Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023668/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Alternate Title: Forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Report on forest trees of North America
Physical Description: ix, 612 p., 39 leaves of plates : maps (some folded) ; 30 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: Sargent, Charles Sprague, 1841-1927
United States -- Census Office
Publisher: G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1884
Copyright Date: 1884
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- United States   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Trees -- United States   ( lcsh )
Trees -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Census, 10th, 1880 -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles S. Sargent.
General Note: At head of title: Department of the Interior, Census Office.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023668
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - ANQ6646
oclc - 41571369
alephbibnum - 002778531

Full Text




.1'
V:


PA-RT II.






THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.





245


-- --I. ---. ------1 -- ----- .--r --- --------- -






















THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.




A critical examination of the wood produced by the indigenous trees of North America, exclusive of Mexico,
has been made in connection with the investigation of the forest wealth of the United States.
Mr. S. P. Sharpies, special agent in charge of this department of the investigation, has had general direction
of such experiments, and suggested the methods adopted for their execution.
The object of this examination has been to determine, first, the fuel value of the woods of the United States;
second, the value as material for construction of the wood of the principal timber trees of the country. The
results thus obtained are highly suggestive; they must not, however, be considered conclusive, but rather valuable
as indicating what lines of research should be followed in a more thorough study of this subject.
The fuel value has been obtained by a determination of the specific gravity and the ash of the absolutely dry
wood, supplemented by a determination of the actual chemical composition of the wood of some of the most
important trees; the value of our woods for construction has been obtained by experiments made with the United
States testing-machine at the Watertown arsenal. Each specimen as received was at once numbered, and this
number, designated in the following tables as "Office number", was carefully repeated on every fragment cut from
the original tree, and always refers to the same specimen. In a few cases in the early part of the work a
sub-nmnber was used to designate a specimen from another tree of the same species received from the same
collector. In most cases the specimens were taken from the butt-cut of the tree, and unless it is otherwise
mentioned in the remarks, were free from sap and knots; they may be regarded as representing the best wood
that could be obtained from the tree.
The specimens used in the different series of experiments are deposited in the National Museum at Washington
and in the museum of the Arboretum of Harvard College. It was found necessary, in order to secure proper
material upon which to carry out the'various experiments, to obtain a much larger amount of wood of the different
species than was actually consumed in the experiments. This surplus material has been worked into 12,961
museum specimens, of convenient size, showing as far as possible the bark, sap-, and heart-wood of each species.
These have been made into sixty sets, more or less complete, and distributed to the following educational
institutions in the United States and Europe:
Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts.
United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.
Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland.
Sheffield Scientific School, New Haven, Connecticut.
School of Mines, Columbia College, New York, New York.
National School of Forestry, Nancy, France.
Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Agricultural Museum, Rome, Italy.
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
Rensselaer Polytechui' Institute, Troy, New York.
Lawrence Scientific School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa.
Administration of National Forests, Lisbon, Portugal.
National Forest Administration, Paris, France.
McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales.
State Agricultural College, Lansing, Michigan.






248 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Massachusetts.
Arkansas Industrial University, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Imperial Botanic Gardens, St. Petersburg, Russia.
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York.
Portland Society of Natural History, Portland, Maine.
New Jersey Agricultural College, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
State Agricultural College, Burlington, Vermont.
State Agricultural College, College Station, Maryland.
Union College Engineering School, Schenectady, New York.
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Hampton Agricultural and Normal Institute, Hampton, Virginia.
Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pennsylvania.
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Agricultural College of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
State Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, Alabama.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
North Carolina Agricultural College, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
State Agricultural College, Orono, Maine.
Georgia Agricultural College, Athens, Georgia.
Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Massachusetts.
Tennessee Agricultural College, Knoxville, Tennessee.
New Hampshire College of Agriculture, Hanover, New Hampshire.
Illinois Industrial University, Champaign, Illinois.
State Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oregon.
State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas.
Agricultural College of Mississippi, Starkville, Mississippi.
Kentucky Agricultural College, Lexington, Kentucky.
Claflin University, Orangeville, South Carolina.
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.
Botanic Garden, Kiiigsberg, Germany.
Engineer's office, Water-works, Boston, Massachusetts.
Franklin Society, Providence, Rhode Island.
Madison University, Hamilton, New York.
Rochester University, Rochester, New York.
Colby Academy, New London, New Hampshire.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ASH.
The specific gravity and the ash of every tree of the United States have been determined (Table I) by Ml.
Sharples, with the exception of the following: Clusia flava, once detected upon the keys of southern Florida but
not rediscovered; Gordonia pubescens, a rare and local species discovered in the last century upon the banks of the
Altamaha river of Georgia and never rediscovered; Pislacia Mexicana and Acacia Berlandieri, economically
unimportant species of the valley of the lower Rio Grande; Cratwgnus berberifolia, a little known species of the
Red River valley; Cupressus Miacnabiana, a rare and local species of California of little economic importance, and
Lariix Lyallii, a rare and local species of the northern Rocky mountains.
At least two determinations of specific gravity have been made for each species studied, and, in the case of
woods of commercial importance, specimens were taken from many trees growing in widely different parts of the
country, and under different conditions of soil and climate.
The specimens used for specific gravity determinations were made 100 millimeters long and about 35 millimeters
square, and were dried at 1000 centigrade until they ceased to lose weight. The specific gravity was then obtained
by measurement with micrometer calipers and calculation from the weights of the blocks.
Two determinations of ash were made from each specimen studied by burning small, dried blocks in a muffle
furnace at a low temperature.
An average of the specific gravity and of the ash of all the specimens taken from the same tree was made, and
the average of these averages is given as the final result for the species; equal weight is thus given to each tree in
the calculations without regard to the number of specimens representing it.









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


249


In the following table the trees of the United States are arranged in the order of the weight of the dry wood:


g Species.

I



43 Condalia forrea ......................
44 Condalia obovata......................
140 Rhizophora Mangle................-..
20 Guaiacum sanctum ..................
114 Vanquelinia Torreyi ...........--------
147 Engenia longipes ----...---..------.---
21 Porliera angistifolia .............----
220 Scbastiania lcida ...................--
183 Mimiinsops Siberi..----------------- -
115 Cercocarpus ldifolius .....--...-----..
42 Rleyuosia latifolia.......---------...........---
80 Olno a Tesota ............------------
30 Amynis sylvatica................---
102 Genii)pia clusia'foli...---- --.....--------
176 S;iieroxylon Mastichodendron .........
264 Qiiuc: us grisea .........-------..-----
141 Conocarpus erecta-...----..---.--------
12 Canrllta alba .......--..---------------
83 Sophor sccndiflora .......------------
213 Coccolsba Floridana ...............
113 i'runi s iliifili. .......... -------......--..
214 Cocoloha uvifera .....................
56 IIyp 266 Quercius Durandii ..............---
207 Quvrcus vircns .................. ......
2(5 QIrciis reticulata........... ........-
118 Eagenia proeera ... ............--.



110 Cer 144 -Etgenii a )luxifolia ....................
175 Clihrysoplhillumi oliviforlue............
219 DrL lpces crocca, var. latifolia..........
136 lclc.romrIles airbuilifolia ..............
177 Di)iholii s:licifolia ................-....
160 Exostiiiina C:ariblaum n...............
269 Quircus Einoryi ......................
95 Lcucaina gl:ca ----....................
219 Dryp)etcs crocea .......................
32 Xim cilia Americana ...................
146 Eiugeiai monlicola....................
211 Avieiinnia nitida ......................
57 IIypelato trifolita. .....................
272 Quielrus rubir, car. Texaa.......----...
101 Pitllcolobium Unguis-cati ...........
40 1Myginda pallens ................. ....
24 Xinthlloix) 1 lll Caribe-um ..............
112 Prunus sphlLcrocarpa...................
143 Calyptranllhes Chytraculia.............
145 Eug lita dichotoma....................
262 Quercus Douglasii .....-.............
75 E, siliardtia orthocarpa ..............
81 Fiscidia Erythin ia.....................
210 Cithai-n- x\ liliI villosum ..............
111 'Prinuius Caroliniana....................
127 Cratigus coccinea ...................
261 Quercuis prinoides .....................
173 Ardisia lickeringia ...................
98 Acacia Greggi ........................
84 Sopihora nflinis ........................
268 Quercus clrysolepis ...................
185 Diospyros Texana ...................
255 Quercue undulata, var. Gambelii.......
242 Caryn alba.............................
55 Sapindus Saponaria ...................
254 Qucrcus obtusiloba ....................
172 Myrsiune apaneas......................


Species.


1.3020 163
1.1999 159
1.1617 26
1.1432 119
1.1374 257
1. 1235 292

1.1101 270
1.0905 244
1.0838 245
1.00731 49
1.0715 106
1.0602 151
1.0459 54
1. 0310 201
1.0109 243
1.0092 781
01.990 204
0.98235 2592
1.119841 270
1.0985 244
1.0838 245
1.0731 49







1.07135 1820








0.9533 128
0.D9507 372
0.9501 73
0.0047 151
0.0453 189
0.9441 109
0. 9:92 271
0.9365 137
0.90360 135

0. 9310 41

0. 93601 73
0.9U 2::32
0.0479 1024







0.9G0 415
0.9340 234
0.1130 2:1
0.S31U 102
0. !;11)0 122
1.1 %2' 21(;



(0.91; 2133

0. 8018 28D
O. Clf2 19
0. 381
0.8040 164.
0.9018 04
0. 89002 246
0.8998 285
0. 8912 92
0.8983 381
0.89218 168
0.8740 216
0.87402 1260
0.8710 2268
0.86889 152
0. 8618 2386




0.8605 251
0.8602 181
0.8740 169


0.8493 253
0.8460 250
0.8407 89
0.8372 25
0.8367 36
0.8367 252
0.8341 248


Guettarda elliptlca ...................
Viburnum prunifolium ................
Ptelia trifoliata.....................---
Pyrus rivularis ..... ............-----.
Qnuercs lyrata ........................
OstryaVirginica....................------
Qucrcus agrifolia......... ............
Carya tomcntosa -............------..
Carya porcina .---..--...--------------
Colubrina reclinata ....................
Prunus umbcllata ................---------
Cornus florida .........................
Sapindus marginatus.........----.--
Osmanthus Americanus ..-..-..------
Carya sulcata ........................
IRobinia viscosa----------............----............
Boourreria Havanensis ................
Quercus Michauxii...................------------.
Robinia Neo-Mexicana ...............
Carya iyristicieformis ................
Qurcus hypleuca .---....----------..............--
Bumelia cuneata..............-.......
Cratagus subrillosa ..................
Pinus serotina.--.........--.....---
Rhus Iectopium ...................---
Diospyros Virginiana ...............-.
Fraxinus Greggii....................
Prunus Capuli............------.......---
Quelrcus iszeni....................------------
Amelauchier Canadensis ..............
Cratigus flavas.......................-
Selarlia frliescens..............-------
Maclura anrantiaca ...................
aJr is Iierophylla ....................
Chliry ;ibalanus Icaco ..................
Cri.:tagu rivularis ....................-
Nectildrai W'1 hildcloviana .............
CratLait.'s Ilznar, var. piubscens.........
Quercus laurifulia .....................
QLIert-is liiColor-----.....................
rosopisjulilo ...................---...
F:axiiinus Atieicana, Tar. Texensis ....
Cratea gs tuloantosa...................


i;oitia 1 :ab .... .... .......... ........
Pio.,o:pis pubesecu s ....................
Carya aL ura ---..............--....-----
Qucrcus imbricaria ...................
Cercis renilrmis ............... ......
Pinus Cubensis ...............-........
Arbutus Texana....................
Andromeda ferruginea ................
Quercus Priuns........................
UliIs alatai .-------..-----------------
Coinus Nuttallii ....................-
Quercus Pliellos ......................
Querus alba .........................
Biumelia lycioides ......................
Oxydendrunl arbboreum ...............
Cratlguts apiifolia ....................
Quereus Garryana ....................
Quercus macrocarpa ...................
Parkinsonia microphylla ..............
Xanthoxylum Ptcrota ................
Ilex decidua..........................
Quercus lobata ........................
Carya aquatic .......................


0
R41




--B



0.8337
0.8332
0. 8319
0.8316
0.8313
0.8284
0.8253
0.8218
0.8217
0.8208
0.8202
0.8153
0.8126
0.8111
0.8108
0.8094
0.8073
0. 8030



0. 8899
0.8031


0. 801

0. 70Z3
0.7942
0.7917
0.7908
0.7904
0.7879
0.78535
0.7838
0.78009
0 7745
0.7736
0.7715
0.7709
0.7703
0.7693
0.77GS3
0.7073
0.7602
0.7652l
0.7636
0.7633
0.7617
0.7610
0.7609
0.7532
0. 7529
0.7513
0.7504
0.7500
0.7500
0.7499
0.7491
0.7481
0.7472
0.7470
0.7467
0.7438
0.7453
0.7449
0.7453
0. 7453
0.7444
0.7420
0.7409
0.7407


a
Species.
bb
0




02 Larix occidentali .----...............----
73 Quercus coccine.....................-----
87 Gleditschia monosperma..............
77 Robinia Psendacacia ..................
!76 Quercus nigra ..........-.......-.....
.58 Viburnum Lentago ...................
!78 Quercus Catesbmi...................----
78 Bumelia tenax.........................
30 Cratiegus cordata...................-------...
28 Celtis occidentalis .....--------------..
93 Carpinus Caroliniana............-..---
31 Swietenia Mahogoni ..--...----...-----
!28 Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata ......
35 Ilex Cassine.........................-
125 Ulmus racemosa..............---.....---
122 Ulmus crassifolia ........-----....-----
180 Quercus aquatica--...............------
103 rnus Americana ....................---
120 Cratmgus Crus-galli.................---
1G 1raxinus 1quadrangulata.......-- ..-....
211 CIarya olivtfori --..........-----..--
lli7 Tiinax arienitea -.......... ---.....--
170 3 ablma latifolia...........---------..--
132 Crataugus spatlulata .............---..
1C Flrenontia Californica .............---
112 Lagunculat ii racemosa n.......-.-.-.
13S Juilipieris occitdentalis,var.imonosperma
194 Fraxinus viriis .....................--
202 Cordia Sebestena ....................--
167 Arbutus Xalapensis.................--
163 Arbutus Menziesii .........------------
117 Pyrus coronaria ...........----------
274 Quercus tinctoria ........---...-- -- ..--
380 Pints palustris ............-------....
11 Capparis Jamaicensis.........---..----
223 Ulmus filva ...............-----------
110 Prunus demissa ...............---..-..
123 Crataigus Douglasii....................
174 Jacquinia armillaris ..............----
279 Quercus palustris.--.............-----.
85 Gymlnocladus Canadensis ........-...-
277 Quercus faleata........-...........-...
G1 Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum........
G4 Acer saccharinum .............--..---
338 Juniperus occidentalis, var. conjngens
63 Acer grandidentatum..................
118 Pyrus angustifolia ....................
27 Canotia holocantha ...--..----.--.----.........--
104 Prunus angustifolia.-..........------
291 Fagus ferruginea ......- -- .-------.--
138 Hainamelis Virginica......-.........---
282 Quercus heterophylla ....--.----.....--------
287 Quercus densiflora .........---.--..--.
191 Fraxinus pistacimefolia ...-....--..--- ..
124 Cratmgus brachyacautha ........-....
203 Cordia Boissieri.......................-
37 Cyrilla racemiflor .....................
397 Abies bracteata .......................
86 Gleditschia triacanthos ................
96 Leucaena pulverulenta ...............-
250 Myrica Californica...................
150 Conus alternifolia.....................
409 Yucca canaliculata ....................
61 Acor circinatum .......................
180 Bumelia spinosa ..................-----.....
190 Frainus anomala .....................
39 Euonymus atroporpnrepus..............


0



Ci



0.7407
0.7405
0.7342
0.7333
0.7324
0.7303
0.7294
0.7293
0 7293
0. 7287
0.7286
0. 7282
0.7275
0.7270
0.7263
0.7245
0.7244
0.7215
0.7194
0.7184
0.7180
0.7172
0.7160
0.7159
0.7142
0.7137
0.7118
0.7117
0.7108
0. 7099
0.7052
0.7048
0.7045
0.6999
0.6971
0.6956
0.6951
0.6950
0.6948
0.6938
0.6934
0.6928
0. 6915
0.6912
0. 6907
0.6902
0.6895
0. 6885
0.6884
0. 6883
0.6856
0. 6834
0.6827
0. 6810
0.6793
0.6790
0. 6784
0.6783
0.6740
0.6732
0. 6703
0.6696
0. 6677
0.6660
0. 6603
0.6597
0.6592








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


I la
Species.
i .4



13.1 Cratagus mstivalis .................... 0.0
240 Juglans rupestris...................... 0.6
297 lrteula lutea ........................... 0.6
179 Bumelia lanuginosa .................... 0.6
192 Fraxinus Americana .................. 0.6
272 Qenrcus rubra.........--.....-....--.. 0.6
88 Parkinsonia Torrcyana ................ 0.6
212 Pisonia oblusata ...................... 0.6
218 Umbellularia Californica............... 0.0
354 Pinus cembroides -..--......--..--------... 0.6
224 Ulmnius Americana.................. 0.6
125 Crntegus arborescess ................ 0.6
205 1 lretieia cliptica...................... 0.6
275 IQu'rcus Kelloggii ..................... 0.6
215 Pcrsca Cauolininsis... ............... 0.6
69 IRiiis utinoilda .......................0. 0.6
283 OQ 'rrs cine ca ......................- 0.6
100 LUsiloa iarisitliqua .................. .0. 1
230) icris brevi olia........................ 0. 6
215 1'cPrse Carolinuusis, var. palustris..... 0.6;
343 iTxius Imbrevifolia ...................... O.0
355 I nilllus ednllis ..... .--..-.... .....-..... 0.0
200 Cliiniainltus Virginica ................ 0.6G
91 Criris Ciiaadcisis .................... 0.6:
1 !,p;sgnolia iranldillora ................. 0. 6:
154 N XvSasa sylvaiica............-..... ..... 0.
1099 'Frestiea anomiinata.................. 0.6:
:11 Tais \ Floriilana .ii...................... 6
53 U ; incii aspeiosa ............--- ...... 0.
209 Crescininia ci cu itin............. ... 0.6
198 Fraxiili s ia ibiiifll ia................... 0. 6
171 1Sul drlltd el tiron maximlum .... .... 0.C
33T Jrunii5rs l Californiea .--- ----...-. 0. 6
82 Cladirastis tinctoria-................... 0.62
332 C(iprcssus ilacrocarp ................ 0.62
193 Fraxinus pubescens ................... 0. 6
38 Cliftonia lignstrina .................... 0. 6
401 Larix Americana...................- 0.60
66 Acer i nbruin ..-.-...- .............-. 0.61
90 I' arkinsoniia a- ..uleata ---...... ..- 0.61
239 Juglans nigra ....................... 0.61
377 P I'uniu itiY ------- ................ 0.61
315 Salix co data, var. vestita.............. 0.60
408 Oreodoxa regia .................... 0.6
296 ei tulal occidentalis .................. 0.60
62 Acer glari -------m........---.. ............060
46 IRianniusH Californica .................. 0.60
406 Thrinax ijaivilo ra........................ 5
23 Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, var. fra- 0.50
ticosnum.
295 D Etlla papyrifera. ... .............. 0.50
121 P1rns seamlnucifolia. .................. 0.59
139 .iqunid:lmbar Styraciflua.. ............ 0.59
208 Chilopsis saligna ...................... 0.59
232 IMorus rnbrai........................... 0.58
19 Byrhonima lucida.....-----......----.---...... 0.58
289 Castanea'punmila-...................... 0.58
34 Ilex Daboon, var. myrtifolia........... 0.58
337 Juniperus pachyphlea .---..............0.58
108 Prunus setotina ------ 0.58
33 Ilex opaca-- ...... 0.58
364 Pinus contorta ................ ... .. 0.58
194 P'raxinus viridis, var. Berlandioriana 0.57
221 Hippoumanie Macinella................ 0.57
338 iJ niperus occidentalis......-.......... 0.57
298 Betula nig ra.... --...... .. .. 57
294 Btula alba, war. pnpulifolia ......... 0.57
48 Ceanothlus thy rsillorus ................ 0.57.
107 F'raximns Oirgana ..................... 0.57


- a


564 187
554 235
553 353
544 47
543 i 356
540 22
531 249
529 188
517 316
512 3747
506 288
491 3357
440 760


Species.





Halesia diptera ........................
IPlatanus occidentalis..................
inus Parryana .......................
1Rhamnus Purshiana...................
Pinus monophylla .....................
Xanthoxylum Americanum...........
Myrica cerifera........................
Halesia letraptera ...................
Salix lasiolepis.......................
Pinus clausa...........................
Castanopsis chrysophylla--..--.........
Piuus Ealfouriana, var. aristata .-----
SDalea spinosa..........................


435 336 A Juiperus Californica, var. Utahensis..
429 45 R lilianus a roliniana....--..........
125 6c Acer nubtrin, var. DrummoI dii. -. ...-
120 363 Pi 'ns Chihinahuana ........ .......
418 120 Pyrus Americana ...................
398 370 PinusTda ................ ---.....
G6 337 Pinus Balfouriana ............ ....
91 '313 Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana......
:83 161 IPinclneyapubens ----............---
372 314 Salis Hookerina ......................
363 310 Salix longifolia, ar. oxigua.-----... --.
IGO 59 Acer spicatum ...------.......--- .....
356 186 Symplocos tinctori .....------.............
:45 5 Magnolia nmacrophylla-...............
340 o 373 Pinus inops. ..............-.......---
32 58 Acer nnsylvanicnm..............-..-
3)19 227 Pianeranaqiititca------......... ........
i38 I71 i us copallina -.....................
003 63 Acer dasycarpum ---........--...-..
082 3621 Pinus JeCfiryi ......................-
'78 155 F Xyssa unlora........................
61 71 i Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata........
51 389 Tsuga Mertensiana..................
549 405 Washingtonia filifera.................
'0 891 Pseudolsiuga Douglasii ...............
78 371 Pinusr igidsa ..........................
16 345 Toneya taxifolia....................
15 156 Sambucus glauca ......................
04 317 Salix Sitchensis.........................
'1 23 laAthoxylum Clava-Horculis..........
34 10 C Anonalanrifolia.......................
30 217 Sassafras officinale.....................
28 360 Pinus Arizonica.-----.---......---...........
00 2 I Magnolia glauca......................
91 105 Prunus Pennsylvanica ...............
67 7 Magnolia Fraseri .....................
300 Alnus maritima .......................
55 52 Esculus Californicas...................
28 313 Salix flavescens........................
09 376 Pinus muricata...................-------
02 375 Pinus pungens ........................--------------
98 310 Salix lougifolia-.......................
88 330 Juniperus Virginiana..................
87 325 Populus Fremontii .................----------------...
73 0 60 Acer macrophyllum...................
29 236 Platanus racemosa.....................
22 i359 Pinus Torieyana ...................
18 352 Pinusreflexas.......................
15 308 Salix lavigata ----............---.......
80 3583 inus resinosa...... .............
72 3735 Cupressus Guadaluponsis......--......
65 366 Pintis Sabiniana ...... ......-..........
62 (68 Nemguotdo Californicum. -.--.............
60 301 Ali:s rnbra- ........... .............
50 34 Ilex a)lioon .... ....................
31 i 330 Ci:ama.cy paris Nutaensis --......-...


0









0.5705
0.5678
0.5675
0.5672
0.5658
0. 5654
0.5637

0. 5628
0. 5587

0.5574
0.5572
0.5536
0.55221
0.5462
0. 54593
0.5457
0.5451
0.5441
0.5434
0. 5412
0.5350
0.5350
0. 5342
0. 51330
0. 5725

0. 53709
0. 5369
0.5299
0.5294
0.5273
0.5269
0.5206
0.5194
0.5184
0.5182
0. 5173
0.5157
0.5151
0.5145
O. 507
0. 5072
0. 5056
0.5053
0.50426
0.50381
0.5675
0.5023
0.50038
0. 4599
0. 4870
0.4968
0. 4942
0. 4557
0. 4953
0.54926
0.54914
0.49529
0. 5402
0.54579
0.54877
0.4872
0. 4851
0.4843
0.54840
0.54212
0.4815350
0.485350
0.54782
0.41782


a Species.


0

379 Pinus Banksi.a .........-..........--
346 Torreya Californica...................
309 Salix lasiandra.......................
231 Ficus pedunculata....................
237 Platanus Wrightii .....................
14 Gordonia Lasianthus ..................
361 Piuus ponderosa........................
400 Abies magnifica ......................
3 Magnolia acuminata ..................
333 Cuprossus Goveniana...................
304 Alnus serrulata .......................
319 Populus grandidentata ................
i 325 Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizenii....
331 Chammeyparis Lawsoniana............
157 Sambucus Mexicana.................
153 7 Kyssa capitata ....................
305 Alnus incana ..........................
309 Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana .----.
382 Picea nigra........................- -
368 Pinus insignis ....................
391 Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macro-
carpa.
399 Abies nobilis.......................
309 Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia.........
340 Taxodium distichum ..................
50 lEsculas glabra........................
17 Tilia Americana.-...................-
290 Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana ---..-
107 Prunns emarginata....................
307 Salix amygdaloides..............-....-
6 Magnolia Umibrella ....................
206 Catalpa bignoinioides ..................
411 Yucca eatap ..........................
306 Salisnigra........................... .
390 Tsuga Pattoniana......................
404 Sabal Palmetto ........................
311 Salix sessilifolia ...................
72 Rhusvenonata.a........................
350 Pinus flnexlis ......... ................
70 Rnhus typhina.........--..-----.--..--.
67 Negundo accroides ....................
386 Picea Sitchensis .......................
388 Tsuga Caroliniana...................
51 sculs flava..........................
312 Salix discolor......................
18 Tilia heterophylla .....................
387 Tsuga Canadensis .....................
8 Liriodendron Tulipifera ..............
398 Abies amabills.........................
S342 Sequoia semprvirens ................
207 Catalpa speciosa.......................
351 Pinus albicaulis .......................
321 Populus balsamifera, var. candicans ...
4 Magnolia cordata .....................
28 Simaruba glauca....................
367 Pinus Coulteri........................
302 Alnus rhombifolia....................
365 Pinus Murrayana.....................
320 Populus heterophylla .................
238 Juglans cinorca-.......................
17 Tilia Americana, var. pnbescons.......
383 Picea alb .............................
318 Populus tromnloides.................
326 Libocedrus decurrens..................
303 Alnus oblongifolia...................
9 Asimina triloba. -.....................-
378 Pinus glabra..--..........:... ..........
322 Populus angustifolia --................
348 Pinus monticola .......................


250


s






0. 4701
0.4700
0.4756
0.4739
0.4736
0. 4728
0.4715
0.4701
0.4690
0.4689
0.4606
0.4632
0. 4621
0.4621
0.4614
0.4613
0.4607
0.4598
0.4584
0.4574
0.4563


0.4561
0.4517
0. 4543
0.4542
0.4525
0.4504
0.4502
0.4502
0.4487
0.4474
0.4470
0.4456
0.4454
0.4404
0. 4397
0. 4382
0.4358
0.4357
0.4328
0.4287
0.4275
0.4274
0. 4261
0.4253
0.4239
0.4230
0.4228
0.4208
0.4165
0.4165
0. 4161
0.4139
0.4136
0. 4133
0.4127
0.4096
0.4089
0.4086
0.4074
0.4051
0. 4033
0.4017
0.3981
0. 3969
0. 3931
0. 3012
0.3008







THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 251


ra C
I Species.
S Species. Species. Species.

Sa Cd
0 P4 l_ R I _
324 Populus monilifer .................... 0.388 396 Abies concolor.......................... 3638 329 Chamfecyparis spheroidea............. 0.3322
347 Pinus Strobus ......................... 0.3854 321 Populus balsamifera.................. 0.3635 149 Cereus giganteus...................... 0.3188
393 Abies balsamea............. .......... 0.3819 392 Abies Fraseri.......................... 0.3565 327 Thuyaoccidentalis .................... 0.3164
323 Populus trichocarpa................--... 0.3814 395 Abies grandi......-- ---.....---------- 0.3545 29 Bursera gummifera..... -........--- 0.3003
328 Thuy gigantea........................ 0.3796 195 Fraxinus platycarpa................... 0.3541 341 Sequoia gigantea .................. ... 0.2882
885 Picea pungens........................ 0.3740 369 Pinustuberculata ........-.......... 0.3499 412 Yuccabaccata......................... 0.2724
410 Yucca brevifolia....................... 0.3737 394 Abios subalpina--........----.......----........ 0. 3476 229 Ficus aurea.......................-.... 0.2616
349 Pinus Lambertiana .................... 0.3084 384 Picea Engelmanni ..................... 0.3449

It will be noticed that all species in which the wood is heavier than water belong to the semi-tropical region
of Florida or to the arid Mexican and interior Pacific regions. There seems to be a certain, but by no means constant
relation, as shown in this table, between aridity of climate and the weight of the wood produced by closely allied
species or by individuals of the same species. The wood of the form of Q ercus rubra peculiar to western Texas is
nearly 39 per cent. heavier than the average of all the specimens of the typical speci es grown in the northern
states. Among the white oaks the wood of species belonging to regions of little rainfall, Quercus grisea, oblongifolia,
Durandii, and Doulglaiii, is heavier than that of allied species peculiar to regions more favorable for the growth of
trees. The average of two specimens of Quercus prinoides grown in western Texas is 19 per cent. heavier than
the average of all the other specimens of this species grown in other parts of the country. In Fraxinus, the wood
of F. Greggii of the Rio Grande valley is heavier than that of any other species; it only just surpasses in weight,
however, the wood of the western Texas form of F. Americana, which is 20 per cent. heavier than the average of
all specimens of the typical species grown north of Texas. On the other hand, th e wood of Texas forms of Fraxinus
viridis is constantly lighter than that of northern specimens, and the wobd of Geltis grown in Arizona is lighter
than that of the average of all the other specimens of this species. In J.n.,n.. .. the heaviest wood is that of J. rupestris,
a species belonging to a region of little rainfall, and a specimen of J. nigra from western Texas is 33 per cent.
heavier than the average of all specimens grown in the Mississippi basin. In the case of Platanus, the heaviest
wood is that of the Atlantic species, but wood of the species peculiar to the comparatively moist climate of
southwestern Arizona is, however, considerably lighter than that of the drier climate of southern California.

FUEL VALUE.

The relative fuel values are obtained by deducting the percentage of ash from the specific gravity, and are
based on the hypothesis that the real value of the combustible material in all woods is the same.
A number of analyses was also made of the wood of several of the principal trees of the United States (Table
II) and their absolute fuel value calculated. Mr. Sharples describes the methods adopted by him to obtain these
results, as follows:
The carbon and hydrogen determinations were made by the ordinary processes of organic analysis, by burning the wood in a current
of oxygen. The moisture was determined by drying the wood at 1000 centigrade until its weight became sensibly constant. The
calculations were then made on the dry wood. The results contain a slight constant error, arising from the fact that the nitrogen in the
wood was not determined. This error is, however, vcry slight, the nitrogen, which is included in the percentage of oxygen, rarely
amounting, in any wood, to one pdr cent. The column headed "Hydrogen combined with oxygen", is found by dividing the amount in
the column headed "Oxygen" by eight, and represents the hydrogen that may be considered as already combined with oxygen in the form
of water, and is therefore useless for fuel. The fuel value per kilogram is found by multiplying the percentage of carbon by 8,080, and
that of excess of hydrogen by 34,462 (these being the values obtained by Favre and Silbermanz), adding these together and deducting from
the sum the product of the total hydrogen multiplied by 4,:33, which represents the heat required to evaporate the water produced by
burning the hydrogen. The constants used above represent the number of kilograms of water raised one degree centigrade, by burning
one kilogram of carbon or hydrogen. The fuel value per cubic decimeter is found by multiplying the value per kilogram by the specific
gravity. It need hardly be said that this fuel value is rarely attained in practice, and that it is never utilized. There are too many
sources of loss; the calculation supposes that the combustion is perfect, that no smoke is given off, and that the heat of the products of
combustion, with the exception of that necessary to convert the water into vapor, is all utilized.
It appears from Mr. Sharples' experiments that resinous woods give upward of 12 per cent. more heat from
equal weights burned than non-resinous woods; the heat produced by burning a kilogram of dry non-resinous
wood being about 4,000 units, while the heat produced by burning a kilogram of dry resinous wood is about 4,500
units, a unit being the quantity of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade.
Count Rumford first propounded the theory that the value of equal weights of wood for fuel was the same
without reference to specific distinctions; that is, that a pound of wood, whatever the variety, would always
produce the same amount of heat (Count Rumnford's Works, Boston, 1873, vol. ii). Marcus Bull, experimenting
in 1826 upon the fuel value of different woods (Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., new ser., iii, 1), found a variation of only 11
per cent. between the different species tested. Rumford's theory must be regarded as nearly correct, if woods are






252 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

separated into resinous and non-resinous classes. The specific gravity gives a direct means of comparing heat
values of equal volumes of wood of different resinous and non-resinous species. In burning wood, however, various
circumstances affect its value; few fire-p!aces are constructed to fully utilize the fuel value of resinous wood, and
carbon escapes unconsumed in the form of smoke. Pine, therefore, which, although capable of yielding more heat
than oak or hickory, may in practice yield considerably less, the pine losing both carbon and hydrogen in the form
of smoke, while hickory or oak, burning with a smokeless flame, is practically entirely consumed. The ash in a
wood, being non-combustible, influences its fuel value in proportion to its amount. The state of dryness of wood
also has much influence upon its fuel value, though to a less degree than is generally supposed. The water in
green wood prevents its rapid combustion, evaporation reducing the temperature below the point of ignition.
Green wood may often contain as much as 50 per cent. of water, and this water must evaporate during combustion;
but as half a kilogram of ordinary wood will give 2,000 units of heat, while half a kilogram of water requires only
268.5 units to evaporate it, 1731.5 units remain available for generating heat in wood containing even a maximum
amtoiint of water. In cases whlire l'hc pressure was perpendicular to the grain of the wood it was applied on the
side of the specimen nearest to the heart of the tree.
A factor in the general value of wood as fuel is the ease with which it can be seasoned; beech, for example, a
very dense wood of high fuel value when dried, is generally considered of little value as fuel, on account of the
rapidity with which it decays when cut and the consequent loss of carbon by decomposition.

THE STRENGTH OF WOOD.

The specimens tested for the purpose of determining the strength of the wood produced by the different trees
of the United States were cut, with few exceptions, before March, 1881, and were slowly and carefully seasoned.
Those used in determining the resistance to transverse strain were made 4 centimeters square and long enough
to give the necessary bearing upon the supports. These were shod with flat iron plates, slightly rounded on the
edges and were set exactly 1 meter apart; they remained p.t" Il, l.-rigid under the pressure applied. Each specimen
was weighed, measured, and its specific gravity calculated before it was tested. The result thus obtained represents
the specific gravity of the air-dried wood.
To eliminate the action of their weight the specimens were placed upright, and hydraulic pressure was applied
by means of an iron rod 12 millimeters in radius, acting midway between the supports, the deflections being read
at this point.
The direct oii of the grain of the wood is shown by diagrams in the table (Table III), the pressure acting upon
it horizontally from the left.
The pressure was applied slowly and uniformly, a reading of the deflections being taken for every 50 kilograms.
When a load of 200 kilograms had been applied it was removed and the set read. Pressure was again applied in
the same way, and the readings of il. '-i..ii, were resumed when 200 kilograms was again reached.
P I3
The formula used in calculating the coefficient of elasticity was E --4 bd, 1i b, d, being taken in millimeters;
3P1
that of the modulus of rupture, R =2 b, 2 1, b, d being in centimeters, P, in both formulas, in kilograms.
A few experiments were also made in the same manner, for purposes of comparison, to determine the transverse
strength of specimens 1 meter long between the bearings and 8 centimeters square (Table IV).
The specimens tested by longitudinal compression were 4 centimeters square and 32 centimeters (8 diameters)
long. They were placed between the platforms of the machine, and pressure was gradually applied until they
failed. The figures given represent the number of kilograms required to cause failure.
The specimens tested under pressure applied perpendicularly to the fibers were 4 centimeters square and 16
centimeters long. They were placed upon the 1p.iti.' lr of the machine and indented with an iron punch 4
centimeters square on its face, covering the entire width of the specimen and one-quarter of its length at the
center. In this series of experiments the direction of the annual rings was noted, horizontal pressure being also
applied from the left. Readings were taken of the pressure necessary to produce each successive indentation of
0.254 up to 2.54 millimeters, and in the case of specimens which did not fail with this pressure a further test was
made of the weight required to produce indentations of 3.81 and 5.08. The remarks (Table V) upon the behavior
of the wood of the different species under compression were furnished by Mr. James E. Howard, in charge of the
testing machine.
COMPARATIVE VALUES.

In the following table the number standing opposite each species represents its relative value in the column in
which it appears.
This table is purely an arbitrary one, since the introduction of one or more species would of course change the
value of all species standing lower in value, or results based on an examination of a larger number of specimens
of any species may change the relative numbers in regard to it very considerably. In other words, any twenty or
thirty species bearing consecutive numbers may change places with each other. This arises partly from the want
of uniformity of the wood of any species, and partly from the fact that where so many determinations fall between
comparatively narrow limits the mere order of sequence must be largely accidental.









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


TABLE OF RELATIVE VALUES.


Species.


MAGNOLIACEE.

1 Magnolia grandiflora ...................... 145
2 Magnolia glauca............................ 205
3 Magnolia acuminata........................ 230
4 Magnolia cordata..............----............ 265
5 Magnolia macrophylla............-....-... 189
6 Magnolia Umbrella-.........-..---...-..--- 249
7 Magnolia Fraseri..................... -----207
8 Liriodendron Tulipifera .--..............- -- 259
ANONACEB.

9 Asimina triloba .............--............. 277
10 Anona laurifolia............................ 220
CANELLACEZE.

12 Canella alba ................................ 11
TERNSTRCEMIACEE.

14 Gordonia Lasianthus ....................... 228
TILIACEE..

17 Tilia Americana ........................... 246
17 Tilia Americana, var.pubescens ............ 272
18 Tilia heterophyll .......................... 257
MALPIGIIIACEAE.

10 Byrsonima lucida........................... 169
ZYGOPHYLLACEA.

20 Guaiacum sanctum ....-................... 3
RUTACEZE.

23 Xanthoxyluu Clava-Herculis................ 204
24 Xanthoxylum Caribium ................... 27
SIMARUBEXA.

28 Simaruba glauca..-......................... 268
;URSERACEY,.

29 Bursera gummifera. -------------------..... 298
30 Amyris sylvatica-..-. ---.... .............. 5
MELIACEAE.

31 Swietenia Mahogonin .........-............. 96
ILICINEIE.
33 Ilex opaca .... .......-.................... 167
34 Ilex Daboon ..... ......................... 224
CYRILLACEE.

38 Cliftonia lignstrina .................. .....I 152
RHAMNACE2E.

42 Reenosia latifolia.......---.................. 6
43 Condalia firrea .-............... ....... 1
45 anliinums Carolinian ...................-..- 184
47 Rllainuis Ia sianal1...................... 175
SAP'INDACEE.
50 Eisenlus girnlu'br......................... 245
52 AIrsculiusCaliorniicn ............... ...... 208
54 S.pindlius malrginatus. --------.........-- 47
60 A cer iasicriphylliun .........- .......... ...., 113
61 Acor ci'cirntuuni ...............---... ..... 126
64 Acer sacclii n -----------__.-- ----------.... 117
64 Ac-ir svicelI;rinuni, car. nigrum ............- 118
65 Aet.r dlsyecarum........................ 1921
66 Acer rubrum .......... .................... 154
67 Negundo aceroidcs ...................... 256
68 Negmndo Californicum............- .......... 221


281 293
278 234


292 300
65 2


191 262


74 116
45 F5
208 251
129 152


243 271
232 222
165 112
194 190
221 147
9 i18 '
881 68
59 53
117 121
260 263
113 133 i


300
9


20


180
252


231


Species.






A.NACARDIACEIE.

Rhus copallina ...... ............... ......... 193
Rhus Metopium -.. --.----------.-- 59

LEGUMINOS2E.

Robinia Pseudacacia ..........----.------ 87 1
RobiniaNeo-Mexicana ..i---- --- 51
Olneya Tesota..................---------- 7
Piscidia Erythrina-... i--- 35
Cladrastris tinctoria ..................-- ...... 150
Sophora, afluis--------.. .-------- -------- 34
Gymnocladus Canadensis..---------------...............-- 114
Gleditschia tiiacanthos ..................... 124
Gleditschia monosperma .................... 88
Parliinsonia Torreyana...-....-------------.......-..------ 134
Cerci-sCanad- usis .................------- 146


93 Prosopisjuliflora ..------------- --------
240 94 Prosopis pubesceans....--.....-----.-----
ROSACE2E.

290 103 Prunus Aumeicana ..-....................
298 104 Prunus angutifolia .----..------.......--------
263 107 Prunn emarginata...--....-- ......---- --
108 Pirius serotina .....-- ...-..---- -----..
110 Prunus domissIa ..........----.----.. ------
100 111 Prumus Caroliniana ... ......---- ....-----
113 Punasilicifolia ---..........- ...-...-----
117 Pyrns coronaria -.......................---..
12 C1 Pyrus sambucifolia ......................-
125 Cratrcgus arborescens ..--- ..---------- .----
165 126 Clatetgus Ctis-galli ......... ......
18 128 CraiUegus subvillosa .-------------------
129 Cratne'us tomentosa -------------------
132 Cratagis spatbulata------------ ---------.
251 134 Cratergus estivalis ....-....-.......- ---
135 Cratgus flava --
137 Aimelanchier Cauadensis .-----------------
300
6 IIAMIAMELACEIE.

139 Liquidambar Styracifltua.........- ------...
36 | IIIIZOPHOIACEAE.

140 Rhizophora Snangleo...----.-------------
1409
COM BRETACE2.
214
141 Con caorlms ert cta .........................
142 Laguneul;ria racemosa .....................
177 MYTRTACEE.


144 Eugenia buxil.lia .-..... ..-.. ......-..-...
3 4
146 Eugenia monticola...l i...... -- --..
5' 3
148 EneeoLina pi ocra .............---.....------..
154 187 ;
2S 1311 CUOIXACE2E.
151 Cornus llarida. .- --. -- --- -.....

273 2 i 152 Cornus Nuttillii ... ....- .. ..........-
246 220 -1-3 i'issaCitlaa ......... .. .......--
122 5S 154 sasiv.tica .. ..... . -... -....
223 159 155 yssa unitlora ...... ... ..------ ........
136 119 C U\APEIFOL[ACEZE.
30 7: 1.6 Saniucn.i gl.nca .........................
57 66 159Viliiin prli olnin ...................
113 145
133 151 711ACEhE.
270 215 100 Exostunima Caribum i ... ............
155 221 1 161 Pilcluchnyapubsli ............-.... ....-.


69
67


97
119
248
164
112
29
10
109
1651
135
100
52
65
102
128
61
57



162


2


9
I0


18





41

74
235
141
105


206 209 295
3S 121 (;9


15 36 55
187 231 291


253


19 3
43 81
143 153
154 151
95 88
102 121
77 144
64 77
40 49
264 259
228 165
259 273
172 91


161 103
253 276
149 194
153 115
199 106
120 76
212 138
245 273
248 264
189 228
240 210
133 162
213 177
237 268
256 176
225 167
34 24



167 214


2 10


89 72
219 264


a dI


1 g~
2-;;i
-n or
C) OS
-s ~s


32 19
147 174


287 184
37 35


8 7
289 230


; __ _I_ __









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE OF RELATIVE VALUES-Continued.


SSpecies.









166 Arbutus IMenz'eii ........................
167 Arbutus Xalapemn.is .......................
169 Oxydendrum arbiorc .....................
170 Ivalmiil latifolia .............................
171 IRhododendron maximum ...................

SAPOTACE2E.

175 Chrysophyllum oliviuform ................
176 Sideroxylon Mastichdendron.............
177 I)ipholslis sclici li.. ......................
178 B umeli tunax .........................
179 I umelia lanuginosa .......................
181 Dumelia lydoides .........................
182 Bi Bu ia cuilne ta ............................
183 Mimusops Sieberi....... ...............
EP.ENACE2E.


72 17N
107 164
104 31
78 137

101 258
148 242


17 54
12 61

16 1679
90 204

81 164
56 252


4 95


184 Diospyros Virgiuiana ..................... 55

STYRACACIE.

186 Synplocos tinctoria ........................ 190
187 Ilaleia diptera ............................ 172

OLEACEIE.

191 Firaxinus pistacikTfolia --................... 122
192 Fiaxinus Americana -...................... 130
192 Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis........ 66
193 Fraxinus pubsclns ........................ 151
104 1 'rax;.\inusviridis ............................ 105
195 Firaxiius platycaipa........................ 291
196 Fraxiuas quadransgulata.................... 73
197 'Fraximus OreOgna .......................... 171
198 Fraxinus sambucifolia...................... 149
199 F orcstiera acuninata....................... 147
201 Osimnuthus Americani s .................... 45

BORRAGINACE2E.
204 I Bounrrria Havanensis ..................... 53
205 Ehetia elliptica............................ 142

BIGN ONIACEE.

