.












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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 525

In this estimate no account is made of small timber standing on some 1,282,000 acres which have been cut
over, and from which the merchantable pine has been practically removed, or on 600,000 acres injured by the
manufacture of turpentine.
There are fewer pine trees per acre in the region of mixed growth than in the pine belt proper, with which it
mingles on the north; but the individual trees being larger, the average amount of standing pine per acre is
greater, although generally of poorer quality.
Mobile is still the principal center in the state for the manufacture of pine and cypress lumber; a large amount
of pine lumber is manufactured also along the line of the railroads penetrating the pine belt in Etowah county, and
considerable hard wood is sawed in counties bordering the Tennessee river for local use and northern shipment.
Mobile is also the distributing point for the naval stores manufactured in the state.
The following notes upon the forests of Alabama are extracted from Dr. Mohr's report:

"THE MARITIME PINE REGION.
"West of Mobile the road traversed for a distance of over 5 miles the plain, or so-called 'second bottom',
composed of a more or less tenacious or sandy yellow clay. It has an elevation above the alluvial of the river of
15 to 25 feet, and is bordered on the west by the ridges of the stratified drift, which extend to within 6 to 18 miles
of the shore-line. Near the coast this plain, flat and devoid of drainage, forms for many miles the low, wet savannas
sparsely covered with a stunted growth of long-leaved pines; near the estuaries it is interspersed with tracts
covered with a black, light soil, rich in humus and bearing a luxuriant growth of broad-leaved trees associated
with a few Coniferce, and with the wooded swamps which extend over the depressions about the base of the higher
land, and follow the low, inundated banks of the numerous streams. The prevailing forest tree of this plain, now
much cultivated in the vicinity of Mobile, is the long.leaved pine. Situations offering a moister and somewhat
richer soil along the hummocks and gentle acclivities bordering the swamps and the bottoms of the water-courses
are occupied by the loblolly pine. With this is often associated the pitch pine (Pinus Cubensis), which prefers,
however, the more or less inundated and always wet, swampy forest, where its spreading crown towers above
the gum trees and white cedars. Wherever in the plain the long-leaved pine has been cut down, this pitch pine
principally and the loblolly pine spring up to replace it.
"Many acres can be seen in this region covered with thrifty seedlings of this pitch pine, and trees have sprung
up, to my own knowledge, since 1865, which are now from 20 to 25 feet in height with a diameter of trunk of
from 4 to 6 inches; and trees from 50 to 60 feet in height with a circumference of from 3 to 4 feet, forming quite
extensive forests, may be seen upon the shores of the bay from which the primeval forest was removed about fifty
years ago.
"Ascending the highlands of drift, with its porous soil composed of irregular strata of white or ferruginous
sands, gravels, and pebbles interspersed with layers of clay, the home of the long-leaved pine, which here arrives
at perfection and forms the entire forest growth over immense areas, is entered. Upon this formation, after the
removal of the original forest, either the long-leaved pine takes possession again of the soil or is replaced by a
more or less stunted growth of various species of oak (Quercus Catesbci, cinerea, nigra, obtusilob., and falcata), the
mocker-nut, and a few other small trees and shrubs. What the conditions are by which such a rotation is
regulated is not apparent. It is no doubt much influenced by the conflagrations which annually sweep through
the woods and which are particularly destructive to the young pines, but it cannot be explained solely upon that
ground. I have, however, observed that the more broken lands with the same sandy character of surface soil, but
with a more argillaceous subsoil more or less impervious to water, are mostly covered with this second growth of
deciduous trees, and that the flat table-lands with either a sandy or gravelly soil are invariably covered again with
a second growth of the long-leaved pine. Among such young growths of this species I have never been able to
discover a single seedling of the other pines.
CYPRESS SWAMPS OF THE TENSAS RIVER.-The river was extraordinarily high, the lowlands being overflowed
to a depth of more than 10 feet. The torrents which had fallen during the past three weeks caused a heavier freshet
than any that had been experienced since the spring of 1875. Since that year no such opportunity has been offered
for getting heavy cypress timber from the depths of these swampy forests. No idle man was to be found on shore;
everybody who could swing an ax, paddle a boat, or pilot a log was in the swamp engaged in felling and floating
cypress timber. All the mill-hands worked in the swamps; fields and gardens were left untouched, and even clerks
from the stores were sent to the swamps as overseers.
"We soon entered the deep, dark forest stocked with some fine and large cypress trees, and came upon
two negroes, each standing in his little skiff, engaged in felling a tree of the largest size. It was astonishing
to witness the steadiness and celerity with which they performed their work, considering the instability of their
footholds in the narrow boats. Every stroke of the ax told at the designated place, and it took them scarcely
longer to cut a tree in this way than if they had been working upon solid ground. The top of the tree when
felled is sawed off close to the first limbs by one man working under water a single-handled cross-cut saw.
Another, provided with a long pole armed with a sharp iron spike, seizes the trunk and tows it, with the aid of







526 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

the slow current, to one of the lake-like sheets ot still water which, interspersed with streams, are so common
in these lowlands. Here the trunks are made into rafts and can be floated down the river to the mills along the
banks below after the subsidence of the flood. The greatest part of this large timber is only accessible during the
time of a high stage of water, so that the energies of the whole population are devoted during the times of freshets
to getting out as much of it as possible. The large number of logs harvested shows clearly with what activity the
destruction of these treasures of the forest is being pushed; and the reports, as of heavy thunder, caused by the
fall of the mighty trees, resounding at short intervals from near and far, speak of its rapid progress.
In 1831 Mr. Vaughn found these cypress swamps untouched by the ax. At present their resources are so
diminished by the inroads made upon them during the last twelve years that, with a prospect of a rapidly-
increasing demand for cypress lumber in the near future, he judges that they will be completely exhausted during
the next ten years. This opinion is shared by all mill-owners here, who believe that in less than that time their
business must come to an end. There is no hope that the supply will be continued by the natural increase of young
trees. It is rare to find small trees among the large specimens. Seedlings and saplings are not found in these
deep, swampy forests, and only occur in the openings and upon the banks of water-courses. The fact that the almost
impenetrable shade, excluding the admission of light and air to a soil almost constantly drenched with water, is
unfavorable to the growth of a new generation of the cypress, threatens to exclude it from localities where formerly
this tree attained its greatest perfection. In swamps open to the influences of light and air, and not liable to
prolonged periods of inundation, a growth of seedlings and small trees, especially along the banks of the smaller
tributaries of the larger streams, springs up. The extremely slow growth of the cypress, however, during all stages
of its existence, even if young trees spring up, destroys all hope of an adequate supply of this timber to meet the
wants of coming generations. Trees of small size are as frequently cut as large ones. Saplings from 4 to 12
inches in diameter even are cut and supply the farmer, the builder, and the mechanic with material for many useful
purposes. Logs not over 30 inches in diameter, however, are not worked up in the Tensas mills, which only use
logs of larger size, the sapllings being sent in rafts with pine logs to the saw-mills of Mobile. It is rare that a
tree over 3 feet in diameter is found perfectly sound. Trees above 4 feet through are almost always invested with
signs of decay. No timber seems to be open to so many defects as that of the cypress. Many of the trees are wind-
shaken'; that is, portions of the body of the wood have separated in the direction of the concentric rings, causing
annual splits which extend throughout a great length of the trunk, and if occurring repeatedly in the same stick
render it unfit for use. A considerable number of the larger trees are rotten in sections. Logs cut from such
trees may appear perfectly sound at both ends, but are found hollow and rotten in the interior. The inspection
of cypress logs requires great experience and care to protect the buyer from loss. But there is one disease
which particularly affects this timber, the cause of which is a perfect mystery to all interested in the matter. (a)
From the center of the tree outward, although never extending into the sap-wood, occur great numbers of
spindle-shaped, narrow excavations with perfectly smooth, rounded, walls more or less tapering toward the ends,
parallel with the bundles of woody fibers and nearly regularly disposed in the direction of the annual rings of
growth. These cavities vary from one-half an inch or less to a foot in length, and are found from a few lines to
an inch in width. They are filled with a yellowish-brown powder, the result of decayed, woody substance,
although the walls of the cavities appear perfectly sound and unaffected by decay. These excavations are called
'pegs', and timber so affected 'peggy' timber. The cavities have no communication with the surface apparently,
and remain always inclosed within the surrounding belt of sap-wood. It is only in the case of very old trees that the
larger cavities produced by the junction of the pegs sometimes reach openings produced by external decay or
accident. Undoubtedly these pegs cause the large hollows so often found in the center of large-sized and
apparently perfectly healthy trees. Some of the timber of medium-sized specimens is honey-combed with these
pegs. Such peggy stuff is useful for poles and pickets, which are found not less durable than if made from
solid lumber.
"Two varieties of cypress timber are recognized according to the color, firmness, and heaviness of the wood,
and are known as white cypress and black cypress; the latter has darker, closer grained, and more resinous wood
than the former, and will sink in water. Its weight makes impossible the transportation of black-cypress logs by
floating under ordinary circumstances, and the lumberman, unable always to recognize these peculiarities of the
wood in the standing tree, cuts a chip before felling, which thrown into the water indicates, by its floating or
sinking, whether it is black or white cypress. Trees of the heavy variety are deadened during the months of August
and September by cutting a deep ring through the bark, and in the spring of the second season the timber is
found sufficiently light to float.
The cypress region of southern Alabama, which must be regarded as one of the great resources of its forest
wealth, commences upon Mobile river, about 16 or 18 miles above its entrance into Mobile bay, extending through
the lowlands upon both banks of this river, in Baldwin and Mobile counties, where it covers an extreme area of from
75 to 80 square miles. It extends northward to the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, covering
a This injury to the cypress is caused by a fungoid plant not yet determined, although widely distributed along the Gulf coast.-
C. S. S.







