• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Letter of transmittal
 Part I. The forest trees of North...
 The forests of North America
 A catalogue of the forest trees...
 Index to catalogue














Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023668/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Alternate Title: Forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)
Report on forest trees of North America
Physical Description: ix, 612 p., 39 leaves of plates : maps (some folded) ; 30 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: Sargent, Charles Sprague, 1841-1927
United States -- Census Office
Publisher: G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1884
Copyright Date: 1884
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- United States   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Trees -- United States   ( lcsh )
Trees -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Census, 10th, 1880 -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles S. Sargent.
General Note: At head of title: Department of the Interior, Census Office.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023668
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - ANQ6646
oclc - 41571369
alephbibnum - 002778531

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ix
        Page x
    Part I. The forest trees of North America, exclusive of Mexico
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The forests of North America
        Page 3
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    A catalogue of the forest trees of North America, exclusive of Mexico, with remarks upon their synonymy, bibliographical history, distribution, economic value, and uses
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    Index to catalogue
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Full Text



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
CENSUS OFFICE.


FRANCIS A. WALKER, Superintendent,
Appointed April 1, 1870; resigned November 3, 1881.


CHAS. W. SEATON, Superintendent,
Appointed November 4, 1881.


"/


REPORT


ON THE


FORESTS OF NORTH AMERICA


(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO),



BY



CHARLES S. SARGENT,
ARNOLD PROFESSOR OF ARBORICULTURE IN HARVARD COLLEGE,
SPECIAL AGENT TENTH CENSUS.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1884.


~p~lC~L~o e~~L~(L*
~LC~--ULC~rV3
ry/,
~7-~C/Y-C /




I-,


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
CENSUS OFFICE,
Washington, D. C., September 1, 1884.
Hon. H. M. TELLER,
Secretary of the Interior.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the Report on the Forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico),
by Charles S. Sargent, Arnold Professor of Arboriculture in Harvard College.
This report constitutes the ninth volume of the series forming the final report on the Tenth Census.
I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
CHAS. W. SEATON,
Superintendent of Census.
iii




















TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Page.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ....................... ................... ....................... ..... .. ix


PART I.

THE FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.

THE FORESTS OF NORTH AMERICA-GENERAL REMARKS..---....---.......-..-... .........-.....-............................. 3-16
THE ATLANTIC REGION ..--....-.......-......-.....-............. ......-......-..... ......-....-.....-......-....-........ 3-6
THE PACIFIC REGION........................................... ..... .......---------------................................ 6-10
DISTRIBUTION OF GENERA .........-......-... .................. .. ...............-...-............-...-................ 10-12
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES .-----........-- ----.....--- ..-....-- .....--...........-.. ........ ..- -....-....-............. 12-16
A CATALOGUE OF THE FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO, WITH REMARKS UPON THEIR SYNONOMY,
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY, DISTRIBUTION, ECONOMIC VALUES, AND USES----................... ............................ 17-219
INDEX TO CATALOGUE ............................................................. .............................. ............ 220-243


PART II.

THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES.
PRELIMINARY REMARKS ..................-...................................... .......................... .............. ...- 247
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ASH ..........................-........--.............--------..................-..................... 248--251
FUEL VALUE. .................................. -......... ....-------- -- ---.----.....-.......-..... ............. -------------251,252
TIIE STRENGTH OF WOOD .. --............ ....... .................. .- ...-........- -......--.....-......-... .......--........ 252
COMPARATIVE VALUES ................. .....-.......--..........-------........... ---...................... ................... -252
TABLE OF RELATIVE VALUES --- ------...................---...--......... --------------.........................-....... 253-255
TABLE OF AVERAGES ....- ........-.............--................-.......................... ................. ....- ....... 256-259
TABLE ILLUSTRATING TIE RELATION BETWEEN TRANSVERSE STRENGTH AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY IN THE WOOD OF CERTAIN
SPECIES .........................-.... .............. .... .... .....----------------------------------------------------.. 259-264
GENERAL REMARKS ..... ............-..................................... ---.-................................. ............ 264,265
TANNIN VALUES ---.................-........... ... ..------------..... .......... .....-.......- -. ..... .....................- 265
TABLE I.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, ASH, AND WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT OF DRY SPECIMENS OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 266-349
TABLE II.-ACTUAL FUEL VALUE OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES ........................ 350-353
TABLE III.-BEHAVIOR OF THE PRINCIPAL WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES UNDER TRANSVERSE STRAIN..---.....-.......-..... 354-415
TABLE IV.-BEHAVIOR OF SOME OF THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES UNDER TRANSVERSE STRAIN: SPECIMENS EIGHT
CENTIMETERS SQUARE--................................ .. -------------------------------.. .............. .................... 414-417
TABLE V.-BEHAVIOR OF THE PRINCIPAL WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES UNDER COMPRESSION ............................. 418-481


PART III.

THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES IN THEIR ECONOMIC ASPECTS.

GENERAL REMARKS----------... ... -------------------- -- -------------------------........................................... 485
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY ........ .---...-.. --.....- ......-- .................................- ......... ..................... 485-489
FUEL-...................... ..-----------------...------------------------............-.................................... 489
WOOD USED AS FUEL FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES. -----------................................................... .............. 489
ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF WOOD FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.-..---..-----.......-.......-.................-- ............ 489
CONSUMPTION OF CHARCOAL ----................-........................................................................... 489
FOREST FIRES -...---- ...... .... .. .-----.... --- ....-....-..------............---------------......... ............ .. -. 491-493
TABLE OF FOREST FIRES OCCURRING DURING THE CENSUS YEAR ........-..........---- ...........................-...... 491,492
NORTH ATLANTIC DIVISION ..--.......-----.....---........---.....----...------....... -.............. .... ................- 494-510
M AINE ....-----------.............------ ----------------------------------------..................................... ... 494-496
NEW HAMPSHIRE ..........-..............-..........----..............-------------------------------------..... ... -. 496-498
VERMONT-.... ............................................... -.... ---------.....................................----...... 498-500
MASSACUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, AND CONNECTICUT.............-----..... ------......------.................................... 500,501
NEW YORK ............-............................................-............. ....................................... 501-506
NEW JERSEY......... ----------- ...--- .... .......... ..........................---------------------------------------------------.. .............. 506
PENNSYLVANIA ......................- ................................................................................... 506-510
v









vi TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page.

SOUT ATLANTIC DIVISION ........----------------------------------------------------.....---..........----...--................ 511-523

MARYLAND..------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- 11
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA--....----------------------------------------------------------------- ------------ ----- ------------ 511
VIRGINIA.-------------------------------------------------**-------------------------------------------------------------511,512
WEST VIRGINIA...... --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 512-51
NORTH CAROLINA---.......--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Naval stores...... ..........----------- ------- ---------------------- ----- ------------------- -------- ----- -51 651
SOUTH CAROLINA....-------------------------------------------------------------**--------------------------------------***----5 18,519
Burning off d(lead herbage .------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 518,
GEORGIA ---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------..------------------------519, 52
VORGINA ...----....--.....------------..---------.----..............-------.....--------...... .......... ..................... .......... 520-523




FLORIDA .....-----------------.------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pencil cedar.-------------- -- --------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- 522
Cypress .........-- ---..------------- --------- ------- ------------------------ ---** ------------------ ------- 52
SOUTHERN CENTRAL DIVISION...------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 54-54
ALABAMA ---..-......------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------- 524-5
The Maritime pine region.--------.--------------------------------------.-------------------------------------------- 525-52
Cypress swamps ofthe Tenasriver-----........----..------------------------------------------------------------- 525-527
The forests of the Chattahoochee in eastern Alabama, mixed forest growth, etc -...--.. ..-.-------.---- --------------. 51, 528
Forests of the Tennessee valley-------.........-------------------------- ----------------------------------.*---- 528,329
522









General remarks........-----..------------ ---------- ---------------------------------------------------".529
The pine belt of central Alabama----......------------------------------- ------------------------------------ ---- 529
The pine region of the Coosa.-----...--------------------- ---- --------------------------- --** ---- --*-- ------ --------- 52953
Naval stores......------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------. 530-5
MISSISSIPPI...---------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------"---* 530-532
The pine forests of southern Mississippi ....---------------------------------- -- --- ------------------------------- 531,532
5324-530













The northeastern counties-------..........-------......----.--.-.------------- ------------------------------------------ 532-534
Central pine hills--------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------534
Western Mississippi..---------.-------------------------------- --- -------------------- ---------------- 534,5
525-5'27















The Yazoo delta .... ......-------- ----- --------------- ------.---------------------------- --------.------53,
LOUISIANA --------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------.-------. 536-5
Moss ginnin .........--- ..----------- ---- -------------------------- --- --------------------- 534-543
TEXAS...----...---------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------546- 543"
549














NDIAN TERITORY ----------------....-------------------------------------------------------------------- --------- 5
ARKANSAS...........--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*------------------------*--- 543,544
TENNESSEE..--.....--------------------------- ------------------------ *----* ---- ------- ---------------------------------------- 45
545, 546







Effect of fires upon the forest----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
KENTUCKY ..........------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 545,546
Pastrage of woodlands.....-----..--------------.-------------------------------------------------- 5
530-535


















NORTHERN CENTRAL DIVISION--------.------..- ------------*---------------------------- -----------------------5--------547
O The pine fo s of ----------- ------------------i --------------------------------------- -------------------- -- ------ 54
INDIANA----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ ** --------- ---------------------------547
ILLINOIS ..-------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------547-550
MICHIGANtral ..----------.------.--------......----------------------- --------------------- --------- ------------550-554
Forest fires --- ...--.-------..-------------.-- ---------- ---------- ------------- ------------------- 550,551
Statistics of growing timber..--...------------------------------------------------------ --------------------
WISCONSIN ............--- ------------------------------------------- --------------------------- 554-55
MINNESOTA ..------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------558-560
Forests on Indian reservations. ---------- ------------------------------- -- ---- ---- -------------- ----- 559,560
IowA.. .------ .---------------------------------- ----.. --------------...----------.-----------------. 560
MISSOURI .-------------------------------------------------------------------------------.........................------------------------------........560,561
DAKOTA-ER---.---------------------------------------------RITORY ------------------------------------- .561,562
NEBRASKA ......--------.-----.-------------------------------------------------- ----------------............-........ 54362
KANSAS--.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------....------------------............................. 562,563
WESTERN DIVISION.....-..--..------ ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------5
MONTANA....---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 564-566
54,-567





















WYOMING---....----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------566,567
COLORADO---.... ----------------------------------------- -------------------------- --................. 567,568
546






















NEW MEXICO---------- --- ----------------. -----------------------------*---------------------------------------------
ARIZONA ------------ ---------- ------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 568,569
UTA--------..............................------------------------------------------------------..-----------------------------.............................------------------------ .........569-571
Lakerange,westofUtahlake....----------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------. 570
547

























SaDIete Valley range-------...................----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------57
Sevier River....mountains---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------
NEVAOrst.s ---- --------------------------------------------------------------*--------------------- --- ------------ 571
576-5758


CALIFORNIA .....-..-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------57-5
PAI stuRNA of on-ta- n forests-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 579&560
Pasturage of mountain forest..................--...-----...------.......------------------------------------------------............................. 59,580
56ALASKA---------- ----
IowaL .................... ..--....----.---.--.----------- ---- ....-.* *....--- .-----.--. .. ......... ...........
PIIISSO UR I...~..- -... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
D AK OTA ....... ...... ....... ....... ...... ....... ....... ...... ....... ....... ...... ....... ....... ...... ..... 5 1, 56'
I EBRAS K A .......... ......................... ........................ ........................ ........................


ONTANa ... ........ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Vr o n x G ...... ............... ............... ............... ................ ............... ............... ....... 566, 56


I EW MxrXco ........... .....-..........................................................................................




San pete Valley range ...................................................................................... .........--- ---
Sevier River m mountains .................................................................... : .........................--- ---
EvADa ................... ..............................................................................................

WAStIINGTON ...................................................--- ? .............-----------'
O RE G O N ............................. ............................................ ................................ ........~'


A LASK A ....................... ............ ................. ............................. ........................ .....




["--- -- -






TABLE OF CONTENTS. vi



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page.
MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE CHARACTER OF THE FUEL USED IN THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE SETTLED
PORTION OF THE COUNTRY......... ...-....--. .-........--. -----------. ---- ------------------.------------------------------ 489
MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE PROPORTION OF WOODLAND WITHIN THE SETTLED AREA BURNED OVER DURING THE
CENSUS YEAR-...---.-..... --.-...--. ----- ---- -------.---- --.--- ---------------- --------------- -- --------------.-----.. 491
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE, VERMONT, MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT,
NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, AND PENNSYLVANIA........................--.---- --- --...--........ --......... --.................... 495
MAP OF MAINE, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF PINE AND SPRUCE FORESTS ..........-................-................. 496
MAP OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE AND SPRUCE FORESTS ................. 497
MAP OF PENNSYLVANIA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE AND HEMLOCK FORESTS ..-..---........--............... 506
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN DELAWARE, MARYLAND, WEST VIRGINIA, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, OHIO, KENTUCKY,
TENNESSEE, INDIANA, AND ILLINOIS----.......................- -..-- --- -------.--------.------.---- --- -------.---------------- 511
MAP OF WEST VIRGINIA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARDWOOD, SPRUCE, AND PINE FORESTS ..........-.......... 512
MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS......-.....-----...........----...---....-.... 515
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, AND LOUISIANA .......... 518
MAP OF SOUTH CAROLINA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS .----------............---...----.-------.--.--. . 519
MAP OF GEORGIA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS..-.............--------.......---..--..--------............. 520
MAP OF FLORIDA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS.......----.................----......---------------------.........-----.... 522
MAP OF ALABAMA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF TIE PINE FORESTS----....................-----.-- ----....------------..----.....-- 524
MAP OF MISSISSIPPI, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS. ..-.....-..-..-......-..-...---.......-..........--- --- 530
MAP OF LOUISIANA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS.....-.......---............-------------.----------......... 536
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN TEXAS ..-.......-......---------.... ----..-.....--..------.---------- ---- -------- ------- 540
MAP OF TEXAS, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE FORESTS.......---.--....----- ---.......------ ....----------------- --- 541
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN MISSOURI, ARKANSAS, KANSAS, AND INDIAN TERRITORY ........................-....--. 543
MAP OF ARKANSAS, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINE AND HARDWOOD FORESTS------...........---....--.........--.-----.... 544
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA, AND IOWA ..................-..-.........-..-...-.. 550
MAP OF THE LOWER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARDWOOD AND PINE FORESTS ............. 551
MAP OF THE UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARDWOOD AND PINE FORESTS ............. 551
MAP OF WISCONSIN, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARDWOOD AND PINE FORESTS.....----.....--........--....--- ...---. 554
MAP OF MINNESOTA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARDWOOD AND PINE FORESTS .....-----..--.............---- .. ----- 558
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN DAOTA .................. --- --....--..---.........----------......--------------...... 561
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN NEBRASKA ............-....-..--- --....---...................------- ...---------------...... 562
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN MONTANA.....................--------------- ......----...----------------------------------- 564
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN WYOMING.............-..............------.-..-------------------------------------. 566
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN COLORADO -........---..........-.....--------------------------------------------.... 567
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN NEW MEXICO--.........-...-........--.....-------- --.. --.. ----------------------- 568
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN ARIZONA -----------------------.........................----------------------------------------------------- 569
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN UTAH ....................... ......... -...---...-..---------........-....--..---.--- 570
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN NEVADA -.......-....-...---.....---.. --..........-- --------..------------------------ 571
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN IDADA .................................................. -----.------....--...--- 572
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN IDAHO..---------.....-...---..--- ...----..--------------------------------------------------------------- 572
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN WASHINGTON .........-.....--.........-...-----. ~.----------------------------------. 574
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN OREGON .....................---......... ......... ..-------------....--------------.. 576
MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF FORESTS IN CALIFORNIA ------------... ----... -- --...... ----...........---...----------------.... ...--...--. 578
MAP OF A PORTION OF CALIFORNIA, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE REDWOOD FORESTS-............................... 580


MAPS CONTAINED IN PORTFOLIO ACCOMPANYING THIS VOLUME.

No. 1.-MAP SHOWING THE POSITION OF THE FOREST, PRAIRIE, AND TREELESS REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 2.--AP SHOWING THE NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 3.-MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS FRAXINUS (THE ASHES) IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 4.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA CARYA AND UMBELLULARIA (THE HICKORIES AND
CALIFORNIA LAUREL).
No. 5.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS JUGLANS (THE WALNUTS).
NO. 6.-MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS QUERCUS (THE OAKS) IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 7.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA CASTANEA AND CASTANOPSIS (THE CHESTNUTS
AND CHINQUAPINS).
No. 8.-MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENUS PINUS (THE PINES) IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 9.-MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA ABIES AND PICEA (THE FIRS AND SPRUCES) IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLU-
SIVE OF MEXICO.
S No. 10.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA AND PINUS LAMBERTIANA.
No. 11.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA, QUERCUS ALBA, AND QUERCUS DENSIFLORA.
No. 12.-MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF FRAXINUS AMERICANA AND PINUS PONDEROSA IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF
MEXICO.
No. 13.-MAP SHOWING TIE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA CIIAMECYPARIS AND CUPRESSUS IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF
MEXICO.
No. 14.-M-AP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA THUYA, TAXODIUM, AND SEQUOIA IN NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF
MEXICO.
No. 15.-MAP SHOWING TIE DISTRIBUTION OF PINUS STROBUS, PINUS PALUSTRIS, AND PSEUDOTSUGA DOUGLASII IN NORTH AMERICA,
EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.
No. 16.-MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, SHOWING THE RELATIVE AVERAGE DENSITY OF EXISTING FORESTS.



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



BROOKLINE, MASSACHUSETTS, July 1, 1883.
To THE SUPERINTENDENT OF CENSUS.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report upon the nature and condition of the forests of the
United States, to which are added statistics of the lumber and other industries directly dependent upon the forest
for their support.
Mr. Andrew Robeson, of Brookline, Massachusetts, has prepared the maps which accompany this report; he
has supervised the entire statistical work of this division and has conducted its correspondence.
Mr. Stephen P. Sharpies, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has conducted the various experiments undertaken
with the view of determining the value of the different woods produced in the forests of the United States.
Mr. C. G. Pringle, of East Charlotte, Vermont, has examined the forests of northern New England and New
York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; and subsequently, as an agent for the American Museum of Natural
History, has greatly increased our knowledge of the trees of Arizona and southern California.
Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Jacksonville, Florida, has studied the forests of Georgia and Florida, and subsequently,
as an agent of the American Museum of Natural History, has added to our knowledge of the semi-tropical forests
of southern Florida.
Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile, Alabama, has explored the forests of the Gulf states.
Mr. H. C. Putnam, of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, has gathered the forest statistics of Pennsylvania, Michigan,
Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
Mr. George W. Letterman, of Allenton, Missouri, has examined the forests extending west of the Lower
Mississippi River, and Professor F. L. Harvey, of Fayetteville, Arkansas, has gathered the forest statistics of that
state.
Mr. Sereno Watson, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has studied, during a long and arduous journey, the forests
of the northern Rocky Mountain region, and Mr. Robert Douglas, of Waukegan, Illinois, those of the Black hills
of Dakota.
I take this opportunity to call your attention to the faithful and admirable manner in which my associates
have performed the difficult duties to which they were assigned; their zeal and intelligence have made possible
the preparation of this report.
It is my pleasant duty also to call your attention to the fact that this investigation has been greatly aided
from the first by the experience and knowledge of Messrs. G. M. Dawson, John Macoun, and Robert Bell, members
of the Geological Survey of Canada; the information in regard to the distribution northward of the trees of the
eastern United States is entirely derived from the latter's paper upon the Canadian forests, published in the
Report of the Geological Survey of Canada for the years 1879-'80.
I am under special obligation to Dr. George Engelmann, of Saint Louis, Missouri, my companion in a long
journey through the forests of the Pacific region, for valuable assistance and advice; his unrivaled knowledge of
our oaks, pines, firs, and other trees has been lavishly placed at my disposal.
Mr. M. S. Bebb, of Rockford, Illinois, the highest American authority upon the willow, has given me the
benefit of his critical advice in the study of this difficult genus. I desire to express to him and to Dr. Laurence
Johnson, of New York, who has furnished me with a full series of notes upon the medical properties of the trees
of the United States, the deep sense of my obligation. My thanks are also due to Mr. Henry Gannett, Geographer
of the Tenth Census, for cordial co-operation in the work of this division; to Colonel T. T. S. Laidley, of the
-United States army, in command of the arsenal at Watertown, Massachusetts, and to Mr. James E. Howard, in
charge of the testing machine there, for advice and assistance afforded Mr. Sharpies while conducting the
experiments upon the strength of woods, as well as to a large number of correspondents in all parts of the United
States who have favored me with their cordial co-operation.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,
CHARLES S. SARGENT,
Special Agent.






















PA-RT I.




THE FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA,

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO.


---- -- -- -------- -----;-;-- --,1






















THE FORESTS OF NORTH AMERICA.



GENERAL REMARKS.

The North American continent, or that part of it situated north of Mexico, which will alone be considered here,
may be conveniently divided, with reference to its forest geography, into the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by a
line following the eastern base of the Rocky mountains and its outlying eastern ranges from the Arctic circle to
the Rio Grande. The forests which cover these two divisions of the continent differ as widely, in natural features,
composition, and distribution, as the climate and topography of eastern America differ from the climate and
topography of the Pacific slope. The causes which have produced the dissimilar composition of these two forests
must be sought in the climatic conditions of a geological era earlier than our own and in the actual topographical
formation of the continent; they need not be discussed here.
The forests of the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, dissimilar in composition in the central part of the continent,
are united at the north by a broad belt of subarctic forests extending across the continent north of the fiftieth
degree of latitude. One-half of the species of which this northern forest is composed extends from the Atlantic to the
Pacific; and its general features, although differing east and west of the continental divide, in conformity with the
climatic conditions peculiar to the Atlantic and the Paciic sides of the continent, still possess considerable
uniformity. The forests of the Atlantic and the Pacific regions are also united at the south by a narrow strip of the
flora peculiar to the plateau of northern Mexico, here extending northward into the United States. Certain
characteristic species of this flora extend from the gulf of Mexico to the shores of the Pacific, and while the peculiar
features of the eastern and the western slopes of the interior mountain system of the continent are still maintained
here, the Atlantic and the Pacific regions of the Mexican forest belt possess many general features in common. Typical
North American species, moreover, peculiar to the forests of the Atlantic or of the Pacific, mingle upon the Black
hills of Dakota, and upon the Guadalupe and other mountains of western Texas, the extreme eastern ridges of the
Rocky Mountain range, and the outposts between the Atlantic and the Pacific regions.


THE ATLANTIC REGION.
The forests of the Atlantic region may be considered under six natural divisions: the Northern Forest, the
Northern Pine Belt, the Southern Maritime Pine Belt, the Deciduous Forest of the Mississippi Basin and the
Atlantic Plain, the Semi-tropical Forest of Florida, and the Mexican Forest of Southern Texas (Map No. 2,
portfolio).
These natural divisions, although composed in part of species found in other divisions and possessing many
general features in common, are still for the most part well characterized by predominant species or groups of
species, making such a separation natural and convenient.
The Northern Forest stretches along the northern shores of Labrador nearly to the sixtieth degree of north
latitude, sweeps to the south of Hudson bay, and then northwestward to within the Arctic circle. This Northern
Forest extends southward to the fiftieth degree of north latitude on the Atlantic coast, and nearly to the fifty-fourth
degree at the 100th meridian. It occupies 10 degrees of latitude upon the Atlantic sea-board and nearly 20 degrees in
its greatest extension north and south along the eastern base of the Rocky mountains. The region occupied by this
Northern Forest, except toward its southwestern limits, enjoys a copious rainfall; it is divided by innumerable
streams and lakes, and abounds in swampy areas often of great extent. The nature of the surface and the low
annual mean temperature check the spread of forest growth and reduce the number of arborescent species, of
which this forest is composed, to eight; of these, four cross to the Pacific coast, while the remainder, with a single
exception, are replaced west of the continental divide by closely allied forms of the Pacific forest. The white and the
black spruces are characteristic trees of this region; they form an open, stunted forest upon the low divides of the

3


--.~------~---~-----_3-~---~-~-~---









4 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

water sheds, and reach a higher latitude than any other arborescent species of the continent; the valleys and
wide bottoms are clothed with broad sheets of poplars, dwarf birches, and willows. The forest of this entire
region is scattered, open, stunted, and of no great economic value. It embraces, south of the sixtieth degree of
north latitude, the northern extension of the great mideontinental plateau, which will be considered hereafter.
South of the Northern Forest the Northern Pine Belt extends from the Atlantic coast to the ninety-sixth meridian
of longitude; east of the Apalachian Mountain system it extends south over nearly 6 degrees of latitude, with a
long, narrow spur following the higher Alleghany ridges for nearly 3 degrees farther south; west of the Alleghany
mountains, in the region of the great lakes, the pine forest is replaced south of the forty-third degree of latitude by
the deciduous growth of the Mississippi basin. This second division of the Atlantic forest may be characterized
by the white pine (Pinus Strobus), its most important, if not its most generally-distributed, species. East of the
Apalachian system this tree often forms extensive forests upon the gravelly drift plain of the Saint Lawrence
5asin, or farther south and west appears in isolated groves, often of considerable extent, scattered through the
deciduous forest. Forests of black spruce are still an important feature of this region, especially at the north,
and within its boundaries the hemlock, the yellow cedar, the basswood, the black and the white ash, the sugar
maple, and several species of birch and elm find their northern limits and the center of their most important
distribution. The hickories and the oaks, characteristic features of the deciduous forests of all the central
portion of the Atlantic region, reach here the northern limits of their distribution, as do the chestnut, the
sassafras, the tulip tree, the magnolia, here represented by a single species, the red cedar, the tupelo, the sycamore,
the beech, and other important genera.
The Southern Mlaritime Pine Belt extends from the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude along the coast in a
narrow belt, varying from one hundred to two hundred miles in width, as far south as cape Malabar and Tampa bay;
it stretches across the Florida peninsula and along the coast of the gulf of Mexico until the alluvial deposits of the
Mississippi are encountered; it reappears west of that river in Louisiana, north and south of the Red river, and
here gradually mingles with the deciduous forests of the Mississippi basin in Arkansas and eastern Texas. This
belt is well characterized by the almost continuous growth, outside of the broad river bottoms and the immediate
neighborhood of the coast, by the open forest of the long-leaved pine (P. palustris). The live oak, the palmetto,
and various species of pine characterize the coast forest of this region; through the river bottoms and along the
borders of the shallow ponds, scattered through the pine forest, different gums, water oaks, hickories, and
ashes attain noble dimensions. The southern cypress (Taxodijmn), although extending far beyond the limits of
this natural division, here attains its greatest development and value, and, next to the long-leaved pine, may be
considered the characteristic species of the maritime pine belt.
The Deciduous Forest of the Mississippi Basin and the Atlantic Plain occupies, with two unimportant exceptions
to be considered hereafter, the remainder of the Atlantic region. Through this deciduous forest, where peculiar
geological features have favored the growth of Coniferce, belts of pine, growing gregariously or mixed with oaks
and other broad-leaved trees, occur, especially upon some portions of the Atlantic plain and toward the limits of
the Southern Maritime Pine Belt, west of the Mississippi river. The characteristic features of the forest of this
whole region are found, however, in the broad-leaved species of which it is largely composed. Oaks, hickories,
walnuts, magnolias, and ashes give variety and value to this forest, and here, with the exception of a few species
peculiar to a more northern latitude, the deciduous trees of the Atlantic region attain their greatest development
and value. Upon the slopes of the southern Alleghany mountains and in the valley of the lower Red river, regions
of copious rainfall and rich soil, the deciduous forest of the continent attains unsurpassed variety and richness.
Upon the Alleghany mountains northern and southern species are mingled, or are only separated by the altitude
of these mountains; rhododendrons, laurels, and magnolias, here attaining their maximum development, enliven the
forests of northern pines and hemlocks which clothe the flanks of these mountains or are scattered through forests
of other broad-leaved species. The cherry, the tulip tree, and the chestnut here reach a size unknown in other
parts of the country. The forest of the Red River valley is hardly less varied. The northern species which the
elevation of the Alleghany mountains has carried south are wanting, but other species peculiar to the southern
Atlantic and Gulf coasts are here.mingled with plants of the southern deciduous forest. The seven species of
Garya (the hickories) are nowhere else closely associated. A great variety of the most important oaks grow here
side by side : here is the center of distribution of the North American hawthorns, which do not elsewhere attain
such size and beauty. The osage orange is peculiar to this region; the red cedar, the most widely distributed of
American Coniferce, the southern and the yellow pine (Pinus palustris and mitis) here reach their best development.
Just outside of this region, upon the "bluff" formation of the lower Mississippi valley and of western Louisiana, the
stately southern magnolia, perhaps the most beautiful of the North American trees, and the beech assume their
greatest beauty, and give a peculiar charm to this southern forest.
The western third of the Atlantic region is subjected to very different climatic conditions from those prevailing
in the eastern portion of the continent; it consists of an elevated plateau which falls away from the eastern base of
the Rocky mountains, forming what is known as the Great Plains. This great interior region, on account of its
remoteness from natural reservoirs of moisture, receives a meager and uncertain rainfall, sufficient to insure a
growth of herbage, but not sufficient to support, outside the narrow bottoms of the infrequent streams, the scantiest








GENERAL REMARKS. 5

forests. This treeless plateau extends north to the fifty-second degree of north latitude; it follows southward the
trend of the Rocky mountains far into Mexico, extending eastward at the point of its greatest width, in about latitude
400 N., nearly to the ninety-seventh meridian. This whole region is generally destitute of forest. The narrow bottoms
of the large streams are lined, however, with willows, poplars, elms, and hackberries, trees adapted to flourish
under such unfavorable conditions. These diminish in size and number with the rainfall, and often disappear
entirely from the banks of even the largest streams toward the western limits of the plateau, south of the forty-fifth
degree of latitude. North and east of these central treeless plains a belt of prairie extends from the sixtieth degree
of north latitude to southern Texas. The average width east and west of this prairie region, through much of its
extent, is not far from 150 miles. Its eastern extension, between the fortieth and forty-fifth degrees of latitude, is
much greater, however, here reaching the western shores of lake Michigan, and forming a great recess in the western
line of the heavy forest of the Atlantic region with a depth of nearly 600- miles. The transition from the heavy
forest of the eastern and central portions of the Atlantic region to the treeless plateau is gradual. The change
occurs within the prairie region. Here is the strip of debatable ground where a continuous struggle between the
forest and the plain takes place. There is here sufficient precipitation of moisture to cause, under normal conditions,
a growth of open forest, but so nicely balanced is the struggle that any interference quickly turns the scale. Trees
planted within this prairie belt thrive if protected from fire and the encroachment of the tough prairie sod, and so
extend the forest line westward; if the forest which fringes the eastern edge of the prairie is destroyed it does not
soon regain possession of the soil, and the prairie is gradually pushed eastward.
The eastern line of the plain where arborescent vegetation is confined to the river bottoms, and which divides
it from the prairie where trees grow naturally, to some extent, outside of the bottoms, and where they may be made
to grow under favorable conditions everywhere, is determined by the rainfall enjoyed by this part of the continent,
The extreme eastern point reached by this line is found, upon the fortieth degree of north latitude, near the northern
boundary of the state of Kansas. North of the fortieth degree it gradually trends to the west, reaching the eastern
base of the Rocky mountains in about latitude 520. This northwestern trend of the eastern plain line may be
ascribed to the comparatively small evaporation which takes place during the shorter summer of the north and to
a slight local increase of spring and summer rainfall. South of the fortieth degree the plain line gradually trends
to the southwest under the influence of the gulf of Mexico, reaching its extreme western point in Texas upon the
one hundredth meridian.
Other causes, however, than insufficient rainfall and a nicely balanced struggle between the forest and the
plain have prevented the general growth of trees in the prairie region east of the ninety-fifth meridian. The rainfall
of this region is sufficient to insure the growth of a heavy forest. The rain falling upon the prairies of Minnesota,
Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri equals in amount that enjoyed by the Michigan peninsula and the whole
region south of lakes Ontario and Erie, while prairies exist within the region of the heaviest forest growth. It is
not want of sufficient heat, or of sufficient or equally distributed moisture, which has checked the general spread of
forest over these prairies. The soil of which the prairies are composed, as is shown by the fact that trees planted upon
them grow with vigor and rapidity, is not unsuited to tree growth. It is not perhaps improbable that the forests
of the Atlantic region once extended continuously as far west at least as the ninety-fifth meridian, although
circumstantial evidence of such a theory does not exist; and the causes which first led to the destruction of the forests
in this region, supposing that they ever existed, cannot with the present knowledge of the subject be even guessed at.
It is, however, fair to assume that forests once existed in a region adapted, by climate, rainfall, and soil, to produce
forests, and that their absence under such conditions must be traced to accidental causes. It is not dillicult to
understand that the forest once destroyed over such a vast area could not easily regain possession of the soil
protected by an impenetrable covering of sod and "l ...i-. t. l to the annual burnings which have occurred down to
the present time; while the force of the wind, unchecked by any forest barrier, over such an area would, even without
the aid of fires, have made the spread of forest growth slow and difficult. The assumption that these eastern
prairies may have once been covered with forests is strengthened by the fact that since they have been devoted
to agriculture, and the annual burning has been stopped, trees which were formerly confined to the river bottoms
have gradually spread to the uplands. Small prairies situated just within the western edge of the forez-t have
entirely disappeared within the memory of persons still living ; the oak olenings-open forests of large oaks through
which the annual fires played without greatly injuring the full-grown trees-once the characteristic feature of these
prairies, have disappeared. They are replaced by dense forests of oak, which only require protection from fire to
spring into existence. In western Texas, the mesquit, forced by annual burning to grow almost entirely below
the, surface of the ground, is, now that prairie fires are less coninon and destructive, spreading over what a few
years ago was treeless prairie. The prairies, th tl, or tie eastern portions of them situated in the 1regio ofi' ablundant
rainfall, are fast losing their treeless character, and the forest protected from fire is gradually gvainiiig in every
direction ; regions which fifty years ago were treeless outside the river bottoms now contain forests covering 10 or
even 20 per cent. of their area. These eastern, well-watered prairies must not, however, be colnfounded with
their dry western rim adjoining the plains-the debatable ground between forest and plain-or with the plains
themselves. There is now no gradual,constant spread of forest growth upon the plains. They are treeless, on account
of insufficient moisture to develop forest growth; and while trees may, perhaps, if planted, survive during a few years


L--~-=-L I~il-----Li~ ---~~








6 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

beyond the western limits of the prairie as here laid down, the permanent establishment of forests there does not
seem practicable, and, sooner or later, a period of unusual drought must put an end to all attempts at forest
cultivation in a region of such insufficient and uncertain rainfall (Map No. 1, portfolio).
It remains to consider the Semi-tropical Forest of Florida and the Mexican Forest of Southern Texas.
A group of arborescent species of West Indian origin occupies the narrow strip of coast and islands of
southern Florida. This belt of semi-tropical vegetation is confined to the immediate neighborhood of the coast
and to occasional hummocks or islands of high ground situated in the savannas which cover a great portion of
southern Florida, checking, by tlhe nature of the soil and want of drainage, the spread of forest growth across the
peninsula. This semi-tropical forest belt reaches cape Malabar on the east and the shores of Tampa bay on the
west coast, while some of its representatives extend fully 2 degrees farther north. It is rich in composition;
nearly a quarter of all the arborescent species of the Atlantic forest are found-within this insignificant region.
The semni-tropical forest, in spite of its variety, is of little economic importance. The species of which it is composed
here reach the extreme northern limit of their distribution; they are generally small, stunted, and of comparatively
little value. Certain species, however, attain respectable proportions; the mahogany, the mastic, the royal palm,
the mangrove, the sea-grape. the lJamaica dogwvood, the manchineel, and other species here become considerable
and important trees.
In western and southern Texas the trees of the Mississippi basin, checked by insufficient moisture from farther
extension southward outside the river bottoms, are replaced by species of the plateau of northern Mexico. The
streams flowing into the gulf of Mexico are still lined, however, east of the one-hundredth meridian, with the species
of the Atlantic basin, which thus reach southward to beyond the Rio Grande. The Mexican forest belt of Texas
extends from the valley of the Colorado river, near the ninety-eighth meridian, to the Rio Grande. It touches the
coast not far from tile Nueces river and extends to the eastern base of the mountain ranges west of the Pecos;
here the species of which it is composed mingle with those peculiar to the Pacific-Mexican forest. The forest of
this region, like that of all countries of insufficient moisture, is open, stunted, and comparatively of little value.
It is characterized by enormous areas covered with chaparral (dense and often impenetrable thickets of thorny
shrubs and small trees), by a stunted and occasional arborescent growth upon the hills and plains, and by fringes
of heavier timber along the river bottoms. The most valuable and perhaps the most characteristic species of this
whole region, the mesquit, extends to the Pacific coast. With this exception, none of the arborescent species
peculiar to this region attain any considerable size or importance, although the forest of small junipers which
covers the low limestone hills of the Colorado valley are locally valuable in a country so generally destitute of
trees. The region immediately adjoining the Rio Grande abounds in different speciesof Acacia, Leucena, and other
Mexican Legumin o. ca; and farther west, upon the dry plains of the Presidio, the Spanish bayonet (Yucca baccata)
covers wide areas with a low, open, and characteristic forest growth.

THE PACIFIC REGION.

The Pacific forest region is coextensive with the great Cordilleran Mountain 'system of the continent. The causes
which have influenced the present position and density of these forests must be sought in the peculiar distribution
of the rainfall of the region. The precipitation of moisture upon the northwest coast is unequaled by that of any
other part of the continent. It gradually decreases with the latitude until, in southern California, the temperature
of the land so far exceeds that of the ocean that precipitation is impossible through a large part of the year. The
interior of all this great region, shut off by the high mountain ranges which face the ocean along its entire extent,
is very imperfectly supplied with moisture. It is a region of light, uncertain, and unequally distributed rainfall,
heavier at the north, as upon the coast, and decreasing gradually with the latitude in nearly the same proportion.
This entire region is composed of a mass of mountain ranges with a general north and south trend, separating long
and generally narrow valleys. The precipitation of moisture within the interior region is largely regulated by the
position of the mountain chains. Warm currents ascending their sides become cold and are forced to deposit the
moisture they contain. It follows that, while the interior valleys are rainless or nearly so, the mountain ranges,
and especially the high ones, receive during the year a considerable precipitation of both rain and snow. If the
distribution of the forests of any region is dependent upon the distribution and amount of moisture it receives,
forests exceeding in density those of any other part of the continent would be found upon the northwest coast;
.they would gradually diminish toward the south, and entirely disappear near the southern boundary of the United
States, while the forests of all the interim ir region, fr-om tile summit of the principal Coast Ranges to the eastern base
of the Rocky mountains, woulK be confined to the flanks and summits of the mountains. These forests would be
heavy upon the high ranges, especially toward the north; they would disappear entirely from the valleys and
low mountain ranges. An examination of the forests of the Pacific region will show that in general distribution
and density they actually follow the distribution of.the rainfall of the region. These forests well illustrate the
influence of moisture upon forest growth. WVithin the Pacific region the heaviest and the lightest forests of the
continent coexist with its heaviest and lightest rainfall.
The forests of the Pacific region may be considered under four divisions: the Northern Forest, the Coast
Forest, the Interior Forest, and the Mexican Forest (Map No. 2, portfolio).