206 Catalpa bignonioides ....................... 250
207 Ctalpa speciosa............................ 263
208 Chilopsissal'gna........................... 161

VERBENACEME.


210 Ciiharexylu'nvillosum-- ...................

NYCTAGINACE2E.
212 Pisonia obtiusata.... .......................

POLYGON ACEA.

213 Coccoloba Floridarp .......................

LAURACE2E.
215 Persea Carolinensis.......................
215 Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris ..........
217 Sassafras officinale.........................
218 Umbellularia Californica ...............

EUPHORBIACEiE.
219 Drypetes crocea ..........................
219 Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia...............

URTICACEE.

222 Ulmus crassifolia.........................
223 Ulmus fulva..............................


28



157


14


138
140
202
131



30
25


99
111


--------- ------


254 226
91 106
69 27
182 101
133 91
283 261
196 121
156 203
142 125
227 |175
28 40


97 71
296 169


233 241
175 224
267 247



26 73



284 296


49 78


162 88
162 116
273 235
70 127


70 132
168 178


226 142
110 1 101


45 43
215 87


238 273
194 254
278 181



13 37



274 218


24 23
79 13


142 68
66 172


'' 8

a
a
ti o


a
C)
o


Species.


53
a
a





5-1
a
S
ii
a.
a.


131. 107 92







81 89 110
230 198 71
c g .i -i.

s !'S; i








21 168 G
ta F- p










107 107 15
67 2 110
230 ; 108 75
265 1170 47
219 16835 16
205 128 133


107 33 12
67 1 23 1 25
18 I1! 49
200 143 i 146
'14 239 : 162
253 106 97
265 i 117 i 47
791 1315 16



18 88 29


230 1 218 139
107 ; 166 121


ID o a

I- g2



a" F-
5n 2
I IE


224 Ulmnus American .......................... 136
22, Ulmus racemosa............................ 93
226 linus alata ................ ............... 80
227 Plan ranquatica.--...--..-.-........- t..a 191
228 Celtis occidentalis.......................... 94
228 Celti oecidentnlis, var. reticulata. ......... 98
229 Ficus narea.. 300
231 Ficus petlunculata...................... 244
232 IMruns rubra .............................. 163
234 Marlura aauratiaca......................... 63

PLATANACEE.

231 Platanum occidentalis...................... 173
236 Platanus racemosa......... ................ 218
237 Platanus Wrightii.......................... 231

JUGLANDACEAE.

238 Juglans cinerea ............................ 270
239 Juglans nigra.......-.... ... ..-.....-----. 155
240 Juglans ruptstris..-......-.. .......... .--- 132
241 Carya olivacfurnmis................--......- 103
242 Ca 5i a alba..... .......................... 36
243 Carya sulcata......... ................... 46
244 Carya tomeutosa................. ........ ... -- 43
245 Carya porcine ................ ..... 42
240 Caya amara....................... .........--. 71
247 CaSrya risticaformis ...................... 49
248 Carya aquatic ............................. 86

MYT1ICACEE.

249 Muyrica corifera............................ 177
250 Myrica Californica.......................... 125

CUPULITERE.

251 Quercus alba .............................. 76
252 Quercus lobata....... ................... 85
253 Quercus Garryana ......................... 79
254 Quercus obtusiloba ......................... 37
255 Quercus undilat, var. Gambelii............. 32
256 Quercus uiacrocarpa....................... 82
237 Quercus lyrata.. ......................... 39
258 Quercus bicolor..........................--- 60
259 Quercus Michauxii.......... ............... 48
260 Queicus Prinus.............. ----------.. .. 75
261 Querens prinoides ......................... 31
262 Quercus Douglasii........................... 26
263 Quercus oblongifulia ........................ 20
264 Quercus grisea............................ 8
260 Quercus Durandii ........................ 21
267 Quercus virus ............................. 13
268 Quiercus chrysolepi ........................ 33
269 Quercus Emoryi .......................... 22
270 Quercus agrlifolia .............. ......... 41
271 Quercus Wislizeni ......................... 58
272 Quercus rubra-............... .............. 129
272 Qnercus rubra, var. Texana ................. 23
273 Quercus coocinea............................ 84
274 Quoercus tinctoria ........................... 106
275 Qiiercus Kelloggii ......................... 137
276 Quercus nigra .............................. 89
277 Quercus falcata............................ 113
278 Qucrclus Catesbwi .................... ...... 91
279 Quercus palustris.......................... 115
280 Quercus aquatic ........................... 95
281 Quercus laurifolia ...........................I 62


205 110
62 36
273 167
266 228
229 135
143 127
300 208
292 299
173 141
114 25



146 222
249 254
286 285



181 238
63 109
218 236
239 246
12 11
78 33
43) 26
12 31
06 30
8 1
93 96



137 119
99 46



104 85
222 103
183 99
169 100
262 194
122 65
17 50
131 81
106 28
27 48
53 6
197 57
150 175
209 73
165 57
49 54
33 4
247 180
110 75
148 118
48 63
83 52
65 38
81 44
206 145
102 43
11 12
80 42
55 32
29 40
25 13


-==------~---~~








255


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


TABLE OF RELATIVE VALUES -Continued.


Species.


282 Quercus hoterophylla-------...............-------
283 Querus cinerea-...--.....--------------..
284 Quercus hypoluca ..--......-...........----
285 Quorcns imbricaria ..-.....-........--...
286 Quercus Phellos .....-...........--------..
287 Quereus densillora ............-...--...----
288 Castanopsis chrysophylla --....--........--
289 Castanea pumila...----.. -------......------
290 Ciastanea vulgaris, var. Americana..........
291 Fagus fclrusinea ..........----------------.
292 strya Virginica.............---------...........--
293 Carpinus Caroliniana...............---------

BETULACEE. -

294 Betula alba, ear. populifulia.---...... :........
2903 Botula papyrifera ....... ..-...----..--..
296 i Ltnla occidentalis ............... .........
297 la lutea ...............-----........---......-----
298 Betula nigra ................................
:99 Betula leuta ...............................
301 Alnus rnbra .... .......................
302 Ahms rhobifolia------ .--........-..-........------....--------..
30o Ami3 oblos1 gifolia------------------------
303 Alnus oblongifolia........................

SALICACE?.a

307 Salix amygdaloides .......................
308 Ralix hevigata ............................
309 Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia.............
309 Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana ...........
313 Salix flavescens..........................
313 Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana ..........
316 Salix lasiolepis..............................
318 Populus tremuloides........................
319 Populus gianddicntata .....................
320 Populus beterophylla ......................
321 Populus balsamifera -.....................
321 Populus balsamifera, ar. candicans.........
322 Populus angustifolia....-................
323 Populns trichocarpa .....................
324 1 Populus monilifera ........................
325 Populus Fremontii ................ ........
325 Populus Fromoutii, var. Wislizeni..........

CONIFERE E.

320 Libocedrus dccurrens ....................!
327 Thuya occiidentailis ........................
328 Thuya gigantea .........................
329 Chamu cyparis sphaeroidea..................
10 i Chamuecyparis Nutkaosis...............-------
331 Chanimcyparis Lawsoniana ................
333 Ciupressus Goveniana..........--...........
338 iJunipcrus occidcntalis, var. conjugens-......
339 Juniperns Virginiana......................
340 Taxodium distichum ........................
341 Sequoia gigantea............................
342 Sequoia sompervireo ........ ..............
343 Taxus brevifolia...........................
345 Torrya taxifolia..........................
346 Torreya Californica ........................


---------


274 i 157 190 130 242
297 271 267 275 297
284 81 154 145 284
296 291 281 294 2876
223 87 130 138 236
233 31 93 i 129 2359
.232 279 260 242 147
116 211 276 75 50
212 238 158 177 176
242 84 190 174 280
299 287 280 213 286
261 236 238 187 271
139 202 34 111 62
198 170 94 134 166
227 294 243 250 203


Species.


0-






121
144
54
08
77
123
180
160
247




IGS
40
92



168
159
158
127
170
64
222
267
276



251
216
243

209

181
275
234
271
288
264
280
285
281
214
238


i





30
203
114
37
100
106
94
46
152
32
15
43



214
18
126
3
58
10
72
158
199



277
280
141
2"8
65
22
137
180
108
220
150
215
284
57
98
73
160


35 100 144
57 150 118
29 279 59
8 156
63 211 102
70 119 93




IS 120 125

18 96 103



140 254 196
31 102 195
127 a 2 171














-5 2 19 0 2
61 10 7 193

2 18 0 30
19 120 1442
57 I 150 118 I














29 25 279
7 51 9264
63 I 211 102
7081 119 193
198 166 2006
160 2 9 209

















218 283 207
218 271 276
232 286 291


129 290 274
37 13 1 95
12704 207 29171
5 29 1258
66 157 193
9 31 91
121| 188 210
1 390 244 268

189 225 279


186 2091 264
217 272 208
199 257 243
276 0 281 261
125 192 241
81 126 1S9
120 210 6 183
128 256 265
109 243 283
218 283 270
F 257 271 270
232 280 1 291
292 290 I 274
204 209 F 223
145 2-'9 258
1S3 225 3 252
186 0 230 239


347 1 Pinus Strobs .---.........--....---------....-..
348 Pinus monlicola .....................-----.
349 Pinus Lambortiana --....-..... .....------
350 Pinus flexilis.---.------- -------.-------_
351 Pinus albicaulis .........................--.
352 Pinus reflea ......................--------
353 Pinus Parryana ..-.--- -- ......--- --.----.
355 j Pinus edulis --..---...------------------
356 i Pinus monophylla ... ..------- ..--- ..-----------
:157 Pinus Balfouriana .--------------------.. .---
357 Pinus 12alfouriana, var. aristata -........--
358 Pinus resinosa.............................------
359 1i inus Torreyana..........................--------
360 Finus Arizonica ............................
301 iinus ponderosa- .................-....-...
362 Pinus Jeffreyi ..................--.....--..
363 Pinus Chihuahuana......................
364 Pinna conlorta..........---------............-----.......--.---
36 Pinus urayana.............----......---..--
366 Pinus Sabiniana ............................
367 Pnusa Coulteri...-----------..................
368 inus insignis ..............................
369 Pins tuberculata ..........................
370 Pinus Tuda-.....-.....------... ..-------
371 Pinus rigida................................
372 Pinus serotina.........................----....
373 Pinus inops...-........... ..................
374 Pinus clausa...............................--
375 Pinus pungens-----... ---.---.-----------
376 Pinus muricata .......... ................--
377 Pinus mitis ................................-
378 Pinus glabra .....-.......................
379 Pinus Banksiana......................-....
3C0 Pinus palustris .............................
381 i Pinus Cubensis ............................
382 Picea nigra .................................
383 Picea alba ---..--....................----
384 Picea Engelmanni ........................
385 Pice punges ..........-- ...---- ...---- .........
386 Picea Sitchensis .........................--
387 Touga Canadensis ..........................
388 Tsuga Caroliniana ...-..--- -----.---...----
388 Tsuga Carolinians ------------------------
389 Tsuga Mertensiana.........................
390 Tsuga Pattoniana .........................
391 Pseudotsuga Douglasii .....................
391 Paeeudotsuga Douglasii, var. macrocarpa -....
392 Abies Fraseri ---...-.. ... ................
391 i Abies balsamea .............................
394 Abies subalpina .........................
95 Abies grandis............................------..
396 Abies cuncolor.------......-------......--.--..--.---
398 Abies aabili ..........................---...
39 Abies nobilis .... ..........................
400 Abies nagnifica ............................--
401 Larix Americana .......---......--.............
402 Larix occidentalis -..- ..--....-..-...--..-

PALMACEAE.

405 Washingtonia filifera.....................


282 154 225 212 27
279 112 232 263 288

253 235 227 251 21
262 276 244 25 22








179 223 210 26 0 s




226 141 171 226 22.
201 125 156 185 21!
1b2 216 114 259 17I
166 4 60 54 171














269 I 253 264 25-
219 257 139 261 8
26 46 148 233 21
239 15 183 22
















293 290 290 293 25
183 52 95 170 22
282 154 22 212 127
279 112 232 269 284

287 187 238 221 216
253 235 227 2518 219
















21102 6 205 221
215 127 143 105 20
174 297 287 258 121
















143 291 283 123 10

















2175 1289 297 20188 21
85 255 288 260 i7
179 1 223 210 208 181















217 51 131 140 21
20 270 149 2721 18



203 104 210 204 21
258 150 171 226 2(
201 123 156 105 21:

















182 2 1127 2196 21
166 4 60 64 127
20952 198 253 264 25
219 2057 196 281 18

26640 4 148 133 2


















289 101 180 183 22
293 290 290 2103 2
183 2412 95 17061 22

195 2361 158 24 15
0 39 17 186 i 4
188 26 28507 211 16
178 i 268 1 269 228 18
211 180 100 247 21

156 13 j 45 118 19
278 j 288 270 200 22
225 3 118 214 201 23
110 \ 7 18 260 16
70 5 15j 21 19
237 60 161 193 27
273 90 I 155 256 2E
295 i 185 2 249 I 292 27
280j 203 281 295 2f
254 100 1 216 248 21
298 115 171 219 I 21
255 224 i 279 1 906 i 21
194 i 13 | o 8 | 6 2;
252 195 3 171 224 21
196 0 20 9 0, i 81| 2i
240 74 311. 132 2
290 104 219 255 2 i
283 177 2 265 21036 2;
294 201 275 276 2 2!
202 109 271 208 2 2!
289 i 130 180 1 210i 2'
260 I 24 | 134 I 127 2'
241 21 105 11 2'
229 241 182 0 161 2
153 23 90 5 58 2:
3 1 7 14 1'


199 263 285 297 1









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


The following'table gives the figures from which the table of relative values was computed, and includes all

species upon which complete tests have been made.
The coefficient of elasticity is derived from the second deflection, the measurements being taken in millimeters

and the weight in kilograms.
The ultimate transverse strength is the force, applied at the middle of the stick, required to break a stick 4

centimeters square and 1 meter between the supports.
In the compression tests the surface exposed to pressure was 4 centimeters square. To give the pressure

on a square centimeter these results must be divided by 16.
The indentation to 1.27 millimeters, or the fifth in the series, is the one selected for comparison.


TABLE OF AVERAGES.


Species.


MAGNOLIACEIE.

1 Magnolia grandiflora .............
2 Magnolia glauca -................
3 Magnolia aeuminata ..............
4 Magnolia cordata ................
5 Magnolia nii:wrophylla ............
6 Magnolia Umbrella..............
7 Magnolia 'raseri ................
8 Ljriodendion Tulipifera .........

ANONACE2E.

9 Asimina triloba.........-.........
10 Anona lamuifolia ..................

CANELLACERE.

12 Canella alba ......................

TERNSTR(EMIACE2E.

14 Gordonia Lnsianthus .............
TILIACEAE.

17 Tilia Americana ..................
17 Tilia Americana, var. pubescens.
18 Tilia beteroph yla..............

MALPIGHIACEi.

19 Byrsonima lucida .................
ZYGOPHYLLACEIE.

20 Guaiacum sanctum ...............

RUTACE2E.

23 Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis....
24 Xanthoxylum Caribeum .........

SIMARUBEdiE.

28 Sinaruba glauca.... ............

BURSERACEXE.

29 lBrserra gummifea ............
30 Amyris sylvatica................

IELIACEIE.

31 Swiitenia Mahogoni ..............

ILICINEiE.

33 lex opaca ..... ........ .......
34 Ilex Dahoon .....................

CYRILLACE2E.

38 Cliftonia ligustrina .............


63.26
50.11

46.76
41. 26
52.90
44.78
49. 89
42.20



39. 61
48.11



97.20


46.92


45. 00
40. 47
42.27


57. 43


113.38



50. 15
88.20


40. 98



29.41
103.97


72. 03


57.74
47. 62


62.23
62. 23


R IIAMNACEIE.

42 ieynosia latifolia................. 103.72
43 Conlalia ferrea.................. 119.38
45 Rhamnus Caroliniana............. 54.27
47 Rhamnus Purshiana..............- 56.34


903
914
929
941
1,169
744
944
926


482
501


1,117


794


840
811
846


525


863


726
868


932


417
1,085


1062


643
642


783


1, 050
1, 143
741
913


4e. ti'%
S o. a4
03 1F'I
1 c 1i


ci5
wtg .,CiB


167 3,395
259 4,829


438 12,519


286 6,195


252 5,768
239 6, 487
246 6,307


181 6,260


336 11,789


273 7, 189
322 10,955


241 6,816


63 2,473
557 11,975


428 10,660


1 3,


S12, 68


293 6,709 2,826
244 5,582 1,808


225 5,938 2,356


350 13,426 9,753
386 12,848 0,388
242 7,112 2,195
320 9, 94 3, 075


;2?
-a
icI.

ci Species. cit.
SI E-1 i
3 2-&
ate
'8 ci.


S SAPINDACEIE.

50 JEsculns glabra.................
52 Esculus Califirnica ..............
54 Sapindus ninmrinatus -............
60 Acer maciophyllum .-............
61 Acer circinatmn .................
(4 Acer sacchlariuin ................
61 Acer saccharinulm, var. nigrum ...
65 Acer dasycarpm n.................
66 Acer rubrnm .....-..............
67 egundo aceoides ...............
68 Negundo Californicum............

ANACARDIACEE.

71 Rlus copallina ..................
73 Rihus Metopium .................

S LEGUMINOSSE.

77 Robinia Pseudacacia.......- ....
79 Robinia Xeo-Mexicana............
80 Olneya Tesota ..................
81 Piscidia Erythrina................
82 Cladrastis tinctoria .............
84 Sophora afiinis.................
85 GynDmocladus Canadensis...---
86 Gleditschia triacanthos ..........
87 Gledlitschia mnonspetma --........
88 Pahlinsouia Torreyana........
91 Ce cis Canadensis ..............
93 Prosopis juliflora .................
94 Prosolis pubesceus....... .....

ROSACEM E.


10c3 Prunus Americana ............ .s
104 Pilunnusanustifolia .............
107 Prunus emariginata, var. mollis....
108 Prunu- crotina .................
110 Prunus demisa. ...... .....
111 Prunus Caroliniana ......--.
113 1 Pirunus ilicifolia ..................
117 IPyrus coronnria --..............
121 P rus samibbcifolia..............
125 Clatuguis ariborescens ...........
126 Cratiagus Crus-ialli .......... .
128 Crata' :u subv illosa ..............
129' Cratingus tomni ulosa -...........
132 Cr'it ag s spalhulata ............ ..
134 C atagus a stivalis ..............
135 Crat lmgus illavb var. pubescens....
137 Aimehlnchier Canadensis .........


45.03
49.45
80. 05
48. 83
66.34
68.75
68. 66
52. 52
61. 65
42.82
47. 95



52.42
77.28



72.96
79. 86
103.59
84.39
62.61
84.46
68.88
66. 86
72. 89
64. 58
63.18
74.86
75.37



72.02
68.65
44. 93
58.14
09.16
86. 52
97. 27
70. 11
58.08
64. 55
71.54
78. 98
75. 96
71.12
65.27
76. 13
77. .1


i IAIAMELACE2E.
139 Liquidambar Styraciflua........... 58.78


256


2 5
>2a -ti
t I

2.2.-

81c~~E


644 211
683 2171

837 360
780 292

718 327
1,465 490
1, 027 410
1,110 435
- c










644 211
683 271
837 360

736 239
718 327






1,050 980

1,3017 410
1, 1410 43








868 320
851 321
1,002 385
7743 346
582 226









1945 3129
7360 2E3







1, 086 394
1,301 543





1,170 439





558 233
68 320






5S3 207
851 321





82400 382

977 316
1,018 329
1,086 394
3,170 439
558 2:13
688 310
5S3 207
824 312



827 i 369
603 200
861 290
852 354
769 293
937 396
732 :334
642 207
626 190
788 2635
664 279
901 315
732 303
673 216
592 304
708 309
1,397 483


837 278


5,017
5, 686
7, 523
6, 100
7,349
9,907
8, 803
7,711
7, 402
5, 151
7, 072



6, 033
8, 523



11,272
10, 931
5, 851
9, 548
8,550
9, 129
6,406
8, 001
0, 344
6, 679
7,510 1
9, 412
10, 732



9,419
6, 441
7, 507
8,746
8, 105
8, 89
8, 70 9
6,706
6, 123
7,909
6, 884
8, 612
7, 117
7 20
7,122
8, 4:37
10,712



7, 462


1,132
1,722
4, 350
2,597
3,205
4,019
4,149
2,899
2, 795
1,781
1,719



1,744
3,348



4, 038
4, 427
10, 478
5, 698
2, 937
5, 348
2,560
2,697
4,420
3, 620
2,917
5, 484
5, 267



3, 405
2,132
1,280
3, 269
3,937
5, 090
4,888
3,999
1,715
2, 901
3, :,68
4, 207
3,814
3,484
3, 583
5, 103
4, 483



2,122







THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


TABLE OF AVERAGES-Continued.


i Species. aS

13"a



RHIZOPHORACEXE.

li0 Rhlzophora Mangle............... 114.06

COMBRETACB2E.

111 Conocarpus erecta ................ 98.68
142 Laguncularia racemosa ........... 70.21


MYRTACEIE.

144 Eugenia buxifolia................
146 Eugenia monticola................
148 Engenia procera..................

CORNACEIE.

151 Cornus florida ................
152 Cornus Nuttallii..................
153 Nyssa capitata....................
154 Nyssa sylvatica..................
155 Nyssa uniflora...................

CAPRIFOLIACEIE.

15I Sambucus glanca ................
159 Viburnum pruuifolium ..........

RUBIACEE.

160 Exostemma Caribnum ...........
161 Pinckneya pubens................

ERICACEE.

165 Andromeda ferruginea...........
160 Arbutus Menziesii....:...........
167 Arbutus Xalapensis .............
169 Oxydendrum arboretum ...........
170 Kalnia latifolia..................
171 Rhododendron maximum .........

SAPOTACEE.

175 Chrysophyllum oliviforme........
176 Sideroxylon Mastichodendron.....
177 Dipholis salicifolia...............
178 Bumelia tenax...................
179 Bumelia lanuginosa...............
181 Bumelia lycioides................
182 Bumelia cuneata.................
183 Mimusops Sieberl.................

EBENACEAE.
184 Diospyros Virginiana............
STYRACEEB.

186 Symplocos tinctoria..............
J17 Halesia diptera ..................


OLEACE .
Fraxinus pistaciffolia ...........
Fraxinus Americana..............
Fraxinus Americanavar.Texensis
Fraxinus pubescens .............
Fraxinus viridis .................
Fraxinua platycarpa..............
Fraxinus quadrangulata..........
Fraxinus Oregana ..............
Fraxinus eambucifolia..........
Forestiera acuminata.............
Osmanthus Americanus ..........
BORRAGINACEME.
Bourreria Havanensis ......-....-
Ebretia elliptica..................
17 FOR


1, 656



1, 025
724



1,575
1, 085
1,191


821
1,031
681
818
518



305
907



1, 194
683



814
838
616
889
585
646



1, 124
1, 099
1, 336
751
483
781
603
1, 002


782


622
683


601
1,015
1,082
812
903
476
774
848
872
703
1,231


996
397


On
ta.,
a-
4aa
^

-S'D(
oi a


iL
abi
.5 5 a
anC"


515 113, 767


o eq,


430
S


Species.


_________ I I- I**-------


9, 593 5, 926
7,190 2,386


450 14,198
500 8,845
502 10,750


92.20
89. 83
92.05


80. 98
74.44
45.97
63.66
51.58



50.07
82.89



92.89
53.28


74. 66
70. 24
70.81
74. 30
71.31
62.80



92.44
95. 89
92. 86
72.39
64.64
74.07
78.08
105. 55



78.32


52. 88
56.81


67.68
65.16
75.83
62. 35
70. 71
35.16
74.50
57.12
62.72
63.00
80.74


78.48
63.56


8, 553
10,603
6,895
7,497
5, 848



4, 400
9,474


5,851
6, 532
7,099


4, 875
3, 883
2, 484
3,131
2,575


BIGNONIACEe.

206 Catalpa bignonioides .............
207 Catalpa speciosa..................
208 Chilopsis saligna ................
VERBENACE2E.

210 Citharexylum villosnm ..........
NYCTAGINAGCEA.

212 Pisonia obtusata.............---...
POLYGONACEBA.

213 Coccoloba Floridana..............
LAURACEA.

215 Persea Carolinensis ..............
215 Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris
217 Sassafras officinale..............
218 Umbellularia Californica .........
EUPHORBIACEE.


2, 218 219 Drypetes crocea .................
5,009 219 Drypetes croce, var. latifolia.....


386
423
200
360
279


158
400



429
173


290
387
264
311
273
283


366
414
490
287
165
240
220
390



375


264
366


266
367
480
371
382
229
346
284
345
306
449


403
308


URTICACEE.

222 Ulmus crassifolia...............
223 Ulmus fulva.....................
224 Ulmus Americana ...............
225 Ulmrus racemosa................-
226 Ulmus alata ..................---
227 Planera aquatica................---
228 Celtis occidentalis ..........-.....
228 Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata .
229 Ficus aurea.......................
231 Ficus peduncolata..........-..--.
232 Morus rubra.................-----
234 Maclura aurantiaca.............-
PLATANACER.

235 Platanus occidentalia.............
236 Platanusracemosa ............
237 Platanus Wrightii................
JUGLANDACEA.

238 Juglans cinerea-.........-........
239 Jnglans nigra...................
240 Juglans rupetris ...............
241 Carya olivaformia ................
242 Carya alba--........... .........
243 Carya snicata................-----
244 Carya tomentosa..........-..--..--
245 Carya porcina ....................
246 Carya amara.....................
247 Carya myristiciformis ...........
248 Carya aquatic ...............----
MYRICACE&.

249 Myrica cerifera...........-...---.
250 Myrica Californica......-........
CUPULIFERE.

251 Quercus alba-..................-
252 Quercus lobata ...................
253 Quercus Garryana...............
254 Quercus obtusiloba ...............
255 Quercus undulata, var. Gambelii..
256 Quercus macrocarpa..............
257 Quercus lyrata.........------ ......
258 Quercus bicolor.................


44.57
41.48
58.79


86.75


60.31


93.40


63.81
63.73
50.38
64.92


86.44
88.65


71.59
69.77
64.54
72.20
74. 17
52.71
72.08
71.86
24.84
45. 07
58. 56
76. 01


56. 52
48.26
46.72


40. 60
60. 91
64.89
70. 99
83.11
80. 35
81. 29
81.36
74.74
79. 31
73.13


56. 08
66. 81


74.39
73.87
74.24
83.01
85. 38
74.06
82.59
76.18


257


(a CO
-a
B
43 03

0S
v A
Q^


6


|.9
d5
|1


0a,1 ')r-

ig ssa



Zon ga4
c&g pj
0 P4


682
822
544


1,257


465


1,136


839
849
519
1, 068


1,039
836


704
953
747
1, 006
523
552
685
868
257
407
824
944


864
624
457


812
1,092
727
666
1,390
1,039
1, 150
1,014
1,030
1, 465
1,013


888
992


971
717
811
833
571
929
1,334
906


400 11, 034


1,230
1,377
2, 304


4,927


1, 737


6,310


3,128
3, 073
2,144
3, 196


5, 797
6, 510


4,080
2, 39
2, 970
3,281
4,095
2,334
3, 472
4,373
980
1,905
2, 805
5, 804


2, 645
1,486
1,867


1,488
3,140
2, 909
3,714
4,344
4,609
4,429
4,82
3, 878
5,042
4,397


2,304
3,017


3,388
3.014
3,846
4, 416
4, 072
3,730
4, 033
3,534


392 I 12,337


340 10,410
302 8,324


7, 248
8, 628
7, 191
9,474
7, 001
6,305
6, 739
6, 985
2,597
4,491
6, 721
12, 939


7, 207
5,190
5,228


6,270
9, 178
6, 997
6, 951
10, 007
8, 939
9,485
9,232
8, 357
10, 206
7,776


7, 122
8,516


8,183
6,793
7,957
7, 790
6, 668
7,843
7,864
7,850


12,020 7,707
4,355 1,678



7, 802 3, 611
8,034 3,322
6,419 3,947
8, 025 3, 559
6,890 4,196
7,020 3,066


9,571 6,108
10,410 5,682
11,680 4,480
7,235 2,894
5,799 2,564
7,825 3,529
7,643 4,581
7, 360 6,001


8,045 5,192


6,140 2, 967
6,940 3,153


6,158 3,368
7,535 2,745
8,664 3,177
6,960 3, 272
7,711 3,521
4,014 2,209
7,980 3,322
8,320 2,653
6,766 3,106
6,418 2,717
8, 960 4, 206


9,197 4,702
6, 192 3, 663









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE OF AVERAGES-Continued.


Species.


Quercus Michauxii .............
Quercus Prinus .............---.--
Quercus prinoides ................
Quercus Douglasii .............
Quercusoblongifolia ..............
Quercus grisea....................
Quercus Durandii ...............
Quercus virens...................
Quercus chrysolepis..........
Quercus Emoryi .................
Quercus agrifolia ...............
Quercus Wislizeni. ..............
Quercus rubra ..................
Quercus rubra, var. Texana.......
Quercus coccinea ................
Quercus tinctoria................
Quercus Kelloggii ...............
Quercus nigra..................
Quercus falcata .................
Quercus Catesbzei ................
Quercus palustris................
Quercus aquatica ................
Quercus laurifolia................
Quercus heterophylla ............
Quercus cinerea..................
Quercus hypoleuca.............
Quercus imbricaria ..............
Quercus Phellos .................
Quercus densiflora...............
Castanopsis chrysophylla' .......
Castanea pumila ..................
Castaneavulgaris, var. Americana.
Fagus ferruginea ................
Ostrya Virginica.................
Carpinus Carolinana ..............

BETULACEE.

Betula alba, var. populifolia ......
Betula papyrifera.................
Betula occidentalis ...............
Betnla lutes .....................
Betula nigra............ .........
Betula lenta .....................
Alnnsrubra .....................
Alns rhombifolia ..............
Alnns oblongifolia .............

SALICACEE.

Salis amygdaloides ...............
Salixs lavigata...................
Salis lasiandra, var. lancifolia....
Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana..
Salil flaveseens...................
Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana.
Salix lasiolepis...................
Populus tremuloides..............
Populus grandideniatata ...........
Populous heterophylla............
Populous balsamifera ............
Populus balsamifera, var. candi-
cans.


ce
d
ag 0

P, ego
2- a-c

D
0,- 0 *
a. 1 .'
I '
-al Q-


80. 03
74.42
86. 09
88.53
97.60
99.10
91.00
93.93
84.43
90.44
81.47
77.75
65.28
90. 03
73. 91
70.10
64.18
72. 39
69.11
72.31
68. 82
72. 07
76.10
68.22
63.47
78.41
74.97
74.35
67.25
55. 55
58. 80
44.95
68.48
82.42
72.26




57.43
59.40
60.12
65.34
57.42
75. 97
47.93
41.14
39.65




44.68
48.44
45.73
45.12
53. 91
49. 39
55.32
40.10
46.11
40. 57
36.11
41. 42


964
1,255
1,125
771
857
740
837
1,136
1,198
688
953
861
1,137
1,033
1, 05
1,034
745
977
1,402
1, 635
1,123
1,227
1,259
1,225
751
944
1,193
784
964
1,012
1,141
856
1,210
1,373
1,149




730
1,306
924
1,618
1,113
1, 432
1,060
846
769




501
488
305
879
1, 262
1,085
888
814
963
723
857
730


322 Populns angustifolia............. 38.81 458
323 Popnlus trichocarpa .............. 37. 66 1,117


-A
5'6
Cd.


eg
.s05
S


-* 4. -.0

bb. 0 ,.

0I 0
0Te a a5' -
2.a~ .STZ
Ton Oill
<-;o n oort
P"'6"- M


7, 715
8, 615
9, 204
8,913
6,941
7,666
8,550
8,748
8,721
6,759
7,416
8,527
8,172
9, 310
8,074
8,012
7,184
7, 954
9,532
7,316
7,862
8,023
8,424
6,600
7,167
4,695
8,839
6,236
7,609
6, 959
7, 923
6,106
7,550
8, 669
7,069




5, 564
7,781
6, 260
9, 907
7,007
9, 907
6,644
5, 696
4,452




4,224
5,114

5, 457
7,484
6, 532
6,169
5,285
5,727
4, 527
5,126
4, 418


3, 725
3, 686
4,224
5,988
7,031
5,829
4,922
5,185
5, 079
6,646
3,770
4,362
2,825
4,665
3,224
3,243
2,783
4,582
3,223
3,646
3,040
3, 169
4,056
2,008
3,221
4,348
3,623
3,452
3,593
1, 912
1,887
1,698
3,145
3, 696
3,405




2,073
2, 083
2,459
2, 581
2,117
3, 615
1,870
1,257
1,189




1,294
1,8094
1,311
1,400
2, 019
1,581
2,241
1,281
994
1, 384
1,202
1,030


171 4,332 1 225
284 6,243 1,018


Species.


Populus monilifera ...............
Populus Fremontii ...............
Popnlus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni

CONIFER.E.

Libocedrus decnrrens ..........
Thuya occidentalis............
Thuya gigantea............ .....
Chamacyparis sphaeroidea........
Chamiecyparis Nutksensis......
Chamoecyparis Lawsoniana.......
Cupressus Goveniana.............
Juniperus occidentalis, var. conjn-
gens.
Juniporus Virginiana.............
Tasodium distichum................
Sequoia gigantea.................
Sequoia sempervirens............
Taxus brevifolia.................
Torreya taxifolia ..............
Torreya Californica...............
Pinus Strobus ....................
Pinus monticola ..................
Pinus Lambertiana...............
Pinus flexilis .....................
Pinus albicaulis .................
Pinus reflexa ....................
Pinus Parryana..................
Pinns edulis.....................
Pinus monophylla ...............
Pinus Balfonriana ..............
Pinns Balfonriana, var. aristata..
Pinns resinosa..................
Pinns Torreyana ...............
Pinns Arizonica .................
Pinus ponderosa ................
Pinns Jeffreyi ....................
Pinus Chinuahnana..............
Pinns contorta ..................
Pinus Murrayanna...............
Pinns Sabiniana ................
Pinns Coulteri...................
Pinus insignis ...................
Pinns tuberculata ................
Pinns Tada ......................
Pinns rigida -..................--
Pinus serotina..................--
Pins inops......................
Pinns clausa ....................
Pinns pnngens....................
Pinus mnricata .................
Pinus mitis .....................
Pinns glabra......... ............
Pinns Banksiana.................
Pinns palustris ...................
Pinns Cubensis..................
Picea nigr. ......................
Pice alba ..................
Picea Engelmanni ................
Picea pungens...................
Pices Sitchensia ..................
Tango Canadensis ................


38.53
48.77
45. 69



40.14
31.53
37.90
33.12
47. 66
46.16
46.68
68. 75

49.11
45.24
28. 67
42. 02
63.78
51. 08
46. 96
38.47
38. 99
36.76
43.42
41.54
48.65
56.44
63.49
56.20
54.17
55. 56
48.41
50. 62
50.28
46.99
50.53
54.37
58.04
40. 83
48.18
41.18
45. 60
34.88
54.27
51.39
79.29
52.93
55.09
49. 22
49.29
60. 86
39.13
47. 50
69. 82
74.83
45.71
40.38
33.38
37. 26
42. 80
42.20


0



I0 s





994
1, 051
843



847
533
1,034
404
1,029
1,217
499
734

670
1,032
451
676
761
821
401
851
950
794
676
512
913
378
421
435
594
715
1,132
542
824
887
925
726
1,585
771
585
1,141
979
429
1,128
581
1,170
543
543
803
1,194
1, 375
448
942
1,488
1,577
1,100
1,023
808
553
990
900


an

a





328
298
295



291
219
319
194
342
379
230
200


,903






7,197

4,149
7,281
7,454
5,742


6,750
6, 771






6, 210
6, 656
7,734
7, 464
5, 625



6, 210




5, 349
5,382
5, 591
5,296
7,825
5, 420
5, 579
4, 389
5, 398
5, 209
7,274
4, 548
6, 292
6, 037
6, 679
5, 398
8,868
5, 328
5, 387
5, 874
6, 680
4, 207
6, 834
5, 087
8, 079
5,765
6, 028
5, 670
8, 142
7, 628
4, 604
6, 329
10,074
10, 626
6, 520
5,489
4,271
4,128
5, 653
6, 142


. I I I I I I


Tanga Carolinians................. 42.58 713 197 6,450 1,996
Tanga Mertensiana ............... 51.61 1,375 388 8,747 1,622


258





1,327

1,382
1,007



1, 561
957
1,114
4, 46










2,376

1,166
1,382










1,242

4,223
, 561










1, 962
957









1,114
1,074
1,618
1,317
2,852
4,464

2, 376






1,716
1,091
1,242
4,223
2,523
1, 962
, 194
1,071
1, 244
1,727
1,716
,8502
3, 126
, 388
2, 713
2, 350
2, 140




1,353
2, 209
1,740

1,850


2,470
2, 382
1,379
2, 202
I, 475
1, 687
1,372
1, 714
2,123
4,740
2,496
2,100
1,842
1,950
2, 064
1,694
1, 600
2, 508
2,985
1,240
1,117
1,217
1,267
1,160
1. 314








259


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


TABLE OF AVERAGES-Continued.


Species.


Tsuga Pattoniana................
PseudotsugaDouglasii..........
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. ma.
crocarpa.
Abies Fraseri....................
Abies balsamea.................
Ables subalpina ................
Abies grandis .................
Abies concolor..................


5 Species.
a





398 Abies amabilis...................
399 Abics nobilis......................
400 Abies magnific .................
401 Larix Americana .................
402 Larix occidentalis ...............


PALMACEME.

405 Washingtonia filifera............


3 a

P-



42.18
45.46
46.87
62.16
74.00




50.75


^a


338
368
299
384
524


7, 480
7, 256
6, 963
8, 763
11, 023
11, 023


oa

0 00C





1,029
1,917
1,545
1,675
2, 395


The following table illustrates the relation between the specific gravity and the transverse strength of the
wood of species upon which a sufficient number of tests has been made to render such a comparison valuable. The
determinations of the specific gravity and transverse strength were, in every case, made upon the same specimen,
at the same time. The table is arranged according to the specific gravity of the specimens.
It will be noticed that the strength of the different specimens closely but not invariably follows their specific
gravity. An examination of Table III will show, however, that in nearly every case where any wide difference
occurs it is due to imperfections in the stick disproportionately affecting its strength. Moreover, in the case of
species where the specific gravity and strength of different specimens are nearly identical, their order of arrangement
becomes largely accidental. A slight difference in the time occupied in the strength tests, or slight variations in
the direction of the grain of the wood, may considerably affect the sequence in such a table:

TABLE ILLUSTRATING THE RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY IN THE WOOD
OF CERTAIN SPECIES.


Species.


Magnolia acuminata ................... ...........






Liriodendron Tnlipfera..............................


60 Acer macrophyllnm .................................




64 Acer saccharinum ...................................


64 Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum ......................


Species.


1 iJ 66 I Acer rnbrm ................... .......... ......


77 Robinia Psendacacia.................................







108 Prunus serotina .....................................















117 Pyrus coronaria ......... ........................


a
.A 2




1260
1277
662
1261
1658




563


8
3
1
Si





2
4
5
6
9
7
1
2
5
3
4
6

1
2
4
5
6
3
8

9
10 -
11
13
12
1
3


183 3, 633 2, 550








260


139 1


151


154


155


192


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ETC.-Continued.


*1 I ir..


Species.


]


0
Species. i 'l


o 'J

Pyrus coronarla-continued ......................----- 1088 3
1087 4

Liquidambar Styracifna.............................. 1173 1
1182 2
1182 3
1183 4
1173 5
1095 6
1181 7
1181 8
546 9
1095 10
546 11
1183 12

Corns florida.....................- .........-....... 1077 3
1077 4
1092 5
812 6
812 7
761 8
67 9
67 10

Nyssa sylvatic ................... .................. 750 1
835 2
750 3
833 4
833 5
834 6
834 7
813 8
813 9

Nyssa uniflora............................... ...... 128 1
128 2
604 3
604 4
550 5
550 6
Diospyros Virginiana..................... --- 425 1
1084 2
1162 3
811 4
1084 5
811 6
61 7
61 8

Fraxinus Americana..............---.-------..... 1045 1
1045 2
1143 3
937 4
2272 5
130 6
431 7
1144 8
2271 9
392 10
212 11
212 I 12
747 13
551 14
227 15
267 16
747 17
S551 18
1145 19
114 20
114 21
Fraxinus viridis..................................... 949 1


217 Sassafras offoinale......................... ......


223 Ulmus fulva............................-...........

224 Ulmus Americana................. ...........-.---


225 I Ulmus racemosa........................ ..-. ....----


228 Celtis ocoidentalis...................................


232 Morus rubra..........................---- ...---- --


238 Juglans cinerea ...........................-----


2 194 Fraxinus viridis-continued..............-- ..


196 I Fraxinus quadrangulata ..... .................--- -----


948
957
438
57
957
308
308
66
68
2861
518
2862
291
125
125
814
814
71
854
854
446
387
71
387
131
134
533
533
1049
19
19
1036
1036
958
281
281
958
116
314
314
1165
428
1163
116
873
873
1111
306
306
1111
75
75
132
1255
132
1255
1244
1245
1246
1057
762
16
16
76
76
123
393


4
1
3
7
5
6
8
3
2
1
5
6
4
8
7
6
4
1
7

8
5
3
2
9
1
2
6
4
2

3

11
10
7
8
9
5
1
2
5
3
7
4
6
5
4
1
6
7
2
3
8
1
4
2
6
3
5
7
1
2
7
4
5
3
6
8


184









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ETC.-Continued.


-I


Species.


239 Juglans nigra.......................................


242 Caryaalba....... .......................


243 Carya salcata........ ......................


245 Carya porcina.................................


248 Carya aquatic .......................................


251 Querous alba............. .....................


951
951
766
766
318
325
407
117
117
292
539
531
531
1056
1056
3
1097
249
118
249
118
3
816
539
816
383
1082
391
1166
391
1082
1164
1170
1165
88
88
1168
1168
442
538
6
6
121
740
740
362
362
129
917
1257
749
547
547
1257
8
1050
749
259
238
748
32
1050
49
250
895
238
250


Species.


251 Quercus alba-continued .............................


253 Querous Garryana..................................


254 Qnercus obtusiloba.................................








256 Querous macrocarpa...............................


257 Quercus lyrata.......................................




258 Qaercus bicolor......................................






259 Quercus Michanxii ..................................







260 Quercus Prinus..................................


Quereus prinoide8 ....................................


261


" ------~-


- 1


---


951
951
766
766
318
325
4O7
117
117
29'
539
531
531
1056
1056
3
1097
249
118
249
118
3
816
539


491 19
0












4D3 21
492 22
8 23

403 24
895 25
o pc

451 19




2593 20
493 21
492 22
8 23


403 24
895 25




251 29
322 30
1132 31
49 32
443 33
32s 34
113 35
985 1
1027 2
985 3
988 4
1027 5
1029 6
988 7
1029 8
771 1
771 i
256 3
151 4
151 5
351 6
351 7
137 1
310 2
1071 3
310 4
143 5
933 6
1073 7
1072 8
933 9
79 10
432 11
831 12
79 13
545 1
762 2
762 3
545 4
54 1
846 2
846 3
542 4
54 5
755 1
755 2
240 3
240 4
524 5
524 6
35 1
925 2
31 3
925 4
31 5
434 6
273 1
287 2


15
21
17
24
25
28
29
4
31
33
26
20
34
22
35
22
31
1
6
3
2
7
4
5
8
5
7
3
1
2
4
4
1
8
5
10
13
12
6
7
11
3
9
4
2
1
2
3
4
1
5
4
2
3
3
1
5
6
4
2
1
3
5
4
2
6
2
4








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ETC.-Continued.


Species.


- I I _________I- I II I


261 Quercus prinoides-continued......................




267 Quercus virens ......................................-








272 Quercus rubra.................................----.






















274 Quercus tintorla.....................................















277 Quercus falcata.....................................









280 Quercus aquatica ....................................











290 Castanea vulgaris, var.Americana....................




291 Fagus ferruginea.....................................


514
342
514
34
404
954
954
799
919
799
919
1043
146
1043
217
215
218
7
7
140
215
92
452
141
920
920
451
452
74
363
362
86
36
247
17
247
437
17
244
444
548
265
548
131
131
265
245
245
742
511
742
511
349
349
2641
2042
2643
18
258
516
18
119
9
853
9
853
119


Species.