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 527

large tracts in the delta between them, follows northward the course of these streams, and covers the extensive
swamps which border their banks and the mouths of their numerous tributaries. Upon the Alabama the cypress
swamps extend to the lower part of Clarke county. Next to the Mobile River region the largest supply of cypress
can be drawn from the extensive bottoms of the Tombigbee, about the mouth of Bassett creek, near Jackson.
During the freshet of the present year (1880) a large number of logs from this vicinity will be sent to. the mills on
the Tensas.
BALDWIN COUNTY.-A quarter of a century ago a pine forest, unequaled in the magnificence of its tree growth,
and supposed at that time to contain an inexhaustible supply of timber, covered Baldwin county through its whole
extent. To-day this forest, from the line of the Mobile and Montgomery railroad, along the eastern shore of Mobile
bay, and along all the water-courses as far as Bonsecours bay, upon.the Gulf, is entirely destroyed, and presents a
picture of ruin and utter desolation painful to behold.
The production of naval stores has been carried on in this region without regard to any of its future interests,
and, the forest being exhausted, manufacturers have been driven to seek new fields of operation. In the old
turpentine orchards, long abandoned, no young trees have sprung up. Too far remote to make it possible to get
their timber to the saw-mills, the large trees which have sufficient strength to withstand the effects of the barbarous
process of boxing drag out their precarious existence for years after the smaller and weaker trees have been laid low,
and shade the ground sufficiently to prevent the start of a young growth. The wood of these old boxes, as dead pines
are called, is, after the loss of their vitality, charged throughout with an excess of resinous matter, and is in that
condition sold as 'fat' or 'light' wood, being greatly esteemed as fuel for the generation of steam. For this
purpose this final product of the pine forest is carried to the city of Mobile in broad flatboats, propelled by one huge
square sail, and steered by a ponderous horizontal beam serving.as a rudder. In a few years, however, this, the least
valuable and the last product of the pine forest, will have forever disappeared, and with it the last remnant of the
original forest growth of this part of the state. Occasionally, under the shade of the trees left standing, a young
growth of pine is found, and on the high and undulating table-land between Mobile bay and Fish river, where the
soil is light and very porous, a low and scanty oak scrub has taken possession of the ground. Toward the banks of
the water-courses, however, where the largest trees were first cut to furnish timber to the mills once situated on Fish
river, thus early leaving the ground open to atmospheric influences, fine and promising groves of long-leaved pine
now often cover areas of wide extent. I measured many trees in these young second-growth pine forests, grown up
within the last twelve to twenty-five years, standing from 15 to 30 feet in height with a diameter of trunk of from
4 to 6 inches, of thrifty growth, and rapidly overcoming the small oak growth with which it had to contend for the
possession of the soil. It is the turkey and the upland willow oak alone which occur in these thin soils, too poor to
support the Spanish and black oaks.
"The banks of the North Branch of the Fish river are composed of marsh or white drift sand. The arid, sandy
ground is covered with a dwarf growth of live oak and myrtle live oak, observed here for the first time, and which
farther east formed by far the largest part of the oak scrub covering the shore-lines of the large bays of western
Florida. Two or three miles beyond the forks of Fish river a belt of pine forest is reached, not yet destroyed by
the mutilations of the 'box-cutter' nor bereft of its best growth by the log-gatherer; it covers the highlands and
declivities between Fish river and the waters which find their way into Perdido bay. This may be regarded as a
virgin forest, only slightly invaded up to the present time along the Blackwater creek, Hollenger's creek, the
Perdido river, and the bay shore. The mills situated on Perdido river and bay depend entirely for their present
and future supply of logs upon this forest of southern Baldwin county, although I learn that it is expected to supply
them during the next five years only, even if their production of lumber does not increase. This forest extends
over six townships and covers an area estimated at from 125,000 to 150,000 acres.

"THE FORESTS OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE IN EASTERN ALABAMA, MIXED FOREST G-ROWTH, ETC.

"The forests which once covered the wide bottom lands of the Chattahoochee in the neighborhood of Franklin,
Alabama (opposite Fort Gaines), are now reduced to small patches of woodland confined to the base of ranges of
low hills bordering the plain valley to the southeast. The tree growth was found here to differ in no way from.
that found lower down, except that the short-leaved pine (Pinus mitis) occurs more frequently. The crab apple
and the cockspur thorn are frequent along the borders of the woods, but the pond pine (Pinus serotina), which
might have been expected here, was not observed. In the sandy, wet, and deeply-shaded bottoms of a sluggish
stream winding along the base of these hills I found the spruce pine (Pinus glabra) abundantly associated with
the loblolly bay, red and sweet bays, and stately magnolias. The live oak is not found here, and it is doubtful if
it extends in this part of the Gulf region more than a few miles north of the thirty-first degree of latitude. The
low hills do not rise more than 150 feet above the plain; in entering them the second division of the sylvan
vegetation characteristic of the eastern Gulf states is reached-a forest of mixed growth, which must be regarded,
on account of its extent as well as the variety of its vegetation, as one of the important natural features of the
region. I am of opinion that the deciduous-leaved trees have an equal representation in this forest with the







528 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

conifers. This certainly was the case before the settlement of the country, but as the broad-leaved trees occupy
the best land, the areas of hard-wood forest have been more reduced by the demands of agriculture than have the
forests of p1ine.
"The distribution of the different species of trees throughout this region depends upon the nature of the soil
and the topographical features of the country. In general it can be stated that the marls and calcareous
Tertiary strata which form the lower ridges and more or less undulating uplands and plains are chiefly occupied
by trees with deciduous leaves, and by a few yellow pines. Here oaks predominate, and especially the post
oak (Quercus obtusiloba), which prefers the level or gently-swelling ground with a generous, warm, and open soil;
with it is frequently found the black oak (Quercus tinctoria), the Spanish oak and black-jack upon soils of poorer
quality, the last, particularly, preferring one of closer, more argillaceous character mixed with fine sand. The
black-jack finds here its best development, rivaling often in size the post oak; it enters largely also into the
undergrowth of the post-oak woods, forming dense thickets on lands too poor to sustain a heavier tree growth.
"The hickories are unimportant features in the forests of this region. In the dry uplands they seldom attain
more than medium size, although in the more shaded and richer situations the mocker-nut and pig-nut are not rare.
"The long-leaved pine, on account of the broad extent it covers, its gregarious habit, and the splendid
growth it attains here, must be regarded as the most important timber tree of this region. Confined to a siliceous,
dry, and porous soil, it occupies the high ridges invariably covered with a deposit of drift, often found widely
spread over the more elevated highlands. For this reason the pine forests crown the hills and cover the more
or less broken plateaus. They are found also toward the southern boundaries of this region, where the sands
and gravels of the drift of the lower pine region encroach upon and mingle with the strata of older formations.
Under these circumstances it is evident that the line of demarkation between this and the pine region of the coast
is difficult to determine. The best distinction is found in the fact that in the pine forests of the lower pine
region the growth of pines upon the uplands is never broken by patches of oak, and that the short-leaved pine
never occurs there. Another point of distinction is found in the nature of the second growth, which springs up
after the large pines have been removed. In the pine woods in the region of mixed tree growth the subsoil, of
Tertiary origin, seems more favorable to the growth of oaks than to a second growth of the long-leaved pine. This
is replaced generally by oaks mixed with the short-leaved pine and various deciduous trees. It is safe to assert that
the southern limits of this region coincide with a line following the northern boundary of the coast drifts, along
which the lower strata have completely disappeared be neath it.
"PIKE COUNTY.-On the broad ridges which form the divide between the waters of the Pea, and Conecuh rivers,
upon a purely sandy soil, are found, within the forest of long-leaved pine, tracts with strictly-defined outlines from
a half mile to several miles in width, covered with a dense vegetation of small trees and shrubs peculiar to the
perpetually moist and cool hummocks of the coast. The soil covered with this growth presents no unusual features;
it is as poor and arid as that covering the rest of these heights. Surrounded on all sides by pine forests, not a
single pine tree is seen within the limits of these glades, called by the inhabitants 'pogosines', an Indian name
the meaning of which I was unable to learn.
"The trees are of small growth, the willow oak, the water oak, beech, red maple, and black gum rarely rising to
a height of more than 30 feet among the sourwoods, junipers, hornbeams, hollies, papaws, fringe-trees, red bays,
and other trees of the coast. These glades verge upon deep ravines from which issue large springs, and from
this fact I conclude that, below their sandy, porous soil, strata must exist perpetually moistened by subterranean
waters near enough to the surface to supply the moisture necessary to support such a luxuriant vegetation.

"FORESTS OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY.
The character of the forest vegetation changes upon the limestone formation of the valley of the Tennessee.
This new region of tree growth extends from the northeastern confines of Alabama to a short distance beyond the
Mississippi state line with a width of from 35 to 40 miles, and reaching beyond the northern boundary of the state.
Its prominent feature is the total absence of pine and the scarcity of other evergreen trees. A few scattered
saplings of the loblolly pine are found on its lower borders, waifs strayed from their natural habitats, the lower part
,of Morgan county, the true northern limit of this species, in Alabama at least. The red cedar is the only
evergreen tree common among the forest growth of this limestone region, and the durability of its wood combined
with its beauty places this tree among the most useful produced in this region. The red cedar forms here almost
exclusively the second growth after the removal of the original forest, covering everywhere with extensive groves
the dry, rocky hillsides and flats. The timber, however, of this second growth is only fit for the most ordinary
purposes. The trees branch low, and the trunks are consequently full of knots and unfit for anything except fence
posts. The fertile portions of this region have been largely denuded of their forest growth, although more than
half is still covered with wood, a considerable portion with almost virgin forest. This is particularly true of
Lauderdale and Colbert counties and the mountainous portions of the counties of Madison and Jackson. The vast
quantities of oak, ash, walnut, and poplar timber contained in these counties can be sent to northern markets as
soon as the Tennessee river has been made navigable by the removal of the obstacles at the Mussel shoals.









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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 529

"The road from Decatur to Moulton, in Lawrence county, leads through broad and fertie valley lands, broken,
as the mountains are approached, by limestone ridges jutting out into the plain. The beautiful Moulton valley,
inclosed by the low foot-hills of the Sandy Mountain range which form its southern boundary, shows only along the
base of the mountains a remnant of its original tree covering. Here the water oak, willow oak, red oak, mulberries,
elms, and ashes were the trees found in the lower situations, and on rolling, higher land the white oak, the black
oak, post oak, sassafras, and dogwood formed the prevailing forest growth. The lower flank of the steep escarpment
of the highlands, a terrace of limestone cliffs mostly destitute of soil, bears a stunted tree growth. Here the red
cedar and the upland hickory abound, and where the surface is less broken and a deeper soil covers the rock,
chestnuts make their appearance with white oaks and the shell-bark and mocker-nut hickories. The ascent is less
precipitous as the sandstone ledges are reached, and here the yellow pine (Pinus mitis) and the scrub pine (Pinus
inops) are prominent among the oak forests of the mountains. When the crest of this abrupt decline is passed the
oak forest is reached. It covers the extensive table-land between the Coosa and the eastern tributaries of the
Tombigbee, and extends southward from the valley of the Tennessee to the lowlands commencing below Tuscaloosa,
occupying an area of nearly 6,000 square miles.

GENERAL REMARKS.

"The forests of long-leaved pine are principally confined to the following limited regions east of the Mississippi
river: 1. The Great Maritime Pine region. 2. The Central Pine Belt of Alabama. 3. The Pine Region of the
Coosa.
"Pine forests of more or less extent, too, mixed with woodlands composed of deciduous-leaved trees, occupy
the ridges covered with a porous siliceous soil in the region of what I have called the mixed tree growth, and which
upon its southern borders verges upon the Coast Pine Belt. Upon the heights of the low ranges of the metamorphic
region of Alabama are also found more or less extensive tracts of this pine, generally, however, of inferior quality
and size, while as far north as the thirty-fourth degree of latitude patches of thinly-scattered pine are met on the
brows of the mountains, and, rarely, on the plateau of the carboniferous sand.
The pine forests of Alabama, from the Escambia to the Mississippi state line, in the counties of Monroe,
Baldwin, Washington, Mobile, and in portions of Clarke county, cover 3,500 square miles. Of these about 1,000
square miles have already been more or less destroyed in the manufacture of naval stores. Allowing 25 per cent.
for land under cultivation, or covered by a forest of different trees, by water, etc., there are still 1,875 square miles
left of this forest to supply the demands of the future.
The whole amount of long-leaved pine lumber received at the port of Mobile averages about 60,000,000
feet, board measure, representing the product of mills at that place and along the various railroad lines leading
to it. The amount of hewed square timber received is still small, but the business of exporting timber of this sort
promises to assume large proportions in the near future.
THE PINE BELT OF CENTRAL ALABAMA.-This forest occupies the deposits of drift which, in a strip varying
from 10 to 30 miles in width, traverses the state from east to west. It is nearly in the center of the line connecting
its eastern and western limits that its greatest width is found. This forest is estimated to cover 550 square miles,
no allowance being made for lands cultivated or covered by other trees. The timber, both in quality and quantity,
is unsurpassed by that growing on the best sections of the lower pine region. The manufacture of lumber and its
export to northern markets has only been carried on in this region to any large extent during the last three or four
years, and it is now rapidly assuming large proportions. The most important saw-mills in this region are situated
on the line of the Louisville and Nashville railroad, between Clear creek and Elmore, Elmore county, and produced
in the aggregate 67,000,000 feet of lumber, board measure, during the years 1879-'80. Considerable lumber is also
produced along the line of the Selma, Rome and Dalton railroad, in Chilton county.
"Naval stores are not yet manufactured in this region.
THE PINE REGION OF THE COOSA.-A detached belt of drift largely composed of coarse pebbles stretches
from the eastern base of the Lookout Mountain range through the valley of the Coosa river, near Gadsden, covering
nearly the whole of Cherokee county, to the Georgia state line. This forest is estimated to cover from 400 to 450 square
miles, although much of the best timber nearest to the river has already been exhausted. Logs are driven down the
Coosa and sawed at Gadsden. The manufacture of lumber at this place has been carried on for a number of years,
and amounts to an average of 20,000,000 feet.

