Domestic animals

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Material Information

Title:
Domestic animals
Series Title:
Aunt Louisa's big picture series
Physical Description:
24 p. : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
McLoughlin Bros., inc ( Publisher )
Publisher:
McLoughlin Brothers
Place of Publication:
New York
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1880   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1880
Genre:
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Includes publisher's advertisement.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001733483
oclc - 26074496
notis - AJE6147
System ID:
UF00023601:00001

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Related Items:
Alternate version (PALMM)
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BIG


DOGS.


THERE are all kinds of big dogs as well as
pet dogs, and though we may make a pet
of a big dog, he is too large to hold on our
laps, or to be all day in a room with us. He
is a grand play-mate, but he is not so much
of a toy as the Po-me-ra-ni-an, the Ter-ri-er,
or the small Span-iel. These are all hard
words, but. you should learn to spell long
words as well as short ones. Some of our
big dogs'are kept that they may help to hunt
game. Do you know what game is? Deer,
stags, hares, and some kinds of wild birds,
which we use for food, we call "game;" and
those who go out to hunt or shoot, take dogs
with them to find game in the woods and
fields.
In lands where there are wild boars and
wild bears, great strong swift dogs go out to
start them from their lairs or dens, for the


dog seems to have no fear of a beast twice
as large as he is, and a good dog will face a
lion or a ti-ger, and fight with it. There are
dogs, too, which hunt the fox, the stoat, the
wolf, and such fierce beasts as kill sheep and
lambs, or rob the hen-roosts, and eat the fowls.
Most of these dogs we name hounds. Then
there are dogs that go out to find birds that
we may shoot them, and when they get to a
place where there are birds they will stop till
the man with the gun comes up. They are
taught to do this, and go by the name of
Point-ers, for they point to the game, and a
good dog of this sort will not stir till the birds
rise from the long grass where they lie. The
Point-er, the Set-ter, and the Re-triev-er, all
help to find birds for those who go out to
shoot. The last two have fine hair, which will
grow in thick, short curls, if they are kept






BIG DOGS.


clean and well fed. They are so quick that
they may be taught all sorts of tricks. Some
of them will go back for a mile and find a
stick or a glove that has been left in a room,
or on a hedge, or in the midst of a field.
They are kind to those who treat them well,
and will come or go at their call, lie down at
their feet, and take care of a hat or a coat for
them while they are at play in the fields.
The Mas-tiff is a grand dog, and, in some
parts of the world, is not much less than a.
don-key. He is kept to take care of the
house, the farm-yard, or the store, and is so
strong that he can pull down a man, and is
more than a match for two or three men when
he is in a rage. Dogs of this sort are kept
by the monks who live in a large house in
the Alps, where the ice and snow make it
hard to find the way when we are on the road
to cross the high rocks. Deep caves, slopes


of ice and stones, dark chasms, rifts in the
ground, and great blank walls of rock, down
which men may fall and be found dead next
day, are not to be seen when the soft snow
hides them, and makes all things look white;
so, when the snow falls, and the night comes
on, these dogs are sent out, and as they can
cross the snow where a man would sink down,
they go first, and snuff the air all round them
to try if they can smell foot-steps. Then, if
some one has been on the road, they run to
and fro to find him, and if he has sunk in the
snow, or gone to sleep in the cold, where he
would soon freeze to death, or if they hear a
cry a long way off, they run back to the
monks, who go with poles, and lights, and
drink, and food, and find the lost man, and
take him home to their house till he can go
on his way by the light of day.




I








TIHEI ~PONY~ JI-.


OF all the pets that boys and girls can
keep, the pony is the best. There is no
toy that can please a boy more than a nice
pony; and he will not care where he comes
from, so long as he can trot well and will do
what he is told as well as he can. But there
are some things that we have to do if we
keep one of these nice beasts, and learn to
ride on its back, or teach it to draw a light
cart or a chaise. We must feed it well, give
it a good warm place to sleep in, let it have
fresh air, and keep it clean. Then there are
those things that we must not do. We must
not drive it too fast or too far; we must not
lash it with the whip, and we must not scold
it much. No good horse needs more than a
touch of the whip, if it has been well taught.
The man or boy who flogs a horse or a pony
in spite, is worse than the brute, and is not


half so wise as he should be, for the beast
will learn to do as we wish, if we take the
pains to teach him; and we shall but spoil
him if we use force when a kind word or a
touch will make him do all that his strength
will bear.
There are some young folks who may
think that the pony is a young horse; but
this is not so. The 'young horse we call a
colt, and he grows up to be a large horse;
but the pony is a small kind of horse, and
the foal of the pony does not grow so large
as the colt of the horse. Those who -keep a
pony will find that if they do not take care
of him he will be ill, and too weak to do his
work. He must be kept clean, and to rub
him down with the brush and the comb once
or twice a day when he is at work will help
to keep him in health. Take great care not






THE PONY.


to give him drink from a well; it is too cold
and hard; but let him have a nice clean pail,
and give him drink from a clear stream or
from the tank. When he has been out with
you and comes home hot, do not put him in
his shed at once, but walk him up and down
till he is cool, then rub him down with a wisp
of hay or straw, or a coarse cloth, and give
him a brush. Wash his feet when he is quite
cool, give him some drink and a feed of corn,
then some more drink, and leave him to rest.
He may drink a quart at a time, and when
he is warm and yet is much in want of drink,
it is well to let it be Inade just warm so
that it may not chill him. You may teach a
pony to come to your call, to go with you
here and there like a dog, to eat from your
hand, and to play tricks that are full of fun.
He will soon learn his name, and come to
you when you call him from the field.
Some ponies are of such a small size that
they are not so big as a great dog; but, of
course, when they are such mites they are
not of much use, though a pair of them in a


small chaise look so well that they make fine
toys. There have been ponies who would go
up and down stairs like dogs, and there are
few who do not like to eat a bit of cake or
a nice sweet. But young folks should not
give them sweets and cake. Now and then
a small piece may not hurt them, but good
corn and fresh hay, grass and oats, with clear
pure drink is best for their health.
Some ponies are rough with long manes
and quite a whisk of a tail. They are a good
sort for work, and will trot at a good pace
for a long time, though they are so small that
a pair of them could be shut in a big chest.
Then there are smooth ones, with trim mane
and tails, and fine sleek legs, and these look
well in a neat chaise with white reins, and
nice clean head-stalls and bands.
The Shetland pony is a good one, though
it looks rough, and it may be bought of
such a small size that if a big boy were
to get on its back he could not keep his
feet off the ground.




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FARM YARD CATTLE.