291 Fagus ferrginea-continued........................




295 Betula papyrifera....................................


297 Betula ltea .........................................


298 Betulanigrm ..........................................


301 Alnus rubra ........................................


324 Populus monilifera ..................................


325 1 Populnus remontii, var. Wislizent....................


327 Thuyaoocidentalls ..............................


Chamaecyparis spheroidea...........................


262


----


I


765 7
765 8
443 9
442 10
836 1
1065 2
1065 3
1067 4
722 5
990 6
1066 7
1066 8
990 9
1067 10
722 11
843 1
843 2
1068 4
1069 5
1070 3
1068 6
1069 7
1070 8
842 1
841 2
841 3
842 4
136 5
136 6
991 1
991 2
1025 3
967 4
967 5
1025 6
309 1
754 2
754 3
309 1
304 5
304 6
912 1
646 2
646 3
909 4
912 5
909 6
1099 1
874 2
874 3
782 4
1099 5
783 6
783 7
790 8
790 9
379 10
379 11
792 12
793 13
350 1
850 2
850 3
851 4
851 5
852 6
350 7


7
10
8
1
2
4
3
5
9
6
7
11
10
8
2
8
7
6
4
5.
1
3
5
4
2
6
1
3
4
3
1
5
6
2
3
2
1
3
5
6
5
2
4
1
6
3
2
1
5
7
3
8
10
4
6
9
11
12
13
7
3
1
4
2
5
6








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ETC.-Continued.


Species.



I 0 ;

330 Chamecyparis Nutkaensis--........................ 969 1
983 2
1000 3
983 4
1000 5
994 6
994 7
969 8
330 Juniperus Virginiana................................ 1249 1
1250 2
734 3
800 4
800 5
327 6
327 7
342 Sequoia sempervirens............................. 711 1
710 2
711 3
713 4
713 5
712 6
712 7
347 Pinus Strobus ..................................... 222 1
1044 2
797 3
1 4
788 5
788 6
797 7
1044 8
789 9
789 10
777 11
358 Pinus resinosa......................................... 315 1
315 2
1076 3
1076 4
785 5
1074 6
1075 7
785 8
361 Pinus ponderosa..................................... 632 1
910 2
907 3
689 4
619 5
630 6
731 7
626 8
718 9
630 10
718 11
636 12
370 Pinus Trda ................................ ........ 82 1
355 2
355 3
388 4
389 5
388 6
389 7
373 Pinus inops ........................................ 1172 1
1172 2
1169 3
1169 4
622 5
021 6
378 Pinnsglabra.......................................... 764 1


Species.


5 378 Pinns glabra-continued.............................


379 Pinus Banksiana .....................................


380 Pinus palstris......................................


381 Pinns Cubensis......................................


382 Picea nigra.........................................


383 Picea alba...........................................


Picea Sitcheis ....................................











Tsuga Canadensis ...................................


263


764 2
142 3
a *4



764 2
142 3
142 4
544 5
544 6
780 1
879 2
394 3
394 4
879 5
780 6
81 1
358 2
559 3
358 4
357 5
81 6
359 7
360 8
361 9
361 10
360 11
243 12
243 13
385 14
390 15
357 16
85 17
384 18
390 19
85 20
384 21
493 1
493 2
356 3
356 4
84 5
84 6
231 1
231 2
776 3
880 4
770 5
373 6
880 7
794 8
794 9
513 1
773 2
773 3
784 4
513 5
784 6
791 7
970 1
970 2
1013 3
977 4
1026 5
977 6
1020 7
1019 8
1019 9
793 1
793 2
772 3
772 4


2
4

6

5
1
2

a
4
6
5
1
7
2


1
10
11
4
8
5
13
9
6
18
15
12
19
16
17
20
21
6
4
2
1

5
1
2
3
4
9
7
8
5
6
6
3

5
4
8
2
3
2

1
4
8
5
9
6
7
6
2
1
3








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ETC.-Continned.


Species.




Tauga Canadensis-continued........................

















Pseudotanga Donglasii ...........................








a I


Species.


0
1040
1040
1040
775
787
787
5
219
775
1042
1042
5
817
219
817
778
778
708
708
704
1018
1018
1016
989
1016
705
627
881
881
1008
706
720
1011
627
720
1011
974
732
732
973
973


8



0 PI
o p
I) *
0 )


GENERAL REMARKS.

An examination of the results obtained from the various tests made upon the woods of North America indicate
at least the important fact that within the limits of any species the weight and strength of any specimen of wood
depends upon the actual proportion of the space occupied in the layers of annual growth with open ducts to the
space occupied with compact, woody tissue, and to the size of these ducts; or in the case of the wood of
Coniferae, the proportion of space occupied with cells formed early in the season to that occupied with the smaller
cells of the summer growth. The proportion between these two kinds of growth varies not only in every individual
tree, but in different parts of the same tree. The causes which thus affect the growth of wood are not very
apparent. It is not soil, nor age, nor general climatic conditions, it appears, which produce the different proportion
between the solid and the light portions of the annual growth in any species, because in the same individual this
proportion is found to vary from year to year. It varies very irregularly; nor does the rapidity of growth, as has
been supposed, greatly affect the strength of wood, because the proportion of open to compact growth is little
affected by rapid or slow increase of the tree's diameter. How far annual climatic variations affect the nature of
the annual layers of growth has not been demonstrated, although it is not impossible that in years in which
conditions favorable to rapid growth are extended late into the season, the proportion of the annual layer occupied
by open, weak growth to the growth of the whole year would be greater than that formed in a year during which
the season favorable for rapid growth was less extended.
It follows that while such experiments as those conducted by Mr. Sharples are necessary to establish
maximum and relative values for any species, these being established, actual values of any given specimen of


264


Psendotsuga Douglasii-continued ...............


394 Abies subalpina .................................






396 Abies concolor.....................................






401 Larix Americana ..................................













402 Larix occidentalis .................................








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


265


wood may be determined by microscopic examination of its structure; that is, two specimens of the wood of any
species to which the census tests have been applied being given, their relative values can be determined by an
examination of their structure as well as or better than by any elaborate experiments.


TANNIN VALUES.


The amount of tannin contained in the bark of various trees of the United States has been determined.
These determinations give the proportion of tannin. They do not indicate the real value of the bark of the
species for tanning, which can only be obtained by actual experiments made on a large scale, other properties in
the bark, beside the percentage of tannin, affecting the value of the leather prepared with it.
These determinations must therefore be regarded as approximations, which will serve, in some cases, to
indicate species not now in general use for this purpose, which may be looked to as possible sources of tannin
supply.
The methods adopted by Mr. Sharples in making these determinations are described by him as follows:
The tannin in each case was determined in the crossed bark; that is, bark deprived of the main part of the outside coating. The
method employed was that devised by Lowenthal, which may be thus briefly described: A standard decoction of the bark is titrated
with permanganate of potash, a quantity of indigo being first added to it. In a second portion the tannin is precipitated by means of
gelatine, and the gallic acid in the liquid again determined by permanganate and indigo. The difference between these two readings
gives the amount of tannin in the bark, the value of the permanganate having previously been determined by pure tannic acid, or by
oxalic acid and calculation.
The bark of the following species has been examined:


Botanical name.


14 Gordenia Lasianthus .........
93 Prosopisjuliflora --.............--

140 Rhizophora Mangle...........
160 Exostemma Caribenum........
251 Quercus alba .......----..........
256 Quercus macrocarpa..........

260 Quercus Prinus ..............

261 Quercus prinoides (oldtree)...

261 Querous prinoides (young tree)
267 Quercus virens ...............
269 Quercus Emoryi..............
272 Quercus rbra................
274 Quercus tinctoria............


Common name.





Loblolly Bay. Tan Bay......
Mesquit. Algaroba. Honey
Locust. Honey Pod.
Mangrove ....................

White Oak .................
Burr Oak. Mossy-cup Oak.
Over-cup Oak.
Chestnut Oak. Rock Chest-
nut Oak.
Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak.
Chinquapin Oak.
......do ...... ... ........
Live Oak...................
Black Oak....................
Red Oak. Black Oak........
Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak.
Quercitron Oak. YellowOak.


13.14
4.04

31.04
5.81
5.99
4.59

6.25

4.33

10.33
10.46&
9.76
4.56
5.90


Botanical name.


Common name.


-I. _____


Quercus Kelloggii ...........
Quercus nigra ...............
Quercus falcata...............
Quercus densiflora...........

Castaneavulgaris, var. Ameri-
cana.
Picea nigra...................
Picea Engelmanni ...........
Picea Engelmanni ............
Picea Engelmanni ............
Tsuga Canadensis ..........
Tsuga Mertensiana...........
Tsuga Mertensiana...........
Tsuga Pattoniana ............
Pseudotsuga Douglasii.......


Black Oak.................... 6.76
Black Jack. Jack Oak....... 4.36
Spanish Oak. Red Oak....... 8.59
TanbarkOak. Chestnut Oak. 16.46
Peach Oak.
Chestnut ..................... 6.25

BlackSpruce................... 7.20
White Spruce................. 20.56


....do ............. ...........
....do ................------...
Hemlock -----------_------
Hemlock .....................
....do .........................
....do ......... ............ .....

Red Fir. Yellow Fir. Ore-
gon Pine. Douglas Fir.


17.01 2.32
12.60 0.75
13.11 1.31
14.42 1.44
15.87 1.49
15.72 2.48
13.79 1.56








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


MAGNOLIACEAE.

1. Magnolia grandiflora ..................
Big Laurel. Bull Bay.

2. Magnolia glanca....... ............
Sweet Bay. White Bay. Bearer Tree.
White Laurel. Swamp Laurel.
3. Magnolia acuminata...................
Cucumber Tree. Mountain Magnolia.












4. Magnolia cordata.....................
Cucumber Tree.

5. Magnolia macrophylla..................
Large-leaved Cucumber Tree.






6. Magnolia Umbrella.....................
Umbrella Tree. Elk Wood.








7. Magnolia Fraseri ........................
Long-leaved Cucumber Tree.








8. Liriodendron Tolipifera.............
Tulip Tree. Yellow Poplar. White Wood.






















ANONACE2IE.

9. Asimina triloba.....................
Papaw. Custard Apple.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Alabama ......... Cottage Hill........ C.Mohr.............


Soil.






Rich loam ........


....do ................do ............ ....do ............. Swampy.......--.


246 Virginia.......... Wytheville ........

2611 ....do ............. Fancy Gap ........

2612 ....do .................do ...............

2613 ....do ................do ...............

534 Mississippi ....... Salvers' mill........


H. Shriver..........

....do ....... ....

....do ...............

....do ..............

C. Mohr..............


Clay limestone...

Rich, light........

....do ............

....do ............

....do ............


1178 Alabama.......... Winston county .... C.Mohri............................... .. ..............


22 North Carolina... Statesville.......... M.E. Hyams........ Rich ............. 0.050 18 ....

532 Mississippi....--- Quitman............ C.Mohr............ Rich, low......... .............. ...


Virginia ..........

....do .............

....do .............


Wytheville .........


H. Shriver ..............


....do ...................do............... ..... ..

....do ....................do .... ........... ..... ...........


260|1 ....do ............. Fancy Gap .............do............... Damp ............


2602 ....do ............. ...do ..................do ....... do...........o .............. ... ........

2603 ....do ...................... ..do ....... ........ do .................do ................. ....... ............


Michigan.........

Ohio..............

Tennessee ........

Ohio.............

.. do ............

...do -------------
...do .............

Michigan........

West Virginia....

Pennsylvania .....

...do ......... ...


Dansville ...........

D.E.McSherry&Co.

Woodsum Machine
Company.
Barney & Smith.
manufacturing Co.
D.E.McSherry &Co.

J. W. Stoddard &Co.

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Lansing .........

Grafton.............

Chester county .....

....do ...............


W. J. Beal ..........

E.E. Barney.......

....do ...............

....do ...............

....do ...............

.... do ...............

....do ...............

W. J. Beal........

C. G. Pringle........

P. P. Sharples.......

.... do ...............


Sandy ............


Missouri....... Meranec river, Jef- G. W. Letterman .. Alluvial ..........
ferson county.
Tennessee ........ Cumberland river .. A. Gattinger........ ....do ...........





Florida........... Bay Biscayne....... A. H. Curtiss ....... Swampy..........


10. Anona laurifolia... ......
Pond Apple.


266


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.




116 ........


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.





0.372


0.268










0.198


01










26


14


8


0.072









0.085


15









20


I _


I


47


0.240








267


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0. 6040


0. 5034


0.5012

0.4399

0.4562

0.4215

0.5005





0.4095


0.5375

0.5468





0.3787

0. 5067

0.4606





0.5430

0.4976

0.4602





0.3843

0.3831

0.3798

0.4475

0.4512

0.4362

0.4436

0.3774

0.4763

0.4444

0. 4199






0.3549

0.4259





0.4912


Second.


Third.


Average.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.


Second.


Average.


-I I' 1~ II-- 1-- -1 *II


0. 6680


0. 5037


0.5413






0.5058





0.4184


0.4859

0.5534


-------..----

0.3783

0.3787

0.4361

0.4442

0.4150

0.4551


0.4822

0.4409

0.4712


0.3810 ............

............|............


0.5199


0.4101


0.5048


0.6360


0.5035


0.5213

0.4399

0.4562

0.4215

0. 5061


0.4690


0.4139

0.5117

0.5501


0. 5309


0.3787

0.5067

0.4606


0.4487


0.5430

0.4976

0.4602


0. 5003


0.3843

0.3807

0.3792

0.4418

0.4477

0.4256

0.4493

0.3774

0.4793

0.4427

0.4455


0.4230



0.3679

0.4259


0.3969


0.5053


0.65


0.53


0.26






0.33





0.30



0.34


0.27

0.22

0.15

0.19

0.21

0.30

0.31

0.29

0.22

0.16






0.14

0.30





4.79


0.53


0.47


0.27

0.25

0.30

0.30

0.34


0.29


0.32


0.32

0.39


0.35


0.19

0.18

0.24


0.20


0.25

0.27

0.33


0.28


0.25

0.27

0.21

0.16

0.19

0.19

0.27

0.32

0.28

0.21

0.18


0.23


Weight, perl
cubic foot,
inpounds
(average).


39. 63


31. 38


---.---------


............


............


29.23


25.79






33.09




------------




27.96








31. 18
------------


Remarks.


Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood ...............


. ......................................... ..... -.......-- .. ......

. ......................... .... ............... ... ....... ...- .... 26811

................................................ .................. 261

.................................................................. 261a

...................--------- ----- -- --------- ------ -------- --.-- 534





Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; fourth sp. gr. 1178
determination, 0.4175.

All sap-wood.................. .......................... 22

.................................................- ................. 532





Growth rapid...................-................ .-............ 266'

Growth rapid; 0.5 sap-wood ................................ 2 266'

Growth rapid; all sap-wood ....................-..--............. 266s





All sap-wood ....................... ................... 260'

...... -............................ .............................. 260'

All sap-wood ................................................... 260





.....................- ....--........--................................. 138

Yellow poplar ........ ......... .................---- --....... 165

Yellow poplar (soft) .. ...................------.------------- 174

Hard poplar .................. ..... ..--. .----.--------- ... 177

Hard poplar ........-............... --..................... 178

Yellow poplar .........................-.....--- ------. ------. 187

.. ..... ................. .188

..........................--...........- ..........- ............... 395

..... .. .... .............. ... 818

White poplar ........................................-------------- 1231

Yellow poplar ................................................--1232






...... ............ ...... ....... .. .......... 211

.................................................................. 332





.................................................................. 479









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.




CAPPARIDACEE.

11. Capparis Jamaicensis...... ............





CANELLACE2 .

12. Canella alba .......... ..................
White Wood. Cinnamon Bark. Wild
Cinnamon.



TERNSTRCEMIACEA.

it. Gordonia Lasianthus ...................
Loblolly Bay. Tan Bay.




STERCULIACEE.

16. Fremontia Californica.................
Slippery Elm.

TILIACEA.

17. Tilia Americana.....................
LimeTree. Bass Wood. American Lin-
den. Lin. Bee Tree.












17. Tilia Americana, var. pubescens ........



18. Tilia heterophylla ..................
White Bass Wood. Wahoo.








MALPIGHIACE2a.

19. Byrsonima cida.....................
Tallowberry. Glamberry.








ZYGOPHYLLACEIE.

20. Gnaiacum sanctum .....................
Lignum-ritec.








21. Porliera angustifoa ...................

RUTACEE.

22. Xanthoxylum Americanum ............
Prickly Ash. Toothache Tree.


State.


Florida ...........

....do .............


Locality.


Upper Metacombe

.-..do ..............


Collector.


. Ii i-I


A. H. Curtiss.......

...do ...............


Coral ............. 0.098 34

....do .............................


499 ....do ............. Umbrella Key .........do ..................do .............

1131 .--...do ............. Elliott's Key...........do ................ ..do ...........


South Carolina.... Bonnean's Depot ... H. W. Ravenel ..... Wet pine-barren.....................

....do ............. Aiken ................do ............ Swampy......... 0.330 22 25


California ........ San Bernardino C. G. Pringle .....................................
mountains.


Massachusetts....

Michigan .........

Missouri..........

Michigan .........

Massachusetts....


Arnold Arboretum..

Big Rapids ........

Allenton...........

Hersey ............

Danver ............


C. S. Sargent.......

W. J.Beal.........

G. W. Letterman...

W. J. Beal..........

J. Robinson ......


Drift.............

Gravelly..........

Alluvial ..........

Rich loam ........

Moist gravel......


Georgia............ Bainbridge ........ AH. Curtiss....... Low.............


Kentucky ........

....do .............

.. do .............

Tennessee ........





Florida...........

... do ............

...do ............

...do ............





....do .............

....do .............

....do .............


CliffsKentuckyriverl W. M. Linney...... Limestone..............


Mercer county......

....do ...............

Cumberland river ..





Boca Chica Key ...-

No-Name Key ......

Boca Chica Key ....


....do ...............

.... do ...............

A. Gattinger .......





A. H. Curtiss.......

....do .............

....do ...............


....do .............

....do .............

Alluvial .........





Coral ............

...do........

.... do .............


No-NameKey ..........do ...............I....do ............. .......... .......


Uneer Metacombe

y.liott's
Elliott's Key........


....do ..............

Department of Ag-
riculture.
A. H. Curtids .......


....do .............



Coral .............


947 Texas ............ San Antonio....... C. Mohr ............ Limestone ........


80 Missouri.......... Allenten............ G.W.Letterman:... Alluvial ..........

392 Michigan......... Lansing ............ W. J. Beal ..............do .............


268


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


14


0.470



0.270



0.330






0.300


0



3



2






23


21


19


26



73

.....5..

35


12


55


0.080



0.074


18









31


0.178









0.056



0.087

0.060


- --- ----








269


-THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION.



First. Second. Third. Average.


0.6609

0.7315


0.9593 ...........

1.0017 ...........





0.4659 ..........

0.5255 ............





0.7288 ............


0.9570

1.0390





0.3852

0.5146





0.6995



0.4626

0.3815

0. 5035

0.5166

0.4272





S0.4103

0.4087


0.4927

0.3791

0.3074

0.4095





0. 5257

0.5909

0.5081

0.6009





1.1845

1.2736

1.0997





1.1280


0.6122

0.5235


...---..-----

............

............

............

0.4362


0.6743

0.5875







0.9563


1.0652


1. 0843 1.1230


0.5969 ......

0.5200 ......


0.6690

0.7272


ASH DETERMINATIONS.



first. ISecond. Average.


i----I


-II --1~---


5.68

3.85


4.76


0.95 0.85

2.65 2.66


0.6649

.0.7293


0.6971


0. 9582

1.0203


0.9893


0. 4255

0.5201


0.4728


0.7142



0.4074

0.3815

0.4706

0.5166

0.4266


0.4525



0.4074



0.4927

0.3791

0.3674

0.4620


0. 4253


0.5308

0. 6478

0. 5782

0.5987


0.5888


1.1196

1.2218

1. 0882


1.1432


1.1101


0. 6045

0.5262


0.5654


1.75


0.47

1.05


0.76


1.69



0.31

0.35

1.02

0.60

0.45


0.55


0. 68 0. 07 0
S0.62 0.64 6


0.45

0.67

0.86

0.48





2.84

2. 40

2.75

1.94





0.87

0.51

0.86





0.53


0.60

0.54


0.53





2.85

L94

2.56

2.40





0.92

0.81

0.94





0.49


0.58

0.55


0.45

0.67

0.86

0.50


0.62


2.85

2.17

2.65

2.17


2.46


0.90

0.66

0.90


0.82


0.51


0.59

0.54


0.57


Weight.pez
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


43.44


61.65


Remarks.


All sap-wood ................................................ 499

0.5 sap-wood ................................................ 1131





...... ...........--.......................---..................-----------.... 236

...................................................-----.......--.-- 414
414


44.51 ............- .....--------- ---- ----... ---------------------------- 1280



........ ........................ ...---..--......-..----------------.................-- 2

............................................. .. ----.-.... 124

....... ... ............. -........--.- .........--- ..-- .--- -------- 252
124
252


....... All sap-wood ...-..........-----....----..............------ .. 316
......... ..... .........- - -- -........ 1039


28.20


25.39 Growth very rapid .................. .................---------- 745


26. 51










36.69









71.24


Second growth.. ................. .....................
..................... ----.-------------... -------. -------- -- -- -- -----





















0.5 sap-wood........ ..................--........

Second sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood ............

0.66 sap-wood ............. .....-- .................--


69. 18 Sap-wood ........... -------------...............------.....--- 947


35.23


.. . i . .. . .. .. ii........ .i i ii .-. -.. ---. --... ---. I

................. .------ .-------- .- -- -----. --- -. 3092
80

802


0.44

1.08





1.86



0.33

0.38

1.08

0.64

0.48


0.4722


0.4378


0.4163





0.3885

0. 4220







0.4545





0. 5360

0. 6783

0.5791

0.5964





1.2180

1.1700

1. 0998


I









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


23. Xanthoxylunm Clava-Herculis............
Toothache Tree. Prickly Ash. Sea Ash.
Pepper Wood. Wild Orange.





23. Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, var. frn-
ticosum ...........................


24. Xanthoxylum Caribenm ................
Satin Wood.






25. Xanthoxylum Pterota ...................
Wild Lime.







26. Pteliatrifoliata.....................
Hop Tree. Shrubby Trefoil. Wafer
Ash.
27. Canotia holocantha.....................


SIMARUBEA.
28. Simaruba glance ......................
Paradise Tree.


BURSERACECE.
29. Bursera gummifera.....................
Gum Elemi. Gumbo Limbo. West In-
dian Birch.





30. A rnyis sylvatica.......................
Torch stood.

MELIACELE.
81. Swietenia Mahogoni....................
Mahogany. Madeira.


OLACINEE.
82. Ximenia Americana .....................
Wild Lime. Tallow Rut. Hog Plum.
Mountain Plum.


ILICINEES.
33. lex opaca..........................
American Holly.






34. Ilex Dahoon ................... ...
Dahoon. Dahoon Holly.

34. Ilex Dahoon, var. myrtiflia.............


State.


Locality.


____________I -


Florida...........

Georgia ..........
Texas ...........


Chattahoochee......
Cumberland island.
Palestine...........


Collector.


. H. Curtiss .......

....do ...............

C.Mohr ............


Austin.............. ....do .............


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
of tree,
in
meters. Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


Dry, sandy ....... ....................
.................... I.......... .. .. -----


Damp, sandy.....





Dry, calcareous...


0.352


0. 008


Florida ........... Bahia Honda Key.. A.H. Curtiss ....... Coral.........................
....do ..-.......-..... do ............ ...do ................do ............. 0.136 4


...do .............
Texas ...........

Florida...........


Bay Biscayne.......

Matagorda bay......
Bay Biscayne .......


A. H. Curtiss .......
C. Mohr ............

A. H. Curtiss .......


Coral.............

Calcareous........
Coral.............


768 ....do ............. Aspalaga..-.......-...do.................. Calcareous........


0.84





0.94


13





23


54








31


1228 Arizona .......... Wickenburg....... C. G.Pringle........ I................. ...... ...............


Florida ........... Bay Biscayne....... H. Curtiss ....... Coral ............. ....


....do ............. Upper Metacombe ....do ...................do ................
..do ............................... Department of Ag- ........... .......... ...........
ncnlture.


....do ............. Up er Metacombe A. HCurtiss ..... Coral ............
Key.


....do ....................do ..........


....do .................do .................do ............... ....do ............. 0.112 3 43
....do ............. Umbrella Key ...... ...do ....................do ............. ...................


South Carolina.... Waverly Mills...... W. St. J. Mazyk ...


....do ............ .. .................... Department of Ag- ....................
rioulture.


Sandyloam.......


0.144 35 ........
......... .. .. .....


270


_ ___


....do .............


....do ...............








271


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GIAYITY DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Third. Average.


0.5139

0.4880

0.5392





0.6139


0. 5002

0.4772

0.5153


0.5733 I 0.6030


0.8598 0.8965 ............

0.9090 0.9275 0.9302


0.7480

0.5807

0.9C00





0.8238


0. 6464



0.4100





0.2677

0,2823


0.7666

0.5775

0.8949


0.8400 ............


0.7305 ............



0.4172 ............


0. 8955


0. 5070

0. 4826

0. 5272


0.5056


0.5967


0. 8782

0.9222


0.9002


0.7573

0.5791

0. 8968
]-----

0.7444


0. 8319


0.6885



0.4136


0.2488 0.2587 0.2584

0.4022 ............ 0.3423


1.0469 1.0450


0.7464


0.7047


0.8799 0.8925 ...........
0.9838 0.9505 0. 929n


0.6046

0.5524





0.4791


0.5880


0.6624 ............

0.5078 ............


0.4820


0.5860


0.3003


1.0459





0.7282





0.8862

0.9531


0. 9196


0.6335

0.5301


0.5818


0.4806


0.5873


ASH DETERMINATIONB.



First. Second. Average.


0.91

0.65

0.84


0.76 0.76


1. 59 2. 01

2.34 2.15


1.00

0.59

0.89


0.84 1 0.27


6.13


4.54


0.91

0.07

0.87


0.82


0.76


1.80

2.25


2.02


0.95

0.61

0.79


0.78


0.30


5.33


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


31.51


Remarks.


37.19 .................................................................. 938


........ .................................................................. 1109

......................................................................... 1140


56.10









46.39


51.84


42.91 ....................... ........................... 1228


0.93 1 0.92 I 0.93 11 25.78 I.......... ..... ...... ................................--.- 487


0.55 0.69

0.84 0.82-





0.71 0.55

1.04 0.71





0.94 0.88


0.05 0.84


1.98

2.09


2.04


0.59





1.09





0.62

0.83


0.73


0.63

0.88


0.76


18.71


65. 18 ................................................................. 475


45.38 .................................................................. 452





........ ............................................................... 472

........ 0.5 sap-wood.................................................... 1134


57.31


36.26


0.91 1 29.95 ..................................................... 484


0.90


36.00


.................... ................. ....................... 8so


0.7335


-.....- .... . .................................. ..... ................... 462

............I.................................................................. 903


... .. ............................................... 280

........ .................... ... .... .. ........... 902


. .......................................


...... ... ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... - .. ...







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.





35. Ilex Cassine .............................
Oassena. Yauvon. Yopon.







38 Iex decidna ...........................








CYRILLACEH .
37. Cyrilla racemiflora ..... ...........
Iron Wood.






38. Cllftonia ligustrina ..................
Tli. Iron Wood. Buckwheat ree.



CELASTRACEA.
30. Euonymus atropurpureus...........
Burning Bush. Wahoo. Spindle Tree.
Arrow Wood.





40. Myginda pallens ........................


41. Schmfferia frtesens............
Yellow Wood. Boz Wood.




RHAMNACEA.
42. Reynosia latifolia...................
Bed Iron Wood. Darling Plum.

43. Condalia ferrea..-...................
Black Iron Wood.

44. Condaliaobovata ............ ...... I
Blue Wood. Logwood. Purple aw.

45. Rbamnus Caroliniana..................
Indian Cherry











46. Rhamnus Californica ....................


47. Rhamnus Purshiana ..................
Bearberry. Bear Wood. Shittim
Wood.
48. Ceanothtshyrsiflors. .................
Blue M.yrtle.


n State.

0
o



345 Alabama.........
804 Florida ..........
952 Texas ...........





56 Missouri.........
335 Texas ..........
753 Florida...........
945 Texas ............





341 Alabama..........
615 Georgia...........





338 Alabama..........





63 Missouri..........
1078 ....do .............





L188 Florida..........


478 ....do............
L201 ....do .............





454 ....do .............


Allenton...........
Dallas ............
Chattahoochee river
New Braunfels......


G. W. Letterman....
J. Reverchon .......
A. H. Curtiss ......
C.Mohr............


Low, damp........
Upland ...........
Clay..............
Alluvial ..........


0.086
..........


33


Chunchula..............do .............. Damp, sandy..- 0.195 .............

Ogeechee river...... H. Curtiss ....... Low .................... ........


Cottage Hill........





Allenton............
....do ...............


C. Mohr ........... Wet .............





G. W. Letterman ... Alluvial ..........
...do ........ ... ..... do ...........


Umbrella Key ...... A.H. Curtiss ......


Upper Metacombe ....do ..............
Key.
...do ..................do ..............





....do ............- ....do ...............


0.194


0.092 22 ...


Calcareous........ ............. ........


Coral ............. 0.110 71 ..
....do ....................... .... .. .


460 ... do ............. ....do ............... ...do ............... ...do ..--- .....


941 Texas ............ New Braunfols ..... C. Mohr ........... Dry, calcareous...


Missouri.......
Tennessee ........
Florida ...........


Allenton ............
Nashville...........
Saint John's river ..


Arkansas ......... Jonesboro'.......... T. B. Kitchens


California........ Santa Cruz mount-
alms.

Oregon ........... Portland...........


California ........ SantaCruz..........


22 56


G. W. Letterman. Limeston................ .... .......
A. Gattinger............do ...... ......................
A. H. Curtiss .......I Rich hummock ... 0.108 19 10


C. G. Pringle.......................


G. Engelmann and Rich, alluvial....
C. S. Sargent.

C. L. Anderson... ..................


0.059


.........

0.090


11 ........


272


.








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


ASH DETERMINATIOKS.- per
Weight, per


______ ______- _____ -______Ii____ -____ -I lliUUICIU0 t


First.


).7257

0.6890

0.7475





0.7976

0.7888

0.5010

0.7000





0.7147

0.6818





0.6350


Second. Third. A average.


0.7185

0.7191

0.7619


0.5861

0.7894


0.6563 ............

0.6608 ............


0.6147


0.6240 ........................

0.0868 0.7018 .....


0.9057



0.7487

0.7912





1.0605


1.3020


1.2049


0.5954

0.5040

0.4971

S0.4894

0.4789


0.9039



0.7728

0.7850


1.0825 ............


1.3020 ............


1.1949 ............


0.5962

0.5301

0.4720

0. 4825 )


0. 7039
0.7930


0. 000 I......................


0.7221

0.7041

0.7547


0.7270


0.7076

0.7888

0.5885

0.7931


0. 7420


0.6855

0.6713


0.6784


0.6249






0.6240

0.6943


0.6592


0.9048


0.7608

0.7881


0.7745


1.0715


1.3020


1.1990


0.5954

0. 5951

0.5136


0.4807



0. 5402


0.60000


0.5665 i 0.5678 I............ 0.5672


0. 5805 0. 5604

0. 5965 0. 5025

18 FOR


0. 5750


First.




0.74

1.04

0.89





0.44

0.83

0.87

0.67





0.41

0.42





0.35






0.70

0.51





3.88



2.79

2.15





3.24


8.00


7.03


0.19

0.70

0.47


1.15






0.63


0.74


0.70


Second. Average.


0.70

1.11

0.72





0. 50

0.84

0. 70

0.67





0.43

0.40





0.48






0.58

0.53





2.95



2.01

2.28





3.15


8.61


7.02


0.18

0.98

0.52.


0.81






0.53


0. 59


0. 08


0.72

1.08

0.81


0.87


0.47

0.84

0.83

0.07


0.70


0.42

0.41


0.42


0.42






0.64

0.52


0.58


3.42


2.85

2.22


2.54


3.20


8.31


7.03


0.19

0.87

0.50


in pounds
(average).


46.25


42.28


Remarks.


38.95 1...............................................................1 338


41.08


56.39 ............................................................... 1188


....... .................................................................. 478

....... .................................................................. 1201


48.27


66.78 .................................................................. 454


81.14 ............................................................. 460



74.78 0.125 sap-wood................................................. 941


........ ...... .. ........ ........................................ 1 43

------ ....................................................... 521

...--. All sap-wood ................................................... 803


0.98 ............ 5sapwood......................0.5swoo................ ............ 1094


0.64


0.58



0.679


0. 09


34.04


37.39


35.35


35. 83


................................................................ 1256


0.25 sap-wood................................................... 99


Growth rapid................................................. 1101


273


.................................................................. 341

.................................................................. 615


.................................................................. 03

.................................................................. 1078


II


......................................... .. . . . . .

.................................................................



................................................... . . . .




......................................................--.-

........................................................

.....................................................-- .. .








274


Species.






49. Colubrina reclinata...................
Naked Wood.




SAPINDACE2E.

50. Esculus glabr ........................
Ohio Buckeye. Fetid Buckeye.








51. siculus flava .........................
Sweet Buckeye.

52. saculus Californica ....................
California Buckeye.

53, UnTgadia speciosa.....................
Spanish Buckeye.

54. Sapindu marginatus .................
Wild China. Soapberry.










55. SapindusSaponaria......................
Soapberry.






56. Hypelate paniculata...................
Ink Wood. Iron Wood.

57. Hypelatetrifoliata.....................
White Iron Wood.

58. Acer Pennsylvanicom ..................
Striped M1aple. Moose Wood. Striped
Dogwood. Goose-foot Maple. Whistle
Wood.




59. Acer spicatum............ ...........
Mountain Maple.






60. Acer macrophyllum .....................
Broad-leaved Maple.






61. Acer circinatm.........................
Vine Maple.








62. Acer glabrum ..........................
Dwarf Maple.


State.


Florida ...........

....do .............





Missouri.........

...do ............

Tennessee ........


Locality.


Umbrella Key ......

....do ...............





Allenton............

....do ..............

Nashville..........


Collector.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


I----~ I - l -!--------- -- I I I.


A. H. Curtiss....... Coral............

....do ......... .... .... do ............


G. W. Letterman...

....do ...............

A. Gattinger........


Rich, moist ......

Alluvial .........

Rich, moist ......


....do ..-....... .....do ............... ....do ............... Rich pland...................................


California ........ Marin county....... G.R.Vasey......... ....do .............


Texas ............ New Braunfels ..... C. Mohr ............ Limestone........


....do .............

....do .............

New Mexico ......

Texas ..........


Dallas .............

....do ..............

Rio Gilacanion ......

Austin..............


J. Reverchon ....... Rich, damp .....................................

....do ............ .....do ............ .................. ........

E. L. Green ...... ....do .............. .......... .............


C. Mohr .........-.I Limestone........


0.222


Florida........... CapeSable.......... II. Curtiss....... Rich,sandy,damp. 0.134 41 ........

....do ............. Key Largo........................do ........... Coral ............. ........................


Upper Metacombe I....do ...................do .............
Key.


464 I....do ............- ....do ...................do ................ ...do .............


99 VI ermont.......... Huntingdon ....... C. G. Pringle .......I Gravelly....... ............... .....
372 ....do .................do .....................do ........... ....do ..................................


do ................ ... ........ ..........do ...... .................. ...do ..........

...do ... .. ....... ........ do ............do .............. ........ do ............


Oregon............ Portland............

....do ............. Portland Furniture
Company.


...do ............

....do ............

Washington ter-
ritory.


Portland............

....do ...............

Wilkeson...........


G. Englemann and C. Rich, alluvial ..... 0.229 30 40
S. Sargent
....do ............... ................... .......... ....... ........


....do ...............

....do ...............

....do ...............


Moist, alluvial...

...do .............

....do .............


Colorado......... Englemann's cafion.


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT
''il'


E. Douglas ......... Dry, gravelly .....


0.048









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINE



First. Second. Third.


0.8100

0.8046





0.4270

0.4787

0.4606


0.8516 ...........

0.8166 0.8112


0.4358

0.4625

............


0.4241 0.4307 ............


0. 4921 0.5038 ............


0.6392 0.6272 ..........


0.7520

0.8324

0.7978

0.7550


0.7980

0.8616

0.8345

0.8522


0.8296


0. 8505 0. 8763 ............

0.7940 0.8024 0.8204





0.9600 0.9465 ...........


0.9656 0.8548 ............


0.5111 0.5119 ............

0. 5564 0. 51CO 0.5789


0.5198 0.5205 ............

0.5490 0.5528 0.5353





0.5057 0.5029 0.5254

0.4323 0.5087 ...........


0. 6824

0.6587

0.6370


0. 0720

0.6660

0.6800


0.6032 0.6023


ITIONS. ASH



Average. First.




. 0.8308 1. 29

0.8108 2.31


0.8208


0.4314 1.01

0.4706 0.83

0.4606 0.77


0.4542


0.4274 0.99


0.4980 0.66


0.6332 1.15


0.7750 1.42

0. 8470 1. 86

0.8162 1.44

0.8123 1.54


0.8126


0. 8679 3. 82

0.8056 5.00


0. 8367


0.9533 1.23


0.9102 1.35


0.5115 0.32

0.5484 0.44


0.5299


0.5202 0.42

0. 5457 0. 48


0. 5330


0.5113 0.59

0.4705 0.49


0.4909


............ 0.6772

............ 0.6624

............ 0.6585


0.6660


............ 0.6028


0.39

0.35

0.41


DETERMINATION.



Second. Average.


eight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


Remarks.


------------------


1.14 I 1.21

2.26 2.29


1. 75


1.00 1.01

0.85 0.84

0.68 0.73


0.86


1.00 1.00


0.73 0.70


1.19 1.17


1.27 1.35

1.52 1.69

.1.44

1.52 1.53


1.50


3.30

5.25


1.27


1.41


0.35

0.30


0.37

0.41


0.57

0.49





0.39

0.37

0.44


0.31 0.29


3.56

5.13


4.34


1.25


1.38


0.34

0.37


0.36


0.40

0.45


0.43


0.58

0.49


0.54


0.39

0.36

0.43


0.39


0.30


51.15









28.31


.................................................................. 602

.................................................................. lag


27.4 ................................................................ 445


31.04 .......................................... ........ .... 68


39.46 ..................................................... 944


50.64


52.14


------. . ..------------------------------------------------- 307

....................................-.................. .......... 589

.................................................................. 824

-................................................................ 9128





.................................................................. 5M8

.................................................................. 1122


59.41 1 -- .- . . . .- . . .- .. . . . 463


56.72 .................................................................. 464


..... ... ............................... ....................46......... 97

....--- --I------------------- -- ---- -972


33.02


........-... Allsap-wood ................................................. 98

---*-- ------- I l*-- -- - -- ------------------- ------------.- . . -. . . .----------- 371


33.22


30. 59


41. 51


37.57......................................


275


.........-- --------------------------...................... ..... 102
----------...........-- -------------..------------- ....... .......... 1023


__


~----~-


..................................... ..................

................................ ..... .. ...... . . . .

........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


08. Acer grandidentatum .................


64. Acer saccharinum ......................
Sugar Maple. Sugar Tree. HardMaple.
Rock Maple.



















64. Acer saccharinum, var. nigrnm.........
Black Sugar Mapl
















65. Acerdasycarpum .... .. .....
Soft Maple. White Maple. Silver Maple.










66. Acer rubrum ............................
Red Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple.
Water Maple.











66. Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii ..........







6T. Negundo aceroides .....................
Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple.






68. Negundo Californicum...................
Box Elder.

ANACARDIACEAE.

60. Rhuscotinoides ....... ...........
Chittam Wood.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTI.
of tree,
in
meters. Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


I I I I -- I - I --- I


1176


Utah ...........


Vermont ..........

Ohio.............

Missouri..........

....do .............


City Creek canion... M. E. Jones .......


Woodsum Machine
Company.
Allenton..........

....do ...............


Vermont.......... Charlotte ..........


New England....

Vermont....-.....

....do ...........

....do .............






.... do .............

Missouri...... ...

....do .............

....do .............

Tennessee.......

Florida..........

Missouri.........






Vermont..........

....do .............

Missouri..........

Massachusetts....





....do ............

Mississippi.......

Georgia ..........

Massachusetts ....

... do ...........


Charlestown Navy-
yard.
Charlotte .........


C. G. Pringle........

E.E. Barney.......

G. W. Letterman....

....do ...............

C. G. Pringle........

S. H. Pook..........

F. T. Horsforl n ...


Moist, gravelly...


Gravelly.........



Rich uplands ....

... do .............

Gravelly ..........


....do .................do............. .... .........

....do ............... ....do ........ .......... ........


....do ..............

Allenton...........

....do ...............

....do ..... ........

Nashville..........

Chattahoochee......

Allenton...........






Charlotte ...........

....do ...............

Allenton ..........

Topsfield...........






Arnold Arboretum..

Kemper's mill ......

Bainbridge .........

Danvers ............

North Reading .....


C. G. Pringle........

G. W. Letterman....

... do ..............

....do ...............

A. Gattinger........

A. H. Curtiss .......

G. WV. Letterman ....


Clay..........--

Low, alluvial....

Rich, alluvial....

Low, alluvial....

Rich.............

Clay..............

Rich, alluvial.....


0.268

- - - - -


12


































51


C. G.Pringle........ Swampy....................... .......-


....do ..............

G. W. Letterman....

J. Robinson........


C. S. Sargent........

C. Mohr............

A. H. Curtiss .......

J. Robinson.........

.. do............


...do .............



*Low meadow ....






Drift .............

Rich, swampy.....

Low ..............

... do ...........

... do .............


Missouri.......... Poplar Bluff ........ G. W. Letterman ....... ..........

....do ............. ...do .... ....... .... ...do .............. .............


36



54

3

6


Missouri.......... Allenton........... G. W. Letterman.... Rich bottom..... ......................

Texas ........... Dallas .............. RJ. Rverchon ....... ....do ......... .... ........ ............


California .........




Alabama..........


Contra Costa county G. R. Vasey......... Rich, moist .......




Huntsville.......... C. Mohr ........... ich loam ........


0.240



. .


14


276










THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF TBE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC CAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


First.


Second.


0.7012 0.6791 ............


0.6139

0. 363

0.7607

0.7828

0.6538

0. 6242

0.7106

0.6893

0.7239





0.7310

0.7249

0.7214

0.7117

0.6410

0.6868

0.6814





0.4889

0.4860

0.4760

0.6247





0. 6761

0.5770

0.5288

0.6307

0.6374





0.5563

0.5355





0.4332

0.4217





0.4786


0.6003

0.6300

0.8098

0.7689

0.6783




0.6899







0.6935

0.6980

0.7002

0.6799

0.6429

0.7008

0.6840





0.5254

0.4828

0.5062

0.6163





0.0845

0.6064

0.5510

0.6496

0. 6185














0.4288

0.4474





0.4856




0.0393


Third.


0.6639








0.7165













0.6344









0.5001

0.6406

0. 6260


Average.




0.6902


0.6071

0.6332

0.7898

0.7759

0. 6661

0. 6242

0.7106

0. 6800

0. 7230


0. 6912


0. 6964

0.7115

0.7108

0.6958

0.6419

0.7014

0. 6827


0. 6915


0.5072

0.4844

0.4911

0.6251


0. 5269


0.6803

0.5917

0.5466

0.6433

0. 6273


0.6178


0.5563

0.5355


0. 5459


0.4310

0.4346


0.4328


0.4821


ASII DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0.66


0.44

0.51

0.54

0.60

0.93

0.30

0.91

0.33

0.48





1.48

0.56

0.52

0.70

1.31

0.55

0.42





0.31

0.30

0.40

0.29





0.24

0.43

0.49

0.32

0.38


Second.




0.01


0.40

0.45

0.59

0.57

1.10

0.44

0.33

0.29

0.35


1.01





0.50

1.02

0.33

0.36





0.32

0.31

0.42

0.27





0.25

0.42

0.49

0. 33

0.32


0.31 0.31

0.30 0.3


0.76 1.22

1. 01 1.30


0.51 0.57


Average.




0.64


0.42

0.48

0.57

0.59

1.02

0.40

0.02

0.31

0.42


0.54


1.25

0.56

0.52

0.63

1.17

0.44

0.39


0.71


0.32

0.31

0.41

0.28


0.33


0.25

0.43

0.49

0.33

0.35


0.37


0.31

0.36


Weight, pei
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


Remarks.


i 43.01 ............................................................. 886


43.08


43.09


32.84


38.50


0.34 ) 34.02


0.99

1.16


1. 07 26. 97


0.54 30. 04


........... ... .................

..s..............................................................

........... ....... .....................

............................................... ........ ......

........................................ ........................

............................... .. .... ... .. ...............

. . . ...... .. .... .... ................ . . . . .

............................... . . . .. .................

.................. ................................... I :.......





.. ...... ......................... ............................