"NAVAL STORES.
"The manufacture of naval stores in the central Gulf states is almost entirely restricted for the present to the
forest contiguous to Mobile and to the railroad lines leading to that port and to the southern confines of the pine belt
in Mississippi. It is only during the past two seasons that turpentine orchards have been worked near Pascagoula,
Mississippi, Pearl river, and in eastern Louisiana above Covington. The first turpentine distilleries were established
on the Gulf coast a little more than a quarter of a century ago, along Fish river on the eastern and Dog river on the
western shores of Mobile bay. The business soon assumed such proportions as to lead to the destruction of the
3J4 von







530 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

forests covering hundreds of square miles, particularly in Baldwin county. The production of naval stores in this
county, as well as in the lower part of Mobile county, has at present nearly ceased, on account of the exhaustion of
the forest. It is, however, now carried on with the greatest activity on the line of the Mobile and Ohio railroad.
Between Mobile station, in Mobile county, and Quitman, Mississippi, there are at this date not less than thirty-three
stills in operation, while along the Louisville and Nashville railroad there have been during the last five years fifty-
three stills established in Alabama and Mississippi. These, with few exceptions, are controlled by Mobile capital,
their whole product being handled from that market, so that the returns contained in the annual reports of the
board of trade of Mobile fairly represent the whole production of naval stores in this pine region.
"According to the statements contained in the report for 1880, the crops aniounted in the years 1879-'80 to 25,409
barrels of spirits of turpentine and 158,482 barrels of rosin. During a period of eight years, between 1873 and the
close of the business year of 1880, 160,000 barrels of spirits of turpentine and 800,000 barrels of rosin have been
produced in this same district. (a)
"The increa s in prices during the last few years for all kinds of naval stores, and particularly the active demand
for the best class of rosin, have given an increased impetus to this business, in consequence of which many of the
older orchards have been abandoned and new ones started, while the number of new boxes cut during the present
season is greater than ever before. There are no returns to be obtained of the production prior to 1875, but it can
be safely assumed that up to that year 250 square miles of pine forest had been boxed. The production since 1875
must have involved a further destruction of 640,000 acres, or 1,000 square miles of forest. With the low price at
which pine lands are held there is not the slightest regard paid to the utilization of their resources, and under
the present system they are rapidly destroyed, regardless of the needs of the future and with the sole object of
obtaining the quickest possible returns on the. capital invested.
"It may be of interest to mention here the results obtained by a practical manufacturer by submitting the
refuse of saw-mills, that is, slabs and sawdust, to a process of combined steam and dry distillation, with the view
of utilizing the volatile products of such waste. He obtained from one cord of slabs 12 gallons of spirits of
turpentine, 25 gallons of tar, 120 gallons of weak pyroligneous acid, and 12 barrels of charcoal. From one cord of
lightwood he obtained 12 gallons of spirits of turpentine, 62-. gallons of tar, and 60 gallons of pyroligneous acid.
The sawdust obtained from sawing 10,000 feet of pine lumber, subjected to distillation during one day, produced
22 gallons of spirits of turpentine."

MISISSIPPI.
The forests of Mississippi originally extended over nearly the entire state. Prairies of no great area, situated
in the northern central part of the state, presented the only break in its tree covering. The forest consisted of a
belt of long-leaxed pine, occupying the coast plain and reaching from the eastern confines of the state to the
bottom lands of the Mississippi river, and from the coast nearly to the line of Vicksburg and Meridian. The
northeastern portion of this long-leaved pine forest spread over a high rolling country, and here the pines were
mixed with various hard-wood trees; north of the lon'g-leaved pine forest a long belt gradually narrowing toward the
north and occupied by a growth of short-leaved pine and of hard woods reached nearly to the northern boundary of
the state, while south of the Tennessee river, in Tishomingo, Prentiss, and Itawamba counties, a considerable area
was covered with forests of the short-leaved pine. The remainder of the state was clothed with a growth of hard
woods, which in the swamps of the Yazoo delta and the bottom lands of the Mississippi river formed vast and
almost impenetrable forests, where cypresses, gums, water oaks, ashes, and other trees which find their home
in the deep, inundated swamps of the South Atlantic region attained noble dimensions and great value.
The pine forests have been removed from the immediate neighborhood of the Pascagoula and Pearl rivers and
from their principal tributaries within the southern tier of counties; the most accessible timber has been cleared
from the Biloxi, Blind, Jordan, Wolf, and Tchefuncta rivers, flowing into Mississippi sound, and from the line of the
Chicago, Saint Louis, and New Orleans railroad. The long-leaved pine of Mississippi is, however, still practically
intact, and these forests are capable of supplying an immense amount of timber as soon as the means of
transportation can be furnished for it. A small amount of pine has been cut in the northeastern pine region from
along the line of the Memphis and Charleston railroad.
The hard-wood forests outside of the bottom lands have been largely cleared from many counties in providing
for the requirements of agriculture. Such land when abandoned is again covered in the central part of the state
with a grove th of old-field pine, and in the north, and especially in the northeastern counties, by a vigorous growth
of short-leaved pine (Pinus mitis), which seems destined to become the most important timber tree of that region.
The forests which cover the swamps of the state are still almost intact, although the most accessible cypress, which
has long been cut in the Yazoo delta and the valley of the Pearl river to supply the New Orleans market, has
become scarce.
During the census year 222,800 acres of woodland were reported destroyed by fire, with a loss of $78,500. Of
these fires the largest number was set by hunters, and by farmers carelessly starting fires in clearing land or to
improve pasturage.
a These figures differ somewhat from those prepared by Mr. Van Bokkelen. See page 493.-C. S. S.














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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 531

Establishments for the manufacture of wagons, wheel stock, cooperage, etc., have been established at different
times in the northern part of the state. The industries, however, which depend upon the hard-wood forests for
material are still in their infancy in Mississippi, and are capable of enormous development.
The following estimates of the standing-pine supply of Mississippi, May 31, 1880, were prepared by Dr. Charles
Mohr, who carefully explored the forests of the state:

LONG-LEAVED PINE (Pinus palustris).

Feet, board
.Regions. measure.

In region west of Pearl river, tributary to the Chicago, Saint Louis, 6, 800, 000, 000
and ew Orleans railroad.
East of Pearl river.......... ..----- .........--- ................ 7,600, 000, 000
Region of mixed growth, exclusive of 200,000 acres injured by the 3, 800, 000,000
manufacture of turpentine.
Total........................---- -------- ---- ------............. 18, 200, 000,000

Cut for the census year ending May 31,1880....----------........... 108, 000, 000

SHORT-LEAVED PINE (Pinus mitis).

In the northeastern belt................--. --.--------------... 1, 600, 000, 000
In northern region of mixed growth ........ ....... ........ 5,175,000,000
Total ...............---- --------- -- -- --------- 6,775,000,000

Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880.-.................- -7,775,000

In this estimate no account is made of small timber standing on some 2,912,000 acres which have been cut
over, and from which the merchantable pine has been practically removed.
The region of mixed growth, which adjoins the pine belt upon the north, contains a smaller number of pine
trees per acre than the pine belt proper; but, the individual trees being larger, the average amount of standing
pine per acre is here greater, although generally of poorer quality, than nearer the coast.
The principal centers of lumber manufacture are at the mouth of Pascagoula river, in Jackson county, at
Mississippi City, in Harrison county, along the lower Pearl river, upon the line of the Chicago, Saint Louis, and
New Orleans railroad in Lincoln county, and in the northeastern counties, where are located many small railroad
mills, manufacturing in the aggregate a large amount of yellow-pine lumber (Pinus mitis).
The pine forests of the state have up to the present time suffered but little damage from the manufacture of
naval stores. Turpentine orchards, however, have been recently established in the vicinity of the coast, near the.
mouth of the Pascagoula river, and at other points in the coast counties.
The following remarks are extracted from Dr. Charles Mohr's report upon the forests of Mississippi:
"THE PINE FORESTS OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI.-In the vicinity of Scranton, near the mouth of the
Pascagoula river, little is left of the original pine forest. The old clearings are covered with fine loblolly pine,
from 40 to 60 feet high, upon rather close, dry soil. The pitch pine (Pinus Cubensis) forms dense groves, with
seedling trees from 20 to 30 feet in height upon lands of lighter soil extending to the sea-shore. Oaks are not
common. Fine groves of stately live oaks, however, line the banks of the river up to Moss Point, 4 miles distant.
"The annual export of lumber during the last four or five years has averaged 45,000,000 feet from the Pascagoula
river. The largest percentage of this lumber is manufactured into boards and scantling-for ordinary building
purposes, and is shipped to Cuba, the Windward islands, to Mexico, Brazil, and a small part, in the form of deals
2 or 3 inches in thickness, intended for ship-building, to France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, and Germany. Large
quantities of charcoal burned upon the banks of Black and Red creeks are sent to N-ew Orleans in small coasting
schooners, which run also from the bay of Biloxi and the bay of Saint Louis. At Moss Point eleven saw-mills,
which furnish the lumber manufactured upon it, are situated on both banks of the East Pascagoula river. The
combined capacity of these mills amounts to 220,000 feet a day, although the annual production during the past
years has scarcely exceeded 40,000,000 feet. The timber manufactured in these mills comes from the Pascagoula
and its tributaries, the Leaf and Chickasawha rivers and their sources, the Bogue Homo, Tallahala, Bay, and
Okatuma creeks, as far up as the southern limits of Covington and Jones counties. A small number of logs also.
comes from the Escatawpa. The logs received at these mills average 20 inches in diameter and 40 feet in length
Sticks of such average dimensions are only furnished from first-class timber-lands, which, according to the best
judges, produce six or seven trees of that size to the acre. Only lands lining the streams just mentioned, in a
belt not exceeding 3 miles in width on each bank, have been up to this time invaded by the log-getter to supply
these mills.







