THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST
TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY
THOMAS W. KNOX
AUTHOR OF "CAMP FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD" "OVERLAND THROUGH ASIA"
"UNDERGROUND" "JOHN" ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, by
HARPER & BROTHERS,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
To my Young Friends:
Not many years ago, China and Japan were regarded as among the
barbarous nations. The rest of the world knew comparatively little about
their peoples, and, on the other hand, the inhabitants of those countries had
only a slight knowledge of Europe and America. To-day the situation is
greatly changed: China and Japan are holding intimate relations with us
and with Europe, and there is every prospect that the acquaintance be-
tween the East and the West will increase as the years roll on. There is
a general desire for information concerning the people of the Far East,
and it is especially strong among the youths of America.
The characters in The Boy Travellers are fictitious; but the scenes
that passed before their eyes, the people they met, and the incidents and
accidents that befell them are real. The routes they travelled, the cities
they visited, the excursions they made, the observations they recorded-in
fact, nearly all that goes to make up this volume-were the actual experi-
ences of the author at a very recent date. In a few instances I have used
information obtained from others, but only after careful investigation has
convinced me of its entire correctness. I have aimed to give a faithful
picture of Japan and China as they appear to-day, and to make such com-
parisons with the past that the reader can easily comprehend the changes
that have occurred in the last twenty years. And I have also endeavored
to convey the information in such a way that the story shall not be con-
sidered tedious. AMiss Effie and The Mystery may seem superfluous to
some readers, but I am of opinion that the majority of those who peruse
the book will not consider them unnecessary to the narrative.
In preparing illustrations for this volume the publishers have kindly
allowed me to make use of some engravings that have already appeared in
their publications relative to China and Japan. I have made selections
from the volumes of Sir Rutherford Alcock and the Rev. Justus Doo-
little, and also from the excellent work of Professor Griffis, The Mika-
do's Empire." In the episode of a whaling voyage I have been under ob-
ligations to the graphic narrative of Mr. Davis entitled Nimrod of the
Sea," not only for illustrations, but for incidents of the chase of the mon-
sters of the deep.
The author is not aware that any book describing China and Japan,
and specially addressed to the young, has yet appeared. Consequently he
is led to hope that his work will find a welcome among the boys and girls
of America. And when the juvenile members of the family have com-
pleted its perusal, the children of a larger growth may possibly find the
volume not without interest, and may glean from its pages some grains of
information hitherto unknown to them.
T. W. K.
NEW YORK, October, 1879.
CHAPTER I. PAGM
THE DEPARTURE....................................................... ......... ...... 17
OVERLAND TO CALIFORNIA .. ........................................................... 30
ON THE PACIFIC OCEAN................................................ ............. .... 48
INCIDENTS OF A WHALING VOYAGE .................................................. 58
ARRIVAL IN JAPAN ...................................... ................... .............72
FIRST DAY IN JAPAN ................... ................. ........................... 83
FROM YOKOHAMA TO TOKIO ................... ....................... ............ .. 101
SIGHTS IN THE EASTERN CAPITAL OF JAPAN ............................. ........... 115
ASAKUSA AND YUYENO.-FIRST NATIONAL FAIR AT TOKIO ....... ........ ........... 131
WALKS AND TALKS IN TOKIO ........................................................... 144
AN EXCURSION TO DAI-BOOTS AND EOSHIMA ......................................... 156
SIGHTS AT ENOSHIMA.................................................................... 169
ON THE ROAD TO FUSIYAMA ................................... ............ ......... 183
THE ASCENT OF FUSIYAMA............................................................. 197
CHAPTER XV. PAGE
EXECUTIONS AND H ARI-KARI ........................................................... 215
AMUSEMENTS.-WRESTLERS AND THEATRICAL ENTERTAINMENTS.................. ..... 227
A STUDY OF JAPANESE ART .................................................... ...... 239
SOMETHING ABOUT JAPANESE WOMEN ............................. ................ 254
FROM YOKOHAMA TO KOBE AND OSAKA............................. ................ 266
THE MINT AT OSAKA.-FROM OSAKA TO NARA AND KIOTO............................. 279
KIOTO AND LAKE BIWA. ............................... ......... ................. 291
THE INLAND SEA AND NAGASAKI.-CAUGIIT IN A TYPHOON ............................ 303
FIRST DAY IN CHINA ................................................................... 318
A VOYAGE UP THE YANG-TSE-KIANG .................................................... 328
THE TAE-PING REBELLION.-SCENES ON TIE GREAT RIVER............................. 339
FROM SHANGHAI TO PEKIN ........................................................... 352
SIGHTS IN PEKIN........................................................................ 365
A JOURNEY TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA ........................................... 377
FROM SHANGHAI TO HONG-KONG.-A STORY OF THE COOLIE TRADE ................... 388
HIONG-KONG AND CANTON........... : ........... .... ............................. 400
SIGHTS AND SCENES IN CANTON..................................... ................. .. 408
A Japanese Swimming-scene. Reproduced from a Painting by a Japanese Artist....Frontispiece.
Mr. Bassett has Decided ...................
Mary Thinking what she would Like from
Overland by Stage in the Olden Time.......
Overland by Rail in a Pullman Car.........
Cooking-range in the Olden Time .........
Cooking-range on a Pullman Car...........
Change for a Dollar-Before and After.....
Kathleen's Expectations for Frank and Fred.
Effie Waiting for Somebody...............
G ood-bye .......... ......................
Watering-place on the Erie Railway ........
The Course of Empire....................
Valley of the Neversink ....................
Starucca Viaduct ........................
Niagara Falls, from the American Side .....
Entrance to the Cave of the Winds .........
From Chicago to San Francisco............
Om aha ............... .................
Attacked by Indians ................. .....
Herd of Buffaloes Moving........... ......
An Old Settler. .........................
"End of Track".............. ............
Snow-sheds on the Pacific Railway .........
View at Cape Horn, Central Pacific Railway
Seal-rocks, San Francisco..................
Departure from San Francisco.............
Dropping the Pilot........................
The Golden Gate ..........................
In the Fire-room ...........................
The Engineer at his Post..................
The Wind Rising................. ......
Whale-ship Outward Bound...............
Captain Spofford Telling his Story..........
New Bedford ..............................
17 Sperm-whale .............................
18 "There she blows !" ................
Implements Used in Whaling .............
19 Whale Breaching"..................
20 In the Whale's Jaw ............ .....
21 Captain Hunting's Fight .................
24 A Game Fellow ........................
24 A Free Ride.......................
25 Captain Sammis Selling Ot ...........
26 Shooting at a Water-spout ................
28 Frank Studying Navigation ...........
29 Working up a Reckoning .................
30 View in the Bay of Yeddo ................
31 Japanese Junk and Boats ................
32 A Japanese Imperial Barge ...........
33 Japanese Government Boat ...............
34 Yokohama in 1854.......................
36 A Japanese Street Scene ................
38 Japanese Musicians ...................
39 Japanese Fishermen ......................
42 Japanese Silk-shop....................
43 Seven-stroke Horse.................... ...
44 Female Head-dress.....................
45 The Siesta..............................
46 A Japanese at his Toilet for a Visit of Cere-
47 money ..................................
48 A Japanese Breakfast...................
49 Mutsuhito, Mikado of Japan............
50 Landing of Perry's Expedition ...........
51 The Last Shogoon of Japan .............
53 Third-class Passengers...................
55 Japanese Ploughing.................
57 Japanese Roller. .........................
57 Manuring Process ....................
58 How they Use Manure...................
59 Mode of Protecting Land from Birds ......
Storks, Drawn by a Native Artist..........
Flock of Geese...........................
Forts of Shinagawa ......................
A Jin-riki-sha ...........................
Japanese on Foot........................
An Express Runner.. ............ .....
A Japanese Coolie ......................
Pity for the Blind.......................
View of Tokio, from the South ............
Japanese Lady Coming from the Bath .....
Fire-lookouts in Tokio...................
Too Much Sa-kee ........................
Sakuradu Avenue in 'Tokio...............
Japanese Children at Play ...............
The Feast of Dolls (" Hina Matsuri ) in a
Japanese House .......................
A Barber at Work.......................
A Transaction in Clothes................
Ball-playing in Japan...................
Sport at Asakusa ......................
Spire of a Pagoda.........................
Belfry in Court-yard of Temple, showing the
Style of a Japanese Roof..............
Shrine of the Goddess Ku-wanon .........
A Japanese Flower-show. Night Scene ..
A Christening in Japan .................
A Wedding Party .......................
Strolling Singers at Asakusa ..............
View from Surnga Dai in Tokio ..........
A Child's Nurse ..........................
Lovers Behind a Screen. A Painting on
Silk Exhibited at the Tokio Fair ........
Blacksmith's Bellows ....................
A Grass Overcoat.........................
A ligh-priest in Full Costume...........
A Japanese Temple......................
A Wayside Shrine.......................
The Great Kosatsu, near the Nihon Bashi..
Father and Children .....................
Caught in the Rain .... .................
A Village on the Tokaido................
A Party on the Tokaido .................
Beginning of Relations between England and
Japan.............. ............ ........
Pilgrims on the Road ....................
106 Threshing Grain............................ 163
107 Peasant and his Wife Returning from the
108 Field............................... 164
109 A Japanese Sandal ...................... 165
Ill The Great Dai-Boots ................... 166
112 Salutation of the Landlord ................ 168
113 The Head Waiter Receiving Orders........ 168
114 A Japanese Kitchen ..................... 170
115 Boiling the Pot........................... 171
116 Frank's Inventory ....................... 172
117 How the Japanese Sleep ................. 173
118 A Japanese Fishing Scene ................ 175
119 "Breakfast is ready"..................... 176
121 Interior of a Tea-garden .................. 178
The Path in Enoshima ................... 179
122 A Group of Japanese Ladies ............. 181
123 Specimen of Grotesque Drawing by a Jap-
124 anese Artist ......................... 182
125 Bettos, or Grooms," in Full Dress....... 185
126 A Japanese Loom ....................... 188
127 Artists at Work ........................ 189
Coopers Hooping a Vat................. 190
128 Crossing the River................. ..... 192
130 Mother and Son ......................... 193
132 A Fishing Party......................... 194
134 The Man they Met....................... 196
135 Travelling by Cango ........ ............ 198
137 Japanese Norimon........................ 199
138 Frank's Position ......................... 200
139 Hot Bath in the Mountains............... 201
140 A Japanese Bath ........................ 202
140 The Lake of Hakone.................... 203
Antics of the Horses....................... 206
141 A Near View of Fusiyama ............... 207
142 In a Storm near Fusiyama................ 208
143 Ascent of Fusiyama.................... 211
145 The Four Classes of Society.. ........... 216
146 Two-sworded Nobles...................... 218
148 A Samurai in Winter Dress .............. 219
150 Beheading a Criminal .................... 221
151 Japanese Court in the Old Style......... 224
153 Japanese Naval Officer................... 225
155 Japanese Steam Corvette.................. 225
157 A Japanese War-junk of the Olden Time.. 226
159 A Japanese Wrestler.................... 228
A Pair of Wrestlers and their Manager.... 230
161 The Clinch ............................... 231
162 Japanese Actor Dressed as a Doctor....... 233
The Samisen ... .............. .........
Playing the Samisen.....................
Scene from a Japanese Comedy.-Writing
a Letter of Divorce...................
Scene from a Japanese Comedy.-Love-let-
ter Discovered..... .......... .... ....
Telling the Story of Bumbukn Chagama...
Fan-makers at Work ....................
Chinese Cloisonnd on Metal..............
Japanese Cloisonne on Metal.............
Japanese Bowl ...... ..............
Cover of Japanese Bowl.................
Chinese Metal Vase.....................
Modern Japanese Cloisonnd on Metal......
Japanese Metal Cloisonne...............
Chinese Porcelain Cloisonn ..............
Group Carved in Ivory..................
Japanese Pipe, Case, and Pouch..........
Japanese Aitist Chasing on Copper........
A Japanese Village.-Bamboo Poles Ready
for M market .............................
A Japanese Lady's-maid.................
Bride and Bridesmaid ....................
Mysteries of the Dressing-room...........
Lady in Winter Walking-dress...........
A Girl who had never Seen a Dressing-
pin.................. .. ................
Ladies' Hair-dresser ......................
Ladies at their Toilet ...................
Japanese Ladies on a Picnic..............
Ladies and Children at Play .............
A Village in the Tea District.............
Tea-merchants in the Interior.............
The Tea-plant ...........................
Firing Tea ..........................
Hiogo (Kobe) ............................
The Junk at Anchor ......... ...........
The Helmsman at his Post...............
Japanese Sailors at Dinner......... .....
Junk Sailors on Duty....................
View from the Hotel .... .................
The Castle of Osaka....................
Vignette from the National Bank-notes....
Imperial Crest for Palace Affairs ..........
234 Imperial Crest on the New Coins..........
235 Old Kinsat, or Money-card ................
236 Vignette from Bank-note .................
Vignette from Bank-note .................
237 Men Towing Boats near Osaka...........
238 Mode of Holding the Tow-ropes..........
240 The Ferry-boat....................
241 The Hotel-maid........................
241 A Japanese Landscape.................
242 Dikes along the River ...............
243 Night Scene near Fushimi .................
243 Women of Kioto .....................
244 Ladies of the Western Capital.............
246 Restaurant and Tea-garden at Kioto.......
247 An Artist at Work.....................
248 Lantern-maker at Kioto ..................
248 A Japanese Archer ....................
249 Temple Bell at Kioto ...................
249 Reeling Cotton .......................
251 Japanese Temple and Cemetery........
Handcart for a Quartette..................