........ . ............... .. .. .. ........................

................... ..............................................

.. ..................................... ............... I. .

. . ................................. I .... .....................

...................... ...........................................

................................................ .................





..... .... ................. .. .. ... .. . ................

.................. ......... ......................... .........

.. . ................... ..... ............... ............... -

.. . .. . . . ............... ... .................





Allesap-wood .................. .........................

. .. .. ....... .... ... .............. . . .. . .

........................................... .. .. ...........

Second and third sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood ......

-- - - - - - - - -- - --- - -- -- - - - - - --- - --- -


0.6425 0.48 51 0.50 40.04 ... ...................................................... 1176
_1(1jj .8 51~ 1 4ai/----------------:----- 11


277


105

203

298

299

370

409

1233

1234

1235





213

2741

2742

399

440

757

1167





103

367

448

1052





20

530

748

678

1048


.............................................................................. 1239
.................. . ............. ..................... 1240
1 1 1240


............ .... .......... ... ........... .... .......... .......... 290

........ ...... .................... ... .................................... 311


.................................................................. 615


II
~ I I I


0. 6196


0.6686






FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND


WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


70. Rhns typhina ..........................
Saglhorn Sumach.







71. Rhs copallina .........................
Dwarf Sumach.



I



71. Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata .........



72. Rhus venenata ..........................
Poison Sumach. Poidon Elder.










73. Rhus Metopinm ........................
Poison Wood. Coral Sumach. Mount-
ain Manchineel. Bum Wood. Hog
Ph.ln. Doctor Gum.


LEGUMINOS2E.
75. Eysenhardtia orthocarpa ................



76. Dale spinosa....... ..............



77. Robinia Pseudacacia ..... ..
Loeust. Black Locust Yellow Locust.










78. Robinia viscosa...................
Olammy Locust.


79. Robinia Neo-Mexicana .................
Locust.


80. Olneya Tesota........................
Iron Wood. Arbol de Hierro.


81. Piscidia Erthrina.....................
Jamaaica Dogwood.

82. Cladrastis tinctoria..... ........
Ye8Uow ood. YellowAh. Gopher Wood.






83. Sophora secundiflora ....................
Prigolito.


Verm


State. Locality.






ont.......... Hinesburgh.........


Collector.


C. G. Pringle........


Massachusetts.... Danvers ............ J. Robinson.........


70 Missouri.....-....

610 Georgia...........

736 Florida ..........





330 Texas ............



876 Massachusetts....


1037 ....do .............

1041 ....do .............





467 Florida.........







1147 Arizona .......



.079 California........



405 ....................

441: Tennessee........

815 West Virginia...

845 Massachnsetts....


Allenton...........

Lower Altamaha
river.
Chattahoocheeriver.





Dallas ..............



Danvers ............


....do ..............

....do ...............


G. W. Letterman ..

A. H. Curtiss .......

....do ...............





J. Reverchon .......



J. Robinson ........


....do ..............

....do ...............
0.


Upper Metacombo A. H. Curtiss......
Key.


Santa Rita mount-
ains.


Agna Caliente.....



Charlestown Navy-
yard.
Nashville.-.......

Grafton...........

Danves .........


U. G. Pringle.......



Palish Brothers ....



S. H. Pook .........


LAYERS OF
Diameter LGROTH.
of tree,
Soil. in 1
meters. Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.



Gravelly.......... .......... ......

....do ............. 0.120 2 34


Moist limestone...

Dry, clay..........
....do .............





Dry, gravelly....



Wet, swampy.....


...do .--............

....do ..


0.175









0. 070


0.085

0.067


Coral ............. 0.222


Dry, rocky .......



Dry. sundy........


A. Gattinger ...... Limestone .....

C. G. Pringle....... ...................


5









1


4

4





39


J. Robinson ........ Gravelly.......... 0.184 4


(1.. do................do .............. ...do.. ............ Loam ............ 0. 060



Colorado......... Trinidad.......... W. B. Strong....... Low, moist ..... .........



California........ Lower Colorado G. Engelmanu and Dry,gravlly ...
valley. C. S. Sargent.


Florida .......... Upper Metacombo A. H. Curtiss....... Coral.
Key.

Kentucky ....... Mercer county...... W. M. Linney ...... Limestone ..... .
Tennessee ........ ashville.......... A. Gattinger ....... Alluial .......... ..... .





Texas ............ Now Braunfels ..... C. Mohr .......-.. Limestone .................
i i-


4


19









20


16

27





39


8


278


--


..........


.....







THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


Second. Third. Average.


First.




0.4476

S0.4079
S0.3912




0.4997

0.5478

0.5472





0.5131


0.4383
0.4192

0.4365

0.4535
0.4259





0.8100







0. 8691


( 0.5714

0. 5285


0.7550

0.7908
0.6490

0.7410





0. 8130

0.7942


0.7988


S0. 8953
1.1542


0.8779


0.6072

0. 6277





1.0310


0.4593

0.4855

0.3809




0.5080

0.5579

0.4910





0.5236


0.4362

0. 4368

0. 4322

0.4449)
0.4511





0.7728







0.8884


0.5904)

0. 5241)


0. 8646


0.7087


0.8258


0.4535

0.4179


0.4357


0.5039

0.5529

0.5250


0. 5273


0.5184



0.4326


0.4418

0.4403


0. 4382


0.7917







0.8740



0.5536



0.7727

0.7908

0.6439

0.7259


0.7333



0.8094



0. 8034


1.1374 1.0602



............ 0.8734


............ 0.G278
............ 0.6277


0O. 278


0.9325 0. 9842


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.


0.5367


Second. Average.


Weight, pei
cubic foot,
inpounds
(average).


Remarks.


I I II* -) I -


0.43

0.52





0.62

1 0.63

0.55





0.89



0.90


0.49

0.50





2.31







1 29



3.41



0.22

1.26

0. 3&

0.22






0.22



0.62


1.85

2.75


3.42


0.21

0.39





1.44


0.49

0.52


0.50


0.62

0.60

0.57


0.60


0.85



0.89


0.49

0.55


0.64


2.39


............................................. 158


27.15









32.86


32.31


0.54

0.52





0.62

0.56

0.60





0.80



0.88


0.49

0.60





2.47







1.28



4.68



0. 26

1.12


0.25






0.19



0.58


1.28 54.47


4.04



0.24 .

1.19

0.35

0.24


0.51



0.20



0.60



2.29



3.38
3.38


34.50











45.70



50.44



50.07


......................................... ......................... 1060





.................................................................. 70

..................... .............................................. 610

................................. 736





...............................................*.................. 330



.................................................................. 876


.... ............................................................ 1037

.................. ............................................... 1041





................................................................. 467







0.125 sap-wood........ ................................ 1147



First, second, and third sp. gr. determinations made on sap- 1079
wood; fourth sp. gr. determination mad. on 0.1 sap-wood.


................... .. .... ........... 405

.................. 441

...... .... ... ........ ... .... ... ...................... 815

Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood. Cultivated .... 845






0.125 sap-wood. Cultivated................................... 1061



............ ................ .. ... 1031


66.07 ................................. ............ ....... ............ 650


51.43


o0 19 1............ -.. ....-----... .... ....... ....... ..-- .--- .---.--..-.......-- ...
0. 38


0. 28 1 3. 12


1.590 61.31 First and second sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wooil


BPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION.


279


27.31


49.84


0.4440


0.7004 ............

.. . .... ............


0.6387

0.7279





0.8017

0. 8287


0.7855


0. 9600
1.1542 5


0.8689


0.0485







0.9890


II







280


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTII.
Species. 0 State. Locality. Collector. Soil. of tree,
me in
meters. Sap- Hearti-
". wood. wood.


84. Sophora affinis..........................







85. Gymnocladus Canadenis ..... ......
Kentucky Coffee Tree. Coffee ut.








86. Gleditschia triacanthos................
Honey Locust. Black Locust. Three-
thorned Acacia." Sweet Locust.
Honey Shucks.






87. Gleditschia monosperma ...............
Water Locust.

88. Parkinsonia Torreyana... ..........
Green-bark Acacia. Palo Verde.

89. Parkinsonia microphylla ................


90. Parlkinsonia naulcata....................







91. Cercis Canadensis....... ..........--
Redbud. Judas Tree.











92. Cercis reniformis .......................
Redbtd.

03. Prosopis juliflora.....-...............
Mesquit. Algaroba. Honey Locust.
Ronely Pod.








94. P'rssopis pubecenus....... ........
Screw Bean. Screw-pod jleq qut. Tor-
nilla.


95. Lcuerena glauca


. ................ I


Texas ...... ...... Dallas .............. J. Reverchon .......

..do ....o ............. usin...........----- C. Mohr ...........


Missouri.........

....do .............---

Tennessee.......





Missouri.........

....do .............

Tennessee .......





Florida ..........


Alleuton............
....do ...........---

ashville ...........





Allenton..........

....do ...........--

Nashville ..---..-.--


G. W. Letterman ...

....do ...............

A. Gattinger .......





G.W. Letterman...

....do .......- ......

A. Gattinger .......


Dry, calcareous...

....do .............





Low, rich.........

Alluvial ..........

Limestone........





Low, rich.........
....do .............

Dry, sandy barren


Chattahoochee river. A. H. Curtiss ....... Alluial ..........


678 Arizona.......... Lower Colorado
river.

1258 ....do ............. Valley of the Gila
river.

829 Florida.... --

1208 Texas .... ..... Austin...........---





59 Missouri......... Allenton............

430 Tennessee-....... Nashville ...........

1089 Missouri........ Allenton----.........

1090 ....do .......------ ......do ............--.

1091 ....do .................do ..............





1142 Texas ........... Austin............


561 ...do ............ Fort Stockton ......

590 Arizona .......Tuson.............

080 ....do ....... ..... do...............

927 Texas ............ Austin ............





600 California......... Fort uma .........

658 ....do ............. ....do ............

998 --...do .............do...............





1224 Mexico........... Lampasasmountains


1222 Texas ............ Brownsville ........
96 LunnaThlvruena......... Snd......


G. Engelmann and j Sandy ....
C. S. Sargent.


C. G. Pringle......


Department of Ag- ....................
riculture.
S. B. Buckley ........................ .. .. ......... ......


G. W. Letterman....

A. Gattinger.......

G. W. Letterman....

....do ...............

... do ...............


0.084 10 16


0.294 21 20


Low, rich ......... 0. 260

Limestone............

Rich.......................

....do ............ ..........

....do ............. ..........


35


S. B. Buckley ....... Limestone .................. ...............


B. L. 3aldridge ..... Light, sandy......

C. S. Sargent........ ................

....do ..... ........ ........

C. Mohr- ....... .... ich, calcareous..





G. Engelmann and................
C. S. Sargent.
....do -.......-.... Sandy ............

....do ...................................


S. B. Buckley.......


0.064 8








I


................1


Sandy ......


96. Letiewriapulvrerulenta_ .......








281


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMI ATIONS.


_______________________________________ ____________ -ii


First.




0.8019
0.8510


0.6700

0. 6663

0.7395





0.7330

0. 6418

0. 628





0.7509


0.6330


0.7176


0. 6325

0. 5848





0.6104

0 7098

0.6254

0.6403

0.6009





0.7392


0.8322

0.7137

0.7247

0.7478


Second.




0.8161

0.9316





0.6786









0.7359
0.6275







0.7245


0.6732


0.7722


0.5968 ........


0.6070


0.5959

0.6084

0.6117





0.7645


0.8664

0.6997
0.7726

0.7620


0.7772 0.7910

0.7527 0.7930

0.7237 0.7278


0. 9263


0. 6033j


0.9205 ............


0.680!) ............


Third.


0.7272


0.6157












0.7502








0.7587


Average.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second.


0.8090 0.42

0.8928 1.04


0.8509


0.6743 0.70

0.6663 0.45

0.7395 0.98


0. 0934


0.7345 0.55

0.6346 0.69

0.6528 1.29


0.0740


0.7342 0.66


0.6531 1.25


0.7449 4.20


0.6325 2.32

0. 508 2.17


0.6116


0.6110 0.59

0.7098 0. 67

0.6107 0.80

0.6289 0.82

0.6213 0.67


0.6363


0.7513 0.76


0.8493 3.35

0.7067 1.67

0.7487 1.45

0.7562 2.09


0.7652


0.7811 1.02

0.7729 0.91

0.7258 0.95


0.7600


0. 9235 3. 27


0.6732 0.90


0.34

1.13





0.57

0.50

0.82





0.61


0.98





0.79


1. CO


3.08


2.26

2.51





0.56

0.07

0.77

0.74

0.84





0.77


2.69

1.71
2.49

2.00





0.98

0.90







3.31


1.13


Average.




0.38

1.09


0.73


0.64
0.48

0.90


0.67


0.58

0.69

1.14


0.80


0.73


1.12


3.64


2.29

2.34


Weiht, per
cubic foot,
in ppunds
(average).









53.03









43. 21


Remarks.


0.25 sap-wood...................... .. .................--.---

0.5 sap-wood................. .....................





.......... ...... .................-.. .... ------------------


............ ........





42.00


45. 76 First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood. ..


40.70


49.75


2.32 38.11


0.58 ...........

0.67 ...........

0.79 .......---
0.78 i............
0.76 ............


0.72 3.63
0.72 30.65


0.77 46. 82


3.02 F...........

1.69 i............
1.97 I.........

2.05 -


2. 18 47. 13


1.00 .......--.

0. 91 i ..... --......
0. 95 ...........


47. 42


3. 29 57. 55 ... .... ....... .. ... .... ..... ... ... .


1.01 41.95 ........ ..............--- .. ..... .


Second sp. gr. determination made on sap wood................. 678


..... ................ ......................... ..................; 1238
125:



.................................................. ............... 829

........... .... ............................. .............. 1208





. -.. ....................................... .. ........... 59

............................... ....... ...... ...................... 436
I436

......................................... ...................... 1089

............................................. .... .............. 1000
1001
........................................... .. "....... .. ..... .... 1091





First and second sp. gr. determinations made on half sap wood.. 1142


Root...................................... ..... ......... 561
590

680
.................................................................. 680
0. 05 sap-wood ....................................... ...... 027





Dead tree; 0.75 sap-wood ................. ...............------ 00

All sap-wood ......................... .... ......-------.. 658

All sap-wood ........... ..... ................... .......... 98


_~~ j ~


I=






282


Species.


97. Acacia Wrightii.......................
Cat's Olao.

98. Acacia Greggii .........................
Cat's (Oaw.








100. Lysiloma latisiliqua .. ........
Wild Tamarind.






101. Pithecolobium Unguis-cati.............
OCa's Claw.






ROSACEE.
102. Chrysobalans Icaco ................
Cocoa Plum.

103. Prunus Americana ...................
Wild Plum. Canada Plum. Horse
Plum.







104. Prunus angustiflia .-.. ---...-- .. -
Ohickaa Plum. Hog Plum.

105. PrunusPennsylvanica ...............
WildRed Cherry. Pin Cherry. Pigeon
Cherry.

106. Prunus mnbellata ................... .
Sloe. Black Sloe.

107. Prnnus emarginata, var. mollis ........


108. Prunus serotina.............------.... -
Wild Black Cherry. Rum Oherry.
























109. Prunus Capuli..-.......................
Wild Cherry.


Arizona ..........

... do ...........

....do .............


Santa Rita mount-
ains.
....do ..............

Clifton..............


G. Engelmann and
S. Sargent.
....do ..............

E.L.Greene ........


Dry, gravelly....
...do ...---- .....

-- -- - -- -- -


Florida........... Boca Chica Key ... .H. Curtiss ....... Coral ............ 0. 202 14

.. do .......... Key Largodo ...do.........Key o. ........... ......do ............. .. ....... ..


465 ....do.............

1108 ... do............







480 ...do ............


600


968


15

106

115

127

148

198

317

368

406

725

763

1053





294

418


Uper Metacombe .. ..do ...............

Bahai Honda Key ...do.............







BayBiscayne....... A.H. Curtiss.......


Missouri........ Allenton.......... G. W.Letterman....

Vermont ....... Charlotte ........... C.G. Pringlo ......

Texas ........... Dallas ............ J. Reverchon .......





Tennessee ........ Nashville........... A. Gattinger. ...


Vermont ....... Charlotte e........... G. Pringle ......


Georgia ......... Altamaha river .... A. I. Curtiss....


Swampy ........


Rich uplands .....

Gravelly..........

Rich............





Hiver bluff .......


Cold, gravelly...................


Clay.............


Washington ter- Wilkeson.......... G. Englmann and Low, rich.......
ritory. C.S. Sargent.

Massachusetts.... Roxbury ........... C.S.Sargent........ Gravelly..........

Vermont.......... Charlotte ........... C. G.Pringle......... ..do ........

Michigan......... Dansville........... W.J.Beal .. ...... do ..........

Missouri ...... -. Allenton............ G. W. Letterman . Rich loam .......

Illinois ....... aukegan ...au ....... li. Douglas ......... Gravelly .......

Ohio.............. Barn & Smith E.E.Barne.......................
Manufacturing Co.
Michigan......... Hersey ......... W.J.Beal .... ich..........

Vermont..--.......- Charlotte .......... C.G. Pringle........ Gravelly..........

Virginia or Mid- Charlestown Navy- S.H.Pook ............................
dle states. yard.
Pennsylvania .... William.port...... C.G.Pringle........ ..

Florida ........... Chattahoocheoriver. A. H.Curtiss....... Clay............

Massachusetts -.. Topsfield ..........J. R'obinson......... Gravelly .........


INew Mexico ..... Pinos Altos mount- E. L. Greene ........
gains.
....do ............- ....do .... .......... do ...............


Alluvial ..........

....do ..........


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


29


0.100


..........


47 .......


21 24





9 31

















15 48

11 33





7 12


0.205

















0.218

0. 320





0.238







283


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION.


Second.


0. 404




0.8616

...........


0.6033 0.50663

0.6901 0.7159


0.8349

1.0135







0.8129


0.6745

0.6800

0.8079


Third.


0.6901


0.7092 I............


0.5031 ...........



0.8242 ...........


0. 4094 ............


0.7079

0.5539

0.4832

0.6233

0.6308

0.5639

0.5186

0.5351



0. 5777

0. 5221

0. 6857





0.6940

0.8837


...........

I ---.........


----1.--.----


Average.




0.9392


0.8703

0.8389

0.8558


0.8550


0.5848

0.6987


0.6418


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0.68


0.68

0.95

1.00





2.00

1.98


Second.




0.57


0.89









2.44

2.07


0. 8589 2.48 2.25

0.9510 3.00 2.09


0. 9049




0.7709


0.6748

0.6918

0.7978


0.7215


0.6884


0.5023 I 0.36


0.8202


0. 4502


0.7063

0.5532

0.5321

0.6486

0. 6491


............. V0.526
............ 0. 52,3

..... ... -- 0. 5;-11 |'

........... 0. 4080

..----.......... 0. 5756

............ 0.5488

0.6880 0. 0857


O. S822


............ 0.7111

O. 8648
........... 0.8648


0.7879 !
____ I


0. 09

0.21

0.21


0.28 I 0. 28


0.43


0.14 0.10


0.7290


0. 6750

0.7035

0.7876





0.6675


0.5014



0. 8162


0.4310


0.7047

0.5525

0.5809

0.6736

0.6473

0.5675

0.5373

0. 5131

0.4680 .

0. 5734

0. 5755

0. 0833





0.7282

0.8459


First.


9380


.. ........ ... - -
0.12 0.14 ........

0.26 0.27


0.20 49.10


Remarks.


0.8703

0.8162

0.8558


Ii


Average.




0.63


0.79

0.95

1.00


0.91


2.22

2.03


2.12


2.37

2.55


2. 46




0.87


0.10

0.19

0.27


0.18


0.28


0. 10



0.12


0.21


0.14

0.12

0.14

0.18

0.12

0.12

0.18

0. 16

0.08

0. 10

0.25

0. 16


0.15


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).





58.53









53.28







40. 00







56. 39




48.04



------------




44.96.



42.90


31.30



51.11


28. 06




i.........

-.- .. -- ---

--------6 -
------------






------------








36.28


0.05 sap-wood ---..--.... -.... ..-..---- -------
0.05 sap-wood.. ..............................

0.05 sap. ood....................... .....








Roghark....................................................---.........
Rough bark ..................................................


0. 8829

0.8885


0.15





0.10

0.28


0.5 sap-w ood .------- .---- ..----------------.-------- - -- - -- *---- 15-
0.5 sap. ood ................- ... .....-- .... -...... .... 15-




...... .... .................................. ................. 17
S106





.. .. ....... - 148



..... ----- ------ 317
... ...... 368



............ ........... 4 672S

................................................... ............... 0 3
S153






2. --94

0.33 sap-wood............................... .. --------------- 41&


.........................................- .......-.-.---. --.....


...... ...---- -. .. ...... -.. .... ........... -- ........-..- .- --. I
... ..........................-............







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.






110. Prunus demissa .......................
Wild Cherry.

111. Prunns Caroliniana....................
Wild Orange. Mock Orange. Wild
Peach.











112. Prunus sphieocarpa .................


113. Prunus ilicifolia ...................
Islay.

114. VauqueliniaTorreyi...................


115. Cercocarpns ledifolius. .................
Mountain Mahogany.







116. Cercocarpus parvifolius ................
Mountain Mlahogany.

117. Pyrus coronaria ....... .............
American Crab. Sweet-scented Orab.








118. Pyrus angustifolia .....................
American Crab Apple. Southern Crab
Apple.

110. Pyrnsrivularis -...-....-... ... ...
Oregon Crab Apple.

120. Pyrus Americana ......................
Mountain Ash.






121. Pyrus sambucifolia..................
Mountain Ash.

122. Cratwgus rivularis .............---.....


"123. Cratregus Douglasii ..................


124. Cratagus brachyacantha..............
Hogs' bors.


125. Cratrgus arborescens .................


910

1032

1062





1217


1158


1152


State.






California.........


Alabama.........

Florida .........

....do .............

....do .............

Texas ...... ......






Florida ...........


California ........


Arizona ..........


Locality.






Strawberry valley ..


Mobile........ ....

Jacksonville........


Collector.






G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

C. Mohr ............


Soil.






Low, rich .........


Sandy.........-


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


A. H. Curtiss ....... ....do ............ 0.171 8 61


Chattahoocheo...... C. Mohr ....-......- Alluvial.......... 0.202 12


Jacksonville........

Victoria ..........






Edge of Everglades.


Santa Cruz .........


Santa Rita mount-
ains.


883 Utah ............. City Creek caion...
904


California......... Sisliyoa county....


Delaware ......... Kiamensi ...........

Pennsylvania .... Nalareth ...........

.. do .................do ...............


South Carolina....



Oregon ..........


Vermont..........

.. do .............


Aiken .............


Portland...........


Charlotte...........

Huntingdon .......


.. do ........... Mount Mansfield..


Utah............. City Creek cation...


Oregon ........... Cascades of the Co-
lumbia river.

Louisiana......... Webster parish....


A. II. Curtiss....... Sandy ...... ......-----.... .............

C. Mohr ............ Rich, moist ....... 0.180 26 34


A. H. Curtiss ......


C. L. Anderson......


C.G.Pringle........


M.E. Jones......--.

Department of Ag-
riculture.





G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.


W. M. Canby .......

J. Henry.-----.......

..- .do ...............






H. W. Ravenel......


G. Enoelmann and
C. S.Sargent.

C. G. Pringle........

....do ...............





....do ............ ...


M.E. Jones........


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

C. Mobr ............


Rocky ............


....................
Rocky............











....do .............
Clay .............

Moist..........

....do .............






Rich, damp .......


Rich hills.....--.-


Gravelly........

....do .............





-...do .............


....do .............


Rich .............


Clay ...-.......


South Carolina .. Aiken ............. H. W. Ravencl...... Rich...........


... do .............. ..do ............... ....do ...................do ...........

Georgia......... Ogeechee ........... A Curtiss ....... Low ..............


0. 206


0.130


0.186










0.100


0.004


0.200


0.168


80


17


14


29











46


13


284


------- ----~-









285


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


BSECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Third. Average.
Firt.. Third.


0.7025


0.9515

0.8874

0.7766

0.8660

0.9030






0.9002


0.6937 I 0.6800 0.6951


0.9855

0.8227

0.7797

0.8721

0.8610


0.8934 ...........


0.9885 0.9720 .........


1.1340" 1.1408 .-........


1.0608

1.0950






0.9365


0.6973

0. 6640

0.7402


0.8314




0.8790


1.0332 1.0400

1.1080 ............


0.7228

0. 6762

0.7260


0.7320

0. 6788

0.7057


S0.9685

0.8472

0. 7782

0.8691

0.8810


0.8688



0.8998


0.9803


1.1374


1.0447

1.1015


1.0731



0.9365


0.7174

0. 6730

0.7240


0.7048


0.6945 0.6845 I............ 0.6805 0.33


0.8266 I 0.8366 ............


0. 5345

0.5512


0.5429 0. 5539

0.5416 ...........


0.5893 0.5963


0.7672


0.7025


0.7734 ............


0. 8316


0. 41


0. 5438 0.08

0.5464 0.56


0.5451


0.5928


0.7703


ASH DETERMINATIOSB. eigh, p
Scubic foot,
in pounds
First. Second. Average. (average).


0.48


0.33

0.37

0.44

0.49

0.43






0.70


0.76


0.50


0.33

0.38

0.44

0.48

0.43


0.41



0.87


0.78


43.32











...........

54.14


Remarks.


e.

O
a


o


-------------- .... ------- ------ ------ ------- --- --- ------ ----- 6.. 3T


........ ........................................................ 549.

................ ................................................. 806

.............................. ................ ..... ............... 916

.......... ............ .................................... ...... 1032

.................................................................. 1062
1032
1062


56.07 ................................................................. 1217


61.09 ............................................. .................... 1158


1.46 I 1.45 II 70.88 1................................................................ 11152


1.19

0.89


1.04



0.45


0.50

0.44

0.62


0.52



0.33


0.41


1. 11

0.56


0. 83


0.125 sap-wood.................................................. 883

.............................................................. M904


58.36 .................................................................. 825


... .............. ...................................... ............ 808

....... ............ ... ........ .... ............ ............. 1087

....... .. ... ... ..... ... ..... 1088


42.97 ............................................................... 313


51.82 ..................... ............................................... 1002


. ..... .......... .... .............. 214

........ 0.25 sap-wood......................................... 365


33.97


0.39 0.31 0.33 1 36.94 Sap-wood....................................................... 410


0.37


0.35


0.6928 0.6898 0.0950 0.29 I 0.36 0.33 43.31 ................................................................ 999


0.0650 0.6835 ............ 1 0.6793 0.37


0.636 0.6230

0.6093 0. 6225

0.6263 0.6500 ............

0.6934 0.0690 ...........


0.6228 11 0.63


0.6427

0.0817


0. 6491


0.40 0.42



0.70 0.67


0.38 .......... 0.38 ...........

0.62 0.68 0.65 ..........


0.57 40.45


48.00 I................................ .................... ............ 885


42.33 ........................................ ....................... 92



... ..... .... ....... ........... .. ... .. ............................ 363


............ .... . ... .. .. .... .. 3603

........... .... ........... ................ ..... 607


I








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


126. Cratwegas Crus-galli ....................
Oockspur Thorn. Newcastle Thorn.






127. Crategus coccinea....................
Scarlet Haw. Red Haw. White Thorn.

128. Craiegus snbvillosa ..................
Scarlet Haw.






129. Cratgus tomentosa..................
Black Thorn. Pear Haw.






130. Crategus cordata......................
Washington Thorn.

131. Crategus apiifolia......................
Parsley iaw.

132. Crategns spathnlata ..................
Small-frtuted Haw.






134. Cratgus festivalis....................
May Haw. Apple Hanw.


135. Cratmgus flava ....................... 301
Summer Haw. Yellow Haw.
569


135. Crategns ava, ear. pbescens. .......
Summer Haw. Red Haw.

136. Heteromeles arbutifolia ................
Toyon. Tollon. California Holly.

137. Amelanchier Canadensis ..............
Juneberry. Shad Bush. Service Tree.
May Cherry.






HAMAMELACEBE.
188. Hamamelis Virginica ................
Witch Hazel.










139. Liquidambar Styraciua .......
Sweet Gum. Star-leaved G .Liquid
amber. Red Gum. Bilsted.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Diameter
of tree.
in
meters.


Massachusetts.... Brookline........... J. Robinson......... Lo... .... ...... 0.180
Missouri......... Allenton............. G. W. Letterman.... Low, wet.................


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


1CO Vermont........ Monkton .......... C. G.Pringle........ Gravelly........


949 Texas ............ Victoria ............ C. Mohr ............ Alluvial .......... 0.180 61 ........
1081 Missouri.......... SaintLouis......... H.Eggert.. ............................. 0.106 28 ....





154 Vermont.......... Charlotte........... C.G.Pringle........ Clay.............................
426 Tennessee ........ Nashville........... A. Gattinger........ Limest........ ........


.do .......... ......do ..................do ...............


Chattahoochee......


759 Florida ..........


Low..............


A.H.Curtiss ....... Alluvial..........


South Carolina.... Aiken .............. H.W. Ravenel......


Georgia.......... Ogeechee river ...


A. H Curtiss.......


Rich, damp ......
Low .............


0. 080




0.880


27




38


239 South Carolina.... Bonneau'sDepot..... H. W. Ravenel...... Damp, rich ....... -.......... ........


....do ............. Aiken .................do ............... Dry, fertile....... 0.224 58 ........

Florida ........... Tampa ........... A.H. Curtiss ....... Sandy ............................. ..


Aspalaga ...............do ................ Dry clay..........


1160 California ........ Santa Cruz ......... C. L. Anderson...... ....................


156

241
849






867


875

1259





546
1095

1173
1181


Vermont..........
Kentucky ........
Massachusetts....


Charlotte ........... C.G.Pringle........
Brumfield Station... W. M. Linney......
Danvers ........... Robinson.........


Gravelly........

Waverly shale....
Loam .............


0.142


0.184




0.140

0.190


44


21




34
43


34




60
21


....do ............. Beverly.............. do ............... Rocky..--.........- ..-........--........-


....do............. Danvers .............. do .................do ..... ................... ...

Tennessee........ Montvale.......... A. H. Curtiss ....... ............................... ...


Alabama ......

Arkansas ....
Noew Jersy ....

Mississippi.......


Kemprl, mill .....
I.itl io ] btok .........

'louint 0Il oly........
Yazoo River bottom.


C.Mohr...... .... .

G. W. Letterman....
S. P. Sharples .......

R. Abbey...........


Rich, alluvial ............ ...........


Clay............... 0.208 30 17
Alluvial .......... ................ .......


286


--
- i


....do .............









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE


UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


First.


0.6590

0.7781





0.8654


0.7909

0. 876





0.7649

0.8059





0.7105


0. 7506


0.7524

0.6716





0.6625


0.7724

0. 8172





0.7770


0.9610


0.6074

0.7904

0.8600





0.7007

0.7081

0.6662

0.7028

0.6099





0.6415

0.5773

0.5841

0.5605


Second.


Third.


Average.


ASBI DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second.


Average.


I. I. I Ii '-


0.6705

0.7667





0. 8582


0.7144

0.8382





0.7712

0.7110


0.7481 ............


0.7400


0.7698

0.6700





0.6503


0.7620

0. 7718





0.7596


0.9042


0.7642

0.7944

0. 9028





0.7393"

0.7826 )

0.7828

0. 6985 )







0.6176

0. 5665

0.5901

0.5549


0.6632

0.7791


............


............


............

............

0. 8570






............


...........


........... I


0.5692


0.6642

0.7746


0.7194


0. 8618


0.7527

0.8379


0.7953


0.7681

0.7585


0. 7633


0.7293


0. 7453


0.7611

0.6708


0.7159


0.6564


0.7672

0.7945


0.7809


0.7683


0.9326


0.6858

0.7924

0.8733


0. 7838



0.7342


0.7126

0.6099


0. 6850


0. 6095

0. 5119

0. 5016

0.5615


0.57

0.49





0.36


0.77

0.54





0.50

0.53





0.48


0.72


0.71

0.60





0.57


0.82

0.65





0.91


0.62


0.61

0.42

0.65






0.43


0.27


0.32





1. 47

0. 48

0.29

0.67


0.55

0.60





0.40


0.78

0.68





0.44

0.51





0.44


1.22


0.67

0.63





0.56


0.94

0.73





0.01


0.46


0.64

0.53

0.45






0.44


0.33


0.39





0.49

0.73

0.34

0.66


0.56

0.55


0.56


0.38


0.78

O.61


0.69


0.47

0.52


0.50


0.46'


0.97


0.69

0.62


0.66


0.57


0.88

0.69


0.79


0.91


0.54


0.63

0.48

0.55


0.55



0.44


0.30


0.36


0.37


0.48

0.61

0.32

0.67


Weight, pei
cnbic foot,
n pounds
(average).


............




44.83


53.71







49.56







47.57


45.45


46.45







44.61


40.91







48.67


47.88


58.18









48.85


Remarks.


Cultivated .................. ............... --..........

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -


First sp. gr. determination made on 0.75 sap-wood; second sp.
gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood.
0.25 sap-wood ...........................................

First and third sp. gr. determinations made on 0.9 sap-wood;
second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.


........... .................... .. .... ....................... 1259


42.72


............ .................................................................. 546

......--.. ... ........ ................................. .. ......... ........ 10-95

............ All sap-wood ................... .. .. ................ 1173

............ .................................................................. 1181


287


___ _


..................................................................

................................................. ................


. ............ .............................
S.................. .........................

..







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIO FOOT


SLAYERS OF
SDiameter GROWTH.
Species. a State. Locality. Collector. Soil of tree,
ln in
meters. Sap- Heart-
0ood. w d.


139. Liquidambar Styraciflua-continued...





RHIZOPHORACE2E.
140. Rhizophora Mangle....................
Mangrove.
COMBRETACEE.
141. Conocarpus crecta...................
Button Wood.

142. Laguncularia racemosa...............
White Button Wood. White Alangrove.
MYRTACEE.
143. Calyptranthes Chytraculia .............


141. Eugenia buxifolia ......................
Surgeon Stopper. Spanish Stopper.









145. Eugenia dichotoma....................
Naked Wood.






140. Eugeniamonticola.....................
Stopper. White Stopper.







147. Eugenia longipes....................
Stopper.

148. Eugenia procera............ .......
Red Stopper.

CACTACEE.
149. Cereus gigantens.......................
Suwarrow. Saguaro. Giant Cactus.

CORNACEE.
150. Cormus alternifolia .....................
Dogwood.






151. Cornus florida .........- ..........
Flowering Dogwood. Box Wood.











152. Cornus Nuttalhi.....................
Flowering Dogwood.


Mississippi ....... Yazoo River bottom R. Abbey .......... Alluvial...................

....do ........... ... do............... ..... do ................ do ......................





Florida............ ay Biscayne....... A. H.Curtiss ....... Salt-marsh........ 0.250


...do ............ ....do .......


........ ....do .....................do ...........


....do ............. Sugar-loaf Sound... ....do ............... .... ..d.............



.... ..d............ Key Largo.............do ............... Coral.......................


...do .............

...do .............

....do .............
....do .............


Upper Motacombe
Key
LostMan's river.....

Elliott's Key........

Upper Metacombe
Key.


....do ..............
... do..............
....do ...............

....do ...............


....do .............

Humus and coral..
Coral ............
... do .............


0.084


43


566 ....do ............ Caximbas pass.........do ............... Sandy ............ 0.084 5
1200 ....do ............ Palm Hummock.... ....do ............... Coral................... ....


....do ............. Umbrella Key ..... ....do ...........I.......do ............


0.150


53


....do ..--...... .. ..do ............. ... do ............. ....do .............
....do ............. ....do ............. ..do ...........-......do ........... ..............





....do .............. o-N.ame Key ......d....do .....--........ ....do ............. .......


....do ............. Miami ...........




Arizona ...-... Tucson .............




Massachusetts.... Danvers.........
.. .do ............. ....do ..--. .........d



0


Missouri........
Florida ..........

West Virginia....
Missouri........
....do .............


....do ..--..........-....do.............




G. Engelmann and Dry, gravelly....
C. S. Sargent.


0.141


J. Robinson .......- Loam....................
....do ....... .. .. ....do ............. ..


Allenton --............ G. W. Letterman...
Chattahoochee...... A. H. Curtiss.....

Grafton ............. C. G. Pringle ......
Allenton ........... W. Letterman...

....do ..................do ..............


Oregon ......... Portland...


........ G. Eugelmann and .
C.S. Sargent.


Uplands ..........
Calcareous .......

Dry ............
Gravelly..........
Flinty ............


0.143
0.128


0.122


47
47 ........

72


44 7








.. . . . .


288








289


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.
11


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average.


0.6125

0.5825





1.1391



0.9939


0.7100



0.8930


0.8753

1.0625

0.8645

0.8857





0.8526

0.9542





0.8910

0.9180

0. 9140





1.1450


0.9425




0.3259




0.6572

0.6987





0. 8264

0.7599

0.7892

0.8690

0.8114


I 1 1 --11 I I


0.5891 0.6256

0. 5765 0.5878





1.1842 .........



0.9860 ............


0. 7174 ............



0. 9282 0.8765


1.0400

0.8540

0.9232


0.8392

0.9472


0.9110

0.9340

0.9295


1.1020 ...........


0.9482 ............


1.0200

............


0.9202

............


0.6001

0.5823


0.5910


1/1617



0.9900


0.7137



0.8992


0.8753

1.0513

0.9128

0.9045


0.9360


0.8459

0.9507


0.8983


0.9010

0.9241

0.9217


0. 9156


1.1235


0.9453


0.72

0.85





1.80



0.32


1.69



3.04


1.11

1.19

2.23

1.66





0.85

0.58





2.05

1.60

1.83





3.36


2.44


0.3116 ............ 80.3188 3.89


0.6748

0.6932


0.8264

0.7710

0.7863

0.8916

0.8215


0.7487 0.7474

19 PoR


0. 6048

0.6893


0. 6456

0.6937


0. 6696


0. 8264

0.7655

0.7878

0.8803

0.8165


0. 8153


0.7481


0.43

0.39





0.51

0.75

0.73

0.66

0.62





0.48


0. 77 0.75

0.77 0.81


1.83



0.32


1.54



3.59


1.26

1.05

2.15

1.38





0.91

0.60





1.95

1.95

1.99





3.60


2.79




3.01




0.41

0.43





0.60

0.84

0.83

0.58

0.60





0.52


0.61


1.82



0.32


1.62



3.32


1.19

1.12

2.19

1.52


1.50


0.88

0.59


0.74


2.00

1.77

1.91


1.89


3.48


2.62




3.45




0.42

0.41


0.41


0.56

0.80

0.78

0.62

0.61


0.67


0.50


Weight, pei
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


Remarks.


72.40 ................................................................. 485



61.70 .............................................. .............- 489


44.48 ................................................................. 507



56.04 ................................................................ 1205


....... .................................................................. 456

.--...-. ......................................- ......... ..---- -- ..-- ---.. 1118

....--.... .................................................................--. 1120

.------- .................................................................. 1198
1198


58.33


55.98


.......................------ ..... ..............----- ...----...... 566

............................................................ ---..... 1200


70.02 ................................................................. 1197


58.91 ................................................................ 1127




19.87 ................................................................ 693




............ ap-wood....................... .................. 860

........... All sap-wood ............................. ................. 861


41.73


46.62


............ .... ... .. ... .... 761
........................................... ...... ............... 76812
812

...... .............................. ..... ... ............. 1077

................................................... ..... ..... 1092





.. ............... ..................................... ...... 60


_ ~_


- ...........................................................

.............................................. .

.................................................... .. .. ... ..









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


o LAYERS OF
S Diameter GROWTI.
Species. State. Locality. Collector. Soil. free
0 in
Meters. Sap- Heart-
Swood. wood.
0


153. Nyssa capitata...... ..................
0_Ogeech Lime. Sour Tupelo. Gopher
Plum.

14. Nyssa sylvatica .....................
Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge. Black
GUm.

















155. Nyssa uniflora ....- ...................
Large Tupelo. Cotton Gum. Tuvelo
Gum.








CAPRIFOLIACEE.

156. Sambucus glauca.....................
Elder.

157. Sambucus Mexicana ..................
Elder.

158. Viburnum Lentago ...................
Sheepberry. Nannyberry.






159. Viburnum prunifolium..............
Black Har. Stag Bush.






RUBIACEE.

160. ExostemnmaCaribmum.................


161. Pinckneya pubens...-.................
Georgia Bark.






102. Genipa clusimfolia....................
Seven-year Apple.








18. Guettarda elliptica ...................


Georgia........... Ogeechee river .....j A. H. Curtiss....... Swampy ..........


South Carolina.... -

Tennessee.......

Georgia .........

Florida ...........

West Virginia....

Massachusetts....

... do .............

....do .............






South Carolina ...

....do .............

Alabama ........

Georgia ..........


Bonneau's Depot ...

Cumberland river...

Ogeechee river......

Chattahoochee......

Grafton............

West Newbury.....

....do ...............


H. W. Ravenel ....

A. Gattinger ......

A. H. Curtiss.......

....do ...............

C. G. Pringle.......

J. Robinson........

....do ...............


Muck.............



Muck............

Clay.............



Rich .............

....do ..........


0.220







0.220

0.214



0.256


27







49

49



66

.........I


32


Chebacco pond ..... ....do .............. Low, rich ......... ................. .......


Bonnean's Depot...

....do ...............

Stockton.......----.

Ogeecheeriver......


H. W. Ravenel......

....do ...............

C. Mohr ..........

A. H. Curtiss.......


Swampy ..........



Alluvial..........

Swampy..........


California ....... ContraCostacounty. G.R. Vasey ........ Gravelly..........


0.188

0.320







0.320


30

67


19







28


1220 Arizona ........ Santa Catalina C. G. Pringle....................... ......................
mountains.

108 Vermont.......... Charlotte ........... ....do .............. Muck... ...............

370 ....do ............. Hinesburg..............do ............... Swampy ...................................


Kentucky ........

...do ............

Georgia .........






Florida...........


257 South Carolina....

381 ....do ............


Florida ...........

....do .............

... do ............






... do .............

....do .............

....do ............


Mercer county......

....do ..............

Bainbridge .........






Upper Metacombe


Bluffton ..........

....do ...............






Uper Metacombe
Is.ey.
Elliott's Key -.....

Upper Metacombe
Key.




...do ..............

Umbrella Key......

....do ...............


W. M. Linney ......

....do .............

A. H. Curtiss.......


Shale............

Trentonlimestone.

Clay.............


....do .............I Coral.............


0. 07



0.076



0.076


36






28


J. H. Mellichamp... Sandy, swamp .... 0.108 5 34

....do ...........-.. ...do ............. .... ....... .......


A. H. Curtiss.......

....do ...............

... do ..............






....do ..............

....do. ........

....do ...............


Sandy ............

Coral.............

....do .............






....do ...........

....do .............

....do .............


0.095


34


290








291


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second.




0.4680 0.4546


0.5656

0.5650

0.6079

0.6436

0.6198

0.6849

0.7467

0.7429





0.5589

0.5656

0.5002

0.4424





0.5076


0.4588


0.7285

0.7519





0.8106

0.9140

0.7749





0.9200


0.5528

0.5126





1.0219

1.0425
0
1. 0705





0.9375

0.8409

0.7490


0.5649


0.6104

0.6682

0.5865

0.6787

0. 6748

0.6626





0.5700

0. 5649

0.5525

0.4002


Third. Average.


0.6881

0.6708

0.7022


0. 5098 ............


0.4668 0.4586


0.7075

0.7332


0.9419 ...........


0.5613 ...........

0.5131 .........


1. 0270

1. 0840


0.8933

0. 8598

0.7217


0. 9175

...........


0. 4613



0.5652

0.5650

0.6092

0.6559

0.6031

0.6839

0.6974

0.7026


0.6353


0.5645

0.5653

0.5264

0.4213


0. 5194


0. 5087


0.4614


0. 7180

0.7426


0. 7303


0.8106

0.9140

0.7749


0.8332


0. 9310


0. 5571

0.5129


0. 5350


1.0219

0. 9957

1.0772


1.0316


0.9154

0.8504

. 0.7353


0. 8337


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second. Average.

_________________ _____________ ( -I. _____________


0.85 0.33


0.66

0.89

0.49

0.49

0.52

0.41

0.38

0.32





0.72

0.66

0.58

0.76





1.60


1.83


0.27

0.29





0.46


0.47 ..........

0.60 ..........


0.24


0.28

0.49





0.71

1.00

1.48





0.88

0.94

1.33


0.81

0.79

0.43

0.49

0.53

0.40

0.39

0.34





0.76

0.81

0.59

0.66





1.55


2.17


0.28

0.30





0.49


0.22


0.27

0.58





0.60

1.02

1.55





0.79

1.03

1.32


0.34



0.74

0.84

0.46

0.49

0.53

0.41

0.38

0.33


0.52


0.74

0.74

0.59

0.71


0.70


1.57


2.00


0.28

0.30


0.29


0.48

0.47

0.60


0.52


0.23


0.28

0.54


0.41


0.66

1.01

1.52


1.06


0.84

0.99

1.32


1.05


Weight, per
cubiavera foot,
fn pounds
(average).