532 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

"The vastness of the timber resources yet contained in the region embraced in the northern half of Harriion
and the whole of Greene and Perry, up to the southern confines of Marion and Jones counties, is astonishing. As
is the case in Alabama, however, trees furnishing first-class spars for masts are difficult to find; they have been
cut by spar-hunters in every part of the forest which could be reached by teams.
6 Cypress lumber is not manufactured in this region, and the loblolly pine furnishes so small a part of the
timber manufactured that it need not be considered. In Jones and Covington counties, about the headwaters of
the upper tributaries of the Pascagoula, the country is rolling, intersected by numerous small, swift streams and
rivulets. This region is magnificently timbered, and devoid of the barren ridges of ahnost pure samn so frequently
found in the pine belt of Alabama.
The low, flat, more or less wide pine lands bordering upon the marshes of the coast are sparsely covered with
pine, while the trees growing in this wet, boggy soil, devoid of drainage and overlying a subsoil impervious to
water, are stunted and of little value. The lower part of Harrison county is covered with these pine meadows,
which fact accounts for the comparatively small importance of the bay of Saint Louis as a lumber-producing center.
"At Pearlington, on the Pearl river, is established the large saw-mill of Poitevent & Favre, capable of
producing 100,000 feet of lumber a day; at Logton, 2 miles farther up the river, are two mills, and 5 miles above
these, at Gainesville, there is another. The largest part of the logs sawed at these mills is cut upon the banks of
the Abolochitto creek, in Hancock county, and its tributaries extending into the lower part of Marion county,
50 or 60 miles distant. The remainder comes from the banks of the Pearl and the upper and lower Little rivers,
which empty into it 10 miles above Columbia.
The cypress is nearly exhausted from the lower Pearl river, and the 20,000 or 30,000 feet of this lumber which
are sawed annually at Pearlington are derived from the cypress swamps on the upper waters of the Pearl and
Jackson rivers, where there is still a large amount of this timber of good size.
"' The eastern bank of the Pearl river, within the Maritime Pine Belt, is sparsely settled, and forests, the
especially in Hancock county and the upper part of Marion county, are unsurpassed in the quality and quantity of
their pine timber. It is estimated by good judges that these forests will yield an average of 2,000 feet of lumber,
board measure, to the acre. Up to the present time a strip of land scarcely 3 miles in width, embracing the banks
of the water-courses, has been stripped of its timber growth, and fine spar timber is yet to be found here a few
miles back from all the streams. Almost the whole of these rich timber-lands supplying the mills on Pearl river
form a part of the public domain.
The almost unbroken pine forests covering the upper tier of counties between the Pearl and Pascagoula rivers,
toward the northern confines of the pine region, are still practically intact. The wealth of these forests has as yet
found no outlet to the markets of the world. Thinly settled, they are still largely the property of the government,
but in view of the speedily-increasing demand for lumber and the profits derived from the lumber business, such a
condition of affairs must soon come to an end. It can be safely asserted that by far the largest part of the timber,
felled in the Abolochitto region is taken from government land. There can be no question of this when it is considered
how insignificantly small is the area of land which has been legally entered by private persons along that stream.
The necessity of adopting proper measures to protect the timber wealth upon the public domain from depredations of
such enormous extent forces itself upon the most casual observer, while to one who looks closer at the consequences
of the continuance of the existing state of affairs the urgency becomes appallingly apparent. The ever-increasing
consumption of timber at the mills upon Pearl river, of which one alone can cut 100,000 feet of lumber a day, will
prove a powerful stimulus to a people who, since the development of the lumber business in these regions, have
almost completely abandoned their former agricultural and pastoral pursuits and now depend entirely for their
support upon cutting pine logs, to supply this enormous demand at the expense of the public property. Already
plans have been made to invade this region by tramways and railroads, in order that its timber may be brought to
market. This is true, too, of the region between the Pearl and the Amite rivers, down to the marshy lands of
eastern Louisiana, a region in which the forests are also particularly good.
"In the state of Mississippi it is safe to estimate that, after deducting 25 per cent. for areas of swampy and
cleared land, 9,000 square miles are still covered by forests of long-leaved pine. The production of this region
during the census year amounts to 108,000,000 feet; of this, 60,000,000 finds its outlet at Pascagoula, 30,000,000 by
Pearl river, 6,000,000 by bay of Saint Louis, and 12,000,000 by the Chicago, Saint Louis, and New Orleans railroad
to northern markets.
"In the northern part of Harrison county we crossed a tract from which twelve years ago a hurricane swept
a belt a quarter of a mile wide of all tree growth. It is interesting to note the growth which has since sprung up
among the prostrate charred trunks of the pines still found lying about in large numbers. Black-jack oaks, the
largest not over 12 feet in height, are mixed in almost equal numbers with stunted, thin saplings of the long-leaved
pine. These plainly exhibit the helplessness of the struggle to which these offspring of the great timber tree are
subjected under the influence of repeated conflagrations wherever the oak scrub has sprung up and added fuel, in the
abundance of its leaves, to the fires which annually sweep through these woods.
THE NORTHEASTERN COUNTIES.-After crossing the Sucarnoochee river below Scooba, in Kemper county, the
pines which had covered the ridges near the borders of Lauderdale county disappear; scarcely a stray sapling







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 533

of the loblolly pine is seen as Scooba is reached. The cold, wet, calcareous soil of the flatwoods and prairies is
unsuited to the growth of all coniferous trees, with the exception of the cypress. Along the railroad, as it traverses
the flat prairie region, the country is sparsely wooded; large tracts of the prairie lands have always been destitute
of trees, and the woodlands with which they were interspersed were cleared at the first settlement of the country.
What remains of the original forest growth is now confined to localities too difficult of drainage to make agriculture
profitable, and to the banks of streams subject to inundation. More or less extensive patches of woods are found
also on the ledges where the limestone rock comes to the surface. In the swampy land the willow oak, the water oak,
the black gum, sweet gum, white ash, and along the ponds willows and cottonwoods, prevail. The post oaks, white
oaks, and cow oaks are mingled more or less freely with these trees in localities enjoying better drainage. Black-jack
and black oaks, mixed with various haws, viburnums, and persimmons, occupy the rocky flats. No magnolias were
seen in this region. The red, willow, and water oaks, the sycamore, and the sweet gum abound along the streams
here, and are so common as to deserve special mention, while on the rolling uplands black oaks, post oaks, and
white oaks, with poplars, shell-bark and pig-nut hickories, are common. From Tupelo toward Corinth the country
is poorly wooded. Tbhe ascent is constant, reaching the point of highest elevation between the Gulf of Mexico and the
Ohio riverat Booneville. Corinth is situated on a wide pine plain, bounded on the west by the valley of the Tuscumbia
river and east by the ridges which mark the water-shed of the Tennessee. The soil is here a deep calcareous clay,
very stiff and heavy, hard as brick in warm, dry weather, and suddenly becoming a bottomless, stiff mire in seasons
of rain. Below the valley of the Tuscumbia river the road passes over low and undulating ridges, of which the
higher and steeper are yet covered with the remnants of the old oak forest. Here the Spanish and post oaks
predominate in numbers; then follow the black oak and the scarlet oak, while the shell-bark hickory and the mocker-
nut form but a small part of the tree growth of these uplands. The bottoms of the Tuscumbia, although subject
to frequent overflows, are covered with a primeval forest not inferior in luxuriance and variety to that of the
Mississippi river bottom lands. White-oak timber of the finest quality is found here in the greatest abundance and
perfection. The most common species is the cow oak (Quercus Micha-xii). I found that this river-bottom forest
contained, by actual count, an average of from twelve to fourteen trees of this species, from 30 to 35 inches in
diameter, to the acre. It is known to the inhabitants here by the name of cow oak or basket oak, being easily split
into narrow, thin strips. The wood is extensively used in the manufacture of baskets used by the negroes in
cotton-picking. These baskets are light, and of considerable strength and durability. Next in frequency follows
the willow oak, and then the over-cup swamp oak (Quercus lyrata), and finally the red oak, found especially on the
outskirts of the forest.
"The white ash is not so frequently seen here as elsewhere in similar localities, and does not seem to thrive
on these stiff, cold soils. It is in part replaced by the green ash, which here attains the size of a large tree. The
black gum is very common, and where the soil is least subjected to overflow the true white oak is found, with fine
groups of beech, overtowered by large poplars. Among the smaller trees the mulberry, hornbeam, holly, and
abundant papaws must be mentioned.
The pine hills in the eastern part of Alcorn county are reached at a distance of 6 or 7 miles in a southerly
direction from Corinth. Pine occurs on the dividing ridges between the waters of the Tuscumbia river and Yellow
creek, or toward the south on those between the Tombigbee and the Tennessee rivers. A short distance west of
Glendale station the Cretaceous strata disappear under the ferruginous sands, and mixed with a stunted growth of
post oak and Spanish oak, pines appear, forming vast forests on the crests of the hills. This pine (Pinus imitis)
takes possession of all the old clearings and fields thrown out of cultivation. The rapid growth of the seedlings,
which spontaneously spring up thickly after the removal of the broad-leaved trees, leaves no chance for the seedling
oaks. It is therefore a certainty that in the future the short-leaved pine will be almost the sole forest tree in this
part of the state, outside of the bottom lands, and that it will probably extend its domain far beyond the original
limits of its growth. %
"The aspect of these pine woods resembles closely that of the lower pine region. The short-leaved pine
replaces here the long-leaved pine of the coast, the scrubby post and Spanish oaks take the place of the turkey and
the upland willow oaks, while the black-jack is common to both these regions of identical geological formation.
The flora of the two regions also presents the same general features; the asters, goldenrods, sunflowers, and various
leguminous plants are often the same or belong to closely-allied species. The pine-clad drift hills interspersed
between the Carboniferous and Cretaceous regions are parts of the northern interior drift belt which extends
throughout Alabama. The region of the short-leaved pine of northeastern Mississippi extends from the southern
border of the valley of the Tennessee river to the southern extremity of Itawamba county, and is on an average 10
miles in width, embracing an area of nearly 600 square miles. Of this region, after the deduction of the fertile
bottoms of the Tombigbee and Yellow Creek valleys, where no pines are found, two-thirds can be regarded as
occupied by the pine forest. As the sole supply of pine lumber in the northern part of the state, this region is of
great importance. Several saw-mills, none of which have an annual capacity of more than 3,000,000 feet, are
established on the railroad line at Glendale, Burnsville, and near Ina; portable saw-mills are worked also through
this forest in its whole extent, their product being hauled in wagons for miles to the nearest station on the Mobile
and Ohio and the Memphis and Charleston railroads. The largest shipments are made from Burnsville and Corinth.