W HAT should we do if we had no cows ?
Of course, if there were no cows there
would be no calves, for the calf is the young
of the cow; and if there were no calves there
would be no veal. The flesh of the calf, when
it is sold as meat, we call veal, and if we had
no cows of course we could not drink milk,
and there would be no cheese, or if we had
cheese at all it would be made from goat's
milk, and that is not half so nice. We
should have to eat dry bread if we could not
get jam, and then what should we do to make
pie-crusts ? or how should we find out the way
to get cream, or curds, and whey? These are
but a few of the things that we owe to the
cow; and when we see her in the field, where
she chews the fresh sweet grass, or meet her
in the farm-yard, where the scent of her pure
breath is like that of new milk, we should


think of what great use she is to us, and not
strike or drive her. She turns her great head,
and looks at us with her big soft eyes as we
go by, and she may show that she sees us by
a low, deep cry, but she ouglt to know by
this time that we do not wish to hurt her.
When the cow cries out, we say that she
"lows;" when the calf, or the sheep, or the
lamb cries, we say that it "bleats."
Cows are to be found in farms in all parts
of the world, and we have the best in our own
land, where we treat them with more care and
feed them well. There are black and brown
or dun and white cows, as well as some that
have a spot or a patch here and there. They
are of all sorts, some of them of great size
and some quite small; but they are all good,
and the small ones yield some of the best
milk. There are cows with long horns and


-~-~-- ~.-






THE COW AND CALF.


cows with short horns, and most of the small
cows have long horns.
Those who keep cows should let them
go out in the fresh air as much as they can,
and have a good shed built for them to go
to when there is rain. Cows will eat dried
grass or hay and some sorts of roots; and they
seem to munch all day long when they are
in the fields. Do you know how it is that
they do so ? If not I will tell you. The cow
chews the cud; that is, she chews her food
twice. The first time she eats it up at once,
and it goes down her throat to the pouch,
where it stays till she has had a good meal; then
1he stands or lies quite still, and the food is
brought back to the mouth that she may munch
itpand grind it with her teeth till it is fit to go
down the throat once more. The cow has more
than one pouch for food. She has four, and as
she eats grass and herbs, as well as roots and
hay, it takes some time for her to munch and
chew these things, and to make them soft that
they may keep her strong and in good health.
The flesh of the young cow is good; but we do


not eat much of it here, for cows are of so much
use to give us milk to drink, and cream, of
which we make our but-ter and cheese, that we
do not like to kill them for food till they have
grown old. Most of the beef that we eat is the
flesh of the ox or bull, and there are some sorts
which are fed with great care that they may be
fit to eat. The ox is used to draw the plough
in the fields, and in some parts of the world he
is put to drag huge carts and loads of wood;
for his strength is great and he can pull vast
weights, such as trunks of trees, bales of goods,
and big casks full of wine in those lands where
the vines grow on the hills, and the wine is
made a long way off from the place where it is
to be put on board the ships that bring it here
for us to drink. Some of these beasts that live
in the wild parts of the world look fierce and
have rough hides and long horns; but they are
not so fierce as they look. When they are at
work a large thick beam of wood is put on
the tips of their horns, that they may not fight
or be hurt, and six or eight of them are set to
drag a great cart.




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THE SHEEP

The young of the sheep we call lambs, and
they look so nice and soft in their fine white
fleece, that it is quite a treat to see them as
they trot by the side of the ewe. Of course
you have been told that the wool of the sheep
is known as the fleece; and that when it grows
so thick that the beast finds it too hot for the
warm time of year, it is cut off with shears.
Have you seen the men who take care of the
flocks shear the sheep? They catch them one
by one and turn them on their backs, and then,
with a pair of large, sharp shears, cut off the
long, thick wool. Then they let them go, and
off they run to jump and frisk, quite glad to
get rid of their load, But we must take great
care not to sheer the sheep or the lambs if the
days and nights are cold, and when first we
take off the long wool, there should be a nice
shed or sheep-cot for them to sleep in at night,
or they will miss their fine warm coats. Do
you know what we do with the wool? It is
all made clean and drawn out with a sort of
comb; then we send it to the dye-house, where
it is made black, or blue, or brown, or of the


AND LAMBS.

tint we want for our use. Next it is spun till
it forms long threads, and then it is wound on
to reels, and spread out in a kind of web. At
last, we send it to the loom, in which men
weave it, and make cloth of it, and of cloth we
make all sorts of clothes. So, you see, we
should not get on so well if we had not the
sheep, and when we take the nice warm coats
that they do not want, we make of them nice
clothes that we all want so much. Try to
think of this jf you take up a stone to throw
at a sheep, and you will not throw the stone,
but will feel how all these beasts are for our
use, and are sent to help us with the food and
the clothes that wi' need, and to do some of
the work that we should find it hard to do if
they were not so strong, and yet so tame that
when we are kind to them they will come at
our call, and learn to know the voice of those
that treat them well. It is a great sin to hurt
or beat a dumb brute, when we do it from spite
or ill-will; for they were made not by us, but
by God, who sends them that they may be of
use to us, and that we may be kind to them,






THE SHEEP AND LAMBS.


and take care of them and give them food, and
tend them when they need our help.
Those who take care of flocks learn to
' know each sheep that is in their charge. You
know what we call the man who goes out to
watch and herd the sheep and lambs. He is
the sheep herd; but we make one word of
those two words and name him the shep-herd.
To herd means to bring them to one place, and
he has a dog to help him to do this. When the
sheep feed on high hills, or on land a long way
from the farm, the dog has a great deal of work
to do. If the sheep stray too far he runs in
search of them, and leaps and barks at them
till they turn back, and if one sheep goes off
from the rest and is lost, the dog goes to seek
it, and looks for it till he finds it, and then the
shep-herd takes it home, or the dog barks and
bites its ear, and runs at it till he makes it
go back.
In the cold, long nights a sheep may get
out of the fold, and be lost in the snow. The
fold is a place with a fence all round, where
the sheep are fed when there is no grass for


them to eat in the fields, or on the heath, or
the hill-side; and if a sheep should break
through the fence, or leap out from the place
where it is with the rest of the flock, it may
be lost in the snow or fall down a deep place
in the side of the hill, or lose its way on the
great wide prai-ries, where the dark night
comes on so fast. Then the shep-herd will
miss it, and will call his dog and take his crook
with him and go in search of it. The crook is
a long stick with a large hook at the end, with
which the shep-herd guides the sheep, or takes
hold of one of them by the leg if he wants to
catch it. When he goes to look for the lost
sheep, he first sends on the dog, who sniffs,
and barks, and runs here and there till he has
found the track that the sheep's feet have left
on the ground or in the snow, and then they go
on till they come to the place where they find
the poor thing, who does not know which way
to turn to get home. Then, if it is lame, or has
gone so far that it is too weak to walk, the
shep-herd takes it on his back, the dog trots by
his side, and off they go to the fold.




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TH CE=


CA T.