GENERAL REMARKS. 7

The Northern Forest of the Pacific region extends from nearly the seventieth to about the fifty-eighth degree of
north latitude, or, immediately upon the coast, is replaced by the Coast Forest nearly 2 degrees farther north; it
extends from the continental divide, here mingled with the Northern Forest of the Atlantic region, to the shores of
the Pacific. The southern limit of this open, scanty Northern Forest, composed of species which extend across the
continent, or of species closely allied to those of the Northern Forest of the Atlantic region, is still imperfectly
known, especially in the interior. The determination of the southern range in Alaska and British Columbia of
several species, as well as the northern range here of a few others, must still be left to further exploration. The
white spruce, the most important and the most northern species of the forest of the North Atlantic region, is here
also the most important species. It attains a considerable size as far north as the sixty-fifth degree, forming, in
the valley of the Yukon, forests of no little local importance. The canoe-birch, the balsam poplar, and the aspen,
familiar trees of the North Atlantic region, also occur here. The gray pine and the balsam fir of the Atlantic
region are replaced by allied forms of the same genera. The larch alone, of the denizens of the extreme Northern
Forest of the Atlantic coast, finds no congener here in the northern Pacific forest.
The Pacific Coast Forest, the heaviest, although far from the most varied, forest of the continent, extends south
along the coast in a narrow strip from the sixtieth to the fiftieth parallel; here it widens, embracing the shores of
Puget sound and extending eastward over the high mountain ranges north and south of the boundary of the
United States. This interior development of the Coast Forest, following the abundant rainfall of the region, is
carried northward over the Gold, Selkirk, and other interior ranges of B.ritish Columbia in a narrow spur extending
north nearly to the fifty-fourth parallel. It reaches southward along the Cour d'Alene, Bitter-Root, and the
western ranges of the Rocky Mountain system to about latitude 470 30', covering northern Washington territory,
Idaho, and portions of western Montana.
The Coast Forest south of the fiftieth degree of latitude occupies the region between the ocean and the eastern
slopes of the Cascade Range; in California the summits of the principal southern prolongation of these mountains,
the Sierra Nevada, marks the eastern limits of the Coast Forest, which gradually disappears south of the thirty-fifth
parallel, although still carried by the high ridges of the southern Coast Range nearly to the southern boundary of the
United States. The Coast Forest, like the forests of the whole Pacific region, is largely composed of a few coniferous
species, generally of wide distribution. The absence of broad-leaved trees in the Pacific region is striking; they
nowhere form great forests as in the Atlantic region; when they occur they are confined to the valleys of the coast
and to the banks of mountain streams, and, economically, are of comparatively little value or importance. The
characteristic and most valuable species of the northern Coast Forest are the Alaska cedar (Chamcccyparis), the
tide-land spruce, and the hemlock. These form the principal forest growth which covers the ranges and islands of
the coast between the sixty-first and the fiftieth parallels. Other species of the Coast Forest reach here the northern
limits of their distribution, although the center of their greatest development is found farther south.
The red fir (Pseudotsuga), the most important and widely-distributed timber tree of the Pacific region, reaches
the coast archipelago in latitude 510; farther inland it extends fully 4 degrees farther north, and in the region of
Puget sound and through the Coast Forest of Washington territory and Oregon it is the prevailing forest tree.
The characteristic forest of the northwest coast, although represented by several species extending south as far as
-cape Mendicino, near the fortieth parallel, is replaced south of the Rogue River valley by a forest in which forms
peculiar to the south rather than to the north gradually predominate. The forest of the northwest coast reaches
its greatest density and variety in the narrow region between the summits of the Cascade Range and the ocean.
North of the fifty-first parallel it gradually decreases in density, and south of the forty-third parallel it changes
in composition and character. This belt of Coast Forest is only surpassed in density by that of some portions of
the redwood forest of the California coast. The red fir. the great tide-land spruce, the hemlock, and the red cedar
(Thvya) reach here enormous dimensions. The wide river bottoms are lined with a heavy growth of maple,
cottonwood, ash, and alder, the narrow interior valley with an open growth of oak. In this great coniferous forest
the trunks of trees two or three hundred feet in height are often only separated by the space of a few feet. The
ground, shaded throughout the year by the impenetrable canopy of the forest, never becomes dry; it is densely
covered by a thick carpet of mosses and ferns, often of enormous size. The more open portions of this forest are
choked by an impenetrable growth of various Vaccinece of almost arborescent proportions, of hazel, the vine-maple,
and other shrubs. The soil which has produced the maximum growth of forest in this region is, outside the river
bottoms, a thin, porous gravel of glacial origin, rarely more than a few inches in depth; the luxuriance of vegetable
growth, therefore, illustrates the influence of a heavy rainfall and temperate climate upon the forest.
The general character of this forest in the interior, although composed largely of the species peculiar to the
coast, differs somewhat from the Coast Forest proper in composition and largely in natural features. The dense,
impenetrable forest of the coast is replaced, east of the summit of the Cascade Range, by a more open growth,
generally largely destitute of undergrowth. The red fir, the hemlock, and the red cedar (Thuya) are still important
elements of the forest. Less valuable species of the Coast Forest-the white fir (Abies grandis), the yew, the alders,
the mountain hemlock (Tsuga Pattoniana), the hawthorn, the buckthorn, and the white pine (Pinius monticola)-
are still represented. The latter, a local species upon the coast, only reaches its greatest development toward
the eastern limit of this region, here forming considerable and important forests. Other species peculiar to the Coast
Forest, the maples, the ash, the oak, the arbutus, and the Alaska cedar, do not extend east of the Cascades. The tide-


_ ~









8 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

land spruce is replaced by an allied species of the interior region. The widely-distributed yellow pine (Pinus
ponderosa), barely represented in the northern portions of the immediate Coast Forest, becomes east of the mountains
one of the most important and characteristic elements of the forest. The Coast Forest south of the forty-third degree
of latitude changes in composition. The tide-land spruce, the hemlock, and the Thuya are gradually replaced by
more southern species. The sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) here first appears. The California laurel (Umbellularia)
covers with magnificent growth the broad river bottoms. The Libocedrus, several oaks, and the chinquapin here reach
the northern limits of their distribution. The change from the northern to the southern forest is marked by the
appearance of the Port Orford cedar (Chamnecyparis Lawsoniana), adding variety and value to the forests of the
southern Oregon coast. Farther south, near the northern boundary of California, the redwood forests (Sequoia) appear.
The Coast Forest of California will be most conveniently discussed under three subdivisions : the forest of the
Coast Range, the forest of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, which, toward the northern boundary of the
state, extends to the coast, covering the mass of mountains which here unite the Sierra Nevada and the Coast
Range; and, third, the open forest of the long, narrow valleys lying between the Coast Range and the Sierra
Nevada, south of this northern connection. The important feature of the Coast Range, as far south as the thirty-
seventh degree of latitude, is the belt of redwood occupying an irregular, interrupted strip of territory facing the
ocean, and hardly exceeding thirty miles in width at the points of its greatest development. The heaviest growth
of the redwood forest occurs north of the bay of San Francisco, and here, along the slopes and bottom of the narrow
canons of the western slope of the Coast _Range, the maximum productive capacity of the forest is reached. No
other forest of similar extent equals in the amount of material which they contain the groups of redwood scattered
along the coast of northern California. The red fir reaches, in the California Coast Range, a size and value only
surpassed in the more northern forests of the coast; the yellow pine is an important tree in the northern
portions of this region, and here flourish other species of the genus endemic to this region. The forest of the Coast
Range is marked by the presence within its limits of several species of singularly restricted distribution. Oupressus
macrocarpa and Pinus insignis are confined to a few isolated groves upon the shores of the bay of Monterey; Abies
bracteata occupies three or four cafons high up in the Santa Lucia mountains; it is found nowhere else; and Pinus
Torreyana, the most local arborescent species of North America, has been detected only in one or two small groups
upon the sand-dunes just north of the bay of San Diego. The characteristic forest of the Coast Range is checked
from farther southern development, a little below the thirty-fifth parallel, by insufficient moisture; the scanty
forests which clothe the high declivities of the Coast Range farther south belong in composition to the Sierra
forests.
The heavy forest which covers the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, a forest only surpassed in density by
the redwood belt of the coast and the fir forest of Puget sound, occupies, in its greatest development, a belt
situated between 4,000 and 8,000 feet elevation. This forest belt extends from about the base of mount Shasta at
the north to the thrrty-fifth parallel; farther south it diminishes in density and disappears upon the southern
ridges of the Coast Range just north of the southern boundary of California. Its greatest width occurs in northern
California, where to the south of mount Shasta the Sierra system is broken down into a broad mass of low ridges
and peaks. The characteristic species of this forest is the great sugar pine (P. Lambertiana), which here reaches
its greatest development and value, and gives unsurpassed beauty to this mountain forest. With the sugar pine
are associated the red fir, the yellow pine, two noble Abies, the Libocedrus; and, toward the central part of the
state, the great Sequoia, appearing first in small isolated groups, and then, farther south, near the headwaters of
Kern river, in a narrow belt extending more or less continuously for several miles. This heavy forest of the
Sierras, unlike the forest which farther north covers the western flanks of the Cascade Range, is almost destitute
of undergrowth and young trees. It shows the influence of a warm climate and unevenly distributed rainfall
upon forest growth. The trees, often remote from one another, have attained an enormous size, but they have
grown slowly. Above this belt the Sierra forest stretches upward to the limits of tree growth. It is here
subalpine and alpine in character and of little economic value. Different pines and firs, the mountain hemlock,
and the %western, juniper are scattered in open stretches of forest upon the high ridges of the Sierras. The
forest below the belt of heavy growth gradually becomes more open. Individual trees are smaller, while the
number of species increases. The small pines of the upper foot-hills are mingled with oaks in considerable
variety. These gradually increase in number. Pines are less frequent and finally disappear.
The forest of the valleys is composed of oaks, the individuals often widely scattered and of great size, but
nowhere forming a continuous, compact growth. The Coast Forest of the Pacific region, unsurpassed in density,
is composed of a comparatively small number of species, often attaining enormous size. It presents the same
general features throughout its entire extent, except as modified by the climatic conditions of the regions which it
covers. The species which compose this forest range through nearly 26 degrees of latitude, or northern species,
are replaced in the south by closely allied forms; and, as in the Atlantic region, the southern species far exceed
in number those peculiar to the north.
The Interior Forest extends from the southern limits of the northern subarctic forest to the plateau of
northern Mexico; it occupies the entire region between the eastern limits of the Pacific Coast Forest and the extreme
western limits of the Atlantic region. The forests of this entire region, as compared with the forests east and
west of it, are stunted and remarkable in their poverty of composition. They are confined to the high slopes




11


GENERAL REMARKS. 9

and cafions of the numerous mountain ranges composing the interior region, while the valleys are treeless, or,
outside of the narrow river bottoms, nearly treeless. The interior forest attains its greatest development and
considerable importance upon the western slope of the California Sierras and upon the flanks of the high peaks
of the southern Rocky Mountain system, from Colorado, where the timber line reaches an extreme elevation of
13,500 feet, to southern New Mexico and western Arizona. The minimum in North American forest develop ent,
outside the absolutely treeless regions, both in the number of species and in the proportion of forest to entire
area, is found south of the Blue mountains of Oregon, in the arid region between the Wahsatch mountains and
the Sierra Nevada, known as the Great Basin. Here the open, stunted forest is confined to the highest ridges and
slopes of the infrequent cailons of the low mountain ranges which occupy, with a general north and south trend,
this entire region. The individuals which compose this forest are small, although often of immense age, and
everywhere show the marks of a severe struggle for existence. Seven arborescent species only have been detected
in the forests of the northern and central portions of this region. The mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus), the only
broad-leaved species of the region, with the exception of the aspen, which throughout the entire interior region
borders, above an elevation of 8,000 feet, all mountain streams, reaches here its greatest development. This
tree, with the nut pine (Pinus monophylla), characterizes this region. Stunted junipers are scattered over the
lowest slopes of the mountains, or farther south often cross the high valleys, and cover with open growth the. esas,
as the lower foot-hills are locally known. An open forest of arborescent yuccas (Yucca brevifolia) upon the high
Mojave plateau is a characteristic and peculiar feature of the flora of this interior region. The red fir and the
yellow pine, widely distributed throughout the Pacific region, do not occur upon the mountain ranges of the Great
Basin.
The heavy forests of the interior region, found along the western slopes of the California Sierras and upon the
Rocky Mountain system, are, for the most part, situated south of the forty-second degree of latitude. The forests
of the whole northern interior portion of the continent, outside the region occupied in the northern Rocky mountains
by the eastern development of the Coast Forest, feel the influence of insufficient moisture; the number of species of
which they are composed is not large; the individuals are often small and stunted, while the forests are open, scattered,
without undergrowth, and confined to the canfons and high slopes of the mountains. The most generally distributed
species of this northern region, a scrub pine (Pinus Murrayana), occupies vast areas, almost to the exclusion of other
species, and is gradually taking possession of ground cleared by fire of more valuable trees. South of the fifty-
second parallel the red fir (Pseudotsuga) and the yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) appear; with them is associated, in
the Blue mountains and in some of the ranges of the northern Rocky mountains, the western larch (Larix occidentalis),
the largest and most valuable tree of the Columbian basin.
The forest covering the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada consists almost exclusively of various species of
pine, often of great size and value. The characteristic species of this region are the yellow pine and the closely-
allied Pinus Jeffreyi, here reaching its greatest development. The red fir is absent from this forest, while the oaks,
multiplied in many forms on the western slopes of these mountains, have here no representative.
The forests of the southern Rocky Mountain region, less heavy and less generally distributed than those of the
western slope of the Sierras, are, as compared with those of the Great Basin, heavy, dense, and valuable. They owe
their existence to the comparatively large precipitation of moisture distributed over this elevated region. The
characteristic species of the Colorado mountains is a spruce (Piceu Engelmanni); it forms, at between 8,000 and 10,000
feet elevation, extensive and valuable forests of considerable density and great beauty; with it are associated a
balsam fir of wide northern distribution, and various alpine and subalpine species of pine; at lower elevations
forests of yellow pine and red fir cover the mountain slopes, while the bottoms of the streams are lined with
cottonwood, alder, and maple, or with an open growth of the white fir (Abies concolor), a species of the Coast Forest,
here reaching the eastern limits of its distribution; the foot-hills above the treeless plain are covered with scant
groves of the nut-pine (Pinus edulis), stunted junipers, and a small oak, which in many forms extends through a large
area of the southern interior region. A forest similar in general features to that of Colorado, and largely composed
of the same species, extends over the high mountains of New Mexico to those of western Texas and western and
northwestern Arizona, where a heavier forest of pine covers the elevated region lying along the thirty-fitth parallel,
culminating in the high forest-clad San Francisco mountains of northern Arizona.
The species of the interior Pacific region mingle along its southern borders with the species peculiar to the
plateau of northern Mexico. The Pacific-Mexican Forest, although differing widely in natural features from the
Atlantic-Mexican Forest, possesses several species peculiar to the two. The forests of this region are confined to
the high mountains and their foot-hills, and to the banks of the rare water-courses. They disappear entirely
from the Colorado desert and from the valleys and low mountain ranges of southwestern Arizona. The most
important and generally distributed species peculiar to the valleys of this region is the mesquit, the characteristic
species of the Atlantic-Mexican region. The suwarrow, however, the great tree cactus, is perhaps the most
remarkable species of the region, giving an unusual and striking appearance to the dry mess of central and
southern Arizona. The high mountain ranges, extending across the boundary of the United States, between the one
hundred and fifth and the one hundred and eleventh meridians, enjoy a larger and more regularly-distributed rainfall
than the regions east, and especially west, of these meridians. The forests which cover these southern mountain
ranges are often dense and varied. Upon their summits and almost inaccessible upper slopes the firs and pines of









10 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


the Pacific region are mingled with pines, a juniper, an arbutus, and various other species peculiar to the Mexican
plateau. Extensive forests of a cypress of Mexican origin also characterize this mountain vegetation. The
bottoms of the cations are lined with a dense growth of cottonwood, hackberry, a noble sycamore, an ash, a
cherry, and other deciduous trees. The high foot-hills and mesas are covered with open groves of various oaks
peculiar to the Mexican-Pacific region, here reaching, within the United States at least, their greatest development.
Such are some of the prominent forest features of North America; a dense forest, largely composed, except
at the north, of a great variety of broad-leaved species, and extending from the Atlantic sea-board in one nearly
unbroken sheet until checked by insufficient moisture from further western development-the forest of the Atlantic
region; a forest of conifers, occupying the ranges of the great Cordilleran mountain system, unsurpassed in
density in the humid climate of the coast, open and stunted in the arid interior-the forest of the Pacific region.
A more detailed examination of the distribution of North American arborescent genera and species will serve
to illustrate the wealth of the forests of the Atlantic and the comparative poverty of those of the Pacific region.
It will show, too, more clearly how widely the forests of these two great regions differ in composition.


DISTRIBUTION OF GENERA.

The forests of North America contain arborescent representatives of 158 genera; 142 genera occur in the
Atlantic and 59 genera in the Pacific region. Of the Atlantic genera, 48 are not represented in the United States
outside the semi-tropical region of Florida.
The following table illustrates the distribution of these genera; the genera of semi-tropical Florida are
designated by a *.


Genera Genra Genera Genera
represented represented represented represented
by arbo- by ao- by y arbo-
rescent recent recent lescent
species in species in species in species in
the Atlantic the Pacific the Atlanic Paci
region. region. region, region.


Magnolia ....................................
Mngodno roia -------------------------------
Liriodendron................................
Asimnina .----.....-----.....-------... .-----..--...------.--
*A on ......-...............--------...- ------
*Capparis .................... ...............
*Capparis-.. ---------------- -. -.----- .----
*Canella .....................................
*Clusia ......................................
Gordonia...... ......................
Fremontia ..................................
Tilia ..................................... ....
'Byrsenima .... ..............................
'Guaiacum ..............................
Porliera ...................................
Xanthoxylum ..............................
Ptelia ....................................
Canotia .--....---..-..--..............--......----. ....---.
SSimarnba ................................
'"Bursera ........................--...........
*Amyris......................................
*Swietenia .............. ....... ...........
*Ximenia ...... ............................ ..
Ilex .........................................
Cyrilla ...... .................... ........
Cl tonia .......... ... ............. ... ....
EuoDymus ---...... ......--------------.-------
*Myginda .................................
*Schmfferia. .......................... .........
"*eynosia....................................
Condalia ...... .............................
Rhamn us ....... ........................
Ceanothus .-.--..............................
*Colubrina........................... ...
AEsculus ..............................
Ungnadia ....... ......................
Sapindus........................... .....
'Hypelate ...................... .........
Acer .............. ......................
Negundo ...............................
Rhus....................................
Pistacia .................................


A/
V

V
V
I/
V


V
V
V

V
I//
1'



V
V


V



V

V


V
I/
V








V
1/


V/

Vr


Vr


......--...

----------
-------..-
-----..----
..........


V/








---------





V
V








V
V
V

V
A/

I/


V/


Eysenhardtia..............................
Dalea ....................................
Robinia ....................................
Olneya...................................
*Piscidia...................................
Cladrastis................................
Sophora.....................................
Gymnocladus.............................
Gleditschia...............................
Parkinsonia ...............................
Cercis................ ............ ...
Prosopis .................................
Leucana...................... ............
Acacia .....................................
*Lysiloma .... ..............................
*Pithecolobium.............................
"Chrysobalanus ...........................
Prunus ........-...........................
Vauquelinia ................................
Cercocarpus ................................
Pyrus................................ ....
Crattegus..................................
Heteromeles...............................
Amelanchier ..............................
Hamamelis.................................
Liquidambar ............................
Rhizophora..............................
*Conocarpus...................... ...........
*Laguncularia.............................
"Calyptranthes ..--.............. .........
*Eugenia...................................
Cerus ....................................
Cornus- ...........- ...... .................
Nyssa .............. ........................
Sambucus ...............................
Viburnum ..................................
*Exostemma ...............................
Pinckneya .............................


.........i Genipa................. ..... ..........
.......... *Guettarda ....... ........................


1/ V
.......... /
V V
.......... .
v ..........
v ..........
v ..........
v ..........



v ..........



v ..........
v ..........
V 1

.......... /

v v








v v
.... ......

v ..........

v ..........
v ..........



-- - - -
v ..........
v ..........
-- -- -










V ------










GENERAL REMARKS.


re


ht



Vaccinium..... --- ----------------------
Andromeda ...... ------------------------
Arbutus .......... ---------..-----.--.. -----
Oxydendrum ...... ...\---------------------..
Kalmia.........---- .... -...- ---------..
Rhododendron .....---. ---------------------
"Myrsino .................------------------
*Ardisia ..----.------------. ...-- -----------
*Jacquinia ............... --------------...........---
*Chrysophyllum...........-- ----- ----- --- ---
"Sidcroxylon ..-.... ...... --- ---
*Dipholis---.....--- ..--- -------------
Bumeli.......... -------------- ----- ---
'Mimusops ................ -- ------
Diospyros -----. ----.-----...- ------------
Symplocos..................... ----------
Halesia....----.............----------------- -
Fraxinus .......-- .......----....----- --- ----
Foresticra ......................... .-------
Chionanthus .....................--......----
Osmauthus.-...--........-----..... --------
Cordia .. ..........................-------- --
*Bourreria ..-........--.....-........-------- .... ----
*Ehretia ............................... ---
Catalpa-................. ... ........... --
Chilopsis .--...-----------....---.--------..-...-----
"Crescentia .... .............................. -
*Citharexylinm ................-........-.......
*Avicennia ........-- .. .............--...-.. .
*Pisonia.------------.......------ --- ---------- -
*Coccoloba ..-..................... ........
Persea .............-.....- ..... ... .. ...- .
"Nectan dra ......-..-..... -.... .. ...........
Sassafras .............---................-...
Umbellularia ...........- ..........-,-- ...-
Drypetes ..............-......... .... ; - -
*Sebastiauia.............................- .
'Hippomane........................ ........-
Ulmus ............ ... ....... ............


Genera
presented
by arbo-
rescent
species in
e Atlantic
region.


V
V
V
V
V
V










1/
v
V
V
V
1/



V
V/


Genera
represented.
by arb o-
rescent
species in
the Pacific
region.


...... ....




..........
..........
- --- ---.
..........

------ ----
..........

----------


..........
..........



---------..
----------

------ ----
----------
..........

--.--......

.......-...

...... ....
...-.......
..........
. .- . .- . - .
.. . .. - ...
---.-.--...
V
..........
........-..
----------
..........


ed

11
tic
tic


I


Arborescent species of 43 genera occur" within the limits of the two regions. They are:
?'iI


Ptelia.
Condalia.
Rhamnus.
XEsculus.
Ungnadia.
Sapiudus.
Acer.
Negundo.
E7 hTCrtn dl t.11.


Robinia.
Parkinsonia.
Prosopis.
Acacia.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Cratiegus.
Cornus.
SQ b


Arbutus.
SBumelia.
".jraxinus.
Chi2oypsis.
Celtis. "'
Morus.
Platanus.
Juglans.
All ;


Quercus.
Betula.
Alnus.
Salix.
Populus.
, -- -J-Y.4 ,
Chamecypa'1ris.
Juniperus.


Taxns.
Torreya.
Pinus.
Picea.
Ts-ga.
Abies.
Larix.
Yucca.


-ysen ar .ULIt iaI ln ayr La.

The following genera, 44 in number, of the Atlantic region, exclusive of those of semi-tropical Florida,' are not
represented in the Pacific forest:


Magnolia.
Liriodendron.
Asimina.
Gordonia.
Tilia.
Porliera.
Xanthoxylum.
Ilex.
Cyrilla.


Cliftonia.
Pistacia.
Cladrastis.
Sophora.
Gymuocladus.
Gleditschia.
Leucina.
Hamamelis.
Liquidambar.


Rhizophora.
Nyssa.
Viburnum.
Pinckneya.
Andromeda.
Oxydendrum.
Diospyros.
Symplocos.
Halesia.


Forcsticra.
Chionanthus.
Osmanthus.
Cordia.
Catalpa.
Persea.
Sassafras.
Ulmus.
Planera.


Maclura.
Carya.
Castanea.
Fagus.
Ostrya.
Carpinus.
Taxodium.
Sabal.


General
represent
by arbo
recent
species i
the Atlan
region.


Planera -........- ...............------------ V
Celtis ....-.................-.... .----- -- -- /-
'Ficus ...............- ............----------- V
Morus..................-----....-------... ..
Maclura.........--.........--- .......----- ....----. /
Platanus ...........-----...-- ---------- .... /
Juglans ...---....--- ........---- ............---- --
Carya ..........--............... ....--- ..---. /
Myrica ............---- ..---- .......-----..---
Qurcus ..........-.....-- -------------------
Castaiopsis ................---...-----------------
Castanea........--........-- ...--...-------. V
Fagus.-........- .......--------.----------..
Ostrya ....................--..---..--..---- /
Carpinus .....--..............---- .......--..
Betula ...-.. ........-. ..-.--........--..
Alnus ............----- -------.......----..
Salix .................. ----...--........-----.
Populus ............................--------
Libocedrus ........--- ...............----.-------
Thuya ......---............--.......-----.. V
Chammecyparis .........--...-- ......-- ..... /
Cupressus ...............--.............---. --------
Juniperus ..---...------------.....--------------
Taxodium ..--.....-......--.........---------
Sequoia ....-......-----.-.------..-------.----.....
Taxus..--....-----...-----... ---- V/
Torreya --................-----.......-- ------
Pinus ..........-- .....-- .....--------...... --
Picea ...---.............--------........-------- /
Tsuga ......-...... ....... --- -...-- .....-- -- V
Pseudotsuga-.---.--. .....--- ............-- ... ----..
Abies..--..--- ..-.....-- .....-....-- ...-- -----
Larix ................... ........... ......--.
Sabal ...................................... V
Washingtonia ..-...................---------.......
*Thrinax .................... ............... V
*Oreodoxa ........-.........-..... ...----.. 1/
Yucca........------.....------... -----------...


Genera
represented
by arbo-
rescent
species i
the Pacific
region.



V

V

V




1/







1/

1/
V

















V
1/
1/
---------










V
----------






V






V/








V







12 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

The following genera of the Atlantic region, 9 in number, are represented in the Pacific flora by one or -more
frutescent, but by no arborescent, species:
Euonymus. Amelanchier. Vaccinum. Rhododendro-'.
Rhus. Viburnum. Kalmia. Forestiera.
Cercis.
Ptelia, Condalia, Sapindus, Robinia, Bumelia, Celtis, Morus, and Juglans, genera reaching their greatest
development in North America in the Atlantic region, extend with a single arborescent Tepreisentative into the
Pacific region. Rhamnus, Asculus, Acer, Negundo, Prunus, Pyrus, GratCegus, Cornus, Sambuous, Fraxinus, Platanus,
-Myrica, Quercus, Betula, Alnus, Salix, Populus, Thuya, Chamcecyparis, Juniperus, Taxus, Torrey, Pinus, Picea, Tsugar
Abies, and Larix, characteristic North American genera, are widely represented in the two regions.
Ungnadia, Eysenhardtia, Parkinsonia, Prosopis, Acacia, Chilopsis, and Yucca, genera o( the Mexican flora, are
common to the two regions.
Arbutus, a genus of the Pacific region, just reaches, with a doubtful species, the Atlantic region through western
Texas.
The following genera of the Pacific region, 13 in number, have no representatives i'i the Atlantic region:
Fremontia. Cercocarpus. Castanopsis. / Sequoia.
Canotia. Heteromeles. Libocedrus. Pseudotsnga.
01neya. Umbellularia. Cupressus. I Washingtonia.
Vanquelinia.
The following genera of the Pacific, 3 in number, are represented in the Atlant} region by frutescent species:
Ceanothus. Dalea. Cereus.
The Atlantic forest, exclusive of semi-tropical Florida, contains 45 genera entirely unrepresented in the Pacific
region and 7 genera without Pacific arborescent representatives. The Pacific forest contains 13 genera unrepresented
in the Atlantic region and 3 genera without Atlantic arborescent representatives.
The following genera of the Miexican region, 14 in number, are not elsev'7here represented in North America.
Genera with arborescent representatives in both the Atlantic- and Pacifi'-Mexican regions are designated by a
star (*):
Porliera. Pistacia. Olueya. Ac"cia. *Chilopsis.
Canotia. *Eysenhardtia. *Parkinsonia. Vylqnelinia. Washingtonia.
*Ungnadia. Dalea. LeucTena. C :reus. I
Porliera and Leuccena belong to the Atlantic; Canotia, Dalea, Olneldya Vanquelinj, Cereus, and Washingtonia
to the Pacific region. / "E
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEC ES.
In the forests of North America 412 arborescent species have bee h dete d; of these, 292 species belong to
the Atlantic region, and 153 occur within the limits of the Pacific regi on. Species common to the two regions are
rare; they are principally confined to the subarctic Northern Forest mql to the narrow belt along the southern
boundary of the United States.
The following species, 10 in number, cross the continent: /
Prosopis juliflora. Sambucus Mexicana. Salix longifolia. Populus balsamifera. Picea alba.
Pyrus sambucifolia. Betula papyrifera. Populus tremuio' ides. Juniperus Virginiana. Yucca baccata.
Prosopis juliflora, Sambucus Mexicana, and Yucca bag/ata belong to the Mexican flora of the south; Salix
longifolia also belongs here, although extending noithlii rd into the Atlantic and through the Pacific Coast region
of the United States. Populus balsamnifera, Betuv"p'papyrifera, and Picea alba belong to the Northern Forest.
Pyrus sambucifolia, Populvs tre.nylota"e and funiperns V';,'.,-':;.,,,, are widely distributed through the central
portions of the Atlantic an, P acific regions; they are the only really continental arborescent species.
The following spef~i-s of the Atlantic region, 15 in number, extend from the Atlantic into the Pacific region:
Pteli;ia 'rcifoliata. Negundo aceroides. Cratiegus tomentosa. Quercus Emoryi.
J'd6'dalia obovata. Parkinsonia aculeata. Fraxinus viridis. Alnus incana.
S Sapindus marginatus. Prunus Americana. Celtis occidentalis. Salix nigra.
S Ungnadia speciosa. Prunus Pennsylvanica. Morus microphylla.
Ptelia trifoliata, a widely distributed species of the Atlantic region, extends through western Texas into the
extreme southeastern portion of the Pacific region. Condalia obovata, Ungnadia speciosa, Parkinsonia aculeata,
Morus microphylla, and Quercus Emoryi, of the Atlantic-Mexican forest, extend into the Pacific-Mexican region'.
Sapindus marginatus, of the southern Atlantic region, extends through western Texas to the Pacific-Mexican
region. Prunus Americana, Prunus Pennsylvanica, and Alnus incana, widely distributed through the northern
portions of the Atlantic region, just reach the eastern limits of the central Pacific region.
Negundo aceroides, Cratcegus tomentosa, Fraximns viridis, and Celtis occidentalis are widely distributed through
the interior Pacific region, although nowhere reaching the coast. *







GENERAL REMARKS.


"e following species of the Pacific region, 8 in number, extend through the Mexican into the Atlantic region :
\ senhardtia orthocarpa. Acacia Greggii. Chilopsis saligna. Juniperus occidentalis.
E, opis pubescens. Fraxinus pistaciefolia. Juglans rupestris. Juniperus pachyphlaoa.
Pro
J 's rupestris and Juniperus occidentalis reach their greatest development in the Pacific Coast region, and
Jugla ugh the Pacific-Mexican region into western Texas; no other species are common to the Pacific Coast
extend thr
ext nd he Atlantic-Mexican region. The 6 remaining Pacific-Atlantic species belong to the Pacific-Mexican
forest and *. ,
oreston an reaching western Texas.
region, juf ing species of the Southern Pacific region extends into the Atlantic region:
The follow,
Salix amygdaloides.

The following. species of the Pacific forest, 12 in number, endemic to the interior arid region, do not extend
The followinmits:
beyond its limits:


atum. Crataegus rivularis. Populus angustifolia. Pinus monophylla.
Acer grandident.
Acer grandident- na. Fraxinus anomala. Pinus flexilis. Picea pungens.
Robiuia Neo-Mex ins. Quercus undulata. Pinus edulis. Yucca brevifolia.
Cercocarpus ledifo
A detailed examination of the distribution of the arborescent species composing the North American forests
A detailed examinat]'
shows that-
a i re esentd by seven Atlantic species, with the center of its distribution in the southern Alleghany
Magnolia is represented
region. ented by a single species, widely-distributed through the eastern and central portions of
Liriodendron is repres
the Atlantic region \
the .. ". by a single widely-distributed arborescent species and by three frutescent species of
Asimina is represented
the Atlantic region.
., A .a ..a \and Olusia are represented each by a single semi-tropical species.
Anona, Gapparis, Canella,.
ona ,. prsne, two species of the southern Atlantic region, one of wide distribution, the other
Gordonia is represented b,
rare and local.
re ntia, a genus endem.ico the Pacific region, is represented by a single species of the southern Pacific
Fremonti, a genus endemic t\
TCoast region. res d b to A ntic species, with its center of distribution in the southern Alleghany region.
Tilia is represented by two Atl\ a
Single semi-tropical species.
Byrsonima is represented by a si
.. .... ^'le semi-tropical species.
Guaiacum is represented by a sin le semi- l
Porliera is represented by a sinle species of the Atlantic-Mexican region.
y is rd b species of the Atlantic region, by a semi-tropical species, and by a second
Xanltoxylum is represented by t~wo .
.. .. ... .. tlantic-Mexican region.
semi-tropical species which reaches the tlanti exica n
i crescent species of wide distribution in the Atlantic, reaching also the
Ptelsa is represented by a single arbo, ..... ...... ..
Ptei is r nted by a sine ccurs, and by a second frutescent species of the south Atlantic region.
Pacific region, where a frutescent species a .
S.....i. "l.x1th' In region, is represented by a single species.
Canotia, a genus endemic to the Pacific--,
Siarua, Anris, ietenia, iteia. e each represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Simaruba, Amyris, Siovetenia, XImenia, ark,,.0
Saru. A e Xi4. a ical species and by a second frutescent species of the Pacific-
Bursera is represented by a single semi-tros\
Mexican region.
le, an Atlantic genus, is represented by fo arborescent and several frutescent species, with its center of
Vlex, an Atlantic genus, is represented by iou
distribution in the southern Atlantic region.
Cyrilla and Cliftonia are each represented by a ~ngle species of the southern Atlantic region.
Euonymus is represented by a widely-distributed arborescent species in the Atlantic, and by a frutescent species
in both the Atlantic and the IPacific regions.
ygd fria and enosia are eac reprise ..single semi-tropical species.
_Arygbida, Schaefferia, d reprise the Atlantic-Mexican reaching the Pacific
Condalia is represented by one semi-tropical and by one species t reaching the Pacif-
Mexican region. \
rs -- in the Atlantic, by two arborescent
Rhamnus is represented by one arborescent and by one frutescent speciu.
and one frutescent species in the Pacific region, and by one frutescent species commioi "to the two regions.
Ceanothus is represented by a single arborescent species in the Pacific Coast region anc by several frutescent
species widely distributed through the Atlantic and the Pacific regions. "
Colubrina is represented by a single semi-tropical species. -
Asculus is represented by two arborescent and by three frutescent species in the Atlantic, and by an arborescent
species in the Pacific region.
Ungnadia, an endemic genus of the Atlantic-Mexican region, and just reaching the Pacific-Mexican region, is
represented by a single species.
Sapindus is represented by one species widely distributed through the southern Atlantic, and reaching the
Pacific region, and by one semi-tropical species.
Acer is represented by five Atlantic and four Pacific species.
Negundo is represented by one species widely distributed through the Atlantic and the Pacific regions and by
a second species in the Pacific region.


:!j


;i





i
*1







14 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. /

Rhus is represented by five arborescent species in the Atlantic and by several frutescent species in botj" the-
Atlantic and the Pacific regions.
Pistacia is represented by a single species in the Atlantic-Mexican region. f
Eysenhardtia is represented by a single arborescent species in the Pacific-Mexican, extending into the Atlantic-
Mexican region, where a second frutescent species occurs
Dalea is represented by a single arborescent species in the Pacific-Mexican and by numerous frutesacent and
herbaceous species in the Atlantic and the Pacific regions.
Robinia, with its center of distribution in the southern Alleghany region, is represented by two rborescent
and one frutescent species in the Atlantic and by one arborescent species in the Pacific region. /
Obneya, an endemic genus of the Pacific-Mexican region, is there represented by a single specie, s.
Piscidia is represented by a single semi-tropical species. *'
Cfadrastis is represented by a single local species in the southern Atlantic region.
Sophora is represented by a species in the southern Atlantic and by a second species in t e Atlantic-Mexicau>
region, and by four frutescent or suffrutescent species.
Gymnocladus is represented by a single species in the central Atlantic region. t
Gleditschia is represented by two widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region.
Parkinsonia is represented by an arborescent species common to theAtlantic- and the I4acific-Mexican regions,
by two arborescent and one frutescent species in the Pacific-Mexican, and by a frutescent species in the Atlantic-
Mexican region.
Cercis is represented by a widely-distributed species in the Atlantic, by a second species in the Atlantic-
Mexican, and a frutescent species of the California Coast region.
Prosopis is represented by two arborescent species common to the Atlantic- and tl e Pacific-Mexican regions,.
and by two frutescent species.
Leuccena is represented by two species in the Atlantic-Mexican region.
Acacia is represented by two arborescent species in the Atlantic-Mexican, by o e arborescent species of the-
Pacific-Mexican extending into the Atlantic-Mexican region, and by several frute cent species widely distributed
through the two regions.
Lysiloma is represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Pithecolobium is represented by a single polymorphous arborescent species f semi-tropical Florida, and by a
shrubby species of the Mexican Boundary region..
Chrysobalanus is represented by one arborescent and one frutescent semi-tPropical species.
Prunus is represented by seven arborescent species in the Atlantic regi( n; of these, one is semi-tropical and
two extend into the Pacific region. This genus is represented in the Pacific region by four species, of which one-
belongs to the Mexican region, and by several frutescent species. /
Vauquelinia, an endemic genus of the Pacific-Mexican region, is there represented by a single species.
Cercocarpus is represented by two widely-distributed species in the Picific region.
Pyrus is represented by one species common to both Atlantic ajnd Pacific, by three arborescent and one-
frutescent species in the Atlantic, and by one arborescent species in the Pacific region.
Cratcegus is represented by twelve arborescent and frutescen species in the Atlantic, of which one extends,
into the Pacific region, and by two species in the Pacific region.
Heteromeles is represented by a single species in the Pacific C)oast region.
Amelanchier is represented by one arborescent species in the Atlantic and by one frutesc-ent species in the-
Pacific region.,
Hamamelis and Liquidambar are each represented by one widely-distributed species-in the Atlantic region.
Rhizophora is represented by a single species in the south n Atlantic region.
Conocarpus, Laguncularia, and Calyptranthes i-e;ar-re presented by, a single semi-tropical species.
Eugenia is represented by five semi-tropical species.
Cereus is represented by a single arbore ent species in the Pacific and by several frutescent species in the
Atlantic and Pacific regions. -..
Cornus is represented yr-/two arborescent species in the Atlantic, by a single arborescent species in the Pacific
region, and by severI-''ir itescent and herbaceous species in the two regions.
Nyssa is represented by three species in the Atlantic region.
ja npnk~fus is represented by one arborescent species of wide distribution in the Pacific, by one species in the.
--' Pacific-Mexican extending into the Atlantic-Mexican, by a frutesceut species in the Atlantic, by a second frutescent
species in the Pacific, and by a frutescent species common to the Atlantic and Pacific regions.
Viburnum is represented by two arborescent species in the Atlantic and by several frutescent species in the.
Atlantic and the Pacific regions.
Exostemma is represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Pinckneya, an endemic genus of the southern Atlantic region, is there represented by a single species.
Genipa is represented by a single semi-tropical species.








GENERAL REMARKS. 15

Guettarda is represented by one arborescent and by one frutescent semi-tropical species.
Vaccinium is represented bly one arborescent species in the Atlantic and by several frutescent species in the
Atlantic and the Pacific regions.
Andromeda is represented by an arborescent and several frutescent species in the Atlantic region.
Arbutus is represented by one species in the Pacific Coast, by a second species in the Pacific-Mexican, and by
one species in the Atlantic-Mexican region.
Oxydendi ui,, an endemic genus of the Atlantic region, is there represented by a single species.
Kalmia is represented by one arborescent species and by three frutescent species in the Atlantic region, of
which one extends to the Pacific region.
Rhododendron is represented by one arborescent and by several frutescent species in the Atlantic and by
several frutescent species in the Pacific region.
Mlyrsine, Ardisia, Jacquinia, Chrysophyllum, Sideroxylon, and Dilpolis are each represented by a single semi-
tropical species.
Buimelia is represented by four species in the Atlantic and by one species in the Pacific-Mexican region.
Mimusops is represented by one semi-tropical species.
Diospyros is represented by one species in the Atlantic and by one in the Atlantic-Mexican region.
Symplocos is represented by one species in the southern Atlantic region.
Halesia is represented by two arborescent and by one frutescent species in the southern Atlantic region.
Fraxinus, with its center of distribution in the southern Atlantic region, is represented by seven species in
the Atlantic, of which one extends into the Pacific region, and one belongs to the Mexican region, and by three
arborescent and one frutescent species in the Pacific, of which one belongs to the Mlexican region.
Forestiera is represented by-one arborescent and seven frutescent species in the Atlantic region, of which one
reaches the Mexican-Pacific region.
Chionanthus and Osmanthus are each represented by a single species in the southern Atlantic region.
Cordia is represented by one arborescent and by one frutescent semi-tropical species and by one arborescent
and one frutescent species in the Atlantic-Mexican region.
Bourreria and Ehretia are each represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Catalpa is represented by two species in the southern Atlantic region.
Chilopsis is represented by a single species in the Pacific-Mexican region, extending into the Atlantic-Mexican
region.
Crescentia, Citharexylum, and Avicennia are each represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Pisonia is represented by one arborescent and by two frutescent semi-tropical species.
Coccoloba is represented by two semi-tropical species.
Persea is represented by one species in the southern Atlantic region.
Nectandra is represented by one semi-tropical species.
Sassa/ras is represented by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region.
Umbellularia is represented by a single species in the Pacific Coast region.
Drypetes, Scbastiania, and Hippomane are each represented by a single semi-tropical species.
Ulmus, with its center of distribution in' the Mississippi basin, is represented in the Atlantic region by five
species.
Planera is represented by a single species in the southern Atlantic region.
Celtis is represented by a single polymorphous species of wide distribution in the Atlantic region, extending
into the Pacific region, and by a frutescent species common to the Atlantic-Mexican and the Pacific-Mexican regions.
Ficus is represented by three semi-tropical species.
Morus is represented by one widely-distributed species, in the Atlantic region, and by one species in the Atlantic-
Mexican, extending into the Pacific-Mexican region.
Maclura is represented by a single local species in the southern Atlantic region.
Platanus is represented by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region, by a species in the Pacific
coast, and by a species in the Pacific-Mexican region.
Juglans is represented by two widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region and by a species in the Pacific
coast, extending through he Pacific-Mexican into the Atlantic-Mexican region.
Carya, an endemic genns of the Atlantic region, with its center of distribution west of the Mississippi river, is
represented by.seven species.
Myrica is represented by one arborescent and two frutescent species in the Atlantic region and by one
arborescent species in the Pacilic Coast region.
Quercus, with its center of most important distribution in the basin of the lower Ohio river, is represented in
the Atlantic region by twenty-four arborescent species, of which one, belonging to the Mexican region, extends into
the Paciic-Mexican region; and in the Pacific region by twelve arborescent species, of which one belongs to the
interior and four to the Mexican region, and by two frutescent species.
Oas.tanopsis is represented by a single species in the Pacific Coast region.


_ --- ---- ~I








16 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Castanea is represented by two species in the Atlantic region.
Fagus, Ostrya, and Carpinus are each represented by a single widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region.
Betula, with its center of distribution in the northern Atlantic region, is represented by one arborescent and
by one frutescent species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by four arborescent and one frutescent
species in the Atlantic region, and by one arborescent species in the Pacific region.
Alnus is represented by three arborescent species in the Atlantic, of which one extends to the Pacific region,
by three arborescent species in the-Pacific region, and by two frutescent species common to the Atlantic and the
Pacific regions.
Salix is represented in the Atlantic region by five arborescent species, of which three are found in the Pacific
region, and by many frutescent species. This genus is represented in the Pacific region by ten arborescent and
by many frutescent species.
Populous is represented by two species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by three species in the
Atlantic region, and by three species in the Pacific region.
Libocedrus is represented by a single species in the Pacific Coast region.
Thuya is represented by one species in the Atlantic and by one species in the Pacific region.
Chanmccyparis is represented by one species in the Atlantic and by two species in the Pacific Coast region.
Cupressus is represented by fmor species in the Pacific region, of which three occur in the coast and one in the
Mexican region.
Juniperus is represented by one arborescent species in the Atlantic region, by three arborescent species in the
Pacific, of which one belongs to the Pacific-Mexican and one extends to the Atlantic-Mexican region, and by two
frutescent species common to both regions.
Taxodium is represented by a single species in the southern Atlantic region.
Sequoia, an endemic genus of the Pacific Coast region, is there represented by two species.
Taus is represented by an exceedingly local arborescent species in the southern Atlantic region, by a frutescent
species in the northern Atlantic region, and by an arborescent species in the Pacific Coast region.
Torreya is represented by a single exceedingly local arborescent species in the southern Atlantic region and by
a single species in the Pacific Coast region.
PinIts, with its center of distribution in the southern Pacific Coast region, is represented by thirteen species
in the Atlantic and by twenty-two species in the Pacific region, of which three belong to the interior and four to
the Mexican region.
Picca is represented by one species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by one species in the
Atlantic, and by three species in the Pacific region, of which one belongs to the interior region.
Tu8?ga is represented by two species in the Atlantic and by two species in the Pacific region.
Pseudotsulga, an endemic genus of the Pacific region, is there represented by a single widely-distributed species.
Abies is represented by one widely-distributed and by one exceedingly local species in the Atlantic region and
by seven species in the Pacific region, of which one is exceedingly local.
Larix is represented by one species in the Atlantic and by two species in the Pacific region.
Sabal is represented by a single species in the southern Atlantic region.
Wash!ingtonia is represented by a single species in the Pacific Mexican region.
Tihrinax is represented by two semi-tropical species, and Oreodoxa by one.
Yucca is represented by one arborescent and one frutescent species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific
regions, by one arborescent and by two frutescent species in the Atlantic, and by two arborescent and by one
frutescent species in the Pacific region.
























A CATALOGUE

OF THE


FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO,

WITH


REMARKS UPON THEIR SYNONYMY, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY,
DISTRIBUTION, ECONOMIC VALUE, AND USES.




































FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Species which grow'from the ground with a single stem, either wholly or over a large portion of the area of
their distribution, are admitted as trees into the following catalogue, without reference to the height or size they
may attain.
The line which divides trees from shrubs is entirely arbitrary, and is often unsatisfactory in application. A
separation of this nature, however, based upon habit rather than upon size, is perhaps less objectionable, all things
considered, than any other, and serves at least to keep this catalogue within reasonable limits.
The word "compact", used in the description of various woods mentioned in the catalogue, indicates that they
show no tendency to check or open in drying, and does not refer to their structure.
18




_~ ii


CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES.




MAGNOLIACEJE.



1.-Magnolia grandiflora, Linnaus,
Spec. 2 ed. 755.-Marshall, Arbustum, 84.-Am. Gewach. t. 185, 186.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 158.-Gertner, Fruct. i, 343, t. 70.-B. S.
Barton, Coll. i, 13; ii, 20.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251; 2 ed. iii, 329.-Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 82.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 672; ll. iii, 35, t.
490.-M-ench, Meth. 274.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1255; Enum. i, 579.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 327.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 219, t.
65.-Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.-Robin, Voyages, iii, 265.-Andrews, Bot. Rep. viii, t. 518.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 76.-Michaux
f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 71, t. 1; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 8, t. 51.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 380.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18; Sylva, i, 81;
2 ed. i, 96.-De Candolle, Syst. i,450; Prodr. i, 80.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 116.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 36.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 814.-Sprengel,
Syst. ii, 642.-Audubon, Birds, t. 5, 32.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 32.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 82.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Croom
in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. xxvi, 314.-London, Arboretum, i, 261 & t.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 188.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 4-2.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 470.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.-Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 225.-Darby, Bot.
S. States, 210.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 13.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina,
1860, iii, 66.-Wood, Cl. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 24.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 38.-Baillon, Hist. P1. i, 133, f. 165-169.-Koch,
Dendrologie, i, 367.-Young, Bot. Texas, 148.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.

Mi. Virginiana, var. /3. fcetida, Linncus, Spec. 1 ed. 536, in part.

1L. grandiflora, var. elliptical and obovata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 380.

il. grandiflora, var. lanceolata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 380.-Bot. Mag. t. 1952.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.