252 Horse Carrying Liquid Manure .........
254 The Paternal Nurse....................
255 Picnic Booth Overlooking Lake Biwa......
255 A Maker of Bows ......................
256 The Inland Sea near Hiogo ..............
257 Approaching Simoneseki ..................
Dangerous Place on the Suwo Nada.......
259 Pappenberg Island......................
260 Women of Nagasaki ......................
261 A Christian Village in the Sixteenth Cen-
262 tury................... ..............
263 Monuments in Memory of Martyrs.........
264 A Path near Nagasaki..................
266 Hollander at Deshima Watching for a Ship
267 The Rain Dragon .........................
268 The Wind Dragon........................
269 The Thunder Dragon...................
270 A Typhoon................. ........
271 Course of a Typhoon...................
272 Caught near the Storm's Centre ..........
273 The Woosung River.....................
274 Chinese Trading-junk on the Woosung River
276 Shanghai .................. ..............
277 A Coolie in the Streets of Shanghai........
280 A Tea-house in the Country ..............
281 Smoking Opium ........... .............
Opium-pipe ..................... ........ 325
Man Blinded by the Use of Opium ........ 326
Chinese Gentleman in a Sedan............. 327
Canal Scene South of Shanghai .......... 328
A Chinese Family Party............... 330
A Gentleman of Chin-kiang............... 331
Chinese Spectacles....................... 332
Ploughing with a Buffalo ................ 333
Threshing Grain near Chin-kiang. ....... 333
Carrying Bundles of Grain .............. 334
A River Scene in China ................. 335
A Nine-storied Pagoda.................. 337
Little Orphan Rock...................... 337
Entrance to Po-yang Lake ............... 338
Tae-ping Rebels ......................... 340
General Ward ........................... 342
The Gate which Ward Attacked.. ........ 443
General Burgevine...................... 344
Fishing with Cormorants ................. 347
A Street in Han-kow ..................... 349
The Governor-general and his Staff........ 351
Attack on the Pei-ho Forts................ 353
Temple of the Sea-god at Taku........... 355
A Chinese Beggar...................... 355
Signing the Treaty of Tien-tsin........... 356
Mode of Irrigating Fields ................ 359
The Doctor's Bedroom................... 360
Part of the Wall of Pekin ............... 361
A Pekin Cab ............................ 362
A Composite Team ...................... 363
A Chinese Dragon...................... 364
A Pavilion in the Prohibited City ......... 366
Temple of Heaven ...... ............... 367
Pekin Cash............................... 367
Traditional Likeness of Confucius .......... 368
God of War ................... ......... 368
God of Literature ....................... 368
God of Thieves ......................... 368
A Mandarin Judge Delivering Sentence.... 369
Squeezing the Fingers.................... 371
Squeezing the Ankles ..... ............... 371
A Bed of Torture........................ 372
Four Modes of Punishment ............. 373
Standing in a Cage ...................... 374
Hot-water Snake........................ 374
Carrying Forth to the Place of Execution.. 375
Just Before Decapitation................ 375
Military Candidates Competing with the Bow
and Arrow............................ 376
W walking on Stilts....... ................. 378
Juggler Spinning a Plate................ 379
Gambling with a Revolving Pointer........ 379
Fortune-telling by Means of a Bird and Slips
of Paper .............................. 380
Fortune-telling by Dissecting Chinese Char-
Chinese Razor........................... 382
Barber Shaving the Head of a Customer... 382
Bridge of the Cloudy Hills .............. 383
The God of the Kitchen ................. 384
A Lama................................. 385
The Hills near Chan-kia-kow ............. 386
Specimen of Chinese Writing.............. 389
Four Illustrations of the Chinese Version of
"Excelsior" ................... ...... 393
Barracoons at Macao ...... .............. 394
Coolies Embarking at Macao ............ 395
Enraged Coolie.......................... 396
A Deadly Fall........................... 396
Firing Down the Hatchway .............. 397
The Writing in Blood .................. 398
The Interpreters......................... 399
Hong-kong............ ................. ... 401
Fac-simile ofa Hong-kong Mille, Dime, and
Fort in Canton River ................... 404
Gateway of Temple near Canton........... 406
Street Scene in Canton ................... 410
Five-storied Pagoda .................... 412
Horseshoe or Omega Grave ............. 413
Presenting Food to the Spirits of the Dead. 414
A Leper...... .......................... 414
A Literary Student .................... 415
A Literary Graduate in his Robes of Honor 415
A Sedan-chair with Four Bearers.......... 416
A Small Foot with a Shoe on it........... 417
Peasant-woman with Natural Feet......... 417
A Tablet Carved in Ivory ............... 419
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
'"T TELL, Frank," said Mr. Bassett, the question is decided."
V V Frank looked up with an expression of anxiety on his hand-
some face. A twinkle in his father's eyes told him that the decision
was a favorable one.
"And you'll let me go with
them, won't you, father ?" he an-
"Yes, my boy," said the father, -
"you can go."
Frank was so full of joy that lhe
couldn't speak for at least a couple
of minutes. ile threw his arms
around Mr. Bassett; then he kissed
his mother and his sister Mary,
who had just come into the room;
next he danced around the table on
one foot; then he h1i-_--.1 his dog
Nero, who wondered what it was
all about; and he ended by again
4 embracing his father, who stood -
smiling at the boy's delight. By
this time Frank had recovered the MR. BASSETT HAS DECIDED.
use of his tongue, and was able to express his gratitude in words. When
the excitement was ended, Mary asked what had happened to make
Frank fly around so.
Why, he's going to Japan," said Mrs. Bassett.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
Going to Japan, and leave us all alone at home!" Mary exclaimed,
and then her lips and eyes indicated an intention to cry.
Frank was eighteen years old and his sister was fifteen. They were
very fond of each other, aid the
thought that her brother was to be
separated from her for a while was
painful to the girl. Frank kissed her
again, and said,
"I sha'n't be gone long, Mary, and
I'll bring you such lots of nice things
when I come back." Then there was
Another kiss, and Mary concluded she
would have her cry some other time.
But you won't let him go all
alone, father, now, will you ?" she
asked as they sat down to breakfast.
I think I could go alone," replied
Frank, proudly, and take care of my-
self without anybody's help; but I'm going with Cousin Fred and
Better say Doctor Bronson and Cousin Fred," Mary answered, with
a smile; "the Doctor is Fred's uncle and twenty years older."
Frank corrected the mistake he had made, and said he was too much
excited to remember all about the rules of grammar and etiquette. lHe
had even forgotten that he was hungry; at any rate, he had lost his ap-
petite, and hardly touched the juicy steak and steaming potatoes that
were before him.
During breakfast, Mr. Bassett explained to Mary the outline of the
proposed journey. Doctor Bronson was going to Japan and China, and
was to be accompanied by his nephew, Fred Bronson, who was very
nearly Frank's age. Frank had asked his father's permission to join
them, and Mr. Bassett had been considering the matter. lie found that
it would be very agreeable to Doctor Bronson and Fred to have Frank's
company, and as the opportunity was an excellent one for the youth to
see something of foreign lands under the excellent care of the Doctor,
it did not take a long time for him to reach a favorable decision.
"Doctor Bronson has been there before, hasn't he, father ?" said
Mary, when the explanation was ended.
Certainly, my child," was the reply ; "lie has been twice around the
world, and has seen nearly every civilized and uncivilized country in it.
GOOD THINGS FROM ABROAD.
He speaks three or four languages fluently, and knows something of half
a dozen others. Five years ago lie was in Japan and China, and he is
acquainted with many people living there. Don't you remember how
lie told us one evening about visiting a Japanese prince, and sitting
cross-legged on the floor for half an hour, while they ate a dinner of
boiled rice and stewed fish, and drank hot wine from little cups the
size of a thimble ?"
Mary remembered it all, and then declared she was glad Frank was
going to Japan, and also glad that he was going with Doctor Bronson.
And she added that the Doctor would know the best places for buying
the presents Frank was to bring home.
MARY THINKING WHAT SHE WOULD LIKE FROM JAPAN.
A crape shawl for mother, and another for me ; now don't you for-
get," said Mary; and some fans and some ivory combs, and some of
those funny little cups and saucers such as Aunt Amelia has, and some
nice tea to drink out of them."
Anything else ?" Frank asked.
I don't know just now," Mary answered; "I'll read all I can about
Japan and China before you start, so's I can know all they make, and
THE BUY TRAVELLERS.
then I'll write out a list. I want something of everything, you under-
"If that's the case," Frank retorted, "you'd better wrap your list
around a bushel of money. It'll take a good deal to buy the whole of
those two countries."
Mary said she would be satisfied with a shawl and a fan and anything
else that was pretty. The countries might stay where they were, and
there were doubtless a good many things in them that nobody would
want anyway. All she wished was to have anything that was nice and
For the next few days the proposed journey was the theme of conver-
sation in the Bassett family. Mary examined all the books she could find
about the countries her brother expected to visit; then she made a list of
the things she desired, and the day before his departure she gave him a
sealed envelope containing the paper. She explained that lie was not to
open it until lie reached Japan, and that he would find two lists of what
"The things marked 'number one' you must get anyway," she said,
"and those marked 'number two' you must get if you can."
Frank thought she had shown great self-denial in making two lists
OVERLAND BY STAGE IN THE OLDEN TIME.
PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.
instead of one, but intimated that there was not much distinction in the
conditions she proposed. lie promised to see about the matter when he
reached Japan, and so the conversation on that topic came to an end.
It did not take a long time to prepare Frank's wardrobe for the jour-
ney. His grandmother had an impression that he was going on a whal-
ing voyage, as her brother had gone on one more than sixty years before.
She proposed to give him two heavy jackets, a dozen pairs of woollen
stockings, and a tarpaulin hat, and was sure he would need them. She
OVERLAND BY RAIL IN A PULLMAN CAR.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
was undeceived when the difference between a sea voyage of to-day and
one of half a century ago was explained to her. The housemaid said lie
would not need any thick clothing if he was going to Japan, as it was
close to Jerusalem, and it was very hot there. She thought Japan was a
seaport of Palestine, but Mary made it clear to her that Japan and Jaffa
were not one and the same place. When satisfied on this point, she ex-
pressed the hope that the white bears and elephants wouldn't eat the poor
boy up, and that the natives wouldn't roast him, as they did a missionary
from her town when she was a little girl. "And, sure," she added, "lie
won't want any clothes at all, at all, there, as the horrid natives don't wear
nothing except a little cocoanut ile which they rubs on their skins."
"What puts that into your head, Kathleen ?" said Mary, with a laugh.
"And didn't ye jest tell me," Kathleen replied, "that Japan is an isl-
and in the Pacific Oshin ? Sure it was an island in that same oshin where
Father Mullaly was roasted alive, and the wretched natives drissed their-
selves wid cocoanut ile. It was in a place they called Feejee."
Mary kindly explained that the Pacific Ocean was very large, and con-
tained a great many islands, and that the spot where Father Mullaly was
cooked was some thousands of miles from Japan.
At breakfast the day before the time fixed for Frank's departure, Mr.
Bassett told his son that lie must make.the most of his journey, enjoy it
as much as possible, and bring back a store of useful knowledge. "To
accomplish this," lie added, several things will be necessary ; let us see
what they are."
Careful observation is one requisite," said Frank, and a good mem-
ory is another."
Constant remembrance of home," Mrs. Bassett suggested, and Mary
nodded in assent to her mother's proposition.
Courage and perseverance," Frank added.
"A list of the things you are going to buy," Mary remarked.
"A light trunk and a cheerful disposition," said Doctor Bronson, who
had entered the room just as this turn of the conversation set in.
One thing more," Mr. Bassett added.
I can't think of it," replied Frank ; "what is it ?"
Oh yes, of course; one couldn't very well go travelling without
money. I'm old enough to know that, and to know it is very bad to be
away from one's friends without money."
The Doctor said it reminded him of a man who asked another for ten
cents to pay his ferriage across the Mississippi River, and explained that
A LETTER OF CREDIT.
he hadn't a single penny. The other man answered, It's no use throw-
ing ten cents away on you in that fashion. If you haven't any money,
you are just as well off on this side of the river as on the other."
You will need money," said Mr. Bassett, and here is something
that will get it."
He handed Frank a double sheet of paper with some printed and
written matter on the first page, and some printed lists on the third and
fourth pages. The second page was blank; the first page read as
LETTER OF CREDIT.
NEW YORK, June 18th, 1878.
To OuR CORRESPONDENTS:
We have the pleasure of introducing to you Mr. FRANK BASSETT, the bearer of this letter,
whose signature you will find in the margin. We beg you to honor his drafts to the amount
of two hundred pounds sterling, upon our London house, all deductions and commissions be-
ing at his expense.
We have the honor to remain, Gentlemen,
Very truly yours,
BLANK & Co.
The printed matter on the third and fourth pages was a list of bank-
ing-houses in all the principal cities of the world. Frank observed that
every country was included, and there was not a city of any prom-
inence that was not named in the list, and on the same line with the
list was the name of a banking-house.
The paper was passed around the table and examined, and finally
returned to Frank's hand. Mr. Bassett then explained to his son the
uses of the document.
"I obtained that paper," said he, "from the great house of Blank &
Company. I paid a thousand dollars for it, but it is made in pounds ster-
ling because the drafts are to be drawn on London, and you know that
pounds, shillings, and pence are the currency of England."
When you want money, you go to any house named on that list,
no matter what part of the world it may be, and tell them how much
you want. They make out a draft which you sign, and then they pay
you the money, and write on the second page the amount you have
drawn. You get ten pounds in one place, ten in another, twenty in
another, and you continue to draw whenever you wish. Each banker
puts down the amount you have received from him on the second page,
and you can keep on drawing till the sum total of your drafts equals
the figures named on the first page. Then your credit is said to be ex-
hausted, and you can draw no more on that letter."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
How very convenient that is 1" said Frank; "you don't have to
carry money around with you, but get it when and where you want it."