T HERE are few of us who know of a house
where the folks who live there do not
keep a cat. The cat is a pet with us all, and
yet there are some of us who are not fond of
her, though we like to watch the kit-tens at
play, and to teach them to jump or to run here
and there to catch a ball or a piece of string.
The cat is so light, and can spring and leap so
well, and has such a fine form, such a long tail,
and such soft paws, when she does not use her
strong, sharp claws, that we do not tire of her
tricks; but yet she is not such a close friend as
the dog; for she is sly, and can be fierce when
she is in a rage, and is so fond of a place where


like the tame sort. The wild cat has long fur
which is of a white and grey hue, a large head,
great teeth, and a tail with black and white
bars or stripes. Tame cats are black, white,
grey, and some with light brown or red marks,
while some have stripes or bars of black and
grey. Some wild cats are red, while at the
Cape of Good Hope there are dark blue cats;
and in Chi-na the ears of the cats hang down,
while .there is one sort which has a tail six
times as long as the tails of those which are
found here.
In Greece, a long time ago, cats were
taught to hunt and kill small snakes; but they


she can hide from us, that she does not seem are not quick to learn, and, as they have not a
to like us so well. keen scent, they catch their prey when they can
There are wild cats in some parts of the see it, but do not smell it. You may have seen
world, and there may still be a few in the a cat watch at a hole for a rat or a mouse. It
woods of our own land, but they are not much will lie quite still for a long time till the mouse


__ ___ __






THE CA T.


comes out, and then spring on it and kill it.
The eye of the cat is so made that it can see in
the dark, and so cats lie in wait for their prey
at night, and can go up and down stairs, or can
find their way in the woods and fields when we
could not see at all. They do not like wet or
cold, and most cats hate dirt, as you may see
if you watch what pains they take to make
their skins clean, and to lick their paws and
sides with their rough tongues. The tongue of
a cat is so rough that it will take off the dirt
and dust from the fine fur, and this does as well
as a good wash in a stream. Cats will not
bathe in a stream; and, though one or two have
been seen to run in to catch a fish, most of
them hate to wet their feet. They are so fond
of sweet scents that they will go up to folks
who use them, and keep as close to them as


swift beasts, they love ease, and will lie all day
in the sun, or on a nice soft bed near the fire;
but they do not like to be shut up in one place,
and if a cat is kept in a cage it will not catch
mice when they are let to run close by it. When
it is let to roam, it will catch birds and mice,
but some cats do not care to kill rats. Black
cats are large and fine to look at, but they are
not the best. The best cats to catch rats are
the gYy sort with black rings, for they are
fierce and bold, and seem to be most like the
wild cat. Though they are not so much the
friends of man as the dog, cats have been
known to be so fond of those with whom they
live that they could not bear to be out of their
sight. There was once a fine race-horse who
had a cat for a friend. The cat was a black
one, and would spend whole days in the stall


they can. where the horse was kept, and lie down on his
In the Isle of Man the cats have no tails, back. When the horse died, the cat still sat
and there are cats with long white hair as soft on his back till he was put in a hole in the
and as fine as silk. In Chi-na, those who keep ground, and then ran off and was not seen
cats put gold rings in their ears, and a fine band for a long time, till she was found dead in a
round their necks. Though cats are strong, hay-loft.




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THE


GOAT.


GOATS are not much like most of the sheep
that we see in our fields, though they are
the same kind of beasts. The sheep that run
wild in the hills or on the moors are more like
goats; but they have short, small horns, or
horns that curl round on each side of the head.
The kind of sheep which has these horns we
call a ram. The goat has long, bent horns,
and a long tuft of hair hangs from his chin.
Some kinds of goats are like stags or deer in
shape, but their horns do not branch out like
those of the stag.
There are few tame goats, for they like
to run in high lands and where there are rocks
and steep, hills, on which they can feed from
the sweet herbs and grass, and the tops and
buds of shrubs. In those parts of the world
where there are no sheep, herds of goats are
kept, and their flesh is of great use for food.


Thcy are so fleet and sure of foot that they
leap and bound from crag to crag of the rocks,
and can stand or run on heights where few
men could climb, or can cross wide chasms-
with ease, where those who try to catch them
dare not go. Some of the goats are quite
wild: no one owns them, and they live in the
hills and vales of the Alps. Men go out to
hunt the wild goat, and spend days in the vast
chain of high rocks and hills that rise from
the deep vales. From the dawn of day to the
dusk of night they watch for the goats from
the lone heights or the deep caves of the hills,
and have no one to speak to. Each man takes
his gun-slung to his back by a strap-a
large bag or pouch full of food, a large flask of
wine, and a long staff, with a spike in the end,
to help him to climb the steep crags, or to go
down the bare rocks. His food is coarse bread






THE GOAT.


made of rye, and some cheese made of goats'
milk, with a small piece of ham or goats' flesh.
He can drink from some clear stream, or melt
some snow and mix it with the wine in his
flask. He has big nails and spikes in his shoes
that he may have some foot-hold on the ice or
smooth snow, or the short grass on the slopes
of the hills. He takes his place on some spot
where he can watch the steep paths by which
he thinks the goats will go to feed; but he
must take care to stand so that the wind does
not blow past him to that place, for if it does
the goats will smell him a long way off. Their
scent is so keen and their ears so sharp, that
in those heights where the air is clear and
sounds may be heard a long way off, they will
know that he is there and keep far out of the
range of his gun. He must keep still and wait
and watch for hours, and at last he may see
a goat bound up to a high peak of rock and
look all round, and sniff the air to find out if
all is safe. Then he must be as still as a mouse,
and more goats will come up and will join the


first. When they turn to go past the place to
which he points his gun, he picks out the best
of them and fires. If he has made a good aim,
the goat which is struck will give one bound
and fall where it stood; but if not, it may
spring from place to place or fall down to a
great depth, where it will take a long time for
him to find it in some part of the rocks. He
will be sure to have to go a long way to get
his game when he has shot it, and then he has
to take it home on his back. The flesh is for
food; the skin and horns he sells for what they
are worth; but his life is a hard one, though
he gains health and strength in the pure air
where he toils from day to day.
Those who go out to hunt these goats are
strong, tall men, who have not much to say.
They have none to talk to when they are in
the vast heights, so that they do not say much
when they are at home. They do not look
like the men who live as we do, but seem as
though they could see and hear things a long
way ofi




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THE GOAT. GOATS are not much like most of the sheep Thty are so fleet and sure of foot that they that we see in our fields, though they are leap and bound from crag to crag of the rocks, the same kind of beasts. The sheep that run and can stand or run on heights where few wild in the hills or on the moors are more like men could climb, or can cross wide chasms goats; but they have short, small horns, or with ease, where those who try to catch them horns that curl round on each side of the head. dare not go. Some of the goats are quite The kind of sheep which has these horns we wild: no one owns them, and they live in the call a ram. The goat has long, bent horns, hills and vales of the Alps. Men go out to and a long tuft of hair hangs from his chin. hunt the wild goat, and spend days in the vast Some kinds of goats are like stags or deer in chain of high rocks and hills that rise from shape, but their horns do not branch out like the deep vales. From the dawn of day to the those of the stag. dusk of night they watch for the goats from There are few tame goats, for they like the lone heights or the deep caves of the hills, to run in high lands and where there are rocks and have no one to speak to. Each man takes and steep hills, on which they can feed from his gun-slung to his back by a strap-a the sweet herbs and grass, and the tops and large bag or pouch full of food, a large flask of buds of shrubs. In those parts of the world wine, and a long staff, with a spike in the end, where there are no sheep, herds of goats are to help him to climb the steep crags, or to go kept, and their flesh is of great use for food. down the bare rocks. His food is coarse bread