BIG LAUREL. BULL BAY.
Cape Fear river, North Carolina, south near the coast to Mosquito inlet, and Tampa bay, Florida; basin of
the Mississippi river south of latitude 320 30', extending westward to southwestern Arkansas, and along the Texas
coast to the valIy of the Brazos river.
One of bth riost magnificent trees of the Atlantic forest, evergreen, 18 to 27 meters in height, with a trunk
0.60 to 1.20 rjIter in diameter; reaching its greatest development on the "bluff" formations along the eastern bank
of the Miss'ssippi river from Vicksburg to Natchez, and of western Louisiana.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, satiny; medullary rays very numerous,
thin; color, creamy white or often light brown, the heavier sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.6360; ash, 0.53;
little used except as fuel; suitable for interior finish, fine cabinet work, etc.

2.-Magnolia glauca, Linmens,
Spec. 2 ed. 755.-Kalm, Travels, English ed. i, 204.-Schapf, Mat. Med. Am. 91.-Marshall, Arbustum, 83.--Wangenheim, Amer. 60, t. 19,
f. 46.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 158.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 13; ii, 20.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 674.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251; 2 ed. iii,
329.--Mnch, Meth. 274.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1256; Enum. i, 579.-Schkuhr, Handb. ii, 1441, t. 148.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,
327.--Nouveau Dnhamel, ii, 223, t. 66.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.-Titford, IIort. Bt. Am. 76.-Bonpland, Pl. Malm. 103, t.
42.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 77, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 12, t. 52.-Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 381.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed.
218.-Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii, 67, t. 27; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 244.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 59; Med. Bot. i,
77, t. 7; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 17.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 215.-Do Candolle, Syst. i, 452; Prodr. i, 80.-Hayne, Dend. Fl.
116.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 37.-Bot. Mag. t. 2164.-Sprengel, Syst. 642.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 221; Fl. N. York, i, 17, t. 5.-
Audubon, Birds, t. 118.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 34.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 82.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i,
188.-Beck, Bot. 15.-Sertum Botanicum, v & t.-Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. v, 37, t. 342.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 23.-Eaton & Wright, Bot.
312.-Torrcy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 42.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 473.-Dietrich, Syu. iii, 308.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 9Di, f. 56.-
London, Arboretum, i, 267 & t.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 527; 2 ed. ii, 603 & t.-Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 226.-Gray, Genera,
i, 61, t. 23; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49.-Schuizlein, Icon. t. 176.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 8.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.-
Cooper in Smithsoniau Rep. 1858, 250.--Chapman, Fl. S. States, 13.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 66.-
Lcsquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 374.-Wood, Cl. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 24.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 36.-Koch,
Dendrologie, i, 339.-Young, Bot. Texas, 148.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.








.ZU FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

M. Virginiana, var. a. glauca, Liunnus, Spec. 1 ed. 535.

Af. fragrans, Salisbury, Prodr. 379.-Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 91; Med. Bot. ii, 32.

M. longifolia, Sweet, Hort. Brit. 11.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 83.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.

M. glauca, var. latifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 350.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 381.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.

M1. glauca, var. longifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 330.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 361.-Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana,
91.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 116.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.

SWEET BAY. WHITE BAY. BEAVER TREE. WHITE LAUREL. SWAMP LAUREL.

'Cape Ann, Massachusetts; New Jersey southward, generally near the coast, to bay Biscayne and Tampa bay,
Florida; basin of the Mississippi river south of latitude 350, extending west to southwestern Arkansas and the
valley of the Trinity river, Texas.
A tree 15 to 22 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 meter in diameter, or toward its northern limits
reduced to a low shrub; swamps or low wet woods, reaching its greatest development on the rich hummocks of
the interior of the Florida peninsula and along the low sandy banks of pine-barren streams of the Gulf states.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, light brown
tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5035; ash, 0.47; in the Gulf states sometimes used in
the manufacture of broom handles and small woodenware.
The dried bark, especially of the root, of this species and of M. acuminata and 711. Umbrella is included in the
American Materia Medica, furnishing an aromatic tonic and stimulant used in intermittent and remittent fevers;
a tincture made by macerating the fresh fruit or bark in brandy is a popular remedy for rheumatism (U. 8.
Dispensatory, 14 ed. 567.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 891).

3.-Magnolia acuminata, Linnmus,

Spec. 2. ed. 756.-Marshall, Arbustum, 83.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 159.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 13.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251; 2 ed.
iii, 331.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 674.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1257; Enum. i, 579.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 329.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii,
222.-Desfottaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 82, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 15, t. 53.-Pursh, Fl. Am.
Sept. ii, 381.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 453; Prodr. i, 80.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 418.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18.-Bot. Mag. t. 2427.-
Hayne, Dend. Fl. 117.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 37.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 32.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Ho]z. 18, t. 17.-
Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 221; Fl. N. York, i, 28.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 34.-Beck, Bot. 15.-
Sertum Botanicum, v. & t.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 83.-Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. t. 251.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Loudon,
Arboretum, i, 273 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.-Griffith, Med.
Bot. 98.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3. ed. 9.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S.
States, 14.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 67.-Wood, Cl. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 24.-Porcher, Resources
.S. Forests, 38.-Baillon, Hist. P1. i, 140.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5. ed. 49.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 371.-Young, Bot. Texas,
149.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 891.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 58.
M. Virginiana, var. e. Linnaus, Spec. 1 ed. 536.

M. DeCandollii, Savi, Bibl. Ital. i, 224 & t.

Tulipastrum Americanum, Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 483.

CUCUMBER TREE. MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA.

Western New York to southern Illinois, southward along the Alleghany mountains, and scattered through
eastern and middle Kentucky and Tennessee, usually on Carboniferous deposits, to southern Alabama (Stockton,
Mohr) and northeastern Mississippi; Arkansas, Crowley's ridge, and in the southern and southwestern part of the
:state (Texarkana, Harvey, and in Polk, Howard, Cross, and Pike counties).
A large tree, 20 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 meter iii diameter; rich woods, reaching its
greatest development on the slopes of the southern Alleghany mountains.
Wood durable, light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color,
yellow-brown, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4690; ash, 0.29; used for pump-logs, water-
troughs, flooring, cabinet-making, etc.
4.-Magnolia cordata, Michanx,
Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 328.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 331.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 547.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 87, t. 4; N. American
Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 18, t. 54.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 382.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. iv, t. 325.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18.-De Candolle, Syst.
i, 455; Prodr. i, 80.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 118.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 38.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 474.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-Rafinesque,
Med. Bet. ii, 32.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Sertum Botanicum, v & t.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 83.-Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. t.
250.-London, Arboretum, i, 275 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.-Dictrich, Syn. iii,
308.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 14.-Curtis in Rep. Geological
:Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 68.-Wood, Cl. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 25.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 371.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.
Tulipastrum Americanum, var. subcordatum, Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 483.


~---









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 21


CUCUMBER TREE.

Southern Alleghany Mountain region, near Augusta, Georgia (Michaux, Elliott), head of Sipsey creek, valley
of Davidson creek", Winston county, Alabama (.Mohr).
A tree 22 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter; low, rich woods; very rare
and local.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, light brown
streaked with yellow, the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.4139; ash, 0.32.


*5.-Magnolia macrophylla, Michaux,

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 327.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 221.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.--Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 331.-Poiret, Suppl. iii,
573.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 99, t. 7; N. American Sylva, ii, 26, t. 57.-Bonpland, P1. Malm. 84, t. 33.-Pursh, Fl. Am.
Sept. ii, 381.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18; Sylva, i, 83; 2 ed. i, 99.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 454; Prodr. i, 80.-Bot. Mag. t. 2189.-Hayne,.
Dend. Fl. 117.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 40.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 31, t. 62.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-
Sertum Botanicum, v & t.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 83.-Croom in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. xxv, 76.-Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. ii, 44, t.
139.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 271 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vii,
479.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 98, f. 57.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-
Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 230.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 14.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 67.-Wood, C1L
Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 25.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 374.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.

LARGE-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE.

North Carolina, eastern base of the Alleghany mountains (Iredell and Lincoln counties); southeastern Kentucky
southward to middle and western Florida and southern Alabama, extending west to the valley of Pearl river,
Louisiana; central Arkansas (Garland, Montgomery, Hot Springs, and Sebastian counties).
A tree 6 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 meter in diameter; rich woods, reaching its greatest
development in the limestone valleys of northern Alabama; rare and local.
Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown,
the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.5309; ash, 0.35.


6.-Magnolia Umbrella, Lamarck,

Diet. iii, 673.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 221.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 80.-Loiseleur, Herb. Amat. iii, t. 198.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-
Don, Miller's Diet. i, 83.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 475.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.-Seringe, Fl.
Jard. iii, 227.-Gray, Genera, i, 62, t. 24; Proc. Linnan Soc. ii, 106, f. 1-18; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49.-Cooper in Smithsonian
Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 13.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 67.-Wood, C1. Book, 214;.
Bot. & Fl. 25.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 38.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.

M. Virginiana, var. tripetala, Linnuus, Spec. 1 ed. 536.

M. tripetala, Linnmus, Spec. 2 ed. 756.-Marshall, Arbustum, 84.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 159.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 14.-
Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 252; 2 ed. iii, 331.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1258; Enum. i, 579.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 327.-
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 452.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 90, t. 5; N. American Sylva,
3 ed. ii, 20, t. 5.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 381.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18; Sylva, i, 84; 2 ed. i, 100.-Guimpel, Otto &
Haync, Abb. Holz. 20, t. 18.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 116.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 38.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 221.-
Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 32.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 98.-
London, Arboretum, i, 269, t. 5.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 370.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 891.

UMBRELLA TREE. ELK WOOD.

Southeastern Pennsylvania, southward along the Alleghany mountains to central Alabama (Prattville, l11ohr)
and northeastern Mississippi, westward through Kentucky and Tennessee; in central (Hot Springs) and
southwestern Arkansas (Fulton, valley of the Red river, Harvey).
A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.40 meter in diameter; rich, shady
hillsides; most common and reaching its greatest development along the western slope of the southern Alleghany
mountains.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, brown, the-
heavier sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4487; ash, 0.20.




1-


22 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

7.-Magnolia Fraseri, Walter,

Fl. Caroliniana, i, 59 & t.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.-Walpers, Rep. i, 70.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.-Chapman, Fl. S.
States, 14.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 68.-Wood, Cl. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 25.-Gray, Manual N.
States, 5 ed. 49.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 372.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.

A. auriculata, Lamarck, Dict. iii, 673.-Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 337.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1258; Enum. i, 579.-Michaux,
Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 328.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 222.-Desfontainds, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 94, t. 6;
N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 23, t. 56.-Andrews, Bet. Rep. ix, t. 573.-Bot. Mag. t..1206.-Cubibres, Mem. Mag. & t.-
Aiton, IIort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 332.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 382.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18; Sylva, i, 84 ; 2 ed. i, 98.-De
Candolle, Syst. i, 454; Prodr. i, 80.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 117.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 39.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-Audubon,
Birds, t. 38.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 83.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 188.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vii,
477.-London, Arboretum, i, 276 & t.-Seringe,Fl. Jard. iii, 229.

M. pyramidata, Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 338.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 382.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 454; Prodr. i, 80.-Hayne,
Dend. Fl. 117.-Lindley, Bet. Reg. v, t. 407.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 1092.--afinesque, Med. Bet. ii, 32.-Don, Miller's
Dict. i, 83.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 221.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 277 & t.-Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 230.-Darby, Bet.
S. States, 211.

M. auricularis, Salisbury, Parad. Loud. i, t. 43.-Kerner, Hort. t. 360.

LONG-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE.

Alleghany mountains, from Virginia southward to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, and southern
Alabama (Clark county, Mohr), extending west to the valley of Pearl river, Mississippi.
A small tree, 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; rich woods.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, brown, the
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5003; ash, 0.28.


8.-Liriodendron Tulipifera, Linnmus,

Spec. 1 ed. i, 535.-Kalm, Travels, English ed. i, 202.-Marshall, Arbustum, 78.-Wangenheim, Amer. 32, t. 13, f. 32.-Walter, Fl.
Caroliniana, 158.-Schmidt, Arb. i, 48.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 14, 45.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 250; 2 ed. iii, 329.-Gmrtner, Fruct.
ii, t. 178.-Bot. Mag. t .275.-Momnch, Meth. 222.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 102.-Schkuhr, Handb. ii, 93, t. 147.-Trew, Icon.
t. 10.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1254; Euum. i, 579.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 326.-Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 62, t. 18.-Desfontaines,
Hist. Arb. ii, 15.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. viii, 137; Ill. iii, 36, t. 491.-St. Hilaire, P1. France, iii, t. 377.-Titford, Hort. Bet.
Am. 76.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 202, t. 5; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 35, t. 61.-Eaton, Manual, 63; 6 ed. 208.-Nuttall,
Genera, ii, 18; Sylva, i, 84; 2 ed. i, 100.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 59; Med. Bet. i, 91, t. 8; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii,
18.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 462; Prodr. i, 82.-Bigelow, Med. Bet. ii, 107, t. 31.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 115.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 40.-Torrey,
Compend. Fl. N. States, 221; Fl. N. York, i, 28.-Rafinesque, Med. Bet. ii, 239.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 34, t. 29.-
Cobbett, Woodlands, No. 516.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.-Audubon, Birds, t. 12.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 86.-Beck, Bet. 15.-Lindley,
Fl. Med. 23.-Spach, Hist. Veg. vi, 488.-London, Arboretum, i, 284 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 302.-Penn. Cycl. xxv, 341.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 44.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 309.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 98, f. 58.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 529; 2 ed.
ii, 605 & t.-Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 240.-Gray, Genera, i, 64, t. 25; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 50.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 9.-
Darby, Bet. S. States, 212.-Agardh, Theor. & Syst. P1. t. 11, f. 2.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S.
States, 14.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 77.-Lemaire, Ill. Hort. 15, t. 571.-Wood, Cl. Book, 215; Bet.
& Fl. 25.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 39.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 183.-Baillon, Hist. P1. i, 143, f.
175-178.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, :80.-Guibouri, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 746.-Ridgway in Am. Nat. vi, 663; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
1882, 59.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.-Eichler, Sit. Bet. Brand. xxii, 83, f. 1-3.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 53c.

Tulipifera Liriodendron, Miller, Diet. No. 1.

L. procera, Salisbury, Prodr. 379.

TULIP TREE. YELLOW POPLAR. WHITE WOOD.

Southwestern Vermont, through western New England, southward to northern Florida (latitude 30c) west
through New York, Ontario, and Michigan to lake Michigan, south of latitude 430 30', thence south to latitude
310 in the Gulf states east of the Mississippi river; through southern Illinois and southeastern Missouri to Orowley's
ridge, northeastern Arkansas.
One of the largest and most valuable trees of the Atlantic forests, 30 to 60 meters in height, with a trunk 2 to
4 meters in diameter (Ridgway) ; rich woods and intervale lands, reaching its greatest development in the valley
of the lower Wabash river and along the western slopes of the Alleghany mountains in Tennessee and North
Carolina.
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close straight-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays
numerous, not prominent; color, light yellow or brown, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4230;
ash, 0.23; largely manufactured into lumber and used for construction, interior finish, shingles, in boat-building,
and especially in the manufacture of wooden pumps, woodenware, etc.; varieties varying slightly in color and
density are recognized by lumbermen.
Liriodendrin, a stimulant tonic, with diaphoretic properties, is obtained by macerating the inner bark,
especially of the root (Jour. Philadelphia Col. Phar. iii. 5. -U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 556.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 871).









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 23




ANONACE E.



9.-Asimina triloba, Dunal,

Mon. Anon. 83.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 479; Prodr. i, 87.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 42.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 66, t. 53.-Hayne,
Dend. Fl. 118.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 639.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 222; Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 165 -Beck, Bot. 16.-Don,
Miller's Dict. i, 91.-Nuttall in Jour. Philadelphia Acad. vii, 11.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 304.-London, Arboretum, i, 293, f. 39.-Gray,
Genera, i, 69, t. 26,27; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 50.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 609.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 9.-Darby, Bot. S.
States, 212.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 15.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina,
1860, iii, 94.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 347.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 199 & figs.-Bot. Mag. t.
5854.-Wood, Cl. Book, 215; Bot. & Fl. 26.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 41.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser.
xii, 183.-Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 383.-Young, Bot. Texas, 149.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
188-2, 60.-Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95.

Anona triloba, Linneus, Spec. 1 ed. 537.-Marshall, Arbustum, 10.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 125.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 158.-
B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 29.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii,254; 2 ed. iii, 335.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1267; Enum. i, 580.-Nouveau
Duhamel, ii, 83, t. 25.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 21.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 161, t. 9; N. American Sylva,
3 ed. ii, 33, t. 60.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 59.-Schkuhr, Handb. ii, 95, t. 149.

Anona pendula, Salisbury, Prodr. 380.

Orchidocarpum arietinmn, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 329.

Porcelia triloba, Persoon, Syn. ii, 95.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 383.-Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 92.-Barton, Compend.
Fl. Philadelph. ii, 18.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 19.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 529.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 278.-Audubon, Birds, t.
2, 162.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 371.

Uvaria triloba, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 45.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 30.-Caruel in Ann. Mus. Firenze, 1864, 9, t.
1, f. 1-7.-Baillon, Adansonia, viii, 333; Hist. Pl. i, 193, f. 220-228.

A. campaniflora, Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 529.


PAPAW. CUSTARD APPLE.

Western New York (Lockport and in Monroe county); Ontario (Queenstown heights); eastern and central
Pennsylvania, west to southern Michigan, southern Iowa, and eastern Kansas (Manhattan), south to middle
Florida and the valley of the Sabine river, Texas.
A small tree, sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter, or often
reduced to a slender shrub; rich, rather low woods, reaching its greatest development in the lower Wabash valley
and in the valley of the White river, Arkansas.
Wood very light, very soft and weak, coarse-grained, spongy; layers of annual growth clearly marked by
several rows of large open ducts; color, light yellow shaded with green, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity,
0.3969; ash, 0.21.
10.-Anona laurifolia, Dunal,

Mon. Anon. 65.-De Candolle, Syst. i, 468; Prodr. i, 84.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 641.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. xvi, t; 1328.-Schnizlein, Icon.
t. 174, f. 9.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 4.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1860,439.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl.603.

A. glabra, Chapman in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 2 [not Linuneus].

A. Species, Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.
POND APPLE.

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Mlalabar to bay Biscayne, on the west coast, Pease creek to the Caloosa river,
and through the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, or toward its northern limit and
on the west coast often reduced to a stout, wide-spreading shrub; common and reaching its greatest development
within the United States on the low islands and chores of the Everglades in the neighborhood of bay Biscayne.
Wood light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact, containing many scattered open ducts; color, light
brown streaked with yellow, sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5053; ash, 4.86.
The large fruit (0.14 to 0.28 meter long) scarcely edible.


l~c---~-~----~----------~=~=--~--~---- -- ----- --








24 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.




OAPPARIDACEJE.



11.-Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacquin,
Stirp. Am. 160, t. 101.-Aiton, Hort.- Kew. 2 ed. iii, 285.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 252.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, v. t. 273.-
Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 39.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 18.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 32.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests,
75.-Eichler in Martius, Fl.Brasil. xiii, 270, t. 64, f. 11.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.
G. Breynia, Linnmus, Spec. 2 ed. 721, in part.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 285.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 252, in part.-
Swartz, Obs. 210 [not Jacquin].-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 39.
C. cynophyllophora, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 504 [not subsequent ed. fide Eichler, 1. c.].-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 285.-
Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 39..
C. siliquoSa, Linnmus, Spec. 2 ed. 721.
C. torulosa, Swartz, Prodr. 81.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 252.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 18.
C. uncinata, Loddiges, Cat. [not Wallich].
C. emarginata, Richard, Fl. Cuba, 78, t. 9.-Walpers, Rep. i, 201.

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys; in the West Indies and southward to Brazil.
A small tree, sometimes 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter, or reduced to a low shrub;
common and reaching its greatest development within the United States on Upper Metacombe and Umbrella Keys.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many evenly-distributed large open- ducts;
medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, yellow tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6971 i
ash, 4.76.






CANELLACE E.



12.-Canella alba, Murray;
Linnmus, Syst. 14 ed. iv, 443.-Swartz, Obs. 190; Trans. Linnean Soc. i, 96, t. 8.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 851; Enum. i, 496.-Aiton, Hort.
Kew. 2 ed. iii, 144.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. Snppl. 3, t. 10, f. 4.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 563.-Hayne, Arzn. 9, t. 5.-Stevenson
& Churchill, Med. Bot. ii, t. 66.--Woodville, Med. Bot. 3 ed. iv, 694, t. 237.-Lindley, Med. Bot. 116.-Carson, Med. Bot. i, 24, t.
16.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 181, f. 98.-Miers in Ann. Nat. Hist. 3 ser. i, 348; Contrib. i, 116.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies,
109.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 93.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 621, f. 767.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.-Bentley &
Trimen, Med. Pl. i, 26, t. 26.
C. Winterana, Gartner, Fruct. i, 377, t. 77.
Winter Canella, Linnmus, Spec. 2 ed. 636.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. viii, 799, t. 399.
C. laurifolia, Loddiges, Cat.-Sweet, Hort. Brit. 65.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 680.

WHITE WOOD. CINNAMON BARK. WILD CINNAMON.
Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys (Elliott's Key, Key Largo to Jew Fish Key); through the West
Indies.
A small tree, often 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.22 meter in diameter; not rare.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color,.
dark reddish-brown, the sap-wood light brown or yellow; specific gravity, 0.9893; ash, 1.75.
The pale inner bark appears in the Pharmacopcea under the name of Cortex canellce albce, furnishing an
aromatic stimulant and tonic, occasionally employed in cases of debility of the digestive organs, or as an adjunct
to more active remedies (Miers, 1. c.-Flickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 68.-U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed.
210.-- at. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 337).


. i









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 25




GUTTIFERAE.


13.-Clusia flava, Linnaus,
Spec. 2 ed. 1495.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 977; Enum. ii, 1043.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 444.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 105.-De
Candolle, Prodr. i, 559.-Macfadyen, F1. Jamaica, 134.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 111, t. 77; 2 ed. ii, 58, t. 77.-Grisebach, Fl. British
West Indies, 407.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 43.-Planchon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4
ser. xiii, 352.-Walpers, Ann. vii, 340.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.
0. rose, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 168.

Jamaica and other West Indian islands; Key West (Blodgett) prior to 1840. Not detected by later explorers
(Palmer, Garber, Chapman, Curtiss) of the botany of semi-tropical Florida, and probably not now growing
spontaneously within the limits of the United States.
Wood not examined.



TERNSTRE MIACEE.



14.-Gordonia Lasianthus, Linnsus,

Mant. i, 570.-Ellis, Phil. Trans. 60, 518, t. 11; Letters, t. 2.-L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 156.-Cavanilles, Diss. ii, 307, t. 161.-Walter, Fl.
Caroliniana, 177.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 231; 2 ed. iv, 234.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 770; Ill. iii, 146, t. 594, f. 1.-Swartz, Obs. 271.-
Willdenow, Spec. iii, 840.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 43.-Bot. Mag. t. 668.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 236, t. 68.-Desfontaines, Hist.
Arb. i, 484.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 259.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 131, t. 1; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 29, t. 58.-Pursh, Fl. Am.
Sept. i, 451.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 84.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 528.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 171.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 125.-Don, Miller's Diet.
i, 573, f. 99.-Audubon, Birds, t. 168.-Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. t. 151.-Spach, Hist. -eg. iv, 79.-London, Arboretum, i, 379, f. 93.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 223.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 161.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 258.-Browne, Trees of America, 52.-
Dietrich, Syn. iv, 862.--Gray, Genera, ii, 103, t. 140, 141; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 104.-Choisy, Mem. Ternst. & Camel. 51.-
Darby, Bot. S. States, 256.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 60.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv.
N. Carolina 1860, iii, 80.-Maout & Decaisne, English ed. 274 & figs.-Wood, Cl. Book, 274; Bot. & Fl. 65.-Baillon, Hist. Pl. iv,
230, f. 254, 255.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.
Hypericum Lasianthus, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 783.-Hill, Veg. Syst. xv, t. 1, f. 3.
G. pyramidalis, Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. 386.

LOBLOLLY BAY. TAN BAY.

Southern Virginia, south near the coast to cape Malabar, and cape Romano, Florida, west along the Gulf
coast to the valley of the Mississippi river.
A tree 15 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk often 0.45 to 0.50 meter in diameter; low, sandy swamps.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, not durable; medullary rays numerous, thin; color,
light red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.4728; ash, 0.76; somewhat employed in cabinet-making.
The bark, rich in tannin, was once occasionally used, locally, in tanning leather (Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 160).

15.-Gordonia pubescens, L'Heritier,
Stirp. Nov.-156.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 770.-Cavanilles, Diss. ii, 308, t. 162.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 231; 2 ed. iv, 234.-Willdenow,
Spec. iii, 841.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 43.-Ventenat, Jard. Malm. t. 1 (Schrader, Neues Jour. Bot. la06, 121).-Nouveau
Duhamel, ii, 237.--Kenig & Sims, Ann. Bot. i, 171.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 484.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 259.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb.
Am. iii, 135, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 31, t. 59.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 451.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 84.-Loiseleur, Herb.
Amat. iv, t. 236.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 171.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 528.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 125.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 573.-Eaton,
Manual, 6 ed. 161.-Audubon, Birds, t. 185.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 80.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 380, f. 94.-Torrey & Gray, Fl.
N. America, i, 223.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 258.-Browne, Trees of America, 54.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 862.-Gray, Genera, ii,
102, t. 141, f. 11-14, t. 142.-Choisy, Mem. Ternst. & Camel. 51.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 257.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 60.-Wood, C1. Book, 274; Bot. & Fl. 65.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.-Goodale & Sprague, Wild
Flowers, 193, t. 47.
Franklinia Altamaha, Marshall, Arbustum, 49.-Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 16, 465.-Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. 79 & f.

G. Franklin, L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 156.-Willdenow, Spec. iii, 841.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 237.-Desfontaines, Hist.
Arb. i, 484.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 259.-Poiret, Suppl. ii, 816.
Michauxia sessilis, Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. 386.

Lacathea florida, Salisbury, Parad. Lond. t. 56.-Colla, Hort. Ripul. Appx. i, 134.


II "-pa









26 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

FRANKLINIA.

Near Fort Barrington, on the Altamaha river, Georgia (J. & W. Bartram, Dr. Moses Marshall).
Careful explorations of Bartram's original locality by later botanists, especially by Mr. H. W. Ravenel, have
failed to rediscover this species, which is, however, still preserved in cultivation through the original plants
introduced by the Bartrams. "Florida" given as a locality by Torrey & Gray, 1. c., on the authority of Herb.
.Schweinitz, and followed by Chapman, 1. c., is probably an error (Ravenel in Am. Naturalist, xvi, 235).




STERCULIACEE.



16.-Fremontia Californica, Torrey,
Smithsonian Contrib. vi, 5, t. 2, f. 2; Proc. Am. Assoc. iv, 191; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 15, 71.-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 68.-
Walpers, Ann. iv, 319.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vii, 146.-Bentham & Hooker, Genera, i, 212, 982.-Bot. Mag. t. 5591.-
Lemaire, 111. Hort. xiii, t. 496.-Beige Hort. xvii. 236, t. 13.-Carriere in Rev. Hort. 1867, 91 & t.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 483.-
Masters in London Gard. Chronicle, 1869, 610.-Seemanu, Jour. Bot. vii, 297.-London Garden, 1873, 54 & t.-Planchon in Fl. des
Serres, xxii, 175.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, SS; ii, 437.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 41, 357.
(i, ;,ii, tll., 1, ,,1, Californicum, Baillon, Hist. PI. iv, 70.

SLIPPERY ELM.

Californiia, valley of Pitt river, southward along the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, and in the Santa
Lucia mountains southward through the Coast ranges to the San Jacinto mountains; rare at the north, most
common an d reaching its greatest development on the southern sierras and the San Gabriel and San Bernardino
ranges.
A small tree, 0 to 10 meters in height, the short trunk often 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a tall,
much branched shrub; dry, gravelly soil.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many groups of small ducts parallel to the
thin, conspicuous medullary rays, layers of annual growth obscure; color, dark brown tinged with red, the thick
sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7142; ash, 1.69.
The mucilaginous inner bark used locally in poultices.




TILIACEIE.



17.-Tilia Americana, Linneus,
Spec. 1 ed. 514.-Marshall, Arbustum, 153.-Wangenheim, Amer. 55.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 229; 2 ed. iii, 299.-Willdenow, Spec. ii,
1162; Ennm. i, 565.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 37.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. jii, 311, t. 1; N. American
Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 81, t. 131.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 58; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 6.-Eaton, Manual, 59.-James in
Long's Exped. i, 69.-Watson, Dend. Brit. ii, 134, t. 134.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 214; Fl. N. York, i, 116.-London,
Arboretum i, 373 & t.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 239.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 227.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts,
511; 2 ed. ii, 584 & t.-Browne, Trees of America, 47.-Gray, Genera, ii, 96, t. 136; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 103; Hall's P1. Texas,
5.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 38.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 262.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States,
59.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2(1 Rep. Arkansas, 352.-Wood, Cl. Book,
272; Bot. & Fl. 64.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 103.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 186.-Walpers, Ann.
vii, 449.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 480.-Young, Bot. Texas, 188.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada,
1875-'76,191.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 174.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 51c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 1882, 61.
T. nigra, Borkhausen, Handb. d. Forstbot. ii, 1219.
T. glabra, Ventenat in Mem. Acad. Sci. iv, 9, t. 2.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 228.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 681.-Pursh,
Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 362.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 3.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 513.--Hayne, Dend. Fl. 112.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 2.-
Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 55, t. 45.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 108.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 553.-Eaton,
Manual, 6 ed. 365.-Beck, Bot. 59.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 312.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 452.-Dietrich, Syn.
iii, 237.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.
T. latifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 367.
T. Canadensis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. 306.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.-Poiret in Lamarck, Dict. vii, 683.
T. neglect, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 340, t. 15; Hist. Veg. iv, 27, 29.-Walpers, Rep. i, 359.


1. ` '









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 27

LIME TREE. BASS WOOD. AMERICAN LINDEN. LIN. BEE TREE.

Northern New Brunswick, westward in British America to about the one hundred and second meridian,
-southward to Virginia and along the Alleghany mountains to Georgia and southern Alabama; extending west in
the United States to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and southwest to
the valley of the San Antonio river, Texas.
A large tree, 20 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or, exceptionally, 30 to 45
meters in height, with a trunk 0.92 to 1.84 meter in diameter (valley of the lower Wabash river, Ridgicay); common
in all northern forests, and always an indication of rich soil; toward its western and southwestern limits only
along river bottoms.
Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, rather
obscure; color, light brown, or often slightly tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity,
0.4525; ash, 0.55; largely used in the manufacture of woodenware and cheap furniture, for the panels and bodies
of carriages, the inner soles of shoes, in turnery, and the manufacture of paper-pulp (the quickly-discolored sap
renders it unfit for making white paper).
The inner bark, macerated, is sometimes manufactured into coarse cordage and matting; the flowers, rich in
honey, highly prized by apiarists.
Aqua tilice, an infusion of the flowers, buds, and leaves of the different species of Tilia, is used in Europe as
.a domestic remedy in cases of indigestion, nervousness, etc. (Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1429).
Var. pubescens, London,
Arboretum, i, 374 & t.-Browne, Trees of America, 48.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 103; Hall's PI. Texas, 5.
T. Caroliniana, Miller, Dict. No. 4.-W1angenheim, Amer. 56.-Marshall, Arbustum, 154.
T. Americana, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 153 [not Linnueus].
T. piubescens, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 229; 2 ed. iii, 299.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1162; Enum. i, 566.-Ventenat in Mem. Acad.
Sci. iv, 10, t. 3.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 228, t. 51.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 37.-Michaux f.
Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 317, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 85, t. 133.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 363.-De Candolle, Prodr.
i, 513.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 112.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 3.-Watson, Dend. Brit. ii, t. 135.-Torrey, Comp. Fl. N. States, 215.-
Don, Miller's Diet. i, 553.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 365.-Beck, Bot. 59.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 452.-Penn. Cycl. xxiv,
447.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 262.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 59.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv.
N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.--Walpers, Ann. vii, 449.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 479.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.
T. laxiflora, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 306.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii. 683.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.-Willdenow, Enum.
Suppl. 38.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 513.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 113.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 215.-Don, Miller's
Diet. i, 553.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 365.-Beck, Bot. 59.-Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 343, t. 15; Hist. Veg. iv, 32.-
Browne, Trees of America, 48.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237.
T. grata, Salisbury, Prodr. 367.
T. pubescens, var. leptophylla, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 63.
? T. stenopetala, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 92.-Robin, Voyages, iii, 484.
T. truncata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 342; Hist. Veg. iv, 30.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237.
T. Amzericana, var. Walteri, Wood, Cl. Book, 272; Bot. & Fl. 64.

North Carolina to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, usually near the coast; Houston, Texas (E.
Ball).
A small tree, rarely exceeding 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter; swamps or low ground;
rare, or often confounded with the typical T. Americana.
Wood lighter, but not otherwise distinguishable from that of T. Americana; specific gravity 0.4074; ash, 0.65.


18.-Tilia heterophylla, Ventenat,
Mem. Acad. Sci. iv, 16, t. 5.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 229.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 683.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 363.-Nuttall,
Genera, ii, 3; Sylva, i, 90, t. 23 ; 2 ed. i, 107, t. 23.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 513.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 533.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 365.-
Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 345; Hist. Veg. iv, 34.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 239.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 452.-
Penn. Cycl. xxiv, 447.-Walpers, Rep. i, 359.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 20.-Chapman, Fl. S. States,
GO.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.-Wood, Cl. Book, 272; Bot. & Fl. 64.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed.
103.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1429.-- idgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 61.
T. alba, Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 315, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 84, t. 132 [not Waldsteiu & Kitaibel].-Eaton &
Wright, Bot. 452--Darby, Bot. S. States, 262.
T. laxiflora, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 363 [not Michaux].-Elliott, Sk. ii, 2.
T. Americana, var. heterophylla, London, Arboretum, i, 375 & t.
T. heteropliylla, var. alba, Wood, Cl. Book, 272; Bot. & Fl. 64.


n ___ ------------------ 1








28 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


WHITE BASS WOOD. WAHOO.
Mountains of Pennsylvania, southward along the Alleghany mountains to northern Alabama and Florida
(valley of the Apalachicola river, opposite Chattahoochee, JMokr), west to middle Tennessee and Kentucky, southern
Indiana, and southern and central Illinois (valley of the Illinois river).
A tree 15 to 20 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 meter in diameter; rich woods and river bottoms,
often on limestone; most common and reaching its greatest development along the western slopes of the southern.
Alleghany mountains and in middle Tennessee.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color,.
light brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4253; ash, 0.62; generally confounded with
that of Tilia Americana, and used for similar purposes.





MALPIGHIACE J.


19.-Byrsonima lucida, HBK.
Nov. Gen. & Spec. v, 147.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 580.-Jussieu, Mon. Malpig. ii, 40.-Walpers, Rep. v, 168.-Richard, Fl. Cuba,.
115, t. 288.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 115.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 82.
Malpighia lucida, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 852.

TALLOWBERRY. GLAMBERRY.
Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys (Boca Chica, No-Name Key, etc.); through the West Indies..
A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or often branching
from the ground, and frutescent in habit.
Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light red, the sap-wood
a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.5888; ash, 2.46.
Fruit edible.




ZYGOPHYLLACEE.



20.-Guaiacum sanctum, Linnmus,
Spec. 1 ed. 382.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 707.-Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 16, t. 86; 2 ed. ii, 86, t. 86.-Gray, Genera, ii, 123, t. 148.-Schnizlein,
Icon. t. 253, f. 21.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 134.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 64.-
Wood, Bot. & Fl. 67.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.
G. vertical, Richard, Fl. Cuba, 321.
LIGNUM-VITAE.
Semi-tropical Florida, Upper Metacombe and Lignum-Vitm Keys, common; Lower Metacombe and Umbrella
Keys, rare; in the Bahamas, St. Domingo, Cuba, Porto Rico, etc.
A low, gnarled tree, not exceeding, within the limits of the United States, 8 meters in height, with a trunk
sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter.
Wood exceedingly heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, difficult to work, splitting irregularly,
containing many evenly-distributed resinous ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, rich yellow-brown,
varying in older specimens to almost black, the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 1.1432; ash, 0.82; used in
turnery and for the sheaves of ships' blocks, for which it is preferred to other woods.
Lignum Guaiaci, Guaiacum wood, the heart of this and the allied G. oficinale, Linnaeus, formerly largely used in
the treatment of syphilis, is now only retained in the Materia Medica as an ingredient in the compound decoction of
sarsaparilla.
Guaiac, the resinous gum obtainedfrom these species,is stimulating diaphoretic and alterative, or in large doses
cathartic, and is still employed in cases of chronic rheumatism, gout, etc. (Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia,
92.-U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 456.--Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 696.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 551.-Berg,
Phlarm. Anat. Atl. 53, t. 27).


d I----~-----i--- ~~-




Ct*" ---- --~------------------ ----------------.-- ------.



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 29


21.-Porliera angustifolia, Gray,
:Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 28.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 42.

Guaiacum angustifolium, Engelmann, Wislizenus' Rep. 29.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 158; Genera, ii, 123,
t. 149.-Walpers, Ann. iii, 840.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 334.

Western Texas, valley of the Colorado river to the Rio Grande (Austin, Matagorda bay, New Braunfels, San
Antonio, Brownsville, Fort McIntosh), extending west to the Rio Pecos (Havard); in northern Mexico.
A small tree, 8 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or toward its eastern, northern,
and western limits reduced to a low shrub; reaching its greatest development in the United States on the calcareous
hillsides bordering the valley of the Guadalupe river.
Wood exceedingly heavy, very hard, close-grained, compact, the open ducts smaller and less regularly
distributed than in Guaiacum ; medullary rays very thin, numerous; color, rich dark brown, turning green with
exposure, the sap-wood bright yellow; specific gravity, 1.1101; ash, 0.51; probably possessing medicinal properties
similar to those of lignum-vitae.





RUTACEE.



22.-Xanthoxylum Americanum, Miller,
Dict. No. 2.-Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 57.-Wangenheim, Amer. 116.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 214.-Torrey in Nicollet's Rep. 147.-
Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 509; 2 ed. ii, 581.-Gray, Genera, ii, 148, t. 156; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 41; Manual N. States, 5
ed. 110.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 253.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep.
1858, 250.-Wood, Cl. Book, 282; Bot. & Fl. 70.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Koch, Dendrologie, i,
563.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.

X. Clava-Herculis, Lamarck, Diet. ii, 38; Ill. t. 811, f. 3 [not Linneus].-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 399.-Mcench, Meth. 340.

X.fraxinifolium, Marshall, Arbustum, 167.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 52; ii, 38.

X.fraxineum, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 757; Enum. 1013; Berl. Baumz. 413.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 615.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb.
ii, 343.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 383.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 210. -Nuttall, Genera, ii, 236.-Nouveau Duhamel, vii,
3. t. 2.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 197.-Bigelow, Med. Bot. iii, 156, t. 59; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 405.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 726.-
Sprengel, Syst. i, 945.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 373.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 113, f. 96.-Don, Miller's Diet.
i, 802.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 399.-Beck, Bot. 70.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 364.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 216.-Loudon,
Arboretum, i, 488, f. 158 & t.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1000.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 118.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 482.-Nees,
PI. Wied. 5.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 195, f. 103.-Browne, Trees of America, 150.-Agardh, Theor. & Syst. P1. t. 19, f. 9.-
Schnizlein, Icon. t. 250, f. 1-14.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 324 & figs.-Baillon, Hist. P1. iv, 398, f. 433-438.

X. mite, Willdenow, Enum. 1013.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 622.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 727.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 802.-Loudon,
Arboretum, i, 489.

X. rainiflorum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 235.

X. tricarpumt, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 118 [not Michaux].

Thylaxfraxineum, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 114.


PRICKLY ASH. TOOTHACHE TREE.
Eastern Massachusetts, west to northern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, and eastern Kansas, south to the
mountains of Virginia and northern Missouri.
A small tree, not often 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; or, reduced to a shrub,
1.50 to 1.80 meter in height; common and reaching its greatest development in the region of the great lakes;
rocky hillsides, or more often along streams and rich river bottoms.
Wood light, soft, coarse-grained; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter;
specific gravity, 0.5654; ash, 0.57.
The bark of Xanthoxylum, an active stimulant, is used in decoction to produce diaphoresis in cases of
rheumatism, syphilis, etc., and as a popular remedy for toothache (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 940.-Bentley in
London Pharm. Jour. 2 ser. v, 399.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 562.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1535).








30 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


23.-Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, Linnmus,
Spec. 1 ed. 270, in part.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 25, 52; ii, 38.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 754, in part.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 382.-
Elliott, Sk. ii, 090.-Planchon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xiv, 312.

X. fraxinifolium, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 243 [not Marshall].

agara fraxiinifolia, Lamarck, Ill. i, 334.
X. Carolinianum, Lamarck, Dict. ii, 39; Ill. 403, t. 811, f.1.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 214.-Engelmann & Gray
in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. v, 213.-Gray, Genera, ii, 148, t. 156, f. 13, 14; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 110; Hall's P1.
Texas, 5.-Scheele in Rcemer, Texas, 432.-Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 8, t. 83; 2 ed. ii, 78, t. 83.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 253.-
Cooper in Smithsbnian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 66.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860,.
iii, 103.-Wood, Cl. Book, 282; Bot. & Fl. 70.-Young, Bot. Texas, 194.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.
X. aromaticum, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 755 (excl. syn.).-Jacquin f. Eclogm, i, 103, t. 70.
X. tricarpum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 235.-Poiret, Snppl. ii, 294.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 383.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept.
i, 210.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 726.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 690.-A. de Jussieu in Mem. Mus. xii, t. 25, f. 38.-Sprengel, Syst.
i, 945.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 803.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 365.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 488.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 399.-
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 482.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1000.
Kampmania fraxinifqlia, Rafinesque, Med. Rep. v, 354.
Pseudopetalon glandulosum, Rafinesqne, Fl. Ludoviciana, 108; Med. Bot. ii, 114.
Pseudopetalon tricarpum, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 108; Med. Bot. ii, 114.
X. Catesbianum, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 114.

TOOTHACHE TREE. PRICKLY ASH. SEA ASH. PEPPER WOOD. WILD ORANGE.

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to bay Biscayne and Tampa bay, Florida, westward through the
Gulf states to northwestern Louisiana, southern Arkansas (south of the Arkansas river), and the valley of the
Brazos river, Texas.
A small tree, rarely 12 to 14 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, of very rapid growth;
usually along streams and low, rich river bottoms, reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas,
Louisiana, and eastern Texas.
A form with trifoliate leaves is-
X. mnacrophyllum, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 10; 2 ed. ii, 80.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 353.
X. Clava-Herculis, var. Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 335.
Wood light, hard, not strong, soft, coarse-grained, not durable, containing many scattered open ducts;
medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5056; ash, 0.82.
X. Clava-Herculis probably possesses similar medicinal properties to those of the last species (Nat. Dispensatory
2 ed. 1535).
Var. fruticosum, Gray,
Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 30.-Torrey & Gray in Pacific R. Rep. ii, 161.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 43.-Chapman, Fl.
S. States, 66 ? -Wood, Bot. & Fl. 71.
X. hirsutlu, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1861, 450; 1870, 136 (see Gray in same, 1862, 162).-Young, Bot. Texas,
195.
Western Texas, Corpus Christi (Buckley), mouth of the Colorado river (iMohr), near Aus-tin, and west to Devil's
river and Eagle pass; Florida (?) (Chapman 1. c.).
A low shrub, or on the Texas coast a small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in
diameter.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood
yellow ; specific gravity, 0.5967 ; ash, 0.76.

24.-Xanthoxylum Caribeum, Lamarck,
Diet. ii, 40.--Gertner, Fruct. i, 333, t. 68, f. 8.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, 58.-Planchon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xiv,
315.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii. 562.
X. Clava-Herculis, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 270, in part.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 727.-Maefadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 194.-Grisebach,
Fl. British West Indies, 138.
X. lanceolatumn, Poiret, Suppl. ii, 293.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 727.
X. Ploridanum, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 14, t. 85; 2 ed. ii, 85, t. 85.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 66.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 70.-Young,
Bot. Texas, 194.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.


C7 ------ -------








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 31

SATIN WOOD.

Semi-tropical Florida, south Bahia Honda and Boca Chica Keys; in the West Indies.
A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 meter in diameter.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, fine-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful
polish; medullary rays numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, light orange, the sap-woon lighter; specific gravity,,
0.9002; ash, 2.02.
25.-Xanthoxylum Pterota, HBK.