534 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

"The second growth of the short-leaved pine, which is already growing with great rapidity in northern
Mississippi upon exhausted fields thrown out of cultivation and wherever the forest has been cut from the
ridges, should be protected and fostered by the owners of the soil. The care bestowed upon the natural seeding
of this useful and valuable timber tree, and in assisting it to gain a permanent foothold on lands regarded as unfit
,or unprofitable for agriculture, of which tens of thousands of acres are now found in this state, would lead to
results of great benefit to the community. The people have it in their power to replenish their timber resources, fast
failing through the ever-progressing destruction of the original forest, without other outlay than simply assisting
nature in her efforts to recover from injuries sustained in the wholesale destruction of the forest. The restoration
*of the forest over vast areas, now barren and unproductive wastes, would add vastly to the general welfare and
prosperity through the influence such forests would exert upon the climate and salubrity of the country, by the
shelter they would offer to insectivorous birds ever busy in the destruction of insects injurious to farm crops, and
by the formation of protective screens against the cotton-worm, the most destructive of all insects in this part of
the country; for it must be admitted as an undisputed fact that the destruction caused by the cotton-worm is far
less upon the small farms where strips of woodland divide the fields than upon the plantations in the rich prairie
lands where large areas are destitute of woods. Such forests would serve as windbreaks for crops growing in field
and orchard, and as protection against the washing away of the light soil so peculiarly adapted to the cultivation
of the great staple of the country, thus preventing the ruin of many productive fields, the dJbris from which,
carried away by the rain and floods, fills the rivers and their estuaries, rendering navigation every year more
dangerous.
"CENTRAL PINE IIILLs.-A hilly region, the northern limit of which is near the center of Benton county,
covered with upland oaks and short-leaved pines, extends eastward to the flatwoods in a lelt from 8 to 12 miles in
width. Farther south, in Calhoun and Sumter counties, this pine region is much wider, embracing the largest part
of these and Choctaw and the western part of Oktibbeha counties; from Kosciusko, Attala county, it extends over
the whole of Winston and the western part of Noxubee counties, being merged, south of Neshoba in the western
part of Kemper county, with the region of mixed tree growth. This pine forest supplies a sufficient amount of
lumber for the local demand, and portable saw-mills are found near the large settlements from Kosciusko to the
southern limits of the region. It forms a prominent feature in the eastern Gulf states by its geographical
position, and must be regarded as one of the distinct divisions which might be designated as the region of the central
pine hills. Botanically this region differs from that of the mixed tree growth, upon which it borders toward the
south, by the more equal distribution of the pines among the oaks, and particularly by the total absence of the
long-leaved pine and other conifers, with the exception of the loblolly pine and of scattered cypress along the river
banks, and by the absence of the great magnolia (Ml. grandiflora). The second forest growth in the northern part
of this region consists almost exclusively of the short-leaved pine, which southward is associated with the loblolly
pine. The short-leaved pine will in the future be the chief forest tree of this region.
"I have personally seen but little of the flatwoods proper, having only touched their southern limits in Kemper
county. It is a region of close, cold soil, devoid of drainage, and covered with a stunted growth of post oak; and
in its economic aspects as a timber region. or botanically, is of little interest or importance.
WESTERN MISSISSTPPI.-In Copiah county, below the village of Terry, fifteen saw-mills are in operation along
the railroad, obtaining their supply of logs from the heavily-timbered hills in the neighborhood. This lumber is
shipped by rail to Saint Louis and Chicago. This business has already reached large proportions and is still
increasing rapidly, the mills running without intermission at their full capacity throughout the year.
Beyond Crystal Springs the country loses its rolling character; the pine hills disappear, and a short distance
above the northern boundary of Copiah county, near Terry, a different geological formation is entered, and a
strongly-marked change in the vegetation takes place. Horizontal strata of loam, inclosing layers of what appears
a whitish sand, stretch northward over a vast extent of level country, and the long-leaved pine disappears with
the gravels and sands of the drift.
"North of the pine region a large .amount of rich land between the Pearl and Mississippi rivers has been
brought under cultivation, especially along the bottoms of the Pearl river and along the principal railway lines. At
Jackson, on the Pearl river, little is left of the original tree growth which covered its banks. Still enough is left,
however, to show that it was chiefly composed of sweet gums, white oaks, elms, white ashes, etc. The railroad from
Jackson to Vicksburg passes th rough a fertile agricultural country, where only small strips of forest remain between
the large plantations and farms. Pines are not seen here, and the black walnut, originally so abundant among
the oak and hickory forests which covered this region, must now be regarded as entirely exterminated. Beyond
the Blackwater, in the hilly region of the bluff formation, the great magnolia covers the hillsides, although in the
vicinity of Vicksburg the hills for miles around the city are entirely stripped of their forests.
"Vicksburg is the center of a considerable lumber industry, depending for its supply of timber upon the cypress
rafted down from the mouth of the Yazoo river. The first mill devoted to the manufacture of cypress lumber was
established in Vicksburg in 1865. Before that time all the timber from the Yazoo valley was rafted down the
Mississippi river, mostly to New Orleans, as is still the case with the greatest number of the rafts. A second mill
has lately been built at Vicksburg, and the combined annual capacity of the two is ten or twelve million Ifet. No







THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 535

manufactured lumber is shipped from here farther south than Baton Rouge, nearly the whole production being
consumed in the erection of small dwellings in the Mississippi and Yazoo bottoms. The logs received at these mills
average 25 inches in diameter, with a length of from 30 to 70 feet.
"The hillsides in the neighborhood of Vicksburg, when thrown out of cultivation, are seen covered with a
stunted growth of locust, Chickasaw plums, and other shrubs. The original forests of the bluff hills consist of
extensive groves of stately magnolias, stretching down the slopes and mixing with large white oaks, Spanish oaks,
beeches, and towering poplars, covering the mossy ground of the small valleys with delightful shade. Many of the
magnolias are from 18 inches to 2 feet in diameter. The full-grown trees, however, show that they have already
passed their prime; the upper limbs have begun to die, the base of their trunks being often rotten and hollow.
Small specimens and sapling or seedling trees I could not find. The large trees are cut down to supply the
neighboring city with fuel, and it is inevitable that in a comparatively short time these magnolia groves will have
disappeared, and that these delightfully-shaded hills must share the desolation which surrounds the town.
THE YAZOO DELTA.-Indian bayou, one of the small water-courses between Pearl river, Deer creek, and
SSunflower river, has a sluggish current even in time of high water. As is the case with all the streams of the
Yazoo delta, its banks are elevated often to a height of 10 or 15 feet above the surface of the water, thus affording
excellent natural drainage for the adjacent country, which is covered with a yellow-brown loam of unsurpassed
fertility. As the land, however, recedes from the banks it gradually sinks down again toward the level of the bed
of the stream, and the water-courses, following the general direction of the Mississippi river, inclose corresponding
lines of depression nearly level with the beds of the streams. These troughs between the bayous and rivers are one
of the characteristic features in the topography of the Yazoo delta. They are of various extent, depth, and shape;
flat and wide, they form tracts of dark, wet forest swamp, more or less dry in summer; or, narrower and deeper,
they form swamps rarely ever entirely free from water; sometimes they are inundated wooded marshes and cane
brakes, or ponds and lagoons more or less shallow and studded with the mighty trunks of the cypress. When
these depressions are of considerable depth, lakes, presenting open sheets of water sometimes miles in extent, are
formed, their margins, only, overgrown with the cypress. Upon these features depend the great diversity of the
forest growth which yet covers the largest part of the Yazoo valley. Along the elevated ridges fronting the
streams the white oak, the willow oak, the shell-bark and mocker-nut hickories, the black walnut in great numbers,
the yellow poplar and the sassafras large enough to furnish canoes of great size, the mulberry, the Spanish oak,
the sweet and the black gums are the principal forest trees, with an undergrowth in the openings of dogwood,
various haws, crab apples, wild grapes, buckthorns, etc. In the forests covering the lower lands, which slope back
to the swamps and reservoirs, the cow oak takes the place of the white oak, while the over-cup white oak occurs
everywhere in the more or less saturated soil. Here the sweet gum reaches its greatest size, and here grow also
in great perfection the bitter-nut, the elms, hornbeams, white ash, box-elder, and red maples of enormous size. The
honey locust, water oaks, and red and Spanish oaks are equally common. Here, among the smaller trees, the holly
attains its greatest development, with hornbeans and wahoo elms, while papaws, haws, and privets form the mass
of the dense undergrowth, which, interspersed with dense cane-brakes, covers'the ground under the large trees.
The region covered by these splendid forests of hard woods possesses a wealth of timber of the most valuable
kinds and in surprising variety. They occupy by far the greatest part of Sunflower and the adjoining counties
between the Mississippi river and the hills which border upon the Yazoo to the east. Most of the clearings made
in this region before the outbreak of the war, by the planters settled lower down, have since been abandoned and
are again densely covered with the young growth of the trees of which the forest was originally composed. During
the last few years, however, the country has been entered again for cultivation by a class of small farmers, who
from being farm hands have now risen to the position of independent landholders. It is astonishing to see the
utter disregard of these settlers for the forest wealth of the country, which in a short time could not fail to be of
great commercial value. On the shores of Indian bayou may be seen clearings with hundreds of the finest
black walnuts among the deadened trees, while many of the noblest specimens of this valuable timber tree are
felled for fence rails or trifling purposes. The amount of oak and hickory timber destroyed here annually is
amazing. It is generally believed, however, that not one acre in fifty over this whole region of hard-wood forest
has yet been stripped of its tree covering. Quite different is the condition of the cypress growth in the great Yazoo
valley. This tree, confined to low and more or less inundated bottoms bordering on the Mississippi, the Lower
Yazoo, Big Sunilower, and their numerous tributaries, was once found in the greatest abundance in this region, and
immense quantities of cypress lumber have been furnished by the lower parts of Issaquena and Washington and
the western parts of W'arren and Yazoo counties. The most valuable timber has now, however, disappeared from
the immediate neighborhood of the low river banks easily accessible at seasons of high water during every winter
and spring. Only groves standing remote from the banks of the water-courses, and which are only accessible to
the raftsman during exceptionally highl stages of water, now supply this lumber. In the upper portions of the
valley, however, in the low depressions described as extending between the elevated banks of the streams. more or
less limited areas of undisturbed cypress forest are found. The shallow lagoons, covered with water except during
seasons of prolonged drought, and called cypress creeks, present in the spring of the year a strange sight. Ne
object meets the eye between tile immense trunks of the mighty trees, as in these cypress groves no other tree nor







536 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

shrub can live in the dark, shaded, water-covered soil. These reservoirs of drainage, generally without outlet,
are called cypress lakes if the water in any part of them, too deep to allow the growth of trees, confines the
cypress to their more shallow borders. Here the cypress arrives at its greatest dimensions and produces timber
of the finest quality. These cypress lakes and cypress brakes, remote from streams, at no time .of the year
connected with them, and always surrounded with a mire of forest swamp impassable to wagons, still retain their
best timber. Of late years, since swamp and overflowed lands have become the property of the state, planters
have added many of these cypress tracts to their estates by purchase; many others have been acquired by companies
formed to construct artificial channels by which the timber may be floated to the nearest streams. The richest
and most extensive of these groves of cypress, already more or less in the hands of capitalists, are found along
Steele's bayou, between Deer creek and the Sunflower river, in Washington county; between that stream and
the lower course of Bogue Phalia, and between the Mississippi river and Black creek above Greenville. There is
also a very large body of cypress inclosing the California brake', upon the Little Sunflower, in the counties of
Bolivar and Coahoma, extending through Tallahatchie county to the Yazoo river.
"The traffic in cypress lumber in the Yazoo region dates from 1830. In 1838 it was commenced upon the
Sunflower river and Deer creek, ten years after the fist settlements were established upon the banks of these
streams; since that time rafts have been sent regularly to New Orleans, and camps of lumbermen have been
established in every direction, the forests, particularly those upon the public domains, being regarded as the
undisputed property and lawful prey of the log-getter. In consequence the cypress groves have been, if not entirely
destroyed, largely culled of their best timber wherever it could be obtained without investment of capital, that is by
simply floating the logs to the streams at times of freshet and overflow.
"The cutting of these cypress forests is not wisely regulated under the ownership of the state. These lands
have been thrown into the market at 50 cents an acre with the condition of settlement. Beneficial as such a law
might prove in the disposal of lands fit for cultivation, it results, in the case of timber-land unfit for the plow, in
the reckless destruction of one of the surest sources of public revenue. The state thus sells for 50 cents what on
its face is worth to the purchaser hundreds of dollars, and which, when deprived of its value and rendered forever
worthless, will be turned back to the state again.
'"Much of the destruction of the timber can be traced to wasteful methods practiced by the negroes. Under
present methods any one having rented a plantation will, for the most trifling wants, cut down a tree, regardless of
size, and without any effort to preserve for future use the parts not immediately wanted, so that the next quarter
of a century will probably see the entire destruction of the vast quantities of timber stored in the whole of this
great territory."
LOUISIANA.