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THE CA T. comes out, and then spring on it and kill it. swift beasts, they love ease, and will lie all day The eye of the cat is so made that it can see in in the sun, or on a nice soft bed near the fire; the dark, and so cats lie in wait for their prey but they do not like to be shut up in one place, at night, and can go up and down stairs, or can and if a cat is kept in a cage it will not catch find their way in the woods and fields when we mice when they are let to run close by it. When could not see at all. They do not like wet or it is let to roam, it will catch birds and mice, cold, and most cats hate dirt, as you may see but some cats do not care to kill rats. Black if you watch what pains they take to make cats are large and fine to look at, but they are their skins clean, and to lick their paws and not the best. The best cats to catch rats are sides with their rough tongues. The tongue of the rny sort with black rings, for they are a cat is so rough that it will take off the dirt fierce and bold, and seem to be most like the and dust from the fine fur, and this does as well wild cat. Though they are not so much the as a good wash in a stream. Cats will not friends of man as the dog, cats have been bathe in a stream; and, though one or two have known to be so fond of those with whom they been seen to run in to catch a fish, most of live that they could not bear to be out of their them hate to wet their feet. They are so fond sight. There was once a fine race-horse who of sweet scents that they will go up to folks had a cat for a friend. The cat was a black who use them, and keep as close to them as one, and would spend whole days in the stall they can. where the horse was kept, and lie down on his In the Isle of Man the cats have no tails, back. When the horse died, the cat still sat and there are cats with long white hair as soft on his back till he was put in a hole in the and as fine as silk. In Chi-na, those who keep ground, and then ran off and was not seen cats put gold rings in their ears, and a fine band for a long time, till she was found dead in a round their necks. Though cats are strong, hay-loft.



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* 1 I * < . _.


THE
CAT.
.- eo <
THERE are few of us who know of a house
where the folks who live there do not
keep a cat. The cat is a pet with us all, and
yet there are some of us who are not fond of
her, though we like to watch the kit-tens at
play, and to teach them to jump or to run here
and there to catch a ball or a piece of string.
The cat is so light, and can spring and leap so
well, and has such a fine form, such a long tail,
and such soft paws, when she does not use her
strong, sharp claws, that we do not tire of her
tricks; but yet she is not such a close friend as
the dog; for she is sly, and can be fierce when
she is in a rage, and is so fond of a place where
like the tame sort. The wild cat has long fur
which is of a white and grey hue, a large head,
great teeth, and a tail with black and white
bars or stripes. Tame cats are black, white,
grey, and some with light brown or red marks,
while some have stripes or bars of black and
grey. Some wild cats are red, while at the
Cape of Good Hope there are dark blue cats;
and in Chi-na the ears of the cats hang down,
while there is one sort which has a tail six
times as long as the tails of those which are
found here.
In Greece, a long time ago, cats were
taught to hunt and kill small snakes; but they
she can hide from us, that she does not seem are not quick to learn, and, as they have not a
to like us so well. keen scent, they catch their prey when they can
There are wild cats in some parts of the see it, but do not smell it. You may have seen
world, and there may still be a few in the a cat watch at a hole for a rat or a mouse. It
woods of our own land, but they are not much will lie quite still for a long time till the mouse


FARM YARD CATTLE.
___-~-
W ( HAT should we do if we had no cows ?
Of course, if there were no cows there
would be no calves, for the calf is the young
of the cow; and if there were no calves there
would be no veal. The flesh of the calf, when
it is sold as meat, we call veal, and if we had
no cows of course we could not drink milk,
and there would be no cheese, or if we had
cheese at all it would be made from goat's
milk, and that is not half so nice. We
should have to eat dry bread if we could not
get jam, and then what should we do to make
pie-crusts ? or how should we find out the way
to get cream, or curds, and whey? These are
but a few of the things that we owe to the
cow; and when we see her in the field, where
she chews the fresh sweet grass, or meet her
in the farm-yard, where the scent of her pure
breath is like that of new milk, we should
think of what great use she is to us, and not
strike or drive her. She turns her great head,
and looks at us with her big soft eyes as we
go by, and she may show that she sees us by
a low, deep cry, but she ought to know by
this time that we do not wish to hurt her.
When the cow cries out, we say that she
"lows;" when the calf, or the sheep, or the
lamb cries, we say that it "bleats."
Cows are to be found in farms in all parts
of the world, and we have the best in our own
land, where we treat them with more care and
feed them well. There are black and brown
or dun and white cows, as well as some that
have a spot or a patch here and there. They
are of all sorts, some of them of great size
and some quite small; but they are all good,
and the small ones yield some of the best
milk. There are cows with long horns and



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THE CA T. T HERE are few of us who know of a house like the tame sort. The wild cat has long fur where the folks who live there do not which is of a white and grey hue, a large head, keep a cat. The cat is a pet with us all, and great teeth, and a tail with black and white yet there are some of us who are not fond of bars or stripes. Tame cats are black, white, her, though we like to watch the kit-tens at grey, and some with light brown or red marks, play, and to teach them to jump or to run here while some have stripes or bars of black and and there to catch a ball or a piece of string. grey. Some wild cats are red, while at the The cat is so light, and can spring and leap so Cape of Good Hope there are dark blue cats; well, and has such a fine form, such a long tail, and in Chi-na the ears of the cats hang down, and such soft paws, when she does not use her while there is one sort which has a tail six strong, sharp claws, that we do not tire of her times as long as the tails of those which are tricks; but yet she is not such a close friend as found here. the dog; for she is sly, and can be fierce when In Greece, a long time ago, cats were she is in a rage, and is so fond of a place where taught to hunt and kill small snakes; but they she can hide from us, that she does not seem are not quick to learn, and, as they have not a to like us so well. keen scent, they catch their prey when they can There are wild cats in some parts of the see it, but do not smell it. You may have seen world, and there may still be a few in the a cat watch at a hole for a rat or a mouse. It woods of our own land, but they are not much will lie quite still for a long time till the mouse



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THE SHEEP AND LAMBS. The young of the sheep we call lambs, and tint we want for our use. Next it is spun till they look so nice and soft in their fine white it forms long threads, and then it is wound on fleece, that it is quite a treat to see them as to reels, and spread out in a kind of web. At they trot by the side of the ewe. Of course last, we send it to the loom, in which men you have been told that the wool of the sheep weave it, and make cloth of it, and of cloth we is known as the fleece; and that when it grows make all sorts of clothes. So, you see, we so thick that the beast finds it too hot for the should not get on so well if we had not the warm time of year, it is cut off with shears. sheep, and when we take the nice warm coats Have you seen the men who take care of the that they do not want, we make of them nice flocks shear the sheep? They catch them one clothes that we all want so much. Try to by one and turn them on their backs, and then, think of this jf you take up a stone to throw with a pair of large, sharp shears, cut off the at a sheep, and you will not throw the stone, long, thick wool. Then they let them go, and but will feel how all these beasts are for our off they run to jump and frisk, quite glad to use, and are sent to help us with the food and get rid of their load, But we must take great the clothes that -w need, and to do some of care not to sheer the sheep or the lambs if the the work that we should find it hard to do if days and nights are cold, and when first we they were not so strong, and yet so tame that take off the long wool, there should be a nice when we are kind to them they will come at shed or sheep-cot for them to sleep in at night, our call, and learn to know the voice of those or they will miss their fine warm coats. Do that treat them well. It is a great sin to hurt you know what we do with the wool? It is or beat a dumb brute, when we do it from spite all made clean and drawn out with a sort of or ill-will; for they were made not by us, but comb; then we send it to the dye-house, where by God, who sends them that they may be of it is made black, or blue, or brown, or of the use to us, and that we may be kind to them,