Nov. Gen. & Spec. vi, 3.-Kunth, Syn. iii, 325.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 725.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 680.-Macfadyen, Fl.
Jamaica, 190.-Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 11, t. 84; 2 ed. ii, 81, t. 84.-Seemann, Bot. Herald, 275.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey,
43.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 66.-Young, Bot. Texas, 195.-Planchon & Triana in Ann.
Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xiv, 311.-Engler in Martius, Fl. Brasil. xii2, 154.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.--Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i,
169.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 335.
Fagara Pterota, Linnmeus, Amcen, v, 393, in part.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 444; Ill. i, 335, t. 84.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 666.-
Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. i, 263.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 40.-Turpin, Dict. Sci. Nat. xvi, 107, t. 127.
Fagara lentiscifolia, Willdenow, Enum. i, 166.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 137.

WILD LIME.

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys, on the west coast from about latitude 290 to cape-
Sable; southwestern Texas, and southward through Mexico to Brazil.
A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter, or often
reduced to a slender shrub; in Florida common, and reaching its greatest development on the keys of the west
coast; in Texas not common, but widely distributed as a small shrub, or on the shores of Matagorda bay, west
of the Nueces river, and in the valley of the Rio Grande a low tree.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays thin, numerous; color, brown tinged with red, the
sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7444; ash, 0.78.

26.-Ptelia trifoliata, Linnaus,

Spec. 1 ed. 118.-Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 215.-Marshall, Arbustnm, 115.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 88.-Aiton. Hort. Kew. i, 162; 2 ed.
i, 264.-Lamarck, Ill. i, 336, t. 84.-MaNench, Meth. 55.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 670; Enunm.i, 116.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 252, t. 57.-
Michaux, Fl. Bor. Am. i, 99.-Schkuhr, Handb. 83, t. 83.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 706.-Persoon, Syn. i, 145.-Desfontaines,
Hist. Arb. ii, 343.-Robin, Voyages, iii, 509.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 1U7.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 104.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb.
Holz. 94, t. 74.--Hayne, Dend. Fl. S.-Elliott, Sk. i, 201.-Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 291.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 189; Coimpend. Fl. N.
States, 86.-Fl.N. York, i, 133; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 73; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 43.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 82.-Sprengel,
Syst. i, 441.-Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. xliv, 2, t. 128.-A. do Jussieu in Menm. Mus. xii, t. 26, f. 42.-Beek in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. x, 264;
Bot. 71.-Dou, Miller's Diet. i, 806.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 369.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 215.-London,
Arboretum, i, 4d9 & t.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 28S.-Torrey & Grdy, Fl. N. America, i, 215.-Eaton & Wright, Bot.379.-Dietrich,
Syn. i, 497.-Browne, Trees of America, 153.-Schcelo in Roemnr, Texas, 432.-Gray, Genera, ii, 150, t. 157; Manual N. States, 5 ed.
110.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Agardh, Theor. & Syst. P1. t. 19, f. 7, 8.-Cooper in Smithsonian
Rep. 1858, 250.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 254.-Chapman. Fl. S. States, 66.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii,
107.-Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 353.-Wood, Cl. Book, 2S3; Bot. & Fl.71.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 250, f..15-26.-
Young, Bot. Texas, 195.-Baillon, Hist. P1. iv, 395, f. 445, 446.-Koch, Deudrologie, i, 566.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.-
Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 171.-Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95.

A'myris elemifera, Linneus, Spec. 2 ed. 295.-St. Hilaire, Faim. Nat. i, 253.

P. viticifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 68.

HOP TREE. SHRUBBY TREFOIL. WAFER ASH.

Ontario and New York (banks of the Niagara river), Pennsylvania southward to northern Florida, west to
Minnesota and the headwaters of the Canadian river; through western Texas to the valley of the Mimbres river,
New Mexico (Bigeloc), and southward into northern Mexico.
A small tree, sometimes 4 to 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more often
reduced to a slender shrub; shady, rocky hillsides.
A variety with more or less pubescent leaves, not rare on the south Atlantic coast, and the common form of
western Texas, is-
var. mollis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 680.-Engelmann & Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. v, 213.-Torrey
in Marcey's Rep. 282.-Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 31; Hall's Pl. Texas, 5.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 71.-Watson in
Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 335.

P. mollis, Curtis in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. vii, 406; Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 107.-Walpers, Ann. ii, 259.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 67.-Young, Bot. Texas, 196.







32 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, the annual growths clearly marked by two or three rows of
open ducts; medullary rays few, thin; color, yellow-brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity,
0.8319; ash, 0.30.
The bark of the root possesses tonic properties and is employed by herbalists in the form of tinctures and fluid
extracts in cases of dyspepsia, debility, etc. (Am. Jour. Pharm. 1862, 198; 1867, 337.-U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed.
1740.--Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1179); the bitter fruit is occasionally used domestically as a substitute for hops.

27.-Canotia holocantha, Torrey,
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 68.-Gray in Ives' Rep. 15; Proc. Am. Acad. xii, 159.-Baillon, Adansonia, x, 18; Hist. Veg. vi, 7, 42.-Brewer &
Watson, Bot. California, i, 190.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. 24, 81, t. 1.-Maximowicz in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg v, 256.-
Rusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 106.
Arizona, White Mountain region, valley of the Gila river (Rothrock), valley of Bill Williams Fork (Bigelow).
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or often a large shrub;
dry, rocky mesas. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, not prominent; color
light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6885; ash, 5.33.




SIMARUBEIE.



28.-Simaruba glauca, De Candolle,
Diss. in Ann. Mus. xvii, 323; Prodr. i, 733.-Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vi, 16.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles,
i, 66, t. 14.-Planchon in London Jour. Bot. v, 567.-Gray, Genera, ii, 152.-Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 20, t. 87; 2 ed. ii, 88, t. 87.-
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 139.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 67.-Wood, Bot. & Fl.
72.-Planchou & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xv, 357.-Engler in Martius, Fl. Brasil. xii2, 223.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.-
Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 173.
Quassia Simaruba, Linnmus, Suppl. 234.-Wright, Trans. Edinburgh Soc. ii, 73, t. 1, 2; Bot. & Med. Account of Q.
Sin marub.-Gaertner, Fruct. i, 340, t. 70.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 478, t. 343, f. 2.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 568.-Aiton, Hort.
Kew. 2 ed. iii, 42. -Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, i, 23, t. 5.
Quassia dioica, Bergius, Mat. Med. 355.

S. amara, Aublet, Guian. t. 331.-Hayne, Arzn. iv, t. 15.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 249, f. 1-6.

8. medicinalis, Endlicher, Medz. Pf. 525.-Berg, Handb. i, 373.-Berg & Schmidt, Off. Gew. ii, t. 13.

PARADISE TREE.
Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys; through the West Indies to Brazil.
A tree sometimes 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 meter in diameter; within the United States not
common, and reaching its greatest development on the shores of bay Biscayne.
Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, containing many large scattered open ducts; medullary rays
few, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood a little darker; specific gravity, 0.4136; ash, 0.93.
The bark of this species has been occasionally used as a substitute for that of S. officinalis, DC. as an aromatic,
bitter tonic (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 838.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1294).





BURSERACEE.



29.-Bursera gummifera, Jacquin,
Am. Pict. t. 65.-Linnaus, Spec. 2 ed. 741.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 392, t. 256.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1119.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 481.-
Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 107.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 78.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, t. 97.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 239.-
Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 229.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 117, t. 79; 2 ed. ii, 64, t. 79.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 390.-Browne, Trees of America,
189.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 173.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,264; 1860, 440.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 68.-Wood,
Bot. & Fl. 72.-Planchon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xv, 302.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 177.-
Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 39.
B. acuminata, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1120.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 78.

Elaphrium integerrimum, Tulasne in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. vi, 369. (Fide Engler, o.)









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 33


GUM ELEMI. GUMBO LIMBO. WEST-INDIAN BIRCH.
Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast Caloosa river and Caximbas bay;
through the West Indies.
A tree often 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.50 to 0.70 meter in diameter; one of the largest and most
common trees of southern Florida, of very rapid growth and decay.
Wood very light, exceedingly soft and weak, spongy, containing many scattered open ducts; medullary
rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or gray, quickly discoloring with decay; specific gravity, 0.3003; ash,
2.04; used in making live-fences, pieces of the trunk when planted in the coral rock of the keys throwing out roots
and growing rapidly.
The aromatic resin obtained from this species was formerly somewhat used in various forms, under the name of
Caranna, as a remedy for gout (Watts, Chem. Diet. i, 749.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 525, f. 749); and in the
West Indies is manufactured into a valuable varnish. An infusion of the leaves is occasionally used as a domestic
substitute for tea.

30.-Amyris sylvatica, Jacquin,
Am. Pict. t. 108.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 333.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 351.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 81.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1271.-
Macfadyeu, Fl. Jamaica, 231.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 393.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 174.-Planchon & Triana in Ann.
Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xv, 321.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.

Toxicodendron arborescens, Miller, Diet. No. 9.

A. dyatripa, Sprengel, Nene Entdeck. iii, 48.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 81.

Rhus arborescens, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 73.

A. Plumieri, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 81.

A. Floridana, Nuttall in Am. Jour. Sci. v, 294; Sylva ii, 114, t. 78; 2 ed. ii, 61, t. 78.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 81.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 221.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 16.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 123.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 561.-
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 68.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 72.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.

A. cymosa, Reichenbach in Sieb. P1. Trin. No. 29 .

A. maritima, Richard, Fl. Cuba,392 [not Jacquin].


TORCH WOOD.
Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys; in the West Indies.
A small tree sometimes 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter; common.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, compact, resinous, exceedingly durable, susceptible
of a beautiful polish; medullary rays obscure; color, light orange, the sap- wood lighter; specific gravity, 1.0459;
ash, 0.59.




MELIACE E.



31.-Swietenia Mahogoni, Linnaus,
Spec. 2 ed. 548.-Jacquin, Stirp. Am. t. 127.-Cavanilles, Diss. ii, 365, t. 209.-Gaurtner, Fruct. ii, 69, t. 96.-Lamarck, Dict. iii, 678.-
Willdenow, Spec. ii, 557.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 338.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 64.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, 125, t.,
99.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 625.-Turpin in Diet. Sci. Nat. Atlas, t. 170.-Tussac, Fl. Antilles, iv, t. 23.-Hayne, Arzn. i, t. 19.-
Hooker, Bot. Misc. i, 21, t. 16, 17.-A. do Jussieu in Mem. Mus. xix, 248, t. 11.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 687, f. 116.-Woodville, Med.
Bot. 3 ed. iii, 620, t. 220.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 164, t. 21.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 155.-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 175.-Torrey & Gray,
Fl. N. America, i, 242.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 360.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 447.-Walpers, Rep. i, 436.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 98, t. 75;
2 ed. ii, 46, t. 75.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 304.-Schnizloin, Icon. t.226, f. 1.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Darby, Bot. S.
States, 263.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 62.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 131.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 66.-Baillon, Hist. Pl. v,
478, f. 472-476.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 596.-Tippel & Bollevar, Ausland. Cult. Pfl., Atlas, i, t. 2, f. 1.-C. De Candolle,
Suites, i, 723.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 183.
S. Kenegalcnsis, Desrousseaux in Lamarck, Dict. iii, 678.

Cedrus Mahogoni, Miller, Dict. No. 2.
3 FOr


~ ~
II -








34 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

MAHOGANY. MADEIRA.

Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys (Key Largo, Elliott's Key); through the West Indies, and in
Central America.
A large tree, on the Florida keys rarely exceeding 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 meter in
diameter.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, very durable, susceptible of
a high polish; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, rich reddish-brown, turning darker with age, the thin sap-
wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7282; ash, 1.09; varying greatly in quality in different regions; largely used and
preferred to all other woods for cabinet-making of all sorts, interior finish, etc.; formerly somewhat employed in
ship-building.



OLACINE E.



32.-Ximenia Americana, Linneus,

Spec. 1 ed. Appx. 1193.-Bartram,-Travels, 2 ed. 11,2.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 435, t. 297.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 338.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2
ed. ii, 352.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 533. -Nuttall, Sylva, i, 124, t. 36; 2 ed. i, 138, t. 36.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 223, f. 1-9, 30, 31.-
Cambessedes in St. Hilaire, Fl. Brasil. i, 341.-Wight & Walker-Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Or. i, 89.-Walpers, Rep. i, 377; Ann.
vi, 565.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 304.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1'58, 264.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 310.-Baillon,
Adansonia, ii, t. 9, f. 5, 6.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 61.-Engler in Martius, F1. Brasil. xii, 9, t. *2, f. 1.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees,
8.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 185.

Heymassoli spinosa, Aublet, Guian. i, 324, t. 125.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 435.

X. multiflora, Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 106, t. 177, f. 31.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 435, t. 297, f. 1, 2.-Spach, Hist. Veg. xiii, 264.

X. montana, Macfadyen, Fl. JamaiCa, i, 121,

WILD LIME. TALLOW NUT. HOG PLUM. MOUNTAIN PLUM.

Florida, east coast from the Saint John's river to the southern keys, west coast Caloosa river to Caximbas
bay; through the West Indies to Brazil, and on the coast of the Indian peninsula (introduced?, A. De Candolle,
Geog. Bot. ii, 1027).
A small, low, wide-spreading tree, rarely exceeding 4 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter,
or in pine-barren soil and toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub; common and reaching its greatest
development in Florida on the west coast.
Wood very heavy, tough, hard, close-grained, compact, containing numerous regularly-distributed open ducts;
inedullary rays few, thin; color, brown, tinged with red,'the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9196; ash, 0.73.
Hydrocyanic acid has been obtained from the edible plum-shaped fruit (Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia,
222).




ILICINE E.



33.-Ilex opaca, Aiton,

Hort. Kew. i, 169; 2 ed.i,277.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 708; Enum. 172; Berl. Baumz. 190.-Nouveau Duhamel, 1, 8.--Michaux, F]. Bor.-
Am. ii, 228.-Persoon, Syn. i, 151.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 191, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 122, t.
84.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 95; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. 94.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.-Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 111;
Med. Bot. ii, 7, t. 53.-Nattall, Genera, i, 109.-Rccmer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 487.-Link, Enum. 147.-James, Cat. 176; Long's Exped.
ii, 294.-Hayne, Dend. F. 10.-Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 173; Fl. U. S. 194; Compend. Fl. N. States, 87; Fl. N. York, ii,2.-
Elliott, Sk. ii, 679.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 3.-Beck, Bot. 230.-Eaton, Manual,
6 ed. 186.-London, Arboretum, ii, 516 & t.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 121; Jour. Bot. i, 201.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.-Bigelow,
Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 64.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 17.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 427.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 432.-Emerson,
Trees Massachusetts, 341; 2 ed. ii, 385 & t.-Browne, Trees of America, 167.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 426.-Darlington, Fl.
Cestrica, 3 ed. 17.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 253.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N.
Carolina, 1860, iii, 58.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373.-Wood, Cl. Book, 496; Bot, & Fl. 207.-Gray, Manual N.
States, 5ed. 306.-Young, Bot. Texas, 372.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.-Maximowicz in Mcm. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 29.--
Mellichamp in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, viii, 113.




Er


CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 35

I. aquifoliumt, Marshall, Arbustum, 63 [not Linnmus].-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 241.

I. Canadensis, Marshall, Arbustum, 64.

I. laxiflora, Lamarck, Diet. iii, 147; Ill. i, 355.-Pursh, F1. Am. Sept. i, 117.-- eemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 494; Mant. 334:-
De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 17.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 427.-Dietrich, Syn. i
555.-London, Arboretum, ii, 517.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 186.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.

I. quercifolia, Meerburgh, Icon. ii, t. 5.

Ageria Opaca, Ratinesque, Syl;a Telluriana, 47.

AMERICAN HOLLY.

Quincy, Massachusetts, southward, near the coast, to Mosquito inlet and Charlotte harbor, Florida, valley of
the Mississippi river, southern Indiana southward to the gulf of Mexico, and southwest through Missouri, Arkansas,
and eastern Texas to the valley of the Colorado river.
An evergreen tree, sometimes.15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or toward its
northern limits reduced to a shrub; generally in low, rather moist soil; most common and reaching its greatest
development in the rich bottoms of southern Arkansas and eastern Texas.
Wood light, soft, not strong, tough, rather hard, close-grained, very compact, easily worked; medullary rays
numerous, inconspicuous; color, nearly white, turning to light brown with exposure, the sap-wood still lighter;
specific gravity, 0.5818; ash, 0.76; used and admirably adapted for cabinet work, interior finish, and turnery of the
highest class.
A bitter principle (Ilicin), common to other species of the genus, has been oCained from the fruit of this tree
(Arn. Jour. Pharm. xxviii, 314.-U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1670.--Tat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 754).


34.-Ilex Dahoon, Walter,

Fl. Caroliniana, 241.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 228.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 109.-R(emer & Schultes, Syst.
iii, 489; Mant. 332.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 680.-Watson, Dend. Brit. ii, t. 114.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-
Audubon, Birds, t. 48.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 19.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.--Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 186.-Eaton & Wright,
Bot. 289.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.--Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 519.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 433.-Darby, Bot. S.
States, 426.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 58.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 207.-
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 306.-Vasey. Cat. Forest Trees, S.-Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 29.-
Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 755.

I. Cassie, Linumeus, Spec. 125, in part.-Marshall, Arbustum, 64.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 170,-in part; 2 ed. i, 279.-Lamarck,
Diet. iii, 147; Ill. i, 355.-Willdenow, Spec.i, 709; Enum. i, 172 ; Hort. Berol. i, t. 31.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 9.-
Persoon, Syn. 151.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 362.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.-Rcemer &
Schultes, Syst. iii, 490.-Hayne, Dend. FI. 10.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-Don, Miller's Diet.
ii, 17.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 544-London, Arboretum, ii, 517, f. 184.-Eaton & Wright, Bot.
282.--Gtppert in Del. Sem. Vratisl. 1885 (Lilnnoa, xxvi, 746).

I. Cassine, var. latifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew, 2 ed. i, 278.

I. cassinoides, Link, Enum. i, 148.-Rminer & Schultes, Syst. iii; Mant. 332,

I. laurifolia, Nuttall in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. v, 289.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 186.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 92'.

Ageria palustris, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 47.

Ageria oborata,' Rafincsque, Sylva Telluriana, 47.

Ageria heterophylla, REaincsque, Sylva Telluriana, 48.

DAHOON. DAHOON HOLLY.

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to Mosquito inlet and Tampa bay, Florida, west along- the Gulf,
coast to the prairie region of western Louisiana.
A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk from 0.20 to 0.30 meter in diameter; low, wet soil;.
not common, and running into numerous forms, of which the best marked are-
var. angustifolia, Torrcy & Gray, Fl. N. America, hied.
I. Cassine, var. angustifolia, Willdenow, Spec. i, 709.-Aiton, Hort. Kow, 2 ed. i, 278.-Nouvean Duhamel, i, 9, t. 3.

1. angustifolia, Willdenow, Enum, i, 172.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 118.--Nuttall, Genera, i. 109.-Ro-cmer & Schultes, Syst.
iii, 489.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Watson, Deud. Brit. i, t. 4.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 17.-
Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 201-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.-Loudou, Arboretum, ii, 517, f. 185.







36 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

I. ligustrina, Elliott, Sk. ii, 708 [not Jacquin].-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 429.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.-Eaton & Wright,
Bot. 282.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 123.
? I. Watsoniana, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 429.
var. myrtifolia (only in low cypress swamps and ponds), Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 755.
I. myrtifolia, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 214.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 10, t. 4.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 229.-Poiret, Suppl.
iii, 65.-Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 8.-Rcmer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 489.-Link, Enum. 148.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii,
429.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 426.-Gray, Manual N. States,
5 ed. 306.-Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 26.
I. rosmarifolia, Lamarck, Ill. i, 356.-Persoon, Syn. i, 151.-Poiret, Suppl. iif, 65.

I. ligustrifolia, Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 19.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.-Wood, Cl. Book, 497; Bot. & FI. 207.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4806; ash, 0.91; that of var. myrtifolia heavier, nearly white; specific
gravity, 0.5873; ash, 0.90.

35.-Ilex Cassine, Walter,
Fl. Caroliniana, 241.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 170, in part.-James, Cat. 176; Long's Exped. ii, 294.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.-Eaton,
Manual, 6 ed. 186.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 59.-Lesquereux in
Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 208.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 306.-Young, Bot. Texas, 373.-Maximowicz
in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 22.
I. Cassine, p. Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 125.
Cassine Peragna, Linnaus, Mant. ii, 220.-Marshall, Arbustum, 26.-Plenck, Icon. t. 239.
Cassine Caroliniana, Lamarck, Dict. i, 652
I. vomitoria, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 170; 2 ed. i, 278.-Salisbury, Prodr. 70.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 709.-Enum. Suppl. 8.-
B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 36, 56.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 10.-Persoon, Syn. i, 151.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 362.-
Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 41.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 118.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 109.-Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 491;
Mant. 333.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.-Torrey in Ann. Lyc. N. York, ii, 173.-Don, Miller's
Diet. ii, 17.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 430.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 393.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 555.-
Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 518, f. 186.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 433.-
Browne, Trees of America, 169.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 544.
I. ligustrina, Jacquin, Coll. iv, 105; Icon. Rar. ii, 9, t. 310 [not Elliott].-Lamarck, Ill. i, 356.

I. Floridana, Lamarck, I11. i, 356.

I. Cassena, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 229.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65.-Remer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 490.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 681.-
Darby, Bot. S. States 426.-Wood, C1. Book, 497.
I. religiosa, Bartou, Fl. Virginica, 66.

Cassine ramulosa, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviniana, 363.

H:. ,l ,,l'ri Cassine, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 8.
Emetila ramulosa, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 45.

Ageric, Cassena, Rafinesque, Sylva Tolluriana, 47.

Ageria geminate, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 48.


CASSENA. YAUPON. YOPON.
Southern Virginia, southward, near the coast, to the Saint John's river and Cedar Keys, Florida, west along
the Gulf coast to southern Arkansas, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a shrub, sending
up many slender stems and forming dense thickets; sandy, moist soil, along ponds and streams, reaching its
greatest development in the river bottoms of eastern Texas.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in drying; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color,
nearly white, becoming yellow with exposure, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7270; ash, 0.87.
The leaves possess powerful emetic properties, and were employed by the southern Indians, together perhaps
with those of I. Dahoon, in the preparation of their "black drink" (Am. Jour. Pharm. xliv, 217.-U. 8. Dispensatory,
14 ed. 1670.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 754).




U---- -~~-- --


CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 37


36.-Ilex decidua, Walter,
Fl. Caroliniana, 241.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 59.-
Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373.-Wood, Cl. Book, 497; Bot. & Fl. 208.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 306.-Young,
Bot. Texas, 373.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.-Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 30.-Watson in Proc.
Am. Acad. xvii, 335.

I. prinoides, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 169; 2 ed. i, 278.-Lamarck, 111. i, 355.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 709.-Nouveau Duhamel, i,
1l.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am., ii, 229.-Persoon, Syn. i, 151.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 362.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,
118.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 109.-Roamer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 488; Mant. 332.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 15. -Sprengel,
Syst. i, 495.-Audubon, Birds, t. 89.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 426.
I. cestivalis, Lamarck, Diet. iii, 147; Ill. i, 356.

Prinos deciduus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 16.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 20.-Hooker, Jour.Bot.i, 202.-London, Arboretum,
ii, 520.
I. ambiguous, Elliott, Sk. ii, 705.

Southern Virginia, southward, through the middle districts, to western Florida, valley of the Mississippi
river, southern Illinois southward to the Gulf of Mexico, and through southeastern Missouri, Arkansas, and eastern
Texas to the valley of the Colorado river.
A small tree, 8 to 9 meters in height, with a. trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states a
tall, straggling shrub; low, wet woods along streams, reaching its greatest development in the Iron Mountain
region of Missouri and in southern Arkansas.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, creamy-white, the sap-wood
lighter; specific gravity, 0.7420; ash, 0.70.






CYRILLACE E.



37.-Cyrilla racemiflora, Linnmus,
Mant. i, 50; Syst. 14 ed. 241.-Jacquin, Icon. Rar. t. 47; Coll. i, 162.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 103.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 245; Ill. ii,
144, t. 147, f. 2.-Nouveau Duhamel, i, 215, t. 46.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 255.-Elliott, Sk. i, 294.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 119.-
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 218.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 256.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 96, t. 74; 2 ed. ii, 43, t. 74.-Planchon in
Hooker's Jour. Bot. v, 254.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 240, f. 1-4, 6, 17, 19, 21.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 417.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep.
1858,253.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 272.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 105.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests,
130.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 540 & f.-Baillon, Adansonia, i, 203, t. 4.-Wood, C1. Book, 493; Bot. & Fl. 205.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 18.
Andromeda plumata, Bartram, Cat.-Marshall, Arbustum, 9.

C. Caroliniana, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 158.--Gartner, f. Fruct. Suppl. 147, t. 209, f. 8.-Persoon, Syn. i, 175.-Pursh, Fl.
Am. Sept. i, 170.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 145.-Poiret, Suppl. ii, 436.-Rcmer & Schultes, Syst. v, 408.-Bot. Mag. t. 2456.-
Walpers, Rep.vi, 421.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 805.
Itea Cyrilla, L'Heritier, Stirp. i, 137, t. 66.-Swartz, Prodr. 50; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 506; Obs. 94, t. 4.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1146.-
Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 37.
C. racemosa, London, Arboretum, iv, 2577, f. 2503.

C.polystachia, C. parvifolia, C.fuscata, Rafinesque, Aulikon Botanikon, 8.


IRON WOOD.
North Carolina southward, near the coast, to middle Florida (latitude 300), westward, along the Gulf coast,
to the valley of the Pearl river, Mississippi.
A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a tall
shrub, sending up many stems from the root; open swamps and low thickets; a variety (Chapman, Curtiss) with
narrower, persistent leaves, and thicker spongy bark, in pond holes and wet depressions of the pine barrens of the
Apalachicola region, of western Florida, forms dense, impenetrable thickets.
Wood heavy, weak, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays thin, not conspicuous; color, brown tinged
with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.6784; ash, 0.42.







38 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


38.-Cliftonia ligustrina, Banks,
Ex. Gnrtner f. Fruct. Suppl. 246, t. 225.-Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 31.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 256.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii,
92, t. 73; 2 ed. ii, 39, t. 73.-Planchon in Hooker's Jour. Bot. v, 255.-Walpers, Rep. vi, 422.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1412.-Schnizlein.
Icon. t. 240xx, f. 5, 7-10, 20.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 273.-Porcher, Resources S.
Forests, 130.-Baillon in Adansonia, i, 202, t. 4, f. 3-6.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18.
Mylocaryum ligustrinum, Willdenow, Enum. i, 454.-Bot. Mag. t. 1625.-Lamarck, Ill. iii, 616, t. 952, f. 1.-Pursh, Fl.
Am. Sept. i, 302, t. 14.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 41.-Elliott, Sk. i, 508.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 231.-Eaton & Wright, Bot.
323.-Darby, Fl. S. States, 417.-Wood, Cl. Book, 493; Bot. & Fl. 205.

TITI. IRON WOOD. BUCKWHEAT TREE.
Valley of the Savannah river, Georgia, southward to the Chattahoochee region of west Florida, westward along
the Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl river, Louisiana.
A small tree, sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 meter in diameter, or toward its southern
limits in Florida reduced to a shrub; margins of pine-barren ponds and streams.
Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown tinged
with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6249; ash, 0.42; largely used as fuel, burning with a clear flame.






CELASTRACE E.



39.-Euonymus atropurpureus, Jacquin,
Hort. Vind. ii, 155, t. 120.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 573; 11. ii, 98.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 274; 2 ed. ii, 29.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1132; Enum. i,
256.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 155.-Persoon, Syn. i, 243.-Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 26.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 356.-Pursh, Fl.
Am. Sept. i, 168. -Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. xvii, 532, t. 272.-Eaton, Manual, 28; 6 ed. 140.-Nuttall, Genera, 155.--Ramer & Schultes,
Syst. v, 466.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 24.-Elliott, Sk. i, 293.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 4.-Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 173; Fl. U. S.
261; Compend. Fl. N. States, 120; Fl. N. York, i, 141; Nicollet's Rep. 147.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 788.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 5.-
Beck, Bot. 72.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 201.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 405.-Rafinesque, New Fl. 60.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 499, f. 167.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 257.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 819.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 240.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 219, f. 112.-Gray,
Genera, ii, 188; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 116.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Darby, Bot. S. States,
268.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 48.-Baillon in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, v, 314.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 76.-Curtis in Rep.
Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 102.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 289; Bot. & Fl. 76.-
Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 129.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 629.-Young,
Bet. Texas, 205.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.
B. Carolinensis, Marshall, Arbustum, 43.
E. latifolius, Marshall, Arbustum, 44 [not Aiton].-Agardh, Theor. & Syst. P1. t. 22, f. 4.

BURNING BUSH. WAHOO. SPINDLE TREE. ARROW WOOD.
Western New York, west to the valley of the upper Missouri river (Fort Union), Montana, southward to northern
Florida, southern Arkansas, and eastern Kansas.
A small tree, rarely 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a shrub 2 to 3
meters in height; low, rich woods, reaching its greatest development west of the Mississippi river.
Wood heavy, very close-grained, liable to check badly in seasoning; medullary rays hardly discernible; color,
white tinged with orange; specific gravity, 0.6592; ash, 0.58.
Wahoo bark, a mild but rather uncertain purgative, is used by herbalists in the form of decoctions, tinctures,
fluid extracts, etc. (Am. Jour. Pharmacy, xx, 80.- U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 402.-- at. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 559).

40.-Myginda pallens, Smith,
Rees' Cycl. xxv, No. 4.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 13.--Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 146.-Chapman in
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 3; Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612.
Semi-tropical Florida, Upper Metacombe Key; in the West Indies.
A small tree, rarely exceeding 4 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter.
Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny; layers of annual growth and numerous medullary
rays hardly distinguishable; color, dark brown or nearly black, the thick sap-wood lighter brown tinged with red;
specific gravity, 0.9048; ash, 3.42.







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 39


41.-Schmefferia frutescens, Jacquin,

Stirp. Am. 259.-Gortner f. Fruct. Suppl. 249, t. 225, f. 7.-Lamarek, Ill. iii, 402, t. 809.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vi, 727.-De
Candolle, Prodr. ii, 41.-Karsten, Fl. Columbim, i, t. 91.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 76.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 146.-
Walpers, Ann. vii, 581.
S. complete, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 327, t. 7, f. A.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 741.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 371.-Macfadyen,
Fl. Jamaica, 207.
S. buxifolia, Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 42, t. 56; 2 ed. i, 190, t. 56.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.

YELLOW WOOD. BOX WOOD.

Semi-tropical Florida, southern keys from Metacombe Key eastward, Caloosa river and sparingly on the
'Reef Keys; in the West Indies.
A small tree, occasionally 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, generally hollow
and defective.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish; medullary rays numerous, obscure;
color, light bright yellow, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.7745; ash, 2.54.






RHAMNACEE.



42.-Reynosia latifolia, Grisebach,

Cat. P1. Cuba, 34.-Eggers, Videnskab,Medd. fra. Nat. For. 173 & t.; Bull. U. S.Nat. Mus. xiii, 40.-Gray in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iv,
208.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612.
?Rhamnus Icevigatus, Vahl, Symbols, iii, 41.
Ceanothus Icevigatus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 30.
Scutia ferrea, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 72 [not Brongniart].
SRhlamindium revolutum, Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612.

RED IRON WOOD. DARLING PLUM.J

Semi-tropical Florida, Miami (Garber), bay Biscayne, and on the southern keys (Curtiss); in the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich
-dark brown, the sap-wood light brown; specific gravity, 1.0715; ash, 3.20.
The edible fruit, ripening in April and May, of agreeable flavor.

43.-Condalia ferrea, Grisebach,

Fl. British West Indies, 100.-Walpers, Ann. vii, 588.-Gray in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iv, 208.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612.
Rhamnus ferrea, Vahl, Symbolm, iii, 41, t. 58.
Zisyphus emarginatus, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. iii, 1954.

Ceanothus ferreus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 30.
Scutiaferrea, Brongniart in Ann. Sci. Nat. 1 ser. x, 363 [not Chapman, Fl. S. States, 72].-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.

BLACK IRON WOOD.

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to bay Biscayne, on the southern keys; in the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 11 meters in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.38 meter in diameter, generally hollow and
defective; common.
Wood exceedingly heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, difficult to work: remarkable for
the large percentage of ash; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, rich orange-brown, the sap-wood lighter;
specific gravity, 1.3020; ash, 8.31.






40 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


44.-Condalia obovata, Hooker,
Icon. t. 287.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. i, 685.-Gray'in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 169; Genera, ii, 172, t. 164; Smithsonian Contrib. iii,
32; v, 27; Hall's Pl. Texas, 5.-Torrey, Bet. Mex. Boundary Survey, 47.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 336.


BLUE WOOD. LOGWOOD. PURPLE HAW.
Eastern and southwestern Texas, westward through southern New Mexico to southern Arizona; probably
extending into northern Mexico.
A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a shrub; reaching
its greatest development along the streams of eastern Texas; one of the common "chaparral" plants of western
Texas, here forming dense, impenetrable thickets.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in seasoning, containing many groups of large
irregularly-arranged open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light red, the sap-wood light yellow;
specific gravity, 1.1999; ash, 7.03.

45.-Rhamnus Caroliniana, Walter,
Fl. Caroliniana, 101.-Lamarck, Iii. ii, 88; Dict. iv, 476.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 153.-Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 47.-Persoon. Syn.
i, 239.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 166.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 153.-REemer & Schultes, Syst. v, 285.-Elliott, Sk. i, 289.-De Candolle,
Prodr. ii, 26.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 768.-Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 174.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 32.-Hooker, Jour. Bet. i,
202.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 262.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 807.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 537.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 300.-Eaton
& Wright, Bet. 390.-Scheele in R(Bmer, Texas, 432.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 50, t. 59; 2 ed. i, 198, t. 59.-Darby, Bet. S. States, 269.-
Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 219; Bet. & Fl. 77.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 610.-Gray, Hall's
P1. Texas, 5.

? Frangula fragillis, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 320; Sylva Telluriana, 27.

Sarcomphalus Carolinianus, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 29.

Frangula Caroliniana, Gray, Genera, ii, 178, t. 167; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 115.-Torrey, Bet. Mex. Boundary S-urvey,
46.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 92.-Chapman,
Fl. S. States, 73.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.

INDIAN CHERRY.
Long Island, New York, west along the valley of the Ohio river to southern Illinois, Missouri south of the
Meramec river, eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory, south to northern Florida (latitude 300), and througL
the Gulf states to western Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states
generally a tall shrub; rich woods along streams and river bottoms, reaching its greatest development in southern
Arkansas and eastern Texas.
Wood light, hard, not strong, coarse-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown,
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5462; ash, 0.64.
The edible fruit sweet and agreeable.


46.-Rhamnus Californica, Eschscholtz,
Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, x, 281 (Linnwa Litt.-Ber. 1828, 149.-Presi, Rep. Bet. i, 197).-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 3.--Torrey & Gray,
Fl. N. America, i, 263.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 806.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 390.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 101.-Hemsley,
Bet. Am.-Cent. i, 197.

R. oleifolius, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 123, t. 44.-Hooker & Arnott, Bet. Beechey, 136, 328.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.
America, i, 260.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 390.-Bentham, Bet. Sulphur, 10; PI. Hartweg. 302.-Durand in Jour.
Philadelphia Acad. 1855, 85.-Carribre in Rev. Hort. xlvi, 354, f. 47-49.

Endotropis oleifolia, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 31.

R. laurifolius, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 260.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 390.

Frangula Californica, Gray, Genera, ii, 178; Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 146.-Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 157
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 74; Bet. Mex. Boundary Survey, 46; Bet. Wilkes Exped. 261.-Newberry in Pacific R. R.
Rep. vi, 69.-Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 78.

California, west of the Sierra Nevadas, from the valley of the upper Sacramento river southward to Santa
Barbara and fort Tejon.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 4\
K ---
A small tree, rarely 7 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.37 meter in diameter (Pringle), or commonly
a shrub, along the sea-coast and at high elevations often prostrate; common and reaching its greatest development
in the valleys of the Santa Cruz mountains. A low shrubby form, densely white tomentose, especially on the-
under side of the leaves, of southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico, is-
var. tomentella, Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 101.
R. tomentellus, Bentham, P1. Hartweg. 303.-Seemann, Bot. Herald, 275.-Walpers, Ann. ii, 267.
Frangula Californica, var. tomentella, Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. vi, 28.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 74; vii, 9.
Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, checking in drying; layers of annual growth marked by many rows of
open ducts; medullary rays narrow, obscure; color, brown or light yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity,
0.6000; ash, 0.58.
47.-Rhamnus Purshiana, De Candolle,

Prodr. ii, 25.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 538, f. 211.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 123, t. 43; London Jour. Bot. vi, 78.-Don, Miller's Dict.
ii, 32.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 262.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 807.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 52; 2 ed. i, 200.-Richardson, Arctic-
Exped. 423.-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 69.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 610.-Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 379.-Brewer &
Watson, Bot. California, i, 101.-Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 86.
R. alnifolius, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 166 [not L'Heritier].
Cardioliepis obtusa, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 28.
Frangula Purshiana, Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 29, 57.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees,
9.-Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 262.

BEAEBERRY. BEAR WOOD. SHITTIM WOOD.

Puget sound, east along the mountain ranges of northern Washington territory to the Bitter Root mountain,
Idaho (Mullan pass, Watson), and the shores of Flathead lake, Montana (Canby & Sargent), southward through
western Washington territory, Oregon, and California, west of the Sierra Nevada, to about latitude 400.
A small tree, often 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; depressions and along
the sides and bottoms of calions in the coniferous forests, reaching its greatest development along the western slope
of the Coast Range of southern Oregon.
Wood light, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light
brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood somewhat lighter; specific gravity, 0.5672; ash, 0.67.
The bark, like that of other species of the genus, possesses powerful cathartic properties, and, under the name
of Cascara sagrada, has recently been introduced by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts, tinctures, etc.,
immense quantities being gathered for this purpose in the Oregon forests (Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 659).

48.-Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, Eschscholtz,
Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, x, 285.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 125.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 37.-Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 136,
328.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 266.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 813.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 540.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 185.-
Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxx, t. 38.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 44, t. 57; 2 ed. i, 193, t. 57.-Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 10; PI. Hartweg. 302.-Anun.
Gand. 1847, t. 107.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 14; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 45; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 263.-Newberry in.
Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 69.-Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 57.--Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 78.-Koch, Dendrologic, i,.
621.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. x, 334.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 102.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.

BLUE MYRTLE.
California Coast ranges, from Mendicino county south to the valley of the San Louis Rey river (Pala, Parish,
Brothers).
A small tree, 8 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or toward the southern
limits reduced to a low shrub; common and reaching its greatest development in the Sequoia forests near Santa
Cruz.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very obscure; color, light brown, the sap-wood
darker; specific gravity, 0.5750; ash, 0.69.
The bark of the root may be expected to possess similar astringent properties to that of the shrubby 0.
Americana, used with advantage in cases of diarrhea and dysentery, and as a domestic remedy in throat troubles
(U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1609.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 373).

49.-Colubrina reclinata, Brongniart,
Ann. Sci. Nat. 1 ser. x, 369.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 359.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 101.-Eggers in Ball. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 40.
R hamnus ellipticus, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 265; 2 ed. ii, 17.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1098.-Swartz, Prodr. 50; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 497.
Zizyph's Dominigensis, Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 56.
Ceanothus reclinatus, L'Heritier, Sert. 6.--Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. v, 2?8.-De ( .::l.l.- Prodr. ii, 31.-Macfadyen, EL
Jamaica, 211.






'42 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.
/
'' NAKED WOOD.

Semi-tropical Florida, Umbrella Key, on the north end of Key Largo, and sparingly on the small islands south
of Elliott's Key; through the West Indies.
One of the largest trees of the region, deciduous, 12 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.25 meter in
diameter; reaching its greatest development within the United States on Umbrella Key, here forming a dense
forest.
Wood heavy, hard, very strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish, containing
many small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood light
yellow; specific gravity, 0.8208; ash, 1.75.
"The trunk attains a size of over 1 meter and is most extraordinary. When 0.152 meter thick it becomes
furrowed, and the furrows and ridges multiply and extend in all directions; trunks 0.75 to 1 meter in diameter
appear like a mass of braided serpents. On small trunks the bark breaks up into flakes which curl up and drop
off. Between the ridges where the bark persists the edges of dozens of papery layers may be seen" (Gurtiss in let).





SAPINDACEE.



50.-_ZEsculus glabra, Willdenow,
Enum. 405.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 255.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 241.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 384; Compend. Fl.
N. States, 164.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 28, t. 24.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 44.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 166.-Don, Miller's Dict.
i, 652.-Beck, Bot. 65.-London, Arboretum, i, 467, f. 133.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 251.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1225.--Eaton
& Wright, Bot. 115.-Walpers, Rep. i, 424.-Gray, Genera, ii, 207, t. 176,177; Manuel N. States, 5 ed. 118.-Cooper in Smithsonian
Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 79.-Wood, Cl. Book, 288; Bot. & Fl. 85.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser.
xii, 187.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 508.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 61.
3A. pallida, Willdenow, Enum. 406.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb.
Holz. 29, t. 25.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 166.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 650.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 6.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiv,
t. 51.-London, Arboretum, i, 468, f. 134.
E. echinata, Muhlenberg, Cat. 38.

A. Ohioensis, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 242; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 156, t. 92.-Poiret, Suppl. iii, 593.-De
Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 652.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 6.-Riddell, Syn. Fl. W. States, 34.-Lindley,
Bot. Reg. xxiv, 51, t. 51.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 71; 2 ed. ii, 17.
? A. carnea, Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 25, t. 22.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 43.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. xiii, t. 1056.-Watson,
Dend. Brit. ii, t. 121.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 652.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 253.-Walpers, Rep. i, 425.
Pavia glabra, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.
Pavia pallida, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.
? Pavia carnea, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.-Don in Sweet's Brit. Fl. Gard. 2 ser. t. 301.

? Pavia Watsoniana, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 253.

? A. Watsoniana, Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1225.-Walpers, Rep. i, 425.

X. Hippocastanum, var. OhioensiS, London, Arboretum, i, 467.-Browne, Trees of America, 110.
31. Hippocastanum, var. glabra, Loudon, Arboretum, i, 467.-Browne, Trees of America, 111.
A~. Hippocastanum, var. pallida, Loudon, Arboretum, i, 468.-Browne, Trees of America, 111.

OHIO BUCKEYE. PETID BUCKEYE.
Western slopes of the Alleghany mountains, Pennsylvania to northern Alabama, westward through southern
Michigan (rare) to southern Iowa, eastern Kansas to about longitude 970 west, and the Indian territory.
A small tree, 8 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter; rich soil along streams and
river bottoms, reaching its greatest development in the high valleys of the southern Alleghany mountains.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, difficult to split, often blemished by dark lines of decay;
4iedullary rays obscure; color, white, the sap-wood darker; specific gravity, 0.4542; ash, 0.86; largely used in








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 43

,common with that of the other species of the genus in the manufacture of woodenware, artificial limbs (for which
the wood of A3sculus is preferred to that of all other American trees), paper-pulp, wooden hats, less commonly for
the bearings of shafting and machinery, and occasionally manufactured into lumber.
The bark of the allied old world species 3. Hlippocastanum occasionally has been found efficacious as a substitute
for cinchona bark in the treatment of intermittent fevers (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1565.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed.
712), and similar properties may be looked for in the bark of' 3. glabira.

51.--Esculus flava, Aiton,

Hort. Kew. i, 494; 2 ed. ii, 335.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 13; Bot. Appx. 26, t. 15, f. 2.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 286; Enum. i, 405; Berl. Baumz.
13.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 385.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 255.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.-James in Long's Exped. i, 22.-Guimpel,
Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 27, t. 23.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 44.-Elliott, Sk. i, 436.-Watson, Dend. Brit. ii, t. 163.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab.
t. 1280.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 252.-Dictrich, Syn. ii, 1225.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 7.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 116.-
Walpers, Rep. i, 424.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 266.-Torrey in Pacific R. R.-Rep. iv, 74.-Browno, Trees of America, 118.-Schnizlein,
Icon. t. 230xx, f. 3.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 80.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina,
1860, iii, 48.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 288; Bot. & Fl. 75.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 118.-
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.
3S. octandra, Marshall, Arbustum, 4.-Miller's Diet. No. 1.