I 1I


28.75


39. 59


32.37


Remarks.


............................................------..--.....--.-...

... .....................................--. -.----.----------....

N. Carolinians.................... ......-- --.-----.-------------

..........................................------------...........

........ .. .. .................................... ------------...

.................................-......-.........---------------..

...............................................-------..-.........

...............................................---------.--------..





...................................................---.-.--------

.....................................................-----------.

. ....... .... .. ........................--.......--------- I

.......... ................................................-----


605



235

517

608

750

813

833

834

835






128

235

550

604


31.70 ................................................................-- 681


28.75 ................................................... ......---- 1220


........ 0.1 sap-wood...............................--- 108
........ ........................................ ........................ 370


45.51


51. 92


0.75 sap-wood...............


........................... 42


All sap-wood................- ...- .......-- ----...-----......--- 1104

All sap-wood ....................---.-------..........------- 739


58.02 ..............................-...-................-......... 466

257
....... .................................................................. 257

.................... .. .................................................... 381


33. 41


64.29


All sap-wood ..................--..--. ..----.---...--. --. -----

Second and third sp. gr. determinations made on 0.2 sap-wood..







......................... ........................ .... .......

....................................-.-.-.----------------------.-

................................--.....-...-. .----- ..---- ...---


I .


"---~-----








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.




ERICACEE.

164. Vaccinium arboreum .................
Farklebcrry.






165. Andromeda ferruginea ................







166. Arbutus Menziesii ..................--
Madrofla.







167. Arbutus Xalapensis........ .........-



168. Arbutus Texana. ......................


160. Oxydendrum arboretum ...............
Sorrel Tree. Sour Wood.






170. Kalmia latifolia .....................
Laurel. Calico Bush. Spoon Wood.
Ivy.







171. Rhododendron maximum...............
Great Laurel. Rose Bay.




MYRSINACEE.

172. Myrsine Rapanea .....................


173. Ardisia Pickeringia...................
Marlberry. Cherry.








174. Jacquinia armillaris .............. ...
Joe Wood.






SAPOTACEM.

175. Chrysophyllum oliviforme ............


176. Sideroxylon Mastichodendron.....
Maastic.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Alabama ......... Citronelle............ C. Mohr ............ Sandy ............

Georgia.........- Altamaha river.... .H. Curtiss....... Swampy..........


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
of tree,
in
meters. Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


0.127


65 ...--

. -----.. ... .


Florida.......... Jacksonville...........do............. Hummock ..... ...................

.....do ........ .....do................... .....do ......... .. ................. 0.216 5 29





California ....... Contra Costa county G. R. Vasey......... Grvelly..............

...do ... -.......... Marin county.... ...do.... ................ I .....-


Arizona ......... Santa Rita mount.
ains.


G. Engelmann
C. S. Sargent.


and Rocky .................


Texas ........... Hays county........ S.B.Buckley ...... Limestone ........


Alabama ......... Cottage Hill.......

Tennessee........ Nashville...........


2621 Virginia..........


Fancy Gap


0.086


C. Mohr ............ Light, rich ....... 0.130 28 ....

A. Gattinger........ Sandy, rocky ............-........ ...


H. Shriver


.......... Moist.....


........ 0.082


262' ....do ............ ....do. ..................do ............ ... ........ ..... ...........

262' ....do .................do ............... ...do ...................do .....................-.





2631 ...do ...... ... ......do .............. ....do ............... .....do ............. 0.078 52

2632 ... do ...............do ............... ....do .............do ................- ..


1123 Florida........... Bay Biscayne....... A.H.Curtiss ....... Coral............. ...-----.-- --------.....


....do .................do ............

....do ................do .............

... do ........... Palm creek ....





....do ............. Key Largo..........

...do............ Elliott's Key .......

...do ............. Umbrella Key ......


492 1....do .......


....do ..............

....do ...............

....do ..... .........





....do ...............

....do ...............

....do ...............


....do ............

....do..........

....do .............





....do .............

....do .............

....do ..........


Bay Biscayne ...........do ......... ..do.........


UVper Metacombe ....do ...................do ...........
Key.


0.080


15


292


~~









293


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


_______ ______________ II -


First.




0.7814

0.7740


Second. Third.




0.7479 ............

0.7405 ............


0.7766 0.8021 ............

0.7037 0.7174 ...........






0.6452 0.6939 ..........

0.7482 0.7332 ............


0.7202

0.6842


0. 955

0.7397


Average.




0.7647

0.7573


0.7610


0.7894

0.7106


0.7500


0.6696

0.7407


0.7052


. .. .. 0.7099


0.7535 1 0.7674 0.7292 0.7500


0.7920

0.7114






0.7536

0.7214

0.6730


0.7574 0.7916

...-. ..... ............


0.6266 ........... .. ......

0.6341 ...........






0.8491 0.8541 0.7990


0. 8154

0.8800

0.8770






0.5693

0.6437

0.8300


0.8412

0.8532

0.8942


0.6500

0.6475

0.7965


0.6582


0.8986 0.9433 0.9660


0.7803

0.7114


0.7458


0. 7536

0.7214

0.6730


0.7160


0.6266

0.6341


0.6303


0.8341


0.8283

0.8666

0.8856


0. 8602


0.6258

0.6456

0.8132


0.6948


0.9360


First.




0.42

0.35


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


0.45 0.37

0.56 0.45


0.42

0.42


044

0.34


0.39


0.41

0.51


0.46


0.38

0.41


0.40


0.21 0. 24
. .. .0.25
S....... 0.30)


0.54


0.42

0.27






0.61

0.31

0.32


0.43 ..........

0.29 ..........






0.74 0.88


1.84

1.95

1.95






3.82

3.74

2.73


1.36 1.11


1 0125 I 10149 1.0052 1.0109 4.90 5.37


0.51


0.46

0.29


0.37


Weight,per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


- II I11


47. 42


46.74


43.95


Remarks.


.................................................................. 1033

....................... -.... ...................................... 1034


.................................................................. 643

..--- -....... ..................................................... 679


............ -.......................-- .- ...- ....-- .....- .. -...... -.. -.... -. 596



46.74 0. 5 sap-wood.................................................. 1085


...--.. -. ... ...........................................-.......-....... 353

.--- .................................................................. 515


46.48


0.61 ............

0.31 ............

0.32 ------------
0.32 ............


0.41 44.62


0.43 ..........

0.29 ..........


0.36 39.28


0.81 51.98


1.83 .. .. ..

1.85 .....

1.85 ..........


1.85 53. 61


3.96 ...........

3.61 ...........

2.79 ............


3.45 43.30


1.24 58.33


5.14 63.00


.................................................................. 263,
................................................................. 2631


........................... .......... .... ... .................. 1123


494

1136

1192






498

1130

1199






492


461


..-- .------- .- ..- ....- ...... .-.-- ..--- .-- ......--..--..--.

.- ..- ...----- ....-.-.-----...--.... ..... .... ..-.-...-

..-- ...--- .----- .-- ..-. ..-.....---..-. ....---.-----.


..................................................................






..................................................................

..................................................................

..................................................................






..................................................................


... . . . ................................................


qonn-n1 IAv- i .








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


177. Dipholis salicifolia ....................
Bustic. Cassada.








178. Bumelia tenax.........................


179. Bumelialanuginosa ...................
Gum Elastic. Shittim Wood.








180. Bumelia spinosa........................









181. Bumelia lycioides...................
Iron Wood. Southern Buckthorn.

182. Bumelia cuneata .....................
Ants' Wood. DownwardPlum. Saf-
fron Plum.





188. Mimusops Sieberi ......... ........
Wild Dily.



EBENACEE.

184. Diospyros Virginiana..................
Persimmon.












185. Diospyros Texana.....................
Black Persimmon. Mexican Persim-
mon. Ohapote.



STYRACACEaE.

180. Symplocos tinctoria ...................
Horse Sugar. Sweet Leaf.






187. Halesia diptera.....................
Snow-drop Tree. Silver-bell Tree.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


____________ I 1- -I- I* -


Florida...........

....do .............

....do .............


Bay Biscayne.......

Umbrella Key ......

No-Name Key......


A. H. Curtiss .......

....do ..............

....do ...............


Coral.............

....do .............

....do .............


746 Georgia...........I Bainbridge ......... ....do .............. Low .............


Missouri..........

Texas ...........

Missouri..........





Arizona ..........


Allenton...........

Austin............

Allenton............





Santa Catalina
mountains.

....do ...............


G. W. Letterman....

C. Mohr ...........

G. W.Letterman....


Limestone ........

....do .............

....do .............


0.170

0.150







0.128


0. 286

0.237


LAIERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


36

7







29


57

65


14

25


C. G.Pringle........ Rocky ............ .....................

... do ................. do .................................


333 Tennessee........ Nashville........... .Gattinger........ All..... ..... .......


503 Florida ........... Long Key .......... A. Curtiss ....... Coral ..................................

1124 ....do ............. Boca Chica Key .... ....do ........... do .................. .............


Missouri ..........

Tennessee ........

West Virginia....

Missouri..........

....do .............


Upper Metacombe
Key.





Allenton............

Nashville ...........

Grafton............

Allenton...........

....do ...............


....do ...................do ...........


0.170


G. W.Letterman.... Rich upland ...... 0.158 56 .......

A. Gattinger........ Richloam .... .... .............


C. G.Pringle........

G. W. Letterman....

....do ..............


Rich upland ......

....do .............


Texas............I Austin ...........I C. Mohr............. Calcareous ........


Alabama ........... Cottage Hill...... ....do .............

Arkansas......... Texarkana........... G. W. Letterman....


Sandy ...........

....do .............


0.098







0.134

0.123


26 ........

47 .......


Georgia........... Bainbridge ........ A.H. Curtiss ....... Low ............. ......................

Florida......... Apalachicola ...... C.Mohr............ Alluvial.......... ................. I....--


294







295


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. Weiht, pe
__________________- _------cubic _foot, Remark.
in pounds

First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. average) .


58.06


45.45









40.78


............


0.9813

0.9737

0.9312





0.7106


0.7541

0.5947

0.6221





0.6580

S0.6392

0. 6565


0.8887

0.9233

0.8912


0.7479 ............


0.9350

0.9485

0.9112


0.9316


0.7293


0.7420

0.5907

0.6304


0.6544


0.6786


0.6419



0.6603


0.7467


0.7516

0.8402


0. 7959


1.0838






0.7552

0.8552

0.7913

0.7855

0.7667


0.7908


0. 8460







0.5429

0. 5220


0.5325


0.5431

0. 5978


0. 5705


0.34

0.26

0.37





0.71


1.10

1.44

1.27





1.19


1.32






0.81


2.29

1.60





2.89






1.03

0.95

0.83

0.86

0.97





3.34







0.72

0.62





0.57

0.35


0.7299

0.5997

0.6386





0.6991

0. 6063

0. 6658


0.7467 ............ ............


0.7567

0.8420





1. 0525






0.7639

0. 8552

0.7962

0.7790

0.7710





0.8325







0. 5265

0. 5079





0.5481

0.5099


0.32

0.31

0.33





0.84


1.02

1.28

1.27





1.04


1.43






0.81


2.31

1.43





2.32






1.03

1.12

0.70

1.02

1.05





3.32







0.81

0.57





0.42

0.35


Female......................................... .............




Wood with black streaks.....................................


41.15


46.53


............




49. 60


67.54






: ,-- - -









49. 28


52. 72







............

............


33.18








35. 55


0.7465

0. 8384





1. 0989






0.7465


0.7864

0.7920

0.7722





0.8391







0.5593

0. 5360





0.5381

0. 5957


0.5777


L 1000













0.7570





0.8664


0.33

0.29

0.35


0.32


0.78


1.06

1.36

1.27


1.23


1.11


.................................................................. 936


................................................................. 503

................................................. ............... 1124


............................................................. 1146


1.37 ...... ............... ....................... ................


1.24


0.81


2.30

1.51


1.90


2.61






1.03

1.04

0.77

0194

1.01


0.96


3.33







0.77

0.60


0.68


0.50

0.35


0.42


...........................................................-......

...............................................................--

..................................................................


........................................--...........--...-

...................................................

................................................-----







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


188. Halesia tetraptera....................
Rattleboz. Snow-drop Tree. Silver-
bell Tree. Calico Wood.





OLEACEaE.

189. Fraxinus Greggii.....................


[90. Froxinus anomala .....................



191. Fraxinuspistaciiefolia...... ..........
Ash.







193. Fraxinus Americans ...............
White Ash.


















































102. Fraxins Americana, var. Texensis ....







193. Fraxinuspnbescens. ................
Red Ash.


State.


Locality.


Virginia.......... Carter's ferry.......

Georgia........... Altamaba river.....


Mexico ........... Lampasas mount-
ains.

Utah ............. Kane county........


Arizona ..........


Eastern Arizona. -


Santa Rita mount-
ains.

San Francisco mount
ains.


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

E. L. Greene........


Massachusetts.... Acushnet........... E.A. Dana .........

Missouri......... Allenton ........... G. W. Letterman ...

...do ............ ....do ............... ...do ............

...do ............. ....do ................ do ............

Michigan......... Dansville........... W.J. Beal..........

....do ............. Hudson ............ ....do ...............

...do ............. Lansing--- .do...............do ......

....do ............. Dansville.. ..--.....do .---.........

South Carolina ... Bonneau's Depot... H. W.avenel......

Illinois ........... Waukegan.......... Robert Douglas.....

Ohio ............ Pineo, Daniels &Co. E.E.Barney........

....do ............. Farmers' Friend ....do ...........---
Manufacturing Co.
... do............. J.W.Stoddard&Co.....do...............

...do............. Woodsum Machine ...do .....------...-
Co.
....do ............. B. E. McSherry & ....do ...............
Co.
Virginii .......... Wytheville ......... H. Shriver .........

Vermont ......... Charlotte ---..........-- C.G. Pringle........

...do ..................do ........... . ....do ..............

Virginia.......... Wytheville......... H. Shriver..........

...do ........... .....do ..... ....do...............


Low ..............................-........


Siliceous hills ...

Alluvial .........

....do ............

Clay..............


Clay....................

.et............

Clay ............
Clay ..............












Gravelly........

Swampy .........


..... . . . .


2678 ....do ............. ....do ............. ....do ..................................... .........................


Tennessee........ Nashville ..........


Alabama..........

Pennsylvania.....

Georgia ..........

Massachusetts....


oemper's mill......

Williamsport .......

Bainbridge ........

Reading ..........


............ Dallas .............

............ Austin .............


364 Texas

037 ....do


139

229'

2292 .


Michigan........ Lansing ............

Vermont......... Charlotte...........

.. do .............. do ..............


A. Gattinger........ Limestone ..............................


C. Mohr............

C. G.Pringle.......

A. H. Curtiss.......

J. Robinson.........


Alluvial ..........


River-bottom .....

....................


0.268


0.260

0.215


J. Reverchon....... Dry, calcareous... 0.384

C.Mohr............. Rich, calcareous ............





W.J.Beal.......... Poor.............

C.G.Pringle ....... Clay..................

....do ............. ......do .......................


296


79


95

64





69


..........



... . .


.........

..........


..........




..... .




..........









297


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average.


0. 5617 0.5460

0.5569 0.5864


0.7778


0. 6708


0.6336

0. 7267

0.6868






0. 5911

0.6253

0.6223

0. 6771

0.5265

0.7225

0. 6506

0.6086

0. 6744

0.7631

0.7449

0.7179

0.6470

0.6383

0. 6116

0.6157

0. 6253

0. 6489

0.6097

0.6329

0.6763

0.6449

0.6176

0.6423

0.5599

0.9131


0.8030


0.6485


0. 6243

0. 6656

0.7120






0.6682

0.6481





0.4711







0.7005

0.7600



0.7116

0.6473

0.6387



0.6213

0.6326

0. 6987









0.6481

0.5944

0.5972

0.8141


0.8252 0.8530

0.7005 0.6667


0. 5066

0.6610

0. 455


0.6529



.......... .


............

............

............

...........

............

............

............

-----.------

............

............

............

............

...........

----------..

............

............

............

............

............

...........

............

............

0. 8016


0.5539

0.5717


0.5628





0.7904


0. 6597



0.6625


0.6094


0.6810



0.6297

0. 6367

0.6223

0. 6771

0.4988

0.7225

0.6506

0.6086

0.6875

0.7616

0.7449

0.7148

0.6472

0.6385

0. 6116

0.6185

0.6290

0. 6738

0.6097

0.6329

0.6763

0.6449

0. 6329

0.6184

0.5786

0. 8429


0. 6543



0.8391


............ 0.6881


0.7636



0.6779 0.6125

............ 0.6619

........... 0.6455


0.38 0.36

0.48 0.38


0.97


0.81


0.84

0. 44

0. 51






0.29

0.33

0.51



0.53

0.60

0.38

0.32

0.36

0.45

0.35

0.39

0 31



0.24

0.45

0. 30

0.26

0.43

0.35

0.44

0.74

0.55

0.37

0.68

0.47






0.56

0.86






0.26

0.21

0.22


0.89


0. 88


0. 88

0. 69)

0.54






0.32

0.34













0.39

0.45

0.37

0.39

0.29



0.24

0.42











0.69

0.48

0.28

0.71

0.39






0.49

0.87


0.37

0.43


0. 40





0.93


0.85


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


35.07





49.26


41.11


Remarks.


.................................................................. 1221


Growth slow................................................... 1105


0.71 .... ........ ..----..--------- -----------..................------.......--


0.53


0.62



0.31

0. 34

0. 51



0.53

0.60

0.38

0.32

0.38

0.45

0.36

0.39

0.30



0.24

0.44

0.30

0.26

0.43

0.35

0.44

0.72

0.52

0.33

0.70

0.43


0.42



0.53

0.87


0.70



0.26


42.43


Wood from hills not considered valuable................ ..

All sap-wood.................................................











All sap-wood.... ................... ............

All sap-wood; second growth. Growth rapid...... .......










0.5 sap.wood.................................................-
0.5 sap. ood............................ ---- --------------------




0.5 sap-wood.. ......................................

0.5 sap-wood ......................... ............... .......

All sap-wood ........................................--


..-....... ............................ ........... .................. 1045


40. 77



...................... ...- .----..................................... 364
-3-4


....... .. .. ................- ..--............................................. 937


47.59



.-...-..-. .. Poor quality ............................... ....--.-1- 8 139


.......... 0.21 j............................- .... ............................. 22

.......... 0.22 .................................... ................ 229


:=
I I


-----------



...... ......

............



............


.........-..


............



............

------------

............







298


LAYERS OF
SDiameter GROWTH.
Species. State. Locality. Collector. Soil. of tree,
S in
Meters. Sap- Heart-
S wood. wood.
woo


193. Fraxinus pubescens-continned ........









104. Fraxinus viridis........................
Green Ash.












194. Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlandieriana...
Ash.

195. Fraxinusplatycarpa..................
Water Ash.

196. Fraxinus nadrangulata................
Blue Ash.


















197. Fraxinus Oregana.....................
Oregon Ash.










198. Fraxinns sambuncfolia..................
Black Ash. Hop Ash. Ground Ash.












190. Forestiera acuminata..............
Privet.








200. Chionanthus Virginica .............
fringe Tree. Old Man's Beard.


Vermont .........


Massachusetts ....






Missouri....-.....

Texas ............

Tennessee ........

Texas .-..........

...do ...........


Charlotte ........... C. G. Pringle........ Clay ...........


Topsfield ..........I J.Robinson......... River-bottom ..... .......... ........ ......


Allenton...........---.

Dallas .............

Nashville...........

Victoria ............

Matagorda bay .....


G. W. Letterman.... Rich, wet................... ..........

J.Reverchon ..... ......do............. 0.512 45 "42

A. Gattinger........ Rich upland ...... .....................

C.Mohr............. Rich, wet......... 0.144 31 .......


....do ........-...........do .............


0.184


....do ............. Austin ............. S.B.Buckley ....... ....do ...................... .... ........


Alabama.......... Stockton............


Missouri..........

Michigan.........

Kentucky........

....do ............

...do .............

Missouri-....-- ..-

.. ..do .............


Allenton ............

Lansing ............

Mercer county......

.... do ..............

...:do .............

Allenton............

....do ...............


IC. Mohr............


G. W. Letterman ...

W.J.Beal .........

W. M. Linney.......

... do ..............

....do ..............

G. W. Letterman....

....do ...............


518 Tennessee........ Nashville........... A. Gattinger........


Oregon ..........

....do ............

....do ............

....do .............





Vermont..........

Michigan .........

Illinois ...........

Vermont..........

Massachusetts ...





Georgia...........

.... do .............

Texas ............





Virginia .........

Florida .........


Portland ..........

Weidler's saw-mill .

Portland Furniture
Company.
...do ..............





Charlotte ...........

Dansville ...........

Waukegan .........

Charlotte ..........

Danvers ...........





Ogeechee river .....

Bainbridge ........

Matagorda bay.....





Carter's ferry.......

Chattahoochee......


Rich, alluvial.....


Dry upland ......

Rich loam ........

Limestone........

....do..........

....do .............

Sandy loam......

Rich upland ......

Rich limestone....


G. Enge nann and Low, wet.........
C. S. Sargent.
....do .... ............................

....do ............... ............

....do ... ..... ....................


C.G.Pringle........

W. J. Beal..........

Robert Douglas.....

C. G.Pringle........

J. Robinson ........





A. H. Curtiss .......

....do ...............

C. Mohr ............I


Wet, peaty.......

..do ...........

Low, wet.........

Wet, peaty.....

Rich, loamy.......





Rich, moist .......


Alluvial ..........


0.090


0.138
- - - -


0.236





0.075

0.150

.----------------------------------------------


27 .......


35



















46


55





31

55


H. Shriver.......... Rich, moist ...... ...... ......... ........

A.H.Curtis ....... Clay upland...... 0.141 47 .......


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT








299


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. eight, per
Sbic foot, Remarks.
iirst. po nd.
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
o


0.6459

0. 5957

0. 5685





0. 6640

0.5947

0.7350

0.7728

0.7198





0. 5774


0. 3567


0.8246

0.4929

0.7789

0.8131

0.7469

0.5967

0. 6897

0.7960





0.6432

0.5314

0.4553

0.6317





0.6209

0.5034

0. 6859

0.6485

0.7020





0.7067

0.5829

0.5988





0.6476

0.7150


0.7902

............


..-...-........----......---.....--....--.... ...-.... 2293

All sap-wood.................................................. 1059






First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood............... 57

.................. ................ ...........---------------... ..... 308

All sap-wood ...................----------...----...---..----------......... 438

Second and third sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood...... 948

Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................. 957





.... ...........-....-....-...-. ............. 1211


............

0. 5260

0.5489





0.6701

0.6277


0.8217

0.7807





0.5786


0.3515


0.8440








0.6086

0.6746







0.5947

0.6123

0.4736

0.6425





0.6338


0.6812

0.5928

0.7465





0.7500

0.5681

0.6002


0.6459

0.5598



0.6251


0.6671

0.6112

0.7350

0.7949

0. 7503


0.7117


0.5780


0.3541


0.8343

0.4929

0.7789

0.8131

0.7469

0.6027

0.6822

0.7960


0.7184


0. 6189

0.5719

0.4645

0.6371


0. 5731


0.6274

0.5034

0.6836

0.6207

0.7243


0.6318


0.7284

0. 5755

0.5995


0.6345


0.5552

0.7191


0.6372


0.47

0.54

0.82

0.63

0.82





0.51


0.69


0.63

0.96

0.74

0.81

0.82

0.88

0.78

0.60





0.11

0.73

0.12

0.21





0.62

0.89

0.84

0.77

0.46





0.75

0.65

0.88





0.53

0.39


0.42


0.41






0.62

0.57

0.80

0.56

0.76





0.56


0.76


0.67








0.90

0.74

0.61





0.43


0.15

0.24





0.57


0.88

0.83

0.48





0.72

0.72

0.60







0.56


38. 96












44.35


36.02


22. 07








---------.---

............


0.26


0.55

0.56

0.81

0.60

0.79


0.65


0.54


0.73


0.65

0.96

0.74

0.81

0.82

0. 89

0.76

0.61


0.78


0.27

0.73

0.14

0.23


0.34


0.60

0.89

0.86

0.80

0.47


0.72


0.74

0.69

0.74


0.72


0.53

0.48


0.51


46. 78


............ Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................


0.4628 ............

0.7165 0.7259


536


66

125

2861

286'

286'

291

423

518





964

1001

1024

1030





102

122

147

378

839





616

737

955





276

751


Brash.........................................................

Tough.................................-...............-......


.............. .......------------------------------ ------....





Second sp.gr. determination made on 0.125 sap-wood...........


SI sap-wood..................................









.........................................-.----------..-----......


35. 72












39.37









39.54


39. 71


0.20 ......----.

0.42 -----...--


Second growth ............... .........----- ..- ..---...........
Second growth ..................--..................---.............
Second growth ----...-------------------------------- ----------

Second growth .-------------------------------------------------.

.................................----..------------------------..








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.






201. Osmanthus Americanus ................
Devil Wood.







BOBRAGINACEE.

202. Cordia Sebestena .....................
Geiger Tree.






203. Cordia Boissieri .......................


204. Bourreria Havanensis ................
Strong Bark.






205. Ehretia elliptica............ ........
Enackaway. Anaqua.





BIGNONIACEM.

206. Catalpa bignonioides ...................
Catalpa. Catawba. BeanTree. Cigar
Tree. Indian Bean.







207. Catalpa speciosa........... ..........
Western Catalpa.





















208. Chilopsis saligna .......... ........
Desert Willow.


State.


Louisiana.........

Alabama..........

Florida ...........


Locality.


Amite ............

Cottage Hill........

Saint John's river ..


Collector.


C. Mohr............

....do ..... ...... ...

A. H. Curtiss .......


Rich, alluvial.....

Low, rich ........

Sandy loam.......


Diameter
oftree,
in
meters.


0.190


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


45


19


1202 ....do ............. IKey West .......... ....do ............... Coral ................ -..... ..-...........

1218 ....do ............. ... do ............ ... .. do ...............-...do .............. ..... .... ........


Texas......----...... Brownsville........ S. .B Buckley....... Limestone.... ...................


Florida.......... Upper Metacombe A.H. Curtiss ....... Coral ............ 0.02 45 ....
Key.
...do ............. Key Largo..............do...............do ....... ....... ............





Texas ...... ....................... Department of Ag ............ --............. ..........
riculture.
....do ..----.........----.. ew Braunfels .... C. Mohr............-- Rich, alluvial..... 0.170 25 ........


Ohio.............

Alabama..........

Georgia...........





Missouri-.........

Ohio ...........

Illinois ..........

Indiana...........

Tennessee ........


Alexandersville .. ..

Stockton...........

Bainbridge .........





Charleston..........

Dayton .............

Cairo ..............

Wabash river .....

Obion river .......


Missouri.......... New Madrid........

Illinois ........... Ullin ............


S. H. Binkley and E.
E. Barney.
C. Mohr............

A.H. Curtiss .......





C.S.Sargent.......

E. E.Barney ........

D. Axtell ...........

E. E. Barney........

E. P. Hynds and E.
E Barney.
E.E.Barney........

....do ..............


Clayey loam ......

Low, wet..........

Clay..............





Wet clay..........

Clay ...........--..

....do ..........

Low, alluvial bot-
tom.
....do .............
....do .............

....do .............


0.238





0.288


..........

..........


..........


Missouri.......... New Madrid ........... .do ............... ...do .........-..........


...do ............. ....do .............

Indiana ......... Vincennes..........


New Mexico......

Arizona ..........

....do .............


209. Crescentia cucurbitina ............... 1216 Florida ...........
Black Calabash Tree.


VERBENACE2E.

210. Citharexylumvillosum ................
Fiddle Wood.


Valley of the Upper
Gila river.
Tucson ............

....do ...............


3





8


17





51


....do ............... ....do ............. .......... ...... ...

....do ..................do .......- ..... ...--... .... -....- ..


E. L. Greene ........

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....do ...............


Alluvial ..........

Moist, gravelly ...

....do .............


Bay Biscayne...... .H. Curtiss ....... Coral ........................ ....--I....-----


483 I....do ................do ................. .do. ............ ......do .......................... -----


300









301


THE WOODS OF, THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. We r
cubic foot, Remarks.
in pounds

First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
0


0.8156 0.8652 ............


0.8606 ....................... 0.8606


0.7100 0.7544 ............


0.7740 ............ ............

0.6008 0.6942 ..........


0.6870 ...........


0.8248 ...........

0.7960 0.7980


0.6368 ..........


0.8644 ............ 0.8710


0.65 0.67 ........... 0.5 sap-wood...........-----..... ..-... ----- -----....... 283


0.29

0.43







4.09

4.28






3. 39


0.28

0.43


0.46



4.09

4.35


4.22


3.53


42.31 ----------------------- -- --. ---.----------------- ------------


All sap-wood ...............--.----------.......--- ----------. 344

First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second sp. gr. de- 584
termination made on 0.75 sap-wood.





...............-- .............. ...... ..................... -------1202

............................................. ...-- -........... 1218


1223


3.20 3.29 ........... .......... ............ .....-----........... 455

2.27 2.28 ........................ ..... ....-------.-------------- --............----- 1137


0.7322


0.8111



0.7740

0.6475


0.7108


0.6790


0.8264

0.7883


0.8073


0.6592

0.6288


0. 6440



0.4282

0.4837

0.4302


0.4474


0.4524

0.4527

0.3863

0.3864

0.4066

0.3900

0.3968

0.4493

0.4535

0.3909


0.4165


0.6059

0.5631

0.6015


0. 5902


0.6319


0.26

0.43









4.43






3.67


3.38

2.28






1.23

1.33







0.40

0.26

0.47






0.30

0.34

0.36

0.32

0.45

0.38

0.47

0.48

0.40

0.38






0.37

0.43

0.32






1.47


0.54 0.52


50.31


40.13


.1 - - - - -

............

..--------.-

............

............

............

............

............

............

............


25. 96


Cnutivated ..................----.----- -----. ------.-..----------
................a .................................................





Cult vate ----------------------------------------.--------------




Cultivated.............-.........--..-....-..- ..




-. ...............................-.- ........ --- --- .............

From an old fence-rail..............................----......-

From a post 47 years in the ground.......-....................

From a standing tree killed by earthquake in 1812..........

..................................................................

.... ......... .. ........................................






..................................................................

............................... .............--........-- ..

...... ... ... .............. .. .... ..... ....................


...........-- ......-- ............................................. 827

---..-----.....-----......................-..................................------------- 942


167

540

744






38

160

166

171

180

181

182

183

184

210






556

505

682


1.27

1.41







0.41

0.34

0.37






0.41

0.39

0.34

0.30

0.50

0.42

0.43

0.37

0.34

0.39






0.37

0.41

0.32






1.23


0.8404 1 0.68


2.79


1.25

1.37


1.31



0.41

0.30

0.42


0.38


0.36

0.37

0.35

0.31

0.48

0.40

0.45

0.43

0.37

0.39


0.39


0.37

0.42

0.32


0.37


1.35


39.38 ...................... .................. ........................ 1216





54.28 ................................................................. 83


0.49


0.6710


0.8280

0.7708






0.6636

0.6274


0.4293

0.4694

0.4426






0.4601

0.4586

0.3897

0.3850

0.4156

0.3900

0.3968

0.4493

0.4535

0.3911






0.6059

0.5631

0.6003


0.6270





0.8775


0.6548 ..........

0.6302 ...........


0.4270

0.4979

0.4177






0.4446

0.4467

0.3829

0.3878

0.3783









0.3907









0.6026


............

............

............

0.4260

..........

............

...........

............

..-----------








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


211. Avicennia nitida.......................
Black Mangrove. Black Tree. Black
Wood.






NYCTAGINACE.E.

212. Pisonia obtusata.......................
Pigeon Wood. Beef Wood. Cork Wood.
Pork Wood.


POLYGONACEE.

213. Coccoloba Floridana...................
Pigeon Plum.

214. Coccoloba uvifera ................
Sea Grape.


LAURACE;E.

215. Persea Carolinensis ...................
Red Bay.

215. Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris......


216. Nectandra Willdenoviana .............
Lance Wood.











217. Sassafras officinale ..................
Sassafras.














218. Umbellularia Californica..............
Mountain Laurel, California Laurel.
Since Tree. Capiput. California
ive. California Bay Tree.



EUPHORBIACEIE.

219. Drpetes crocea.......... ........
uiana Plum. White Wood.








219. Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia..........


State.


Florida ..........

....do .............

....do .............


Locality.






Bay Biscayne.......


......................


Collector.


A. H. Curtiss.......

Department of Ag-
riculture.
....do ............


Coral .............


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
oftree,
in
meters. Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


0.158


39


18


474 i...do ............. Upper Metacombe A. H. Curtiss....... Coral ..................................
473 ............ ey.




473 ....do ............. ....do ...........do ...do ............. 0.156 48 27


453 ....do ................do ................do ......... Sandy .........





585 ....do ............ Saint John's river ......do .............. Sandy loam.......


340 Alabama.......... Mobile county ...... C. Mohr ........... Damp, sandy .....


470 Florida...........

1138 ....do .............


1196 1...do .............


Missouri..........

....do .............

Tennessee ........

West Virginia....

Massachusetts ...

Missouri..........


Upper Metacombe
Key.

Bay Biscayne.......


Upper Metacombe
Key.





Allenton..........

....do ..............

Nashville ...........

Grafton............

Danvers ...........

Allenton...........


A. H. Curtias....... Coral ............. ........ ...... ...-


....do .............. ... do .............


0.086


27 1......


....do .......-............do ...............---............ ....


G. W. Letterman...

....do ..............

A. Gattinger .......

C. G. Pringle .......

J. Robinson ........

G. W. Letterman ...


Low, rich.........

Alluvial.........

Rich..........


Rich loam ........

Low, alluvial.....


Oregon ........... Coos bay..... G. Englmnn nd ........ .........
C. S. Sargent.
California ............... ............ Department of Ag- ................
ncolture.


Florida ..........

....do .............

....do .............


Upper Metacombe
Key.
No-Name Key .....

Upper Metacombe
Key.


0.232


11


08


A. H. Curtis ....... Coral ........ ........................

....do ...................do ........................... ......

....do ............... ...do ................. ........... ......


....do ............. ....do ............ I ....do .................do .............


....do .................do ...............


302


-


....do ............... .








303


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


Second. I Third. Average.


1.0485

1.0522

0.6762






0.6582


First.




1.0919

0.9066

0.7074






0.6475





0.9629


0. 9149





0.6373


0.5977


0.8206

0.7980

0.8148

0.7222






0.5030

0.4900

0.4542

0.5266

0.5765

0.4558






0.6326

0.6697






0.9195

0.8918

0.9690





1.0009

0.9048


0.7650

0.8482

0. 7980

0.6787






0.5210

0.4828


0.5363

...........19
0.4319


0.6202 ...........

0.6840 ...........


0. 8448

0. 9119

0.9882





0. 9390

0.8878


0.5773

0.5055


1.0702

0.9794

0.6918


0.9138



0.6529





0.9835


0.9635





0.6429


0.6396


0.7928

0.8147

0.7005


0.7693



0.5120

0.4864

0.4542

0.5315

0.5769

0.4644


0.5042



0.6264

0. 6769


0. 6517



0.8821

0.9019

0.9786


0.9209


0.9730

0.8963


0. 9346


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First. Second.


1.12

1.72

4.01






7.79





4.81


1. 63





0.85


0.27


0.68


Average.


1.56

1.71

4.27


2.51



7.62





5.03


1.37





0.76


0.37


0.75


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
averagee).











56. 95


Remarks.


0.5 sap-wood ..............----....-------...................... 490

First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second sp.gr. 826
determination made on 0.5 sap-wood.
All sap-wood............................................ 828


40.69 ..-----..--------....----------------........................--- 474


61.29


60.04


0.66 sap-wood............ ...........--------- .............. 473


First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood; third sp. gr. 453
determination made on 0.25 sap-wood.


40.07 .----.........--- .....---- ................................- 585


39.86 -........-- ............-......- .......................-- 340


........ 0.9 sap-wood ................-- -.... .................-- 470


0.59 0.56 1........... Allsap-wood...................- -........--....---....--- 1138


0.48


0.60


0.10



0.32

0.46


0.39


8.16 8.37

3.26 3.23

6.58 6.83


6.14


9.09 8.89

7.70 7.70


40.61


57.39


...........58 24 .............. . . . . .
58.24
,i1


... ....... .......................... .......... ............. 1196


All sap-wood ............. ..............................

............ ...................................... ...........


................................-.................................- 7
............ .... . -. . . . ..-.------..--- .---- 897


1.0040 ............


0. 9998 0. 9759





0.6485 ............


0.6815 ............


I I .


i


I


........-- ..- .- ... ......- ..- ..... ..--- ...-- ..--- ..............

--- ------------.. .... ... .. -.... ... ....- .. ...



... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .


8. 29








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.






2?0. Sobastiania lucida .....................
Crab Wood. Poison Wood.









221. Hippomane Mancinella ................
Manchineel.


URTICACEZ.

222. Ulmus crassifolia......................
Cedar Elm.







223. Ulmus falva...........................
RedElm. SlipperyElm. Moose Elm.

























224. Ulmus Americana ...................
WhiteElm. AmericanElm. WaterElm.


















225. Ulmus racemosa......... ............
Rock Elm. Cork Elm. Hickory Elm.
White Elm. Cliff Elm.














226. Ulmus alata........................
Wahoo. Winged Elm.


State.


Florida ...........

. ..do ......*......

....do .............


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


Diameter
oftree,
in
meters.


____ ____ ____ ___ i__ _ I. - i


Upper Metacombe
Key.
....do -.............

Key Largo.........


A.H. Curtiss........

...,do ...............

....do ...............


Coral ............

....do .............

....do ...........


....do .............I KeyW est ..........-....do ... .do.......... ..do .... .....


0.116










0.129


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


40


30










35


324 Texas ... ---..- Dallas .............. J. Reverchon....... Rich loam......... 0. 484 52 70

929 ....do ............ Austin.............. C. IMohr -...do......................... ........ ....


Kentucky.........

....do ............

....do .............

Vermont..........

Michigan .........

Missouri..........

Vermont..........

...-do ...........


Mercer county......

....do ...............

....do ...............

Hinesburg..........

Dansville.-.........

Allenton...........

Charlotte ...---...-

... do ..............


W. M. Linney.......

....do ...............

....do ...............

C. G. Pringle........

W.J.Beal..........

G. W. Letterman....

C. G. Pringle........

....do ...............


Limestone........

....do ..........

....do ............

Gravelly loam ....

Gravelly.........

Rich, alluvial.....

Gravelly..........

....do .............


Tennessee ........ Nashville---.......... A. Gattinger-........ Clay ...............-..... .....---...-....


Massachusetts -







... do ............

Ohio..............

Missouri..........

.. do ............

Tras ...........


Borford ...... .....I J. Robinson ........ Rich loam ..........................I ........


Arnold Arboretum .

S. M. Brown & Co..

Allenton..........

... do ..............

Colorado river......


C. S. Sargent........

E. E.Barney........

G. W. Letterman....

....do ............

C.Mohr............


Drift ...... .......

Limestone.......

Alluvial ..........

....do ............

....do .............


Massachusetts .... Danvers .--.--......... Robinson......... Gravelly.........

....do ............ North Reading .........do .................. .do .............


Michigan .........

....do ............

....do .............

....do .............

....do .............

Tennessee ........






South Carolina ...

Tennessee........

Mississippi .......


Dansvillle ..........

Big Rapids .......

....do ...............

Hudson ...........

Hersey ...........

Nashville..........






Bonneau's Depot ...

Davidson county ...

Kemper's mill ......


W.J. Beal ..........

....do ..............

....do .. ...........

....do ...............

....do ...............

A. Gattinger ........






H. W. Ravenel......

A. Gattinger........

C. Mohr.............


....do .............

Low, gravelly....

....do .............

Alluvial ..........

Rich loam .......

....do .............






....do .........-...

Loam.............

Alluvial.........


0.561







0.230


0.160

0.215


0.244


19







17


7

21


82


38







5


17

10


38


304


'---'









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


1.1195

1.0900

1.0832





0.5945





0.6286

0.7867





0.8363

0.7002

0.6499

0.5699

0.6769

0.6841

0. 6540

0.7330

0.6706

0.7613

0.7978





0.5462

0.7459

0.6221

0.6299

0.6495


0.6382

0.7173





0.8144

0. 6846

0.6803

0.7345

0.7290

0.7414





0.8710

0.5979

0.7032


Second.


1.0855

1.0765

1.1010





0.5600





0.7185

0.7640


0.8358 ............

.. . . ............


0. 5538


0.6841

0. 7589

0. 6303


0. 7522

0. 8180





0.5309

0.7287

0.6054


0. 6480


0.7102

0.7085









0.5996


0. 7570







0. 8544

0.6220

0.7860


Third.


1.0640

............


............


0.6346


0.6265


0.6742

0.7116


20 FOR


Average.




1.1025

1.0768

1. 0921


1. 005


0.5772





0.6730

0. 7754


0.7245


0.8361

0.7062

0.6499

0.5619

0.6769

0.6841

0. 7065

0.6817

0.6706


0.7823



0.6956


0.5386

0.7373

0.6207

0.6299

0.6413


0. 6742

0.7124


0. 6506


0.8144

0.6846

0.6400

0.7345

0.7430

0.7414


0.7263


0. 8627

0.6100

0.7746


0. 7491


ASH DETERMINATION. e
r______ee__________ cubic foot,
in pounds
First. Second. Average. (average).


4. 90

1.82

1.65





5.20





1.05

1.41





1.30

0.79

0.60

0.86

0.82

0.68

1.24

0.12

1.22


1.07






0.86

0.40

0.93

0.86

1.04


0.75

0.75





0.42


0.34

0.79

0.59

0.90





1.02

1.14

0.76


4.48

,1.96

1.82





5.11





1.03

1.30





1.00




0.81


0.79

0.84

0.11

1.31


0.70






0.82

0.56
----------



0.99


1.01

0.45











...........

0.69

0.72





1.12

1.17

0.72


4.72 -..........

1.89 ............

1.74 .... ....


2.78 67.96


5.16 35. 97


1.04

1.36


1.20


1.15

0.79

0.60

0.84

0.82

0.74

1.04

0.12

1.27


0.88



0.83


0.84

0.48

0.93

0.86

1.02

0.88

0.00


0. 80


0.42


0.34

0.79

0. 64

0.81


0.60


1.07

1.16

0.74


45. 15
45.15


43.35


------------


40.54














45.26


0. 99 46. 69


Remarks.


0.25 sap-wood ................................................... 469

0.5 sap-wood.................... ... ... ... 1126

.......-....... .. -........ ......... .. ... . 1206


................ ........... ......... ......... ----- 1110


Ash of a knot, 1.85 ...........................................---

..... ....................- .. ............................





............. . .......... ........................

..................................................................


..................................................................

....................................... .. .. .. .. .. .
..................................................................

.. .................................... . . .

..................................................................
..' ...............................................................

..................................................................


Specific gravity of wet sap-wood, 1.026 ....................

Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.............---




First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood; second sp. gr.
determination made on 0.75 sap-wood; third sp. gr. determina-
tion made on sap-wood.
Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood ................

First sp. gr. determination made on 0.25 sap-wood; second and
third sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood.




















All sap-wood ...........................-- -..............

0.5 sap-wood........ ...................................
0.5 ap- ood.... ... ....... ... ....... ... ... .... ......


305


_ _







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


227. Planers aquatica ......................







228. Celtis occidentalls.....................
Sugarerry. Hackberry.
















228. Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata......
Hackberry. Palo Blanco.

229. Ficus aurea...........................


230. Ficus brevifolia .......... ...........


231. Fins pedunculata.....................
Wild Fig. India-rubber Tree.

232. Morusrubra........................
Red Mulberry.






233. Morns microphylla ...................
Mexican Mulberry.






234. Macluraaurantiaca...............
Osage Orange. Bois d'Are.




PLATANACEzE.
235. Platanus occidentalis-.................
Sycamore. Button Wood. Button-ball
Tree. Water Beech.







236. Platannsracemosa.....................
Sycamore. Button Wood.

237. Platanns Wrightii.....................
Sycamore.

JUGLANDACEIE.
238. Jglans cinerea.....................
Butternut. White Walnut.


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


Florida ........... Chattahoochee...... A. H. Curtiss ....... ich, alluvial.....
....do ............ ...do.............. C.Mohr............. ....do .............


69 Missouri.........
75' ....do .............

752 ....do ............

306 Texas ...........

375 Tennessee........

864 Massachusetts ....
873 ....do ...........

1111 Missouri..........





652 Arizona ..........


761


Allenton.-..........

....do ..............

....do ..............


G.W.Letterman....
....do ..............

....do ...............


Dallas .............. J.Reverchon .......