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T E PONY. to give him drink from a well; it is too cold small chaise look so well that they make fine and hard; but let him have a nice clean pail, toys. There have been ponies who would go and give him drink from a clear stream or up and down stairs like dogs, and there are from the tank. When he has been out with few who do not like to eat a bit of cake or you and comes home hot, do not put him in a nice sweet. But young folks should not his shed at once, but walk him up and down give them sweets and cake. Now and then till he is cool, then rub him down with a wisp a small piece may not hurt them, but good of hay or straw, or a coarse cloth, and give corn and fresh hay, grass and oats, with clear him a brush. Wash his feet when he is quite pure drink is best for their health. cool, give him some drink and a feed of corn, Some ponies are rough with long manes then some more drink, and leave him to rest. and quite a whisk of a tail. They are a good He may drink a quart at a time, and when sort for work, and will trot at a good pace he is warm and yet is much in want of drink, for a long time, though they are so small that it is well to let it be Wnade just warm so a pair of them could be shut in a big chest. that it may not chill him. You may teach a Then there are smooth ones, with trim mane pony to come to your call, to go with you and tails, and fine sleek legs, and these look here and there like a dog, to eat from your well in a neat chaise with white reins, and hand, and to play tricks that are full of fun. nice clean head-stalls and bands. He will soon learn his name, and come to The Shetland pony is a good one, though you when you call him from the field. it looks rough, and it may be bought of Some ponies are of such a small size that such a small size that if a big boy were they are not so big as a great dog; but, of to get on its back he could not keep his course, when they are such mites they are feet off the ground. not of much use, though a pair of them in a



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FARM YARD CATTLE. TW HAT should we do if we had no cows? think of what great use she is to us, and not Of course, if there were no cows there strike or drive her. She turns her great head, would be no calves, for the calf is the young and looks at us with her big soft eyes as we of the cow; and if there were no calves there go by, and she may show that she sees us by would be no veal. The flesh of the calf, when a low, deep cry, but she ought to know by it is sold as meat, we call veal, and if we had this time that we do not wish to hurt her. no cows of course we could not drink milk, When the cow cries out, we say that she and there would be no cheese, or if we had "lows;" when the calf, or the sheep, or the cheese at all it would be made from goat's lamb cries, we say that it "bleats." milk, and that is not half so nice. We Cows are to be found in farms in all parts should have to eat dry bread if we could not of the world, and we have the best in our own get jam, and then what should we do to make land, where we treat them with more care and pie-crusts ? or how should we find out the way feed them well. There are black and brown to get cream, or curds, and whey? These are or dun and white cows, as well as some that but a few of the things that we owe to the have a spot or a patch here and there. They cow; and when we see her in the field, where are of all sorts, some of them of great size she chews the fresh sweet grass, or meet her and some quite small; but they are all good, in the farm-yard, where the scent of her pure and the small ones yield some of the best breath is like that of new milk, we should milk. There are cows with long horns and



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BIG DOGrS. THERE are all kinds of big dogs as well as dog seems to have no fear of a beast twice pet dogs, and though we may make a pet as large as he is, and a good dog will face a of a big dog, he is too large to hold on our lion or a ti-ger, and fight with it. There are laps, or to be all day in a room with us. He dogs, too, which hunt the fox, the stoat, the is a grand play-mate, but he is not so much wolf, and such fierce beasts as kill sheep and of a toy as the Po-me-ra-ni-an, the Ter-ri-er, lambs, or rob the hen-roosts, and eat the fowls. or the small Span-iel. These are all hard Most of these dogs we name hounds. Then words, but, you should learn to spell long there are dogs that go out to find birds that words as well as short ones. Some of our we may shoot them, and when they get to a big dogs "are kept that they may help to hunt place where there are birds they will stop till game. Do you know what game is? Deer, the man with the gun comes up. They are stags, hares, and some kinds of wild birds, taught to do this, and go by the name of which we use for food, we call "game;" and Point-ers, for they point to the game, and a those who go out to hunt or shoot, take dogs good dog of this sort will not stir till the birds with them to find game in the woods and rise from the long grass where they lie. The fields. Point-er, the Set-ter, and the Re-triev-er, all In lands where there are wild boars and help to find birds for those who go out to wild bears, great strong swift dogs go out to shoot. The last two have fine hair, which will start them from their lairs or dens, for the grow in thick, short curls, if they are kept


THE
GOAT.
GOATS are not much like most of the sheep
that we see in our fields, though they are
the same kind of beasts. The sheep that run
wild in the hills or on the moors are more like
goats; but they have short, small horns, or
horns that curl round on each side of the head.
The kind of sheep which has these horns we
call a ram. The goat has long, bent horns,
and a long tuft of hair hangs from his chin.
Some kinds of goats are like stags or deer in
shape, but their horns do not branch out like
those of the stag.
There are few tame goats, for they like
to run in high lands and where there are rocks
and steep hills, on which they can feed from
the sweet herbs and grass, and the tops and
buds of shrubs. In those parts of the world
where there are no sheep, herds of goats are
kept, and their flesh is of great use for food.
TbhY are so fleet and sure of foot that they
leap and bound from crag to crag of the rocks,
and can stand or run on heights where few
men could climb, or can cross wide chasmso
with ease, where those who try to catch them
dare not go. Some of the goats are quite
wild: no one owns them, and they live in the
hills and vales of the Alps. Men go out to
hunt the wild goat, and spend days in the vast
chain of high rocks and hills that rise from
the deep vales. From the dawn of day tothe
dusk of night they watch for the goats from
the lone heights or the deep caves of the hills,
and have no one to speak to. Each man takes
his gun-slung to his back by a strap-a
large bag or pouch full of food, a large flask of
wine, and a long staff, with a spike in the end,
to help him to climb the steep crags, or to go
down the bare rocks. His food is coarse bread


THE SHEEP AND LAMBS.
and take care of them and give them food, and
tend them when they need our help.
Those who take care of flocks learn to
' know each sheep that is in their charge. You
know what we call the man who goes out to
watch and herd the sheep and lambs. He is
the sheep herd; but we make one word of
those two words and name him the shep-herd.
To herd means to bring them to one place, and
he has a dog to help him to do this. When the
sheep feed on high hills, or on land a long way
from the farm, the dog has a great deal of work
to do. If the sheep stray too far he runs in
search of them, and leaps and barks at them
till they turn back, and if one sheep goes off
from the rest and is lost, the dog goes to seek
it, and looks for it till he finds it, and then the
shep-herd takes it home, or the dog barks and
bites its ear, and runs at it till he makes it
go back.
In the cold, long nights a sheep may get
out of the fold, and be lost in the snow. The
fold is a place with a fence all round, where
the sheep are fed when there is no grass for
them to eat in the fields, or on the heath, or
the hill-side; and if a sheep should break
through the fence, or leap out from the place
where it is with the rest of the flock, it may
be lost in the snow or fall down a deep place
in the side of the hill, or lose its way on the
great wide prai-ries, where the dark night
comes on so fast. Then the shep-herd will
miss it, and will call his dog and take his crook
with him and go in search of it. The crook is
a long stick with a large hook at the end, with
which the shep-herd guides the sheep, or takes
hold of one of them by the leg if he wants to
catch it. When he goes to look for the lost
sheep, he first sends on the dog, who sniffs,
and barks, and runs here and there till he has
found the track that the sheep's feet have left
on the ground or in the snow, and then they go
on till they come to the place where they find
the poor thing, who does not know which way
to turn to get home. Then, if it is lame, or has
gone so far that it is too weak to walk, the
shep-herd takes it on his back, the dog trots by
his side, and off they go to the fold.