The coast of Louisiana is bordered by saline marshes and savannas extending inland from 10 to 40 miles, or is
covered with a scattered growth of cypress occupying extensive fresh-water swamps peculiar to the region. In
Vermillion, Calcasieu, Saint Martin's, and Saint Landry parishes considerable treeless areas, open grassy prairies in
the borders of the forest, occur. With these exceptions Louisiana was originally covered with a dense and varied forest
growth. The Maritime Pine Belt covered the eastern portion of the state nearly to the Amite river, or until checked
from further western development by the alluvial deposits of the Mississippi. Forests of pine, too, occupied the
western part of the state north and south of the Red river. The pine flats of Calcasieu were covered with forests
formed almost exclusively of the long-leaved pine, which, farther north, mixed with oaks and various hard-wood
trees, extends over the high rolling country which stretches from the Sabine northeasterly nearly to the Ouachita
river. The northeastern part of the state was covered, outside of the broad bottom lands of the rivers, with a
heavy forest of short-leaved pine (Pinus mitis) mixed with upland oaks, hickories, and other deciduous trees. The
bottom lands and all that part of the state bordering the Mississippi were covered with a heavy growth of the trees
peculiar to such low, rich soil throughout the Gulf region. The high bluffs which occur at different points along
the Mississippi, the Atchafalaya, and other streams flowing through the western part of the state were covered
with a noble forest of evergreen magnolias mingled with beeches, water oaks, and gums.
The most valuable forests of the state are still almost intact, although the pine has been cut from the banks of
the Pearl river and some of its tributaries, and from along the line of the Chicago, Saint Louis, and New Orleans
railroad, to furnish the New Orleans market with lumber. Pine has also been cut along the Sabine river, from
both forks of the Calcasieu, along the Red river in the neighborhood of Alexandria and Shreveport, and more
recently in Catahoula parish, along Little river. The river swamps and rolling hills in the eastern and northern
parts of the state still contain vast bodies of valuable hard-wood forest yet untouched by the ax.
The forests of Louisiana, uninvaded as yet by the manufacturers of naval stores, have not greatly suffered
from forest fires. During the census year only 64,410 acres of woodland were reported as burned over by fire, with
a loss of only 68,800. These fires were generally set to improve pasturage, or by careless hunters camping in the
forest.
A small amount of cooperage stock is made in New Orleans almost entirely from cypress and pine, although
that city has long been an important point of export for oak staves and headings brought there from Arkansas and








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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 537

Tennessee by river. The magnificent hard woods common over much of the state can supply abundant material for
many important industries which already at the north suffer from the exhaustion and deterioration of the local
timber supply.
The following rough estimates of the amount of the long-leaved and short-leaved pine standing in the state have
been prepared by measuring upon a large-scale map areas occupied by the pine forests, which coincide almost exactly
with geological formations. From these areas the totals of clearings as returned by enumerators and all areas of
swamp, bottom lands, and prairies are deducted to obtain the extent of territory covered with pine forests. By
multiplying this area by the average stand of timber per acre, obtained by numerous observations in different
parts of the state, the following estimate of the amount of merchantable pine standing May 31, 1880, is reached:


arishes. Long-leaved pino Short-leaved pine
arise. (Pinns palustris). (Pinus miis).

Feet, board measure. Feet, board 'measure.
Bienville ..-..........-......---------- -- ..-- 416,000,000 1,837,000, 000
Bossier ......-.....-....---- .- ----... -----.----- ------ .. 1, 574, 000, 000
Caddo ....------ ............. ..... ......... -- ------------------ 1, 696, 000, 000
Calcasieu ....-...........-.. ..--.--- ...- .....- 4, 210, 000, 000 ................
Caldwell ............... ..... ......-- ..--- 602,000,000 302, 000,000
Catahoula..--.. .......--- ..... .....-------- ..... 1,55,000,000 304,000,000
Claiborne ...............................---.... --- ... ------....... 1,923,000,000
De Soto......... ........... .......... ..-.-..- -. ---- --------.. --. 1,971,000,000
East Baton Rouge.......................... ---- .- ..- --- --...... 157, 000, 000
East Feliciana ..............------........ ........ 198,000,000 886,000,000
*Grant.........-.......... ..... ....... .. ---- 1,574, 000, 000 ..................
Jackson ................... ........ ........... 493, 000,000 1, 670, 000, 000
Livingston........................--- .. ...... 300,000,000 -- ----
M oreho se ........ ........ ..........797, 0,00
Katchitoches ................................ 1, 792, 000, 000 618, 000, 000
Ouachita .....................................- 16, 000, 000 1, 126, 000,000
Rapides ------................-. .-- .....-....l 2,422,000,000 .. ... ...
Red River ....-............................... ....----- .... ... 643, 000, 000
Sabine ................... ... ..........-..... 5 8,000, 000 1,974,000, 000
Saint Helena -.........-........- -......--...--. 7-, 000, 000 .... ...
Saint Landry ................. ................. 579,000,000 ...........
Saint Tammany ................ .............. ,1,398,000,000 ...................
Tangipaho ................ ..... ........... 1,537,000,000 ....................
Union... .. .................................. ........- .... ... 2, 522, 000, 000
Vernon ....................................... 3,741, 000, 000
Vern-----------------------------374 000 -----000---
W ashington .....---- .............- -........... 1, 734, 000, 000 ....................
W ebster-........---............................... 1,443,000,000
W est Feliciana............................... .........-....... 122,000,000
W inn........ -..-- ------- ...... ......... 2, 662, 00,000 ...... . ......
Total ....................... .............. 26,588,000,000 21, 625, 000, 000

Cut for the census year ending May 31, 1880 .. 61,882, 000 22, 70, 000


The principal point of lumber manufacture is Saint Charles, in Calcasieu parish, on the southern border of the
western pine forest. Lumber manufactured here is shipped east and west by rail, and in small schooners to Mexican
and West Indian ports. A comparatively small amount of lumber is manufactured at New Orleans from logs cut
in eastern Louisiana and towed through lake Pontchartrain and the canals to the city, and along the river front
from logs rafted out of the Red, Little, Black, and other streams of northern Louisiana. New Orleans, however, is
principally supplied with lumber sawed at Gulf ports, in spite of its position with reference to the most valuable
hard-pine forests upon the continent, its large local demand for lumber and all saw-mill refuse, and its facilities for
export, which would seem to indicate that it must become the most important center of lumber manufacture and
distribution in the south. Small quantities of pine lumber have long been manufactured upon the Red river near
Alexandria; short-leaved pine (Pi nus mitis) is sawed at Shreveport, and in small quantities for local consumption at
other points in the northern parishes.

MOSS GINNING.

New Orleans is the center of the moss-ginning" industry of the United States. The "moss" (Tillandsia
usneoides), a common epiphyte, growing in great quantities upon the cypress, live oak, and other southern trees,
is gathered, by men known as swanmpers", in the swamps of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The
moss when gathered is piled near the swamps and allowed to rot during ten or twelve months. It loses in this
process about 90 per cent. of its weight, and is then shipped to New Orleans, where it is cleaned, dried, and ginned,
losing in this latter operation 35 per cent. in weight. The prepared moss is used in upholstery, either alone or







538 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

mixed with hair. The product of the New Orleans factories is principally shipped to the western states, a
comparatively small amount being sent to Europe. Six moss factories are located in New Orleans, and there are
also small establishments at Plaquemine and at Morgan City, Louisiana, and at Pensacola, Florida. New Orleans
received during the year ending August 31, 1881, 3,500 bales of rough moss, weighing 10,000,000 pounds, and valued
at $315,000. A considerable amount, however, is ginned in the country and shipped direct to consumers, or is
prepared by the consumers themselves. Persons most familiar with the volume of this industry estimate that the
value of the prepared moss gathered annually in Louisiana, the principal region of supply, is not far from $550,000.
The amount gathered, however, varies considerably from year to year. Moss can only be profitably collected at
times of high floods, when the swamps are navigable to small boats, and the moss, hanging from the branches of
the trees, can be easily gathered. The wages earned by the swampers, too, are not large, and the gathering of
moss is only resorted to when more profitable employment upon farms cannot be obtained.
The following extracts are from notes of a hasty journey made through the forest region of western Louisiana
by Dr. Charles Mohr:
For the investigation of the important pine region of western Louisiana I selected Alexandria as my starting
point. Situated almost centrally between the forests of long-leaved pine which skirt both sides of the Red River
valley, Alexandria is the seat of the actual lumber trade and the point where the lumber interests of this great
timber region must be developed in the future. Little is left of the vast cypress swamps which once covered the
alluvial lands on the Mississippi river below the mouth of the Red river and the lower basin of that stream. It is
only in the most inaccessble swamps, cut off from all communication with the rivers, that patches of this timber
remain. The ever-increasing demand for this lumber has almost exhausted the available cypress of the Red River
country, and cypress is now drawn from the forest farther north bordering the Black and Ouachita rivers. The
lowlands along the river front, subject to inundation and devoid of drainage, present in their tree growth the same
features as the low forests of the Mississippi and the Yazoo valleys. The bitter pecan flourishes here luxuriantly,
and with it the white ash, the swamp over-cup oak, the persimmon, sycamore, sassafras, sweet gum, and cottonwood.
Tihe green ash is common, and in better-drained localities the willow, white, cow, and red oaks appear, with elms and
occasional pecans. Twelve or 15 miles below Alexandria the first pines are seen looming up in the forest; upon
a nearer approach they are recognized as the loblolly. A short distance farther up the river, upon sandy bluffs
fronting the western shore, fine specimens of the short-leaved pine are observed, associated with black oaks,
Spanish oak, the black-jack, and many of the shrubs peculiar to the drift of the coast pine region east of the
Mississippi. The wide bottom lands of the river upon which Alexandria is situated extend west to bayou Bceuf.
This district, unsurpassed in fertility and regarded as the garden of Louisiana, has but little left of the forest with
which it was once covered. The pecan trees alone of the original forest growth have been spared from the general
destruction. Of these, fine specimens line the roadsides and dot the fields. The unsightly honey locust occupies
the waste low places, in company with a second growth of willows, hackberries, and catalpas. The shores of
bayou Bceuf are covered with a variety of trees. Cypresses line the brink of the water; beyond these, sycamores,
bitter gums, sweet and white gums, pecans, water and willow oaks, red and white elms, red maple, and
ash occupy the gentle acclivities, with a dense undergrowth of smaller trees-the dogwood, several haws, wahoos,
catalpas, Carolina buckthorn, southern prickly ash, etc. Ascending the ridge to the uplands the deep alluvial
soil is left behind, and the light sandy loams of the Tertiary strata make their appearance, and with this change
of soil the vegetation changes as suddenly, Stately loblolly pines rise above the groves of post, black, and Spanish
oaks, and where the ridge descends again to what might be called the second bottom of bayou Boeuf, a forest of
white oak is entered, which contains a stand of timber seldom equaled. On the long, gentle swells these are
associated with fine Spanish oaks, a few pig-nuts and mocker-nuts, and in the depressions with red oak, elms, ash,
and other trees found on soil of good quality in the same latitude east of the Mississippi river.
"The hills formed by the sandstone drift gravels rise suddenly from the plain covered with the forest of
the long-leaved pine, comparing favorably both in the size and number of the trees with the best timber districts
in the Coast Pine Belt of the eastern Gulf states. Trees under 12 inches in diameter are rarely seen, as is the case
everywhere in these undisturbed primeval pine forests. The soil of this region is closer, more retentive of moisture,
and richer in plant-food than that in the Maritime Pine Region east of the Mississippi. The pines here are
therefore of more rapid growth and below the standard of quality for which the pine produced on the poor, siliceous
ridges of lower Mississippi and Alabama is so highly valued. The numerous streams which cut their way through
these pine hills are fringed with many of the evergreens peculiar to the eastern Gulf coast; and magnolias, the
red and white bay, wax myrtles, willows, and the devilwood are common.
The pine region west of the Red River valley spreads westward to the Sabine, forming part of the great pine
forest which extends far into eastern Texas. Southward it constantly increases in width; and its length from
north to south, where it verges upon the lower maritime prairies of the Calcasieu, is not less than 100 miles. It
includes the whole of the parish of Vernon, the largest part of Calcasieu, and portions of the parishes of Natchitoches
and Rapides, covering an area of about 4,500 square miles. The northern portion of this belt is one vast primeval
forest. The small inroads made by the scattered settlers and the few small saw-mills which supply a small local






THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 539

demand are too insignificant to be taken into account. In the southern portion of this forest the saw-mills on the
Sabine river and at Lake Charles have already removed some timber from the banks of the principal streams.
The region of long-leaved pine which skirts the eastern confines of the Red River valley, and which at its
southern extremity almost touches the river banks, may be called the central pine region of west Louisiana. The
village of Pineville, opposite the city of Alexandria, is the center of the lumber trade of this region. The high,
undulating uplands formed of the Pliocene-Tertiary strata which here front the river bear a growth of loblolly and
short-leaved pine mixed with upland oaks. A few miles to the eastward, however, upon the hills covered with drift,
the forest of long-leaved pine appears. The surface in this central pine region is more broken, the soil poorer,
more porous and siliceous than west of the Red River valley, and the timber produced here is of unsurpassed
quality. An average of not less than fifteen trees to the acre, with a diameter of over 15 inches 3 feet from the
ground, grow here. The production of lumber is limited to saw-mills situated 7 or 8 miles from the river. They have
been gradually removed from its banks as the timber was exhausted on a line 7 or 8 miles in length north and
south from Pineville. The production of these mills amounts in the aggregate to 40,000 feet a day. The lumber
manufactured here supplies the population of the Red River valley as far west as Shreveport.
"The rolling uplands which extend to the edge of the river at Shreveport are covered with a heavy, cold, clayey
soil almost impervious to water; they bear an open growth of oaks, among which the post oak is the prevailing
species, finding here the conditions most favorable to its growth. The Spanish oak, invariably called west of the
Mississippi river red oak, with fine black-jack makes up the larger part of the tree growth. Hickories, represented
by the pig-nut and mocker-nut, are not frequent, and are of small size. The black oak is found in localities with
somewhat rocky surface and loose subsoil, while white oaks occur along the base of declivities where an accumulation
of vegetable matter has been deposited. The undergrowth in these woods is scanty, and consists for the most part
of seedling oaks. Where, however, the forest has been entirely removed, the loblolly pine takes exclusive possession
of the soil. These oak forests reach to the northern confines of the state and extend west into Texas. In their
southern extremity toward the pine region the soil is better, and the white oak becomes the prevailing forest tree.
My attention was directed to the fact that since the removal of the raft of the Red river the drainage of the upper
part of the valley has been greatly improved, and many of the lakes and swamps formerly continually inundated
are now dry, while the.swamp forest growth, including the cypress, is dying, or has already died.
"Opposite Shreveport the valley spreads out into an extensive plain from 8 to 10 miles in width, descending
imperceptibly as it recedes from the bank of the river. These lowlands are mere swamps, often deeply overflowed
by the backwater of the river, which finds its way through the numerous bayous and inlets which intersect this
plain. The forest growth covering these swamps is of inferior size, and consists of but few species. The cypress
occupies the overflowed swamps, but it is always below medium size, and I did not notice a single specimen 2 feet
in diameter. The saline, gypsum soil does not seem suited to its full development. The water locust finds here its
favorite home. It is very common in moist localities not subject to constant inundation. The wood of this tree is
as hard and durable as that of the common honey locust, and is employed for the same purposes; that is, in the
manufacture of stirrups, blocks, hubs. etc. The green ash is frequently seen here growing with the wahoo, hornbeam,
holly, and privet, and forming broad clumps of great luxuriance beneath the larger trees. After passing Cross
bayou the land gently rises, and, with better drainage, the trees of the swamps disappear and are replaced by a
more varied and valuable timber growth. The white ash and white and red oaks are the more common trees in the
woods which skirt the base of the ridges forming the eastern limits of the valley of the Red river. At this point
they are separated from the low hills of the Pliocene sandy loams by a pretty, clear stream, the Red Chute, which
runs swiftly over its bed along the base of the uplands; these form long, gentle, swelling slopes, or spread out into
broad flats more or less deficient of drainage. The ridges are all wooded with upland oaks and short-leaved pines,
while the loblolly pine, with water and willow oaks, sweet and black gums, cover the depressions and damp fl ts.
The tree growth upon these ridges is vigorous. I have nowhere found the short-leaved pine of finer proportions,
equaling in size and length of clear trunk the long-leaved species. This region of the short-leaved pine, with its
low, heavily-timbered ridges, is similar in character of soil and vegetation to the pine hills of central and northern
Mississippi, and might be designated as the region of the pine hills of northern Louisiana. Between lake Bodcau
and lake Bistinean the surihce of the country is very often imperfectly drained, and there the loblolly pine is
the prevailing tree. A few miles back of Bellevue, in Bossier parish, the level forest is interrupted by a strip of
prairie from 1 mile to 3 miles wide, covered with a cold, soapy, gray soil impervious to water. On these natural
meadows no tree or shrub is growing, except a peculiar Cratwgus, new to me. (a) It is a small tree or large shrub,
forming strictly-defined, impenetrable, dense thickets a few rods or of several acres in extent. In its arborescent
form it rises to a height of from 15 to 20 feet, with a more or less bent trunk 6 or 7 inches in diameter, spreading its
crooked limbs at a height of from 4 to 6 feet above the ground. The fruit is said to be as large as that of the apple
haw, sweet and edible; it is eagerly eaten by swine, which fatten upon it. This tree is here called by the people
'hogs' haw'.

a Cractagus brachyacantha, Sargent and Engelmann.







540 THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

"On the decline which leads to the valley of bayou Dauchitta, the flatwoods give way to a fine growth of
Spanish and post oaks, elms, and gums.
"The western bank of the bayou is confronted by hills of the post-Tertiary sands and gavels which westward
form a succession of steep ridges heavily wooded with the upland oaks and short-leaved pine. The narrow creek
bottoms inclosed between these ridges are watered abundantly by springs and clear streams shaded by white and red
bay, hollies, azaleas, and kalmiias. The great magnolia is not seen here, and the American olive is missing. In these
gravelly hills, extending westward to the valley of the Ouachita river, the short-leaved pine is very common and
the characteristics of the pine-hill region are prominent. These hills cover a large area extending northward into
Arkansas, and toward the south merging gradually into the oak woods which border upon the bottoms of the
numerous tributaries of the Red river. This pine-hill region is sparsely settled, and, remote from water and rail
communication, its original stores of pine and hard-wood timber have scarcely been touched.
"An intimate knowledge of the forest growth in this section was obtained by an excursion over the hills to
bayou Dauchitta above its entrance to lake Bistinean. In the localities of the best drainage in this valley the
cow oak is very common, mixed with the white and post oaks, while sweet gums, black gnms, water and willow
oaks, and hackberries occupy lower situations. On the immediate banks and in the sloughs small cypress trees
are common, mixed with the bitter pecan, the hornbeam, the water locust, and the sycamore. The loblolly pine
takes possession of every opening in the forest, descending the high hills, while numerous haws border the edges
of the forest. In the bottoms and along the declivities, the Chickasaw and the American plum are found of larger
size than farther east. Loblollies and hickories with the black and post oaks occupy the lower declivities, and
upon the heights the yellow pine mixed with upland oaks forms fine forests."

TEXAS.

The most important forests of Texas are found in the extreme eastern part of the state, where the Maritime
Pine Belt of the south Atlantic region extends to about midway between the Trinity and the Brazos rivers. A
forest of long-leaved pine occupies most of the territory between the Sabine and the Brazos south of the thirty-first
degree of north latitude, reaching south to within 20 miles of the coast. Beyond the long-leaved pine forests,
forests of the loblolly pine, mixed with hard woods, stretch westward 50 or 60 miles, while north of these two
regions a third division of the pine belt, composed of a heavy growth of short-leaved pine mingled with upland oaks,
occupies the rolling ridges which extend northward to beyond the Red river. The swamps which line the larger
streams flowing into the Gulf, especially within the limits of the pine belt, still contain large bodies of cypress.
The quality of the Texas cypress, however, is inferior to that grown east of the Mississippi river, and probably
one-third of the timber growing in the valleys of the Sabine and the Nueces rivers is "peggy" or affected by dry rot.
West of the pine belt open forests largely composed of post and black-jack oaks occur, gradually decreasing
in density, and finally, west of the ninety-seventh degree of longitude, entirely disappearing. Farther west,
however, the "lower" and "upper cross-timbers", two remarkable bodies of timber, composed of small and stunted
specimens of these oaks, extend from the Indian territory far south into the prairie region, occupying long, narrow,
irregular belts where sandy or gravelly alluvial deposits overlie the limestone of the prairie region. A belt of
forest, largely composed of post and black-jack oaks, varying from 20 to 50 miles in width extends southwest of
the Trinity nearly to the Nueces river, its eastern border following generally, at a distance of from 50 to 60 miles
inland, the trend of the coast. The bottom lands east of the one hundredth meridian are lined with the deciduous
trees which occupy similar situations in the eastern Gulf states. Near the coast the bottom lands of the large
rivers, often several miles in width, are covered with dense forests composed of enormous trees. Farther west the
bottoms gradually narrow, the number of arborescent species covering them decreases, and individual trees are
small and stunted.
West of the Colorado river the forests of the Atlantic region are replaced outside of the bottom lands by
Mexican forms of vegetation; the hills are covered with a stunted growth of mesquit, Mexican persimmon, various
acacias, and other small trees of little value except for fuel and fencing.
An important tree in the forest of western Texas is the cedar covering the low limestone hills which occupy
hundreds of square miles north and west of the Colorado river, in Travis, Bastrop, Hays, Comal, and adjacent
counties. West of the one hundredth meridian all forest growth disappears, with the exception of a few scattered
cottonwoods, elms, and hackberries, confined to the narrow bottoms, and a shrubby growth of mesquit, which covers
the plains of western Texas, furnishing the only fuel of the region. The mountain ranges, outlying ridges of the
Rocky mountains, which occupy the extreme western part of the state, are covered with an open, stunted forest of
western pines and cedars, with which mingle the post oak, the yellow oak, and other species of the Atlantic region.
The pine belt covering the eastern counties of the state is alone important as a source of lumber supply.
Areas of river-bottom land covered with trees are, as compared with the area of the state, insignificant in extent, and
these river belts of forest are entirely insufficient to supply even the mere local wants of the nearest settlements.
The oak forests, which stretch more or less continuously between the eastern pine belt and the treeless western
prairies and plains, are, except along their extreme eastern borders, composed of small, stunted trees, often hollow,
defective, and of little value except for fuel, fence rails, and railway ties. The forests of the western mountains are