Davidson county ... A. Gattinger........

Plum Island ........ J. Robinson.........

Salem...................do ..... .......

Saint Louis......... Henry Eggert ......


Limestone ........

Low, rich.........
Alluvial ..........
... do ............

Loam...........

Sandy ............
Loam............
Moist loam -.---..


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS Or
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart
wood. wood.


0.246 38 ......
.......... ..... .....


0.108











0.132


Santa Rita mount- G. Engelmann and Dry............... .........
ains. C. S. Sargent.


50








4


23


30


Florida........... Bay Biscayne....... A. Curtiss...... Coral.....................................


....do ............. Key Largo.......... ....do .....do.................. ..............


..-.do ............. BocaChicaKey ..... ....do ................do ............................


Missouri.......... Allenton............ G. W. Letterman... Rich loam ........ .......... .............

Tennessee........ Nashville........... A. Gattinger........ ....do .................... ...........


New Mexico...... Silver City.......... E. L. Greene........ Moist clay........

Texas ............ Austin............. S. B. Buckley....... Limestone........


....do ............. Dallas .............. J. Keverchon....... Bottom....................... ......

Pennsylvania..... West Chester...... S. P. Sharples....... Clay loam ........ 0.710 3 44


Massachusetts....

Missouri..........

Ohio..............


Arnold A-boretum..

Allenton......--....

Miami valley .......


C. S. Sargent .......

G. W. Letterman -...

E. E. Barney.......


Drift.............

Rich, alluvial.....
....do .............


California......... Carmel river........ G. Vasey......... Clay..............


Arizona .......... Santa Rita mount-
ains.


G. EnRelmann and Rich, gravelly....
C. S. Sargent.


Massachusetts.... Arnold Arboretum.. C.S. Sargent........
Missouri.......... Allenton............ G. W.Letterman...


760 ....do .............

123 Michigan.........


... do .................. do .......... ...

Dansville........... W. J. Beal .........


Drift .............


0.680









0.280


0.560


33


53


20 1.......


Rich loam ......................

Alluvial .........................

Gravelly clay..... .......... .......


306


) I I _~_









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


'OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETEBRMI NATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. W
Weight, per
Cubic foot, Remarks.
in pounds Remarks.
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average)


............








0. 7385

0.7604

0.6396


0.5683

0.4906


0. 5204


0.7611

0.6858

0.6592

0.7274

0.8170

0.7452

0.7837

0.6504


0. 7287


0.7275


0.2616


0.6398


0.4739


0. 6118

0.5679


All sap-wood .................................... ...

All sap-wood .......................................





C. pumila......................................................






C. Missiasippiensis ......... .....................


..................... ...'~'


307


0.5735
0.4674





0.7802

0.6858

0.6592

0.6910

0. 8384

0.7784

0.7999

0.6570





0.7400


0. 2537


0.6321


0.4680


0.6242

0.5679





0.7169

0.8270





0.7841

0.8551





0. 6060

0.0073

0.4986





0.5151


0.4783



0.4183

0.4014

0.4033

0.3638


0.5631

0.5137





0.7419




0.7637

0.7956

0.7186

0.7908

0. 6547





0.7150


0.2695


0.6475


0.4798


0.48

0.42





1.89

0.74

0.68

1.70

0.97

1.05

0.89

0.89





1.32


5.17


4.55


4.83


0.77

0.69





0.57

0.79





0.87

0.38





0.35

0.47

0.40





1.17


1.34



0.35

0.40

0.69


0.48

0.42





1.89




1.60

0.90

0.75

1.07

0.94





1.12


4.88


4.18


5.00


0.60

0.78





0.54

0.82





0.88

0.59





0.32

0. 07

0.57





1.05


1.36



0.30

0.43

..........


0.48

0.42


0.45


1.89

0.74

0.68

1.65

0.94

0.90

0.98

0.92


1.09


1.22


5.03


4.36


4.92


0.68

0.74


0.71


0.56

0.81


0.68


0.88

0. 49


0.68


0.33

0.57

0.48


0.46


1.11


1.35



0. 33

0.460

0.09


32. 99

















45. 41


45.34


16. 30


39. 87


29. 53







36. 76







48. 08


47.780

48.63


48. 21









35.38


30.4130


29.513
29. 51


Cultivated. First sp. gr. determination made on limb-wood;
second sp. gr. determination made on root-wood.




................... .............................................


. ........... . I . . . . .. . . . . .


Grown at 4,000 feet altitude .......... .....................


0.5993 ............
...........|-...........


0.7157 ............

0.8262 ............


0.7495

0.7054





0. 6111

0.5748

0.5091


0.4609


0.4688


0.4343 ............

0.4005 ............

0.4355 ............

---- ----- I ---- - -


----------............................----................................ 1204


*-.......-.......................................... ......... 450
...........-----------------................-----.......................... 1106


0.5898


0.7163

0.8266


0.7715


0.7668

0.7803


0.7736


0.6086

0.5911

0.5038


0.5678


0.42C3




0.3638


............ -------*.... *-------- ----....- .... ..... ... ... .* --
...... *-----......................... .........-.....

............ .. - - - -








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


238. Juglans cincrea--continued ............











239. Juglans nigra ..........................
Black Walnut.

























240. Juglans rupestris.........................
Walnut.








241. Carya olivaformis....................
Pecan. Illinois Nut.








242. Carya alba........... ..................
BShll-bark Hickory. Shag-barkHlickory.


State.






Illinois ...........

Ohio.............

Michigan .........

Massachusetts ..





Missouri..........

Michigan ........

Illinois ...........

Ohio..............

Michigan ........

Texas............


Tennessee ....


766 Florida..........


Locality.


Waukegan..........

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Lasing ............

Topsfield ...........





Allenton ...........

Dansville......----

Waukegan..........

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Lansing ............

Dallas .............

Charlestown Navy-
Sard.
Nashville ...........


Collector.


Robert Douglas....

E.E. Barney........

W. J. Beal ..........

J. Robinson.........





G. W. Letterman....

W.J. eal ..........

Robert Douglas ...

E. E. Barney......

W. J. Beal..........

J. Reverchon .......

S. E.Poo ......

A. Gattinger........


Alluvial ..........


Gravelly loam ....

Drift .............





Alluvial ........

Gravelly ........

Loam.............


Loam -..........

Alluvial ..........


Limestone ....-


Aspalaga........... A. H. Curtiss ....... Clay..............


Texas ............ Austin.............. C. Mohr............. Moist, calcareous..

...do ............. Now Braunfels ..... ....do ............. do...


New Mexico......

California .........

Arizona .........





Mississippi .......

....do ............

Texas ..........


Pines Altos mount-
ains.
ContraCosta county.

Santa Catalina
mountains.




Greenville ..........

....do .............

Dallas ..............


E.L.Greene........

G.R.Vasey.........

C. G. Pringle........





C. Mohr ............

....do ...............

Ji. Reverchon .......


Alluvial .........









Alluvial ..........

....do .............

....do ...........


3 Massachusetts ... Arnold Arboretum C. S. Sargent....... Drift............. 0.305 25 37

291 Kentucky ........ Danville ............ W. M.'Linney ...... Shale ........................ ........

292 ....do .............d...do do ............do ...................do ............. ................

293 ....do ............. ...do ...................do ...................do........... ....... ... .. ... ..

48 Missouri.......... Allenton.-.......... G.W. Letterman... Upland ........... .......... ..... ......


1181

1182

118F

152

249

4!2

531

539

816

1056

1097


Michigan .........

...do .............

....do ..............

Missouri .........

Virginia ..........

Missouri..........

Mississippi .......

...do .............

West Virginia....

Massachusetts....

Missouri..........


Hudson.............

....do ...............

Lansing ............

Allenton...........

Wythuville.........

Altnuton ...........

Kemper's mill ......

....do ...............

Grafton............

Topsfield...........

Allenton...........


W. J. Beal..........

... do ...............

....do ...............

G. W. Letterman...

H. Shriver........

G. W. Letterman ...

C. Mohr ............

... do...........

C. G. Pringle ......

J. Robinson........

G. W. Letterman...


Clay ..----.......

...do .............

....do .............

Rich upland ......

Clay............

Alluvial ..........

....do .............
...do .............
....do ............

Rich loam ........

Alluvial.......


.308


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


0.152














0.272





0.286


0. 207

0.313







0.260


8














24





8


15

11







33


29

37














84





23


32

18







48


0.288

0.366


0.250


81

102


28

31


53


__








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 309


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY DBTEBMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. Weigt, pr
Weight, per
cubic foot, Remarks.
in pounds
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).




0.4394 0.4388 ............ 0.4391 0.51 .......... 0.51 ---.... ---- ................ ................................................ 145
0.3041 0.4023 ............ 0.3982 0.44 0.44 0.44 ......... .......... ............. ................................. 176
0.3370 ........................ 0.3379 0.43 .....----. 0.43 ....... ..... ....................... .......................................... 393
0.4538 0.4355 0.4698 0.4530 0.41 0.53 0.47 --- .......................................................................1057

0.4086 0.51 25.46


0.5778 0.5881 ............. 0.5830 0.63 .......... 0.3 .............................................................. 112
0.5807 ........................ 0.5807 0.48 .......... 0.48 ............ .. ................... .......................................... 117
0.5579 0.5559 ............ 0.5569 0.2 0.12 0.12 12 ............................................................................. 149
0.5025 0.5205 ........... 0.5145 0.63 0.49 0.56 ........... ...... ...................................................... 209
0.6313 0.6191 ............. 0.6252 0.62 .............. 0..62 ....................................................................... 318
0.5608 0.5833 ............ 0.5721 1. 2 1.09 1.06 ............................................................................ 325
0.5750 ........... ............ 0.5750 0.60 0.69 0.65 ............ ............................................ ........................... 407
0.6376 ---.......---. --......... 0.6376 0.93 1.05 0.99 ....... .... ......................................................... 430
( 0. 6415 0. 6363 0.78 0.665
............ 0.8 403 6 0.68 ............ First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood .................. 760
0.6435 0.6400) 0.51 0.77)

0.7830 0.8002 ............ 0.7916 1.22 1.64 1.43 ............ First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood................ 934
0.6609 0.6388 ............ 0.6499 0.71 0.57 0.1 4 ............ ................................................................ 951

0.6115 0.79 38.11


0.6789 0.6469 0.6753 0.6670 0.57 1.09 0.83 ............ Allsap-wood.................................................... 415
0. 626 0.5611 ............ 0.5939 0.85 0.97 0.91 ............ ................................................................ 672
0.7258 0.6848 ............ 0.7053 1.15 1.42 1.28 ............................................................................ 1227

0. 6554 1.01 40. 85


0.7390 0.6925 ............ 0.7158 0.96 1.18 1.07 ............ Second sp. gr.determination made on 0.5 sap.wood............. 3221
0.7029 O.0982 ............ 0.7001 0.93 ..------...... 0.93 ............ Second sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood............. 32
0.7314 0.7445 ............ 0.7380 1.33 1.46 1.40 ............................................................................. 828


0.7180 1.13 44.75


0.7018 0.7814 ............ 0.7716 0.61 0.58 0.60 ...............Allp-ood................................................... 8
0.9680 ........................ 0.9680 0.73 .......... 0.73 ........... All sap.wood................................. ................ 291
0.9205 ........................ 0.9205 0.86 ... 0.86 ............. Allsap-wood................................................... 292
0.9859 1.0080 ............ 0.9970 0.65 .......... 0.65 ............ All sap-wood.............................................. 29
0.8249 0.8260 ............ 0.8255 0.37 0.43 0.40 ............................................................................ 48
0.8028 ........................ 0.8028 0.28 .......... 0.28 ............ ..................................................... 1181
0.7974 ........................ 0.7974 0.66 .......... 0.60 ................. ................................................. 118'
0.8019 ............ ............ 0.8019 1.14 .......... 1.14 .............................................................................. 1183
0.8064 0.7677 ............ 0.7871 0.87 0.06 0.77 .................. ...................................................... 152
0.8470 0.7477 ............. 0.7074 0.63 0.93 0.78 ............. llsapwood.... ......................................... 249
0.7289 0.7756 ............ 0.7523 0.2 0.90 0.91 ............ ............................................................... 422
0. 896 0.9370 ............ 0.9033 0.79 0.78 0.79 ............ ................................................................ 531
0.872 0.8692 ............ 0.8711 0.78 0.88 0.83 ............ ................................................................. 539
0.7470 0.7505 ............ 0.7523 0.7 0.68 0.71 ............ ................................................................. 816
0.8800 0.9035 0.9245 0.9027 0.54 0.69 0.62 ........... ................................................................. 1056
0.6835 0.8051 ............ 0.7443 0.90 0.90 0.90 ............................................................................ 1097


0.8372 0.73 52.17






810


Species.


243. Carya sulcata .......................
Big Shell-bark. Bottom Shell-bark.





















44. Carya tomentosa .....................
Mocker Nut. Black Hickory. Bull'ut.
Big-bud Hickory. White-heart Hick-
ory. King Nut.










245. Carya porcina......................
PigNut. BrownHickory. BlackHick-
ory. Switch-bud Hickory.



















248. Carya amara.......................
Bitter Nut. Swamp Hickory.









247. Carya myristiceformis ...............
Nutmeg Hickory.

248. Carya aquatica ... ................
Water Hickory. SweiumpHickory. Bit-
ter Pecan.


348


State.


Locality.





M t.~..


Collector.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTIl.


Sap. IIeat-
wood. wood.


te] c}yI ........ ercer coon y...... ney------ ...... m ........ ......... ........
....do ....... ........ ....d .....- .. ....do .............. Alluvial .......... ..........
....do ............ .. do ................. -.do ........... ..-- ..--- do ...... ... ..... .......
Tennessee..-... Nas illo.......... Gattinger ...... ....do ........ ...... ........
Missouri.........-- Allenton........... G"V. Lettenran ... do .......... ................
. ..do ........ ....do ............. .- .. do ............. ... do ............. ......... .. ..
...-do ....... .... .. do .............. ....do .............. ... do --
... do ............ ....do .......... .... ... do ............ ......d
K- d-------d---- ----o ------ *--- ------do---- --- --------
...do ..........dd... ..- . ..do.. ..... ........ ... d. do ..... ... . ........
....do ............. ...... .. .....--. do .......-....... ....do .............-
I -_ - - -

...-- do .. ...... ... do ............... ... do ............... .. o ............. ....... .. .. ..
d-------------0 .




... do ........... ....do ...................do ............... Rich upland ...................

Kentucky ........ Perryville ....- ..- W. M. Linney....... Utica shale ....... .........-.......
Missouri...-.....--.. Allenton......---..-------.. G. W. Letterman.... Rich upland ...... .......
...-do .............-....do .............. ....do .............. do ............................
Alabama.--......... Citronelle........ C.oh...--------........-- Sandy ............ 0.200 42


6 Massachusetts.... Arnold Alboretum .
51 Missouri.......- Allenton............
88 ....do .............I... do ...............
121 Michigan.-....... Dansville...........
288 Missouri .......... Allenton............
442 Tennessee ........ Nashvrille...........
538 Alabama --...... Kemper's mill......
051 Massachusetts--. North Reading ---.


Missouri..........
: ....do .............






....do .............
.. do .............
Massachusetts. ...
..- .do .............





South Carolina ...


....do .............
Mississippi.......
Georgia...........
Florida ...........


C.S. Sargent........ Drift ............
G. W. Letterman .... Flinty .........
.... do -.............. iRich loam .......
W. J. eal-......... Gravelly clay.....
G. W L. Letterman. .. Rich loam ........

A. Gattinger ......... Upland ..........
C. Mohr--............ Alluvial..........
J. Robinson......... Drift .............


Allenton-... ....- G. . Letterman..-. Flinty ...........
....do ............... ....do ............. ....do ............






--.do ............... ....do ............... --- ich upland ......
....do ............... ....do .............. ....do ..-- .-.....
Danvers ........... J. Robinson -....... ich loam ......
....do ............... ....do -- ---- .-...do............





Bonneau's Depot .. VI Rav-enel..-.... ich, swampy ...


....do -----------.......... ...do ............... Swampy....
Vicksburg.......... C. Mohr ............................
Bainbridge ......... H. Curtiss ....... Alluvial .........
Chattahoochee...... C. Mohr ............ ....do ...........



I


0.317


0.159


0.100


0.354
0.228














0.115





0.402




0.277


0.262


31


29 55


41 a


47 13


63 59
31 42


- - - - - - -


10 19


7




28


23


107




18


28


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


_ __ I I I


- I


W 1 i T ....


Li tl~~








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 311


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.



S SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIOXS. ASI6 DETERMINATIONS.
cWeight, per
Remarks.
-i n pounds emarks.

First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
o



0.8791 0.8767 ............ 0.8779 0.72 0.70 0.71 27

0.7527 0.6859 ............ 0.7193 1.09 1.09......... ................................................................. 91'
0.7345 -........................ 0.7345 1.04 ......... 1.04 ............................ ....................................... 91'

0.7654 ............ ............ 0.7654, -...... ..(. l.. ................... .. ..... ...... ......... ............................ 336
0. 9020 0.8610 .............. 0. 8813 0.99 0.92 0. 96 I............ First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood............... 383
0. 8512 0.8424 ............ 0.8408 0.91 1.24 1.07 .............................................. .............. ............ 391

0. 8911 0. 9061 0. 8831 0. 8934 0. 83 0. 90 0. 87 .... .... All sap-wood ............................................... 1082
0.8827 0.8854 .---.....---..... 0.8840 0.81 0.84 0.83 .-....................................................................... 1164

0.7054 0.6898 0.7414 0. 7122 0.73 0.72 0.73 ............................ .. ................................1165
0.8508 0.8432 ........-....- 0.8470 0.90 0.9 0.93 ............ 0.5 sap-wood.................................................. 1166
0.8024 0.7275 0.7389 0.7563 0.84 0.71 0.78 ..................... ........................................................... 1170

0.8108 0.90 50.53



0.8524 0.8168 ............ 0.8346 0.97 0.84 0.91 ............ ........... ... ........................................ 52

0.8610 0.8709 ..........-- 0.8660 1.02 1.06 1.04 ............ 0.5sap-wood............................................... 72
0.8334 0.8500 .-.....-.... 0.8417 0.72 1.05 0.89 ........... Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second growth 254
0.7279 --............-- 0.7279 1.29 1.65 1.47 ............................ ............................................. 289

0.8316 0.8462 ........--- 0.8389 0.99 1.03 1.01 ............ First sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood; second sp. 348
__ __ __ gr. determination made on sap-wood.
0.8218 1.06 51.21



0.8157 0.8139 ........---. 0.8148 0.60 0.60 0.60 ......................... ............................................. 6
0.8827 ..................... ... 0.8827 1.25 1.40 1.33 -..................................................... 61
0.9189 0.9290 -----------............ 0. 9?40 0.85 0.85 0.85 ............ Second sp. gr. determinationmade on sap-wood; second growth 88

0 6803 ............ -........... 0.6803 1.58 .......... 1.58 ............ ..................... .. ............ ................ 121
0.8554 0.8530 --......----- 0.8542 0.83 0.71 0.77 ............ First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second sp. gr. 288
determination made on 0.9 sap-wood.
0.7926 ............ .........--. 0.7926 0.68 0.70 0.69 ........... All sap-wood .................... .....................-........ 442

0.8530 0.7152 ............ 0.7841 0.82 0.86 0.84 ............ First sp. gr. determination made on 0.8 sap-wood; second sp. 538
gr. determination made on sap-wood.
0.8842 0.8481 0.8537 0.8620 0.74 0.75 0.75 ............ Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................. 1051

0.8990 0.7640 ........-.... 0.8315 1.27 1.29 1.28 ............ Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood................. 1098
0.7470 0. "355 0.8913 0.7913 1.15 1.19 1.17 ............ All sap-wood............................................ .... 1168


0.8217 0.99 51.21



0.7814 0.7830 ............ 0.7822 1.00 0.97 0.99 ............................................................................ 153
'0.5927 0.5754 ............ 0.5841 0.97 0.93 0.95 ............................................................................ 401

0.7530 0.7142 ............----- 0.7336 0.94 1.03 0.99 ......................... ............................................ 838
0.9208 ........................ 0.9208 1.42 0.92 1.17 ............ 0.5 sap-wood................................................. 871


0.7552 1.03 47.06


0.7919 0.8112 ............ 8016 1.07 1.05 A1.06 sap-wood ............................................. .... 237


0.7630 0.7332 ............ 0.7486 1.31 2.03 1.67 ........... All sap-wood ................................................ 129
0.7719 0.7700 ........... 0.7710 1.05 1.32 1.19 ........... 0.5 sap-wood .................................................. 362
0.8248 0.8244 ............ 0.8246 1.32 -1.05 1.19 ........... 0. 5 sap-wood................................................. 740
0.6422 0.6313 0.5821 0.6185 0.91 1.17 1.04 .... 5 sap-wood................................................. 917


0.7407 1.27 46.16







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


MYRICACE.a.

249. Myrica corfera ........... .. .....
BayberrW. Wax .Myrtle.


250. Myrica Californica ...................



CUPULIFERAI.

21. Querona alba..........................
WThite Oak.
































































K2. Qnereu loat .......................
White Oak. Weeing Oak.

268. Quercus Garryana....................
White Otk.











3m. Querons obtusiloba.................
Poet Oak. Iran Oak,


586



665





8

26

32'

322

32'

491

492

493

113'

1132

1133

150

169

196

228'

2282

2282

238

250

251

259'

2592

2593

403

443

547

748

749

895

1050

1257






670


985

988

1027

1029


-i __ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _


State.


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


Florida .......... Saint John's river .- A. H. Curtiss ....... Sandy loam .......


California ........ Santa Cruz ........


Massachusetts... .

....do ............

Kentucky .......

....do ............

....do .............

Missouri .........

....do ............

....do .............

Michigan.........

....do ............

....do ............

Illinois ..........

Ohio.............

....do ............

Vermont. .......

....do .............

....do .............

South Carolina....

Virginia..........

....do .............
....do ...........

....do ...........

...do ............

Maryland.........

Tennessee........

Alabama -........

Florida........

....do .............

Massachusetts....


California ........


Oregon ...........

....do .............

....do .............

....do .............


Arnold Arboretum.

Acushnet.........-

Mercer county......

Boyle county .......

...do ..............

Allenton .........--

....do ...............

...do ...............

Big Rapids.........

Dansville...........

Hudson.............

Waukegan .........

Pineo, Daniels & Co.

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Champlain valley...

Charlotte...........


I G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.




C. S. Sargent........

E. A. Dana.........

W. M.Linney....





G. W. Letterman...

... do ......... ....

....do ..............

W.J.Beal ..........

....do ...............

....do ..............

Robert Douglas.....

E. E. Barney .......

....do ............

C.G. Pringle........

....do ...............


Rich loam ... .........................


Drift..............

]. ..... ............

Limestone.....

Slate.............

Shale...........

Rich upland ......

.... do .............
....do ...........

Gravelly.........

Sandy ..........

----------------

Gravelly clay....





Clay..........

Gravelly loam ....


....do ..................do ................ do .............

Bonnean's Depot ... H. W. Ravenel...... Rich, damp loam..

Wytheville...... H. Shriver ......... Clay.............

... do ...................do ............... ....................

... do ...... .. ... do ..... ...... Gravelly -...

....do ............ ....do .............. do ..........

....do ............. ...do ..... do ... ..

Charlestown Navy- S. H. Pook ... ....................
yard.
Nashville........... A. Gattinger........ Rich bottom..

Kemper's mill ...... C. Mohr ........... Alluvial ........

Chattahoochee...... A. H. Cutiss ....... Clay............

....do .............................. ....do .............

...................... M. C. Beedle ....... ......... ....

North Reading ... J. Robinson......... .................

Charlestown Navy- S.H. Pook.......... ....................
yard.





Bedding........... GR.Vasey......... Gravelly loam....


Weidler's saw-mill..

Portland...........

Portland Furniture
Company.
.. do ...............


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....de ..............

....do .............

....do .............


371 Kentucky ....... Harrodsburg ...... W. M. Linney......


Rich loam ........


37 I....do ..............do ............... .... ................. do ............. I.......


312


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LATER OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


12


34
.. ... i


88


18


56













8 48

13 74

........ ........


0.560

----------


0.374





..........


----------
... .. .


0. 225













0.236

0.248



0. 203


0.356




0.393


j


15




30


17




82


Shale ........................








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


a

Remarks. a

0
I-


.5723 0.519 0.5711 0.5637 1 .......... 0.51 35.13 ............................................... ............ 58(.
0.5723 0.5190.5637 0.47


0.6793 0.6613 ............ 0.6703 0.33 0.33 0.33 41.77 ......................................-...... 665




0.7165 0.7003 ............ 0.7129 0.37 0.31 0.34 ............ .... ...........................................- 8
0.7970 0.8012 ............ 0.7991 0.30 0.25 0.28 .-----.....................- ..... ......-....................-..- 26
0.8480 0.8451 0.7965 0.8299 0.45 0.47 0.46 ........- ................ ... ... ............... 321
0.6328 ............ ........ 0. 6328 .............................. ..-- ----- .. -.----- -------.......-............--.------.---..---- ----------.. 322
0.6305 ............ ............ 0.6305 .......................... ................ .............. .....................................
0.6365 0.6526 ............ 0.6746 0.37 0.43 0.40 ... ......... ....... ........................................... 49'
0.7826 ........................ 0.7826 0.45 ...... .... 0.45 ....--..---.. ............. .................................. .. 492
0.6829 0.7385 ............ 0.7107 0.30 .......... 0.30 .......... .................. ................. ...... 4
0.6006 ............ ............ 0.6006 0.37 ......... 0.37 .... ..... .................... 113'
0.6852 0.7012 ............ 0.6932 0.41 .............. 0.41 .......................................113"
0.7017 ........................ 0.7017 0.24 .......... 0.21 ..................... 113.
0.7892 0.8735 ............ 0.8314 0.47 0.42 0.45 ........----- ..... .. .. ............................... 150
0.7672 ........................ 0.7672 0.21 0.23 0.22 .... ... .......... .. ................ ...... ........ 169
0.6203 0.6305 ............ 0.0254 0.57 0.65 0.61 .-......------...........................196
0.8304 ........................ 0.8304 0.39 .......... 0.39 ---............ -.--------.......................... 228
0.8670 ....................... 0.88670 0. 33 .......... 0.33 .. . .................... .................... ...... ..................... 228
0.8091 .............. ........... 0.8091 0.37... 037 .......... 0.37 .........................................-------- 228
0.7830 0.7391 ............ 0.7611 0.43 0.42 0.43 ......... ..................................................... 238
0.7874 0.7419 ............. 0.7647 0.35 0.33 0.4 ....................... ...................... ................ 250
0.6848 0.6984 ............ 0.6916 0.21 0.25 0.23 ................................ ............................ 251
0.7556 ............ ............ 0.7556 .......... ........... ..... ---------- .. ........ ---- --------- --.-- -- ----- .--- 2591
0.7069 ............ ............ 0.7069 0.30 ............. 0.30 ....................................... 259'
0. 8056 ........................ 0.8056 0.37 .......... 0.37 ..................... ................................ ....... 259
0.7390 0.7437 '............ 0.7414 0.49 0.44 0.47 .................. ....... ..................... ............... 403
0. 6549 ........................ .6549 1.37 64 1.51 ................... ................ ...... ......... ...... 443
0.8566 0.7794 ............ 0. 8180 0.45 0.29 0. 37 ........... -.. .... ..... ....... .. ....................... 547
0.7732 0.7562 ............ 0.7647 0.47 0.50 0.49 ............ Brash: rough bark.............................-....... ... 748
0.8066 0.8228 ............ 0.8147 0.34 0.31 0.33 ........... Tough: smooth bark .......................................... 749.
0.7672 0.7734 ............ 0.7703 0.33 0.37 0.35 ............ Taken from beam in old court-house at Cambridge, builtin 1757. 895
0.8065 0.7584 0.7358 0.7669 0.26 0.22 0.24 .......................... .............. ................. -..... 1050
............ ........... .. ..... 0.8439 ................ -..--.... .. .......... ......................... ........................... 1257

0.7470 0.41 46.35


0.7849 0.7672 0.6706 0.7409 0.25 0.34 0.80 46.17 Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................. 670


0.7814 0.8425 ............ 0.8120 0.33 0.25 0.29 ...................................... ................. 985-
0.0549 0.7600 ............ 0.7075 0.33 0.33 0.33 ............ ............................. ........ 988.
0.7478 0.7574 0.7704 0.7585 0.37 0.41 0.39 ............. Brash........................ ............................. 1027
0.0698 0.7369 ............ .0.7034 0.62 0.49 0.56 ............ Tough........---....-.................................--- 1029

0.7453 0.39 46.45


0, 8200 0.8008 ............ 0.8104 0.62 .......... 0. 62 ............ Second sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood ............ 37'
0.8765 ........................ 0.8765 0.74 .......... .74 ........... 0.5sap-wood............................. .................I 37'







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


254. Quercus obtusiloba-continued ........













6255. Quoercus undulata, var. Gambelii.......
Scrub Oak.










256. Quercuq macrocarpa................
Burr Oak. Moipn-cup Oak. Over-cup
Oak.






































257. Quercus lyrata ..................
Over-cup Oak. Swamp Post Oak.
Water White Oak.









"258. Quercus bicolor ....................
Swamp Ithite Oak.


0





373

151

250

351

771





295

417

525

1150


State.


Kentucky .......

South Carolina ...

Missouri.........

Alabama..........

Florida ........






New Mexico ....

.. do ............

Colorado..........

Arizona..........


791 Kentucky .......

792 ....do .............

793 ... do ...........

794 ....do .............

137 Missouri.........

143 Illinois .........

168 Ohio.......

204 ....do ............

310 Texas ............

400 Missouri..........

412 Vermont.--......

432 Tennessee ........

583 Illinois ...........

831 .. do ..............

632 ....do ............

933 Texas-..........

071 Vermont..........

072 .. do ............

073 .. do .............






424 Tennessee--......

545 Mississippi.......

762 Florida ...........

953 Texas ............






12 Massachusetts....

541 Missouri..........

54 ....do ............

543 .--.do ............


Locality.






Harrodsburg .......

Bonneau'sDepot....

Allenton...........

Citronelle-.........

Aspalaga ..........





Pinos Altos mount-
ains.
... do ..............

Engehlanm's cation

Santa Rita mount-
ains.





Mrlercer county --..

....do .............

....do ...............

....do ...............

Allenton............

Waukegan........

Woodsum Machine
Company.
Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Dallas ..........

Allenton ..........

Charlotte ..........

Nashville ...........

Waukegan..........

Winnebago county .

do ...............

Austin..............

Charlotte..........

....do .............

... do .............






Nashville ..........

Kemper's mill ......

Chattaboochee.....

Matagorda bay......


Collector.


"W. M. Linuoy ......

H. W. Ravenel......

G. W. Letterman....

C.Mohr ............

A. I. Curtiss........


Soil.






Shale ..........

Rich upland ......

Clay..............

... do .............

Gravelly barrens .


E. L. Greene ........ ...................


....do ..............

Robert Douglas....

C. G. Pringle........






W. M. Linney...--.

.. do ...............

.. do ................

... do ..............

G. W. Letterman ....

Robert Douglas -...

.E.E.Barney........

..do ............

J. Reverchon ......

G. W. Letterman ....

C. G. Pringle ........

A. Gattinger ......-

Robert Douglas.....

M. S. Bebb ........

....do ...............

C. Mohr.............

C. G. Pringle........



... .do ...............
.-...do ...............


A. Gattinger........

C. Mohr ............

A. H. Curtiss .......

C. Mohr............


arnold Arboretum.. u. S. Sargent .......
Allenton....-....... W. Letterman....

....do ............... ....do ..............

....do .............. .. ..do ...............


Rocky ............







Alluvial....

.. .do ..........
.. do ... .........
...do .............
do

Moist upland ..

Rich..............





Rich, moist .......

Alluvial .........

Clay ..............

Alluvial ......



Loam...-.......

....do ..

Alluvial.











Low-..........

Alluvial .........

....do .............

Loriw ..............

Alluvial ..........

... do .............
Loam .............





Drift .............

Alluvial ..........

... do ..---........-

.--- do -------------


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.











0. 244

0. 204


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap-
wood.










38

32


Heart-
wood.










88

115


0.190 1 8 1 67


0. 528


0. 339

0.2(60







0. 305




----------


846 Massachusetts.... West Newbury ..... J. Robinson......... Low, swampy..... 0.206


13


19

20







8


120


73

70







60


214


~ I I I I I








315.


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Third. Average.




0.845 ........................ 0.8459

0.8920 0.8882 0.9170 0.8991


0.8522 0.8196 ............

0.7888 0.751 ............

0.8548 0.7942 0.8072


0.8382

0.8680

0.7684

0.9487






0.7070

0.7205

0.7275

0.6426

0. 8469

0.8280

0.6440

. 6458

0.7722

0.6183

0.8630

0.7271

0.9229

0.6842

0.6107

0.7605

0.7740

0.7845

0.7598






0.8060

0.7802

0.8050

0.9790






0.7552

0.8616

0.6833

0.7114

0.8404


0.8562

0.7748

0.7894

0.9052










0.7275

0.6300



0.8276

0.6383

0.6177

0.8166

0.6411

0. 8496



0.9543

0.7112

0.7075

0.8402

0.8087

0.7924

0.7630






0.7863

0.7502

0.7649








0.7315

0.8628





0.8186


0.7862

































0.9390





0.8047

0.7360

0.8018

0.7317


0. 8330


0.8359

0.7702

0. 8187


0.8367


0.8472

0.8097

0.7789

0.9270


0.8407


0.7070

0.7205

0.7275

0. 6303

0.8469

0.8278

0.6416

0.6318

0.7944

0.6297

0.8563

0.7271

0. 9387

0. 677

. 6591

0.8018

0.7729

0.7929

0.7515


0.7453


0.7062

0.7652

0.7850

0.9790


0. 8313


0.7434

0.8622

0.6833

0.7114

0.8307


0.7662


ASH DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Average.


1.50

0.79

0.40

0.52

0.03








0.78

1.08

1.10


0.79

0.52

0. 53

0.88








0.79

1.37

0.80


0.41 0.37


0.60

0.31

0.37

1.08

0.60

0.26

0.74

1.18

0.78

0.98

1.11

0.45

0.32

0.44






, 0.59

0.22

0.23

1.72






0.26

0.39

0.98

0.98

0.27


0.92

0.32

0.43

1.03

0.60

0.27

0.75

1.46

0.70

0.93

1.38

0.46

0.45

0.35






0.56

0.23

0.18

1.44






0.28







0.31


Weight,pei
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


1.56 ...
0.79 -....-----..
0. 70

0.49 ...........

0.53 ..........

0.76 ..........


0.79 52.14


0.79

1.23

0.95


0.99


52.39


Remarks.


First sp. gr. determination made on 0.75 sap-wood .............

............................................................. ....

..................................................................


372

151

256

351,

771






295

417

525

1150






79'
791

792

793

794


0.39 ....---..--- Second growth..............................-- .............. 137


0.76

0.32

0.40

1.06

0.60

0.27

0.75

1.32

0.74

0.96

1.15

0.46

0.39

0.40


0.71


0.58

0. 23

0.21

1.58


0.65


0.27

0.39

0.98

0.98

0.29


0.58


............

............

............

............

------------

............

............

............

............

.........---

............

I --- --- ---

............

............


46.45


51.81


............... .................................................. I da

........................................................-----.....---... 168

...............................----.....................--........--. 204

.................... ............ ...... ...... .............--- 310

............... ........... ... ................ ................... 400

..............................................................-------. 412

................................................................. 432

.........................--..............---...--...--....--.......--- 583

Fromfence-post 6 years in theground.......................... 831

Old fence-post .................................................. 832

..................................................--......-----.--....... 933

....... .............. .... .................. .................... 1071

.................................................---.............--. 1073

..............................................-......-...-..-----......... 1073






....... .. .. ............ .. ......... -..- ..... ... .. ..... ..------. 424

........................... ............ .... .... ................ 545

.. .... ........ .. ........... ...... ... .................- ...... 762

....... ..... ...... .... ... ..... .......... ................ 953
702I95


............... ........... ........ ...... .. 1..-- ----. 12


47.75


I


.. . . . . . . . . ..... ................. .



-- - - - - - - - - ... ... ... ... .. .. .......

-- -- -- -- -- .. .... .. ................ . .. . .


..................................................................
..................................................................

..................................................................

..................................................................


..... .. .. .. ................I............................







316


Species.


259. Quercus Michauxil..................
Basket Oak. Cow Oak.








200. Quercus Prinus......................
Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.













201. Quercus prinoides ......................
yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak. Chinqua-
pin Oak.





















262. Qaercus Douglasii.....................
Mountain White Oak. Blue Oak.


263. Quercns oblongifolia ...................
White Oak.







261. Quercun grisea .......................
White Oak.








265 Quercns reticulata....................



266. Quercus Durandii...................








27. Quercus virena ....... .........
Live Oak.


State.


South Carolina ...

Alabama .....--.

Florida........


Locality.


Bonneau's Depot....

Kemper's mill ......

Chattahoochee......


Collector.


H. W. Ravenel......

C. Mohr.............

A. H.Curtiss........


Alluvial.........

....do .............

....do .............


LAYERS OP
Diameter GROWTH.
of tree,
in
meters. Sap-, Heart.
i wood. wood.
I _____


0.322

0.260


22

12


311 Kentucky .. ...... Boyle county ....... W.M.Linney....... Shale ............... .... .

31 ....do ................ do ..--.......... ...do..................do .....----... ........-- .. ..-..

313 ......do ........... ....do .. ............... do ................-..-do ..--........ ...-.......... .. ... .......


35

434

925





28

34'

342

343

58

273

287

323

514

588

856





688



601

700





419

698

1145


...... ....do ..................do


..............I Limestone ........


Tennessee .......- ashville........... A. Gattinger........ Rocky upland............. ....... ......
Alabama---...... Cllman ............ C. Molbr............. Dry, rooky........ 0.436 34 84


Kentucky........

....do .... ........

....do .............

....do .............

Missouri..........

....do ............

... do .............

Texas ............

Tennessee.......

Texas.............

Mas; achusetts....





California........


New Mexico......

Arizona ..........

....do ............


Harrodsburg ..-.... W. M. Linney ......

Mercer county.........do ............

Boyle county ....... ....do ...............

Mercer county ..........do ...........

Allenton............ G. W. Letterman...

....do .............. ... do ......... ....

...do .............. do ........... ..

Dallas ............. J.everchon .......

Nashville........... A. Gattinger........

Dallas ........-..- J. Reverchon ......

Boxford-----....... J. Robinson.......





Contra Costa county, G. R. Vasey.......



San Diego county.. ....do ...............

San Gabriel......... G. Engelmann ......


Limestone ........

Waverly shale....

Utica shall .......

Poor, hilly........

Limestone.......

Flinty ............

Calcareons........

Alluvial......

.. do .........

Damp ............





Clay..............


0.226




0.364





0. ;33


Dry, gravelly .... ....


........ ... ....



-------i--------




24 35




10 123





56 ... ....


16


SilverCity..........- E. L. Greene........ Dry, rocky........ 0.212 38 40

Santa Rita mount- G. Engelmann and ....do ................ ........... .......
ains. C. S. Sargent.
...do ............... C. G. Pringle. ... ....do ............ ...... ...............


1148 ....do .................do ........ ....do ...................do ......................


Texas ............ Austin.....---..... C. Mohr ............ Damp, calcareous.


0.164


1103 ....do ................do ............... S. B. Buckley...........do ....................... ...............


Florida ..........

... do .............


Charlestown Navy- S. H. Pook.......... .................................... ........
yard.
Saint John's river... A. H. Curtiss....... Sandy............ 0.238 89 15


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER, CUBIC FOOT









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



4)FL DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATE


First,




0.7674

0.8253

0.8200


Second.




0.8312

0.7704

0.8000


0.7126 0.7102

0.65490 0.6659


0.7726

0.8308

0.6870

0.8550





0.8401

0.7951

0.8712

0.9643

0.6566

0.9237

0.8248

1.0240

0.8592

0.9183

0.7652





0. 958



1. 0078

0. 9493

0.8120





0. 9171

0.9897

1.1340


0.8185





0. 8419






0. 6525

0.8548

0. 8644

1.0728

0. 8750

0. 9405

0. 7458





0.7898



1. 0790

1.1500

0.8374





0. 9835



1.0945


Third.


............

............

............

............

...... ......

............

0. 7700


1. 0169

1. 0882







0. 8703'


S 0.9430 0. 9528 ...........



S 0.9762 0.8000

0.86418 0.8690)

0.9640 1.0835 ...........





S 1.0350 ......... .........

0.9005 0.8949 ..........


TIONS.



Average.




0.7993

0.7979

0.8145


0. 8039


0.7114

0. 6604

0.7726

0.8308

0.6870

0.8368


0.7499


0. 8410

0.7951

0.8712

0.9643

0.6546

0.8893

0.8446

1.0484

0.8671

0. 9294

0. 7605


0.8605


0. 8028



1. 0486


0.8397


0. 9441


0. 9230

0.9897


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0.33

0.57

0.38





0.36

0.33



0.70

1.94

0.40





1.50

1.49

0.39

1.62

1.39

1.16

0.64

1.25

1.43

1.38

0. 43


Second. Average.


0.48

0.57

0.35





----------


..........

0.87

1.93

0.49





1.40



0.49



1.25

1.31

0.57

1.09

1.49

1.22

0.43


0.80 I 0.88


1. 22

2.57


4. 69

4.68)

1.31


0.40

0.57

0.37


0.45


0.36

0.33



0.79

1.94

0.45


0.77


1. 45

1.49

0.44

1.62

1.32

1.24

0.61

1.17

1.46

1.30

0.43


1.14


0.84



4.07


1. 15 ............


2. 61


1. 24

2.95


Weight,per
cubic foot,
in pnimnds
(average).


50.10















46.73
























53.63


55. 64


Remarks.


............. .... 1 ... .. 11_1 .



................. . . . . . . . . . . .

................. . . . . . . . . . . . .





................. . . . . . . . . . . . .

............................-- . . .. . . .. . .... --- -




...... ... ............................. . . . . . .







. . . .. .. ........ ........................ .... ..





















Secondsp..gr..de.emintion.mad.onsap-wood.................


............ First and second sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood.....


58.84


All sap-wood ................................ ........--.....-. 700





0. 5 sap-wood ............................................ ... 419

0. 5 sap-wood .................... ............................ 698
114-


1. 1143 1. 1 1.32 Z ..................................... ...... ............. .. ...... ...........


1.0092 1.82 62.89


0.9470 0.51 0.53 0.52 59.07 ................................................................



{ 1.71 i
0.8775 .......... 1.75 ........ 0.5sap-wood................... .........................
( 1. 80 )

1.0238 1.82 ..........- 1.82 .................................................................


0.9507 1.78 50.25
i. 0350' Ii

1.0350 .......... ..... ........ ......................... .................. .. .

0. 8977 1.23 1.21 1.23 1, .....................................................


317


_


& .l'l t








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


207. Quercus virens-continued .............








268. Quercus chrysolepis..................
Live Oak. Maul Oak. Valparaiso Oak.










269. Quercus Emoryi ...........-....-....--
Black Oak.



270. Quercus agrifolia .......................
Enceno Coast Live Oak.



271. Quercus Wislizeni ..................--.
Live Oak.



272. Quercus rubra..........................
Bed Oak. Black Oak.





































272. Quercus rubra, var. Texana ............
Bed Oak.


273. Quercus coccinea......................
Scarlet Oak.






274. Quercu tinctoria ......................
Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak. Quer-
citron Oak. Yellow Oak.


Locality.


I I


Collector.


Alabama........... Mobile county ...... C. Mohr ..........

Texas............ Matagorda bay ..........do ...............


Oregon..........

California ........

....do .............







Arizona...... ....


Saw-mill, Ashland..

San Bernardino... .

Marin county.......


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
W. G. Wright ......

G. R. Vasey........


Soil.






Rich, sandy.......

Sandy loam......










Gravelly..........


Santa Rita mount- G. Engolmann and Dry, rocky........
ains. C. S. Sargent.


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
of tree,
in
meters. Sap- Heart-
wnood. wood.


663 California......... Marin county....... G. R. Vasey........ Loam............. 0.247





677 ....do ............. Auburn............. Engelmann ............ ......... ...--- ..




7 Massachusetts.... Arnold Arboretum C. S. Sargent ....... Drift ............. 0. 534

451 Kentucky ........ Mercer county....... W. M. Linney ...... Shale .....................


8


73


452 ....do ............. ....do ............... ....do .............. ....do .......:........-...--... ....... .......-


Missouri..........

Kentucky .......

... do ............

Michigan.........

... do ............

Illinois ..........

Ohio.............

Vermont..........

....do .............

.. do .............
... do ............

Alabama ........

Massachusetts....

Mississippi.......

Massachusetts ..


Allenton............

Mercer county......

....do ...............

Dansville ..........

....do ...............