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THE GOAT. made of rye, and some cheese made of goats' first. When they turn to go past the place to milk, with a small piece of ham or goats' flesh. which he points his gun, he picks out the best He can drink from some clear stream, or melt of them and fires. If he has made a good aim, some snow and mix it with the wine in his the goat which is struck will give one bound flask. He has big nails and spikes in his shoes and fall where it stood; but if not, it may that he may have some foot-hold on the ice or spring from place to place or fall down to a smooth snow, or the short grass on the slopes great depth, where it will take a long time for of the hills. He takes his place on some spot him to find it in some part of the rocks. He where he can watch the steep paths by which will be sure to have to go a long way to get he thinks the goats will go to feed; but he his game when he has shot it, and then he has must take care to stand so that the wind does to take it home on his back. The flesh is for not blow past him to that place, for if it does food; the skin and horns he sells for what they the goats will smell him a long way off. Their are worth; but his life is a hard one, though scent is so keen and their ears so sharp, that he gains health and strength in the pure air in those heights where the air is clear and where he toils from day to day. sounds may be heard a long way off, they will Those who go out to hunt these goats are know that he is there and keep far out of the strong, tall men, who have not much to say. range of his gun. He must keep still and wait They have none to talk to when they are in and watch for hours, and at last he may see the vast heights, so that they do not say much a goat bound up to a high peak of rock and when they are at home. They do not look look all round, and sniff the air to find out if like the men who live as we do, but seem as all is safe. Then he must be as still as a mouse, though they could see and hear things a long and more goats will come up and will join the way ofl 1 ~~



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s



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T E PONY. OF all the pets that boys and girls can half so wise as he should be, for the beast keep, the pony is the best. There is no will learn to do as we wish, if we take the toy that can please a boy more than a nice pains to teach him; and we shall but spoil pony; and he will not care where he comes him if we use force when a kind word or a from, so long as he can trot well and will do touch will make him do all that his strength what he is told as well as he can. But there will bear. are some things that we have to do if we There are some young folks who may keep one of these nice beasts, and learn to think that the pony is a young horse; but ride on its back, or teach it to draw a light this is not so. The 'young horse we call a cart or a chaise. We must feed it well, give colt, and he grows up to be a large horse; it a good warm place to sleep in, let it have but the pony is a small kind of horse, and fresh air, and keep it clean. Then there are the foal of the pony does not grow so large those things that we must not do. We must as the colt of the horse. Those who -keep a not drive it too fast or too far; we must not pony will find that if they do not take care lash it with the whip, and we must not scold of him he will be ill, and too weak to do his it much. No good horse needs more than a work. He must be kept clean, and to rub touch of the whip, if it has been well taught. him down with the brush and the comb once The man or boy who flogs a horse or a pony or twice a day when he is at work will help in spite, is worse than the brute, and is not to keep him in health. Take great care not




THE CA T.
comes out, and then spring on it and kill it.
The eye of the cat is so made that it can see in
the dark, and so cats lie in wait for their prey
at night, and can go up and down stairs, or can
find their way in the woods and fields when we
could not see at all. They do not like wet or
cold, and most cats hate dirt, as you may see
if you watch what pains they take to make
their skins clean, and to lick their paws and
sides with their rough tongues. The tongue of
a cat is so rough that it will take off the dirt
and dust from the fine fur, and this does as well
as a good wash in a stream. Cats will not
bathe in a stream; and, though one or two have
been seen to run in to catch a fish, most of
them hate to wet their feet. They are so fond
of sweet scents that they will go up to folks
who use them, and keep as close to them as
swift beasts, they love ease, and will lie all day
in the sun, or on a nice soft bed near the fire;
but they do not like to be shut up in one place,
and if a cat is kept in a cage it will not catch
mice when they are let to run close by it. When
it is let to roam, it will catch birds and mice,
but some cats do not care to kill rats. Black
cats are large and fine to look at, but they are
not the best. The best cats to catch rats are
the vgry sort with black rings, for they are
fierce and bold, and seem to be most like the
wild cat. Though they are not so much the
friends of man as the dog, cats have been
known to be so fond of those with whom they
live that they could not bear to be out of their
sight. There was once a fine race-horse who
had a cat for a friend. The cat was a black
one, and would spend whole days in the stall
they can. where the horse was kept, and lie down on his
In the Isle of Man the cats have no tails, back. When the horse died, the cat still sat
and there are cats with long white hair as soft on his back till he was put in a hole in the
and as fine as silk. In Chi-na, those who keep ground, and then ran off and was not seen
cats put gold rings in their ears, and a fine band for a long time, till she was found dead in a
round their necks. Though cats are strong, hay-loft.



PAGE 1

THE SHE EP AND LAMBS. and take care of them and give them food, and them to eat in the fields, or on the heath, or tend them when they need our help. the hill-side; and if a sheep should break Those who take care of flocks learn to through the fence, or leap out from the place know each sheep that is in their charge. You where it is with the rest of the flock, it may know what we call the man who goes out to be lost in the snow or fall down a deep place watch and herd the sheep and lambs. He is in the side of the hill, or lose its way on the the sheep herd; but we make one word of great wide prai-ries, where the dark night those two words and name him the shep-herd. comes on so fast. Then the shep-herd will To herd means to bring them to one place, and miss it, and will call his dog and take his crook he has a dog to help him to do this. When the with him and go in search of it. The crook is sheep feed on high hills, or on land a long way a long stick with a large hook at the end, with from the farm, the dog has a great deal of work which the shep-herd guides the sheep, or takes to do. If the sheep stray too far he runs in hold of one of them by the leg if he wants to search of them, and leaps and barks at them catch it. When he goes to look for the lost till they turn back, and if one sheep goes off sheep, he first sends on the dog, who sniffs, from the rest and is lost, the dog goes to seek and barks, and runs here and there till he has it, and looks for it till he finds it, and then the found the track that the sheep's feet have left shep-herd takes it home, or the dog barks and on the ground or in the snow, and then they go bites its ear, and runs at it till he makes it on till they come to the place where they find go back. the poor thing, who does not know which way In the cold, long nights a sheep may get to turn to get home. Then, if it is lame, or has out of the fold, and be lost in the snow. The gone so far that it is too weak to walk, the fold is a place with a fence all round, where shep-herd takes it on his back, the dog trots by the sheep are fed when there is no grass for his side, and off they go to the fold. )