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THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


541


not luxuriant, and at the best can only supply a limited local demand with inferior lumber. It is probably no
exaggeration to say that west of the pine belt, and with the exception of the small amount of hard wood found on
the bottom lands near the coast, the forests of Texas do not contain a single tree fit to manufacture into first-class
lumber. The pine forests, therefore, of eastern Texas and western Louisiana are important factors in the future
development of Texas, as well as of the treeless northeastern provinces of Mexico, which must draw their building
material from these pineries. The position of these forests, therefore, with reference to an enormous territory
destitute of timber, although adapted to agriculture and grazing, and which must soon be covered with a considerable
population and a net-work of railroads, their richness of composition, and the facility with which they can be
worked, give to them perhaps a greater prospective value than that possessed by any body of timber of similar
extent in the United States.
During the census year 599,359 acres of woodland were reported damaged by fire, with an estimated loss of
$273,990. Of these fires the larger number was set to improve pasturage, in clearing land, or through malice. These
returns do not include the large areas burned in western Texas by prairie fires, checking the growth of the mesquit
over a great extent of territory.
Small amounts of cooperage stock and woodenware, principally for local consumption, are manufactured in the
eastern counties from oak and cypress. Manufacturers report an abundant supply of material.
The following rough estimates of the amounts of the three kinds of pine standing in the state May 31, 1880,
were made by multiplying the average stand of timber per acre by the county areas occupied by the pine forests,
these being obtained by deducting, from total areas of the county, estimated areas covered by clearings, bottom
lands, swamps, etc.:


Counties.



Anderson -....................................
Angelina ......................................
Bowie................... ... ......
Camp ............................ .............
Cass ...........................................
Cherokee ...................................--
Franklin-....... ............. ...-...........
Gregg ........................................
Grimes ...................................---..
Hardin .......................................
Harris .....-----...................................
Harrison.....................................
Henderson................. ...................
Hopkins...................................
Houston ......................................
Jasper .....................................
Jefferson ..................................
Liberty ........................................
Madison .............. ........-...........


Long-leaved pine Short-leaved pine
(Pinus palustris). (Pinus mitis).


Feet, board measure. Feet, board measure.
................... 336,000,000
1,340, 00,000 ....................
................. 2, 380, 800, 000
................... 579,200,000
.................... 2, 470, 400, 000
................... 2, 230,400, 000
.................... 448,000,000
........... 598,400,000

1,244,800,000 ....................


2, 534,400, 000


41,600,000 ....................
.................... ....................


Marion .........................................................
Montgomery ................................... ...................
Morris ............................................................


Nacogdoches ..................................
oewton.................. ..............
Orange .......... .............................
Panola............ .......................
Polk ................ ....-- .......... ..........
Red River ....................................
usk ......................................
Sabine......................................
San Augustine................................
San Jacinto.... ........... .......
Shelby................... .............
Smith......... ......................
Titus .............. .............
Trinity .............. ................


1, 216, 000, 000
2,112, 000, 000
230, 000, 000
1,193, 600, 000
2, 720, 000, 000
.....................
115, 200, 000
1, 648,000,000
1,625, 600, 000

1, 884, 800, 000

51,000,000..............
51,000,000


....................
2,326,400, 000
521,600, 000
483,200.000
. . ............


1, 187,200,000 .................


729,600,000
1, 555, 200, 000

.....................
1, 107, 200, )00

272,000,000


Loblolly pine
(Pinus Tceda).


Feet, board measure.
1,763,600,000
1,190, 400, 000




585, 600, 000



211,200, 000
627, 200, 000
1,827,200,000




3, 210, 000, 000

288, 000, 000
2,147,200,000
233,600,000


2, 326, 400, 000

35, 500, 000
33,000,000
518,400, 000

473,600,000


Z, 4iy, oUU, UUU ........ .....


2........... 1, 833, 600, 000


2,035,200,000 ...................
806,000,00.................... ..................
................... 1,987,00,000
2 0 3 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 -- -
896,000,000 ...- -
................... 1,987,200,000


Tylor .................. .................. 2,550,400,000 ...
Upshur ... ............... ................ ... ................... 1,392, 000, 000 I ...............- ..
VanZaudt... ..................................... 26,000000 ....................
Wlr-- ----------------- -- ------------.-----------------------,9,0,0
Walker.... .................... .................. .. 1,590, 400, 000
W aller .. ............................ ......... ............. .. .................... -19,9,000, 0
W ood ....... . . . .......... .. .... ............. 1, 600, 000, 000 ...
I---------------------------------------- --------------------
Total ................-...........---.... 20, 508, 200, 000 2, 093,200,000 i 20, 907, 100, 000

Amount cut fortheyear ending May 31,1880 .... 6,450,000 a a 146, 420, 000 61,570,000


a Including 30,290,000 shingles.


I I


I


0







542 THE FORESTS CF THE UNITED STATES.

The principal centers of lumber manufacture in Texas are Orange and Beaumont, on the Sabine and Nueces
rivers, above SaBine pass. Long-leaved pine and cypress are sawed here and shipped east and west by rail,
and in small quantities by schooner to Texan and Mexican ports. Loblolly pine is sawed at a number of small
mills upon the line of the International and Great Northern railroad in the counties south of the Trinity river,
and a large amount of short-leaved pine is manufactured in the mills upon the line of the Texas Pacific railroad in
the northeastern counties, Longview, in Gregg county, being the principal center of this industry. The product of
these mills is shipped west by rail to supply settlers upon the prairies of northern Texas with building material.
The following extracts are derived from the notes upon the forests of Texas made by Dr. Charles Mohr, of
Mobile:
West of Marshall, upon the Texas Pacific railroad, the surface of the land becomes more broken; the soil is
lighter, more porous, and favorable to the growth of the short-leaved pine, which soon becomes the prevailing forest
tree in the woods extending toward the west. Longview, a small town at the junction of the International and Great
Northern and Texas Pacific railroads, is situated almost in the center of the short-leaved pine region, and is the
seat of an active lumber business. These forests of short-leaved pine, more or less interspersed with oaks, extend
to the northern boundary of the state, and southward with an easterly trend to the confines of the region of the
long-leaved pine. The short-leaved pine finds its western limits near Mineola.
At Palestine, in Anderson county, the uplands are covered with a loamy, somewhat sandy, soil underlaid with
a heavy clay. Here a more or less open oak forest is common. The black oak abounds, with the Spanish, black-
jack, blue-jack, and post oak, the last, however, always the prevailing species. Next to the post oak the black-
jack is the species of widest distribution in Texas, the two species being always found associated together from
the northern confines of the state to the prairies of the coast, and from the east to the treeless regions of western
Texas. The bois d'arc (Maclura aurantiaca) is common along the banks of the water-courses in eastern Texas,
attaining a size large enough to be economically valuable. It is here, however, most probably adventitious from
the region in the northwest, where it forms an almost uninterrupted belt of woods from 4 to 10 miles wide, extending
from a short distance south of the city of Dallas to the northern frontier of the state, entering the Indian territory
between Sherman and Paris. This tree attains a height of from 45 to 50 feet, with a diameter of from 1 foot to 2
feet, and is of great value.
The timber growth immediately west of the Brazos is stunted and scanty; large areas of grass land intervene
between the scrubby woods until all at once ligneous growth disappears, and the seemingly boundless prairie, in
gently undulating swells, expands before the view on all sides. Near the center of Milam county a belt of open
post-oak woods from 20 to 25 miles in width is entered. It extends from Belton, in Bell county, southward to the
upper confines of Gonzales county. Post oaks stand here from 20 to 30 feet apart, with black-jacks and blue-jackl
between them, the trees being all of small size. The soil of these oak hills is of poor quality, sandy, gravelly,
and more or less broken, arid, and devoid of vegetable mold. Toward the southern limit of this belt, near Bastrop;
a tract of loblolly pine is found covering nearly four townships, or about 90,000 acres. During the last twelve
years all the useful timber on this isolated tract has been cut down. A second growth of pine, however, has
sprung up, and is now growing vigorously under the fostering care of the owners of the land, and promises in a
short time to afford a new supply of timber. A belt of post oak is found intersecting the prairie from the upper
part of McLennan county, near Waco, and extending to the northern frontier of the state, where it joins the cross-
timbers of the Wichita. It is known as the 'lower cross-timbers'. This belt of oak wood is nearly 150 miles long,
with its greatest width of about 20 miles between Dallas and Fort Worth; At a distance of from 20 to 40 miles
west of the lower cross-timbers another belt of oak extends from Comanche county to the northern boundary of
the state, \Nith a long western spur following the valley of the Brazos as far as the ninety-ninth meridian. This oak
forest is known as the cross-timbers'.
"Taken as a whole, the country west of the Brazos river, except the basin of the Colorado, is a poorly-timbered
region. The mesquit was first met with on the declivities of the prairie, which verge here upon the valley of the
Colorado. The wood of this tree is hard, fine-grained, tough, heavy, and of great durability. In the western
portions of the state, almost entirely destitute of other timber growth, it serves, according to its size, a variety of
purposes in the economy of the stock ranch, and is there invaluable for fencing. Burning with a clear, smokeless
flame and possessing great heating powers, it is unsurpassed as fuel by any other Texas wood. It serves, moreover,
another important purpose in furnishing an abundance of wholesome and nutritious food to large herds of cattle,
at a season of the year when long-continued droughts have destroyed the grass upon the prairie. With the
increasing settlement of the treeless-prairie region during the last 15 or 20 years, this tree has spread rapidly east and
north. Near San Antonio I saw extensive districts, reported to have been, a few years ago, entirely destitute of even
a trace of ligneous growth, and which are now covered with copses of mesquit. Similar growths have sprung up
everywhere in the prairies of western Texas. The appearance of this new growth may be traced to the influence
of the vast herds of stock which range over the prairies, and which, in voiding the seeds of this tree, assist its
wider distribution, and, in keeping down the grass, diminish the quantity of combustible material which feeds the
prairie fires, and thus check and finally prevent the spread of the frequent conflagrations which swept year after
year over these grassy plains.




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