Waukegan .........

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Charlotte ...........

....do ...............

....do ..............


G. W. Letterman...

W. M. Linney ......

... do ...............

W. J. Beal..........

....do ..............

Robert Douglas.....

E. E. Barney .......

C. G. Pringle.......

....do ...............

....do ..............


Rich loam ........

Alluvial ..........

Limestone ........

Sandy ...........

....do .............

Gravelly..........



Gravelly..........

....do .............

... do .............


0.149


....-....

...... .




.........


..........


5


40


...do ........... ....do .............. ...do ............................---------.


Kemper's mill......

Danvers ............

Enterprise..........

North Reading .....


C. Mohr ............

J. Robinson .......

C. Mohr ............

J. Robinson.... ....


Texas ............ Austin............ C. Mohr .........



Massachusetts.... Hingham .......... T. T. BouvB ........

Florida ........... Aspalaga ........... AH. Curtiss.......


Alluvial ..........

Drift .............

Alluvial ..........

Drift ...........


0.368




0.230


38




6


17 Massachusetts .... Arnold Arboretum. C. S. Sargent....... Drift ............. 0.630 8

3G6 Kentucky ........ Danville Junction .. W. M. Linney ...... Shale ............. .............


362 I... do ................. do .............. ....do ............ I..I do ............ )..........


97




27


74


... .


318


--------------~~--T--~. ------~ -- ------------1


....---









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


_______ _______-_______ I; - -


First.


S0. 8225

1. 0090







0.7888

0.8830

0.8787







0. 9975

0. 9201




0. 8290




0.7956

0.8018




0.6381

0.5186

0.5169

0.7480

0. 5899

0.7516

0.6410

0.59032

0.7481

0. 6516

0.6423

0.6897

0.6663

0.6765

0. 6389

0.6636

0.5244

0.7130






0.9142



0. 7111

0. 7667






0.7364

0.6863


Second.


Third. Average.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.


Second. Average.


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in ponndl
Save age).


I I I: I [ II I


0. 9330

0. 9709







0.7592

0.8827

0.9083







0. 9019

0. 8855


0.8216 1............


0.7788

0.7657




0. 6440

0.5910

0.6251

...........



0.7512





0.7514

0.6615

0.6997

0.7090

0. 6867

0.7029

0. 6589

0. 6252

0.5604

0 6806a


0.9018 ............



0.7079

0.7762


0.7305 ............


0.7516

............
















0. 573



0.6920


0.8778

0.9900


0.9501


............ 0.7740

............ 0.8829

........... 0.8910


0.8493




............ 0.9263


0.8253





0.7855





0.6411

0.5548

0.5710

0.7480

0.5899

0.7515

0.6410

0.5952

0.7498

0.6566

0.6710

0.6994

0.6768

0.6897

0.6489

0.6487

0.5424

0.6952


0.6540


0.9080



0.7095

0.7715


0.7405


0.7335


............ ............ 0. 863


0.7205 1.......................I 0.7205


1.25

1.09







0.80

0.38

0.73







1. 86

2.61




1.21




0.94

0.96




0.14

0.46

0.43

0.27

0.47

0.15

0.20

0.23

0.22

0.16

0.27

0.20

0.20

0.33

0. 37

0.07

0.25

0.14






0.93



0.11

0.22






0.13

0.21


L 34




0. 981

1.18)




0.10







0.47

..........

0.21

0.24

0.31

0.17

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.32

0.34

0.14

0.21

0.19






0.76



0.16

0.28






0.08

...:......


1.14



0.71

0.34

0.76


0.60


2. 10
1 2.36
2.78


59. 21


52.93


Remarks.


0..33 .ap. ood...................................................








........................................................... ......

..---...-..--.-.............--....-.--------------------.........

........................................................... ..


57.73 Secondsp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................


1.28 51.43


1.02





0.12

0.46

0.43

0.27


48.95 I...............................................................


0 1 1 . . .--1. .- -- -- --... . .- - - - - - - -- - - - -

0.21 .......... - -- -- .----- -- -

0.31 ............ .......... ......- .....--- ......-*****--.. . . .*--


S----------------------------- ..................................................................



..................................................................




-*..................................................................
S..................................................................
--......------**..----..-............................. ............


..................................................................
--------------------------........................................

---------------------- ---------****--...........*.-..............

---------------...-...----....-.-....-..-*..-.....................

------------------------..-...--.-................................


Second growth from stmp ..................... .........






.------..---------------------------------. -----..----. ---..--.i

-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~-- --* -----------------*...................


0.5 sap-wood--....-- ... ---. ----- ...-- -------------- -..------.. 931


319


=_ I --


a
o





919

954







574

649

653








594




663





677





7

451

459

89

921

921

140

141

146

197

215

216

217

218

553

866

920

1043


............

............

--.-.--.-.--.

... .. ...

----.-....-..

.........-..









............




....---..-.-






320


Species.


274. Quercus tinctoria-continued...... ....


I


'275. Quercus Kelloggii..................... 628
Black Oak. \
963


276. Quercus nigra.---....................
Black Jack. Jack Oak.






277. Quercus falcata.......................
Spanish Oak. Red Oak.














278. Quercus Catesbmi ...............-..-...
Turkey Oak Scrub Oak. r Forked-leaf
Black Jack. BlackJack.





279. Quercus p.ilustris -....-....... .....
t'in Oak. Sivamp Spanish Oak.
Water Oak.





280. Qlreus aal i.................
Water Oak. Duck Oak. Possum Oak.
i'vunk Oak.







281. Qnercus lanrifolia ......................
Laaercl Oak.







282. Quercus heterophylla ..................
Bartram's Oak.

283. Quercus cinerea .....................
Upland Wilow Oak. BlueJack. Sand
Jack


Locality.


a







363

41

74

86

244

247


Collector.


State.






Kentucky ........

Missouri..........

....do .............

.- do.............

Virginia .........

....do .............


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


I 1-I I I


Slate............

Hilly .............

Rich upland......

....do..........

Clay............

....do .............


0.105


6


16


Tennessee ........ Nashville......... A. Gattinger...........do ......... .. .......... ........

Alabama ........ Cullman ..........C. Moohr............. Sandy..... ........................





Oregon ........... Saw-mill, Ashland .. G. Eneehuann and ....... ...........................
C. S.'Sargent.
....do ............. Eugene City........ G.H.Collier ....... ................... 0.224 17 78





Missouri......... Allenton............ G.W. Letterman.... Clay ..................... ......

Alabama ......... Citronelle ......... C. Mohr...........-- Sandy ............ 0.128 13 46


South Carolina ...

Virginia ..........

.... do .............


Bonneau'sDepot.... H. W. Ravenel ...... Rich loam ................... ............

Wytheville.... .... .Shriver.......... Clay...................................

Carroll county........do ------................do ........ .....................


2652 ... do ............. ....do .................... do ......................... ................. .....

2653 ..do ...............do ............ ....do ................... ......... .. ... ........

548 Mississippi....... Kemper's mill...... C.Mohr............ Rich loam........... ............





342 Alabama...... Cottage Hill .......... .... ..... Barren, sandy .. ..............

770 Florida........... Aspalaga........... H. Curtiss ...........do............ 0.301 62 ......


Missouri.......... Allenton............ G.W.Letterman.... Rich, alluvial ... .....................

...do .................do ...................do ................. ....do ..................................


Alabama .........

Tennessee ........

Georgia...........


Cottage Hill........

Tullahoma..........

Bainbridge ........


756 Florida ........... Saint John's river..

801 I....do .............. .. do ..............


C. Mohr...........

A. Gattinger........

A. H. Curtiss .......


Sandy loam.......

....do ..........

Alluvial .......


... do .............. Sandy loam.......

....do .......................do ............


New Jersey ...... Mount Holly...... P. Sharples....... Clay.............


Alabama......... Citronelle.......... C.Mohr............. Pine-barren.......


0. 350


0.310


8


13


16


23


0. 240 33 26


6


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT





Danville Junction ..

Allenton ..........

....do ...............

... do ...............

Wythcville .........

....do ..............


W. M. Linney .....

G. W. Letterman...

... do ...............

....do ..............

H.'Shriver ..........

... do ..............








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. Weigh
~___cubi_ __-------- -- -- cubi foot, Remarks. 0
in pounds ars.
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
0


0.7749

0.7596

0.8014

0.7192

0.5070

0.7164

0.6765

0.6622





0.6565

0. 6273





0.7304

0.7309





0.6892

0.5701

0.6613

0.7334

0.6556

0.8052





0.6679

0.7906





0; 6917

0.7480





0.7167

0.7084

0.7237





0.7474

0.8146





0. 6818

0.6882

0.6502


0.7352




0.5175

0.6586



0.6972





0. 6582

0.6322





0.7492

0.7192





0.7003

0.6780






0.7696


............

............

............

............

............

............

............

0.7100


......................... . .. .. . . .. . . .

0. 33 sap-wood; second growth..................................

............................... .- ...- ...-- ..--- .---------- .

..................................-------.....----------- ....--

....... .... .........---.-----...-------------------- .....

....... . ..................-------. ---......----..............

..... .............................-----------..---------- ....


0.7749

0.7474

0.8014

0.7192

0.5123

0.6875

0.6765

0.6898


0.7045


0.6573

0.6297


0.6435


0.7398

0.7251


0.7324


0. 6948

0.6241

0.6613

0.7334

0.6556

0.7874


0.6928


0. 6708

0.7880


0. 7294


0.6691

0.7185


0.6938


0.7158

0.7143

0. 7431


0.7244


0.7275

0.8071


0.7673



0.6834


0.18

0.17

0.22

0.28

0.44

0.14

0.35

0.59





0.18

0.33





0.96

1.41





0.27

0.27

0.15

0.22

0.25

0.29





0.85

0.90





0.65

0.92





0.45

0.82

0.35





0.48

0.93






0.19


1.27


0.14

0.19

0.18

0.63

0.15

0.37

0.70





0.21

0.30





0.92

1.32





0.27

0.33






0.28





0.80

0.90





0.57

1.07





0.39

0.84

0.19





0.46

1.41






0.14


1.15


321


0.18

0.16

0.21

0.23

0.54

0.15

0.36

0.65


0.28


0.20

0.32


0.26


0.94

1.37


1.16


0.27

0.30

0.15

0.22

0.25

0.29


0.25


0.83

0.90


0.87


0.61

1.00


0.81


0.42

0.83

0.27


0.51


0.47

1.17


0.82



. 17


0.6337 ............ 0.6420


43.90







40.10







45.64















48.17







45.45







43.24









45. 14







47.82



42. 59


0. 673 ............

0.7854 .....


0. 6465

0.6890





0.7149

0.7202

0.7624





0.7075

0.7995





0. 0834

0.6802


.................................................................. 1171


.... ................................................---------- .. 352


1.21 40.00


.................................................................

Second growth ------ ---------------------------------------


.Second. grow.......................-.......... ....-....












All sap-wood ..................


..................................................................

A. .ap-wood....................................................





..................................................................

.................................................................

..................................................................

.......... ..... ... ............................... . . . .

............... . . . . . . . . . . . . .

|......................................................... . .


21 FOR







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


284. Quercus hypolenca...................










285. Quercus imbricaria....................
Bhingle Oak. Laurel Oak.













286. Quercus Phellos.......................
Willow Oak. Peach Oak.

287. Quercus densiflora.....................
Tanbark Oak. Chestnut Oak. Peach
Oak.
288. Castanopsis chrysophylla .............
Chinquapin.

289. Castanea pumila.......................
Chinquapin.

290. Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana......
Chestnut.

















291. Pm fermginea......................




















292. Ostrya Virginia ...................
HopHornbeam. Iron Wood. Lever
Wood.












208. Carpinun Caroliniana...................
Hornbeam. BlueBeech. Water Beech.
Iron Wood.


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
Speioes. State. Locality. Collector. Soil. of fee,
meters. Sap- Heart-
Swood. wood.
0


New Mexico ......


Arizona ..........







Kentucky ........

....do .............

....do .............

Missouri..........

....do.............


Pinos Altos mount-
ain.

Santa Rita mount-
ams.






Harrodsburg .......

....do ..............

....do ...............

Allenton............

....do...............


B. L. Greene ........ Dry, rocky........


G. Engelmann and
C. S.Sargent.






W. M. Linney.......

....do ...............

....do ...............

G. W. Letterman ....

....do.------------..............


Utica shale .......

....do .............

....do .............

Rich, moist .......

Rich loam........


Tennessee ....... Tullahoma......... A. Gattinger........ Moist, siliceous...


California ........ Marin county....... G.R.Vasey........ Gravelly..........


....do ............ Mendocino county.. A. Kellogg ........................


Arkansas......... Hot Springs ........ G.W. Letterman.... Sandy loam.......


Massachusetts....

Virginia-.........

.... do .............

....do .............

Tennessee ........

Pennsylvania.....

Massachusetts ....






....do .............

Kentucky ........

....do ............

....do ....... .....

....do .............

Michigan........

Florida...........

Massachusetts....






....do .............

Missouri..........

Massachusetts....

.... do .............

...do ............






Missouri.........

Kentucky .......

....do ............


Arnold Arboretum.

Fancy Gap .........

....do ...............

..-.do ...............

Nashville...........

Williamsport .......

Danvers ...........






Arnold Arboretum.

Mercer county......

....do ...............

....do ...............

....do ...............

Dansville ..........

Chattahoochee......

Hamilton..........






ArnoldArboretum..

Allenton............

Danvers ...........

....do ...............

North Reading ... .






Allenton...--......

Mercer county......

....do ...............


C. S. Sargent........

H. Shriver..........

....do ...............

....do ...............

A. Gattinger........

C. G.Pringle........

J. Robinson.........






C. S. Sargent........

W. Linney.......

....do ..............

....do ..............

....do .............

W. J.Beal.........

A. H. Curtiss .......

J. Robinson .........






C. S.Sargent........

G. W. Letterman....

J. Robinson.........

....do. .............

....do ...............






G. W. Letterman....

W. M. Linney.......

....do ...............


Drift ............

Moist.............

....do .............

....do .............

Sandy .........



Loam ............






Drift ............

Hudson River
shale.
....do .............

....do .... ........

....do .............

Gravelly..........

....do ...........

....do .............






Drift ............

Rich loam ........

Rocky ............

Rich loam.........

... ......... ......






Damp, alluvial....

Trentonlimestone.

....do ............


0.615


0.666











0.110






0.190











0.272








0. 285

0.085





0.190


34











4






9











82








28

35





62


42











21






26




















44







14


322


-------------------T~------"








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 323-


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETEBMINATIOS. Weign tper
cubic foot, Remaiks.
in poundsema
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
0



0.7826 0.8304 ............ 0.8065 1.27 1.27 1.27 ........... All sap-wood ................................................... 416
0.7774 ............ ...-...... 1.21 1.351
S0.77 ...0.7952 1. 41 ............ 0.5 sap-wood .................................................... 599
0.8208 0.7735 0.8089 1.64 1. 42

0.8009 1.34 49.91


0.7402 0.7394 ............ 0.7398 0.23 .......... 0.23 ......................----------------------------------.... .............. 401
0.7234 ........................ 0.7234 0.65 .......... 0.65 ............ -........................ ................................ 402
0.8332 ............ ............ 0.8332 0.79 .......... 0.79 ...............-.......................-.................................. 405
0.7517 0.7360 ............ 0.7439 0.22 0.34 0.28 ..............----................- ........-. ...................-........ 50
0.7200 0.7285 ............ 0.7243 0.23 0.18 0.21 .-......... Second growth................................................. 135

0.7529 0.43 46.92


0.7532 0.7412 ............ 0.7472 0.51 0.48 0.50 46.56 ................................................................... 512


0.6650 0.7004 ............ 0.6827 1.55 11.41 1.49 42.55 ................. .. ............ ....................... 687


0.5520 0.5627 ............ 0.5574 0.35 .......... 0.35 34.74 0.33 sap-wood......................... ..................... 729


0.5698 0.6076 ............ 0.5887 0.12 0.11 0.12 36.69 ................................................................ 578


0.3829 0.3827 ............ 0.3828 0.10 0.12 0.11 ............ .............................................................. 18
0.4720 ........................ 0.4720 0.26 .......... 0.26 ................ ................ .................................. 2581
0.4716 ............ ............ 0.4716 0.21 .......... 0.21 ............................. ......... ........................... 2582
0.4494 ........................ 0.4494 .......... .......... .- .. ............-..-......-.................................. 258
0.4693 ............ ........... 0.4693 0.18 0.21 0.20 ............ .. .......................................... ......................... 516
0.4603 0.4247 ............ 0.4455 0.16 0.17 0.17 .................... ............................................. 727
0.4613 0.4594 0.4656 0.4621 0.14 0.12 0.13 ............ ..................................... ......................... 868

0.4504 0.18 28.07


0.6663 0.0556 ............ 0.6610 0.34 0.33 0.34 .................. ......... ...... .................................. 9
0.6200 ............. ........... 0.6200 0.75 .......... 0.75 ...........Redbeeh.................................................... 442
0.6343 ............ ............ 0.343 0.70 .......... 0.70 e........... Redeech................................................... 443
0.7992 ............ ........... 0.7992 0.57 .......... 0.57 ........... White beech.................................................. 559
0.7150 0.7200 ............ 0.7175 0.54 ............. 0.54 ............ White beech.................................................. 55'
0.7619 0.6605 ............ 0.7112 0.31 0.38 0.35 .................. ......................... ......................... 119
0.6897 0.6560 ............ 0.6729 0.47 .......... 0.47 7............... ......................... ................... 765
0.7017 0.6825 0. 6870 0. 6904 0.29 0. 38 0. 34 ........... First and second sp. gr. determinations made on 0.5 sap-wood; 853
third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.

S0.6883 0.51 42. 89


0.7608 0.7036 ............ 0.7622 0.34 0.37 0.36 .... ... .................... .......... ......................... 11
0.8919 ............ ............ 0.8919 0.49 0.67 0.58 ............ .................................................... 87
0.8512 0.8402 0.8870 0.8595 0.53 0.66 0.60 0 .............. .............. ........... ......................... 870
0.8491 0.8296 0.8534 0.8440 0.55 0.51 0.53 ............................ .................. ................... 877
0.7818 0.7940 0.7768 0.7842 0.51 0.39 0.45 ................. .... ..............................1047

0.8284 0.50 51.62


0.7657 0.7711 ........... 0. 7684 0.76 0.80 0.78 ............ ............................................... 46
0.7264 ............ ............ 0.7264 0.80 0.79 0.80 ............ ................. ................................................. 73
0.7520 0.7504 ............ 0.7515 1........ 7515 1.34 .......... 1.34 ...................................... ........................... 733







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


__________________________________________________________ ________ .- ________________________ *i I


Species.


293. Carpinus Caroliniana--continued .......







BETULACE2E.

294. Betula alba, var. popnhfolia.............
White Birch. Old-field Birch. Gray
Birch.






295. Betula papyrifera ......................
Canoe Birch. White Birch. Paper
Birch.



















206. Betula occidentalis ....................
Black Birch.







297. Betula lutea ..........................
Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.
















298. Betula nigra......... ............
ted Birch. River Birch.












299. Betula lenta.........................
Cherry Bireh. Black Birch. Sweet
Birch. Mahogany Birch.


Locality.


Collector.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


-i I I I


Missouri ..........

Massachusetts...

...- do ............


Allenton............

Danvers ..........

....do ...............


G. W. Letterman....

J. Robinson.........

....do ..............


....do ............. Arnold Arboretum.. C.S. Sargent........

....do ............. Danvers----............ J.Robinson.........


Vermont..........

....do ............

....do .............

Montana ..........

Massachusetts ...

Alaska............

Vermont..........


Rich, alluvial .....

Low, rich .........

Gravelly..........






Drift ............

Gravelly..........


0.052









0.170

0.196


22


Charlotte........... C.G. Pringle ....... Gravelly...........--.............-...

...do ........... ...-- do ............... ....do ............. -.. .. ........ ---.....


....do ..............

Missoula............

Townsend ..........

Chilcoot inlet .......

Charlotte ...........


... do ..............

Sereno Watson .....

J. Robinson........

Paul Schultze.......

C. G. Pringl........


....do .............

Wet..............


------ --

0.234

0.188


20

57


1066 ....do .............-....do .............. ....do .-----..............--....-....--- ------- -- ------

1067 ....do ..........-......do ................... do ...................................... ... .....


Colorado..........

California ........






Vermont .........

... do ............

....do .............

Massachusetts ....

Vermont..........

... do ............

....do ............






Missouri.... .....

....do ...........

Massachusetts -...

....do .............

Missouri-..........


Engelmann's cafion. Robert Douglas.... Wet, sandy ........................-.

Strawberry valley.. G. Engelmann and Wet, peaty .......-...............-....
C. S. Sargent.


Charlotte ...........

....do ..............

....do ...............

Danvers ............

Charlotte ...........

....do ...............








Allenton............

....do ...... .......

North Andover.....

....do .............

Allenton....----...


Massachusetts.... Arnold Arboretum..

Vermont.......... Charlotte...........

Massachusetts.... Danvers............


C. G.Pringle........

....do ...............

....do ...............

J. Robinson.........

C. G. Pringle........

....do ..............

....do ...............


Swampy..........

Clay..............

Gravelly........

....do ............

...do .............

... do ...........

....do .............


G. W. Letterman ... Moist loam .......

....do ............... Alluvial ..........

J. Robinson...-......-- ..do .............

....do ..... .............do ...........

G. W. Letterman ... Sandy loam .......


C.S. Sargent........

C. G.Pringle........

t. Robinson.........


Drift ............

Gravelly .........

...do .............


0.160















0.102

0.214








0.362



0.118


34















30

32








12



41


8








61



22


324









325


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. I
weight per 'B
cubic foot, Remarks.
in pounds R
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average (average).
O


0. 6088 0. 6061


0.7591

0.7014

0.7080





0.5361

0.6330





3.4594

0.6021

0.6686

0. 640

0.6290

0.6081

0.6801

0.6002

0. 5894





0.5880

0.6543





0.5759

0.7047

0.6416

0.7032

0.6468

0.6380

0.6557





0. 5608

0.5554

0.5910

0. 6049

0.5556





0.7555

0.7344

0. 8115


0.6237 ...........


45.41


0.6907

0.7085

0.6804


0.7137

0.6896


0.7249

0.7079

0.6927


0.7286


0.5361

0.6160


0. 5760


0.4676

0.6000

0.6297

0.6168

0.6315

0.6070

0.6380

0.5837

0.5849


0.5955


0.6032

0.6028


0. 6030


0.5998

0.7047

0.6416

0.7104

0.6445

0.6369

0.6494


0. 6553


0.5665

0.5531

0.5827

0.5996

0.5793


0. 5762


0.7579

0.7145

0.8128


0.7617


0.60

0.88

0.55





0.32

0.28





0.24

0.30

0.25

0.25

0.20

0.24

0.28

0.25

0.26





0.18

0.44





0.29

0.33

0.60

0.16

0.28

0.28

0.27





0.30

0.27

0.38

0.38

0.44





0.16

0.25

0.26


77

872

1038


0.52

0.93

0.65





0.27

0.28





0.24

0.31

0.22

0.22

0.19

0.25

0.26

0.24

0.22





0.18

0.37





0.20




0.25

0.25

0.22

0.27





0.31

0.31

0.38

0.38

0.40





0.20

0.32

0.33


0.56

0.91

0.60


0.83


0.30

0. 28


0. 29


0.24

0.31

0.24

0.24

0.20

0.25

0.27

0.25

0.24


0.25


0.18

0.41


0. 30


0.25

0.33

0.60

0.20

0.27

0.25

0.27


0.31


0.31

0.29

0.38

0.38

0.42


0.35


0.18

0.29

0.30


0.26


0.875 sap-wood...............................................-

... sap-wood....................................... .....

All sap-wood........................... ...... .......





.... sap-wood ..................t.........................................





... sap.wood.......................... ................- .-
..................................................................





All sap-wood..................................................

All sap-wood...................................................

From butt: Sap-wood .....................................

From top of trunk: Sap-wood................. ...............







All sap-wood........................................


All sap -wood............................. .................


230'

2302

848

1068

1068

1070





186

898

841

842

"1184





4

221

844


37. 58


35. 91


0.4757

0.5979

0.6207

0.6096

0.6260

0.6060

0.6227

0.5665

0. 5908


............
------------





0.6395


0.6112

0.5843

0.5745


0.6183 ............

0.5777 0. 576?


35. 90


...........

-----.---1--

............

............


............

............


............


37. 11


Sap-wood..................................................... 10

First and third sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood........ 848





All sap-wood ......... .................. --. -............--- 228

0.5 sap-wood...............- .............-- ..... ........... 224

First sp. gT. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood; second sp. 225
gr. determination made on 0.75 sap-wood.
All sap-wood .............-...... ...--....----------.--.- 722

All sap-wood ........................ .. .............---.. 838

All sap-wood ......................................--...------- 900

All sap-wood ..........-..................-..--........--..--. 1065

All sap-wood ............... ............ --.......----- ....- 1066

All sap-wood ..----.......----- .......... .......------ ..-... 1067





All sap-wood.................................................. 528

. ...... ..................................................... 629


0.5 sap-wood ................................................... 155


47.47


0.7200

0. 6293

0.6472

0.6543





0.5721

0.5508

0. 5759

0.5975

0.5836





0. 704

0.6945

0. 8160


0.7080

0.6573

0.6256

0.6882









0.5811

0.5965

0.5988









0. 8109


........... ... -..-.....................------------------.----

.................---....- ....... ................................

........................................................----- ....







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


300. Alnns maritime ......: ......--........
Seaside Alder.






801. Alnus rbra.........................
Alder.









802. Alnus rhombifolla......................
Alder.







303. Alnus oblongifolia ....................
Alder.

804. Alnn serrulata.........................
Black Alder. Smooth Alder.






805. Alnns incana........................
Speckled Alder. Hoary Alder. Black
Alder.





SALICACE2E.

306. Salixnigra..........................
Black Willow.






307. Salix amygdaloides...................
Willow.








308. Salix Invigata.............. .........
Willow.

309. Salix lasiandra .......................
Willow.

309. Salx lasiandra, var. lancifolia ..........







300. Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana .......


310. Salix longifolia .......................
Sand-bar Willow.

310. Salix longifolia, var. exigna .........


State.


I II


Locality.


Collector.


Dimeter
of tree,
in
meters.


I. _____________ -I. .1 I -I-


Delaware......... Adger's mill........ M. Canby ....... Moist, sandy loam.

... do ........... Pepper's mill...........do .......... ...do ............


Alaska ........--

Washington ter-
ritory.
Oregon .........


Sitka ...............

Pnyallup .........

Portland Furniture
Company.


Paul'Schultze ......

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....do ..............


0.108


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.




25 ........
. .. . .. ..


Montana......... Missoula............ Sereno Watson .... Wet ...................................


Oregon ......... Drain.............. CS. Sargent........ Moist loam ....... .................. .


694 California......... San Bernardino .....


541 Alabama.......... Stockton..........

611 Georgia........... Altamah river....





374 Vermont.......... Hinesburgh.........

862 Massachusetts.... Danvers............


Vermont......... Shelburne ..........

Massachusetts..-.. Topsfield.........


Utah.............
Cwa
Colorado ..........

....do .............


Salt Lake City......

Caion City.........

....do ...............


California ....... Santa Cruz .........


....do ................do ...............


M. E. Jones.........

E. Weston..........

......................


Clay..........


C. S. Sargent.

C.L. Anderson... ..... ... .......... ........ .....


640 ....do ............. Strawberry valley.. G. Engelmann and Moist, rich..........................
C. S. Sargent.
981 Oregon ........... Portland............ F. Skinner .......... Alluvial........... .. ..............





889 Utah ............. City Creek canon... M. Jones......... Gravelly............................


1174 Illinois ........... Rockford ........... M. S. Bebb.......... ...................


0.120


955 Texas ............ Matagorda bay ..... C. Mohr ............ Moist, saline....... ......................


326


--------


....... .. . .









THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE


WOPDS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRBAVrT DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0.4988

0. 4923





0.4922

0.4855

0.4829





0.4556

S0. 1427)

0.4172





0.4138


0.4714

0.4573





0.4029

0.4960







0. 4327

0.4790





0.4530

0. 4689

0. 4612





0.4916


0.4810


0. 450'

0. 5063





0. 4576


0. 4901


0. 5221


Second.


Third.


Average.


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First.


Second. Average.


1 -1- ------ 11 -1-1


0. 5186

0. 4889





0.4851

0.4847

0.4565






0.3722

0.4183


0.3823 ...........


0.4635 ............

0.4738 ............


0.3604


0.4842 ............

0.4642 0.4732


0.4102 ............

0.4621 0.4676


0.4448

0. 4201


0.4828 ...........


0.4702 ............


0.4536 ............

0. 4573 0.4089


0.4619


0.4959


0. 589


0.5482


0. 5087

0.4906


0.4996


0.4887

0.4856

0.4697


0.4813



0.4077

0.4178


0.4127


0.3981


0.4675

0.4656


0.4666


0.4436

0.4778


0.4607




0.4215

0.4696


0.4456


0.4530

0.4488



0.4509


0.4872


0.4756


0.4519

0. 4575


0.4547


0.4598


0.4930


0.5342


0.34

0.37





0.39

0.59

0.36





0.39

0.43

0.19





0.42


0.32

0.47





0.47

0.38







0.62

0.65





0.55

1.08

1.38





0.56


0.60


0.61

1.09





0.53


0.46


L 02


0.35

0.47





0.40

0.49

0.28





0.45

0.30)

0.25





0.43


0.34

0.39





0.40

0.40







0.79

0.71





0. 89

0.91

1.08)





0.60


0.50


0.73

0. 72





0.58


0.49


1.09


0.35

0. 42


0.39


0.39

0.54

0.32


0.42



0.39

0.22


0.31


0.42


0.33

0.43


0. 38


0.44

0.39


0.42




0.71

0.68


0.70


0.72


Weight,per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


31.13








29.99
............






..-.......-.

..-..........


25.72


24.81







29.08




28.71












27.77


1.11 II...........


0.92


0.58


0.60


0.67

0.91


0.79


0.56


0.48


1.06


28.10


30.36


29.64







28.34


28. 65


30. 72


33. 29


Remarks.


....--..-.------.--.-...-.-...--.--.-----..--.-.-.--.-.-.-.-.-....


-------.......--------------------------------------------------..






First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second sp. gr.
determination made on 0.5 sap-wood.

..................................................................


All sap-wood .................. .....-..........------.-----

0.75 sap-wood...................----------------..................----


First and second ap. gr. determinations made on 0.66 sap-wood;
third sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood.


One tree................... ..-- ...----------..-----. ----- --- -


........................................................----. 1219


327


- ll--~-----T~-








FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


LAYERS OF
S Diameter GROWTUI.

Species. State. Locality. Collector. Soil. ofee,
Meters. Sap- Heart-
"g wood. wood.
0


311. Salix sessilifolia ...................----



312. Salix discolor........................
Glaucous Willow.







313. Salix flavescens...........--..--.......









313. Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana......
Black Willow.


314. Salix Hookeriana....................



315. Salix cordata, var. vestita ..............
Diamond Willow.


316. Salix lasiolepis ............. ....... 669
Willow.


317. Salix Sitchensis ........................
Silky Willow.


318. Populus tremuloides....................
Aspen. Quaking Asp.













819. Populns grandidentata.................
Poplar.






320. Populous heterophylla.................-
River Cottonwood. Swamp Cottonwood.






231. Populus balsamifera....................
Balsam. Tacamahac. BalmofGilead.


1225


Oregon .......... Mouth of Willam-
ette river.


Massachusetts.... Topsfleld...........


Jos. Howells........



J. Robinson.........


Alluvial .......... .. .........


Loam .............


0.091


New York........I Ellenburg ....... J. H. Sears....-......... do ..........-.... ... -- ----............ -.


641 New Mexico......
721 Montana ..........
888 Utah .............





972 Washingtonterri-
tory.


966 Oregon ...........


Pines Altos mount-
ains.
Pattee's canon, Mis-
soula.
City Creek cation ...





Seattle...........-


Winchester bay ...


E. L. Greene....---..........--....---
S. Watson .......... Rich, moist.......
M. E. Jones ........ Moist, gravelly...


G. Engelmann and Moist, sandy......
C. S. Sargent.


0.060





0.160


13





22


4





10


....do .....---...... Sandy saline......------.-------- ......---


Nebraska......... Brownsville ........ R. W. Furnas ...... Alluvial.........
Iowa............. Sioux City.......... W.G. Wright....... ....do ............


California........ Santa Crz .......... G. Engelmann and Sandy loam.......
C. S. Sargent.


1161 Oregon ........... Sauvie's Island ..... Jos. Howells ...... Alluvial ...... .....................


2721 Colorado.......... Alpine.............. T. S.Brandegee..... Damp ........------....-- ....-- .....-- --
2722 ....do .................do .................do -------............ ..do ..-......... ...............
2723 ....do .................do ............. ....do ..........-- ..--..do ........... .....- ..............-
411 Vermont.......... Charlotte........-- C. G. Pringle...---. Moist.......... ...... ...............

1035 Massachusetts.... Danvers............ J. Robinson ....... Gravelly.......... 0.137 17 7


157 Vermont.......... Charlotte..........C. G. Pringle ....... Sandy loam ....... ............ .......--
847 Massachusetts.... Danvers............ J.Robinson........ Gravelly...--.--. 0.220 41 .....


Tennessee ........
Alabama..........





Vermont..........
Alaska ...........


Nashville...........
Stockton............


A. Gattinger ....... Alluvial ........... -----..---- ---- -----...
C.Mohr ................do ............... ... ..............


Shelburne.......... C.G. Pringle....... Sandy loam.....--
Chilcoot inlet...... Paul Schultze....... Alluvial........


328








329


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMInATIONS. e er
Sbic foot, Remarks.
in pounds

First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average.
0


0.50 27.40


......................................... -........- ........ ....... 1148


0.49 ............................................... .............. 859


26.55










30. 97


0.4326


0.4930

0.4434

0.3974






0.4912

0.5234
0.4023






0.5320



0.5471



0.5750

0.6393






0.5704



0.5011



0.3785

0.3579

0.3569

0.4880

0. 4184

0.4227






0.5119

0.4205






0.4023

0.4115






0.3524

0.3843


0.4545


0. 4184

0.4643








0.5081

0.4963

0.4707






0. 5504



0. 5229



0.5683


0.4319


..................... ... .................. ............ .... 1. 1225


0.4397



0.4548

0.3974


0.4261



0.4997

0.5094

0.4815


0.4969



0. 5412



0.5350


0.49



0.48

0.36






0.79

0.36

0.67






0.43



0.33



0.49

0.72






1.01



0.67



0.76

0.72


0.31

0.43









0.45






0.74

0.90






1.12

0.39


0.50



0.49

0.37






0.68

0.42

0.72






0.34



0.32



0.44

0.71






0.95



0.52



..........

..........


0.31

0.39







0.43

0.47






0.70

0.90






0.72

0.40


All sap-wood ............. ----..-------..------------ --........ 157

All sap-wood ............. ..............................4---


All sap-wood -...-.....-- -------------------- ------------
All sap-wood..... ...................................







All sap-wood .........--..............................-----------------------------------

.... .... .. --------------.... ... ....-.. ..-. ..-...


0.37


0.43



0.74

0.39

0.70


0.61


1175-
....................... ...........-- z................... 117
......................................... ..... ............... 11






..............................-- .......-- ...-- .. ..---- ....... 6 69


0.5734



............


0.4182


0.89 33.73


0.32



0.47

0.72


0.59



0.98


33.34







37. 82



34.82


0.6450 ............


0.5323



0.5133








0.5021

0.4255

0.4446






0.4872

0.4416






0.4113

0.4105






0.3404
0. 768


0.59 31.61 ............... ....... ...-......- ............. ...................
II ---


.-......... A1 sap-wood .--...... ....-- -......--*- **-- **--- -* ---*- -7i

............ Allsap-wood ...............-..-....-- .--*- ---- *-- 2720
........... All sap-wood ................................................... 272.

----------- All sap-wood ................................... ...... 272&


............ All sap-wood..........--..-..- ................-............- 411

.....-...- Allsap-wood ..................------------------...--** -- .....1035


............ 0.5716


0.6422


0. 6069



0. 5587



0.5072



0. 3785

0.3579

0.3569

0.4951

0.4278



0.4032



0.4996

0.4268


0. 4632



0.4068

0.4110


0.4089



0.3464

0.3806


0.3635


25,13








28.87








25.48








22.65


0.76

0.72

..........

0.31

0.41



0.55



0.43

0.46


0.45



0.72

0.90


0.81



0.02

0.40


0.66


.................-. --...... -. -... --.... -----.------------------
..........................--........... ........ .-- ..---------- .

...................--....................----------.--------------







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIO FOOT


LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
Species. State. Locality. Collector. Soil. of ree,
meters. Sap. Heart-
Swood. wood.
0


321. Populus balsamifera, var. candican9 ....


322. Populus angustifolia.......... .......
llack Cottonwood.

323. Populus trichocarpa.... ... ....
Black Cottonwood. Balsam Cottonwood.






324. Populus monilifera ..................
Cottonwood. Necklace Poplar. Caro-
linaPoplar. Big Cottonwood.













325. Populus Fremontii .....................
Cottonwood.

325. Populous Fremontii, var. Wislizeni.-...
oottonwood. White Cottonwood.


CONIFER.

326. Libocedrus decurrens .................
White Cedar. Bastard Cedar. Post
Cedar. Incense Cedar.







327. Thuya occidentalis ..................
White Cedar. Arbor-vite.



















328. Thuya gigantea .......................
Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar.






329. Chamnecyparis spheroidea .............
White Cedar.


1054 Massachusetts...-. Topsfleld ........... J. Robin.on ........


Gravelly........


Colorado........... Maniton Springs.... Robert Douglas..... Sandy loam.......


Oregon ...........

....do ...........





Ohio .............

Vermont..........

Missouri......--..

....do ...........

Texas ..........

Florida..........





California.........


... do ...........





....do .............

....do .............

....do .............


Saint John's Barrel
Factory Portland.
Portland Furniture
Company.




Barney and Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Charlotte ...........

Allenton............

....do ..............

Dallas .............

Chattahoochee ......





Sacramento valley..


San Bernardino.....





Saw-mill, Straw-
berry valley.
.. .do ... ... ...

Saw-mill, San Ber-
nardino mountains.


552


1012

1028





199

234

255

304

309

754





659


646





579

634

662





104

379

782

783

790

792

796

874


....do .............

New Brunswick..

...do .............

Province ofQuebec

....do .............


....do ...............

......................

Bridgeton ..........

Amqui ..............


....do ..........................


F. Skinner..........

G. Engelmann and
C.S. Sargent.




E. E. Barney.....

C. G. Pringle......

G. W. Letterman....

....do ...............

J. Reverchon .......

A.H.Curtiss ......


Alluvial..........

...do ............

....do ....... ..

....do .............

....do .............


G. R. Vasey ......... ....do ............


W. G. Wright.......





G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....do ..............

W. G. Wright.......





C. G.Pringle........

....do ...............

Intercolonial rail-
way.
Ed. Sinclair.........

A. Grant............

Grand Trunk rail-
way.
.... do ...............


Cold,peaty.................

.....do ..............







....................-


Maine ............ Mattawamkeag..... J. Robinson......... ..................


0.806

0.250





0.444


5

20





16


0.172 19


Wisconsin........ IEan Claire.......... H. C. Putnam ...... Drift ............. ...............


Oregon ..........

....do .............


Weidler's saw-mill,
Portland.
Portland Furnitufe
Company.


Alabama.......... Cottage Hill........

Massachusetts.... Beverly...........

....do ............... do...............

. .....do ....... .....do...............


G. ngelmann and ....................
C. S.Sarent.
....do .... ..........





C. Mohr............. Sandy, wet......

J. Robinson......... Swampy..........

....do .................do .........

....do ...................do .............


11


















59







19


0.298 7 20
..........l........1.....


330


Vermont.......... Monkton .........


--i-~









331


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


First. Second.


0. 3959


0.3942


0.3511

0.4163





0.3817

0.9393

0.3315

0.3201

0.4706

0.4355





0. 5490


0.4827





0.3891

0.3428

0.4586





0.3048

0.2847

0.3284

0.3163

0.3016

0.3452

0.3108

0.3584

0.3121





0.3996

0.3460





0.3337

0.3105

0.8038

0.2990


0.4222


0.3881


0.3656

0.3937





0.3946

0.3302

0.3444

0.3231

0.4778

0. 4632





0.4655


0.4176





0.3830

0.3769

0.4596





0.3021

0.2870

0.3275

0. 3275

0.3007

0. 2880

0.3104

0.3529

0. 323?





0.4178

0.3551





0.3447

0.3644

0.3036

0.3091


Third. Average.




0.4301 0.4161


............ 0.3912


0.3567 0.3578

............ 0.4050


0.3814


............ 0.3882

............ 0.3621

............ 0.3380

...... ... 0.3216

............ 0.4742

...... 0.4494


0.3889



0.4597 0.4914


0.4860 0.4621





............ 0.3861

............ 0.3599

............ 0.4591


0. 4017


............ 0.3035

....... .. 0.2859

0.3280

0.3272 0.3237

............ 0.3012

.... ..... 0. 3166

.......... 0.3106

0.3697 0.3603

............ 0.3177


0.3164


............ 0.4087

............ 0.3506


0.3796


............ 0.3392

0.3081 0.3277

0.3182 0.3085

0.4527 0.3530


0. 3322


AsH ETERMIATIO Weight,per
cubic footu Remarks.
in pounds
First. Second. Average. (average).
0


1.09





0.04

0.17

0.05





0.25

0.29

0.51

0.44

0.31

0.44

0.37

0.34

0.38





0.14

0.19





0.90

0.15

0.11

0.13


0. 46


0.79


1.17

1.37


1.27


1.39

0.81

1.05

0.81

1.03

0.65


0.96


0.77


1.13





0.04

0.15

0.06


0.08


0.27

0.29

0.50

0. 42

0.30

0.40

0.40

0.37

0.38


0.37


0.13

0.22


0.17


0.92

0.16

0.12

0.12


0.33


25.93


24.38


. .. . . .. .. .

. ..........


23.77










































20.70------------
24.24


30.62


28.80












25. 03





..-----------














10.72







23.66











20.70


Cultivated. First and second sp. gr. determinations made on 1054
sap-wood.

...................... ..................- ............... 552


Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood ................. 1012

....... ........... ... .... ............................. ... 1028


.. .. . _ .. ... ..... .... ..... ...-..... .... ....

.-..-- -...----------------------- .... ..-..-......-.--...

...- .----- .-.- ........... ...- ..--- .---- .- ...-- .- .*.-.- ...- ..

..--- ..- .-- .-.-.- ..-- ...- ...- ..---- .---- ..--....--..--..- -.

.......... ........ .... ... ......... ........ ........ ........

-------- ...-- .-.---- ..-- .- ... .....-.-..---------....-.----





All sap-wood ..........................-......................


........................................ .. .......... ..... 1017

......................................................... ... 1021


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETEBRMINATIONB.


-- - ---------- ---------- --------- ---------------
.....-- .- ..--- .- ...-- ......- ..... ..- ...--.... ..---.----.-

......................-.-........-.---.....--.-..----.-----------.



.. . . . ............ ...-- -.-- .-- .....--- ..-------- -- ...






............... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ...

...............--.....- ... .--- .-.---- ..-.- .-.-- .--.------.


...............---.....- ... ..- .. ... ...---.-.. ... ..-..

....--....-. ---------- .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ..-.. ..---.-.



.........................--..............--.....----------.---.--.
.... ... .... ... ... .... ... .... ... ... .... ... .... ... ...



---- --- -- -- --- --- ... .. --- --- --- ---- -- -- --


................................----......------- .. .. .. .

..........................- ......-- .....-- -.. . . . . .

...............................----...........--------------- ..

. . . . . . . . . . . ....................







332


Species.


330. Chamecyparis Nutkaensis .............
Yellow Cypress. Sitka Cypress.










331. Chammcyparis Lawsoniana.........
Port Orford Cedar. Oregon Cedar.
White Cedar. Lawson's Cypress.
Ginger Pine.




332. Cdpressus macrocarpa.................
Monterey Cypress.

333. Cupressus Goveniana .................







335. Cupressus Guadalupensis .............







336. Juniperus Californica ..................
Juniper.

336. Juniperns Californica, var. Utahensis .-
Juniper.

337. Juniperus pachyphcea .................
Juniper.








338. Juniperus occidentalis .............
Juniper.

338. Juniperus occidentalis, var. monosperma
Juniper.






338. Juniperus occidentalis, var. conjugens..
Juniper.






339. Juniperns Virginiana.................
Red Cedar. Savin.


969

983

994

1000





701

707





675


Alaska ...........

British Columbia.

Alaska --......---

....do .............


Locality.






Sitka ...............

Saw-mill, Victoria..

Peril strait ---.....

Weidler's saw-mill,
Portland, Oregon.


Collector.