You must be very careful not
-- to lose that letter," said Mr. Bassett.
Would the money be lost al-
S together ?" Frank asked in return.
COOKING-RlANGE IN THE OLDEN TIME. COOKING-RANGE ON A PULLMAN CAR.
No, the money would not be lost, but your credit would be gone,
and of no use. A new letter would be issued in place of the missing
one, but only after some months, and when the bankers had satisfied
themselves that there was no danger of the old one ever being used
Can I get any kind of money with this letter, father?" Frank in-
quired, or must I take it in pounds sterling ? That would be very in-
convenient sometimes, as I would have to go around and sell my pounds
and buy the money of the country."
They always give you," was the reply, the money that circulates
in the country where you are. Here they would give you dollars ; in
in thle country where you are. Here they would give you dollars; in
Japan you will get Japanese money or Mexican dollars, which are cur-
rent there; in India they would give you rupees; in Russia, rubles;
in Italy, lire; in France, francs; in Spain, pesetas, and so on. They
give you the equivalent of the amount you draw on your letter."
This reminded the Doctor of a story, and at the general request lie
A traveller stopped one night at a tavern in the interior of Minne-
sota. On paying his bill in the morning, he received a beaver skin in-
stead of a dollar in change that was due him. The landlord explained
that beaver skins were legal tender in that region at a dollar each.
He hid the skin under his coat, walked over the street to a grocery
store, and asked the grocer if it was true that beaver skins were legal
tender for one dollar each.
CHANGE FOR A DOLLAR-BEFORE AND AFTER.
"Certainly," answered the grocer, everybody takes them at that
Then be kind enough to change me a dollar bill," said the stranger,
drawing the beaver skin from under his coat and laying it on the
The grocer answered that lie was only too happy to oblige a stranger,
and passed out four musk-rat skins, which were legal tender, as he said,
at twenty-five cents each.
Please, Doctor," said Mary, what do you mean by legal tender ?"
The Doctor explained that legal tender was the money which the
law declares should be the proper tender, or offer, in paying a debt. "If
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
I owed your father a hundred dollars," said he, I could not compel him
to accept the whole amount in ten-cent pieces, or twenty-five-cent pieces,
or even in half-dollars. When the government issues a coin, it places a
limit for which that coin can be a legal tender. Thus the ten-cent piece
is a legal tender for all debts of one dollar or less, and the half-dollar for
debts of five dollars or less."
Mary said that when she was a child, ten cherries were exchanged
among her schoolmates for one apple, two apples for one pear, and two
pears for one orange. One day she took some oranges to school intend-
ing to exchange them for cherries, of which she was very fond ; she left
them in Katie Smith's desk, but Katie was hungry and ate one of the
oranges at recess.
"Not the first time the director of a bank has appropriated part of
the funds," said the Doctor. Didn't you find that an orange would buy
more cherries or apples at one time than at another ?"
Why, certainly," Mary answered, and sometimes they wouldn't
buy any cherries at all."
"Bankers and merchants call that the fluctuation of exchanges," said
.r '~; ~-!'~i~~:
KATHLEEN'S EXPECTATIONS FOR FRANK AND FRED.
.!I' '. :;;1, ',~"~h3~
STARTING FROM HOME.
Mr. Bassett ; and with this remark he rose from the table, and the party
The next morning a carriage containing Doctor Bronson and his
nephew, Fred, drove up in front of Mr. Bassett's house. There were
farewell kisses, and hopes for a prosperous journey; and in a few minutes
the three travellers were on their way to the railway station. There was
a waving of handkerchiefs as the carriage started from the house and
rolled away; Nero barked and looked wistfully after his young master,
and the warm-hearted Kathleen wiped her eyes with the corner of her
apron, and flung an old shoe after the departing vehicle.
And sure," she said, and I hope that wretched old Feejee won't
be in Japan at all, at all, and the horrid haythens won't roast him."
As they approached the station, Frank appeared a little nervous about
something. The cause of his anxiety was apparent when the carriage
stopped. ie was the first to get out and the first to mount the platform.
Somebody was evidently waiting for him.
Doctor Bronson followed him a minute later, and "heard something
like the following:
There, now, don't cry. Be a good girl, and I'll bring you the nicest
little pigtail, of the most Celestial pattern, from China."
I tell you, Mr. Frank Bassett, I'm not crying. It's the dust in the
road got into my eyes."
But you are; there's another big tear. I know you're sorry, and so
am I. But I'm coming back."
I shall be glad to see you when you come back ; of course I shall,
for your sister's sake. And you'll be writing to Mary, and she'll tell me
where you are. And when she's writing to you she'll-"
The bright little face turned suddenly, and its owner saw the Doctor
standing near with an amused expression on his features, and, perhaps, a
little moisture in his eyes. She uttered a cheery "Good-morning," to
which the Doctor returned,
Good-morning, Miss Effie. This is an unexpected pleasure."
You see, Doctor" (she blushed and stammered a little as she spoke),
"you know I like to take a walk in the morning, and happened to come
down to the station."
"Of course, quite accidental," said the Doctor, with a merry twinkle
in his eyes.
Yes, that is, I knew Frank-I mean Mr. Bassett-that is, I knew you
were all three going away, and I thought I might come down and see
28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
Quite proper, Miss Effie," was the reply ; so good-bye: I must look
after the tickets and the baggage."
"Good-bye, Doctor Bronson; good-bye, Mr. Fred. Bon voyage!"
.- -.. '
., ,, 1,.$ ,, .
'"', .' glf IJ
I 1 ', ',,,, [ [i! ]
EFFIE WAITING FOR SOMEBObY.
Frank lingered behind, and the rest of the dialogue has not been re-
She's a nice girl," said Fred to the Doctor as they made their way
to the ticket-office. "And she's very fond of Mary Bassett, Frank's
sister. Spiteful people say, though, that
she's oftener in Frank's company than in
M/ary's; and I know Frank is ready to
punch the head of any other boy that dares
to look at her."
"Quite so," answered Dr.P ronson; "I
don't think Frank is likely to be forgetful b
Soon the whistle sounded, the great
train rolled into the station, the conductor
shouted "All aboard!" our friends took
their seats, tlie bell rang, and the loco-
motive coughed astlhmatically as it moved
Frank looked back as long as the station
was in sight. Somebody continued to wave
a delicate handkerchief until the train had GOOD-BYE.
disappeared; somebody's eyes were full of
tears, and so were the eyes of somebody else. Somebody's good wishes
followed the travellers, and the travellers--Frank especially-wafted back
good wishes for that somebody.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
OVERLAND TO CALIFORNIA.
O UR three travellers were seated in a Pullman car on the Erie Rail-
way. Frank remarked that they were like the star of empire, as
they were taking their way westward.
Fred replied that he thought the star of empire had a much harder
time of it, as it had no cushioned seat to rest upon, and no plate-glass
window to look from.
WATERING-PLACE ON THE ERIE RAILWAY.
THE COURSE OF EMPIRE.
"And it doesn't go at the rate of thirty miles an hour," the Doctor
"I'm not sure that I know exactly what the star of empire means,"
said Frank. I used the expression as I have seen it, but can't tell what
it comes from."
He looked appealingly at Doctor Bronson. The latter smiled kindly,
and then explained the origin of the phrase.
It is found," said the Doctor, "in a short poem that was written more
than a hundred and fifty years ago, by Bishop Berkeley. The last verse
is like this:
"Westward the course of empire takes its way;
The first four acts already past,
A fifth shall close the drama with the day :
Time's noblest offspring is the last."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
"You see the popular quotation is wrong," he added ; "it is the course
of empire that is mentioned in the poem, and not the star."
"I suppose," said Fred, "that the Bishop referred to the discovery of
America by Columbus when he sailed to the West, and to the settlement
of America which began on the Eastern coast and then went on to the
"You are exactly right," was the reply.
Frank added that he thought star of empire" more poetical than
" course of empire."
"But course is more near to the truth," said Fred, than star. Don't
you see that Bishop Berkeley wrote before railways were invented, and
before people could travel as they do nowadays? Emigrants, when they
went out West, went with wagons, or on horseback, or on foot. They
travelled by day and rested at night. Now-don't you see ?-they made
their course in the daytime, when they couldn't see the stars at all; and
when the stars were out, they were asleep, unless the wolves or the Indians
kept them awake. They were too tired to waste any time over a twink-
ling star of empire, but they knew all about the course."
There was a laugh all around at Fred's ingenious defence of the au-
thor of the verse in question, and then the attention of the party was
turned to the scenery along the route. Although living near the line of
VALLEY OF THE NEVERSINK.
THE VALLEY OF THE NEVERSINK.
the Erie Railway, neither of the boys had ever been west of his station.
Everything was therefore new to the youths, and they took great interest
in the panorama that unrolled to their eyes as the train moved on.
They were particularly pleased with the view of the valley of the
Neversink, with its background of mountains and the pretty town of Port
Jervis in the distance. The railway at one point winds around the edge
of a hill, and is far enough above the valley to give a view several miles
Frank had heard much about the Starucca Viaduct, and so had Fred,
and they were all anxiety to see it. Frank thought it would be better to
call it a bridge, as it was only a bridge, and nothing more; but Fred in-
clined to the opinion that "viaduct" sounded larger and higher.
"And remember," said he to Frank, it is more than twelve hundred
feet long, and is a hundred feet above the valley. It is large enough to
have a much bigger name than viaduct."
Frank admitted the force of the argument, and added that he didn't
care what name it went by, so long as it carried them safely over.
When they were passing the famous place, they looked out and saw
the houses and trees far below them. Fred said they seemed to be riding
in the air, and he thought he could understand how people must feel in a
Doctor Bronson said he was reminded of a story about the viaduct.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
Oh! tell it, please," said the two boys, in a breath.
It is this," answered the Doctor. When the road was first opened,
a countryman came to the backwoods to the station near the end of the
bridge. He bad never seen a railway before, and had much curiosity to
look at the cars. When the train came along, he stepped aboard, and
before he was aware of it the cars were moving. He felt the floor trem-
NIAGARA FALLS, FROM THE AMERICAN SIDE.
A DAY AT NIAGARA.
bling, and as he looked from the window the train was just coming upon
the viaduct. He saw the earth falling away, apparently, the tree-tops far
below him, and the cattle very small in the distance. He turned pale as
a sheet, and almost fainted. He had just strength enough to say, in a
troubled voice, to the man nearest him,
"Say, stranger, how far does this thing fly before it lights ?"
"I don't wonder at it," said Fred; "you see, I thought of the same
thing when the train was crossing."
The railway brought the party to Niagara, where they spent a day
visiting the famous cataract and the objects of interest in the vicinity.
Frank pronounced the cataract wonderful, and so did Fred; whereupon the
Doctor told them of the man who said Niagara was not at all wonderful,
as any other water put there would run down over the Falls, since there
was nothing to hinder its doing so. The real wonder would be to see it
go up again.
They looked at the Falls from all the points of view. They went un-
der the Canadian side, and they also went under the Central Fall, and into
the Cave of the Winds. They stood for a long time watching the water
tumbling over Horseshoe Fall, and they stood equally long on the Ameri-
can side. When the day was ended, the boys asked the Doctor if he
would not permit them to remain another twenty-four hours.
Why so ?" the Doctor asked.
"Because," said Frank, with a bit of a blush on his cheeks-" because
we want to write home about Niagara and our visit here. Fred wants to
tell his mother about it, and I want to write to my mother and to Mary,
Miss Effie, perhaps," Fred suggested.
Frank smiled, and said he might drop a line to Miss Effle if he had
time, and he was pretty certain there would be time if they remained an-
Doctor Bronson listened to the appeal of the boys, and when they were
through he took a toothpick from his pocket and settled back in his chair
in the parlor of the hotel.
"Your request is very natural and proper," he answered; "but there
are several things to consider. Niagara has been described many times,
and those who have never seen it can easily know about it from books
and other accounts. Consequently what you would write about the Falls
would be a repetition of much that has been written before, and even your
personal impressions and experiences would not be far different from
those of others. I advise you not to attempt anything of the kind, and, at
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
ENTRANCE TO THE CAVE OF THE WINDS.
all events, not to stop here a day for that purpose. Spend the evening in
writing brief letters home, but do not undertake a description of the Falls.
If you want to stay a day in order to see more, we will stay, but otherwise
we will go on."
The boys readily accepted Doctor Bronson's suggestion. They wrote
short letters, and Frank did not forget Miss Effie. Then they went out to
ACROSS THE CONTINENT.
see the Falls by moonlight, and in good season they went to bed, where
they slept admirably. The next day the journey was resumed, and they
had a farewell view of Niagara from the windows of the car as they
crossed the Suspension Bridge from the American to the Canadian side.
On they went over the Great Western Railway of Canada, and then
over the Michigan Central; and on the morning after leaving Niagara
they rolled into Chicago. Here they spent a day in visiting the interest-
ing places in the Lake City. An old friend of Doctor Bronson came to
see him at the Tremont House, and took the party out for a drive. Under
the guidance of this hospitable citizen, they were taken to see the City-
hall, the stock-yards, the tunnel under the river, the grain-elevators, and
other things with which every one who spends a short time in Chicago is
sure to be made familiar. They were shown the traces of the great fire
of 1870, and were shown, too, what progress had been made in rebuilding
the city and removing the signs of the calamity. Before they finished
their tour, they had absorbed much of the enthusiasm of their guide, and
were ready to pronounce Chicago the most remarkable city of the present
As they were studying the map to lay out their route westward, the
boys noticed that the lines of the railways radiated in all directions from
Chicago, like the diverging cords of a spider's web. Everywhere they
stretched out except over the surface of Lake Michigan, where railway
building has thus far been impossible. The Doctor explained that Chi-
cago was one of the most important railway centres in the United States,
and owed much of its prosperity to the network they saw on the map.