Pavia flava, Moench, Meth. 66.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 598.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 653.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser.ii,
55; Hist. Veg. iii, 25.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 471 & t.
.3. lutea, Wangenheim in Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, viii, 133, t. 6.--ichaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 219.-Persoon, Syn.
i, 403.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 509.
Pavia lutea, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 94.-Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 155, t. 38.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 237, t. 11;
N. Amrican Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 153, t. 91.
3.. neglect, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xii, t. 1009.
Pavia neglect, Don, Miller's Diet. i, 653.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 55; Hist. Veg. iii, 24.-London, Arboretum, i. 472,
SWEET BUCKEYE,

Allegheny county, Pennsylvania (T. C. Porter), southward along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia
(Augusta) and Alabama, west along the valley of the Ohio river to southern Iowa, the Indian territory, and the
valley of the Brazos river, eastern Texas.
A tree 18 to 28 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or toward its southwestern limits
reduced to a shrub; rich woods and along streams, reaching its greatest development on the slopes of the Alleghany
:mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.
A variety with purple or flesh-colored flowers, the leaflets pubescent beneath, is-
var. purpurascens, Gray; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 118.
,3. hybrida, De Candolle, Hort. Monsp. 1813, 75.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 334.
3a. discolor, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 255.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.-Bot. Reg. iv, t. 310.-Elliott, Sk. i, 436.-Sprengel,
Syst. ii, 167,-Sertum Botanicum, iv & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 116.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 381.
Pavia discolor, Poiret, Suppl. v, 769.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 653.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 7.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser.
ii, 57; Hist. Veg. iii, 28.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 472.
Pavia hybrida, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 598.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 653.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 6.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat.
2 ser. ii, 56; Hist. Veg. iii, 27.-Loudon, Arboretum, i. 472.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 116.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 512.
X. Pavia, var. discolor, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 252.-Walpers, Rep. i, 424.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat.
Hist. vi, 167.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, difficult to split; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, creamy-
white, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4274; ash, 1.00.

52.-.Esculus Californica, Nuttall;

Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 251; Sylva, ii, 69, t. 64; 2 ed. ii, 16, t. 64.-Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 327.-Dietrich, Syn. ii,
1225.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 116.-Walpers, Rep. i, 424.-Benthaim, Bot. Sulphur, 91 PI. Hartweg. 301.-Durand in Jour.
Philadelphia Acad. 1855, 85.-Rev. Hort. iv, 150, f. 10, 11.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 74: Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 48;
Bot. Wilkes Expcd. 260.-Noewberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 20, 69, f. 1.-Bot. Mag. t. 5077.-F1. des Serres, xiii, 39, t. 1312.-
London Gard. Chronicle, 1858, 844.-Beige, Hort. is, 121 & t.-Gray in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist. vii, 146.-Bolander in Proc.
California Acad. iii, 78.-Walpers, Ann. 624.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 513.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California. i, 106.-Vasey.
Cat. Forest Trees, 9.
Calothyrsus Clliforn ica, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 62; Hist. Veg. iii, 35.
Pavia Cili I,;I.l, Hartweg in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, ii, 123.-Carribre in Rev. Hort. 1862, 369 & f.








44 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE.

California, Valley of the upper Sacramento river and Mendocino county, southward along the Coast ranges to-
San Luis Obispo, and along the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino mountains.
A low, widely-branching tree, 8 to 12 meters in height, with a short trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter, often
greatly expanded at the base, or more often a much-branched shrub 3 to 5 meters in height; borders of streams,
reaching its greatest development in the canons of the Coast Range, north of San Francisco bay.
Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, white
slightly tinged with yellow, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4980; ash, 0.70.


53.-Ungnadia speciosa, Endlicher,

Atacta Bot. t. 36; Nov. Stirp. Desc. ix, 75.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 684; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 162.-Walpers, Rep. i, 423-; v,
371; Ann. vii, 625.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 167; Genera, ii, 211, t. 178, 179; Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 38; v, 30;
Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 299; Hall's Pl. Texas, 5.-Fl. des Serres, x, 217, t. 1059.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 48.-
Schnizlein, Icon. t. 230, f. 2, 8.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 515.-Baillon, Hist. Pl. v, 423.-
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 337.
U. heterophylla, Scheele in Linnma, xxi, 589; Rcemer, Texas, 589.
U. heptaphylla, Scheele in Linnea, xxii, 352; Rcemer, Texas, 432.

SPANISH BUCKEYE.

Valley of the Trinity river (Dallas, Reverchon) through western Texas to the caions of the Organ mountains,
New Mexico (Bigelow); southward into Mexico.
A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or toward its
eastern and western limits reduced to a low shrub; common west of the Colorado river; bottoms and rich
hillsides, reaching its greatest development in the valley of the Guadalupe river, between New Braunfels and
the coast.
Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing numerous, evenly-distributed open
ducts; medullary rays numerous, inconspicuous; color, red tinged with brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific
gravity, 0.6332; ash, 1.17.
Fruit reputed poisonous.

54.-Sapindus marginatus, Willdenow,

Enum. i, 432.-Muhlenberg, Cat. 41.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 607.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 250.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 665.-Spach, Hist..
Veg. iii, 54.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 255, 685; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 162.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 323.-Eaton &
Wright, Bot. 411.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 72, t. 65; 2 ed. ii, 19, t. 65.-Leavenworth in Am. Jour. Sci. i, 49, 130.-Engelmann & Gray
in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. v, 241.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 169; Genera, ii, 214, t. 180; Smithsonian.
Contrib. iii, 38; Hall's Pl. Texas, 5.-Engelmann in Wislizenus' Rep. 12.-Torrey in Emory's Rep. 138; Marcy's Rep. 282;
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 2, 74; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 47.-Scheele in Riemer, Texas, 433.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 230, f. 22.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 79.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 288; Bot. & Fl. 75.-Porcher,
Resources S. Forests, 85.-Young, Bot. Texas, 208.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 214.-Watson in Proc.
Am. Acad. xvii, 337.
S. saponaria, Lamarck, Ill. ii, 441, t. 307 [not Linneus].-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 242.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vi,.
663, in part.-Persoon, Syn. i, 444.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 274.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 257.-Elliott, Sk. i, 460.-Torrey
in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 172.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 267.
?S. inccqualis, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 608. V

S. falcatus, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 261.
S. acuminata, Rafinesque, New Fl. 22.
S. Drummondi, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 281 (excl. var.).-Walpers, Rep. i, 417.

WILD CHINA. SOAPBERRY.
Atlantic coast, Savannah river to the Saint John's river, Florida, and on Cedar Keys; southern Arkansas,
valley of the Washita river (Prescott, Letterman) through western Louisiana and Texas to the mountain valleys of
southern New Mexico and Arizona; southward into Mexico, and in the West Indies (? S. incequalis).
A tree, sometimes 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 meter in diameter; west of the Colorado
river much smaller, rarely 9 meters in height; along streams or toward the western limits of its distribution only
in mountain valleys, reaching its greatest development along the river bottoms of eastern Texas.


II~--


L ,i







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 45

Wood heavy, strong, hard, close-grained, compact, easily split into thin strips; layers of annual growth clearly
marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays thin, obscure; color, light brown tinged with yellow,
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.8126; ash, 1.50; largely used in Texas in the manufacture of cotton-baskets,
and in New Mexico for the frames of pack-saddles.
Saponin, common in several species of the genus, and affording a substitute for soap, may be looked for in the
fruit and roots of this tree.

55.-Sapindus Saponaria, Linnauus,
Spec. I ed. 367; Swartz, Obs. 152.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 441, t. 307.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 468.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 424.-Titford,
Hort. Bot. Am. 61.-Poiret in Lamarck, Dict. vi, 663.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, iv, 121, t. 261.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 607.-
Spach. Hist. Veg. iii, 53.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 323.-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 159.-Rafinesque, New Fl. 22.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii,
72; 2 ed. 20.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 280.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 126.-Baillon, Hist. P1. v, 349, f. 353.-Vasey, Cat.
Forest Trees, 10.-Chapman in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 3; Fl. S. States, Suppl. 613.


SOAPBERRY.
Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne, cape Sable, Caximbas bay, Thousand Islands, Key Largo, Elliott's Key;
in the West Indies.
A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.38 meter in diameter; common on cape Sable,
and reaching its greatest development within the United States on the Thousand Islands and along the shores of
Caximbas bay.
Wood heavy, rather lard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown tinged
with yellow, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.8367; ash, 4.34.
The fruit and roots rich in saponin and used in the West Indies as a substitute for soap (Guibourt, Hist. Drogues,
7 ed. iii, 598.-U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1751); the round, black seeds for beads, buttons, and small ornaments.


56.-Hypelate paniculata, Cambe-sedes,
Mem. Mus. xviii, 32.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 671.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 295.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 127.-Chapman, Fl. S.
States, 79.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.

Melicocca paniculata, Jussieu in Mem. Mus. iii, 187, t. 5.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 615.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 74, t. 66; 2 ed.
ii, 21, t. 66.

Exothea oblongifolia, Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 232.

H. oblongifolia, Hooker in London Jour. Bot. iii, 226, t. 7.


INK WOOD. IRON WOOD.
Semi-tropical Florida, east coast, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys; in the West Indies.
A tree often 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 meter in diameter.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, susceptible of a good polish, checking in drying;
medullary rays obscure; color, bright reddish-brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9533; ash, 1.25;
used in ship-building, for the handles of tools, and piles; resisting the attacks of the teredo.


57.-Hypelate trifoliata, Swartz,
Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 655, t. 14.-Delessert, Icon. iii, t. 39.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 614.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 78.-Grisebach, FL
British West Indies, 127; Cat. P1. Cuba, 46.


WHITE IRON WOOD.
Semi-tropical Florida, Upper Metacombe and Umbrella Keys: in the West Ind ies.
A tree sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 meter in diameter.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a fine polish, durable in contact with the soil;
medullary rays thin, obscure; color, rich light brown, the sap-wood darker; specific gravity, 0.9102; ash, 1.38;
used in ship-building, for the handles of tools, posts, etc.


~








46 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

58.-Acer Pennsylvanicum, Linnaeus,

Spec. 1 ed. 1055.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 435.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 252.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 989; Enum. i, 1045.-Desfontaines,
Hist. Arb. i, 391.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 32.-Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 11.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 210.-Elliott, Sk. i, 451.-Torrey, Fl. U.
S. 397; Compend. Fl. N. States, 170; Fl. N. York, i, 135.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 224.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.
Ami.rica, i, 24(i.-looker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, ll1.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 496; 2 ed. ii, 566 & t.-Gray, Genera, ii, 200, t. 174,
f. 1-3; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 80.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Sury. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 52.-Buchenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 285, t.
2, f. 24.-Wood. Cl. Book, 2S6; Bot. & Fl. 74.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 521.-Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 373, f. 418-420.-Vasey, Cat. Forest
Trees, 10.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii) 175.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 53c.

A. Canadense, Marshall, Arbustum, 4.

A. striatumn. Du Roi, Diss. 58; Harbk. i, 8, t. 1.-Wangenheim, Amer. 29, t. 12, f. 2.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 381.-Ehrhart, Beitr
iv. 25.-M(ench, Meth. 56.-Persoon, Syn. i 417.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 242, t.17; N. American Sylva, 3 ed.
ii, 175, t. 47.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 267.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 258.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 593.-Watson, Dend. Brit.
i, t. 70.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 648.-Beck, Bot. 64.-London, Arboretum, i, 407 & t.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 85; Ann.
Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 162.-Dietrich, Syn. 1281.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 407.-Browne,
Trees of America, 76.


STRIPED MAPLE. MOOSE WOOD. STRIPED DOGWOOD. GOOSE-FOOT MAPLE. WHISTLE WOOD.

Valley of the Saint Lawrence river (Ha-Ha bay), northern shores of lake Ontario, islands of lake Huron,
south through the northern Atlantic states, and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia, west through
the lake region to northeastern Minnesota.
A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; cool ravines and mountain
sides.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-
wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5299; ash, 0.36.


59.-Acer spicatum, Lamarck,
Diet. ii, 381.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 485.-Persoon, Syn. i, 417.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 593.-Don, -Miller's Diet. i, 648.-Audubon,.
Birds, t. 134.-Penn. Cycl. i, 77.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Beck, Bot. 64.-Spach, Hist. Veg. 87; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 163.-
Loudon, Arboretum, i, 406, t. 26.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 246.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1281.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-
Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 185.-Browne, Trees of America, 74.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 497; 2 ed. ii, 567 & t.-Parry in
Owen's Rep. 610.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, SO.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860,
iii, 52.-Wood, Cl. Book, 287; Bot. & Fl. 74.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 522.-Macoun in Geological
Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 192.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 175.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.-Nicholson in
London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 172.

A. Pennsylvanicum, Du Roi, Diss. 61; Harbk. i, 22, t. 1 [not Linnaus].-Waugenheim, Amer. 82, t. 12, f. 30.-Marshall,
Arbustum, 2.

A. parviflorum, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv, 25; vi, 40.-Mcench, Meth. 56.

A. montanum, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 435; 2 ed. v, 447 (excl. syn. striatum).-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 253.-Willdenow,.
Spec. iv, 988; Enum. i, 1045.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 391.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 33.-Trattinick, Archiv. i, t.
13.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 267.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 59, t. 48.-Hayue,
Dend. Fl. 213.-Elliott, Sk. i, 452.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 398; Compend. Fl. N. States, 170.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 224.-
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 1ll.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 408.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.


MOUNTAIN MAPLE.

Valley of the Saint Lawrence river, west along the northern shores of the great lakes to northern Minnesota
and the Saskatchewan region, south through the northern states, and along the Alleghany mountains to northern
Georgia.
A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a tall
shrub; cool woods and mountain ravines, reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the Alleghany
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays inconspicuous; color, light brown tinged with red,
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5330; ash, 0.43.


b~P
--~---L-----*C









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 47


60.-Acer macrophyllum, Pursh,

Fl. Am. Sept. i, 267.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 669.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 253; Sylva, ii, 77, t. 67; 2 cd. ii, 24, t. 67.-De Candolle, Prodr. i,
594.-Spren.gel, Syst. ii, 225.-Penn. Cycl. i, 78.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 112, t. 38.-Don, Miller's Diet.
i, 648.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 165.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 246.-Hooker & Arnott, Bet. Beechey, 327.-
Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1281.-London, Arboretum, i, 408, t. 28, f. 117, 118.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. ll2.-Bentham, P1. Hartweg. 301.-
Browne, Trees of America, 78.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423.-Durand in Jour. Philadelphia Acad. 1855, 84.-Torrey in Pacific
R. R. Rep. iv, 74; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 47; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 258.--Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 21, 67.-Cooper
in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 28, 57; Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 258.-Lyall in Jour. Linnaan Soc. vii, 134, 144.-Bolander in Proc.
California Acad. iii, 78.-Wood, Cl. Book, 287; Bot. & Fl. 74.-Rothrock in Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 334.-Koch, Dendrologie, i,
528.-Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 379.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 107.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Macoun in
Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 192.-G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 330.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle,
1881,10.

A. panlatum, Rafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48 [not Thunberg].

BROAD-LEAVED MAPLE.

Coast of Alaska, from latitude 550 south along the islands and coast of British Columbia, through western-
Washington territory and Oregon, and along the California Coast ranges and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
to the San Bernardino mountains and Hot Spring valley, San Diego county (Parish Brothers), not ascending above
4,000 feet altitude.
A tree 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.50 meter in diameter; along streams and river bottoms,
reaching its greatest development on the rich bottom lands of the Coquille and other rivers of southern Oregon,
where, with the California laurel, it forms dense, heavy forests.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, susceptible of a good polish; medullary
rays numerous, thin; color, rich light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; specific-
gravity, 0.4909; ash, 0.54; largely used in Oregon in the manufacture of furniture, for ax and broom handles,,
frames of snow-shoes, etc.; specimens with the grain beautifully curled and contorted are common and valued in
cabinet-making.

61.-Acer circinatum, Pursh,

SFl. Am. Sept. i, 266.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 669.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 253; Jour. Philadelphia Acad. vii, 16 (excl. syn.); Sylva, ii, 80, t.
67; 2 ed. ii, 27, t. 67.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-Penn. Cycl. i, 79.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Don,
Miller's Diet. i, 651.-Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 166; Hist. Veg. iii, 97.-London, Arboretum, i, 422, f. 112, 127.-Torrey &
Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 247.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 112, t. 39.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282.-Browne,
Trees of America, 91.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.-Lindley in Paxton's Fl. Gard. ii, 156, f. 210 (London Gard. Chronicle,
1851, 791, f. 211).-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep.vi, 21, 69.-Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 28, 57; Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 258.-
Lyall in Jour. Linnean Soc. vii, 134.-Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 379.-Wood, Cl. Book, 287, Bot. & Fl. 74.-Koch,
Dendrologie, i, 523.-Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 258.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 107.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-
Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 85.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 192.-G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat. new ser.
ix, 330.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 10.

A. virgatum, Rafinesqne, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48.

VINE MAPLE.

British Columbia, valley of the Fraser river (Yale) and probably farther north, southward through Washington
territory and Oregon, west of the Cascade mountains to the Mount Shasta region of northern California, rarely
ascending to 4,000 feet altitude.
A small tree, sometimes 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in diameter; along streams;
the stems often prostrate and forming dense, impenetrable thickets.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or
often nearly white, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6660; ash, 0.39; used as fuel; by lumbermen for ax
and shovel handles, and by the coast Indians for the bows of fishing nets.

62.-Acer glabrum, Torrey,

Ann. Lyc. N. York, ii, 172; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 259.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 650.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.
America, i, 247, 684.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Walpers, Rep. i, 409.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 86; 2. ed., ii, 33.-Newberry in Pacific
R. R. Rep. vi. 69.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 58; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 51, 57; Am. Nat. iii, 406.-Engelmann in Trans.
Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Gray in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiv, 259; Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1863, 59.-Porter in Hayden's
Rep. 1870, 474; 1871, 480.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 52.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 19.-
Coulter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 763.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 192.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 107.-
Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 83.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 750.


I . --- = . -.1




r_-- -_ _,..,...^ -- -.. --._---_;I;-i;;-: ----- -._ .......-- .._.-.'---------m



-48 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

A. barbatum, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 113.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 420, f. 125 (excl. syn.).

A. Douglasii, Hooker in London Jour. Bot. vi, 77, t. 6.
A. tripartitum, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, F1. N. America, i, 247.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1281.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-
Walpers, Rep. i, 409.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 85, t. 71; 2 ed. ii, 33, t. 71.-Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. new sef. iv', 28; Pacifio
R. R. Rep. iv, 73.-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 69.

DWARF MAPLE.
British Columbia, valley of the Fraser river and probably farther north, south through Washington territory,
-Oregon, and along the Sierra Nevada of California to the Yosemite valley; east along the mountain ranges of Idaho
and Montana to the eastern base of the Rocky mountains, south through Colorado and Utah, in the east Humboldt
Range, Nevada, and in the mountain ranges of western New Mexico and eastern Arizona.
A small tree, 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often reduced
to a low shrub 1 to 2 meters in height; borders of streams, reaching its greatest development in the mountain
cations of western New Mexico and eastern Arizona.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, or often nearly
white, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6028; ash, 0.30.


63.-Acer grandidentatum, Nuttall;

Torrey & Gray, Fi. N. America, i, 247.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1283.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Walpers, Rep. i, 409.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii,
82, t. 69; 2 ed. ii, 29, t. 69.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 52; P1. Wheeler, 7.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 480.-Vasey, Cat. Forest
Trees, 10.-Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 201, 268.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 83.--Rusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, is, 106.-
Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 338.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 172.

Western Montana, headwaters of the Columbia river (Nuttall), catons of the Wahsatch mountains, Utah, and
south through eastern Arizona to southwestern New Mexico (Mogollon mountains, E. L. Greene), and reported in
the ranges east of the Rio Grande; southward into Coahuila (Palmer).
A small tree, rarely exceeding 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter; along streams;
not common.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin, distinct; color, light brown, or
often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.6902; ash, 0.64.


64.-Acer saccharinum, Wangenheim,
Amer. 36, t. 11, f. 26.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 379.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 251.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 434; 2 ed. v, 447.-Ehrhart, Beitr.
iv, 24.-Persoon, Syn. i, 417.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 29, t. 8.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 985; Enum. ii, 1044.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb.
i, 392.-Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 3.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 218, t. 15; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 153, t. 42.-Titford, Hort.
Bot. Am. 105.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.-Eaton, Manual, 44; 6 ed. 2.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 214.-Elliott,
Sk. i, 450.-Richardson, Franklin Jour. 26; Arctic Exped. 422.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 396; Compeud. Fl. N.
States, 170; Fl. N. York, i, 135.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-Penn. Cycl. i, 79.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 113.-Don, Miller's Diet. i,
650.-Beck, Bot. 63.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 406.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 170; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 99.-Loudon, Arboretum, i,
411, t. 31, f. 122.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 248.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282.--Walpers, Rep. i, 410.--
Nees, P1. Med. 5.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 88; 2 ed. ii, 35.-Browne, Trees of America, 83.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 480; 2 ed.
ii, 258 & t.-Gray, Genera, ii, 200, t. 174; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 45.-Darby, Bot. S. States,
265.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 80.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book,
286; Bot. & Fl. 74.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 80.-Engelinann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Young, Bot. Texas,
206.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 606.-Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22,73.-Sears in Bull.
Essex Inst. xiii, 175.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 51c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 62.

A. saccharum, Marshall, Arbustum, 4.
A. barbatum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 253.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 989.-Poiret, Suppl. ii, 575.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.-
Nuttall, Genera, i, 255.-Elliott, Sk. i, 451.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 505.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 396; Compend. Fl. N. States,
169.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 224.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 649.-Beck, Bot. 63.-Spach, Hist. Veg.
iii, 178; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 118.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 249, 684.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Curtis
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii. 51.

SUGAR MAPLE. SUGAR TREE. HArD MAPLE. ROCK MAPLE.
Southern Newfoundland, valleys of the Saint Lawrence and Saguenay rivers, shores of lake Saint John,
west along the northern shores of the great lakes to Lake of the Woods; south through the northern states and
.along the Alleghany mountains to northern Alabama and the Chattahoochee region of west Florida (var.
Floridanum, Chapman, 1. c.); west to Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas (rare), and eastern Texas.
A tree of great economic value, 24 to 36 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or
toward its southwestern limits greatly reduced in size; rich woods, often forming extensive forests, and reaching
its greatest development in region of the great lakes.








S CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 49

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish; medullary rays
numerous, thin; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6912; ash, 0.54;
largely used in the manufacture of furniture, shoe lasts and pegs, saddle-trees, in turnery, for interior finish, and
flooring; in ship-building for keels, keelsons, shoes, etc., and furnishing valuable fuel; "curled" maple and
"bird's-eye" maple, accidental forms in which the grain is beautifully curled and contorted, are common and
highly prized in cabinet-making.
Maple sugar is principally made from this species; the ashes of the wood, rich in alkali, yield large quantities
of potash.

Var. nigrum, Torrey & Gray,

Fl. N. America, i, 248.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 136.-London, Arboretum, i, 411.-Browne, Trees of America, 84.-Gray, Manual N.
States, 5 ed. 119.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 541.

A. saccharinum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 252 [not Wangenheim].

A. nigrum, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 238, t. 16; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 163, t. 43.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.-
Poiret, Suppl. v, 669.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.-Elliott, Sk. i, 450.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 397;
Compend. Fl. N. States, 170.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 650.-Beck, Bot. 63.-Eaton, Manual, 6
ed. 2.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 104; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 170.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1222.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-
Koch, Dendrologio, i, 532.-Gray in Am. Nat. vi, 767; vii, 422.-Wood, Cl. Book, 286; Bot. & Fl. 74.

BLACK SUGAR MAPLE.

Western Vermont, shores of lake Champlain, westward to southern Missouri, south through Tennessee to
northern Alabama, the valley of the Chickasaw river, Mississippi (ifohr), and southwestern Arkansas (Fulton,
Letterman).
A large tree along streams and river bottoms, in lower ground than the species with which it is connected by
numerous intermediate forms.
Wood heavier than that of the species; specific gravity, 0.6915; ash, 0.71.

65.-Acer dasycarpum, Ehrhart,

Beitr. iv, 24.-Mcnch, Meth. 56.-Persoon, Syn. i, 417.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 985; Enum. ii, 1044.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 446.-
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 252; Sylva, ii, 87; 2 ed. ii, 35.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 213.-Elliott, Sk. i, 449.-
Torrey, Fl. U. S. 396; Compend. Fl. N. States, 169; Fl. N. York, i, 136, t. 18; Nicollet's Rep. 147.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-
Tausch, Regensb. Fl. xii2, 553.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 423, fig. 129 & t.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 113;
Jour. Bot. i, 200.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 407.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 248.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.-Emerson,
Trees Massachusetts, 487; 2 ed. ii, 556 & t.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 46.-Richardson,
Arctic Exped. 423.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 81.-Curtis in
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 51.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 286; Bot. & Fl.
74.-Engeluann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Buchenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 285, t. 11.-Gray, Manual N. States,
5 ed. 119.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Coulter's Bot. Gazette, v, 68.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 541.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst.
xiii, 3.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 53c.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 136, f. 24.-Ridgway in Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,62.

A. saccharinum, Linnueus, Spec. 1 ed. 1055.

A. rubrum, var. pallidum, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 434.

A. eriocarpum, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,253.-Desfontainesin Ann. Mus. vii, 412, t. 25, f. 1; Hist. Arb. i, 392.-Poiret, Suppl.
ii, 573.-Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 8.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 205, t. 13; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 146, t. 40.-
Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 30.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 650.-Penn. Cycl. i, 79.-Beck, Bot. 63.-
Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 116; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 177.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 245.-Dietrich, Syn. ii,
1282.-Browne, Trees of America, 95.-Meehan in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1868, 140.

SOFT MAPLE. WHITE MAPLE. SILVER MAPLE.

Valley of the Saint John's river, New Brunswick, to Ontario, south of latitude 450, south to western Florida;
west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the valley of the Blue river, Kansas, and the Indian territory.
A large tree, 18 to 30 or, exceptionally, 36 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter in diameter; along
streams and intervales, in rich soil; most common west of the Alleghany mountains, and reaching its greatest
development in the basin of the lower Ohio river.
Wood light, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, thin;
specific gravity, 0.5269; ash, 0.33; somewhat used in the manufacture of cheap furniture, for flooring, etc.; maple
sugar is occasionally made from this species.
1 FOi0


L3


-]A








50 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


66.-Acer rubrum, Linnens,

Spec. 1 ed. 1055.-Du Roi, Diss. 59.-Marshall, Arbustun, 3.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 300; Ill. iii, 438, t. 844, f. 3.-Ehrhart, Beitr. iv, 23.-
Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, 93.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 434 (excl. var.); 2 ed.v, 446.-Moench, Meth. 56.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am.
ii, 253.-Persoon, Syn. i, 417.-Robin, Voyages, iii, 471.-Nouvean Duhamel, iv, 31.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 984 ; Enum. ii, 1044.-
Desfontaines in Ann. Mus.vii, 413, t. 25, f. 2; Hist. Arb. i, 391.-Poiret, Suppl. ii, 574.--Trattinick, Arcbiv. i, t. 9.-Michanx f.
Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 210, t. 14 ; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. i 149, t. 41.-Purs., Fl. Am. Sept. i, 265.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 377.-N1ttall,
Genera, i, 232.-Eaton, Manual, 44; 6 ed. 2.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 213.-Elliott., Sk. i, 449.-Torrey, Fl.U. 395; Compend. Fl. N. States,
169; Fl. N. York, i, 137.-Watson, Dend. Brit. ii, t. 109.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-Andubon, Birds, t. 54, 67.-T;usch, Regensh. Fl. xii2,
552.-Penn.Cycl. i,79.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 114; Jour. Bot. i, 199.-Don, Miller's Dict. i, 650.-Beck, Bot. 63.-Spach,Hist.Veg. iii,
113; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 scr. ii, 176.-Loudon, Arboretum, i, 424, f. 130 & t. -Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 249, 684.-Dietrich, Syn.
ii, 1282.-Eat on & Wright, Bot. 112.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 405.-Walpers, Rep. i, 409.-Reid in London Gard. Chronicle, 1844,
276.- Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 483; 2 ed. ii, 551 & t.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.-Nuttall,
Sylva, ii, 87; 2 ed. ii, 34.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 46.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 81.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 50.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas,
354.-Wood, Cl. Book, 286; Bot. & Fl. 74.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests,
79.-Buchenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 285, t. 11.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 5422.-Young, Bot. Texas,
206.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 192.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.-Bell in
Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 172, f. 30, 31.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 1882, 62.
? A. glaucum, Marshall, Arbustum, 2.
? A. Caroliniana, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 251.
A. coccineul, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 203; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 142.
A. s8awfluineum, Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 115; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 176.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282.

RED MAPLE. SWAMP MAPLE. SOFT MAPLE. WATER MAPLE.

New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario, south of latitude 49o, north and west to the Lake of the Woods, south
to Indian and Caloosa rivers, Florida, west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the Indian territory, and the
valley of the Trinity river, Texas.
A large tree, 20 to 30 or, exceptionally, 32 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 meter in diameter;
borders of streams and low, wet swamps, reaching its greatest development in the valleys of the lower Wabash
and Yazoo rivers.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, obscure;
color, brown, often tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6178; ash, 0.37 ; largely used in cabinet-
making, turnery, and for woodenware, gun stocks, etc.; an accidental variety with undulating grain is highly
valued.
Ink is occasionally made, domestically, by boiling the bark of this species in soft water and combining the
tannin with sulphate of iron; formerly somewhat used in dyeing.

Var. Drummondii.
A. Drummondii, Hooker & Arnott in Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 199.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 83, t. 70; 2 ed. ii, 30, t. 70.

Southern Arkansas, eastern Texas, western Louisiana, and sparingly through the Gulf states to southern
Georgia.
Well characterized by its obovate or truncate leaves, the base entire or slightly crenulate-toothed, densely
covered, as well as the petioles and young shoots, with a thick white tomentum; fruit convergent, the wings bright
red, even when fully ripe.
A large tree, in deep, wet swamps, connected with the species by numerous intermediate forms of Georgia,
Florida, and Alabama.
Wood lighter than that of the species; specific gravity, 0.5459; ash, 0.34.

67.-Negundo aceroides, Mcench,
Meth. 334.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 250.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 327.-Torrey in Nicollet's Rep. 147; Fremont's Rep. 88;
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 73.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 92; 2 ed. ii, 38.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 166; Memi. Am. Acad.
new ser. iv, 29; v, 309; Genera, ii, 202, t. 175; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 41; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 120.-Richardson, Arctic
Exped. 423.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 46.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251; .Am. Nat.
iii, 306.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 81.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 53.-Wood, Cl. Book, 287; Bot. &
Fl. 74.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 188.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1870, 474.-Watson in King's Rep.
v, 52; P1. Wheeler, 7.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 19.-Macoun & Gibson in Trans. Bot
Soc. Edinburgh, xii, 319.-Young, Bot. Texas, 207.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada,
1875-'76, 192.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 108.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 84.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 214.-
Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 48c.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle,1881,
815.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 1882, 63.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 338.


L _








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES 51

Acer Negundo, Linnious, Spec. 1 ed. 1056.-Wangenheim, Amer. 30, t. 12, f. 29.-Marshall, Arbustum,2.-Lamarck, Diet. ii,
380.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 250.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 430; 2 ed. v, 448.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 253.-Persoon,
Syn. i, 418.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 391.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 992; Enum. ii, 1046.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 27, t.
7.-Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 40.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 247, t. 18; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 172, t. 46.-Pursh,
Fl. Am. Sept. i, 268.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 216.-Elliott, Sk. i, 452.-James in Long's Exped. ii, 69.-Torrey, Fl. U. S.
298; Compend. Fl. N. States, 170; Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 172; Emory's Rep. 407.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.-Guimpel,
Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 119, t. 95.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 12S3.-Loudon, Arboretum, i,
460, t. 46, 47.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.-Buchenan in Bot. Zeit. xiv, 285, t. 11 & figs.-Koch, Dendrologie, i,
544.-Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 374, f. 426.

N~egundiuim frximifoliu)mI, Rafinesque, Med. Rep. v, 354.-Desvau, .(,ur. Bt 170.

Negundo fraxinifolium, Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.-De Candolle, Prodr. i, 596.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 114; J.our. Bot. i,
200.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 651.-Beck, Bot. 64.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 119.-Rafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48.-Browne,
Trees of America, 106.-Scheele in Rcemer, Texas, 433.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 227, f. 2, 18.

? N. MAexicanum, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 596.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 214.

N. trifoliatum, Rafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48.

.Y. lobatum, Rafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48.

1V. Californicau, Scheele in RaEmer, Texas, 433 [not Torrey & Gray].

BOX ELDER. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE.

Shores of the Winooski river and lake Champlain, Vermont, near Ithaca, New York, eastern Pennsylvania,
and south to Hernando county, Florida (not detected in northeastern Florida); northwest through the lake region of
the United States and Manitoba to the Dog's Head, lake Winnipeg, and along the southern branch of the Saskatchewan
to the eastern base of the Rocky mountains; west in the United States to the eastern slopes of the Rocky
mountains of Montana, through Colorado to the Wahsatch mountains, Utah; southwest through the basin of the
Mississippi river, western Texas, and New Mexico to the Mogollon mountains, eastern Arizona; southward int6
Mexico.
A tree 15 to 22 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 or, exceptionally, 1.20 meter in diameter; moist
soil, borders of streams, etc.; in the Rocky Mountain region in high valleys, between 5,000 and C,000 feet elevation;
one of the most widely distributed trees of the American forest, reaching its greatest development in the valleys
of the Wabash and Cumberland rivers.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, creamy-white,
the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4328; ash, 1.07; occasionally used in the interior finish of
houses, for woodenware, cooperage, and paper-pulp.
Small quantities of maple sugar are sometimes obtained from this species.


68.-Negundo Californicum, Torrey & Gray,

Fl. N. America, i, 250, 684.-Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechoy, 327, t. 77.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 327.-Walpers, Rep. i, 410.-Bentham,
P1. Hartweg. 301.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 90, t. 72; 2ed. ii, 37, t. 72.-Cooperin Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 258, in part.-Koch, Dendrologie,
i, 545.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 108.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 815.

Acer Californicum, Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1283.

N. aceroides, Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 74; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 47; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 259 [not Mcench].-
Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 78.

BOX ELDER.

California, valley of the lower Sacramento river (Sacramento, and in Marin and Contra Costa counties),
southward in the interior valleys of the Coast ranges to about latitude 350, cautions of the western slopes of the San
Bernardino mountains (Parish Brothers).
A small tree, 6 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter; borders of streams.
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, nearly white, or
slightly tinged with yellow; specific gravity, 0.4821; ash, 0.54; occasionally used in the manufacture of cheap
furniture.








52 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.




ANA CA RD IA C EE.



69.-Rhus cotinoides, Nuttall,
Mss. in Herb. Philadelphia Acad.; Travels, 177.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 70.-Wood, Cl.
Book, 285; Bot. & Fl. 73.-Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1881, 125.-Mohr in Proo. Philadelphia Acad. 1881, 217.

R. cotinus ? Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 216.-Wood, Cl. Book, 285.

Cotinus Americanus, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 1, t. 81; 2 ed. ii, 71, t. 81.

Cotinus coggygria, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 351, in part.

Indian territory, "on the light, broken, calcareous, rocky banks of the Grand river, a large tributary of the
Arkansas, at a place then known as the Eagle's Nest," (Nuttall, 1. c.); Alabama, north of the Tennessee river on
southern slopes of the Cumberland mountains (on a hill near Bailie's farm, twelve miles from Huntsville, on the
Madison road, Buckley, Mohr), and doubtfully reported north of the Alabama line, in Tennessee.


CHITTAM WOOD.

In Alabama, a smaUl wide-branching tree, 9 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter;
on limestone benches from 700 to 900 feet elevation, in dense forests of oak, ash, maple, etc.; local and very rare;
not rediscovered in Arkansas or the Indian territory; in Alabama nearly exterminated.
Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, checking badly in drying, very durable in contact with the soil; layers
of annual growth marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays, numerous, very obscure; color,
bright, clear, rich orange, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.6425; ash, 0.50; largely used locally
for fencing, and yielding a clear orange dye.


70.-Rhus typhina, Linnmus,

Amen. iv, 311.-Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 1782, 228.-Wangenheim, Amer. 95.-Marshall, Arbustum, 129.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana,
255.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 365; 2 ed. ii, 162.-Ehrhart, Beitr. vi, 89.-Mmnch, Meth. 72.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1478; Enum. i, 323.-
B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 51.-Schkuhr, Handb. 237.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 182.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 164, t. 47.-Persoon, Syn. i,
324.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 325.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 503.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 39; Compend. Fl.
Philadelph. i,153.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 204.-Eaton, Manual, 35; 6 ed. 302.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 203.--Ii mer & Schultes, Syst. vi,
643.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 33.-Elliott, Sk. i, 360.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 322; Compend. Fl. N. States, 140; Fl. N. York, i, 128.-De Candollc,
Prodr. ii, 67.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 936.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 17, 18.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 126.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 70.-
Beck, Bot. 76.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 212.-Bennett, P1. Jav. Rar. 80.-London, Arboretum, ii, 550, f. 224.-Torrey & Gray, Fl.
N. America, i, 217, 680.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 392.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 126.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1002.-Emerson, Trees
Massachusetts, 501; 2 ed. ii, 571 & t.-Browne, Trees of America, 184.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 186.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.-
Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 43.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 254.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 69.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 93.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep.
Arkansas, 353.-Wood, Cl. Book, 384; Bot. & Fl. 73.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 208.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5ed. 111.-
Koch, Dendrologie, i, 576.-Young, Bot. Texas, 197.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 488.-Nat.
Dispensatory; 2 ed. 1230.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63.-Engler in De'Candolle, Suites, iv, 377.

Datisca hirta, Linnmeus, Spec. 1 ed. 1037.-Don, Miller's Diet. i, 290.

B. hypselodendron, Mcench, Meth. 73.

R. Canadense, Miller, Dict. No.5.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 163.

R. viridifora, Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 163.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 504.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 67.-Nuttall, Genera,
i, 203.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 70.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1002.-London, Arboretum, ii, 551.-Browne, Trees of America,
184.


B. typhina, var. viridiflora, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 378.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 53

STAGHORN SUMACH.
New Brunswick, west through the valley of the Saint Lawrence river to southern Ontario and Minnesota,
south through the northern states and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia, central Alabama and
Mississippi.
A small tree, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or often a shrub; dry
hillsides or often along streams in sandy, moist soil. A variety with laciniate leaves occurs near Hanover, New
Hampshire, var. laciniata, Wood, C1. Book, 284.-Bot. & Fl. 73).
Wood light, brittle, soft, coarse-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish; layers of annual growth
clearly marked by four to six rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, yellow streaked
with green, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4357; ash, 0.50; occasionally used for inlaying cabinet
work; the young shoots for "sap quills" in drawing the sap of the sugar maple.
Bark and leaves astringent, rich in tannin, and somewhat used locally as a dye and in dressing skins (Special
Rep. No. 26, U . Ag. Dep. 22, t. 3); an infusion of the berries used domestically as a gargle in cases of catarrhal
sore throat.

71.-Rhus copallina, Linuneus,
Spec. 1 ed 266.-Medicus, Bot. Bcobacht. 1782, 224.-Marshall, Arbustum, 128.-Wangcnheim, Amer. 96.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 255.-
GiortuQr, Fruct. i, 203, t. 44.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 366; 2 ed. ii, 163.-Plenck, Icon. t. 233.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 346, t. 207, f. 3.-
Jacqnin, lort. Schinb. iii, 50, t. 341.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1480; Enum. i, 324.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 182.-Schkuhr, Handb.
237.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 160.-Persoon, Syn. i, 324.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 325.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 506.-
Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 39.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 205.-Eaton, Manual, 34; 6 ed. 302.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 203.-Remer &
Schultes, Syst. vi, 647.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 34.-Elliott, Sk. i, 362.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 323; Compend. Fl. N. States, 140; Fl. N. York,
129.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 68.- Sprengel, Syst. i, 936.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 72.--Beck, Bot. 75.-Hooker in Jour. Bot. i, 202.-
Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 214.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 217.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 392.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 126.-
Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1003.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 554.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 503; 2 ed. ii, 574.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 186.--
Gray in Menm. Am. Acad. new ser. vi, 28; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 111; Hall's P1. Texas, 5.-Scheele in Reemer, Texas, 431.-
Darlington, FI. Cestrica, 3 ed. 43.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 255.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 69.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N.
Carolina, 1860, iii, 92.-Lesqucreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 352.-Wood, C1. Book, 284; Bot. & Fl. 73.-Engelmann in
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 207.-Koch, Dendrologie, 575.-Yoing, Bot. Texas, 197.-
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1236.-Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 73.-Ridgway in Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63.-Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 384.

? R. copallina, vars. latifolia, latialata, angustifolia, and serrata, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 384.

DWARF SUMACH.
Northern New England, south to Manatee and Caximbas bay, Florida, west to Missouri, Arkansas, and the
valley of the San Antonio river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or at the north a low shrub
1 to 2 meters in height; dry hills and ridges, reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas and
eastern Texas; running into various forms. The best marked is-

var. leucantha, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 68.-Gray in Jonr. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 158.
R. leucantha, Jacquin, Hort. Schinb. iii, 50, t. 342.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 215.
R. copallina, var. angustialata, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 384.
Shrubby, leaflets lanceolate, flowers white.
Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish; layers of annual
growth clearly marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays thin, not prominent; color, light
brown streaked with green, or often tinged with red; the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5273; ash, 0.60.
Leaves and bark astringent, rich in tannin; the leaves largely collected, principally in Maryland, Virginia,
West Virginia, and Tennessee, and ground for tanning and dyeing (Special Rep. No. 26, U. S. Ag. Dep. 26, t. 5);
the fruit, acid and astringent, used, as well as that of the shrubby Rhus glabra, by herbalists in the form of
decoctions, fluid extracts, etc., as a gargle in the treatment of sore throat.


Var. lanceolata, Gray,
Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 158.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 44.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 338.
R. copallina, var. integrifolia, Englor in De Caudolle, Suites, iv, 384.
Western Texas, Dallas (Reverchon) to the Rio Grande.
A small tree, with lanceolate, elongated leaflets, 5 to 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.15 meter in
diameter; calcareous soil; common; specific gravity, 0.5184; ash, 0.85.








54 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

72.-Rhus venenata, De Candolle,
Prodr. ii, 68.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 126.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 71.-Beck, Bot. 76.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 215.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 284.-
London, Arboretum, ii, 552, f. 226.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 218, 681.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 392.-Dietrich, Syn. ii,
1003.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 130.-Browne, Trees of America, 186.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 185.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts,
504; 2 ed. ii, 575 & t.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 44.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
250.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 69.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 93.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep.
Arkansas, 353.-Wood, Cl. Book, 284; Bot. & Fl. 73.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 111.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-
Bailey in Am. Nat. vii, 5, f. 3.-Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 73.-Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 397.

R. vernix, Linncus, Spec. 1 ed. 265, in part.-Kalm, Travels, English ed. 177.-Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 1782, 223.-Marshall,
Arbustum, 130.-Wangenheim, Amer. 92.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 366; 2 ed. ii, 163.-Plenck, Icon. t. 234.-Lamarck, Ill.
ii, 346, t. 207, f. 2.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 1479; Ennm. i, 323.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 23, 50.-Schkuhr, Handb. 236.-
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 183.-Nouveau Dnluamel, ii, 165.-Persoon, Syn. i, 324.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 325.-
Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii, 505.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 203.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 39; Compend. Fl. Philadelph.
154.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept.i, 205.-Eaton, Manual, 34; 6 ed. 302.-Bigelow, Med. Bot. i, 96, t.10; Fl. Boston. 3 ed.
126.-Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vi, 646.-Hayne, Dend. F1. 34.-Elliott, Sk.i, 362.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 323; Compend.
Fl. N. States, 203.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 936.-Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 255.-Porcher, Resources
S. Forests, 206,

POISON SUMACH. POISON ELDER.

Northern New England, south to northern Georgia, Alabama, and western Louisiana, west to northern
Minnesota, Missouri, and Arkansas.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more often a
tall shrub; low, wet swamps or, more rarely, on higher ground.
Wood light, soft, coarse-grained, moderately compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked by three or four
rows of large open ducts; medullary rays thin, very obscure; color, light yellow streaked with brown, the sap-wood
lighter; specific gravity, 0.4382; ash, 0.64.
The whole plant, as well as the allied B. Toxicodendron, to most persons exceedingly poisonous to the touch,
owing to the presence of a volatile principle, Toxicodendric acid (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 908.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed.
1464); the white milky sap turning black in drying and yielding a valuable lacquer (Bigelow, Med. Bot. 1. c.)