BIG
DOGS.
*_ ego-a
THERE are all kinds of big dogs as well as
pet dogs, and though we may make a pet
of a big dog, he is too large to hold on our
laps, or to be all day in a room with us. He
is a grand play-mate, but he is not so much
of a toy as the Po-me-ra-ni-an, the Ter-ri-er,
or the small Span-iel. These are all hard
words, but, you should learn to spell long
words as well as short ones. Some of our
big dogs'are kept that they may help to hunt
game. Do you know what game is? Deer,
stags, hares, and some kinds of wild birds,
which we use for food, we call "game;" and
those who go out to hunt or shoot, take dogs
with them to find game in the woods and
fields.
In lands where there are wild boars and
wild bears, great strong swift dogs go out to
start them from their lairs or dens, for the
dog seems to have no fear of a beast twice
as large as he is, and a good dog will face a
lion or a ti-ger, and fight with it. There are
dogs, too, which hunt the fox, the stoat, the
wolf, and such fierce beasts as kill sheep and
lambs, or rob the hen-roosts, and eat the fowls.
Most of these dogs we name hounds. Then
there are dogs that go out to find birds that
we may shoot them, and when they get to a
place where there are birds they will stop till
the man with the gun comes up. They are
taught to do this, and go by the name of
Point-ers, for they point to the game, and a
good dog of this sort will not stir till the birds
rise from the long grass where they lie. The
Point-er, the Set-ter, and the Re-triev-er, all
help to find birds for those who go out to
shoot. The last two have fine hair, which will
grow in thick, short curls, if they are kept



PAGE 1

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THE GOAT.
made of rye, and some cheese made of goats'
milk, with a small piece of ham or goats' flesh.
He can drink from some clear stream, or melt
some snow and mix it with the wine in his
flask. He has big nails and spikes in his shoes
that he may have some foot-hold on the ice or
smooth snow, or the short grass on the slopes
of the hills. He takes his place on some spot
where he can watch the steep paths by which
he thinks the goats will go to feed; but he
must take care to stand so that the wind does
not blow past him to that place, for if it does
the goats will smell him a long way off. Their
scent is so keen and their ears so sharp, that
in those heights where the air is clear and
sounds may be heard a long way off, they will
know that he is there and keep far out of the
range of his gun. He must keep still and wait
and watch for hours, and at last he may see
a goat bound up to a high peak of rock and
look all round, and sniff the air to find out if
all is safe. Then he must be as still as a mouse,
and more goats will come up and will join the
first. When they turn to go past the place to
which he points his gun, he picks out the best
of them and fires. If he has made a good aim,
the goat which is struck will give one bound
and fall where it stood; but if not, it may
spring from place to place or fall down to a
great depth, where it will take a long time for
him to find it in some part of the rocks. He
will be sure to have to go a long way to get
his game when he has shot it, and then he has
to take it home on his back. The flesh is for
food; the skin and horns he sells for what they
are worth; but his life is a hard one, though
he gains health and strength in the pure air
where he toils from day to day.
Those who go out to hunt these goats are
strong, tall men, who have not much to say.
They have none to talk to when they are in
the vast heights, so that they do not say much
when they are at home. They do not look
like the men who live as we do, but seem as
though they could see and hear things a long
way ofl
a


BIG DO GS.
clean and well fed. They are so quick that
they may be taught all sorts of tricks. Some
of them will go back for a mile and find a
stick or a glove that has been left in a room,
or on a hedge, or in the midst of a field.
They are kind to those who treat them well,
and will come or go at their call, lie down at
their feet, and take care of a hat or a coat for
them while they are at play in the fields.
The Mas-tiff is a grand dog, and, in some
parts of the world, is not much less than a.
don-key. He is kept to take care of the
house, the farm-yard, or the store, and is so
strong that he can pull down a man, and is
more than a match for two or three men when
he is in a rage. Dogs of this sort are kept
by the monks who live in a large house in
the Alps, where the ice and snow make it
hard to find the way when we are on the road
to cross the high rocks. Deep caves, slopes
of ice and stones, dark chasms, rifts in the
ground, and great blank walls of rock, down
which men may fall and be found dead next
day, are not to be seen when the soft snow
hides them, and makes all things look white;
so, when the snow falls, and the night comes
on, these dogs are sent out, and as they can
cross the snow where a man would sink down,
they go first, and snuff the air all round them
to try if they can smell foot-steps. Then, if
some one has been on the road, they run to
and fro to find him, and if he has sunk in the
snow, or gone to sleep in the cold, where he
would soon freeze to death, or if they hear a
cry a long way off, they run back to the
monks, who go with poles, and lights, and
drink, and food, and find the lost man, and
take him home to their house till he can go
on his way by the light of day.


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THE COW AND CALF.
cows with short horns, and most of the small
cows have long horns.
Those who keep cows should let them
go out in the fresh air as much as they can,
and have a good shed built for them to go
to when there is rain. Cows will eat dried
grass or hay and some sorts of roots; and they
seem to munch all day long when they are
in the fields. Do you know how it is that
they do so ? If not I will tell you. The cow
chews the cud; that is, she chews her food
twice. The first time she eats it up at once,
and it goes down her throat to the pouch,
where it stays till she has had a good meal; then
'he stands or lies quite still, and the food is
brought back to the mouth that she may munch
itpand grind it with her teeth till it is fit to go
down the throat once more. The cow has more
than one pouch for food. She has four, and as
she eats grass and herbs, as well as roots and
hay, it takes some time for her to munch and
chew these things, and to make them soft that
they may keep her strong and in good health.
The flesh of the young cow is good; but we do
not eat much of it here, for cows are of so much
use to give us milk to drink, and cream, of
which we make our but-ter and cheese, that we
do not like to kill them for food till they have
grown old. Most of the beef that we eat is the
flesh of the ox or bull, and there are some sorts
which are fed with great care that they may be
fit to eat. The ox is used to draw the plough
in the fields, and in some parts of the world he
is put to drag huge carts and loads of wood;
for his strength is great and he can pull vast
weights, such as trunks of trees, bales of goods,
and big casks full of wine in those lands where
the vines grow on the hills, and the wine is
made a long way off from the place where it is
to be put on board the ships that bring it here
for us to drink. Some of these beasts that live
in the wild parts of the world look fierce and
have rough hides and long horns; but they are
not so fierce as they look. When they are at
work a large thick beam of wood is put on
the tips of their horns, that they may not fight
or be hurt, and six or eight of them are set to
drag a great cart.