I have a question," said Frank, suddenly brightening up.
"Well, what is it ?"
"Why is that network we have just been looking at like a crow call-
ing to his mates ?"
Give it up; let's have it."
"Because it makes Chi-ca-go."
What's that to do with the crow ?" Fred asked.
"Why, everything," Frank answered; the crow makes ye-caw-go,
doesn't it ?"
"Now, Frank," the Doctor said, as lie laughed over the conundrum,
"making puns when we're a thousand miles from home and going west!
However, that will do for a beginner; but don't try too often."
Fred thought he must say something, but was undecided for a mo-
ment. The room was open, and as he looked into the hall, he saw the
chambermaid approaching the opposite door with the evident intention
38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
FROM CHICAGO TO SAN FRANICISCO
FROMCHICGO T SANFRANISEO
CROSSING THE MISSOURI RIVER.
of looking through the keyhole. This gave him his opportunity, and he
proposed his question.
Why are we like that chambermaid over there ?"
"The Doctor and Frank couldn't tell, and Fred answered, triumph-
"Because we're going to Pek-in."
"I think you boys are about even now," said the Doctor, "and may
stop for the present." They agreed to call it quits, and resumed their
study of the map.
They decided to go by the Northwestern Railway to Omaha. From
the latter place they had no choice of route, as there was only a single line
of road between Omaha and California.
From Chicago westward they traversed the rich prairies of Illinois and
Iowa--a broad expanse of flat country, which wearied them with its mo-
notony. At Omaha they crossed the Missouri River on a long bridge;
and while they were crossing, Frank wrote some lines in his note-book to
the effect that the Missouri was the longest river in the world, and was
sometimes called the "Big Muddy," on account of its color. It looked
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
like coffee after milk has been added; and was once said by Senator Ben-
ton to be too thick to swim in, but not thick enough to walk on.
Now they had a long ride before them. The Union Pacific Railway
begins at Omaha and ends at Ogden, 1016 miles farther west. It con-
nects at Ogden with the Central Pacific Railway, 882 miles long, which
terminates at San Francisco. As they rode along they had abundant time
to learn the history of the great enterprise that unites the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts, and enables one to travel in a single week from New York
to San Francisco. The Doctor had been over the route previously; and
he had once crossed the Plains before the railway was constructed. Con-
sequently, he was an excellent authority, and had an abundant store of
information to draw from.
The old way of crossing the Plains and the new way of doing the
same thing," said Doctor Bronson, "are as different as black and white.
My first journey to California was with an ox wagon, and it took me six
months to do it Now we shall make the same distance in four days."
"What a difference, indeed!" the boys remarked.
"We walked by the side of our teams or behind the wagons, we slept
on the ground at night, we did our own cooking, we washed our knives
by ~cking them into the ground rapidly a few times, and we washed our
plates with sand and wisps of grass. When we stopped, we arranged our
wagons in a circle, and thus formed a 'corral,' or yard, where we drove
our oxen to yoke them up. And the corral was often very useful as a
fort, or camp, for defending ourselves against the Indians. Do you see
that little hollow down there?" he asked, pointing to a depression in the
ground a short distance to the right of the train. "Well, in that hollow
our wagon-train was kept three days and nights by the Indians. Three
days and nights they stayed around, and made several attacks. Two of
our men were killed and three were wounded by their arrows, and others
had narrow escapes. One arrow hit me on the throat, but I was saved by
the knot of my neckerchief, and the point only tore the skin a little.
Since that time I have always had a fondness for large neckties. I don't
know how many of the Indians we killed, as they carried off their dead
and wounded, to save them from being scalped. Next to getting the
scalps of their enemies, the most important thing with the Indians is to
save their own. We had several fights during our journey, but that one
was the worst. Once a little party of us were surrounded in a small
' wallow,' and had a tough time to defend ourselves successfully. Luckily
for us, the Indians had no fire-arms then, and their bows and arrows were
no match for our rifles. Nowadays they are well armed, but there are
FIGHTING ON THE PLAINS.
ATTACKED BY INDIANS.
not so many of them, and they are not inclined to trouble the railway
trains. They used to do a great deal of mischief in the old times, and
many a poor fellow has been killed by them."
Frank asked if the Doctor saw any buffaloes in his first journey, and if
he ever went on a buffalo-hunt.
"Of course," was the reply; buffaloes were far more numerous then
than now, and sometimes the herds were so large that it took an entire day,
or even longer, for one of them to cross the road. Twice we were unable
to go on because the buffaloes were in the way, and so all of us who had
rifles went out for a lunt. I was one of the lucky ones, and we went out
in a party of four. Creeping along behind a ridge of earth, we managed
to get near two buffaloes that were slightly separated from the rest of the
herd. We spread out, and agreed that, at a given signal from the fore-
most man, we were to fire together-two at one buffalo and two at the
other. We fired as we had agreed. One buffalo fell with a severe
wound, and was soon finished with a bullet through his heart; the other
turned and ran upon us, and, as I was the first man lie saw, he ran at me.
Just then I remembered that I had forgotten something at the camp, and,
as I wanted it at once, I started back for it as fast as I could go. It was
. THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
a sharp race between the buffalo and me, and, as he had twice as many
legs as I could count, he made the best speed. I could hear his heavy
breathing close behind me, and his footsteps, as he galloped along,
sounded as though somebody were pounding the ground with a large
hammer. Just as I began to think he would soon have me on his horns,
I heard the report of a rifle at one side. Then the buffalo stumbled and
fell, and I ventured to look around. One of the men from camp had
fired just in time to save me from a very unpleasant predicament, and I
concluded I didn't want any more buffalo-hunting for that day."
Hardly had the Doctor finished his story when there was a long
whistle from the locomotive, followed by several short ones. The speed
of the train was slackened, and, while the passengers were wondering
what was the matter, the conductor came into the car where our friends
were seated and told them there was a herd of buffaloes crossing the
"We shall run slowly through the herd," the conductor explained,
"and you will have a good chance to see the buffalo at home."
They opened the windows and looked out. Sure enough, the plain
HERD OF BUFFALOES MOVING.
AMONG THE BUFFALOES. 43
was covered, away to the south, with a dark expanse like a forest, but,
unlike a forest, it appeared to be in motion. Very soon it was apparent
that what seemed to be a forest was a herd of animals.
As the train approached the spot where the herd was crossing the
track, the locomotive gave its loudest and shrillest shrieks. The noise
AN OLD SETTLER.
44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
had the effect of frightening the buffaloes sufficiently to stop those which
had not crossed, and in the gap thus formed the train moved on. The
boys were greatly interested in the appearance of the beasts, and Frank
declared he had never seen anything that looked more fierce than one of
the old'tulls, with his shaggy mane, his humped shoulders, and his sharp,
glittering eyes. He was quite contented with the shelter of the railway-
car, and said if the buffalo wanted him he must come inside to get him;
or give him a good rifle, so that they could meet on equal terms.
Several of the passengers fired at the buffaloes, but Fred was certain
he did not see anything drop. In half an hour the train had passed
through the herd, and was moving on as fast as ever.
On and on they went. The Doctor pointed out many places of inter-
est, and told them how the road was built through the wilderness.
It was," said he, the most remarkable enterprise, in some respects,
that has ever been known. The working force was divided into parties
like the divisions of an army, and each had its separate duties. Ties were
cut and hauled to the line of the road; the ground was broken and made
ready for the track; then- the ties were placed in position, the rails were
brought forward and spiked in place, and so, length by length, the road
crept on. On the level, open country, four or five miles of road were
built every day, and in one instance they built more than seven miles in
a single day. There was a construction-train, where the laborers boarded
and lodged, and this train went forward every day with the road. It was
a sort of moving city, and was known as the 'End of Track;' there was a
post-office in it, and a man who lived there could get his letters the same
as though his residence had been stationary. The Union Pacific Comn-
"END OF TRACK."
_ __ __
THE PACIFIC RAILWAY. 45
pany built west from Omaha, while the Central Pacific Company built
east from Sacramento. They met in the Great Salt Lake valley; and
then there was a grand ceremony over the placing of the last rail to con-
nect the East with the West. The continent was spanned by the railway,
and our great seaboards were neighbors."
Westward and westward went our travellers. From the Missouri
River, the train crept gently up the slope of the Rocky Mountains, till it
halted to take breath at the summit of the Pass, more than eight thousand
feet above the level of the sea. Then, speeding on over the Laramie
Plains, down into the great basin of Utah, winding through the green
carpet of Echo Cafon, skirting the shores of Great Salt Lake, shooting
like a sunbeam over the wastes of the alkali desert, climbing the Sierra
Nevada, darting through the snow-sheds and tunnels, descending the
western slope to the level of the Pacific, it came to a halt at Oakland, oi
the shore of San Francisco Bay. The last morning of their journey our
travellers were among the snows on the summit of the Sierras; at noon
they were breathing the warm air of the lowlands of California, and
before sundown they were looking out through the Golden Gate upon
SNOW-SHEDS ON THE PACIFIC RAILWAY.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
VIEW AT CAPE HORN, CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILWAY.
the blue waters of the great Western ocean. Nowhere else in the world
does the railway bring all the varieties of climate more closely together.
San Francisco, the City by the Sea, was full of interest for our young
adventurers. They walked and rode through its streets; they climbed its
steep hill-sides; they gazed at its long lines of magnificent buildings;
they went to the Cliff House, and saw the sea-lions by dozens and hun-
dreds, within easy rifle-shot of their breakfast-table; they steamed over
the bay, where the navies of the world might find safe anchorage; they
had a glimpse of the Flowery Kingdom, in the Chinese quarter; and they
wondered at the vegetable products of the Golden State as they found
them in the market-place. Long letters were written home, and before
BY THE WESTERN OCEAN. 47
they had studied California to their satisfaction it was time for them to
set sail for what Fred called the under-side of the world."
SEAL-ROCKS, SAN FRANCISCO.
SEAL-ROCKS, SAN FRANCISCO.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
ON TIE PACIFIC OCEAN.
O FFICERS and men were at their posts, and the good steamer Oceanic
was ready for departure. It was a few minutes before noon.
As the first note was sounded on the bell, the gangway plank was
drawn in. "One," "two," "three," "four," "five," "six," "seven,"
"eight," rang out from the sonorous metal.
The captain gave the order to cast off the lines. Hardly had the echo
of his words ceased before the lines had fallen. Then he rang the signal
to the engineer, and the great screw began to revolve beneath the stern of
DEPARTURE FROM SAN FRANCISCO.
FAREWELL TO SAN FRANCISCO.
the ship. Promptly at the advertised time the huge craft was under way.
The crowd on the dock cheered as she moved slowly on, and they cheered
again as she gathered speed and ploughed the water into a track of foam.
The cheers grew fainter and fainter; faces and forms were no longer to
be distinguished; the waving of hats and kerchiefs ceased; the long dock
became a speck of black against the hilly shore, and the great city faded
DROPPING THE PILOT.
Overhead was the immense blue dome of the sky; beneath and
around were the waters of San Francisco Bay. On the right was Monte
Diablo, like an advanced sentinel of the Sierras; and on the left were the
sand-hills of the peninsula, covered with the walls and roofs of the great
city of the Pacific Coast. The steamer moved on and on through the
Golden Gate; and in less than an hour from the time of leaving the dock,
she dropped her pilot, the gangway passage was closed, and her prow
pointed to the westward for a voyage of fivethousand miles.
Wlht a lovely picture!" said the Doctor, as he waved his hand tow-
ards the receding shore.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
"" \h dJ,, th y call thi.it, t.hC -- ---
(Golden Gate?" Fred asked.
Because," was the reply, it is, or was, the entrance to the land of
gold. It was so named after the discovery of gold in California, and until
the completion of the Overland Railway it was the principal pathway to
the country where everybody expected to make a fortune."
"It is very wide, and easy of navigation," the Doctor continued, "and
yet a stranger might not be aware of its existence, and might sail by it if
lie did not know where to look for the harbor. A ship must get well in
towards the land before the Golden Gate is visible."
How long shall we be on the voyage, Doctor?"
If nothing happens," he answered, we shall see tile coast of Japan in
about twenty days. We have five thousand miles to go, and I understand
the steamer will make two hundred and fifty miles a day in good weather."
Will we stop anywhere on the way ?"
There is not a stopping-place on the whole route. We are not yet
out of sight of the Golden Gate, and already we are steering for Cape
King, at the entrance of Yeddo Bay. There's not even an island, or a
solitary rock oni our course."
"I thought I had read about an island where the steamers intended
to stop," Fred remarked.
So you have," was the reply ; an island was discovered some years
ago, and was named Brook's Island, in honor of its discoverer. It was
thought at first that the place might be convenient as a coaling station,
but it is too far from tle track of the steamers, and, besides, it has no
harbor where ships can anchor.
A SHIP FOUND AFTER FIFTY YEARS.
There is a curious story in connection with it. In 1816 a ship, the
Canton, sailed from Sitka, and was supposed to have been lost at sea, as
she never reached her destination. Fifty years later this island was dis-
covered, and upon it was part of the wreck of the Canton. There were
traces of the huts which were built by the crew during their stay, and it
was evident that they constructed a smaller vessel from the fragments of
the wreck, and sailed away in it."
"And were lost in it, I suppose?"