Paul Schultz .......

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
Paul Schutzo ......


G. Engelmann and .......--..----.-.
C. S.%argent.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


Oregon ........... Dean & Co.'s saw- ....do................ ..........................
mill, Marshileld.
....do ................do ............... ....do .................... .................................





California ....... Monterey-.......... ....do ............... Gravelly loam .... .........-.............


691 ....do ............ Marin county....... .. Vasey......... Dry ridges........

1100 ....do .....-...... Calistoga ........... W.F. Fisher...... ....do .............


Eastern Arizona.. SanFranciscomount- E.L. Greene ........
ains.
Arizona .......... Santa Catalina C. G. Pringle.....
mountains.


California ........


San Bernardino ....do ---............... Gravelly..................
county.


Utah ............ Lewiston........... M. E. Jones ........


New Mexico.....

Arizona ..........

....do .............


Silver City .........

Santa Rita mount-
ains.
...do ...............


E. L. Greene........

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....do ...............


....do .............


Stony............

Gravelly..........

....do .............


Rocky ............ .......... ........ .......


0.072


624 California ........ Yreka plains....... do.......do...do ........ ....... .........


420 New Mexico...... Silver City.-......... E.L. Greene........ Stony............. 0.175 22 64

527 Colorado.......... Manitou Springs.... Robert Douglas. Grvell.......... G...ry.......... ........





939 Texas ............ Austin ............. C. Mohr ........... Limestone......... 0.134 23 28

1102 ....do -.................do .............. S. B. Buckley ...... ....do ..............................


Massachusetts ...

Texas ...........

Florida..........

.-- .do ...........

Massachusetts....

Florida.........

Massachusetts....


Arnold Arboretum.

Dallas ..............

Chattahoochee......


C. S. Sargent.......

J. Reverchon ......

A. H. Curtiss......


Saint John's river .. ....do .............

Danvers ............ J. Robinson ........

Chattahoochee...... C. Mohr ............

Topsfield.......... J. Robinson ........


Drift............

Calcareous .......

....do .............

Sandy loam.......
Drift ............

Alluvial ..........

Drift ............


0.230

0.484








0.203


19

16








15


49

66








37


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


I I I


.. .....








333


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Third. Average.


0.4011

0.4987

0.5356

0.4555





0.4356

0.4380


0.4484

0.5010

0.5166

0.4686





0.4487

0.5259


0.6260 0.6263 ...........


0.4492 0.4733 ...........

0.4620 0.4910 ...........


0.4648

0.4826


0.4643 .0.4617

0.5272 .........


0.6309 I 0.6255 ............


0.5504 0.5539


0.5744

0.5085

0.5185


0.6965

0. 56191

0.5321)


0.5724 1 0.5807


0.7329

0.6768







0.6750





0.5112

0.4585


0.7440 ...........

0.6935 ............


0.6967 ..........

0. 6840 0. 6948


0.5045 ............

0.4493 ...........


0.4248

0.4999

0.5261

0.4621


0.4782


0.4422

0.4819


0.4621


0.6261


0.4613

0. 4765


0.4689


0.4636

0.5049


0. 4843


0. 6282


0.5522


e eI44


0.5302



0.5829


0. 5765


0.7385

0.6852


0.7119


0.6967

0.6846


0. 6907


0.5079

0.4539


ASH DETERMINATIONS.



First. Second. Average.


0.30

0.29

0.29

0.39





0.07

0.08





0.55


0.41

0.54





0.43

0.41





0.77


0.47


0.11

0.07

0. 08





0.12


0.68 0.68

0. 89 0.86


0.37

0.34

0.34

0.36


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


0.34 ............

0.32 ...--- ..

0.32 ..... ...---

0.38 ....... ---


0.34 29.80


0.12 0.10 .....

0.09 0.09 .......


0.10 28.80


0.59 0.57 39.02


0.35 0.38 ...........

0.47 0.51 ............


0. 45 29. 22


0.38 0.41..

0.51 0.46 ........


-0.44 30.18


0.73


0.51


0.16

0.07

0.095


0.75


0.49


0.14


Remarks.


... -... .. . - - - --- -- ---- *--- *- --- -* --*-*-* 083
983

.. ... 994
1000





.- .. .... .......................... 701

.......- .- --.. --- .- ..- ----- --
............--------........................ 07





075


691

.- .....- ...- ...........-- ............ 1100





All sap-wood.....--.......---------------- -------------------- 798
......1149


39.15 ................ .- ----------------- ------. 1229


34.41 0.8 sap-wood.....-......--------------.----------------........ 887


0.08 ...........


0.11


36.32


555

Onetree ..................................... ................ 5
-One tree ........ --- ---- --- ------------ - -5--92
1 692


0.12 0.12 35.93 .................-.........- ----- ..--........ 624


0.68

0.88


0.78


0.46

0.46


0.46


0.14

0.13


44.36


43.04


............................... .... .....-- .-----------.......... 420
....................... 527





939

1102


...........1 0.1sap-wood --......-....-.-...----.. --.... ....-------- 14
................... .......................................... 3


0.5455 0.5310 0.5533 0.5433 1 0.16 0.17 0.16 ........... ......... ........ .. ................... 734


0.4901

0.4804

0.4838

0.5290


0.4727

0.4693

0.4705

0.4937


0.4733

0.4740

0.5107


0.4814

0.4743

0.4761

0.5111


0.4926


0.13

0.16

0.16

0.09


0.08

0.14

0.12

0.09


0.11

0.15

0.14

0.09


0.13 30.70


.............. .. ..... ..................... 800

.......... ...--- ..-... 837
S 924

........---.-.------.-------1......................... 055


~ I






334


Species.


340. Taxodium distichum ...................
Bald Cypress. Black Cypress. Red
Cypress. White Cypress. Decidu-
ous Cypress.
































341. Sequoia gigantea .................-
Big Tr-e.








342. Sequoia sempervirens ..................
Redwood.



















343. Taxus brevifolia........... .......
Yew.


344. Taxus Floridana.......................
Yew.


345. Torreya taxifolia ......................
Stinking Cedar. Savin.







346. Torreya Californica ....................
California Nutmeg. Stinking Gedar.


347. Pinus Strobus ...............
White Pine. Weynouth Pne.


0
3
a








535

542

543

581

582

741

8941

8942




923




1212

1213

1214







657


668






673

710

7111

7112

712

713

714

715






978



305



62

277






651



1

164

208

222

723

777


State.


Stoc

Otis

... d

Little

....d-

Chat
..ii


Locality. Collector.







kton............ C. Mohr.............

&Co., saw-mill. ...do .............

o -....... ..... ....do ..............

e Rock......... G. W. Letterman ...

o ...................do ...............

tahoochee...... A.H. Curtis--......

................ Department of Ag-
riculture.
................ ....do ...............


Soil.






Alluvial .........

.-..do .............

....do .............

....do ...........

....do ...... ......





....................


Diamotir
of tree,
Sin
meters.















0. 514


- - -


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


55


230


Alabama ........ Stockton............ C.Mohr............. Alluvial ........ ..... .........




......................... ... ... ..... ....do ....... ....--.. ...............- - ---. . ..............

.......................................... ....do ..................... .......... ......

Louisiana......... Bayou La Battery .. ...do ............. Alluvial ........ ............ ...


California ........ Tulare county......


....do ..............do ...............






....do ............. Russian river.......

....do ............ Santa Cruz ........

....do .................do .............

....do ............. ...do ..............

-... do ............. Mendocino county..

... do ............ ......do ..........-..-.

.... do ..-........... -do .. -. ...-.

...do ...... do ...----......--


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

....do ...............






C. S.Sargent........

Turner, Kennedy
& Shaw.
...do -...............-
....do ...............


J. Kentfield & Co ..

....do ...............

....do ...............

.... do ...............


Oregon ........... Portland...-...-- ... G. Engelmann and Moist, rich........
C. S. Sargent.


Granite.....................................

....do ............. .......... I... ..... ......


0. 279


Florida ........... Flat Creek........... H. Curties ....... Sandy loam.................... ........


Chattahoochee......

....do ..............


C.S. Sargent...... Alluvial .......... ......... .. ......

A. Curtis....... Calcareous........ 0.284 12 78


0.361


0.510 I


California ........ Marin county....... G. RI Vasey......... 'Stony............


Massachusetts....

Michigan .........

....do .............

Vermont..........

Pennsylvania. ....

New Brunswick. -


Arnold Arboretum .

Woodsum Machine
Company.
Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co.
Charlotte..........

Williamsport .......

............. ........


C. S. Sargent.......

E. E. Barney........

....do ...............

C. G. Pringle........

....do ...............

Intercolonial rail-
way.


- .J. .............

......... .........

....................

Wet, swampy.-...-

....................

....................


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


_ ___ __i~ __


SAlabama .........

.-..do ...........

....do .............

Arkansas.........

....do ..........

lorida.............



................


... . .. .. .

....................


....do .............

....do .............


.......... ..... .

.......... ..... .

.......... ..... .

.......... I - *....







THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 335


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ABH DETERMINATIONS. Weight er
cubin foot, Remarks.
in pounds
First. Second. Third. Average. first. Second. Average. (average).
o



0.4559 0.4442 ............ 0.4501 0.44 0.40 0.42 ..........................................................- .. 535
0.5114 0.4896 ............ 0.5005 0.35 0.31 0.33e ............ Whitecypress.. ................... .......- ......... 542
0.5017 0.5224 .......... 0.5121 0.66 0.52 0.59 ........... Black cypress ................................................ 543
0.4682 0.4545 ........... 0.4614 0.38 0.45 0.42 ............... ........ ........--..............-.......... 581
0.4683 0.5031 ...........- 0.4857 0.34 0.29 0.32 .......................................................................... 582
0.4159 0.4094 0.3808 0.4020 0.27 0. 3 0.32 ............ White cypress sap-wood.................................... 741
0. 4 0.201 .. ... 0.2013 ................ 56.................... Butt of knee.............. ..... --....... -.....-........... 8941
0.2362 0.2394 .............. ........... 0.55 .............................. Top of knee......... ....................... -----------....... 8942
0.3442 0.3656 .........1 rom opposite sides of center of tree next to heart..
0.4282 0.3705 .......... 072 0.39 .4 Next outside of preceding........................ e t
0.07 ------. 0.4072 \4 .......... 0. ............ One tree. 923
0.4599 0.5022 .......... 0.48) ......do .............---- ...----.................
0.4112 0.4336 0.3492 Outside of tree............-...............--------
0. 3860 0.3750 ........... 0.3805 0.50 0.50 0.50 ............ Outside wood..-... ) (1212
> One tree: White cypress ..............
0.4123 0.4957 ........... 0.4540 0.51 0.53 0.52 ............ Heart-wood......... 1213
0.4878 0.4904 ........... 0.4801 0.36 0.37 0.37 ........... Blackcypress ........................................... 1214

0.4543 0.42 27.65


0. 3234 0.3202 S 0.54 0.501
............ 0.3240 0.44 ................................. ................................ 657
0. 3236 0. 3289) 0.41 0. 33
0 9524 0.2523 ............ 0.2524 0.50 0.64 0.57 ........... A1 sap-wood ........................ -.................... -666

0.2882 0.50 18. 20


0.3788 0.3965 ............ 0.3877 0.12 0.23 0.17 ............ ................................................................ 673
0.4242 0.4281 ............ 0.4262 0.16 0.19 0.18 ........... Woodfrom top of tree............... ..........--- ..... 710
0.3963 0.4444 ............ 0.4204 0.11 .............0.11 ...... Wood from butt of tree ..............................-.-.. 711'
0.4912 0.4562 ............ 0.4737 0.14 ............. 0.14 ........... Wood from butt of tree........................ ........ .... ... 7111
0.3015 0.2982 ............ 0.2909 0.06 0.11 0.09 .................. ..... ............................................... 712
0.3610 0.3612 ............. 0.3611 0.18 0.15 0.17 ........ .................................................. ...... ..... 713
0.5226 0.4714 ............ 0.4970 0.17 0.16 0.17 ..................................... ............................... 714
0.4827 0.5181 ............ 0.5004 0.10 0.13 0.12 ............ Wood with curled grain.............--.....- ...-------..--. 715

0.4208 0.14 26.22


0.6390 0.0553 0.6230 0.6391 0.22 0.22 0.22 39.83 .................................... .................. 978


0.6340 ........................ 0.6340 0.20 0.22 0.21. 39.51 ...................... .............. ..................305


0.6034 0.5369 ............ 0.5702 1.08 3.38 1.23 ............................................................. 2
0.4728 0.4447 ............ 0.4588 0.25 0.21 0.23 .................. .............................. .. ..-.....--...--..---.. 277

0.5145 0.73 32.06


0.4823 0.4690 ............ 0.4760 1.27 1.40 1.34 29.66 ................ ........................ ............ 651


0.3946 0.4106 ............ 0.4026 0.11 0.19 0.15 ........ ................. ..... ................ 1
0.3481 0.3459 ............ 0.3470 0.13 0.17 0.15 .................................. ... .................... 164
0.3400 0.3418 ............ 0.3409 0.22 0.20 0.21 ............ ............. .............. ...... 208
0.4880 0.6461 ............ 0.5670 0.23 0.21 0.22 ............ ............. ...................... ............222
0.3090 0.3850 ............ 0.3770 0.18 0.12 0.15 ............ ............ ......-...-------- .. 723
0.360 0.3140 ............ 0.3373 0.23 0.30 0.26 ....................................................- 777






336


Species.


347. Finns Strobus-continued ............











348. Pins monticola......................
White Pine.






349. Finns Lambertiana....................
Sugar Pine.








350. Pins flexilis ........................
White Pine.






351. Pinus albicaulis ......................


352. Pinus reflexa.........................
White Pine.








353. Pinus Parryana .......................
Pinon. Nut Pine.

354. Pinus cembroides ....................
Nut Pine.

355. Pinus edulis.........................
Pifion. Nut Pine.

356. Pinns monophylla ...................
Pinon. Nut Pine.











257. Pinns Balfonriana...................


357. Pinns Balfouriana, var. aristata........ 821
Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine.
914





358. Pinas resinosa .................... 194
Red Pine. Iorway Pine. 1


State.


a




788

789

797

1044





975

987





638

668

730





819

913





992


597

602

661





656


1226


Locality.


Collector.


Soil.


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


-- I -1 I I- 1-


Bridgeton ..........

Amqui.............


Reading............


Ed. Sinclair ........

A. Grant..........

Grank Trunk rail-
way.
J. Robinson........


Drift..............


British Columbia. Hasting's saw-mill, G. Engelmann and ......--..... ............ ..........
Burrard inlet. C.S. Sargent.
Oregon ........... Cascade mountains. C.S. Sargent...... Moistloam........ ....................


California .........

....do .............

....do ............


Saw-mill, Straw-
berry valley.

Lassen's peak......


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
G.R. Vasey.........

Sierra Lumber Com-
pany, San Fran-
cisco.


Colorado.......... Forest City......... T. S. Brandegee..... Gravelly..........

Nevada............ Monitor range...... A. Triple -...............do ............


British Columbia.


Arizona .........

New Mexico ......

Arizona .........


Silver Mountain val-
ley, Fraser river.

Santa Rita mount-
ains.
Pines Altos mount-
ains.
Santa Rita mount-
ains.


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

....do ...............

E. L. Grene ........

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.


Rocky ............


0.215


32~~


16


0.502 38 120


0.494


California......... San Diego county... G.R. Vasey ........ ..................... .......... ..... ........


Arizona ---..........


397 jColorado..........


Eastern Arizona..

Utah ............

Eastern Arizona..

California.........

Nevada ..........


Santa Catalina
mountains.

Canon City .........


San Francisco mount-
ains.
Lewiston ..........

San Francisco mount-
ains.

Danville............


C. G.Pringle........ ....... .. ..... .....


E. Weston .......... Gravelly..........


E. L. Greene........

M.E.Jones.........

E. L. Greene ......

Department of Ag-
riculture.
A. Triple...........


....do .............

Rocky............




Gravelly..........


0.284




0.164


30




19


79




66


California-....... Scott mountains.... G. Engelmann and Rocky........... 0.368 75 309
C. S. Sargent.



Colorado.......... ForestCity......... T.S. Brandegee......................... 0.450 44 136

Nevada........... Prospectmountain.. A. Triple ........... Rocky............ .................. ....


Barney & Smith EE. Barney.................
Manufacturing Co.


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


i


New Brunswick ..

Province of Que-
bec.
....do .............

Massachusetts ....


---~-----~


.. .. . . .

................. .

.. . . . .. .









337


THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


First.




0.3991

0.3624

0.3905

0.3503


Second.




0.3970

0.3463

0.3725

0.3513


0.4291 0.4102

0.3684 0.3554


0.4066

0.3782

0.3153





0.4965

0.4209





0.4233


0.4729

0.4986

0.4869





0.5628


0.4014

0.3889

0. 3201





0.4031







0. 4097


0.5253

0.4961

0.4696





0.5721


0.6695 0.6330


0.5813


0.6000

0.4499

0.6140

0.5715

0.5585





0.5434

0.5580


0.4997

0.6149


0.6963


0.5563

0. 4644

0.7617

0.5230


Third.










0.3438


0.4526


0.5052

0.4847

------------


0.5409 0.5273

0.5476 ..........


0.5319 0.4671

........... ............


0.4872 0.4838

22 roi


Average.




S0.3980

0. 3543

0.3815

0.3485


0. 3854


0.4197

0.3619


0. 3908


0.4040

0. 3835

0. 3177


0. 3684


0.4507

0.4209


0. 4358


0.4165



0.4971


0.4783


0. 4877


0. 5675


0. (512


0. 6388


0.5781

0.4572

0.6878

0.5473

0.5585


0. 5658



0.5434



0.4996

0. 6149


0.5572


0. 4855


ASH DETERMIINATIONS.


First.




0.20

0.19

0.21

0.10.





0.26

0.15







0.29

0.22





0.20

0.35





0.30


0.24

0.27

0.30





0.54


0.88


0.57


0.78

0.67

0.72

0.89

0.41





0.41

0.38


0.18

0.42





0. 23


Second. I Averace.


0.19

0.22

0.13





0.28

0.21





0.16

0.25

0.24





0.20







S0.23


0. 24

0. 20

0.27


0.92


0. 68


0.65

0.77

0.72

0.76

..--.---.-


0.18







0.18


0.20

0.19

0.21

0.12


0.19


0.27

0.18


0.23


0.17

0.27

0. 23


0.22


0.20

0.35


0.28


0.27



0. 24


0.28


0.20


0.54


0.90


0.62


0.71

0.72

0.72

0.83

0.41


0.68



0.40



0.18

0.42


0.30


0.20


Weight,per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


24. 02


Remarks.


..... ......C t 3,800 fet elev.tio........................--...-
.-----.-..--Cutat 3,800 feet elevation ........


24.35


22.06







27.16


25.96


30.39


35. 37


40. 58


39. 81


34 72


Second sp. gr. determinationmadeonsap-wood. Cutat elevation
of 10,000 feet.
All sap-wood....................................... ..-


First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood .---..........


Second sp. gr. specimen contained a knot ....................






Second sp. gr. specimen was very resinous ..................










One tree ............... .... ........ ..................



Third sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.................

0.75 sap-wood ................................................


.................................................... -------------

................................................. ................

....................... ..........................................

..................................................................










FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC 'GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOQT


Species.


358. Finns resinosa-continued.............


















359. Pinus Torreyana ......................


360. Pinns Arizonia .......................
Yellow Pine.











631. Pinns ponderosa.....................
Yellow Pine. Bull Pine.

























362. Pinus Jeffreyi .........................
Bull Pine. Black Pine.









363. Pinns Chihuahuana ...................




364. Pins contorta.........................
Scrub Pine.

365. Pinus Murrayana......................
Tamarack. Black Pine. Lodge-pole
Pine. Spruce Pine.








366. Pinns Sabiniana.....................
Digger Pine. Bull Pine.


State.


Michigan.........

Vermont..........

Now Brunswick..

....do .............

Vermont..........

....do .............

...- do ..........-- .


Locality.


Hersey ............

Charlotte..........



Bridgeton ..-.....-

Charlotte ..........

....do ..............

....do ...............


Collector.


W. J. Beal......

C. G. Pringle.......

Intercolonial rail-
way..
Ed. Sinclair ........

C. G. Pringle.......

....do ..............

....do ...............


Clay............


996 California ........ San Diego county... G. Engelmann...... Sandy ............


1144 Arizona ..........


Santa Rita
ains.


...do


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


0.234


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


mount- C . Pringle....... Rocky............ ................ .....


................ do .......... ..... .do .......


....do ............. ....do ..........- ......do ............... ....do ............ ................ ......


.... do .................do


Dakota ..........

Oregon ..........

California ........

...do .............

Oregon ...........

California .......

Montana-.......

California .......

Colorado .........

-. do ...........

California ......






...do .............

.---do..---...........

California.........-


.............. ...do .............. ....do ...........


Deadwood.........

Saw-mill, Ashland.-

Strawberry valley..

....do ...............

Saw-mill, Ashland..

Saw-mill, San Ber-
nardino.
Saw-mill, Missoula..

Lassen's peak ...--.

Canon City ........

....do -...........

Saw-mill, San Ber-
nardino.





Scott mountains ....

...-do .............

Saw-mill, San Ber-
nardino.


Robert Douglas.....

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
- d o --- ---- -----. .
..do ...... ......



....do ..............

W. G. Wright....

S. Watson ..........

Sierra Lumber Com-
pany.
E. Weston.......

....do ...............

W. G. Wright....


Gravelly........



Low, wet, swampy
. .. . .. .. . .. .


----------

----------



----------

..........

----------



..........

----------

..........

----------


G. Engelmann and Dry, gravelly.........................
C. S. Sargent.
--- do -...-------------... do----.............................

W. G. Wright ........... ..............................


Arizona .......... Santa Rita mount- G. Engelmann and Dry, gravelly..... 0.510
gains. C. S. Sargent.
....do ..............---do ----------....-..- do -..-..- ..... .....do .............-.......


BritishColumbia.. Vancouver's island


Colorado-.........

....do ...........

California.........


Forest City.........

.....do ...... ........

Scott mountains ....


G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.

T. S. Brandegee ....

C. S. Sargent .......

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.


....do ................. ... ...............


Moist, sandy loam.

....do .............

....do .............


0.269

. - - -


43


571 ....do ............. Jolon ............... G. R. Vasoy ................ ...................

644 ....do ........... Contra Costa county ....do ----....... .. Gravelly.......... 0.312 43


23


333


~;~/


-i-ll~---








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 339


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS. ASH DETERMINATIONS. Wei ,p
-cubic foot, Remarks. 0
in pounds
First. Second. Third. Average. First. Second. Average. (average).
0



0.5450 0.5416 ............ 0.5433 0.20 0.24 0.22 .........-............--------- ............-------------------------------- 315
0.5121 0.4537 ............ 0.4829 0.24 0.24 0.24 --.......--- All sap-wood .........--.....--....-------------------------- 413
0.4555 0.4911 ............ 0.4733 0.28 0.29 0.29 ........--... All sap-wood .............--............--- -------------------- 779
0.4250 0.4631 ............ 0.4441 0.39 0.34 0.37 ....- .............. ........ ......------ ...------ ---.- --------------- 785
0.4627 0.4752 0.5227 0.4869 0.28 0.27 0.27 ............ All sap-wood ............--......---- ------------------------ 1074
0.4931 0.4922 0.4845 0.4899 0.26 0.29 0.28 ............ First and thirds. gr. determinations Imade on 0.5 sap-wood; 1075
second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood.
0.4892 0.4582 0.4858 0.4777 0.24 0.31 0.28 ........... Second sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood; third sp. 1076
gr. determination made on sap-wood.

0.4854 0. 27 30. 25


0.4659 0.5119 0.4860 0.4879 0. 38 0. 33 0. 35 30.40 First and second sp. gr. determinations made on sap-wood ...... 996


0.5360 0.5079 ............ 0.5220 0.14 0.15 0.14 ....................................... ........................... 1144
0.5066 0.7844 ............ 0.6455 0.21 0.20 0.20 ............ Second sp. gr. specimen very resinous................. ......... 1154
0.4567 0.4204 0.4611 0.4461 0.19 0.26 0.23 .................... .................. .... ........................ 1155
0.4168 0.3864 ............ 0.4016 0.25 0.24 0.24 ....................................-..... ...- ....--..- .................- 1156

0.5038 0.20 31. 40


0.4877 0.4813 ............ 0.4845 0.27 0.26 0.27 ............. ........................................................ 619
0.4552 0.4419 ............ 0.4485 0.38 0.41 0.40 ............ Al sap-wood ........................... .............. 626
0.4571 0.4152 ............ 0.4362 0.38 0.36 0.37 -......---.. Allsap-ood ........................--.----------...-- 630

0. 5264 0.5350 ............ 0.5307 0.31 0.30 0.30 ....--------... All sap-wood...........................-. .................. 632
0.4184 0.4240 ............ 0.4212 0.34 0.43 0.39 ............ All sap-wood ........................-- ....--...--. ..-------- 636
0.5144 0.5265 ............ 0.5204 0.23 0.23 0.23 ..................... ........................... ... ... 689
0.3972 0.4479 ----............ 0.4225 0.40 0.36 0.38 ............ ....... .................................................. 718
0.4284 0.4437 ............ 0.4360 0.28 0.25 0.27 .----------.... A sap-wood .................. ......-. ............... 731
0.4676 0.5305 ............ 0.4990 0.58 0.40 0.49l ............ A sap-woo ... .............. ............ ......... 907
0.4376 0.445 .....-...... 0. 4417 0.45 0.45 0.45 ------------............ All sap-wood .................................................. 910
0. 5521 0.5412 ............ 0.5466 0.30 0.33 0.32 A............ Al sap-wood ........................... ............. ..... 1007

0.4715 0.35 2. 45


0.4561 0.4520 ...-- ......--- -------- 0.22 0.20 .------- ------...--- 578
SOne tree. Fourth sp. gr. determination made on 0.5 sap-wood.
0.4985 0.5075 ............ 0.4785 0. 23 0.36 0.25 ............ urt pgr.etermint adon.sp-633
0.5982 0.5274 ............ 0.5628 0.29 0.24 0.27 ....--- -- Allsap-wood.................... .. .................... 667

0.5206 0.26 32.44


0.5584 U. 57801 0.37 0.37 593
............ 0.5457 37 0 0.39 34. 01 One tree .....................................................
0.5226 0.5239 0.41 0.40) 664


0.5709 0.5985 0.5750 0.5815 0.21 0.16 0.19 36.24 ................. ........................... 997


0.3550 0.3551 ............ 0.3551 0.36 0.29 0.33 -................... ............................................ 293
0.4291 0.4267 ............ 0.4279 0.26 0.25 0.26 ................................................................. 563
0.4204 0.4711 ............ 0.4457 0.37 0.37 0.37 ................... ................................. ............. 625

0.4006 0.32 25.53


0.4528 0.4531 ........ 0.4530 0.43 0.41 0.42 ........... All sap-wood......................................... ... 571
0.4988 0.5312 ............ 0.5150 0.40 0.35 0.37 ..-----.--. All sap-wood ................................................. 644

0.4840 0.40 0.16







340


Species.


367. Pinns Coulteri........................


368. Pinns insignis....................
iAonterey Pine.





369. Finns tubercnlata. ........ .......
Knob-cone Pine.

370. Pinus Trda .........
Loblolly Pine. Old-field Pine. Rose-
mary Pine.








371. Pinns rigida.........................
Pitch Pine.







372. Pinns serotina........................
Pond Pine.

.373. Pinusinops ............... .....
Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine.









374. Pinnsclausa ....--. .......-.........
Sand Pine. Scrub Pine. Spruce Pine.

375. Pinus pnngens............--.....-
Table-mountain Pine. Hickory Pine.





376. Finns muricata.---...... ------.-- ..-..
ObisapoPine. Bishop's Pine.

377. Pinns mitis............---------. .----
Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine.
Spruce Pine. BullPine.










378.- Pinns glabra ....... ..----------....
OedarPine. SprucePine. WhitePine.


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT



LAYERS OF
Diameter GROWTH.
State. Locality. Collector. Soil. of tree, ___

meters. Sap- Heart-
0_ wood. wood.
-- _


S1157 Calii


576


82
355
388
389





13

1046





83


621
622
1169
1172





279


321
396





671


278
319
557
558
559





142
544
764


--.. k & -...... Mount Shasta ..-.... .Engelmann and Gravelly......... 0.418
C. S. Sargent.

Florid. .......... Duval county....... H. Curtiss....... Moist, sandy...... 0.034
Alabama.. .------! Cottage Hill........ C. Mohr ........... Low, rioh........ .......
North Carot -... Wilmington --..... Edward Kidder..... Loam..................
..do .... .. do--------- ........... do..................do ..-.......... ......





Massachusetts.-- A. rnoldArboretum.. C. S. Sargent......- Drift ..... ...... 0.267

....do............ North h Reading.-.... J.Robinson.............do --............ 0.230





Florida.......... Duval count..-.....-- H. .Curtiss-..... Moist, sandy-loam. 0.312


South Carolina.... Aiken -...-..---- H Ravenel ..... Dry, sandy ....... 0.206
.--.do ............ ....do ..-..--------- --..--do ............ ....do ..........------ 0.164
Indiana........... ew Albany..----.. .J. Robinson ........................ ......
Few Jersey ...... Mount Holly...... S.P. Sharples ...... .................. ...


I


Florida .......-.- Apalachicola..... A. H. Curtias..s....


Virginia-......... Wytheville..... ... Shriv.er..........
Pennsylvania.....! ColerainForge..... J Lowrie........





California........ Marin county....... G. R. Vasey........


Florida ........... Chattahoochee ...... A. H.Curtiss......
Louisian.. ....... Amite ............. C. Mohr ............
Arkansas ........ Texarkana.......... L. Harvey .......
....do ...... ... -- do .............. do..............
....do ................ do...............l ...do ..............


South Carolina ... Bonnean's Depot ...
Mississippi....... Gainesville .......
Florida ........... Chattahoochee......


H. TV. Ravenol......
C. Mohr ...........
A. H. Curtiss.......


Dry, sandy barren 0.238


Clay ............ 0.264
Slate.............. 0.010





Gravelly.......... 0.243


Clay.........---... 0.015
Sandy loam........ .......
-...do ............. ..


Rich upland ......
Low, sandy .......
Low, wet .........


27


21

26





33


8
28








0


6


19


42
34


20 35
14 ...


29


33


I


i

I


....do .......... ......... I ................
.... do ..... ... ........--------- I ........








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.


OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY IETERMINATIOKS.


First.




0.4272


0.4952

0. 4082





0.3469


0.5610

0.5788

0.5458

0.5045





0.5597

0.4065

0.4131





0.7904


0.4905

0.5571

0.5149

0.5778





0.4696


Second.




0.3994


0.5244

0.4018





0.3529


0.5609

0.5466

0.5654

0.4896





0.5669

0.4154)

0.6323)





0.7931


0.4830

0.5680

0.4603

0. 5841


Third.


0.7990


0. 5991


0. 6456 ............


0.5235 0.5050

0 4851 0.4602





0.5054 0.4831


0.5739 0.4550

0.7098 0.7569
0.6086 0.6129

0.7202 0.7232

0.4689 0.4689





0.4358 0.4235

0.3232 0.3741

0.4018 0.4002


Average.




0. 4133


ASII DETERMINATIOAS.


First. Second. Average.

___ _I_-


0.34


0.5098 0.25
0.4050 0.34


0. 4574


0.3499


0.36


0.30


0.5609 0.26 0.29
0.5627 0.25 0.26

0.5556 0.28 0.26

0.4971 0.27 0.23


0.5441


0.5633 0.10 0.21

(0.32 .
0.4668 ---.........
; 0.19 )


0. 5151


0.7942


0.4867

0.5626

0.4876

0.5870


0.15


0.24

0.32

0.32

0. 29


0.5309


0.5576


0.31


0.5143 0.30

0.4727 0.24


0.4935


0.4942 0.26


0.5144 0. 35

0.7333 0.22

0.6107 0.23

0.7247 0.33

0.4689 0.32


0. 6104


0.4297 0.40

0.3487 0.53

0.4010 0.35


0.3931


0. 37


0.23

0.36


0. 30


Weight per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


Remarks.


25.76 All sap-wood ................... .................... .. 1157


------ ....... --.. -- ......... ........ .. ...................... ............. 676

......... ........................................ ................ 896


28.50


0.33 21.81


0.27 -..---...----

0.26 ...... .--

0.27 ......- --

0.25 ...--------.


0.26 33.91


0.20 ............

0.26



0.23 32.10


0.17 49.49


0.26 i--.......
0.32 ........

0.28 .... ...

0.32 3

0.30 33.----


0.31


34.75 ..... ............ ......... ..................................


........ .. .......... ... .. .......... ......................... 576


All sip-wood.-... ........-.- ....---..----------- --------- 82
All sap-wood... .... .................---....-- -------.--------. 355
A 11 sap-w ood ---------------------------------------------------- 355

Rosemary pine..................... ........--.-------------- 388

All sap-wood............------......---------------------........-- 389



A ll sa -wood ----. -.-.--- ..----------- .---------------**-- *-- 13
All sap-.wood ......................................... 13

First sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood; second and 1046
third sp. gr determinations made on 0.5 sap-wood. Fourth
sp. gr. specimen very resinous.





83

All sap.wood................................-......... 021
sap-wood...........................-----------------------........... 021

Sap-wood.............................................. 611229
All.ap.o............................------------------------- 116972
S... ... ............................ 1172


0.30 ... .... .......... ............. ........................ ..

0. 23 ...


0.27 30.75


0.26 30.80 Second sp. gr. determination made on sap-wood...............


0.35 i.... .. All sap-wood .........-......................................
0.22 ----...... 0. 5 ap-wood............... ...... ....... ..........-


0. 32 ... .... ...... ..........................................

0.37 ............ All sap-wood......-..-...-....-- .........----.--------.----------


0. 20 38. 04


0.50 ............ Seconds. gr. determination made on sap-wood..............--

0.49 L ............. Allap-wood...........................--....-----.-.--.--..--.

0.35 ............ Allsap-wood. .................................--


0. 45 24. 50
__= ....


341









FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


LATER OF
Diameter GBOWTH.
Species. State. Locality. Collector. Soil oftree, -
meters. Sp- Heart-
Swood. wood.


379. inns Banksiana .......................
Gray Pine. Scrub Pine. Prince's Pine.









380. Pinus palustris .......--....... .....
Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine.
Georgia Pine. Yellow Pine. Hard
Pine.






























381. Pinns Cubensis.......... ........
Stash Pine. Swamp Pine. Bastard
Pine. Meadow Pine.








382. Picea nigra............................
Black Spruce.















383. Picea alba..............................
White Spruce.













384. Picea Engelmanni....... .........
White Spruce.


Michigan......... Baldwin...........

New Brunswick -..........-.........


Florida ..........

...-do ...........

Mississippi.......

Florida .........

South Carolina .--

Alabama .........

..-.do ...........

... do .............

....do ............

--..do .............

Florida ...........

. ..do .............

North Carolina ..

Texas ............

Alabama .........






Florida..........

Alabama .........

Florida ..........






Vermont ........

....do ............

....do --..........

New Brunswick..

Province Quebec

New Brunswick..






New Hampshire..

Dakota..........

New Brunswick ..

....do .............

Province of Que-
bec.


Duval county......

....do ...............

Barney & Smith
Manufacturing Co
Saw-mill, Saint
John's river.
Aiken..-----------.

SCottage Hill .......

Citronelle ..... ....

Chunchula..........

... do ..............

....do ...............

Saw-mill, Cedar
Keys.
...do --------------..............


W. J. Beal..........

Intercolonial rail-
way.
....do ......... ..


Low, sandy.......


A. H. Curtiss...... Sandyloam.......

....do ............... Moist, sandy......


E. E. Barney .......

A. H. Curtiss......

H. W. Ravenel......

C. Mohr ...........

....do ..............

....do ...............

....do ...............

....do ...............

A. H. Curtiss.......

....do ...............


Sandy loam.....

....do .............
-....do -------....
....do .............

....do ...........

....do .............

....do .............


Wilmington ........ E. Kidder.......... ...........................

Sabine county ...... G. W. Letterman-- ................... ...................

Mobile....----.....----- C. Mohr............. .............................. .........


Duval county.......

Cottage Hill ........

Bay Biscayne.......


A. H. Curtiss .......

C. Mohr.............

A. H. Curtiss .......


Charlotte .......... C.G.Pringle........

....do -------- ---.. -.. ....do ..............

Huntingdon ....... ....do ..............


Bay of Fundy ......

Danville ..........

Bridgeton...........






Stratford ..........

Terry's peak.......

Bay of Fundy ......

Bridgeton..........

Amqui.............


Colorado......... Forest City.........


Utah ..................................


Intercolonial rail-
way.
Grand Trunk rail-
way.
Ed. Sinclair.........






C. G. Pringle ......

Robert Douglas.....

Intercolonial rail-
way.
Ed. Sinclair........

A. Grant..........






T. S. Brandegee ...

C. S. Sargent.......

T. S. Brandegee ....

Department ofAgri-
culture.
....do ..............


Moist, sandy -----

....do .............

Coral ...........






Gravelly.........

Cold, peaty .......

Gravelly .........














Gravelly-........












Damp ............

Peaty.............

....do .............


0.326


0.186














0.320



0.318


58


16














8



45


50


22














76



71


342


....do .............

..-.do .............

.. do ------------


....do ................

....do ...........-------------....








THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.



OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES-Continued.


SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS.


Second.


0.4622



0.4778






0.7551

0.7117

0.6927

0.7569

0.6139

0.6602

0.8652

0.8509

0.6673

0.7590

0.6163

0.6549

0.4602

0.7744

0. 6415






0.6533

0.7881

0.8529






0.4576

0.5289

0.4285

0.4730

0. 4065

0.4830






0.4074

0.3848

0.4231

0.3809

0.3737






0.3550

0.3365

0. 3507

0.3717

0.3105


Third.


0.4965

0.4588

0.5065






0.7284



0.6974

0.6829

0.5191

0.6616

0.9325

0.8450

0.7914

0.7736

0.5714

0.5924

0.6186

0.6745

0.6490






0.6506

0.7340

0.8389


0.4715 ...---......


0.5256

0.4486

0.4593

0. 4290

0.4098






0.4194

0.4034

0.4375

0.4188

0.4020






0.3551

0.3217

0.3528

0.3725

0.3137


............

............

............
0
0. 3907

0.4425






............

............

............

............




-----------.





............

------------ I


- ----------


Average.


............




............




............

............

............

............

............

............

............

---------..-

............

............

............


............


............



............



............


0.8220


ASH DETERMINATIONS.


First


0.4794

0.4588

0.4900


0.4761



0.7418

0.7117

0.6950

0.7199

0.5665

0.6609

0.8989

0.8479

0.7294

0.7663

0.5938

0.6236

0.5734

0.7245

0.6453


0.6999



0.6520

0.7611

0.8379


0.7504



0.4646

0.5272

0.4386

0.4662

0.4087

0.4431


0.4584



0.4134

0. 3941

0.4303

0. 3999

0.3879


0.4051



0.3551

0.3291

0. 3518

0.3721

0.3166


0.3449


Second.


0.28

0.20

0.19






0.26

0.16

0.26

0.28

0.39

0.27

0. 28

0.15

0.21

0.23

0.32

0.28

0.29

0.17

0.19






0.31

0.16

0.30






0.23

0.25

0.29

0.29

0.29

0.38






0.26

0.42

0.34

0.32

0.24






0.36

0.35

0. 29

0.32

0.43


Average.


0.33

0.19

0.18






0.26

0.17

0.26

0.21

0.24

0.27

0.20

0.16



0.23

0.32

0.28

0.34

0.18

0.26






0.31

0.15

0.31






0.17

0.27

0.29

0.27

0.25

0.28






0.21

0.38

0.38

0.31

0.29






0.29

0.35

0.24

0.33

0.26


Weight, per
cubic foot,
in pounds
(average).


0.30

0.20

0.19


0. 2?



0.26

0.17

0.26

0.25

0.31

0.27

0.24

0.16

0.21

0.23

0.32

0.28

0.32

0.18

0. 22


0.25



0.31

0.16

0.31


0.26



0.20

0.26

0.29

0.28

0. 27

0.33


0.27



0.24

0.40

0.36

0.32

0.27


0.32



0.33

o 35


25.25


0. 27 ...........

0.33 ............

0. 34 ...........


0.32 21. 49


Remarks.


............

............

............


29. 67



............

...........


............

............

............


... ........






............

............

............

............




............

............



............



-----------


------------

............






.----------




28. 57


343


First.


.........--........-------...--..---..----------------------.....

Sap-wood........................................




















Bosed for turpentine, 1852; chipped 10 years ; abandoned, 1861.
Boxed for turpentine, 1876; chipped 4 years; specimen taken
along chip.
Boxed for turpentine, 1876; chipped 4 years; specimen taken
above chip.
Boxed for turpentine, 1878; chipped 2 years...............---









Tree boxed for turpentine 18 or 20 years ago.................

















[P. rural ...............................-........



[P. rubra....................................................































Troe ith gray bark ............. ....................
S :::..... . --- ------....------... --.-. ---
.---. - ---- - ------- .... ... ... .... ... ... .... ... ...











.. . ............ .........-- --.. --.. -. ------ --------------....


// 111-1111


I
r i I


I1 1 1- 1- 11 i







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT


Species.


385. Picea pungens.......................
White Spruce. Blue Spruce.










386. Picea Sitchensis......................
Tide-land Spruce.












887. Tsuga Canadensis....................
Hemlock.
























388. Tsnga Carolinians.....................
Hemlock.

389. Tsuga Mertensiana ...................
Hemlock.






390. Tsuga Pattoniana ....................


391. Pseudotsuga onglasil ...............
Red Fir. Yellow Fir. Oregon Pine.
Douglas Fir.


State.


Colorado..........


Locality.


Collector.


Alpine............. T. S. Brandegee ....


Damp ............


....do ..--......--........do ............... ....do ............ ....do ...........


.... do ......-.--- --...........-.......

Utah ....... ............................


Alaska ..........

British Columbia.

Oregon ...........

....do .............

....do .............






Massachusetts --..

Vermont..........

Pennsylvania.....

New Brunswick..


Sitka ...............

Saw-mill, Burrard
inlet.
Weidler'smill, Port-
land.
Saw-mill, Astoria...

Portland Furniture
Company.





Arnold Arboretum..

Charlotte ...........

Williamsport .......

..-...................


775 ....do ....--. --...- Bay of Fundy ......

778 ....do ............. ..... ...............


DepartmentofAgri-
culture.
... do ..............-






Paul Schultze.......

G. Engelmann and
C. S. Sargent.
....do ..............

....do .............

....do .............






C. S. Sargent.......

C. G. Pringle ......

....do ..............

Intercolonial rail-
way.

....do ..............
.-..do .


Drift .............
Drift............

Gravelly.........

Damp ............

.. . .. . .


Diameter
of tree,
in
meters.


0.382


LAYERS OF
GROWTH.


Sap- Heart-
wood. wood.


37


787 ....do ............. Bridgeton........... Ed.Sinclair......... .................. -...... ........


Province Quebec .

West Virginia...

Massachusetts....

....do .............


Danville ............ Grand Trunk rail-


Grafton.............

Danvers ............

North Reading......


way.
C. G. Pringle ....

J. Robinson ........

....do ...............


Moist, loam.......

....................


North Carolina ... Hendersonville ..... HA.. Curties....... Dry, rocky........


0.230

0.260






0.228


26

16






51


57
















92

32






14


Washington terri- Wilkeson........... G. Engelmann and Rich loam ........-......................
tory. C. Sargent.
Alaska ........... Sitka...--.......--. Paul Schultze........................ ...................


British Columbia Silver peak, near
Fraser river.


Colorado..........

California ........

Oregon ...........

....do ............

...do .............

.. .do .............

...do ....... ......

....do .............

Montana..........

California ........

Utah. ............

British Columbia.

....do .............

...do .............

Oregon ..... ...


Alpine ..............

Saw-mill, Strawberry
valley.
Saw-mill, Marshfield

..do .............

E. B. Dean's saw-
mill, Marshfield.
.... do ...............

.... do ...............
....do ..............

Saw-mill, Missoula..

Lassen's peak .......

Salt Lake...........

Saw-mill, Burrard
inlet.
....do ...............

Saw-mill, Victoria..

Saw-mill, Portland ..


&G. Engelmann and
C.S. Sargent.

T. S. Brandegee.....


Gravelly loam .............


Moist...........


G. Engelmann and --... ..........
C. S. Sargent.
--do-----.-----.--- ---.----.---.-----
..-.do .......... .. ..........

....do ............ ................

...do ............... ...................

....do .............. ................

....do .... . . . . . . . .






pany.
M. E. Jones ........ Rocky...........

C. S. Sargent ...... .............



G. Engelmann and ...................
C. S. Sargent.
....do ............ ......................


0.276


40


155


0 1
3-14


-----------------------




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