_4~~~~~~~~~~I:c
9
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1p


*
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IF
A


THE SHEEP
The young of the sheep we call lambs, and
they look so nice and soft in their fine white
fleece, that it is quite a treat to see them as
they trot by the side of the ewe. Of course
you have been told that the wool of the sheep
is known as the fleece; and that when it grows
so thick that the beast finds it too hot for the
warm time of year, it is cut off with shears.
Have you seen the men who take care of the
flocks shear the sheep? They catch them one
by one and turn them on their backs, and then,
with a pair of large, sharp shears, cut off the
long, thick wool. Then they let them go, and
off they run to jump and frisk, quite glad to
get rid of their load, But we must take great
care not to sheer the sheep or the lambs if the
days and nights are cold, and when first we
take off the long wool, there should be a nice
shed or sheep-cot for them to sleep in at night,
or they will miss their fine warm coats. Do
you know what we do with the wool? It is
all made clean and drawn out with a sort of
comb; then we send it to the dye-house, where
it is made black, or blue, or brown, or of the
AND LAMBS.
tint we want for our use. Next it is spun till
it forms long threads, and then it is wound on
to reels, and spread out in a kind of web. At
last, we send it to the loom, in which men
weave it, and make cloth of it, and of cloth we
make all sorts of clothes. So, you see, we
should not get on so well if we had not the
sheep, and when we take the nice warm coats
that they do not want, we make of them nice
clothes that we all want so much. Try to
think of this jf you take up a stone to throw
at a sheep, and you will not throw the stone,
but will feel how all these beasts are for our
use, and are sent to help us with the food and
the clothes that we need, and to do some, of
the work that we should find it hard to do if
they were not so strong, and yet so tame that
when we are kind to them they will come at
our call, and learn to know the voice of those
that treat them well. It is a great sin to hurt
or beat a dumb brute, when we do it from spite
or ill-will; for they were made not by us, but
by God, who sends them that they may be of
use to us, and that we may be kind to them,



PAGE 1

THE COW AND CALF. cows with short horns, and most of the small not eat much of it here, for cows are of so much cows have long horns. use to give us milk to drink, and cream, of Those who keep cows should let them which we make our but-ter and cheese, that we go out in the fresh air as much as they can, do not like to kill them for food till they have and have a good shed built for them to go grown old. Most of the beef that we eat is the to when there is rain. Cows will eat dried flesh of the ox or bull, and there are some sorts grass or hay and some sorts of roots; and they which are fed with great care that they may be seem to munch all day long when they are fit to eat. The ox is used to draw the plough in the fields. Do you know how it is that in the fields, and in some parts of the world he they do so? If not I will tell you. The cow is put to drag huge carts and loads of wood; chews the cud; that is, she chews her food for his strength is great and he can pull vast twice. The first time she eats it up at once, weights, such as trunks of trees, bales of goods, and it goes down her throat to the pouch, and big casks full of wine in those lands where where it stays till she has had a good meal; then the vines grow on the hills, and the wine is 1he stands or lies quite still, and the food is made a long way off from the place where it is brought back to the mouth that she may munch to be put on board the ships that bring it here itpand grind it with her teeth till it is fit to go for us to drink. Some of these beasts that live down the throat once more. The cow has more in the wild parts of the world look fierce and than one pouch for food. She has four, and as have rough hides and long horns; but they are she eats grass and herbs, as well as roots and not so fierce as they look. When they are at hay, it takes some time for her to munch and work a large thick beam of wood is put on chew these things, and to make them soft that the tips of their horns, that they may not fight they may keep her strong and in good health. or be hurt, and six or eight of them are set to The flesh of the young cow is good; but we do drag a great cart.


*
a
IF
A




A


THE PONY.
to give him drink from a well; it is too cold
and hard; but let him have a nice clean pail,
and give him drink from a clear stream or
from the tank. When he has been out with
you and comes home hot, do not put him in
his shed at once, but walk him up and down
till he is cool, then rub him down with a wisp
of hay or straw, or a coarse cloth, and give
him a brush. Wash his feet when he is quite
cool, give him some drink and a feed of corn,
then some more drink, and leave him to rest.
He may drink a quart at a time, and when
he is warm and yet is much in want of drink,
it is well to let it be Bnade just warm so
that it may not chill him. You may teach a
pony to come to your call, to go with you
here and there like a dog, to eat from your
hand, and to play tricks that are full of fun.
He will soon learn his name, and come to
you when you call him from the field.
Some ponies are of such a small size that
they are not so big as a great dog; but, of
course, when they are such mites they are
not of muclh use, though a pair of them in a
small chaise look so well that they make fine
toys. There have been ponies who would go
up and down stairs like dogs, and there are
few who do not like to eat a bit of cake or
a nice sweet. But young folks should not
give them sweets and cake. Now and then
a small piece may not hurt them, but good
corn and fresh hay, grass and oats, with clear
pure drink is best for their health.
Some ponies are rough with long manes
and quite a whisk of a tail. They are a good
sort for work, and will trot at a good pace
for a long time, though they are so small that
a pair of them could be shut in a big chest.
Then there are smooth ones, with trim mane
and tails, and fine sleek legs, and these look
well in a neat chaise with white reins, and
nice clean head-stalls and bands.
The Shetland pony is a good one, though
it looks rough, and it may be bought of
such a small size that if a big boy were
to get on its back he could not keep his
feet off the ground.



PAGE 1

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PAGE 1

I 1 t A



PAGE 1

BIG DOGS. clean and well fed. They are so quick that of ice and stones, dark chasms, rifts in the they may be taught all sorts of tricks. Some ground, and great blank walls of rock, down of them will go back for a mile and find a which men may fall and be found dead next stick or a glove that has been left in a room, day, are not to be seen when the soft snow or on a hedge, or in the midst of a field. hides them, and makes all things look white; They are kind to those who treat them well, so, when the snow falls, and the night comes and will come or go at their call, lie down at on, these dogs are sent out, and as they can their feet, and take care of a hat or a coat for cross the snow where a man would sink down, them while they are at play in the fields. they go first, and snuff the air all round them The Mas-tiff is a grand dog, and, in some to try if they can smell foot-steps. Then, if parts of the world, is not much less than a. some one has been on the road, they run to don-key. He is kept to take care of the and fro to find him, and if he has sunk in the house, the farm-yard, or the store, and is so snow, or gone to sleep in the cold, where he strong that he can pull down a man, and is would soon freeze to death, or if they hear a more than a match for two or three men when cry a long way off, they run back to the he is in a rage. Dogs of this sort are kept monks, who go with poles, and lights, and by the monks who live in a large house in drink, and food, and find the lost man, and the Alps, where the ice and snow make it take him home to their house till he can go hard to find the way when we are on the road on his way by the light of day. to cross the high rocks. Deep caves, slopes


*
T IHE P ON7Y.
OF all the pets that boys and girls can
keep, the pony is the best. There is no
toy that can please a boy more than a nice
pony; and he will not care where he comes
from, so long as he can trot well and will do
what he is told as well as he can. But there
are some things that we have to do if we
keep one of these nice beasts, and learn to
ride on its back, or teach it to draw a light
cart or a chaise. We must feed it well, give
it a good warm place to sleep in, let it have
fresh air, and keep it clean. Then there are
those things that we must not do. We must
not drive it too fast or too far; we must not
lash it with the whip, and we must not scold
it much. No good horse needs more than a
touch of the whip, if it has been well taught.
The man or boy who flogs a horse or a pony
in spite, is worse than the brute, and is not
half so wise as he should be, for the beast
will learn to do as we wish, if we take the
pains to teach him; and we shall but spoil
him if we use force when a kind word or a
touch will make him do all that his strength
will bear.
There are some young folks who may
think that the pony is a young horse; but
this is not so. The'young horse we call a
colt, and he grows up to be a large horse;
but the pony is a small kind of horse, and
the foal of the pony does not grow so large
as the colt of the horse. Those who -keep a
pony will find that if they do not take care
of him he will be ill, and too weak to do his
work. He must be kept clean, and to rub
him down with the brush and the comb once
or twice a day when he is at work will help
to keep him in health. Take great care not