Undoubtedly, as nothing has ever been heard from them. They did
not leave any history of themselves on the island, or, at any rate, none was
At this moment the steward rang the preparatory bell for dinner, and
IN TIE FIRE-ROOM.
THE BOY TR'AVELLERIS.
the conversation ended. Half an hour later dinner was on the table, and
the passengers sat down to it.
The company was not a large one, and there was abundant room and
abundant food for everybody. The captain was at the head of the table,
and the purser at the foot, and between them were the various passengers
in the seats which had been reserved for them by the steward. The pas-
sengers included an American consul on his way to his post in China,
and an American missionary, bound for the same country. There were,
several merchants, interested in commercial matters between tile United
States and the Far East; two clerks, going out to appointments in China;
two sea-captains, going to take command of ships; a doctor and a min-
ing engineer in the service of the Japanese government; half a dozen
"globe-trotters," or tourists; and a very mysterious and nondescript in-
dividual, whom we shall know more about as we proceed. The consul
and the missionary were accompanied by their families. Their wives and
daughters were tile only ladies among the passengers, and, according to
the usual custom on board steamers, they were seated next to the cap-
tain in the places of highest honor. Doctor Bronson and his young
companions were seated near the purser, whom they found very amiable,
and they had on the opposite side of the table the two sea-captains already
Everybody appeared to realize that the voyage was to be a long one,
and the sooner the party became acquainted, the better. By tile end of
dinner they had made excellent progress, and formed several likes and
dislikes that increased as time went on. In the evening the passengers sat
about the cabin or strolled on deck, continuing to grow in acquaintance,
and before the ship had been twventy-four hours at sea it was hard to real-
ize that the company had been assembled so recently. Brotherly friend-
ships as well as brotherly hatreds grew with the rapidity of a beanstalk,
and, happily, the friendships were greatly in the majority.
Life on a steamship at sea has many peculiarities. The ship is a world
in itself, and its boundaries are narrow. You see the same faces day after
day, and on a great ocean like the Pacific there is little to attract the at-
tention outside of the vessel that carries you. You have sea and sky to
look upon to-day as you looked upon them yesterday, and will look on
them to-morrow. The sky may be clear or cloudy; fogs may envelop
you; storms may arise, or a calm may spread over the waters; the great
ship goes steadily on and on. The pulsations of the engine seem like
those of the human heart; and when you wake at night, your first endeavor,
as you collect your thoughts, is to listen for that ceaseless throbbing. One
LIFE AT SEA.
falls into a monotonous "
way of life, and the days
run on one after another,
till you find it difficult to
distinguish them apart.
The hours for meals are
the principal hours of the
day, and wvith many per-
sons the table is the place
of greatest importance.
They wander from deck i
to saloon, and from saloon
to deck raain, and hardly
has the table been cleared
after one nmeal,before they
are thinking what they
will have for the next.
The managers of our great
ocean lines have noted I
this peculiarity of human
nature; some of them -
give no less than five
meals a day, and if a pas----
senger should wish to eat I-
somlething between times,
he could be accommno- I_ __._.,_ __-__ --~ -_-._ -__
dated. THE ENGINEER AT HIS POST.
Our young friends
were too much absorbed with the novelty of their situation to allow the
time to hang heavy on their hands. Everything was new and strange to
them, but, of course, it was far otherwise with Doctor Bronson. They
had many questions to ask, and he was never weary of answering, as lie
saw they were endeavoring to remember what they heard, and were not
interrogating him from idle curiosity.
What is the reason they don't strike the hours here as they do on
land ?" Frank inquired, as they reached the deck after dinner.
The Doctor explained that at sea the time is divided into watches, or
periods, of four hours eacJ. The bell strikes once for each half-hour, until
four hours, or eight bells, are reached, and then they begin again. One
o'clock is designated as two bells," half-past one is "three bells," and
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
four o'clock is "eight bells." Eight o'clock, noon, and midnight are also
signalled by eight strokes on the bell, and after a little while a traveller
accustoms himself to the new mode of keeping time.
Fred remembered that when they left San Francisco at noon, the bell
struck eight times, instead of twelve, as he thought it should have struck.
The Doctor's explanation made it clear to him.
The second day out the boys began to repeat all the poetry they could
remember about the sea, and were surprised at the stock they had on hand.
Fred recalled something he had read in Harper's magazine, which ran as
"Far upon the unknown deep,
'Mid the billows circling round,
Where the tireless sea-birds sweep;
Nothing but a speck we seem,
In the waste of waters round,
Floating, floating like a dream;
Frank was less sentimental, and repeated these lines:
"Two things break the monotony
Of a great ocean trip:
Sometimes, alas! you ship a sea,
And sometimes see a ship."
Then they called upon the Doctor for a contribution, original or select-
ed, with this result:
"The praises of the ocean grand,
'Tis very well to sing on laud.
'Tis very fine to hear them carolled
By Thomas Campbell or Childe Harold;
But sad, indeed, to see that ocean
From east to west in wild commotion."
The wind had been freshening since noon, and the rolling motion of
the ship was not altogether agreeable to the inexperienced boys. They
were about to have their first acquaintance with sea-sickness; and though
they held on manfully and remained on deck through the afternoon, the
ocean proved too much for them, and they had no appetite for dinner or
supper. But their malady did not last long, and by the next morning
they were as merry as ever, and laughed over the event. They asked the
Doctor to explain the cause of their trouble, but he shook his head, and
said the whole thing was a great puzzle.
PEICULIARITIES OF SEA-SICKENSS.
THE WiN.D RINSG.
Sea-sickness is a mystery," said lie, and the more you study it, the
less you seem to understand it. Some persons are never disturbed by the
motion of a ship, no matter how violent it may be, while others cannot
endure the slightest rocking. Most of the sufferers recover in a short
time, and after two or three days at sea are as well as ever, and continue
so. On the other hand, there are some who never outlive its effects, and
though their voyage may last a year or more, they are no better sailors
at the end than at the beginning.
I knew a young man," he continued, who entered the Naval
Academy, and graduated. When he was appointed to service on board
a ship, he found himself perpetually sick on the water; after an expe-
rience of two years, and finding no improvement, lie resigned. Such
occurrences are by no means rare. I once travelled with a gentleman
who was a splendid sailor in fine weather; but when it became rough,
he was all wrong, and went to bed." .
Were you ever sea-sick, Doctor ?" queried Frank.
Never," was the reply, and I had a funny incident growing out of
this fact on my first voyage. We were going out of New York harbor,
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
and I made the acquaintance of the man who was to share my room. As
he looked me over, he asked me if I had ever been to sea.
I told him I never had, and then he remarked that I was certain to
be sea-sick, he could see it in my face. He said he was an old traveller,
and rarely suffered, and then he gave me some advice as to what I should
do when I began to feel badly. I thanked him and went on deck.
As the ship left the harbor, and went outside to the open Atlantic,
she encountered a heavy sea. It was so rough that the majority of the
passengers disappeared below. I didn't suffer in the least, and didn't go
to the cabin for two or three hours. There I found that my new friend
was in his bed with the very malady he had predicted for me."
"What did you do then, Doctor ?"
Well, I repeated to him the advice he had given me, and told him I
saw in his face that he was sure to be sea-sick. He didn't recover during
the whole voyage, and I never suffered a moment."
The laugh that followed the story of the Doctor's experience was in-
terrupted by the breakfast-bell, and the party went below. There was a
light attendance, and the purser explained that several passengers had
"Which is a polite way of saying that they are not inclined to come
out," the Doctor remarked.
"Exactly so," replied the purser, they think they would make the
best appearance alone."
Captain Spofford, who sat opposite to Frank, remarked that he knew
an excellent preventive of sea-sickness. Frank asked what it was.
"Always stay at home," was the reply.
"Yes," answered Frank, and to escape drowning you should never
go near the water."
Fred said the best thing to prevent a horse running away was to sell
Everybody had a joke of some kind to propose, and the breakfast
party was a merry one. Suddenly Captain Spofford called out," There
she blows!" and pointed through the cabin window. Before the others
could look, the rolling of the ship had brought the window so far above
the water that they saw nothing.
"What is it ?" Fred asked.
A whale," Captain Spofford answered. What he is doing here, I
don't know. This isn't a whaling-ground."
They went on deck soon after, and, sure enough, several whales were
in sight. Every little while a column of spray was thrown into the air,
WHY DOES A WHALE "SPOUT?"
and indicated there was a whale
'!| : Frank asked why it was the
whale spouted," or blew up,
S; '' the column of spray. Captain
K _: Spofford explained that the
whale is not, properly speak-
ing, a fish, but an animal.
-l "He has warm blood, like a
SPOUTS. cow or horse," said the Cap-
tain, and he must come to the
surface to breathe. lie takes a certain amount of water into his lungs
along with the air, and when he throws it out, it makes the 'spray you
have seen, and which the sailors call a spout."
It turned out that the Captain was an old whaleman. The boys
wanted to hear some whaling stories, and their new friend promised to
tell them some during the evening. When the time came for the narra-
tion, the boys were ready, and so was the old mariner. The Doctor joined
the party, and the four found a snug corner in the cabin where they were
not likely to be disturbed. The Captain settled himself as comfortably
as possible, and then began the account of his adventures in pursuit of the
monsters of the deep.
WHALE-SHIP OUTWARD BOUND.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
INCIDENTS OF A WHALING VOYAGE.
CAPTAIN SPOFFORD was a weather-beaten veteran who gave little
attention to fine clothes, and greatly preferred his rough jacket and
CAPTAIN SPOFFORD TELLING HIS STORY.
DECLINE OF TIHE WHALE FISHERY.
soft hat to what he called Sunday gear." lIe was much attached to his
telescope, which he had carried nearly a quarter of a century, and on the
present occasion lie brought it into the cabin, and held it in his hand
while he narrated his whaling experiences. Ile explained that lie could
talk better in the company of his old spy-glass, as it would remind him
of things he might forget without its aid, and also check him if le went
beyond the truth.
There are very few men in the whaling business now," said le,
"compared to the number twenty-five years ago. Whales are growing
scarcer every year, and petroleum has taken the place of whale-oil. Con-
sequently, the price of the latter is not in proportion to the difficulty of
getting it. New Bedford used to be an important seaport, and did an
enormous business. It is played out now, and is as dull and sleepy as
a cemetery. It was once the great centre of the whaling business, and
made fortunes for a good many men ; but you don't hear of fortunes in
"I went to sea from New Bedford when I was twelve years old, and
kept at whaling for near on to twenty-seven years. From cabin-boy, I
crept up through all the ranks, till I became captain and part owner, and
it was a good deal of satisfaction to me to be boss of a ship, I can tell you.
When I thought I had had enough of it I retired, and bought a small
farm. I stocked and ran it after my own fashion, called one of my oxen
TIE BOY TRAVELLERS.
'Port' and the other Starboard,' had a little mound like my old quar-
ter-deck built in my garden, and used to go there to take my walks. I
had a mast with cross-trees fixed in this mound, and used to go up there,
and stay for hours, and call out There she blows!' whenever I saw a
bird fly by, or anything moving anywhere. I slept in a hammock under
a tent, and when I got real nervous I had one of my farm-hands rock
me to sleep in the hammock, and throw buckets of water against the
sides of the tent, so's I could imagine I was on the sea again. But
wasn'tt no use, and I couldn't cure myself of wanting to be on blue
water once more. So I left my farm in my wife's hands, and am going
out to Shanghai to command a ship whose captain died at Ilong-Kong
five months ago.
"So much for history. Now we'll talk about whales.
There are several kinds of them-sperm-whales, right-whales, bow-
heads; and a whaleman can tell one from the other as easy as a farmer
can tell a cart-horse from a
Shetland pony. The most
valuable is the sperm-whale,
as his oil is much better, and
brings more money ; and
then we get spermaceti from
him to make candles of,
0 which we don't get from
-- sethe others. Ile's a funnv-
looking brute, as his head is
a third of his whole length;
e-.- g o and when you've cut it off,
there doesn't seem to be
much whale left of him.
"I sailed for years in a
SPELtM-WHALE. sperm whaler in the South
Pacific, and had a good
many lively times. The sperm-whale is the most dangerous of all, and
the hardest to kill; lie fights with his tail and his month, while the oth-
ers fight only with their tails. A right-whale or a bow-head will lash the
water and churn it up into foam ; and if he hits a boat with his tail, he
crushes it as if it was an egg-shell. A sperm-whale will do all this, and
more too ; he takes a- boat in his mouth, and chews it, which the others
never do. And when lie chews it, he makes fine work of it, I can tell you,
and short work, too.
LOSS OF TIE "ESSEX."
Sometimes he takes a shy at a ship, and rushes at it, head on. Two
ships are known to have been sunk in this way ; one of them was the
Essex, which the whale ran into three times, and broke her timbers so
that she filled. The crew took to the boats, and made for the coast of
South America. One boat was never heard from, one reached the coast,
-~ 4 -N
"THERE SHE BLOWS !
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
and the third was picked up near Valparaiso with everybody dead but
two, and those barely alive. Provisions and water had given out, and
another day would have finished the poor fellows. Another ship was the
Union, which was stove right under the bows by a single blow frpmi a
sperm-whale, and went down in half an hour.
I was fifteen years old when I pulled my first oar in a whale-boat;
I was boat-steerer at eighteen, and second mate at twenty, and before
I was twenty-one I had known what it was to be in the mouth of a
sperm-whale. It is hardly necessary to say that I got out of it as fast
as I could, and didn't stop to see if my hair was combed and my shirt-
collar buttoned. A man has no time to put on frills under such circum-
*' The way of it was this. The lookout in the cross-trees-we always
keep a man up aloft to look out for whales when we're on cruising
ground-thie man had called out, 'There she blows!' and everybody was
on his feet in an instant.