73.-Rhus Metopium, Linnmus,

Amawn. v, 395.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 51.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, 49, t. 79.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 67.-Macfadyen, Fl.
Jamaica, 225.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 121, t. 80; 2 ed. ii, 68, t. 80.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 381.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 185S, 264.-
Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 175.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 69.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 73.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.

Metopi'0um Linncei, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 367.

POISON WOOD. CORAL SUMACH. MOUNTAIN MANCHINEEL. BUM WOOD. HOG PLUM. DOCTOR GUM.

Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne to the southern keys; in the West Indies.
A tree 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter, reaching in the United
States its greatest development on the shores of bay Biscayne, near Miami; one of the most common trees of the
region, the large specimens generally decayed.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many evenly-distributed
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood light brown
or yellow; specific gravity, 0.7917; ash, 2.39; little esteemed.
A resinous gum, emetic, purgative, and diuretic, is obtained from incisions made in the bark of this species
(Pharm. Jour. vii, 270.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 489).


74.-Pistacia Mexicana, HBK.
Nov. Gen. & Spec. vii, 22, t. 608.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 64.-Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. v, 27.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey,
44.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 109.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-Hemsley,
Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 221.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 338.

Texas, valley of the Rio Grande (near the mouth of the Pecos river, Bigelow); southward into Mexico (Saltillo,
Palmer, etc.).
Wood not collected.









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 55




LEG UMINOSE.



75.-Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, Watson,
Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 339.
E. amorphoides, var. orthocarpa, Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 46; v, 237.

E. amorphoides, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 51, in part.

Western Texas, valleys of the upper Guadalupe and Rio Grande, west to the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina
mountains, Arizona (Pringle); southward into northern Mexico;
A small tree, 5 to 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.09 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a low shrub;
dry, gravelly soil, reaching its greatest development near the summit of the Santa Catalina mountains, at 3,000
feet altitude.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, very compact; layers of annual growth clearly defined by numerous rows of
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light reddish-brown, sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity,
0.8740; ash, 1.28.

76.-Dalea spinosa, Gray,

Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 315; Ives' Rep. 10.-Torrey, Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 78; vii, 9, t. 3.-Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 53.-
Walpers, Ann. iv, 485.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 266.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xi, 132.-Brewer & Watson, Bot.
California, i, 143.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. 249.

Asagrrea s5pinosa, Baillon in Adansonia, ix, 232; Hist. Pl. ii, 288.

Colorado desert, southern California (Agua Calieute, Toras, etc.), and eastward to the valley of the lower Gila
river, Arizona.
A small tree, sometimes 6 meters in height, with a short, stout trunk 0.45 to 0.50 meter in diameter (Parry,
Parish Brothers), or often a low shrub; dry, gravelly, rocky soil.
Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, containing many evenly-distributed open ducts; medullary rays
numerous, thin; color, walnut-brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5536; ash, 4.04.

77.-Robinia Pseudacacia, Linnuus,

Spec. 1 ed. 722.-Marshall, Arbustum, 133.-Wangenheim, Amcr. 16, t. 7.-L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 158.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 186.-
Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 53; 2 ed. iv, 323.-Gmrtner, Fruct. ii, ;07, t. 145.-Willdenow, Spec. iii, 1131; Enum. i, 769.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-
Am. ii, 65.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 60, t. 16.-Poiret in Lamarck Diet, vi, 222; Ill. iii, 163, t. 606.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 311.-
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 302.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 245, t. 1; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 92, t. 76.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept.
ii, 487.-Eaton, Manual, 82; 6 ed.306.-Thomas in Am. Month. Mag. & Crit. Rev. ii, 90.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 118.-Hayne,
Dend. Fl. 140.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 242.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 261.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 247.-Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii,
178; Compend. Fl. N. States, 271; Fl. N. York, i, 165; Emory's Rep. 408.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 140.-Audubon, Birds, t.
104.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii,.237.-Beck, Bot. 82.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 258.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 294.-Loudon,
Arboretum, ii, 609, f. 305 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 397.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 295.-Browne, Trees of America, 197.-
Emerson, Trees, Massachusetts, 460; 2 ed. ii, 522 & t.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 238, f. 123.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 1053.-Darlington, Fl.
Cestrica, 3 ed. 65.-Darby Bot. S. States, 280.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 94.-Curtis in
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 48.-Lesquerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 356.-Wood, Cl. Book, 319; Bot. & Fl.
95.-Lemaire, Ill. Hort. xii, t. 427.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 188.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 131.-Koch, Dendrologie,
i, 55.-Verlot in Rev. Hort. 1873, 152 & f.-Young, Bot. Texas, 228.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 1882, 65.

Pseudacacia odorata, Mcench, Meth. 145.

.R. fragilis, Salisbury, Prodr. 336.

LOCUST. BLACK LOCUST. YELLOW LOCUST.

Alleghany mountains, Pennsylvania (Locust ridge, Monroe county, Porter) to northern Georgia; widely and
generally naturalized throughout the United States east of the Rocky mountains, and possibly indigenous in
northeastern (Crowley's ridge) and western Arkansas and the prairies of eastern Indian territory.
A tree 22 to 25 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in'diameter; west of the Mississippi river
much smaller or often a low shrub 1.80 to 3 meters in height, reaching its greatest development on the western
slopes of the mountains of West Virginia.


I- ~------------


1








56 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, compact, very durable in contact with the ground;
layers of annual growth clearly marked by two or three rows of large open ducts; color, brown or, more rarely, light
green, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7333; ash, 0.51 (Trecul in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xix, 182, t. 2, f. 1;
t. 6, 7, f. 10.); largely used in ship-building, for posts of all sorts, construction, and in turnery; preferred to
other American woodsfor treenails, and in this form largely exported.
The bark of the root tonic, or in large doses purgative and emetic (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1746.-Nat.
Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1233); formerly widely planted as a timber tree (Cobbctt, Woodlands, par. 323); its cultivation in
the United States now generally abandoned on account of the destructive attacks of the locust borer (Oyllene picta,
Packard in Bull. U. 8. Entomological Com. No. 7, 95).


78.-Robinia viscosa, Ventenat,
Hort. Cels. 4, t. 4.-Bot. Mal'. 560.-Wilidenow, Spec. iii, 1131; Enuu. ii, 769.-Michaux, F1. Bor.-Am. ii, 65.-Nouveau Duhamol, ii, 64,
t. 17.-Poiret in Lamaiirck, Diet. vi, 222.-B. S. Barton,;Bot. Appx. 29, t. 21.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 311.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 302.-
Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2ed. iv, 323.-Micha:x f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 262, t. 2; N. American Sylva, ii, 104, t. 77.-Pursh, Fl, Am. Sept. ii, 488.-
Nuttall, Genera, ii, 118.-Hayne, Dend. F1. 140.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 242.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 262.-Guimpel,Otto & Hayne,Abb. Holz.
81, t. 65.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 247.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 236.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 306.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 260.-Torrey & Gray,
Fl. N. America. i, 295.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 626, t. 87, f. 306.--Eaton & Wright, Bot.397.-Browne, Trees of America, 209.-
Dietrich, Syn. iv, 1053.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 280.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 94.-Curtis in
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 49.-Wood, Cl. Book, 319; Bot. & Fl. 95.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 193.-Gray,
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 131.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.

R. gltinosa, Curtis, Bot. Mag. t. 560.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 59.


CLA313MY LOCUST.
"High Alleghany mountains south of latitude 350" (iMichaux). "Open woods, slopes of Buzzard ridge, altitude
4,500 feet, near Highland, Macon county, North Carolina" (J. Donnell Smith).
A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk not exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; very rare, and not
rediscovered until 1882 by the numerous botanists who have visited, during the last thirty years, the localities where
the Michauxs, father and son, discovered this species; widely cultivated and now occasionally naturalized in the
Atlantic states.
Wood (of a cultivated specimen) heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked
by many rows of open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown, the sap-wood light yellow; specific
gravity, 0.8094; ash, 0.20.

79.-Robinia Neo-Mexicana, Gray,
Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 314.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 79; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 53.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 491.-
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 419.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub.
No. 4, 23.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.

LOCUST.
Colorado, valley of the Purgatory river (near Trinidad), headwaters of the Canadian river, through western and
southwestern New Mexico to the Santa Catalina and Santa Rita mountains (Lemmon, Pringle), Arizona (4,500 to 7,000
feet altitude), southern Utah, Mount Zion cahon, west fork of the Rio Virgin, and near Kanah.
A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or toward its
upper limits of growth reduced to a low shrub; reaching its greatest development in the valley of the Purgatory
river, Colorado.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many evenly-distributed
open ducts; medullary rays, thin, conspicuous; color, yellow streaked with brown, the sap-wood light yellow;
specific gravity, 0.8034; ash, 0.60.

80.-Olneya Tesota, Gray,
Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 328; Ives' Rep. 11.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 11, 82; vii, 10, t. 5; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey,
58.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 479, 587.-Cooper in Smithsouian Rep. 1858, 265.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 157.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 260.

IRON WOOD. ARBOL DE HIERRO.
California, valley of the Colorado river south of the Mohave mountains, valley of the lower Gila river,
southwestern Arizona; southward in Sonora.
A small tree in the United States, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.45 meter in diameter;
dry arroyos and callons: in Sonora more common and of larger size.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES.


Wood very heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, the grain generally contorted, difficult to
cut and work, susceptible of a high polish; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown streaked with
red, the sap-wood clear bright yellow; specific gravity, 1.0602; ash, 2.79 (the heart-wood, 1.1486; ash, 2.59; sap-
wood, 0.8958; ash, 1.85); occasionally manufactured into canes.

81.-Piscidia Erythrina, Linnmus,
Spec. 2 ed. 993.-Jacquin, Amdr. 206.-Swartz, Obs. 277.-Lamarck, Diet. i, 443; Ill. iii, 163, t. 605.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 84.-
Lunan, Hort. Jam. i, 269.-Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. & Spec. vi, 382.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 267.-Descourtilz,
Fl. Med. Antilles, iii, 203, t. 196.-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, i, 258.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 31, t. 52; 2 ed. i, 180.-Bentham in Jour.
Linnman Soc. iv, Suppl. 116; Bot. Sulphur, 81.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 110.-Grisebach,
Fl. British West Indies, 200.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 175.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 319.
Erythrina piscipula, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 107.
P. Garthagenensis, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 267.

JAMAICA DOGWOOD.

Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne, west coast, Pease creek to cape Sable, and on the southern keys; in the
West Indies and southern Mexico.
A tree 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.75 meter in diameter.
Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish, containing few large
scattered open ducts; medullary rays thin, not conspicuous; color, yellowish-brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific
gravity, 0.8734; ash, 3.38; one of the favorite woods of the region for boat-building, fire-wood, and charcoal.
The bark, especially of the root, narcotic, occasionally administered in the form of tinctures, or used, as well
as the young branches and leaves, to poison or stupefy fish.

82.-Cladrastis tinctoria, Rafinesque,

Fl. Kent. 1824; Neog. 1825; Med. Bot. ii, 210; New Sylva, iii, 83.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 390.-Walpers, Rep. i, 807.-
Browne, Trees of America, 192.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 294.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States,
113.-Porcher Resources S. Forests, 175.-Wood, Cl. Book, 301 ; Bot. & Fl. 84.-Gray, Manual N.. States, 5 ed. 143.-Vasey, Cat.
Forest Trees, 11.
Virgilia lutea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 266, t. 3; Travels, 289; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 106, t. 78.-Parsh, Fl. Am.
Sept. i, 309.-Nnttall, Genera, i, 284.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 53.-Loiseleur, Herb. Amat. t. 297.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii,
9S.-Sprengel, Syst. iv-, 1, 171.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 112.--Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 397.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 163.-Eaton
& Wright, Bot. 480.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1501.-London, Arboretum, ii, 565, t. 78.
C. lutea, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 6.

YELLOW WOOD. YELLOW ASH. GOPHER WOOD.

Central Kentucky, cliffs of the Kentucky and Dick's rivers; middle Tennessee, mountains of east Tennessee to
Cherokee county, North Carolina.
A tree 9 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 or, exceptionally, 1.20 meter in diameter; rich
hillsides; in Kentucky on .the Trenton limestones, and reaching its best development in middle Tennessee; rare
and very local, the large trees generally hollow or defective.
Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish; layers of annual growth
clearly marked by several rows of open ducts, and containing many evenly-distributed similar ducts; color, bright,
clear yellow, changing with exposure to light brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.6278; ash, 0.28;
used for fuel, occasionally for gunstocks, and yielding a clear yellow dye.

83.-Sophora secundiflora, Lagasca;

De Caudollo, Cat. Hort. Mousp. 148; Prodr. ii, 96.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 110.-Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 54.-Rev. Hort. 4
ser. iii, 201, t. ll.-Benthain & Hooker, Genera, i, 555.-Hemsley, Bet. Am.-Cent. i, 321.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 347.
Broussonetia secundi.flora, Ortega, Dec. v, 61, t. 7.
'Virgilia secundiflora, Cavanilles, Icon. t. 401.
Agastianis secundijlora, Rafinesque, New Sylva, iii, 86.
Dermatophyllum speciosum, Scheele in Linna-a, xxi, 458.
S. Speciosa, Beutb-am in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 178.-Gray in Mom. Am. Acad. new ser. ivx, 38; Smithsonian Contrib.
iii, 54; Hall's PI. Texas, 7.-Walpers, Ann. ii, 439.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 58.-Young, Bot. Texas,
242.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.








58 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


FRIGOLITO.

Matagorda bay, Texas, west to the mountains of New Mexico (Havard).
A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often, especially
west of the San Antonio river, a tall shrub, rarely exceeding 2 meters in height, forming dense thickets; borders
of streams, generally in a low, rather moist soil.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish; medullary rays numerous, thin;
color, orange streaked with red, the heavier sap-wood brown or yellow; specific gravity, 0.9842; ash, 1.59;
furnishing valuable fuel.
The seeds contain an exceedingly poisonous alkaloid, Sophoria (H. G. Wood in Philadelphia Med. Times, August
4, 1877.-Rothrock in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 133.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1333).


84.-Sophora affinis, Torrey & Gray,

Fl. N. America, i, 390.-Leavenworth in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. ix, 130.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 178; Hall's P1.
Texas, 7.-Scheele in Rcemer, Texas, 428.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.

Styphnolobium afine, Walpers, Rep. i, 807.

Arkansas, valley of the Arkansas river (Letterman) to the valley of the San Antonio river, Texas.
A small tree, 5 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter; borders of streams
and prairies.
Wood heavy, very hard, strong, coarse-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several
rows of large open ducts; medullary rays thin, conspicuous; color, light red, the sap-wood bright, clear yellow;
specific gravity, 0.8509; ash, 0.73.
Ink is occasionally made domestically from the resinous exudations of the pod.


85.-Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lamarck,

Diet. i, 733; Ill. iii, 412. t. 823.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 241, t. 51.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 460;' Enum. ii, 1019; Berl. Baumz. 169.-
Persoon, Syn. ii, 626.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 250.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 400.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 272, t. 23; N.
American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 182, t. 50.-Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 304.-Nuttall, Genera,ii, 243.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 203.-James in Long's
Exped. i, 138.-Reichenbach, Mag. Bot. t. 40.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 480.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 327.-Torrey in Ann. Lyc. N.York,
ii, 193; Compend. Fl. N. States, 376; Fl. N. York, i, 196; Emory's Rep. 407.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 166.-Don, Miller's Dict.429.-
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 162.-Beck, Bot. 93.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 89.-London, Arboretum, ii, 256 & t.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.
America, i, 398.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 258.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424.-Walpers, Rep. i, 809.-Browne, Trees of America,
218.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 358.-Wood, C1. Book, 300; Bot. & Fl. 83.-
Engelmanu in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 145.-Briot in Rev. Hort. 1870, 436.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 12.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,63.-Chapman, Fl.
S. States, Suppl. 618.
Guilandina dioica, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 381.-Marshall, Arbustum, 56.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 56.-James in Long's Exped.
i, 138.

Byperanthera dioica, Vahl, Symbolm, i, 31.

G. dioica, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 5.-Baillon, Hist. P1. ii, 87, f. 52,53.


KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE. COFFEE NUT.

Conococheague creek, Franklin county, Pennsylvania (Porter); "western New York, shores of Cayuga and
Seneca lakes, west through southern Ontario and southern Michigan to the valley of the Minnesota river,
Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southwestern Arkansas, and the Indian territory, to about
longitude 9600 west, south to middle Tennessee.
A tree 25 to 33 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter; rich woods and bottoms; not
common.
Wood heavy, not hard, strong, coarse-grained, durable in contact with the ground, liable to check in drying,
easily worked, susceptible of a high polish; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one or two rows of
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich light brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood lighter;
specific gravity, 0.6934; ash, 0.67; occasionally used in cabinet-making, for posts, rails, &c.
The fresh leaves, macerated and sweetened, are used in Tennessee as a poison for house-flies; the seeds
formerly as a domestic substitute for coffee.









CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 59


86.-Gleditschia triacanthos, Linneus,

Spec. 1 ed. 1056 (excl. var.).-Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 1782, 230.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 465; Ill. iii, 446, t. 857, f. 1.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii,
444 (excl. vars.); 2 ed. v, 474.-Mccnch, Meth. 69.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 285.--Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 257.-Schkuhr,
Handb. iii, 554, t. 356.-Robin, Voyages, iii, 497.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 123.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 246.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1097;
Enum. 1058; Berl. Baumz. 163.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 100, t. 25.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 164, t. 10; N. American Sylva, 3 ed.
108, t. 79.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 221.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 239.-James in Long's Exped. i, 138.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 218.-Elliott, Sk.
ii, 709.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 157, t. 132.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 479.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 918. -Torrey, Compend. Fl.
N. States, 375; Fl. N. York, i, 192.-Audubon, Birds, t. 42,146, 150.-Romer & Schultes, Syst. vii, 78.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 428.-
Beck, Bot. 93.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 92.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America,i, 398.-London, Arboretum,
ii, 650, t. 90, 91.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 254.-Browne, Trees of America, 212.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 539.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 295.-
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251.-Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 42; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 145.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 115.-
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 49.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 358.-Wood, Cl. Book, 300; Bot.
& Fl. 83.-Engelmanu in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. newser. xii, 190.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 195.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 8.-Hunt
in Am. Nat. i, 433.-Young, Bot. Texas, 246.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12. -Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,64.-Burgess in
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95.
G. spinosa, Marshall, Arbustum, 54.
G. Meliloba, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 254.
G. macrantha, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 164.
G. elegans, Salisbury, Prodr. 323.
Melilobus heterophylla, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 121.

HONEY LOCUST. BLACK LOCUST. THREE-THORNED ACACIA. SWEET LOCUST. HONEY SHUCKS.

Pennsylvania, western slopes of the Alleghany mountains, west through southern Michigan to eastern Nebraska,
eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory to about longitude 960 west; south to Tampa bay, Florida (not detected
in eastern Florida), northern Alabama, northern Mississippi, and the valley of the Brazos riter, Texas.
A tree, 25 or 30 meters, or exceptionally 40 meters, in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.20 meter in diameter; low,
rich bottom lands, or more rarely on dry, sterile hills; the characteristic tree of the barrenss" of middle Kentucky
and Tennessee, reaching its greatest development in the bottoms of the lower Ohio River basin; widely cultivated
for shade and as a hedge plant, and now somewhat naturalized in the Atlantic states east of the Alleghany
mountains.
A not uncommon form, nearly destitute of thorns, is-
var. inermis, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 221.-De Candolle, Mem. Leg. t. 22, f. 109; Prodr. ii, 479.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398.-London Arboretum, ii, 650, t. 92, 93.-Browne, Trees of America, 213.

G. inermis, Linn.ns, Spec. 1509, in part.-Nouvenu Duhamel, iv, 100.-Bentham in Trans. Linmean Soc. xxx3, 557.

A form with spines and fruit shorter than those of the type is-
var. brachycarpos, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 257.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398.-Browne, Trees of America, 213.
G. brachycarpa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 221.-De Candolle, Prodr, ii, 479.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 919.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 428.--
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 254.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii. 653.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 539.

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, moderately compact, very durable in contact with the soil,
susceptible of a high polish; layers of annual growth strongly marked by many rows of open ducts; medullary
rays numerous, conspicuous; color, bright brown or red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6740; ash, 0.80;
used for fence posts and rails, wagon hubs, construction, etc.; its value hardly appreciated.
Beer is sometimes made domestically by fermenting the sweet, unripe fruit (Porcher 1. c.).

87.-Gleditschia monosperma, Walter,

Fl. Caroliniana, 254.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 257.-Schkuhr, Handb. iii, 555.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 623.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii,
24.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1097; Ennm. 1058; Berl. Baumz. 165.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 101.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.v, 474.-
Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 169, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 111. t. 80.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 221.-Poiret, Suppl. ii,
641.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 239.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 218.-Elliott, Sk. ii,709.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 479.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 919.-
Don, Miller's Diet. 428.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 98.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398.-Eaton & Wright,
Bot. 254.-London, Arboretum, ii, 653, f. 364.-Browne, Trees of America, 215.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 539.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 295.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 115.-Wood, C1. Book, 300; Bot. & Fl. 83.-Gray. Manual N. States, 5 ed. 145.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees,
12-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 64.
G. triacanthos, var. monosperma, Linueus, Spec. 1 ed. 1057.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 444.
G. aquatica, Marshall, Arbustum, 54.
G. Carolinensis, Lamarck, Diet. ii, 465; Ill. iii, 447, t. 857, f. 2.-Roemer & Schultes, Syst. vii, 74.
G. triacantha, Gmrtner, Fruct. ii, 311, t. 146, f. 3 [not Linnrus].
G. inermis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 9 [not Linnmus].


I








60 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


WATER LOCUST.
South Carolina to Matauzas inlet and Tampa bay, Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos
river, Texas, and through Arkansas to middle Kentucky and Tennessee, southern Indiana and Illinois.
A tree 12 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 or, exceptionally, 0.90 meter in diameter; deep
swamps; rare in the south Atlantic and Gulf states; common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom
lands of southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and eastern Texas, here often covering extensive areas.
Wood heavy, very hard, strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish; layers of annual
growth clearly marked by one to three rows of open ducts; medullary rays thin, conspicuous; color, rich bright
brown tinged with red, the thick heavier sap-wood clear light yellow; specific gravity, 0.7342; ash, 0.73.


88.-Parkinsonia Torreyana, Watson,
Proc. Am. Acad. xi, 135.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 162.

Cercidium floridum, Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 11, 82; v, 360, t. 3; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 59.-Gray in Ives'
Rep. 11.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.-James in Am. Nat. xv, 982.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 327.

GREEN-BARK ACACIA. PALO VERDE.

Colorado desert, southern California (Inio, Toras, etc., Parish Brothers), east to the valley of the lower Gila
river, Arizona.
A low, much-branched tree, 8 to 10 meters in height, the short trunk sometimes 0.45 to 0.50 meter in diameter;
low calions and depressions in the sandhills of the desert; common and reaching its greatest development in the
valleys of the lower Colorado and Gila rivers.
Wood heavy, not strong, soft, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing many
small evenly-distributed open ducts; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood clear
light yellow; specific gravity, 0.6531; ash, 1.12.


89.-Parkinsonia microphylla, Torrey,
Pacific R. 1. Rep. iv, 8-; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 59.-Walpers, Ann. vii, 812.-Gray in Ives' Rep. 11.-Bentham in Martius, Fl.
Brasil. xv-, 78.-Watson, P1. Wheeler, 8; Proc. Am. Acad. xi, 136.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 162.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-
Cent. i, 327.

Valley of the lower Colorado and Bill Williams rivers, eastward through southern Arizona.
A small, much-branched tree, 6 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.30 meter in diameter (Wickenburg,
Pringle), or often a low shrub 1 to 3 meters in height.
Wood heavy, hard, coarse-grained, compact, containing numerous large, scattered, open ducts; medullary
rays numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood light brown or yellow;
specific gravity, 0.7449; ash, 3.64.

90.-Parkinsonia aculeata, Linneus,
Spec. 1 ed. 375.-Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 121, t. 80.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 475, t. 336.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 513.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii,
24.-De Candolle, Mem. Leg. ii, t. 21; Prodr. ii, 486.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, i, 54, t. 12.-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica,
334.-Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 87; Martins, F. Brasil. xv2, 78, t. 26.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265.-Torrey, Bot. Mex.
Boundary Survey, 59.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 204; P1.Lorentz. 81.-Gray, Hall's P1. Texas, 8.-Brewer & Watson,
Bot. California, i, 162.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 327.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 348.

Corpus Christi, Texas, west along the Mexican boundary to the valley of the Colorado river, Arizona (Yuma);
and southward into Mexico; probably of American origin, but now widely naturalized throughout the tropical
and warmer regions of the globe (A. De Candolle, Geog. Bot. ii, 719, 770, 793).
A small tree, 6 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, inclined to check in drying, containing many evenly-distributed small
open ducts; medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, light brown, the very thick sap-wood lighter,
often tinged with yellow; specific gravity. 0.6116; ash, 2.32.


k___








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 61


91.-Cercis Canadensis, Linneus,

Spec. 1 ed. 374.-Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 10.-Marshall, Arbustum, 32.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 586.-Wangenheim, Amer. 84.-Walter, Fl.
Caroliniana, 135.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 47; 2 ed. iii, 22.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 508; Enum. 439; Berl. Baumz. 84.-Nouveau
Duhamel, i, 19.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 265.-Schkuhr, Handb. 354.-Persoon, Syn. i, 454.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 254.-
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 308.-Eaton, Manual, 46; 6 ed. 89.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 283.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 53.-Elliott, Sk. i, 470.-Torrey
in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 194; Fl.U. S. 441; Compend. Fl. N. States, 188; Fl. N. York, i, 188; Nicollet's Rep. 149; Emory's Rep. 408.-
De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 518.-Sprengol, Syst. ii, 346.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 116, t. 92.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 167;
Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 468.-Beck, Bot. 94.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 129. -Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i,
392.-London, Arboretum, ii, 659 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 190.-Dietrich, Syn. ii, 155.-Browne, Trees of America, 221.-Gray
in Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. iv', 38; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 144.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 611.-
Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 67.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 294.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 114.-
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 50.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 357.-Wood, Cl. Book, 301; Bot.
& Fl. 84.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 197.-Koch, Dendrologie i, 14.-
Baillon, Hist. P1. ii, 121.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65.

Siliquastrumn cordatum, Mench, Meth. 54.

C. Canadensis, var. puLbescens, Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 308.--Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 659.

REDBUD. JUDAS TREE.

Western Pennsylvania, southward to Tampa bay, Florida, northern Alabama and Mississippi, westward through
southern Michigan and Minnesota to eastern Nebraska; southwest through Missouri and Arkansas to the eastern
portions of the Indian territory, Louisiana, and the valley of the Brazos river, Texas.
A small tree, 12 to 16 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter; rich woods, borders
of streams and swamps; most common and reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas, the Indian
territory, and eastern Texas, here, when in bloom, a conspicuous feature of the forest.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish; layers of annual
growth clearly marked by one to three rows of open ducts; medullary rays exceedingly numerous, thin; color, rich
dark brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6363; ash, 0.72.

92.-Cercis reniformis, Engelmann;

Scheele in Roemer, Texas, 428.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 348.

C. occidentalis, var. Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 177.-Walpers, Ann. ii, 440.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary
Survey, 58.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 161.

C. Occidentalis, Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 7 [not Torrey].--Hmsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 340, in part.

C. occidentalis, var. Texensis, Watson, Index, i, 209.

REDBUD.

Middle and western Texas west of the Colorado river; in northern Mexico.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a shrub forming dense
thickets; limestone hills; formerly often confounded with the shrubby C. occidentalis of the California coast
region.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one to three rows of
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, not conspicuous; color, brown streaked with yellow, the sap-wood lighter;
specific gravity, 0.7513; ash, 0.77.

93.-Prosopis juliflora, De Candolle,

Prodr. ii, 447.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, viii, 107, t. 550.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 270.-Walpers, Rep. i, 861.-Bentham, Rev. Mini.
in Trans. Linnauan Soc. xxx, 377.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 277, f. 13.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 163.-Rothrock in
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 42, 107.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 344.
P. glandulosa, Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 192, t. 2; Emory's Rep. 139; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 82.-Don, Miller's Diet.
ii, 400.-Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 376.-Walpers, Rep. i. 861.-Bentham in Hooker's Jour.
Bot. iv, 348; London Jour. Bot. v, 81.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 217.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 420; PI.
Wheeler, 8.-Gray, Hall's Pl. Texas, 7.-Vasey. Cat. Forest Trees, 12.

Algarobia glandulosa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 399; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 164.-Engelmann & Gray in Jour.
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. v, 242.-Engelmann in Wislizenuns' Rep. 10.-Scheele in R(emer, Texas, 427.-Gray in Jour.
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 181; Smithsonian Coutrib. iii, 60; v, 51; Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 304 ; Ives' Rep 11.-
Torrey in Sitg rcaves' Rep. 158; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 20, 82; vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 60.-Cooper in
Smlithlsonian Rep. 1858, 259; Scientific Press, San Francisco, Nov. 1871, & f.-Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 594.

P. odorata, Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 313, t. 1 (excl. fruif,).


r-







62 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

MESQUIT. ALGAROBA. HONEY LOCUST. HONEY POD.
Texas, valley of the Trinity river (Dallas, etc.) to the northern and western limits of the state; west through
New Mexico and Arizona to the mess west of the San Bernardino mountains, California, reaching southern
Colorado, southern Utah (Saint George), and southern Nevada; southward through southern Mexico; in Jamaica.
A tree of the first economic value, sometimes 9 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 meter in diameter,
or much smaller, often reduced to a low shrub; on dry prairies and high rocky plains, or west of the Rocky mountains,
along desert streams, here often forming open forests, and reaching its greatest development within the United
States in the valley of the Santa Cruz and other streams of southern Arizona; in western Texas (Fort Stockton,
etc.), on account of the annual burning of the prairies, rarely 1 meter in height, the roots then enormously
developed, often weighing several hundred pounds, forming, as they are here locally known, "underground forests"
and furnishing the best and cheapest fuel of the region.
Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, difficult to work, almost indestructible in contact
with the soil, containing many evenly-distributed, rather large, open ducts; inedullary rays numerous, distinct;
color, rich dark brown or often red, the sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity, 0.7652; ash, 2.18; of the root,
specific gravity, 0.8493; ash, 3.02; exclusively used for the beams and underpinnings of the adobe houses of New
Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico; for posts and fencing, and occasionally in the manufacture of furniture, the
fellies of heavy wheels, etc.; the best and often the only fuel of the region, burning slowly with a clear flame, and
producing valuable charcoal, but unsuited for the generation of steam on account of its destructive action upon
boilers.
A gum resembling gum arabic is yielded by this species; the unripe and pulpy pods rich in grape sugar, edible,
and furnishing valuable and important fodder.

94.-Prosopis pilbescens, Bentham,
London Jour. Bot. v, 82; Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnman Soc. xxx, 380.-Walpers, Ann. i. 259.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 420; P1.
Wheeler, 8.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 163.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 42, 107.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent.
i, 344.
P. odorata, Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 313, t. 1 (for fruit).
P. Emoryi, Torrey in Emory's Rep. 139.
Strombocarpa pubescens, Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 60; v, 51; Ives' Rep. 9.-Torrey & Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. ii,
163.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 11, 20, 82; v, 360, t. 4; vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 60.-Cooper in
Smithsonian Rep. 1858,259; Scientific Press, San Francisco, Nov. 1871 & f.- Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.
Strombocarpa odorata, Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 158.

SCREW BEAN. SCREW-POD MESQUIT. TORNILLA.
Valley of the Rio Grande (Presidio), western Texas, westward through New Mexico and Arizona (valley of the
Gila and Colorado rivers) to southern California (White Water, Parish Brothers, Vallecito, Thurber), and southward
into Mexico; southern Utah (Saint George), and southern Nevada (Ash Meadows).
A small tree, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or often a tall,
much-branched shrub; sandy or gravelly bottom lands, reaching its greatest development within the United
States in the valleys of the lower Colorado and Gila rivers.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, containing many evenly-distributed
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood somewhat lighter; specific gravity,
0.7609; ash, 0.95; used for fuel and fencing.
The pods used as fodder, and sometimes made into flour by the Indians.

95.-Leucmna glauca, Bentham,
Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iv, 417; Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnman Soc. xxx, 443.-Walpers, Rep. i, 884.-Grisebach, Fl. British West
Indies, 220.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 351.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 350.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 619.
Mimosa glauca, Linnaeus, Spec. 2 ed. 1504.
Acacia glauca, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1075.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 467.
Acacia frondosa, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1076.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 468.
Acacia biceps, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1075.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 467.
Mlimosa leucocephala, Lamarck, Dict. i, 12.
Acacia leucocephala, Link, Enum. Hort. Berl. ii, 444.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 467.
Mimosa biceps, Poiret, Suppl. i, 75.
Mimosa frondosa, Klein in Poiret, Suppl. i, 76.


L__







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 63

Western Texas, San Saba to Devil's river (Buckley); southward into Mexico; semi-tropical Florida (introduced,
Curtiss), and through the West Indies.
A small tree, 7 to ) meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or often a tall or, in Florida,
low shrub, sending up many stems from the ground.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, containing many small, regularly-distributed open ducts; layers of
annual growth and medullary rays hardly distinguishable; color, rich brown streaked with red, the sap-wood clear
yellow; specific gravity, 0.9235; ash, 3.29.

96.-Leucena pulverulenta, Bentham,
Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iv, 417; Rev. Mini. in Trans. Linnean Soc. xxx, 443. -Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 351.
Acacia pulverulenta, Schlechtcndal in Linnea, xii, 571.
Acacia esculenta, Martens & Galootti in Bull. Acad. Brux. x2, 312.
Southern Texas, valley of the lower Rio Grande; southward into Mexico.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, often forming dense
thickets; rich, sandy loam.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, containing many small, regularly-distributed open ducts;
medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, rich dark brown, the sap-wood clear yellow; specific
gravity, 0.6732; ash, 1.01.

97.-Acacia Wrightii, Bentham,
Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 64; Rev. Mim. in Trans. LinnEan Soc. xxx, 521.-Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. v, 53.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 626.-
Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 161.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 61.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 351.

CAT'S CLAW.

Western Texas, valley of the Guadalupe river (New Braunfels), westward and southward to the valley of the
Rio Grande; in northern Mexico.
A small tree, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter, or often a
low, much-branched shrub.
Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by one or two rows of
small open ducts, and containing many scattered smaller ducts; medullary rays hardly distinguishable; color,
bright, clear brown streaked with red and yellow, the sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity, 0.9392; ash, 0.63.


98.-Acacia Greggii, Gray,
Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 65; v, 53; Ives' Rep. 11.-Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 158; Pacific R. R. Rep. vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Boundary
Survey, 61.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 625.-Bentham, Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnuan Soc. xkx, 521.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1860,442.-
Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i. 164.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 108.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 353.- James in Am.
Nat. xv, 981.
CAT'S CLAW.
Western Texas, valley of the Rio Grande, westward through southern New Mexico and Arizona to San Diego,
California; southward into northern Mexico.
A low, much-branched tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 meter in diameter, or often
a shrub; dry mess and in low caions; common; the large specimens generally hollow and defective.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by
numerous rows of rather large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich brown or red, the sap-wood
light yellow; specific gravity, 0.8550; ash, 0.91; used for fuel.
A resinous gum resembling gum arabic is produced by this species (Am. Jour. Pharm. lii, 419).


99.-Acacia Berlandieri, Bentham,
London Jour. Bot. i, 522; Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnman Soc. xxx, 529.-Walpers, Rep. i, 919.-Dietrich, Syn. iv, 500.
A. tephroloba, Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 65; v, 54.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 625.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey,
61.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 352.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 351.
Southern Texas, valley of the Nueces (La Salle county) to Devil's river; southward into Mexico.
A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more often a
tall shrub, sending up many stems from the ground; the large specimens usually hollow and defective.
Wood not examined.








64 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


100.-Lysiloma latisiliqua, Bentham,
Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnuan Soc. xxx, 534.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 619.
Mimosa latisiliqua, Linneus, Spec. 2 ed. 1504.

Acacia latisiliqua, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1067.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 255.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 467.-Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica,
318.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 34, t. 53; 2 ed. i, 183, t. 53.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.
L. Bahamensis, Bentham in Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iii, 82.

Acacia Bahamensis, Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 221.

WILD TAMARIND.
Semi-tropical Florida, southern keys (Key Largo, Elliott's, Plantation, and Boca Chica Keys); through the
West Indies.
A tree sometimes 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter; bark of the young,
vigorous trees smooth; the older trees generally decayed and defective, with rough, dark bark (Curtiss).
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, tough, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a fine polish, containing many
scattered, open ducts; medullary rays numerous, not conspicuous; color, rich dark brown tinged with red, the
sap-wood white; specific gravity, 0.6418; ash, 2.12; somewhat used locally in boat- and ship-building, and considered
equal to mahogany for this purpose.

101.-Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, Bentham,
Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iii, 200; Rev. Mim. in Trans. Linnuan Soc. xxx, 572, 648.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 276.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 116.-Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.
Mimosa Unguis-cati, Linmens, Spec. 2 ed. 1497.-Jacquin, Hort. Schmnb. iii, 74, t. 392.-Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles,
i, t. 11.
Inga 7Unguis-cati, Willdenow, Spec. iv, 1006.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 436.-Nut-tall, Sylva, ii, 37, t. 54; 2 ed. i, 86, t. 54.

Mimnosa rose, Vahl, Eclogte, iii, 33, t. 25.

Inga rose, Stendel in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 437.

Inga forfex, Kunth, Mim. 12, t. 16.
P. fo)fex, Bentham in Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iii, 199.

Inga Guadalipensis, Desvaux,Jour. i,70.

Mimosa Guadalupensis, Persoon, Syn. ii, 262.
Inga microphylla, Humboldt & Bonpland in Willdenow,jipec. iv, 1004.

P. microphyllum, Bentham in Hooker's London Jour. Bot. iii, 200.

P. Guadalupensis, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 116.

CAT'S CLAW.
Semi-tropical Florida, Caximbas bay, and on the southern keys; through the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 6 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter, or often
throwing out many spreading, vine-like stems from the ground.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous, inconspicuous;
color, rich red varying to purple, sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity, 0.9049; ash, 2.46.




ROSACEAE.



102.-Chrysobalanus Icaco, Linnous,
Spec. 1 od. 513.-Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 154, t. 94.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 224; 111. ii,542,t. 428.-Poiret,Suppl. iii, 135.-Aiton, Hort. Kow.
2 ed. iii, 200.-De Candol]e, Prodr. ii, 525.-Lindley in Trains. Hort. Soc. London, v, 98.-Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. 236.-Tussao,
Fl. Antilles, iv, 91, t. 31.--Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 39, t. 5, f. 4.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 406.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 1; Ann. iv, 642.-
Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 91; Fl. Nigritiana, 336.-Sprengl(, Icon. t. 274, f. 1-13.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1860,439.-Chapman,
11. S. States, 119.-Grisebach, Fl. British West ludiies, 22".---Bil!oi in Adansonia, vii, 221; Hist. P1. i, 427, f. 48, 487.--Hooker
f. in Martius, Fl. Brasil. ii, 7.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 257.-llemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 365.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 65

COCOA PLUM.

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to bay Biscayne, west coast Caximbas bay, and on the southern keys;
through the West Indies and tropical America to Brazil.
A small tree, 7 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or along sandy beaches a
low, prostrate shrub 1.08 to 2.16 meters in height; reaching its greatest development within the United States on
the borders and islands of the Everglades, near bay Biscayne.
Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact, containing few irregularly-distributed, not large, open
ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown often tinged with red, the sap wood lighter; specific
gravity, 0.7709; ash, 0.87.
Varieties are distinguished by A. H. Gurtiss with the skin of the edible fruit white or black, the latter more
ovate with narrower, softer stones (I var. pellocarpa, Hooker f. 1. c.--. pellocarpa, Miquel, Prim. Esseq. 193.-
Grisebach, 1. c.).
103.-Prunus Americana, Marshall,

Arbustum, iii.-Darlington in Ann. Lye. N. York, iii, 87, t. 1; Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 72.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 285.-Beck, Bot. 95.-Torroy
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 407; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 164.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 377.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 19, t. 48; 2 ed. i, 169, t. 48.-
Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 194; Emory's Rep. 408; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 82.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 449; 2 ed. ii, 511.-Hooker
in London Jour. Bot. vi, 217.--Remer, Syn. Mon. iii, 59.-Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. iv', 40; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 148.-
Scheele in Rcemer, Texas, 430.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424.-Parry in Oweu's Rep. 611.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119.-Curtis
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 56.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 358.-Wood, Cl. Book, 327; Bet. & Fl.
102.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xiii, 190.-Koch, Dreudrologie, i, 101.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's
Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 33.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76,194.-Broadlead in Coulter's
Bot. Gazette, iii, 52.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65.
P. Mississippi, Marshall, Arbustum, 112.

P. Spinosa, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 146 [not Linnieus].
P. nigra, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 165; 2 ed. iii, 198.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 993; Berl. Baumz, 311.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v,
674.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.-Bot. Mag. t. 1117.-Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 331.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 469; Compend. Fl. N. States,
199.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477.-Roamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 59.
Cerasus nigra, Loiseleur in Nouveau Duhamel, v, 32.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 538.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 167;
Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 513.-Beck, Bot. 96.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 399.-Loudon, Arboretnm,
ii, 704, f. 411, 412.
P. hienalis, Elliott, Sk. i, 542 [not Michaux].
P. coceinea, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 135.

WILD PLUM. CANADA PLUM. HORSE PLUM.

Valley of the Saint Lawrence (Quebec) to the valley of Rainy and Assinaboine rivers and southern shores of
lake Manitoba; northern Vermont, western New England, and southward through the Atlantic states to the
Chattahoochee region of western Florida, west to the valley of the upper Missouri river, Dakota, and Cheyenne
caihon, Pike's Peak region, Colorado, southwest through Arkansas, the Indian territory, to about longitude 1020,
and the valley of the lower Concho river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; rich woods,
or along streams and borders of ponds and swamps, reaching its greatest development on the bottom lands of
eastern Texas.
A form with the young leaves and pedicles pubescent is-

var. mollis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 407.

P. hiemalis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 284.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 679.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb.
ii, 206.-Nouveau Duhamel, v, 184.-Hayne, Dend. F1. 73.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 398.-RE(mer,
Syn. Mon. iii, 59.
P. mollis, Torrey, Fl. U. S. 470; Compend. Fl. N. States, 199.-Beck, Bot. 95.
Cerasus hiemalis, Seringe in De Candollo, Prodr. ii, 538.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 168.-Beck, Bot. 96.-London, Arboretum,
ii, 704.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 504.
Cerasus Americana, Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary
rays numerous, thin; color, rich bright brown or often red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7215; ash, 0.18;
used for the handles of tools, etc.
Often cultivated for theyellow, red, or rarely nearly black, acid or rarely sweet fruit, and furnishing an excellent
stock on which to graft the varieties of the domestic plum.
5 FOR








66 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


104.-Prunus angustifolia, Marshall,

Arbustum, iii.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 103.

P. Chicasa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 284.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 680.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.-
Nouveau Duhamel, v,183.-Elliott, Sk. i,542.-Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 194; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 82.-
Sprengel, Syst. ii, 476.-Audubon, Birds, t. 53.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 285.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 397.-Torrey & Gray, Fl.
N. America, i, 407; Pacific R. 1. Rep. ii, 164.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 377.--Rmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 58.-Darlington, Fl.
Ccstrica, 3 ed. 73.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 299.-Browne, Trees of America, 250.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
251.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina 1860, ii-i, 56.-Lesquereux in
Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 858.-Wood, Cl. Book, 328; Bot. & Fl. 102.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 148; Hall's
Pl. Texas, 9.-Young, Bot. Texas, 1251.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 33.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65.
P. insititia, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 146.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 60.

Cerasus Chicasa, Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 538.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am.i, 168; Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.-Don,
Miller's Diet. ii, 514.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 705.


CHICKASAW PLUM. HOG PLUM,

Probably native of the eastern slopes of the southern Rocky mountains, where it is found at an altitude of
7,000 feet, and of the high plateau east and southeast of them; now widely naturalized by early cultivation
throughout the Atlantic forests south of Pennsylvania, and west of the Alleghany mountains extending as far
north as southern Michigan.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk, 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a low shrub;
generally along streams or borders of prairies, in rich soil.
Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or
red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6884; ash, 0.28; often cultivated for its globose red or yellow fruit.