A I"' Where away?' shouted the first
"'Two points on the weather bow.'
"And before the words had done
echoing he called out There she blows
again, and a moment after again. That
meant that he had seen two more whales.
We put two boats into the water,
the first mate's and mine, and away we
went. We pulled our best, and the boats
fairly bounced through the waves. It was
a race to see who could strike the first
whale; we had a good half mile to go,
and we went like race-horses.
Each boat has six men in her-a
boat-steerer, as lie is called, and five at
the oars. The boat-steerer handles the
harpoon and lance and directs the whole
movement; in fact, for the time he is
captain of the boat.
The first mate's boat headed me a
little, and made for a big fellow on the
starboard. I went for another, and we
struck almost at the same instant. With-
IMPLEMENTS USED IN WHALING.
STRIKING A WHALE.
in three boat-lengths, I stood up, braced my feet firmly, poised my har-
poon, and made ready to strike. The whale didn't know we were about,
and was taking it very easy. The bow of the boat was about ten feet
from his black skin when I sent the iron spinning and whizzing away,
and buried it deep in his flesh. Didn't he give a jump You can bet'
"' Starn all! starn all! for your lives !' I yelled.
There wasn't a moment lost, and the boat went back by the force
of the strong arms of the men."
The whale lashed about and then breached;' that is, lie threw his
great body out of the water, giving me a chance to get in a second har-
poon. Then lie sounded-that is, lie went down-and the lines ran out
so fast that the side of the boat fairly smoked when they went over. He
ran off two hundred fathoms of line before he stopped, and then we felt
the line slack and knew lie would soon be up again.
Up lie came not a hundred yards from where he went down, and as
lie came up he caught sight of the boat. Hle went for it as a cat goes for
"The sperm-whale can't see straight ahead, as his eyes are set far back,
and seem to be almost on his sides. Ile turns partly round to get a glimpse
of a boat, then ports his helm, drops his jaw, calculates his distance, and
64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
goes ahead at full speed. His jaw is set very low, and sometimes he turns
over, or partly over, to strike his blow.
"This time he whirled and took the bow of the boat in his mouth,
crushing it as though it had been made of paper. We jumped out, the
oars flew all around us, the sea was a mass of foam, and the whale chewed
the boat as though it was a piece of sugar-candy and he hadn't seen any
for a month.
We were all in the water, and nobody hurt. The first mate's boat
had killed its whale inside of ten minutes, and before he tried to sound.
They left the whale and came to pick us up; then they hurried and made
fast to him, as another ship was coming up alongside of ours, and we might
lose our game. It is a rule of the sea that you lose your claim to a whale
when you let go, even though you may have killed him. Hang on to him
and he's yours, though you may hang with only a trout-line and a minnow-
hook. It's been so decided in the courts.
The captain sent another boat from the ship, and we soon had the
satisfaction of seeing my whale dead on the water. He got the lance
right in his vitals, and went into his 'flurry,' as we call it. The flurry is
IN TillHE WHILE S JAW.
SIZE OF WHALES.
the whale's convulsive movements just before death, and sometimes he
does great damage as he thrashes about."
Frank wished to know how large the whale was, and how large whales
We don't reckon whales by their length," Captain Spofford answered,
" but by the number of barrels of oil they make. Ask any old captain
how long the largest whale was that lie ever took, and the chances are he'll
begin to estimate by the length of his ship, and frankly tell you he never
measured one. I measured the largest sperm-whale I ever took, and found
him seventy-nine feet long; he made a hundred and seven barrels of oil.
Here's the figures of him: nose to neck, twenty-six feet; neck to hump,
twenty-nine feet; hump to tail, seventeen feet; tail, seven feet. His tail
was sixteen feet across, and he was forty-one feet six inches around the body.
He had fifty-one teeth, and the heaviest weighed twenty-five ounces. We
took nineteen barrels of oil from his case, the inside of the head, where we
dipped it out with a bucket. I know one captain that captured a sperm-
whale ninety feet long, that made a hundred and thirty-seven barrels, and
there was another sperm taken by the ship Mionka, of New Bedford, that
made a hundred and forty-five barrels. I don't know how long lie was.
There's a wonderful deal of excitement in fastening to a whale, and
having a fight with him. You have the largest game that a hunter could
ask for; you have the cool pure air of the ocean, and the blue waters all
about you. A thrill goes through every nerve as you rise to throw the
sharp iron into the monster's side, and the thrill continues when lie plunges
wildly about, and sends tile line whistling over. He sinks, and he rises
again; he dashes away to windward, and struggles to escape; you hold
him fast, and, large as lie is in proportion to yourself, you feel that lie must
yield to you, though, perhaps, not till after a hard battle. At length lie
lies exhausted, and you approach for the final blow with the lance. An-
other thrilling moment, another, and another; and if fortune is in your
favor, your prize is soon motionless before you. And the man who cannot
feel an extra beat of his pulse at such a time must be made of cooler stuff
than the most of us.
"But you don't get all the whales you see, by a long shot. Many a
whale gets away before you can fasten to him, and many another whale,
after you have laid on and fastened, will escape you. IIe sinks, and tears
tihe iron loose; lie runs away to windward ten or twenty miles an hour,
and you must cut the line to save your lives; he smashes the boat, and
perhaps kills some of his assailants; he dies below the surface, and when
lie dies there he stays below, and you lose him ; and sometimes he shows
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
such an amount of toughness that he seems to bear a charmed life. We
fight him with harpoon and lance, and in tfese later days they have an in-
vention called the bomb-lance or whaling-gun. A bomb-shell is thrown
into him with a gun like a large musket, and it explodes down among his
vitals. There's another gun that is fastened to the shaft of a harpoon, and
goes off when the whale tightens the line; and there's another that throws
a lance half-way through him. Well, there are whales that can stand all
these things and live.
"Captain Hunting, of New Bedford, had the worst fight that I know
of, while he was on a cruise in the South Atlantic. When he struck the
fellow-it was a tough old bull that had been through fights before, I
reckon-the whale didn't try to escape, but turned on the boat, bit her in
two, and kept on thrashing the wreck till he broke it up completely. An-
other boat picked up the men and took them to the ship, and then two
other boats went in on him. Each of them got in two irons, and that made
him mad ; lie turned around and chewed those boats, and he stuck closely
to business until there wasn't a mouthful left. The twelve swimmers
CAPTAIN HUNTING'S FIGHT.
STORY OF CAPTAIN HUNTING.
A GAME FELLOW.
were picked up by the boat which had taken the first lot to the ship; two
of the men had climbed on his back, and he didn't seem to mind them.
He kept on chewing away at the oars, sails, masts, planks, and other frag-
ments of the boats; and whenever anything touched his body, he turned
and munched away at it. There he was with six harpoons in him, and
each harpoon had three hundred fathoms of line attached to it. Captain
Hunting got out two spare boats, and started with them and the saved
boat to renew the fight. He got alongside and sent a bomb-lance
charged with six inches of powder right into the whale's vitals, just back
of his fin. When the lance was fired, he turned and tore through the
boat like a hurricane, scattering everything. The sun was setting, four
boats were gone with all their gear and twelve hundred fathoms of line,
the spare boats were poorly provided, the men were wearied and dis-
couraged, and Captain Hunting hauled off and admitted himself beaten
by a whale."
The nondescript individual whom we saw among the passengers early
in the voyage had joined the party, and heard the story of Captain Iunt-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
ing's whale. When it was endea, he ventured to say something on the
subject of whaling.
"That wasn't a circumstance," he remarked, to the great whale that
used to hang around the Philippine Islands. He was reckoned to be a
king, as all the other whales took off their hats to him, and used to get
down on their front knees when lie came around. His skin was like
leather, and he was stuck so full of harpoons that he looked like a porcu-
pine under a magnifying-glass. Every ship that saw him used to put an
iron into him, and I reckon you could get up a good history of the whale-
fishery if you could read the ships' names on all of them irons. Lots of
whalers fought with him, but he always came out first best. Captain
Sammis of the Ananias had the closest acquaintance with him, and the
way he tells it is this:
"'We'd laid into him, and his old jaw came up and bit off the bow of
the boat. As he bit lie gave a fling, like, and sent me up in the air; and
when I came down, there was the whale, end up and mouth open waiting
for me. His throat looked like a whitewashed cellar-door; but I saw his
teeth were wore smooth down to the gums, and that gave me some con-
solation. When I struck his throat he snapped for me, but I had good
headway, and disappeared like a piece of cake in a family of children.
When I was splashing against the soft sides of his stomach, I heard his
jaws snapping like the flapping of a mainsail.
"' I was rather used up and tired out, and a little bewildered, and so I
sat down on the southwest corner of his liver, and crossed my legs while I
got my wits together. It wasn't dark down there, as there was ten thou-
A FREE RIDE.
CAPTAIN SAMMIS'S ADVENTURE.
sand of them little sea jellies shinin' there, like second-hand stars, in the
wrinkles of his stomach, and then there was lots of room too. By-an'-by,
while I was looking' round, I saw a black patch on the starboard side of his
stomach, and went over to examine it. There I found printed in injey ink,
in big letters, "Jonah, B.C. 1607." Then I knew where I was, and I be-
gan to feel real bad.
"'I opened my tobacco-box to take a mouthful of fine-cut to steady
my nerves. I suppose my hand was a little unsteady; anyhow, I dropped
some of the tobacco on the floor of the whale's stomach. It gave a con-
vulsive jump, and I saw at once the whale wasn't used to it. I picked up
a jack-knife I saw layin' on the floor, and cut a plug of tobacco into fine
snuff, and scattered it around in the little wrinkles in the stomach. You
should have seen how the medicine worked. The stomach began to heave
as though a young earthquake had opened up under it, and then it squirmed.
and twisted, and finally turned wrong side out, and flopped me into the
sea. The mate's boat was there picking up the men from the smashed
boat, and just as they had given me up for lost they saw me and took me
in. They laughed when I told them of the inside of the whale, and the
printing' I saw there; but when I showed them the old jack-knife with the
American eagle on one side and Jonah's name on the other, they stopped
laughing' and looked serious. It is always well to have something on hand
when you are tellin' a true story, and that knife was enough.'
"That same captain," he continued, was once out for a whale, but
when they killed him, they were ten miles from the ship. The captain
got on the dead whale, and sent the boat back to let the ship know where
they were. After they had gone, a storm came on and drove the ship
away, and there the captain stayed three weeks. He stuck an oar into
the whale to hang on to, and the third week a ship hove in sight. As he
didn't know what she was, lie hoisted the American flag, which he hap-
pened to have a picture of on his pocket-handkerchief; and pretty soon
the ship hung out her colors, and her captain came on board. Captain
Sammis was tired of the monotony of life on a whale, and so lie sold out
his interest to the visitor. IHe got half the oil and a passage to Honolulu,
where he found his own craft all right."
You say he remained three weeks on the back of that whale," said
one of the listeners.
"Yes, I said three weeks."
Well, how did he live all that time ?"
How can I tell ?" was the reply; that's none of my business.
Probably he took his meals at the nearest restaurant and slept at home.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
CAPTAIN SAMMIS SELLING OUT.
And if you don't believe my story, I can't help it--I've done the best I
With this remark he rose and walked away. It was agreed that there
was a certain air of improbability about his narrations, and Frank vent-
ured the suggestion that the stranger would never get into trouble on
account of telling too much truth.
They had a curiosity to know something about the man. Doctor
Bronson questioned the purser and ascertained that he was entered on
the passenger-list as Mr. A. of America ; but whence he came, or what was
his business, no one could tell. He had spoken to but few persons since
they left port, and the bulk of his conversation had been devoted to
stories like those about the whaling business.
In short, he was a riddle no one could make out; and very soon he
received from the other passengers the nickname of "The Mystery."
Fred suggested that Mystery and Mr. A. were so nearly alike that the one
name was as good as the other.
While they were discussing him, he returned suddenly and said:
The Captain says there are indications of a water-spout to-morrow;
and perhaps we may be destroyed by it."
SHOOTING AT A WATER-SPOUT.
With these words he withdrew, and was not seen any more that even-
ing. Fred wished to know what a water-spout was like, and was promptly
set at rest by the Doctor.
A water-spout," the latter remarked, is often seen in the tropics, but
rarely in this latitude. The clouds lie quite close to the water, and there
appears to be a whirling motion to the latter; then the cloud and the sea
beneath it become united by a column of water, and this column is what
we call a water-spout. It is generally believed that the water rises, through
this spout, from the sea to the clouds, and sailors are fearful of coming
near them lest their ships may be deluged and sunk. They usually en-
deavor to destroy them by firing guns at them, and this was done on
board a ship where I was once a passenger. When the ball struck the
spout, there was a fall of water sufficient to have sunk us if we had been
beneath it, and we all felt thankful that we had escaped the danger."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
ARRIVAL IN JAPAN.
T IE great ship steamed onward, day after day and night after night.
There was no storm to break the monotony; no sail showed itself
on the horizon; no one left the steamer, and no new-comers appeared;
nobody saw fit to quarrel with any one else; and there was not a pas-
senger who showed a disposition to quarrel with his surroundings. Sto-
ries were told and songs were sung, to while away the time; and, finally,
on the twentieth day, the captain announced that they were approaching
land, and the voyage would soon be over.
Our young travellers had found a daily interest in the instruments by
which a mariner ascertains his ship's position. Frank had gone so far as
to borrow the captain's extra copy of "Bowditch's Navigator" and study
it at odd intervals, and after a little while he comprehended the uses of
the various instruments employed in finding a way over the trackless
ocean. He gave Fred a short lecture on the subject, which was some-
thing like the following:
Of course, you know, Fred, all about the mariner's compass, which
points towards the north, and always tells where north is. Now, if we
know where north is, we can find south, east, and west without much
Fred admitted the claim, and repeated the formula he had learned at
school: Face towards the north, and back towards the south; the right
hand east, and the left hand west.
"Now," continued Frank, "there are thirty-two points of the compass;
do you know them ?"
Fred shook his head; and then Frank explained that the four he had
named were the cardinal points, while the other twenty-eight were the
divisions between the cardinal points. One of the first duties of a sailor
was to "box the compass," that is, to be able to name all these divisions.
Let me hear you box the compass, Frank," said Doctor Bronson, who
was standing near.
BOXING TIHE COMPASS.
FRANK STUDYING NAVIGATION.
Certainly, I can," Frank answered, and then began : North, north
by east, north-northeast, northeast by north, northeast, northeast by east,
east-northeast, east by north, east-"
"That will do," said the Doctor; yon have given one quadrant, or a
quarter of the circle; I'm sure you can do the rest easily, for it goes on in
the same way."
"You see," Frank continued, "that you know by the compass exactly
in what direction you are going; then, if you know how many miles you
go in a day or an hour, you can calculate your place at sea.
"That mode of calculation is called 'dead-reckoning,' and is quite
simple, but it isn't very safe."
Why so?" Fred asked.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
"Because it is impossible to steer a ship with absolute accuracy when
she is rolling and pitching about, and, besides, the winds make her drift a
little to one side. Then there are currents that take her off her course,
and sometimes they are very strong."
Yes, I know," Fred replied; there's the Gulf Stream, in the Atlantic
Ocean, everybody has heard of; it is a great river in the sea, and flows
north at the rate of three or four miles an hour."
"There's another river like it in the Pacific Ocean," Frank explained;
"it is called the Japan Current, because it flows close to the coast of Japan.
It goes through Behring Strait into the Arctic Ocean, and then it comes
south by the coast of Greenland, and down by Newfoundland. That's
what brings the icebergs south in the Atlantic, and puts them in the way
of the steamers between New York and Liverpool.
On account of the uncertainty of dead-reckoning, the captain doesn't
rely on it except when the fog is so thick that he can't get an observa-
"What is that ?"
SObserving the positions of the sun and moon, and of certain stars
with relation to each other. That is done with the quadrant and sextant;
and then they use a chronometer, or clock, that tells exactly what the time
is at Greenwich. Then, you see, this book is full of figures that look like
multiplication-tables; and with these figures they 'work out their posi-
tion;' that is, they find out where they are. Greenwich is near London,
and all the tables are calculated from there."
"But suppose a sailor was dropped down here suddenly, without
knowing what ocean he was in; could he find out where he was without
anybody telling him "
Certainly ; with the instruments I have named, the tables of figures,
and a clear sky, so as to give good observations, he could determine his
position with absolute accuracy. He gets his latitude by observing the
sun at noon, and he gets his longitude by the chronometer and by obser-
vations of the moon. When he knows his latitude and longitude, he
knows where he is, and can mark the place on the map."
Fred opened his eyes with an expression of astonishment, and said he
thought the science of navigation was something wonderful.
The others agreed with him; and while they were discussing the
advantages which it had given to the world, there was a call that sent
them on deck at once.
"Land, ho !" from the lookout forward.
Land, ho!" from the officer near the wheel-house.
WORKING UP A RECKONING.
"Land, ho!" from the captain, as he emerged from his room, just aft
of the wheel. Where away ?"
"Dead ahead, sir," replied the officer. "'Tis Fusiyama, sir."
The boys looked in the direction indicated, but could see nothing.
This is not surprising, when we remember that sailors' eyes are accus-
tomed to great distances, and can frequently see objects distinctly long
before landsmen can make them out.
But by-and-by they could distinguish the outline of a cone, white as
a cloud and nearly as shadowy. It was the Holy Mountain of Japan, and
they recognized the picture they had seen so many times upon Japanese
fans and other objects. As they watched it, the form grew more and
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
more distinct, and after a time they no longer doubted that they looked
at Fusiyama. "
Just to think," Fred exclaimed, "when we left San Francisco, we
steered for this mountain, five thousand miles away, and here it is, right
before us. Navigation is a wonderful science, and no mistake."
As the ship went on, the mountain grew more and more distinct, and
by-and-by other features of Japanese scenery were brought into view.
The western horizon became a serrated line, that formed an agreeable con-
trast to the unbroken curve they had looked upon so many days; and as
the sun went down, it no longer dipped into the sea and sank beneath the
waves. All on board the ship were fully aware they were approaching
During the night they passed Cape King and entered Yeddo bay.
The great light-house that watches the entrance shot its rays far out over
the waters and beamed a kindly welcome to the strangers. Slowly they
steamed onward, keeping a careful lookout for the numerous boats and
junks that abound there, and watching the hundreds of lights that gleamed
along the shore and dotted the sloping hill-sides. Sixty miles from
VIEW IN TIE BAY OF YEDDO.
SIGHTS IN YEDDO BAY. 77
Cape King, they were in front of Yokohama ; the engines stopped, the
anchor fell, the chain rattled through the hawse-hole, and the ship was at
rest, after her long journey from San Francisco. Our young adventurers
were in Japan.
With the first streak of dawn the boys were on deck, where they were
joined by Doctor Bronson. The sun was just rising when the steamer
dropped her anchor, and, consequently, their first day in the new country
was begun very early. There was an abundance of sights for the young
eyes, and no lack of subjects for conversation.
Hardly was the anchor down before the steamer was surrounded by
a swarm of little boats, and Frank thought they were the funniest boats
lie had ever seen.
__ __ ~ ~-~ _-- .-
-_ =- - . -- -s -
JAPANESE JUNK AND BOATS.
"They are called 'sampans,'" Doctor Bronson explained, and are
made entirely of wood. Of late years the Japanese sometimes use copper
or iron nails for fastenings; but formerly you found them without a par-
ticle of metal about them."
They don't look as if they could stand rough weather," said Fred.
"See; they are low and square at the stern, and high and sharp at the
bow; and they sit very low in the water."
"They are not in accordance with our notions," replied the Doctor;
"but they are excellent sea-boats, and I have known them to ride safely
where an American boat would have been swamped. You observe how
easily they go through the water. They can be handled very readily,
and, certainly, the Japanese have no occasion to be ashamed of their
A JAPANESE IMPERIAL BARGE.
FIRST VIEW OF YOKOHAMA.
Frank had his eye on a sampan that was darting about like an active
fish, first in one direction and then in another. It was propelled by a
single oar in the hands of a brown-skinned boatman, who was not encum-
bered with a large amount of superfluous clothing. The oar was in two
pieces-a blade and a handle-lashed together in such a way that they
did not form a straight line. At first Frank thought there was something
wrong about it; but he soon observed that the oars in all the boats were
of the same pattern, and made in the same way. They were worked like
sculls rather than like oars. The man kept the oar constantly beneath
the water; and, as he moved it forwards and back, he turned it partly
around. A rope near his hand regulated the distance the oar could be
turned, and also kept it from rising out of the water or going too far
below the surface.
Nearly every boat contained a funny little furnace, only a few inches
square, where the boatman boiled his tea and cooked the rice and fish that
composed his food. Each boat had a deck of boards which were so placed
as to be readily removed ; but, at the same time, were secured against be-
ing washed away. Every one of these craft was perfectly clean, and while
they were waiting around the ship, several of the boatmen occupied them-
selves by giving their decks a fresh scrubbing, which was not at all neces-
sary. The Doctor took the occasion to say something about the cleanli-
ness of the Japanese houses, and of the neat habits of the people gener-
ally, and added, You will see it as you go among them, and cannot fail
to be impressed by it. You will never hesitate to eat Japanese food
through fear that it may not be clean ; and this is more than you can say
of every table in our own country."
The steamer was an-
chored nearly half a mile
from shore. English,
French, German, and oth-
er ships were in the liar-
bor; tenders and steam-
launches were moving
about; row -boats were
coining and going; and, '
altogether, tile port of
Yokohama presented a JAPANESE GOVERNMENT BOAT.
lively appearance. Shore-
ward the picture was interesting. At the water's edge there was a stone
quay or embankment, with two inner harbors, 'where small boats might
80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
enter and find shelter from occasional storms. This quay was the front
of a street where carriages and pedestrians were moving back and forth.
The farther side of the street was a row of buildings, and as nearly every
one of these buildings had a yard in front filled with shade-trees, the effect
Away to the right was the Japanese part of Yokohama, while on the
left was the.foreign section. The latter included the row of buildings
mentioned above; they stood on a level space which was only a few feet
above the level of the bay. Back of this was a range of steep hills,
which were covered nearly everywhere with a dense growth of trees and
bushes, with little patches of gardens here and there. On the summits
of the hills, and occasionally on their sides, were houses with wide ve-
randas, and with great windows capable of affording liberal ventilation.
Many of the merchants and other foreigners living in Yokohama had
their residences in these houses, which were far more comfortable than
the buildings near the water. Doctor Bronson explained that the lower
part of Yokohama was called the Bund," while the upper was known as
the Bluff." Business was transacted in the Bund, and many persons
lived there; but the Bluff was the favorite place for a residence, and a
great deal of money had been expended in beautifying it.
The quarantine officials visited the steamer, and after a brief inspec-
tion she was pronounced healthy, and permission was given for the pas-
sengers to go on shore. Runners from the hotels came in search of pa-
trons, and clerks from several of the prominent business houses came on
board to ask for letters and news. Nearly every commercial establishment
in Yokohama has its own boat and a special uniform for its rowers; so
that they can be readily distinguished. One of the clerks who visited the
ship seemed to be in search of somebody among the passengers, and that
somebody proved to be our friend, The Mystery.
The two had a brief conversation when they met, and it was in a tone
so low that nobody could hear what was said. When it was over, The Mys-
tery went below, and soon reappeared with a small satchel. Without a
word of farewell to anybody, lie entered the boat and was rowed to the
shore at a very rapid rate.
There was great activity at the forward gangway. The steerage pas-
sengers comprised about four hundred Chinese who were bound for Iong-
Kong; but, as the steamer would lie a whole day at Yokohama, many of
them were preparing to spend the day on shore. The boats crowded at
the foot of the gangway, and there was a great contention among the boat-
men to secure the patronage of the passengers. Occasionally one of the
men fell into the water, owing to some unguarded movement; but he
was soon out again, and clamoring as earnestly as ever. In spite of the
excitement and activity, there was the most perfect good-nature. Nobody
was inclined to fight with any one else, and all the competitors were en-
tirely friendly. The Chinese made very close bargains with the boatmen,
and were taken to and from the shore at prices which astonished the boys
when they heard them.
The Doctor explained that the tariff for a boat to take one person from
ship to shore and back again, including an hour's waiting, was ten cents,
with five cents added for every hour beyond one. In the present instance
the Chinese passengers bargained to be taken on shore in the morning and
back again at night for five cents each, and not more than four of them
were to go in one boat. Fred thought it would require a long time for
any of the boatmen to become millionaires at this rate.
Our travellers were not obliged to bargain for their conveyance, as they
went ashore in the boat belonging to the hotel where they intended to
stay. The runner of the hotel took charge of their baggage and placed it
in the boat; and when all was ready, they shook hands with the captain
and purser of the steamer, and wished them prosperous voyages in future.
Several other passengers went ashore at the same time. Among them was
Captain Spofford, who was anxious to compare the Yokohama of to-day
with the one he had visited twenty years before.
He explained to the boys that when the American fleet came to Japan
in 1854, there was only a small fishing village where the city now stands.
Yoko-hama means "across the strand," and the city is opposite, or across
YOKOHAIA IN 1854.
7 .- -
82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
the strand from, Kanagawa, which was established as the official port.
The consuls formerly had their offices in Kanagawa, and continued to date
their official documents there long after they had moved to the newer and
more prosperous town. Yokohama was found much more agreeable, as
there was a large open space there for erecting buildings, while the high
bluffs gave a cooling shelter from the hot, stifling air of summer. Com-
mercial prosperity caused it to grow rapidly, and made it the city we now
They reached the shore. Their baggage was placed on a large hand-
cart, and they passed through the gateway of the Custom-house. A polite
official, who spoke English, made a brief survey of their trunks; and, on
their assurance that no dutiable goods were within, he did not delay them
any further. The Japanese duties are only five per cent. on the value of
the goods, and, consequently, a traveller could not perpetrate much fraud
upon the revenue, even if he were disposed to do so.
Here you are in Japan," said the Doctor, as they passed through the
"Yes, here we are," Frank replied; let's give three cheers for Japan."
"Agreed," answered Fred, and here we go-Hip! hip! hurrah !"
The boys swung their hats and gave the three cheers.
"And three more for friends at home!" Fred added.
"Certainly," Frank responded. Here we go again;" and there was
another Hip! hip hurrah!"
And a cheer from you, Frank," remarked the Doctor, "for somebody
we saw at the railway station."
Frank gave another swing of his hat and another cheer. The Doctor
and Fred united their voices to his, and with a hearty shout all around,
they concluded the ceremony connected with their arrival in Japan.
SERVANTS IN JAPAN.
FIRST DAY IN JAPAN.
T HEY had no difficulty in reaching the hotel, as they were in the hands
of the runner of the establishment, who took good care that they did
not go astray and fall into the clutches of the representative of the rival
concern. The publicans of the open ports of Japan have a watchful eye
for their interests, and the stranger does not have to wander long in the
streets to find accommodation. The Doctor had been there before, and
took great pains to have his bargain made with the utmost exactness, lest
there might be a mistake at the time of his departure. In Europe and
Asia," he remarked to Frank, "a traveller soon learns that he cannot be
too explicit in making his contracts at hotels; if he neglects this little for-
mality, he will often find that his negligence has cost him something. The
last time I was in Yokohama I had a very warm discussion with my land-
lord when I settled my bill, and I don't propose to have a repetition of it."