105.-Prunus Pennsylvanica, Linnuus f.

Suppl. 252.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 992; Enum. 518; Berl. Baumz. 310.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, t. 45.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 673.-
Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.-Nouveau Duhamel, v, 9.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 198.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 331.-Nuttall, Genera, i,
302.-Torrey, FL. U. S. 468; Compend. Fl. N. States, 198.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477.-Hayne, Dend. F1. 73.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed., 285.-
Beck in Am. Journal Sci. 1 ser. xiv, 112.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 42.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 130.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N.
Carolina, 1860, iii, 57.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 102.-Gray in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1863, 61; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 148.-Koch,
Dendrologie, i, 117.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4,33.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 2 ed. ii,
513.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 194.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80,
54c.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.

?P. lanceolate, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 240, t. 3, f. 3.

Cerasus borealis, Michaux. Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 286.-Nouveau Duhamel, v, 32.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 159, t. 8; N.
American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 152. t. 90.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 558.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 513.-Beck, Bot.
97.-London, Arboretum, ii, 703, f. 410.-Romer, Syn. Mon. iii, 78.

P. borealis, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 674.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 538.-Eaton, Manual, 54.-Barton, Compend. Fl.
Philadelph. i, 223.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 1598.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 205.

? P. persicfolia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 205.

? Cerasus persicifolia, Loiseleur in Nouveau Duhamel, v, 9.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 537.-Don, Miller's Diet.
ii, 512.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 411.-Remer, Syn. Mon. iii, 81.

Cerasus Pennsylvanica, Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 538.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,168.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 514.-
Beck, Bot. 97.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 409.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 705.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.-
Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 196.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 15; 2 ed. i, 165.-Browne, Trees of America, 265.-Emerson, Trees
Massachusetts, 1 ed. 451.--Rmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 57.-Gray, Manual N. States. 1 ed. 115.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 611.-
Richardson, Arctic Exped. 425.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251.-Wood, Cl. Book, 327.


WILD RED CHERRY. PIN CHERRY. PIGEON CHERRY.

Labrador, shores of Hudson's bay, and west through the Saskatchewan region to the valley of the upper Fraser
river (Soda creek, Macoun); south through the northern states to Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois,
central Iowa, and along the high Alleghany mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, and the Rocky mountains
of Colorado.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 67

A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter, or in the
Rocky Mountain region reduced to a low shrub; common in all the northern forests, in northern New England
taking possession of ground cleared by fire of the coniferous forests.
Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, sap-wood clear
yellow; specific gravity, 0.5023; ash, 0.40.
The small acid fruit used domestically and by herbalists in the preparation of cough mixtures, etc.


106.-Prunus umbellata, Elliott,
Sk. i, 541.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 286.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 44.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119.-Wood, Cl. Book, 328; Bot. & Fl. 102.-
Young, Bot. Texas, 251.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.

P. pumila, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 146 [not Linnmus].
Gerasus umbellata, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 409.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 190.-Reamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 78.


SLOE. BLACK SLOE.

South Carolina, south near the coast to Mosquito inlet and Tampa bay, Florida, and through central Alabama
to eastern Mississippi (Holly Springs and Enterprise, Mohr).
A small tree, 5 to 6 meters in height, with a truink 0.25 to 0.38 meter in diameter; dry, sandy soil.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark reddish-brown, the
sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.8202; ash, 0.12.
The black, or red pleasantly acid fruit used as a preserve.


107.-Prunus emarginata, Walpers,
Rep. ii, 9.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 42.-London, Arboretum, ii, 714.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 79.-Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 284.-
Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167.

Cerasus emarginata, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 515.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America,
i, 410.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.-REmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 79.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83.-Bolander in
Proc. California Acad. iii, 79.

Gerasus erect, Presl, Epimel. Bot. 194.-Walpers, Ann, iii, 854.

Gerasus glandulosa, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad. i, 59.

SVancouver's island and the valley of the lower Fraser river, south through western Washington territory and
Oregon, cast to the western slopes of the Bitter Root mountain, Idaho (Lolo trail, Watson), and the valley of the
Jocko river, Montana (Canby & Sargent). California along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas and on the
Coast ranges, from San Francisco bay to the Santa Lucia mountains (G. R. Vasey), reaching an elevation of from
3,000 to 4,000 feet.
A tree often 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; at high
T elevations and throughout central California reduced to a shrub 2 to 3 meters in height, or in the Santa Lucia
L mountains 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter (Vasey) ; generally along streams
or in low, rich woods.
The wood of the type not collected.

Var. mollis, Brewer,
Bot. California, i, 167.-Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 86.

"\ Cerasus mollis, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169.-Hooker, London Jour. Bot. vi, 217.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 515.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 410.-London, Arboretum, ii, 417.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii,
14, t. 46; 2 ed. i, 164, t. 46.--Remer, Syn. Mon. iii, 79.-Richardson, Arctic Exped, 425.-Newberry in Pacific R. R.
Rep. vi, 73.--Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 29, 59; Am. Nat. iii, 406.-Lyall in Jour. Linnaan Soc. vii, 131. -Gray
in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 381.

P. mollis, Walpers, Rep. ii, 9.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 42.-Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 284.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-
Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 194.

The common northern and Idaho form, more or less wooly pubescent, especially on the under side of the leaves.
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown
streaked with green; specific gravity, 0.4502; ash, 0.21.









68 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


108.-Prunus serotina, Ehrhart,\
Beitr. iii, 20.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 986; Ennm. 517; Berl. Baumz. 301.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 34.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 204.-Aiton,
Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 196.-Eaton, Manual, 54; 6 ed. 284.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.-Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. 54.-Guimpel,
Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 45, t. 37.-Hayno, Dend. Fl. 70.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 478.-Nees, P1. Neuwied, 9.-Hooker f. in Trans.
Linnman Soc. xxii2, 327.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 56.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas,
358.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 102.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 120.-Gray, Manual
N. States, 5 ed. 149; Hall's P1. Texas, 9.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 122.-Torrey, Bot. WilkesExped. 284.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts,
2 ed. ii, 515 & t.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Bentley & Trimen, Med. Pl. ii, 97, t.
97.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66.
P. Virginiana, Miller, Diet. No. 3 [not Linnmus].--Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 12; Harbk. ii, 191.-Wangenheim, Amer. 34, t. 14.-
Medicus, Bot. Boobacht. 1782, 345.-Marshall, Arbustum, 112.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 146.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii,
163.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 664.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 329.-Elliott, Sk. i, 540.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 467;
Compend. Fl. N. States, 189.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 204.

Cerasus Virginiana, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 285.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 151, t. 6; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 147,
t. 88.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169 (excl. syn.).-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 515.-Beck, Bot. 97.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2
ed. 289.-London, Arboretum, ii, 710, f. 418.-Browne, Trees of America, 268.
Cerasus serotina, Loiseleur in Nouveau Duhamel, v, 3.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 540.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 416.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 410.-London, Arboretum, ii, 712, f. 419 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.-Torrey,
Fl. N. York, i, 196; Pacific R. R. Rep. vii, 11.-Penn. Cycl. vi, 432.-Carson, Med. Bot. i, 41, t. 35.-Griffith, Med. Bot.
288.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 1 ed. 453.-Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 115; Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi,
186.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 75.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 299.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Porcher,
Resources S. Forests, 169.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 425.-Wood, Cl. Book, 326.-Bolander in Proc. California
Acad. iii, 79.

P. cartilaginea, Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg, 1833.

Padus serotina, Agardh, Theor. & Syst. PI. t. 14, f. 8.

Padus Virginiana, Ramer, Syn. Mon. iii, 86.

Padus cartilaginea, Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 86.

WILD BLACK CHERRY. RUM CHERRY.

Southern Ontario, southward through the Atlantic forests to Matanzas inlet and Tampa bay, Florida, west to
the valley of the Missouri river, Dakota, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and the valley of the upper San
Antonio River, Texas.
A tree 18 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 or, exceptionally, 1.50 meter in diameter; rich,
generally elevated woodlands; common and reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the
Alleghany mountains from West Virginia southward; not common and of small size in the Gulf region and
Texas
Wood light, hard, strong, close, straight-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, thin;
color, light brown or red, growing darker with exposure, the thin sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.5822; ash,
0.15; largely used and esteemed in cabinet work, interior finish, etc., and now becoming scarce.
The bark contains a bitter tonic principle, and infused with cold water generates a small percentage of
hydrocyanic acid; employed as a tonic and sedative in cases of pulmonary consumption in the form of cold
infusions, sirups, and fluid extracts (Proc. Am. PhIr. Assoc. xxiii, 209.-Globley in Jour. Pharm. et Chimie, xv, 40.-
Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 317.-Pharm. Jour. 3 ser. iv, 44.-Fliickiger & Hanbury, Pharmocographia, 224.-
U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 749.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1177); the bitter fruit used domestically in the preparation
of cherry brandy.
NoTE.-The closely-allied P. Virginiana of the north Atlantic region, a tall shrub, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, does not
assume arborescent habit.

109.-Prunus Capuli, Cavanilles,
Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477.-Schlechtendal in Liunna, xiii, 89, 404.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 123.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 367.-
Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 352.

Cerasus Capollin, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 539.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 515.-London, Arboretum, ii, 713, f. 420.-Bentham,
P1. Hartweg. 10.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 232.-Penn. Cycl. vi, 432.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.America, i, 412.-Gray iu
Smithsonian Contrib. v, 54.

Cerasus Cptuli, Scringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 541.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 516.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 422.

P. Capollin, Zuccarini in Abhandl. Acad. Munich, ii, 345, t. 8.-Rmmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 87.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary
Survey, 62.-- usby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 53.

P. Canadensis, Mocino & Sess6, P1. Mex. Icon. ined.


___ ~~~_~ __~_i~__i








~OTAJLOGUE OF FOREST: TREES. 69


WILD CHERRY.

Apache and Guadalupe mountains, Texas, west through southern New Mexico and Arizona to the southern
slopes of the San Francisco mountains; southward through northern New Mexico, and in Peru.
A small tree, in the United States, rarely 12 meters in height, with a trunk often 0.30 meter in diameter;
bottoms of caiions and mountain valleys, generally between 5,000 and 7,000 feet elevation.
Wood heavy, moderately hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, brown, or
often bright, clear red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7879; ash, 0.20.


110.-Prunus demissa, Walpers,

Rep. ii, 10.-Dictrich, Syn. iii, 43.-Bentham, P1. Hartweg. 307.-Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 63.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 80;
P1. Wheeler, 8.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 481.-Coulter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 764.-Rothrock, P1. Wheeler, 37.-Brandcgoe in
Hayden's Rep. 1875, 236.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette,
S/ ii, 86.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 194.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 368.

Cerasus serotina, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169, in part.

Gerasus demissa, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 411.-Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. ivI, 40.-Dnrand in
Jour. Philadelphia Acad. 1855, 87.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83.-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 73.-Cooper
in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,259; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 59.

Padus demissa, Rcamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 87.

P. Virginiana, var. demissa, Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 284.-Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 381.

WILD CHERRY.

Vancouver's island east to the western slopes of the Rocky mountains of Montana, south through the Pacific
region; in Sonora.
A small tree, sometimes 7 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a.
low shrub; reaching its greatest development in the rich valleys of southern Oregon and northern California, near
the coast; in southern California, and east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges, a low shrub confined to high,
mountain valleys.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, light
brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6951; ash, 0.50.


111.-Prunus Caroliniana, Aiton,

Hort. Kew. ii, 163; 2 ed. iii, 196.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 987.-Poiret in Lamarck, Dict. v, 667.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 34.-Desfontaines, Hist.
Arb. ii, 203.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.-Sprengel, Neue Entdeck. i, 304; Syst. ii, 478.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 71.-Elliott, Sk. i, 540.-
Audubou, Birds, t. 159, 190.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 286.-Schlechtendal in Linnma, xiii, 89.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 43.-Chapman,
Fl. S. States, 120.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 57.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 103.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 124.-
Young, Bet. Texas, 252.-Gray, Hall's P1. Texas, 9.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.

P. Carolina, Miller, Dict.-Du Roi, Harbk. ii, 198.

P. serratifolia, Marshall, Arbustum, 114.

P. Lusitanica, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 146.

Cerasus Caroliniana, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 285.-Nouveau Duhamel, v, 5.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 156, t. 7;
N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 150, t. 89.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 540.-Don, Miller's Diet: ii, 516.-Spach,
Hist. Veg. i, 420.-Penn. Cycl. vi, 432.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 720, f. 423.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 411.-
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 190.-Browne, Trees of America, 272.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 299.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 291.-
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 171.-Wood, Cl. Book, 326.

P. sempervirens, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 33.

? Bumetia serrata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 155.-Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 498.

?Achras serrata, Poiret, Suppl. v, 36.

Leptocarpa Carolinianaa, Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 18; 2 ed. i, 167.

Chimanthus amygdalinus, Ralinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 159.

Laurocerasus Caroliniana, Reamer, Syn. Mon.iii, 90.







FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


WILD ORANGE. MOCK ORANGE. WILD PEACH.
North Carolina, south, near the coast, to bay Biscayne, Florida, and southern Alabama, west, along the Gulf
coast, to the valley of the Guadalupe river, Texas.
A small tree, evergreen, 10 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter;
common and reaching its greatest development in the rich, light, deep soil of the bottoms of eastern Texas, here
often covering extensive tracts known as "peach brakes"; not common in the eastern Gulf states.
Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking badly in seasoning, susceptible of a good polish; medullary
rays numerous, thin; color, light reddish-brown, or, more rarely, rich dark brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific
gravity, 0.8688; ash, 0.41.
Generally planted in the southern states as an ornamental and hedge plant; foliage, bark, and fruit contain
prussic acid, the leaves, especially when partly withered, often proving fatal to animals browsing upon them.

112.-Prunus spherocarpa, Swartz,
Prodr. 81; Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 927 [not Michaux].-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 987.-Poiret in Lamarck, Dict. v, 666.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 34.-Don,
Miller's Diet. ii, 516.-Schlechtendal in Linnvea, xiii, 87.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 10.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 231.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 620.
Cerasus splcerocarpa, Loiseleur in Nouveau Duhamel, v, 4.-Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 540.-Loudon, Arboretum ii,
721.-Bot. Mag. t. 3141.-Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 421.
Semi-tropical Florida, western shores of bay Biscayne (Curtiss); in the West Indies.
A small tree, in Florida not exceeding 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter; high
rocky woods or, more rarely, along the borders of streams and ponds; rare.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many very small open ducts; layers
of annual growth and medullary rays obscure; color, light, clear red, the sap-wood pale yellow; specific gravity,
0.8998; ash, 0.87.
113.-Prunus ilicifolia, Walpers,
Rep. ii, 10.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 43.-Torrey, Bet. Mex. Boundary Survey, 63; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 285.-Brewer & Watson, Bot.
California, i, 168; ii, 443.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.
Cerasus ilicifolia, Nuttall in Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 340, t. 83.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 411.-Nuttall,
Sylva, ii, 16, t. 47; 2 ed. i, 165, t. 47.-Torrey in Emory's Rep. 139; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83.-Paxton, Brit Fl. Garden,
iii, 44, f. 254.-Walpers, Ann. iv, 654.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259.-Kellogg in Proc. California Acad. ii,
22.-Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 79; iv, 22.-London Garden, 1873, 131 & fig.
Laurocerasus ilicifolia, Raemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 92.

ISLAY.

California, Coast ranges from San Francisco bay south to the southern boundary of the state, extending to
the western slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains.
A small tree, evergreen, often 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter, or when
distant from the coast often reduced to a low shrub.
Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking in seasoning, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish,
containing many regularly-distributed rather small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, bright
reddish-brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.9803; ash, 0.78; furnishing valuable fuel.

114.-Vauquelinia Torreyi, Watson,
Proc. Am. Acad. xi, 147.-Brewer & Watson, Bet. California, i, 169,-Maximowicz in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, v2, 237.-Hemsley, Bot.
Am.-Cent. i, 370.
Spircea Californica, Torrey in Emory's Rep. 140.
V. corymbosa, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 64 [not Correa].
Arizona, high mountains near the Gila (Emory), summits of the Santa Catalina mountains (Pringle, Lemmon);
in Sonora.
A small tree in the Santa Catalina mountains, 4 to 6 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.20 meter in
diameter; dry slopes and rocky bluffs at 2,700 to 4,000 feet elevation, granitic soil; generally hollow and decayed.
Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays
numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 1.1374; ash, 1.45.


I i


~ii (


(~ 4




i

11

t:
11








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 71


115.-Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nuttall;

rrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427.-Hooker, Icon. t. 324.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 28, t. 51; 2 ed. i, 178, t. 51.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 46.-
Tolietrich, Syn. iii, 119.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 83, 420; P1. Wheeler, 8.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 481.-Coulter in
den's Rep. 1872,765.-Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 201, 270; Proc. Davenport Acad. i, 146.-Engelmann in Simpson's Rep. 435.-
Ha~\r & Watson, Bot. California, i, 174.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-Sargent in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xvii, 421.-Rothrock in
Broew's Rep. vi, 43, 111, 360.
Wheelesz.
W e MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY.

mountains, Idaho, southward along the western slopes of the Rocky mountains of Montana and
Cneur d'Al~nA
C r d en extremities of the Blue mountains of Washington territory and Oregon, Wahsatch mountains,
Wyoming ; eastern
Wyoming; et g the mountain ranges of the Great Basin to the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of
Utah, and west alo
h, ad wt a southward into Arizona and New Mexico.
California, extending.
California, extendingrarely 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or north
A small, low tree, duced to a low shrub; dry, rocky mountain slopes, between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation,
of Utah and Nevada r
.f a elopment on the high ranges of central Nevada.
reaching its greatest de-
reachng its greatest .f the Wahsatch mountain and other ranges of Utah, characterized by its rigid, intricately
A shrubby variety o .... .
A sh y vriey revolute leaves and smaller flowers and fruit, is-
branched growth, short,
,M. E. Jones in herb.
var. intricatus'

C. intricatus, W~\on in Proc. Am. Acad. x, 346.-Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 270; Proc. Davenport Acad. i, 147.
C. brevifolius, Wats n in King's Rep. v, 83 [not Gray].

Wood ver ha, hd, ose-grained, compact, brittle, difficult to work, susceptible of a beautiful polish;
Woocd very heavy, hard, c .. .. . .. .. ... .
medullary rs very u thin; color, bright, clear red, or often rich dark brown, the sap-wood clear yellow;
medullary rays very numerous, .
specific gravity, 1.0731; ash, 10 furnishing the most valuable fuel of the region, and largely manufactured into
specific gravity, 1.0731 ; ash, 1 04
charcoal.
116.-Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nuttall;

Hooer & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 337 rrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 164.-Hooker, Icon. t. 323.-Walpers,
Rep. ii, .-Torrey inFremont's ep.89; Emory's Rep. 139; Sitgreaves' Rep. 158; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83; Bot. Mex. Boundary
Survey, 63; ot. Wilkes Exped. 27.- etrich, Syn. iii, 119.-Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. iv1, 41; Smithsonian Contrib. iii,
68; v, 54; Proc. Boston SocNa. 8ist. ji, 146; Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiii, 411; Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1863, 61.-Engelmann
Sin TransAm Soc. new se 19 Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 79.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1870, 475; 1871,
in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190.1 "
Watson in King's Rep. v, 82 -Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Srv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 34--Rothrock, Pl. Wheeler,
37; W heeler's Rep. vi, 111, 359.-Breer & Vatson Bot. California, i, 174; ii, 444.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-M. E. Jones,
Excur. Bot. 12,15,20, 21.-Hemsley, Bot. Am.-ent. i, 374.-Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 353.

MOU~TTAIN MAHOGANY.

California, valley of the Klamath river, southward through the Coast ranges to the San Bernardino and San
California .. ... "-, ai+ nf Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, mountains
Jacinto mountains, and in Lower California; Rocky mou Colorado, and New Mexico, mountains
of southern Arizona, and southward into Sonora.
A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk someies 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often a
shrub; dry, gravelly soil, reaching its greatest development on the mountains o 'outhern New Mexico and Arizona,
at an elevation of 6,000 to 8,000 feet.
A glabrous variety of southern California, with dark green leaves, is-

var. glaber, Watson, Bot. California, i, 175.

0. betulcefolius, Nuttall in Hooker, Icon. t. 322.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 46.

C. betuloides, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427.-Hooker in London Jour. Bot. vi, 218.

A form with small entire or sparingly toothed leaves, of northern Mexico, is-

var. paucidentatus, Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xvii, 353.

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, difficult to work, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary
rays numerous, thin ; color, bright reddish-brown, the sap-wood light brown; specific gravity, 0.9365; ash, 0.45;
furnishing valuable fuel.








72 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

117.-Pyrus coronaria, Linnams,
Spec. 1 ed. 480.-Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii, 166.-Du Roi, Harbk. i, 229.-Marshall, Arbustum, 118.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 176; 2
ed. iii, 209.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1019; Enum. 527; Berl. Baumz. 330.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 40.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 340.--Eaton,
Manual, 56; 6 ed. 291.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 307.-Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. i, 228.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 86.-Torrey, Fl. U.
S. i, 180; Compend. Fl. N. States, 203; Fl. N. York, i, 223.-Bot. Mag. t. 2009.-Elliott, Sk. i, 559.-Bot Reg. viii, 651.-Sprengel,
Syst. ii, 510.-Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 635.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 647.-Beck, Bot. 113.-Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.-
Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. t. 240.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 223.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 154.-Loudon, Arboret-m, ii, 908 & t.-
Browno, Trees of America, 297.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 428.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 612.-Darby, Bot. S. states, 307.-Cooper
in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 128.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 69.-
Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, CI. Book, b32; Bot. & Fl. 112.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 149.-Gray,
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 101.-Koch, Deudrologie, i, 214.-Wenzig in Linntea, xxxviii, 40 (excl. var.).-Maco:mu & Gibson in Trans.
Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, xii, 325.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.-London Garden, xix, 400, t. 280.-Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No.
22,78.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. /,

Mallts coronaria, Miller, Diet. No. 2.-Mcench, Meth. 682.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 292.-Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. v, 562.-
Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 140.-Nouveau Duhamel, vi, 139, t. 44, f. 1.-Michaux f. Hist., Arb. Am. iii, 65, t. 10; N.
American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 58, t. 65.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 55.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, ,36, t. 8.-Rcemer, Syn. Mon.
iii, 191.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 154.-Carrioro in Rev. Hort. 1877, 410 & t.
Cratcguss coronaria, Salisbury, Prodr. 357.

Malus microcarpa coronaria, Carribre in Rev. Hort. 1884, 104, f. 24.

AMERICAN CRAB. SWEET-SCENTED CRAB.

Ontario, valley of the Humber river, shores of lake Erie, southward thro igh western New York and
Pennsylvania to the District of Columbia, and along the Alleghany mountains to central Alabama and northern
Mississippi; west to southern Minnesota, Iowa, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory y, and northern Louisiana.
A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk often 0.30 meter in diameter; rich, rather low woods,
reaching its greatest development in the valleys of the lower Ohio region. /
Wood heavy, rather soft, not strong, very close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous,
obscure; color, brown varying to light red, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7048; ash, 0.52; used for
levers, handles of tools, and in turner.
Often planted for ornament on account of its fragrant blossoms; the sm all, yellow-green austere fruit used for
preserves, and occasionally made into cider.

118.-Pyrus angustifolia, Aito n,
Hort. Kew. ii, 176; 2 ed. iii, 209.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1020.-Poiret in Lamarck, D/'ct. v, 455.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 40.-Pursh, Fl, Am. Sept.
i, 341.-Elliott, Sk. i, 559. -Torrey, Fl. U. S. 480; Compend. Fl. N. States, 203. -Sprengel, Syst. ii, 509.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 635.-
Watson, Dend. Brit. ii. t. 132.-Bot. Reg. xiv, 1207.-Don, Miller's Diet. 647.. -Beck, Bet. 113.-Hooker, Companion Bet. Mag. i, 25.-
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 471.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 909 & t.--F 4ton & Wright, Bot. 382.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 154.-Nuttall,
Sylva, ii, 24; 2 ed. i, 174.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 307.-Cooper in S(mithsonian Rep. 1858,252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 128.-
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 69.-Lesquer ux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, C. Book, 333;
Bet. & Fl. 112.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 161.-Koch, Dendrol ogie, i, 213.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Ridgway in Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,66.
P. coronaria, Wangeuheim, Amer. 61, t. 21,;. 47 [not LinnmnsJ.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.

Malus angustifolia, Michaux, FB. .Bjir'.Am. i, 292.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155.

Malus sempervirens, D sifontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 141.-Nouveau Duhamel, vi, 638, t. 43, f. 1.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 524.-Spaoh,
Hist. Veg. ii t. 8, figs.-Rmcmcr, Syn. Mon. iii, 191.
P. coronariq '.,var. angustifolia, Wenzig in Linnma, xxxviii, 41.

Ch/GOQ ineles sempervirens, Decaisne in Fl. des Serres, xxiii, 126.

AMERICAN CRAB APPLE. SOUTHERN CRAB APPLE.

Pennsylvania 1, southern Delaware, and the valley of the lower Wabash river, Illinois, south to the Chattahoochee
region of western Florida.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter; low, rich woods; most common
and reaching its greatest development along the river bottoms of the south Atlantic states; less common west of
the Alleghany mountains.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.6895; ash, 0.33; used for levers, handles of tools, etc.
The austere fruit used for preserves and made into cider.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 73


119.-Pyrus rivularis, Douglas;

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 203, t. 68.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 647.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 471.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 383.-
Walpers, Rep. ii, 53.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 154.-Ledebour, Fl. Rossica, ii, 99.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 22, t.49; 2 ed. i, 172, t. 49.-Richardson,
Arctic Exped. 428. -Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 85; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 292.-Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 73.-Cooper
in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,259; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 29, 60.-Rothrock in Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 435, 446.-Koch, Dendrologie,
i, 212.-Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 382.-Wenzig in Linnea, xxxviii, 38.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California,i, 188.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 87.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 195.-Dawson in
Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 330.

P. diversifolia, Bongard in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, 6 ser. ii, 133.

P. fusca, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 254.

P. subcordata, Ledebour, Fl. Rossica, ii, 95.

Malus rivularis, Reamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 215.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155.

Malus diversifolia, Reomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 215.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155.

Malus subcordata, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 192.


OREGON CRAB APPLE.

Coast of Alaska, southward along the coast and islands of British Columbia, through Washington territory
and Oregon, west of the Cascade mountains, to Sonoma county, California.
A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; rich, low woods,
generally along streams, often forming dense thickets.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, liable to check badly in drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish;
medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity,
0.8316; ash, 0.41; used for mallets, mauls, bearings of machinery, etc.
The small, black, pleasantly acid fruit occasionally used as a preserve, and prized by the Indians as food.


120.-Pyrus Americana, De Candolle,

Prodr. ii, 637.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i. t. 54.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 511.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 204.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 648.-Beck,
Bot. 113.-Audubon, Birds, t. 363.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 472.-London, Arboretum, iii, 920 & t.-Eaton & Wright,
Bot. 383.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 224.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 155.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 25, t. 50; 2 ed. i, 175, t. 50.-Browne, Trees of
America, 326.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 439; 2 ed. ii, 499.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 612.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 428.-
Lange, Pi. Groanl. 134.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 129.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv.
N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 70.-Wood, Cl. Book, 333; Bot. & Fl. 112.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 168.-Gray, Manual N. States,
5 ed. 161.-Koch, Dendrologio, i, 190.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Macoun in
Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 195.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54C.

Sorbus Americana, Marshall, Arbustum, 145.-Willdenow, Enum. 520.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 341.-Poiret, Suppl. v,
164.-Eaton, Manual, 55; 6 ed. 351.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 75.-Torrey, Fl.U. S. 477; Compend.
Fl. N. States, 202.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 95.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 207.-Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 138.-Maximowicz
in Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, xix, 174.-Wenzig in Linnma, xxxviii, 71.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 158.

Sorbus aucuparia, Poirot in Lamarck, Dict. vii, 234, in part.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 1. ed. 119.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus.
x, 158, in part.

Sorbus aucuparia, var. Americana, Persoon, Syn. ii, 38 & addend.

P. aucuparia, Meyer, PI. Labrador, 81, in part.-Schlechtendal in Linnma, x, 99.-Hooker f. in Trans. Linnean Soc. xxiiP,
290, 327, in part.

Sorbus humifusa, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 265.


MOUNTAIN ASH.

Greenland ?, Labrador, Newfoundland, Anticosti island, and westward along the southern shore of James' bay
to the valley of the Nelson river (White Mud falls), southward through all mountainous regions of the northeastern
states, and along the high mountains of Virginia and North Carolina; in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and
Minnesota.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; borders of swamps and in
moist, rocky woods, reaching its greatest development on the northern shores of lakes Huron and Superior.







74 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

A form with smaller fruit, peculiar to the high southern Alleghany mountains, is-

var. microcarpa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 472.

Sorbus aucuparia, var. a. Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 200.
Sorbus microcarpa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 341.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 164.-Elliott, Sk. i, 555.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 477.-Eaton,
Manual, 6 ed. 351.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 95.-Rcomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 138.
P. microcarpa, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 511.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 636.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 648.-Beck, Bet. 113.-Eaton
& Wright, Bot. 383.-London, Arboretum, ii, 921.
Sorbus Americana, var. microcarpa, Wenzig in Linnua, xxxviii, 71.
Sorbus riparia, Rafinesque, New Sylva, 15.

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown, the sap-wood
lighter; specific gravity, 0.5451; ash, 0.83.
Often planted for ornament.
121.-Pyrus sambucifolia,
Chamisso & Schlechtendal in Linnma, ii, 36.-Bongard in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, 6 ser. ii, 133.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 648.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 472.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 53.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 155.-Ledebour, Fl. Rossica, ii, 99.-Trautvetter & Meyer,
F1. Oclot. 37.-Maximowicz, Prim. Fl. Amurensis, 103.-Rothrock in Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 446.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed.
161; Proc. Am. Acad. viii, 362.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1870, 475.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 92.-Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado;
Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 38.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76,195.-
Hall iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 87.-G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 10.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 176.
Sorbus aucuparia, var. f/. Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 290.

Sorbus aucuparia, Schrank, P1. Labrador, 25, in part [not Linnmus].

P. Americana, Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 73 [not De Candolle].-Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii2, 60.-Torrey, Bot.
Wilkes Exped. 292.
P. aucuparia, Meyer, P1. Labrador, 81, in part.-Schlechtendal in Linnea, x, 99, in part.-Hooker in Trans. Linnean Soc.
xxii2, 290, 327, in part.
Sorbus sambucifolia, Rasmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 139.-Maximowicz in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, xix, 174.-Wenzig in
Linmea, xxxviii, 73.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 159.
Sorbus Sitchensis, Romer, Syn. Mon. iii, 139.

MOUNTAIN ASH.
Labrador to northern New England and the shores of lake Superior; high mountain ranges of the Pacific
region from Alaska to southern New Mexico; in Kamtchatka.
A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or in the Pacific forests
generally reduced to a low shrub; cold, wet swamps or borders of streams, reaching its greatest development in
northern New England and Minnesota.
Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown, the
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5928; ash, 0.35.
The bark and unripe fruit of the American mountain ashes, like those of the nearly-allied P. aucuparia of
Europe, are extremely astringent, and occasionally used, domestically, in infusions, decoctions, etc., in the treatment
of diarrhea (Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1333).

122.-Crategus rivularis, Nuttall;
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 161.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 58.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 9; 2 ed. i, 160.-Cooper in
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 258; Am. Nat. iii, 407.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 107.-Watson in King's Rep. v, 92.-Porter
in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 482.-Coulter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 765.-Brandegee in Hayden's Rep. 1875, 236.-Vasey, Cat. Forest
Trees, 14.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 195.-Engelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 128.
C. sanguine, var. Douglasii, Coulter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 765 [not Torrey & Gray].

British Columbia, south through eastern Oregon and Washington territory, east and southeast along the
mountain ranges of Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado, to the Pinos Altos mountains, New Mexico (Greene).
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter, or often a tall,
much-branched shrub, forming dense, impenetrable thickets along borders of streams and swamps.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, bright reddish-brown, the
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7703; ash, 0.35.


- ----a







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 75


123.-Crategus Douglasii, Lindley,

Bot. Reg. xxi, t. 1810.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 823, f. 584 & t.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 147.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow,
xlviii, 26.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76,195.-Engelmann in Coulter's
Bot. Gazette, vii, 128.
? 0. glandulosa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337, in part.
0. punctata, var. brevispina, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.
C. sanguine, var. Douglasii, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 58.-Dietrich, Syn.iii, 160.--
Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 292.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 116.
0. sanguine, Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 6, t. 44; 2 ed. i, 157, t.44 [not Pallas].-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259; Am.Nat.
iii, 407.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.
Anthomeles Douglasii, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 140.
C. rivularis, Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189 [not Nuttall].

British Columbia, valley of the Parsnip river, in about latitude 550 N., south through Washington territory
and Oregon to the valley of the Pitt river, California, extending east through Idaho and Montana to the western
base of the Rocky mountains (valley of the Flathead river, Canby & Sargent).
A small tree, sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or often a tall shrub
throwing up many stems from the ground and forming impenetrable thickets; rather wet, sandy soil along
streams, and reaching its greatest development in the valleys west of the Cascade mountains; toward its eastern
limits a low shrub.
Wood heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays
numerous, thin; color, nearly white tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6950; ash, 0.33;
used for wedges, mauls, etc.
The small, sweet, black fruit, ripening in August, is largely collected by the Indians.


124.-Cratuegus brachyacantha, Sargent & Englemann;

Engelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 1-28.
HOGS' HAW.

New Orleans?, (Drummond in herb. Gray); Minden, Louisiana (Mohr); Concord, Texas (Sargent); Longview,
Texas (in fruit, Letterman).
A tree 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter; borders of streams in low,
very rich soil; the largest North American representative of the genus.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays numerous,
very obscure; color, light brown tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6793; ash, 0.42.
The large blue-black fruit greedily eaten by hogs and other animals.


125.-Cratmgus arborescens, Elliott,

Sk. i, 550.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 466.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.-Dietrich, Syn. iii,160.-
Walpers, Rep. ii, 58.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 10, t. 45; 2 ed. i, 160, t. 45.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.-Cooperin Smithsonian Rep. 1858,
252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.-Young, Fl. Texas, 259.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-
Engelmann in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 4.

Phcenopyrum arborescens, Rcrner, Syn. Mon. iii, 153.

C. Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 109, in part.

Valley of the Savannah river, South Carolina (Aiken, Ravenel), south to the Chattahoochee region of western
Florida; valley of the Mississippi river, near Saint Louis (Engelmann), south and southwest to western Louisiana,
and the valley of the lower Colorado river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.45 to 0.60 meter in diameter; borders of streams
and in rather low, wet swamps.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays very
numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6491; ash, 0.57.
The small globular fruit bright red or, more rarely, orange.








76 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.



126.-Crataegus Crus-galli, Linnmeus,
Spec. 1 ed. 476.-Kalm, Travels, English ed. i, 115.-Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. ii, 344.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147.-Aiton, Hort. Kew.
ii, 170; 2 ed. iii, 202.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1004.-Micaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 288.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 338.-
Eaton, Manual, 55; 6 ed. lll.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Barton, Compend. Fl. Pliladelph. i, 225; Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 54.-Elliott,
Sk. i, 548.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 476; Compend. Fl. N. States, 202; Fl. N. York, i, 221.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 56.-De Candolle, Prodr.
ii, 626.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 2CO; Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 598.-Beck, Bot. 111.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.
America, i, 463.-London, Arboretum, ii, 820. f. 574,575 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 206.-Dietrich,
Syn. iii, 158.-Browne, Trees of America, 278.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 433; 2 ed. ii, 492 & t.-Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117.-
Parry in Owen's Rep. 612.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 83.-Darby, Bet. S. States, 305.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,252.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 83.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas,
359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bet. & Fl. 11l.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 148.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160; Hall's Pl.
Texas, 9.-Young, Bet. Texas, 258.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 108.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow,
xlviii, 19.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54c.--Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66.

C. lucida, Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 13.-Wangenheim, Amer. 53, t. 17, f. 42.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 506.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 629.-
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 599.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 212.

Mespilus Crus-galli, Marshall, Arbustum, 88.-Lamarck, Diet. iv, 441.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 157.-Nouveau Duhamel,
iv, 149.-Willdenow, Enum. 522; Berl. Baumz. 244.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 80.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 142.

? .Mespilus cuneiformis, Marshall, Arbustum, 88.

Mespilus lucida, Ehrhart,Beitr.iv, 17.-Mmench,Meth. 685.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii,57.

Mespilus cuneifolia, Mcench, Meth.684.

C. Crus-galli, var. splendens, Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 202.

M1espilus Watsoniana, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 57.

C. Watsoniana, Rcmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117.


COCKSPUR THORN. NEWCASTLE THORN.
Valley of the Saint Lawrence river, west through southern Ontario to Manitoba, south through the Atlantic
forests to the valley of the Chipola river, western Florida, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texas.
A small tree, 4 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, running into various
forms. The best marked are-

var. pyracanthifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 170; 2 ed. iii, 202.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 626.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America,
i, 464.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 820, t. 128, f. 580.-Browne, Trees of America, 278.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg,
i, 109, in part.

C. salici/blia, Medicns, Bet. Beobacht. ii, 345.-Reomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117.

C. Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, Aiton, 1. c.; 2 ed. 1. c.-Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 244.-De Candolle, i. o.-Loudon, 1. a. f.
551-553, 578 & t.-Browne, 1. c.-Regel, 1. c. 110.

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, Hayne, Dend. F1. 80.

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, Hayne, 1. c.

Mespilus salicifolia, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 144.

C. Coursetiana, Remer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117.

var. ovalifolia, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 1860.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159.-Loudon,
Arboretum, ii, 821, f. 579 & t.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 109.

Mespilus ovalifolia, Hornemann, Hort. Hafn. Suppl. 52.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 143.

Mespilus prunellifolia, Poiret, Suppl. iv, 72.

C. ovalifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 598.-Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117.

C. prunellifolia, De Candolle, 1. c.-Don, 1. c.-RoEmer, 1. c.

Mespilus elliptica, Guimpel, Otte & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 170, t. 144 [not Lamarck].-Spach. Hist. Veg. ii, 68.

var. linearis, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 626.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.-Dietrieb, Syn. iii, 159.-London,
Arboretum, ii, 821, f. 577.-Browne, Trees of America, 278.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 110.








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 77

Mespilus lucida, var. angustifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv, 18.

C. linearis, Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Roomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 118.

Mespilus linearis, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 156.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 70.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 57.
var. prunifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159.-London, Arboretum, ii, 821, f. 576 & t.-
Re:gel in Act. Short. St. Petersburg, 1, 110.

Mespilus prunifolia, ?Marshall, Arbustum, 90.-Lamarek, Diet. iv, 443.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 150, t. 40.-Sprengel,
Syst. ii, 506.

Mespilus rotundifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii, 20.

0. prunifolia, Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Bose in Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 598.-Lindley, Bet. Reg.
xxii, t. 1868.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.

Mespilus Bosciana, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 58.
C. Bosciana, REmmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 118.

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a fine polish; medullary rays
numerous, very obscure; color, brown tinged with red, the sap-wood rather lighter; specific gravity, 0.7194; ash,
0.56.
The long, strong spines are occasionally collected and used to fasten sacks and for similar purposes.

127.-Crategus coccinea, Linnmus,

Spec. 1 ed. 476.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 167; 2 ed. iii, 200.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1000 (excl. syn.).-Michaux,
Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 288.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337.-Eaton, Manual, 55; 6 ed. 111.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-
Schrank, Pfl.Labrador, 26. -Barton, Compend, Fl. Philadelph. i, 226.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 77.-Elliott, Sk. i, 553.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 474;
Compend.Bot. N. States, 201; Fl. N. York, i, 221; Emory's Rep. 408.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201; Bot.
Mag. t. 3432.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 599.-Meyer, Pl. Labrador, 82.-Beck, Bot. 112.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. 23, t. 1937.-Torrey & Gray,
Fl. N. America, i, 435.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 206.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 58.-
London, Arboretum, ii, 816, f. 564-566, t. 121.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 270, f. 18-20, 22.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 434; 2 ed. ii,
493 & t.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 427.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 83.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 305.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep.
1858, 252.-Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 43; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Cnrtis in Rep. Geological
Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 82.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 309.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & F1. 111.-Kaleniczenko
in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 9.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. xiii, 177.-Bell in Geological
Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,66.

3lespilus coccinea, Marshall, Arbustum, 87.-Mcench, Moth. 684.-Lamarck, Diet. iv,442.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb ii, 156.-
Willdonow, Enum. 523; Berl. Baumz. 238.-Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1823, 699.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.--Spach,
Hist. Veg. ii, 64.

Mespilus rotundifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii, 20.-Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1823, 700.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 58.-Koch,
Dendrologie, i, 148.

Pyrus glandulosa, Mcanch, Meth. 680.

C. glandulosa, Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1002 (excl. syn.).-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337, in part.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 475; Compend.
Fl. N. States, 201.--De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 10 12.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.-Don, Miller's
Diet. ii, 599.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 111.-Beck, Bot. 112.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 211.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 817,
f. 550, 567, 568 & t.-Richardson, Arctic Exped. 427.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 84.-
Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 120.
Mespilus glandulosa, Willdenow, Enum. 523.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 62.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 145.
Mespilus pubescens, Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1823,700.

C. Crus-galli, Bigolow, Fl. Boston. 2 ed. 194 [not Linnmus].

? Mespilus Wendlandii, Opiz in Regensb. Fl. 1834,590.

C. macracantha, Loddiges in London, Arboretum, ii, 819, f. 572,573 & t.

C. glandulosa, var. macracantha, Lindley in Bet. Reg. xxii, t. 1912.

iAespilus flabellata, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, G3.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 148.
Halmia flabellata, Emomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 136.
Anthomeles rotundifolia, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 140.
PhaC opyrn! t COCCill '0, Roanier, Syn. Mon. iii, 156.
Phcenopyrptm WVendlandli, linucr, Syn. Mou. iii, 156.








78 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


SCARLET HAW. RED HAW. WHITE THORN.

West coast of Newfoundland, west along the valley of the Saint Lawrence river and the northern shores of the
great lakes to Manitoba, south through the Atlantic forests to northern Florida and eastern Texas.
A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter; open upland woods or along
streams and borders of prairies; very common at the north, rare at the south; running into many forms, varying
in the size and shape of the leaves, size of the fruit, etc. The best marked are-

var. viridis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465.-Torrey in Nicollet's Rep. 149.

0. viridis, Liunnus, Spec. 1 ed. 476.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1001.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Elliott, Sk. i, 551.-De Candolle, Prodr.
ii, 630.-Dou, Miller's Dict. ii, 601.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 293.-Eaton & Wright,
Bot. 212.-Beck, Bot. 305.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 305.-Wood, Cl. Book, 332; Bot. & F1.111.

SPhcenopyrumt viride, REemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 156.

Mespilus viridis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 149.

0. glandulosa, var. rotundijblia, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i,120.

var. populifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465.

0. populifolia, Elliott, Sk. i; 553 [not Walter].-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112-Beck, Bot. 305.-Eaton &
Wright, Bot. 212.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 305.

Mespilus populifolia, Lamarck, Dict. iv, 447.

Phcenopyrum populifolium, REmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 156.

C. coccinea, var. typical, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 121.

var. oligandra, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465.

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays thin, very obscure; color, brown tinged with red,
the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.8618; ash, 0.38.


128.-Cratmgus subvillosa, Schrader,
Ind. Sem. Hort. Gcett.-Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 35.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,66.

C. coccinea, var. mollis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465.-Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi, 186.-Parry in
Owen's Rep. 612.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 121.

Phwnopyrum subvillosum, Remer, Syn. Mon. iii, 154.

C. mollis, Scheele in Linnea, xxi, 569; Rcemer, Texas, Appx. 473.-Walpers, Ann. ii, 523.

G. sanguine, var. rillosa, Ruprecht & Maximowicz, Prim. Fl. Amurensis, 101.

C. Texana, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1861, 454 (see Gray in same, 1862, 163).-Young, Fl. Texas, 258.

C. tomentosa, var. mollis, Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.-Wood, C1. Book, 330; Bot. & Fl. 121.-Vasey, Cat. Forest
Trees, 14.

Mespilus tilicefolia, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 151.


SCARLET HAW.

Eastern Massachusetts (possibly introduced); central Michigan to eastern Nebraska, south to middle Tennessee,
and southwest through Missouri, Arkansas, the Indian territory, and Texas to the valley of the San Antonio river.
A small tree, 7 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 meter in diameter; rich woods and along borders
of streams and prairies.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, light
brown or light red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7953; ash, 0.69.
The large red fruit often downy, edible, and of agreeable flavor.


_-. - I








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 79


129.-Crategus tomentosa, Linnmus,

Spec. 1 ed. 476 (excl. syn. Gronovius).-Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii, 151.-Du Roi, Harbk. i, 183.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i,
466.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 222.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 1 ed. 435; 2 ed. ii, 494 & t.-Parry in
Owen's Rep. 612.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas,
359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 330.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.-Young,
Bot. Texas, 258.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 195.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 1882, 66.

C. leucophlLos, Mench, Hort. Weiss. 31, t. 2.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 106.

Mespilus Calpodendron, Ehrhart, Beitr. ii, 67.

C. pyrifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 168; 2 ed. iii, 200.-Willdenov', Spec. ii, 1001.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv,
131.-Poiret, Suppl. i, 292.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Elliott, Sk. i, 550.-Torrey, Fl. U. S.
475; Compend. F1. N. States, 201.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii,
599.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 111.-Lind]-y, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 1877.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 819, f. 571 & t.--Eaton &
Wright, Bot. 211.

Mespilus latifolia, Lamarck, Diet. iv, 444.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 156.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 150.-Spach, Hist. Veg.
ii, 60.

0. latifolia, Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 598.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.-Rcomer,
S Syn. Mon. 119.

Mespilus pyrifolia, Willdenow, Enum. 523; Berl. Baumz. 240.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 15.-.
Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 78.

Mespilus lobata, Poiret, Suppl. iv, 71.

Mespilus odorata, Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1823,700.

Mespilus pruinosa, Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1823,700.

C. lobata, Bose in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628.

C. flava, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 202 (excl. syn.).

Halmia tomentosa, Remer, Syn. Mon. 135.

Halmia lobata, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. 135.

Phcenopyrum pruinosum, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. 155.

? C. coccinea, var. viridis, Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 86 [not Torrey & Gray].

G. tomentosa, var. pyrifolia, Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.-Wood, Bot. & Fl. 111.

C. coccinea,Brandegee in Hayden's Rep. 1875, 236 [not Linenusj.

C. leucocephalus, Lavallee, Arboretum Segrez. 78, t. 22 [not Moench].

C. coccinea, var. cordata, Lavall6e, Arboretum Segrez. 81, t. 22.

BLACK THORN. PEAR HAW.

New Brunswick, westward along the valley of the Saint Lawrence river and the northern shores of the great
lakes to the Saskatchewan region, southward through the Atlantic forests to the Chattahoochee region of western
Florida, and eastern Texas west to the mountains of eastern Washington territory and Oregon, southwestern
Colorado, and southwestern New Mexico.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 meter in diameter, or often, especially west of
the Rocky mountains, reduced to a low shrub, here forming dense thickets along mountain streams; the most widely-
distributed of the North American Cratcegi, varying greatly in the size, shape, and color of the fruit, form of the
leaves, amount of pubescence, etc.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, bright reddish-
brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7633; ash, 0.50.








80 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


Var. punctata, Gray,

Manual N. States, 2 ed. 124.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871,
481.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.

0. punctata, Jacquin, Hort. Vindob. i, 10, t. 28.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 169; 2 ed. iii, 202.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1004.-
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 289.-Persoon, Syn. i, 37.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 338.-Elliott, Sk. i, 548.-Torrey, Fl. U.
S. 476; Compond. Fl. N. States, 202; Fl. N. York, i, 222.-De Caudolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201 (excl.
var.); Companion Bot. Mag.i, 25.-D ,n, Miller's Diet. ii, 589.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 111.-Beck, Bot. 111.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 466.-London, Arboretum, ii, 818, f. 569, 570 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.-Dietrich,
Syn. iii, 159.-Browne, Trees of America, 277.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 435; 2 ed. ii, 495.-Gray, Manual
N. States, 1 ed. 128.--Richardson, Arctic Exped. 427.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 84.-Darby, Bot. S. States,
306.-Lpsqueroux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 330; Bot. & Fl. 111.-Engelmann in Trans.
Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191.-Kalaliczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 14.
Mespilus cornifolia, Muenchhausen, Hausv. v, 145.-Lamarek, Diet. iv, 444.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 134.-Spach, Hist. Veg.
ii, 60, t. 10, f. c.
C. Crus-galli, Wangenheim, Amer. 52.-Du Roi, Harbk. i, 195 mnot Linneus].

Mespilus cuneifolia, Ehrhart, Beitr. iii, 21.--Sprengel, Syst. ii, 506.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 61.

Mespilus punctata, Loiseleur in Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 152.-Willdenow, Enum. 524; Berl. Baumz. 243.-Poiret, Suppl.
iv, 70.-Hayne, Dend. F1.79.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 57.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 61.-Wenzig in Linnma, xxxviii, 128.

Mespilus pyrifolia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 155.

C. punctata, var. rubra and aurea, Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 202.

C. latifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.

? C. flexuosa, Schweinitz in Long's 2d Exped. ii, Appx. 112.

C. flava, Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 292 [not Aiton].

C. cuncifolia, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 118.

C. obovatifolia, Roomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 120.

Halmiia punctata, Rmcmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 134.

Halmia cornifolia, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 134.

C. tomcntosa, var. plicata, Wood, Cl. Book, 330; Bot. & Fl. 111.

C. punctata, var. xanthlocarpa, Lavall6e, Arboretum Segrez. i, 53, t. 16.

Fruit larger than that of the species, dull red or yellow.


130.-Crategus cordata, Aiton,

Hort. Kew. ii, 168; 2 ed. iii, 200.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1000.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Eaton, Manual, 55; 6 ed. lll.--Elliott, Sk. i, 554.-
Torrey, Fl. U. S. 474; Compend. Fl. N. States, 201.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 63.-Lindley, Bot, Reg.
xiv, t. 1151.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 599.-Beck, Bet. 112.--Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 467.-
London, Arboretum, ii, 825 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-Browne, Trees of America, 280.-Richardson,
Arctic Exped. 427.-Darliugton, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 83.-Darby,Bot. S. States, 306.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 82.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.-
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 159.-Young, Bot. Texas, 257.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 114.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc.
Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii,31.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.

Mespilus Phctnopyrumr, Ehrhart in Liunneus f. Suppl. 254; Beitr. i, 181; ii, 67.-Momnch, Meth. 685.-Lamarek, Dict.
iv, 446.

C. populifolia, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147 [not Elliott].-Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337.

Mlespilus acerbfolia, Burgsdorf in Lamarck, Diet. iv, 442.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 151.-Spach, Hist.Veg. ii, 65.

Afespilus cordata, Miller, Icon. t. 179.-Willdenow, Enum. 523; Berl. Baumz. 239.-Hayne, Dend. F1. 77.-Sprengel, Syst. ii,
507.-Korh, Dendrologie, i, 139.

Phcenopyrui crdatum, Roomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 157.

It'l i.2.'; i .'u acerifolitumn, R(enier, Syn. Mon. iii, 157.







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 81


WASHINGTON THORN.

Valley of the upper Potomac river, Virginia, southward along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia
and Alabama, extending west through eastern and middle Kentucky and Tennessee to the valley of the lower
Wabash river, Illinois.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter; generally along banks of
streams.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, brown tinged with red,
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7293; ash, 0.46.
Formerly widely planted as a hedge plant.

131.-Cratmgus apiifolia, Michaux,

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 287.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 38.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 336.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Elliott, Sk. i, 552.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii,
627.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 599.-Audubon, Birds, t. 192.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.-Torrey
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 467.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 824, f. 588, 589 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-
Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.-Roamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 121.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Wood,
Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 159; Hall's P1. Texas, 9.-Young, Bot. Texas, 257.-Kaleniczenko in
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 29.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.

C. oxyacantha, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147 [not Linmeus].

iMespilus apiifolia, Marshall, Arbustum, 89.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 68.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 508.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 67.

MJfespilus monogyna, var. apiifolia, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 160.

C. oxyacantha, var. apiifolia, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, 119.

PARSLEY HAW.

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to about latitude 28, extending west through the Gulf states to
southern Arkansas and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas.
A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a slender stem rarely exceeding 0.08 to 0.10 meter in diameter,
or more often a low shrub, throwing up many stems from the ground; low, rich soil, reaching its greatest
development in the pine-barren hummocks of central Florida.
Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays thin, very
obscure; color, bright brown tinged with red or rose, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7453; ash,
0.97.

132.-Crategus spathulata, Michaux,

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 228.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. i, 226.-Elliott, Sk. i, 552.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 1261.-
Don, Miller's Dict. ii, 599.-Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.-Gray in Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiii under t. 1957; Manual N. States,
5 ed. 159.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 467.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 825, f. 591 & t.-Eaton &
Wright, Bot. 212.--Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 126.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep.
Arkansas, 359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.-Young, Bot. Texas, 257.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow,
xlviii, 31.-Ridgway in Am. Nat. vi, 728.

Mespilus Azarolus, Marshall, Arbustum, 89 [not Linnueus].

M1esj)ilus spathulata, Poiret, Suppl. iv, 68.-Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 157.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii,
66.-Koch, Dendrologic, i, 137.

C. microcarpa, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 1846.

Phcenopyrum spathulatum, Rncmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 355.


SMALL-FRUITED HAW.

Virginia, southward to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, west through the Gulf states to the valley
of the Washita river, Arkansas (Hot Springs, Letterman), and the Colorado river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or often reduced to a low
shrub; margins of streams and prairies; common and reaching its greatest development along the bottom lands of
western Louisiana and eastern Texas.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, obscure; color, light
brown or red. the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7159; ash, 0.66.
6 FOR







82' FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


133.-Crategus berberifolia, Torrey & Gray,
Fl. N. America, i, 469.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 59.--Rmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 115.-Wood, C1. Book, 332.-Regel in Act..
Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 123.-Engelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 128.
Mespilus berberifolia, Wenzig in LinnEea, xxxviii, 125.
Phlenopyrum ellipticum, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 155.
Phcenopyrum Virginicum, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 155.

New Orleans? (Drummond, No. 1051); Opelousas, Louisiana (Carpenter, Sargent).
A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter; borders of prairies, in low
ground; the fruit and wood not yet collected.

134,-Cratmgus mstivalis, Torrey & Gray,

Fl. N. America, i, 468.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 58.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 162.-Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 12; 2 ed. i, 162.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.-Regel in Act.
Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 124.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.
Mespilus estivalis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.-Lamarck, Diet. iv, 447.
C. elliptica, Elliott, Sk. i, 548 [notAiton].
C. lucida, Elliott, Sk. i, 549 [not Ehrhart].
C. opaca, Hooker & Arnott in Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.-London, Arboretum, iv, 2563.
Anthomeles eustivalis, Rcmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 141.

MAY HAW. APPLE HAW.

South Carolina, south to northern Florida, west through the Gulf states to southern Arkansas and the valley
of the Sabine river, Texas.
A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; generally in sandy soil along
the margins of streams and ponds; common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of western
Louisiana and eastern Texas.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown
or red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6564; ash, 0.57.
The large, globular, fragrant, red fruit, of agreeable subacid flavor, used as a preserve, in jellies, etc.; ripening
in May.

135.-Crategus flava, Aiton,
Hort. Kew. ii, 169; 2 ed. iii, 201.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1002.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 338.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-
De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 59.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 600.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiii, t. 1939.-Torrey &
Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 468.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 823, f. 585 & t.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.-
Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 28.-Curtis
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 83.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 332; Bot.
& Fl. 111.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 122.-Kaleniezenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat.
Moscow, xlviii, 27.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.
Mespilus flexispina, Mmnch, Verz. Baum. 62, t. 4.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 139.

C. glandulosa, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 168; 2 ed. iii, 201 [not Michaux].-Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Poiret, Snpp]. iv, 69, in part.

Mespilus Caroliniana, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. iv, 442.-Desfontaines, Hist, Arb. ii, 156.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.
C. Caroliniana, Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.-Elliott, Sk. i, 554.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.

Mespilusflava, Willdonow, Enum. 523.-Poiret, Suppl. iv, 70.-Watson, Dend. Brit. i, t. 59.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 59.
C. turbinata, Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. Addend. 735.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 543.-Elliott, Sk. i, 549.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-
Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 599.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.
Mespilus turbinata, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 506.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 66.
C. flava, var. lobata, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxiii, t. 1932.
C. lobata, Bose in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 599.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 824, f. 554, 586.

Phcenopyrum Carolinianum, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 152.

Anthomeles flava, glandulosa, and turbinata, Reemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 141.


----1I








CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 83

SUMMER HAW. YELLOW HAW.
Virginia, southward, generally near the coast, to Tampa bay, Florida, west through the Gulf states to
eastern Texas and southern Arkansas.
A small tree, rarely 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, or reduced to a much-branched
shrub 2 to 3 meters in height; borders of streams, in low, sandy soil subject to overflow.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, satiny, susceptible of a good polish; medullary
rays very numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red or rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity,
0.7809; ash, 0.79.
Fruit small, red or yellow, acid.

Var. pubescens, Gray,
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160.

Mespilus hiemalis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.-Lamarck, Diet. iv, 447.

C. viridis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147 [not Linnsus].-Elliott, Sk. i, 551.

C. elliptica, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 168; 2 ed. iii, 201.--Wlldenow, Spec. ii, 1002.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.-Pursh, Fl. Am.
Sept. i, 337.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Torrey, F1. U. S. 475; Compend. Fl. N. States, 201.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii,
627.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 598.-Beck, Bot. 33.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 111. -Torrey &
Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 469.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 109.-Darby, Bet. S. States, 306.-
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 84.-Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 122.
Mespilus elliptica, Lamarck, Dict. iv, 447.-Wenzig in Linnsa, xxxviii, 125.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 140.

C. glandulosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 288 [not Aiton].-Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 128.-Vasey,
Cat. Forest Trees, 14.
C. Michauxii, Persoon, Syn. ii, 38.

C. spathulata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 336 [not Michaux].-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.-Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 1890;
xxiii, under t. 1957.
Mespilus Michauxii, Hornemann, Hort. Hafn. 455.--Poiret, Suppl. iv, 69.

C. flava, Elliott, Sk. i, 551 [not AitonJ.

C. Virginica, Loddiges in London, Arboretum, ii, 842, f. 560, 615.-Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 58.

SUMMER-HAW. RED HAW.
Virginia, southward tq Tampa bay, Florida, and sparingly through the Gulf states to western Louisiana.
A low tree growing with the species, from which it is distinguished by the pubescence of the calyx and
young branches, the smaller flowers, and larger, bright red or yellow, globular or pear-shaped fruit.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, bright
red or rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7683; ash, 0.91.
The large, edible fruit used in the south Atlantic states in preserves, jellies, etc.
NoTE.-Cratwgus parvifolia, Aiton, of the south Atlantic region, a low shrub, is not includedin this catalogue.


136.-Heteromeles arbutifolia, Rcemer,
Syn. Mon. iii, 105.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 144, t. 9.-Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 188; ii, 444.

Oratwgus arbutifolia, Poiretin Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 131; Diet. Suppl. i, 292.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 202.-Loddiges,
Bot. Cab. t. 201.
Aronia arbutifolia, Nuttall, Genera, i, 306.

Photinia arbutifolia, Lindley in Trans. Linnean Soc. xiii, 103; Bot. Reg. vi, 491 & under t. 1956.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 50S.-
De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 631.-Chamisso & Schlechtendal in Linnma, ii, 542.-Don, Miller's Dict. ii. 602.-Spach, Hist.
Veg. ii, 80.-Hooker &Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 139, 340.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 473.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 162.-
Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 868, f. 619.-Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 14; Pl. Hartweg. 307.-Torrey in Emory's Rep. 140;
Sitgreaves' Rep. 119; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 85; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 64; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 201.-Wood, Cl.
Book, 329.-Bolander in Proc. California Acad. iii, 80.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 599.-
Maximowicz in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, xix, 180.-Weuzig in Linnma, xxxviii, 96.
Mespilus arbutifolia, Link, Enuin. Hort. Berol. ii, 36.

Photinia salicifolia, Presl, Epimel. Bot. 204.-Walpers, Ann. iii, 858.

11. Fremontiana, Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 144.









84 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.


TOYON. TOLLON. CALIFORNIA HOLLY.

California Coast ranges, Mendocino to San Diego county, extending east to the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada
and San Bernardino mountains.
A small, low-branched evergreen tree, rarely exceeding 9 meters in height, the short trunk sometimes 0.30 to
0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a low, much-branched shrub.
Wood Very heavy, hard, close-grained, inclined to check in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish;
medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, dark reddish-brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9326;
ash, 0.54.

137.-Amelanchier Canadensis, Torroy & Gray,
Fl. N. America, i, 473.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 55.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 158.-Torrey, Fl. N. York, i. 225.-Browne, Trees of America, 282.-
Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, i, 443; 2 ed. ii, 503 & t.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 612.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 86.-
Richardson, Arctic Exped. 428.-Seemann, Bot. Herald, 52.-Hooker f. in Trans. LinnTan Soc. xxii-, 290, 327.-Cooper in
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 129.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 68.-Lesquereux
in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359.-Wood, Cl. Book, 329; Bot. & Fl. 110.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191.-
Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 168.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 162.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 180.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.-
Maximowicz in Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, xix, 175.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66.
llespilus Canadensis, Linnmus, Spec. 1 ed. 478 (excl. syn. Gronovius).-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.-Aiton, Hort. Kew.
ii, 173.

Cratcegus tomentosa, Linniues, Spec. 1 ed. 476 (excl. syn. Gronovius).

Pyrus Botryapiuim, Linnmeus f. Suppl. 255.-Wangenheim, Amer. 90, t. 28, f. 65.-Ehrhart, Beitr. i, 1831; ii, 68.-- illdenow,
Spec. ii, 1013; Enum. 525; Berl. Baumz. 322.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 207.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 339.-Hayne,
Dend. Fl. 83.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, 100, t. 79.-Sprengel, Syst. ii, 509.-Audubon, Birds, t. 60.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston.
3 ed. 308.

CraatCgus racemosa, Lamarck, Diet. i, 84.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 148.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv,133.-Poiret, Suppl. i, 292.

lfespilus nivea, Marshall, Arbustum, 90.

Mespilus Canadensis, var. cordata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 291.

Aronia Botryapium, Persoon, Syn. ii, 39.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 557.-Elliott, Sk. i, 557.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 479; Compend. Fl.
N. States, 203.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 29.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 135.

Mlespilus arborea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 68, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 60, t. 66.-Barton, Prodr. Fl.
Philadelph. 55.
A. Botryaphium, Lindley in Trans. Linnean Soc. xiii, 100.-De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 632.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 202.-
Don, Miller's Diet. ii, 604.-Beck, Bot. 112.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 84.-London, Arboretum. ii, 874, f. 627-629 & t.-
Rcemer, Syn. Mou. iii, 145.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 307.-Wenzig in Linnma, xxxiii, 110.-Decaisne in Nouv. Arch.
Mus. x, 135.

Aron a arborea, Barton, Compend. Philadelph. i, 228.

Aronia cordata, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 196.

A. OValis, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 202, in part.

Pyrus Bartramiana, Tausch, Fl. xxi, 715.

Pyrus Wangenheimiana, Tausch,Fl. xxi,715.

A. Bartramiana, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 145.

A. IVangenheimiana, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. 146.

JUNE BERRY. SHAD BUSH. SERVICE TREE. MAY CHERRY.

Newfoundland and Labrador, west along the southern shores of Hudson bay to the Saskatchewan region,
south through the Atlantic forests to northern Florida, southwestern Arkansas, and the Indian territory.
A small tree, 9 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or in some forms reduced to
a low shrub (var. rotundifolia, Torrey & Gray; var. oligocarca, Torrey & Gray); common at the north, rare at the south,
and reaching its greatest development on the high slopes of the southern Alleghany mountains; varying greatly
in the shape of the leaves, size of the flowers, amount of pubescence on the leaves and young shoots, etc.
The best marked arborescent variety is-
var. oblongifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 473.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 55.-Dietrich, Syn. iii, 158.-Torrey, Fl. N.
York, i,225; Nicollet's Rep. 149.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, i, 444; 2 ed. ii, 504 & t.-Wood, C1. Book, 330; Bot,
& Fl. 110.-Gray, Manuel N. States, 5 ed. 162.-Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 195.


_ ~__







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 85

Crataegus Spicata, Lamarck, Dict. i, 84.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 148.-Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 132.-Poiret, Suppl. i, 292.

MIespilus Canadensis, var. obovalis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 291.

Pyrus.ovalis, Willdenow, Spec. ii, 1014; Berl. Baumz. 323.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 340.-Schrank, P1. Labrador, 26.-Bigelow,
Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 207.

Aronia ovalis, Torrey, Fl. U. S. 479; Compend. Fl. N. States, 203.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 29.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 135.

A. ovalis, Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 632.-Meyer, Pl. Labrador, 81.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 202, in part.-Don, Miller's Diet. ii,
604.-Beck, Bot. 112.-Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 85.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 876, f. 632.

A. intermedia, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 85.-Wenzig in Linnma, xxxiii, 112.

A. oblongifJlia, Rrmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 147.

A. spicata, Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 135, t. 9, f. 5.

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, checking somewhat in seasoning, satiny, susceptible of
a good polish; medullary rays very numerous, obscure ; color, dark brown often tinged with red, the sap-wood
much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7838; ash, 0.55; the small fruit sweet and edible.
NOTE.-The closely allied Amelanchier alnifolia, Nuttall, a low shrub, is widely distributed over the mountain ranges of the interior
Pacific region.




HAMA ME LA C E .



138.-Hamamelis Virginica, Linneus,
Spec. 2 ed. 124.-Marshall, Arbustum, 58.-Du Roi, Harbk. i, 423.-Wangenheim, Amer. 89, t. 29, f. 62.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 68; Ill. i,
350, t.'88.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 167; 2 ed. i, 275.-Schkuhr, Ha.ndb. i, 88, t. 27.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 701; Enum. 171; Berl. Baumz.
172.-Michanx, Fl. Bor. Am. i, 100.-Persoon, Syn. i, 150.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 29.-Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 116.-Nuttall,
Genera, i, 107.-Nouveau Duhamel,vii, 207, t. 60.-Elliott, Sk. i, 219.-Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 4S3.-Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 598.-
Barton, Fl. N. America, iii, 21, t. 78.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 192; Compend. Fl. N. States, 86; Fl. N. York, i, 260.-Guimpel, Otto &
Hayne, Abb. Holz. 95, t. 75.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 491.-Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 227, f. 45.-De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 268.-Hooker, Fl.
Bor.-Am. i, 275; Companion Bot. Mag. i, 48.-Don, Miller's Diet. iii, 396, f.69.-Beck, Bot. 152.-Eaton, Manual 6 ed. 164.-Spach,
Hist, Veg. viii, 79.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 550.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 597.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1007, f. 756, 757.-
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 60.-Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 63.-Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 416; 2 ed. ii, 473 & t.-Darby, Bot. S.
States, 328.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 98.-Agardh, Theor. & Syst. P1. t. 13, f. 7.-Schnizlein, Icon. t. 167, f. 18-25, 27-29.-
Gray in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxiv, 438; 3 ser. v, 144; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 173.- Chapman, Fl. S. States, 157.-Curtis in Rep.
Geological Surv. N. Carolina, iii, 105.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 362.-Wood, Cl. Book, 375; Bot. & Fl. 120.-
Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 193.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 58.-Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 45R.-Baillon in
Adansonia, x, 123; Hist. P1. iii, 389, f. 462-464.-Young, Bot. Texas, 291.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 408 & f.

H. dioica, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 255.-Gmrelin, Syst. Veg. i, 281.

H. androgyna, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 255.-Gmelin, Syst. Veg. i, 282.

H. corylifolia, Mcench, Meth. 273.

H. macrophylla, Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 116.-Poiret, Suppl. v, 698.-Elliott, Sk. i, 220.-Remer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 483.-
Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 230.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 164.-Don, Miller's Diet. iii, 396.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 261.
Trilopus Virginiana, nigra, rotundifolia, and dentata, Rafinesque, New Sylva, 15-17.

H. Virginiana, var. parvifolia, Nuttall, Genera, i, 107.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 193; Compend. Fl. N. States, 87.-Don, Miller's
Diet. iii, 396.-Beck, Bot. 152.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 597.
H. parvifolia, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 230.

Trilopus parvifolia, Rafinesque, New Sylva, 17.

WITCH HAZEL.
Northern New England and southern Ontario to Wisconsin, south through the Atlantic region to northern
Florida and eastern Texas.
A small tree, exceptionally 7 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.37 meter in diameter, or more often
a tall shrub throwing up many stems from the ground; common; rich, rather damp woodlands, reaching its
greatest development, in the region of the southern Alleghany mountains.








86 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth hardly distinguishable; medullary
rays numerous, thin, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity,
0.6856; ash, 0.37.
The bark and leaves rich in tannin, and largely used by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts, decoctions,
etc., in external applications, and as a reputed remedy in hemorrhoidal affections (New York Jour. Med. x, 208.-
Trans. Am. Med. Assoc. i, 350.- U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1661.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 704).

139.-Liquidambar Styraciflua, Linneus,
Spec. 1 ed. 999.-Marshall, Arbustum, 77.-Wangenheim, Amer. 49, t. 16, f. 40.-Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 237.-Lamarck, Diet. iii, 533; Ill.
iii, 367, t. 783.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 365; 2 ed. v, 306.-Gertner, Fruct. ii, 57, t. 90.-Mcench, Meth. 340.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, i,
48.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 16.-Willdenow, Spec. iv, 475; Enum. 985; Berl. Banmz. 214.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 202.-Persoon,
Syn. ii, 573.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 541.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 97.-Schkuhr, Handb. iii, 275, t. 307.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii,
42, t. 10; vii, 207, t. 60.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 194, t. 4; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 42, t. 64.-Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph.
92; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 177.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 635.-Eaton, Manual, 110; 6 ed. 208.-Rafmiesque, Fl. Ludoviciana,
116.-Nuttall, Genera, ii, 219; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 2 ser. v, 168.-Noes, Fl. Office. t. 95.-Elliott, Sk. ii, 621.-Sprengel, Syst. iii, 864.-
Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nouv. Gen. & Spec. vii, 273.-Audubon, Birds, t. 44.-Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 357; Fl. N.
York, ii, 217.-Beck, Bot. 326.-Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 64. -Eaton & Wright, Bet. 302.-Spach, Hist. Veg. x, 84.-Loudon,
Arboretum, iv, 2049, f. 1961 & t.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 322.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 581, f. 254.-Broomfield in London Jour. Bot. vii, 144.-
Schnizlein, Icon. t. 98, f. 5-21.-Seemann, Bot. Herald, 346.-Darby, Bet. S. States, 509.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 157.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 77.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas,
362.-Wood, Cl. Book, 375; Bot. & Fl. 120.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 344.-De Candolle, Prodr. xvi2, 157.-Oliver in Hooker
f. Icon. xi, 13.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 174.-Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 464.-Young, Bot. Texas, 291.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees,
15.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 412 & figs.-Baillon, Hist. PI. iii, 397, f. 471-474.-Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii, 300, f.
445.-Ridgway in Am. Nat. vi, 664; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 67.-Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 53.-Hemsley, Bot.
Am.-Cent. i, 400.
L. Styraciflua, var. iMexicana, Orsted, Am.-Cent. xvi, t. 11.
L. macrophylla, Orsted, Am.-Cent. xvi, t. 10.

SWEET GUl7. STAR-LEAVED GUM. LIQUIDAMBER. RED GUM. BILSTED.

Fairfield county, Connecticut, to the valleys of the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash rivers, south to cape
Canaveral and Tampa bay, Florida, southwest through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and the Indian territory to
the valley of the Trinity river, Texas; in central and southern Mexico.
A large tree, often 30 to 36 or, exceptionally, 48 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter in
diameter; in low, wet soil; very common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of the
Mississippi basin, here, with the cotton gum, forming a large proportion of the heavy forest growth.
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather tough, close-grained, compact, inclined to shrink and warp badly in
seasoning, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, bright brown tinged
with red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5910; ash, 0.61; manufactured into lumber and used
in the construction of buildings for plates, boarding, and clapboards, in cabinet work as a substitute for black
walnut, and for veneering and street pavements; its great economic value hardly appreciated on account of
the difficulty experienced in properly seasoning it.
The balsamic exudation obtained from this species at the south collected by herbalists and sometimes used in
the form of a sirup as a substitute for storax in the treatment of catarrhal affections, or externally as an ointment in
dressing frost-bite, abscess, etc., and in the manufacture of chewing gums (Flickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia,
246.-Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 834).



RHIZOPHORACEAE.



140.-Rhizophora Mangle, Linneus,
Spec. 1 ed. 443.-Jacquin, Amer. 141, t. 89.-Gmrtner, Fruct. i, 212, t. 45, f. 1.-Lamarck, Ill. ii, 517, t. 396; Diet. vi, 160.-Willdenow,
Spec. ii, 844.-Persoon, Syn. ii, 2.-Decourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, i, 45, t. 10.-Vellozo, Fl. Flum. t. 1.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 32.-
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 301.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 332, t. 34.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 484.-Nuttallin Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser.
v, 295.-Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 290.-Arnott in Ann. Nat. Hist. i, 361.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 70.-Bentham, Bot. Sulphur,
14.-Darby, Bot. S. States, 312.-Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 55.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 274.-Schnizlein, Icon. t.
263, f. 1-7.-Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 419.-Eichler in Martius, Fl. Brasil. xiiP, 426, t. 90.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees,
15.-Baillon, Hist. Pl. vi, 284, f. 253-259.
R. racemosa, Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 185.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 32.
R. Americana, Nuttall, Sylva, i, 95, t. 24; 2 ed. i, 112, t. 24.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.


-- I







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 87

MANGROVE.

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet and Cedar Keys to the southern keys; delta of the Mississippi river
.and coast of Texas; southward through the West Indies and tropical America; now widely naturalized throughout
the tropics of the old world (A. De Candolle, Geog. Bot. ii, 772).
A tree 12 to 18, or, exceptionally, 27 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter, or more
commonly not exceeding 4 to 7 meters in height; low saline shores, reaching in the United States its greatest
development on bay Biscayne and cape Sable; south of latitude 290, bordering with almost impenetrable thickets
the coast of the Florida peninsula, ascending the rivers for many miles, especially those flowing from the Everglades,
and entirely covering many of the southern keys.
Wood exceedingly heavy, hard and strong, close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful
polish, containing many evenly-distributed rather small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark
reddish brown streaked with lighter brown, sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 1.1617; ash, 1.82; furnishing
valuable fuel; not greatly affected by the teredo, and used for piles.




COMBRETACEAE.


141.-Conocarpus erecta, Linnmus,
Spec. 1 ed. 176.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 96; Ill. i, 126, f. 1.-Jacquin, Amer. t. 78.--Grtner, Fruct. ii, 470, t. 177, f. 3.-Swartz, Obs. 79.-
Willdenow, Sp. i, 994.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.i, 381.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 47.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 16.-Deconrtilz, l.
Med. Antilles, vi, 68, t. 399.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 304.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 485.-Nuttall, Sylva, i, 113, t. 33; 2 ed.
i, 128, t. 33.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 526.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136.-Grisebach, Fl. British
West Indies, 277.-Eichler in Martins, Fl. Brasil. xiv2, 101, t. 35, f. 2.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.

BUTTON WOOD

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, Tampa bay to cape Sable; through the
West Indies to Brazil.
A low tree, often 8 or, exceptionally, 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in
diameter; common and reaching its greatest development in the United States on Lost Man's river, north of cape
Sable; or reduced to a low under shrub (var. procumbens, De Candolle, 1. c.-Eichler, 1. c.; C. procumbens, Linneus, Spec.
1 ed. 177.-Jacquin 1. o. 79, t. 52, f. 2. -Gsrtner, 1. o. iii, 205, f. 4-Grisebach, 1. c.; C. acutifolia, Willdenow in Rcemer & Schultes,
Syst. v, 574).
Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary
rays numerous, obscure; color, dark yellow brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9900; ash, 0.32; burning
:slowly like charcoal, and highly valued for fuel.

142.-Laguncularia racemosa, Gartner f.
Fruct. Suppl. 209, t. 217.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 17.-Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 305.-Nuttall, Sylva, i, 117, t. 34; 2 ed. i, 132, t. 34.-Benthan,
Bot. Sulphur, 14, 92.-Richard, Fl. Cuba, 527.-Eichler in Martins, Fl. Brasil. xiv2, 102, t. 35, f. 3.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep.
1858,264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 276.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.-Baillon, Hist. P1.
vi, 278.
Conocarpus racemosa, Linneus, Spec. 2 ed. 251; Syst. 181.-Jacquin, Amer. 80, t. 53.-Swartz, Obs. 79.-Willdenow, Spec.
i, 995.
Schousbea commutata, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 332.
Bucida Buceras, Vellozo, Fl. Plum. iv, t. 87 [not Linnmus].
L. glabrifolia, Presi, Reil. Hank, ii, 22.-Walpers, Rep. ii, 63.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136.

WHITE BUTTON WOOD. WHITE MANGROVE.
Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, Cedar Keys to cape Sable; through
the West Indies and tropical America; coast of tropical Africa.
A small tree, sometimes 6 or, exceptionally, 22 meters in height (Shark river, Florida, Curtiss), with a trunk
'0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter,'or toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub; very common; saline shores
of lagoons and bays.
Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very compact; susceptible of a beautiful polish medullary
rays numerous, obscure; color, dark yellow-brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7137; ash, 1.62.








88 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.




MYRTACE E.



143.-Calyptranthes Chytraculia, Swartz,

Prodr. 79; Fl. Ind.Occ.ii, 921.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 975.-Aiton, Hort. Kew.2 ed.iii, 192.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 237.-Nuttall,
Sylva, i, 101, t. 26; 2 ed. i, 117, t. 26.-Berg in Linnma, xxvii, 26.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States,
131.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 232.-Hemsley. Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 408.
Myrtus Chytraculia, Linnmus, Amcen. v, 398.-Swartz, Obs. 202.

Eugenia pallens, Poiret, Suppl. iii, 122.

Semi-tropical Florida, shores of bay Biscayne, Key Largo; in the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, containing many evenly-distributed rather large open ducts;.
medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.8992;
ash, 3.32.
144.-Eugenia buxifolia, Willdenow,

Spec. ii, 960.--Persoon, Syn. ii, 28.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 275. -Nuttall, Sylva, i, 108, t. 29; 2 ed. i, 123, t. 29.-Cooper in Smithsonian
Rep. 1858,264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 236.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.
Myrtus buxifolia, Swartz, Prodr. 78; Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 899.

Myrtus axillaris, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. iv, 412.

E. myrtoides, Poiret, Suppl. iii, 125.

Myrtus Poireti, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 483.

E. triplinervia, Berg in Linnea, xxvii, 190, in part.

SURGEON STOPPER. SPANISH STOPPER.

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, Caloosa river to cape Romano; in
the West Indies.
A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, reaching its
greatest development on the rich hummocks of the Everglades.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, very compact; medullary rays numerous, thin;
color, dark brown shaded with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.9360; ash, 1.50; somewhat used
for fuel.

145.-Eugenia dichotoma, De Candolle,
Prodr. iii, 278.-Nuttall, Sylva, i, 103, t. 27; 2 ed. i, 120, t. 27.-Berg in Linnea, xxvii, 261.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.
B. divaricata, Lamarck, Diet. i, 202.

?Myrtus dichotoma, Vahl in Poiret, Suppl. iv, 53.

Anamomis punctata, Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 240.

NAKED WOOD.
Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to cape Canaveral, common; west coast, Caloosa river to cape Romano;
in the West Indies.
A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.15 meter in diameter.
A form with the leaves, buds, and calyx more or less pubescent (E. dichotoma, var. fragrans, Nuttall, 1, c.; E.
pungens, Willdenow, Spec. ii, 964; Bot. Mag. t. 1242; E. montana, Aublet, Guian. i, 495, t. 195), not rare in West Indies,
and, according to Nuttall, collected by Mr. Baldwin in the vicinity of New Smyrna, Florida, has not been
rediscovered within the limits of the United States.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or red,
sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.8983; ash, 0.74.
The small, edible fruit of agreeable aromatic flavor, and greatly improved by cultivation in rich soil.


_______


__ ___ I







CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES.


146.-Eugenia monticola, De Candolle,

Prodr. iii, 275.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 236.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.
Myrtus monticola, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 898.

-E. triplinervia, Berg in Linnma, xxvii, 190, in part.
E. axillaris, Berg in Linnea, xxvii, 201, in part.

STOPPER. WHITE STOPPER.

Florida, Saint John's river to Umbrella Key; rare; in the West Indies.
A small tree, rarely 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, or in northern Florida reduced
to a low shrub.
Wood very heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown,
often tinged with red, the sap-wood darker; specific gravity, 0.9156; ash, 1.89.

147.-Eugenia longipes, Berg,
Linnea, xxvii, 150.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 620.
STOPPER.

Semi-tropical Florida, No-Name Key; in the West Indies.
A small tree, 4 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; rare.
Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many evenly-distributed open
ducts; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, dark brown or nearly black, the sap-wood brown tinged
with red; specific gravity, 1.1235; ash, 3.48.
The small red fruit with the flavor of cranberries.

148.-Eugenia procera, Poiret,

Suppl. ii, 129.-De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 268.-Nuttall, Sylva, i, 106, t. 28; 2 ed. i, 122, t. 28.-Berg in Linnaa, xxvii, 207.-Cooper in
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.-Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 238.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.
Myrtus procera, Swartz, Prodr. 77; Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 887.-Willdenow, Spec. ii, 968.

E. Baruensis, Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. [not Jacquin], 87.

RED STOPPER.

Semi-tropical Florida, shores of bay Biscayne, Key Largo, Elliott's Key; in the West Indies.
A tree, 12 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; often forming extensive groves,
and reaching its greatest development in the United States in the neighborhood of Miami, bay Biscayne.
Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong and close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous,
hardly distinguishable; color, light yellow-brown, the sap-wood darker; specific gravity, 0.9453; ash, 2.62;
probably valuable in cabinet-making and as a substitute for box-wood for coarse wood-engraving.
NOTE.--Psidium Guaiava, Raddi, the Guava, widely cultivated in the tropics for its fruit, is now sparingly naturalized in semi-tropical
Florida.



CACTACE E.



149.-Cereus giganteus, Engelmann;

Emory's Rep. 158; Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xiv, 335; xvii, 231; Proc. Am. Acad. iii, 287; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, Cactacem, 42, t. 61,
62 & front.; Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 247.-Thurber in Mem. Am. Acad. new ser. v, 302, 305.-Fl. des Serres, x, 24,
& t.; xv, 187, t. 1600.-Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 12.-Engelmann & Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 36.-Walpers,
Ann. v, 46.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259.-Lomaire, Ill. Hort. ix, Misc. 95.-Marcou in Jour. Hort. Soc. France, 2 ser. iii,
676.-Lindley, Treasury Bot. 256, t. 17.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.-Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, front.-Hemsley, Bot.
Am.-Cent. i, 343.-James in Am. Nat. xv, 982, f. 3.
Pilocereus Engelmanni, Lemairo, Ill. Hort. ix, Misc. 95.








90 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA.

SUWARROW. SAGUARO. GIANT CACTUS.

Valley of Bill Williams river, Arizona, south and east through central Arizona to the valley of the San Pedro
river; southward in Sonora..
A tall, columnar tree, 8 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter; dry, stony
mesa or low hills rising from the desert.
Wood of the large, strong ribs, very light, soft, rather coarse-grained, solid, satiny, susceptible of a fine polish,
almost indestructible in contact with the ground ; medullary rays very numerous, broad; color, light brown
tinged with yellow; specific gravity, 0.3188; ash, 3.45; used in the region almost exclusively for the rafters of
adobe houses, for fencing, and by the Indians for lances, bows, etc.
The edible fruit largely collected and dried by the Indians.




CORNACEAE.



150.-Cornus alternifolia, Linneus f.
Suppl. 125.-Lamarck, Dict. ii, 116; Ill. i, 303.-L'Heritier, Cornus, 10, t. 6.-Ehrhart, Beitr. iii, 19.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 159; 2 ed.
i, 262.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 664; Enum. 165; Berl. Baumz. 104.-Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 93.-Persoon, Syn. i, 144.-Desfontaines,
Hist. Arb. i, 351.-Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 157, t. 45.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 109.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 99.--Remer & Schultes, Syst.
iii, 323; Mant. 251.-Elliott, Sk. i, 210.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 53, t. 43.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 8.-Torrey, Fl. U. S. 180;
Compend. F1. N. States, 83; Fl. N. York, i, 288.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 451.-De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 271.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 275.-
Don, Miller's Diet. iii, 398.-Beck, Bot. 154.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 109.-Tausch in Regensb. Fl. xxi, 732.-Spach, Hist. Veg.viii, 92.-
Dietrich, Syn. i, 503.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 649.-Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1010, f. 760.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 210.-
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 60.-C. A. Meyer in Mom. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, v, 6, 13.-Walpers, Rep. v, 932.-Emerson, Trees
Massachusetts, 409; 2 ed. ii, 463 & t.-Parry in Owen's Rep. 613.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 110.-Cooper in Smithsonian
Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S. States, 167.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 167.-Wood, Cl. Book, 391; Bet.
& Fl. 143.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 201.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 690.-Young, Bot. Texas, 303.

C. alterna, Marshall, Arbustum, 35.

DOGWOOD.

New Brunswick, west along the valley of the Saint Lawrence river to the northern shores of lake Superior,
sooth through the northern states and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama.
A small tree, 4 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; low, rich woods and borders
of streams and swamps.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown
tinged with red, the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.6696; ash, 0.41.


151.-Cornus florida, Linnmus,

Spec. 1 ed. 117.-Marshall, Arbustum, 35.-Lamarck, Diet. ii, 114; Ill. i, 302.-Wangenheim, Amer. 51, t. 17, f. 41.-Walter, Fl.
Caroliniana, 88.-L'Heritier, Cornus, 4.-Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 157; 2 ed. i, 261.-Willdenow, Spec. i, 661; Enum. 164; Berl.
Baumz. 100.-Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 73.-B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 12, 45; ii, 17, 19.-Bot. Mag. t. 526.-Miehaux, Fl. Bor.-Am.
i, 91.-Persoon, Syn. i, 143.-Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 350.-Schkuhr, Handb. 82.-Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 41, t. 16, f. 7.-Nouveau
Duhamel, ii, 153.-Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 138, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 176, t. 48.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 108.-
Bigelow, Med. Bet. ii, 69, t. 73; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 59.-Eaton, Manual, 19; 6 ed. 108.-Nuttall, Genera, i, 98.--Barton, Med. Bet. i,
43, t. 3.-Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 319.-Hayne, Dend. Fl. 6.-Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 21, t. 19.-Elliott, Sk. i, 207.-
Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 208; Fl. U. S. 178; Compend. Fl. N. States, 82; Fl. N. York, i, 290; Nicollet's Rep. 151; Emory's
Rep. 408.-Sprengel, Syst. i, 451.-Beck in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. x, 264; Bet. 153.-Audubon, Birds, t. 8, 73, 122.-Rafinesque, Med.
Bet. i, 131, f. 28 -De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 273.-Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 277, in part; Companion Bet. Mag. i, 48.-Don, Miller's Diet.
iii, 400.-Lindley, Fl. Med. 81.-Dietrich, Syn. i, 504.-Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 652.-London, Arboretum, ii, 1017, f.
769.-Eaton & Wright, Bet. 209.-Reid in London Gard. Chronicle, 1844, 276.-Browno, Trees of America, 350.-Emerson, Trees
Massachusetts, 413; 2 ed. ii, 467 & t.-Griffith, Med. Bot. 347, f. 164.-Carson, Med. Bet. i, 50, t. 42.-Richardson, Arctic Exped.
429.-Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 111.-Darby, Bet. S. States, 339.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.-Chapman, Fl. S.
States, 168.-Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 60.-Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 364.-Wood, Cl.
Book, 391; Bot. & Fl. 143.-Blakie in Canadian Nat. vi, 1.-Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 194.-Porcher,
Resources S. Forests, 59.-Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 200; Hall's PI. Texas, 11.-Koch, Dendrologie, i, 694.-Young, Bet. Texas,
303.-Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 16.-Baillon, Hist. P1. vii, 68, f. 46.-Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 53.-Bentley &
Trimen, Med. P1. ii, 136, t. 136.-Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55c.-Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 67.

Benthamidia florida, Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 107.


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