The hotel was much like an American house in its general character-
istics, both in the arrangement of the rooms and the style of furniture.
The proprietors and managers were foreigners, but the servants were na-
tive and were dressed in Japanese costume. The latter were very quiet
and orderly in their manners, and made a favorable impression on the
young visitors. Frank was so pleased with the one in charge of his room
that he wished he could take him home with him, and have a Japanese
servant in America. Testimony as to the excellent character of servants
in Japan is nearly universal on the part of those who have employed
them. Of course there will be an occasional lazy, inattentive, or dishon-
est fellow, but one finds them much more rarely than in Europe or Amer-
ica. In general, they are very keen observers, and learn the ways and
peculiarities of their masters in a remarkably short time. And once hav-
ing learned them, they never forget.
When I was last here," said the Doctor, I was in this very hotel,
and had one of the regular servants of the establishment to wait on me.
The evening after my arrival, I told him to have my bath ready at seven
o'clock in the morning, and to bring a glass of ice-water when he
7; I!' '''I'
A JAPANESE STREET SCENE.
A WALK THROUGH THE STREETS.
waked me. Exactly at seven he was at my bedside with the water, and
told me the bath was waiting; and as long as I remained here he came at
precisely the same hour in the morning, offered me the glass of water,
and announced the readiness of the bath. I never had occasion to tell
him the same thing twice, no matter what it was. Occasionally I went to
Tokio to spend two or three days. The first time I went, I showed him
what clothes I wished to take, and he packed them in my valise ; and after-
wards I had only to say I was going to Tokio, when lie would immediate-
ly proceed to pack up exactly the same things I had taken the first time,
or their equivalents. lie never made the slightest error, and was a trifle
more exact than I wished him to be. On my first journey I carried a
bottle of cough-mixture to relieve a cold from which I happened to be
suffering. The cold had disappeared, and the bottle was empty before my
second trip to Tokio; but my faithful servant wrapped it carefully in
paper, and put it in a safe corner of my valise, and continued to do so
every time I repeated the excursion."
The boys were all anxiety to take a walk through the streets of Yoko-
hama, and could hardly wait for the Doctor to arrange matters with the
hotel-keeper. In a little while everything was determined, and the party
went out for a stroll. The Doctor led the way, and took them to thl
Japanese portion of the city, where they were soon in the midst of sights
that were very curious to them. They stopped at several shops, and
looked at a great variety of Japanese goods, but followed the advice of
the Doctor in deferring their purchases to another time. Frank thought
of the things he was to buy for his sister Mary, and also for Miss Effie;
but as they were not to do any shopping on their first day in Japan, he
did not see any occasion for opening the precious paper that Mary had
confided to him previous to his departure.
They had a walk of several hours, and on their return to the hotel
were quite weary enough to rest awhile. Frank and Fred had a whis-
pered conversation while the Doctor was talking with an old acquaint-
ance ; and as soon as lie was at liberty they told him what they had been
We think we want to write home now, Doctor," said Frank, "and
wish to know if you approve of our doing so to-day."
By all means," replied the Doctor, with a smile ; it is time to begin
at once. You are in a foreign country and there are plenty of things to
write about. Your information will be to a great extent new and inter-
esting to your friends, and the reasons that I gave you for not writing a
long letter from Niagara do not exist here."
THE B'Y TRAVELLERS.
"I thought you would say so," responded Fred, his eyes sparkling
with animation, and I want to write while everything is fresh in my
mind. I am going to write at once."
And so am I," echoed Frank ; "here goes for a letter to friends at
Off the boys ran for their writing materials, and in a little while they
were seated on the balcony of the hotel, and making their pens fairly fly
over the paper.
Here is the letter from Frank to his mother:
"YOKOHAMA, August 4th, 1878.
"MY DEAR MOTHER :
I wish you could see me just now. I am sitting on the veranda of
the hotel, and Fred is at the table with me. If we look up from our paper,
we can see out upon the bay, where lots of ships are at anchor, and where
a whole fleet of Japanese fishing-boats are coming up and dragging their
nets along after them. Down in the street in front of us there are some
funny-looking men with trousers as tight as their skins, and making the
GROUPS OF MUSICIANS AND FISHERMEN.
men look a great deal smaller than they are. They have hats like small
umbrellas, and made of plaited straw, to keep the sun off, and they have
them tied down under the chin with cords as big as a clothes-line. Doc-
tor Bronson says these are the lower class of Japanese, and that we
haven't seen the fine people yet. There are three musicians, at least they
are called so, but I can't see that they make much that I should call music.
One of them has on one of those great broad hats, another has his head
covered with a sort of small cap, while the third has his skull shaven as
smooth as a door-knob. The man with the hat on is blowing a whistle
and ringing a small bell, the second is beating on a brass plate with a tiny
drumstick, while the third has a pair of clappers which he knocks togeth-
er, and he sings at the same time. Each of them seems to pay no atten-
tion to the rest, but I suppose they think they are playing a tune. Two
of them have their legs bare, but they have sandals on their feet, held in
place by cords or thongs. The man with the hat must be the leader, as he
is the only one that wears trousers, and, besides, he has a pocket-book hung
to his girdle. I wonder if they make much money out of the music they
are playing ?
A couple of fishermen just stopped to look at the musicians and hear
the music. One had a
spear and a net with a
basket at the end, and the
other carried a small rod
and line such as I used
to have when I went out
for trout. They didn't
have much clothing,
though nothing but a
jacket of coarse cloth and
a kilt made of reeds.
Only one had a hat, and
that didn't seem to
amount to much. The
bareheaded one scowled
at me, and I think lie
can't be very fond of
foreigners. Perhaps the '
foreigners deserve to be
scowled at, or, at any ratc,
some of theil do. JAPANESE FISHERMEN.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
We have seen such lots of things to-day-lots and lots. I can't be-
gin to tell you all in this letter, and tire is so much that I don't know
where to commence. Well, we went into some shops and looked at the
things they had to sell, but didn't buy anything, as we thought it was too
soon. One of the shops I liked very much was where they sold silk. It
wasn't much like a silk-shop at home, where you sit on a stool in front of
a counter and have the clerks spread the things out before you. In this
shop the silk was in boxes out of sight, and they only showed you what
you asked for. There was a platform in the middle of the shop, and the
clerks squatted down on this platform, and unrolled their goods. Two
women were there, buying some bright-colored stuff, for making a dress,
I suppose, but I don't know. One man sat in the corner with a yardstick
ready to measure off what was wanted, and another sat close by him looking
on to see that everything was all right. Back of him there were a lot of
boxes piled up with the goods in them; and whenever anything was wanted,
he passed it out. You should have seen how solemn they all looked, and
how one woman counted on her fingers to see how much it was all coming
to, just as folks do at home. In a corner opposite the man with the yard-
stick there was a man who kept the accounts. le was squatted on the
floor like the rest, and had his books all round him ; and when a sale was
made, he put it down in figures that I couldn't read in a week.
Then it was ever so funny to see the men bowing to each other; they
did it with so much dignity, as if they had all been princes, or something
of the sort. They rest their hands on their knees, and then bend the
body forward ; and sometimes they bend so low that their backs are level
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
enough to set out a tea-service on ancuse them for a table. When they
want to bid good-bye, they say Sayonara,' just as we say Good-bye,'
and it means exactly the same thing. They are not satisfied with one
bow, but keep on several times, until you begin to wonder when they will
get through. Everybody says they are the politest people in the world,
and I can readily believe it if what I have seen is a fair sample.
"There have been several men around the hotel trying to sell things
to us, and we have been looking at them. One thing I am going to get
and send in this letter is a box of Japanese pictures. They are not photo-
graphs, but real drawings by Japanese artists, and printed on Japanese
paper. You will see how soft and nice the paper is; and though the pict-
ures look rough, they are very good, and, above all things, they are truth-
ful. I am going to get as many different ones as I can, and so I think
you will be able. to get a good idea of the country as the natives see it
themselves. They have these pictures showing all their ways of life-how
they cook their food, how they eat it, how they work, how they play-in
fact, how everything is done in this very curious country. The Japanese
make their drawings with very few lines, and it will astonish you to see
how much they can express with a few strokes of a pencil. Here is a
A JAPANESE PILLOW.
picture of a horse drawn with seven strokes of the artist's finger-nail dip-
ped in ink, and with a few touches of a wide brush for the mane and tail.
Do you think my old drawing-master at home could do the same thing ?
"The pillows they sleep on would never do for us. A Japanese pillow
is a block of wood with a rest for the head, or rather for the neck, as the
head doesn't touch it at
all, except just below the
ear. It is only afew inch-
es long and high, and is
perfectly hard, as the lit-
tle piece of paper they
put on it is intended for .
make the pillow soft.
You can't turn over on
one of them, and as for
doubling them up to
throw at another boy, it
is quite out of the ques- FEMALE HEAD-DRESS.
tion. I shall put in a
picture of a Japanese woman lying down with her head on one of these
curious things. The women have their hair done up so elaborately that
they must sleep on something that does not disturb it, as they can't afford
the time and trouble for fixing it every morning. You'll find a picture
of their head-dress in the lot I send with this; but it is from a sketch by
a foreigner, and not by a native.
"Perhaps you will want to know something about the weather in Japan.
It is very warm in the middle of the day, but the mornings and evenings
are delightful. Around where
we are the ground is flat, and
the heat is greater than back
among the hills. People re-
main as quiet as possible dur-
ing the middle of the day; and
if you go around the shops at
THE SIESTA. that time, you find nearly ev-
erybody asleep who can afford
to be so. The Japanese houses are all so open that you see everything
that is going on, and they think nothing of lying down in full sight of
the street. Since the foreigners came to Yokohama, the natives are some-
92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
what more particular about their houses than they used to be; at any
rate, it is said so by those who ought to know. The weather is so warm
in summer that the natives do not need to wear much clothing, and I sup-
pose that is the reason why they are so careless about their appearance.
In the last few years the government has become very particular about
having the people properly dressed, and has issued orders compelling
them to put on sufficient clothing to cover them whenever they go out of
doors. They enforce these orders very rigidly in the cities and large
towns; but in the country the people go around pretty much as they used
to. Of course, you understand I am speaking of the lower classes only,
and not of the aristocracy. The latter are as careful about their garments
as the best people in any other part of the world, and they often spend
hours over their toilets. A Japanese noble gotten up in fine old style is a
sight worth going a long distance to see, and he knows it too. Ile has a
lot of stiff silks and heavy robes that cost a great deal of money, and they
must be arranged with the greatest care, as the least displacement is a
serious affair. I haven't seen one of them yet, and Doctor Bronson says
we may not see any during our stay in Japan, as the government has
abolished the old dress, and adopted that of Western Europe. It is too
bad that they have done so, as the Japanese dress is very becoming to the
people-ever so much more so than the new one they have taken. Japan
A JAPANESE AT HIS TOILET FOR A VISIT OF CEREMONY.
AN IMPORTANT DISCOVERY.
is fast losing its national characteristics, through the eagerness of the
government to follow Western fashions. What a pity! I do hope I
shall be able to see one of those old-fashioned dresses, and won't mind
how far I have to go for it.
"Now, mother, this letter is addressed to you, but it is intended for
everybody; and I know you'll read it to everybody, and have it handed
round, so that all can know where I am and what I have told you about
Japan. When I don't write to each one of you, I know you will under-
stand why it is,-because I am so busy, and trying to learn all Ican. Give
my love to each and every one in the family, and tell Mary she knows
somebody outside of it that wants a share. Tell her I often think of the
morning we left, and how a handkerchief waved from the railway station
when we came away. And tell Mary, too, that I haven't yet opened her
list of things I am to get for her; but I haven't forgotten it, and have it
all safe and right. There are lots of pretty things to buy here; and if she
has made a full catalogue of Japanese curiosities, she has given me enough
to do for the present-and the presents.
"Good-night, dear mother, and look for another letter by the next
Your loving son,
Fred finished his letter almost at the same moment that Frank affixed
the signature to his own. By the time they were through it was late in
the evening, and the hour for retiring to bed. Their sleeping-places were
exactly such as they might have found in any American hotel, and they
longed for a view of a Japanese bed. Frank was inclined to ask Doctor
Bronson to describe one to them, but Fred thought it would be time
enough when they went into the interior of the country and saw one.
They were up early the next morning, but not as early as the Jap-
"I tell you what," said Frank, "I have made a discovery."
"What is it?"
"I have been thinking of something to introduce into the United
States, and make everybody get up early in the morning."
"Something Japanese ?"
"Yes. Something that interested us yesterday when we saw it."
Well, we saw so many things that I couldn't begin to guess in half
an hour. What was it ?"
It was a pillow."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
"You mean those little things the Japanes sleep on "
"Yes; they are so uncomfortable that we couldn't use them with any
sort of pleasure. Nobody would want to lie in bed after he had waked
up, if he had such a pillow under his head. He would be out in a minute,
and wouldn't think of turning over for another doze.
"Now, if our Congress will pass a law abolishing the feather pillow all
over the United States, and commanding everybody to sleep on the Jap-
anese one, it would make every man, woman, and child get up at least an
hour earlier every day. For forty millions of people this would make a
gain of forty million hours daily, and that would be equal to forty-five
thousand years. Just think what an advantage that would be to the
country, and how much more we could accomplish than we do now.
Isn't it a grand idea ?"
Fred thought it might be grand and profitable to the country, but it
would be necessary to make the pillows for the people; and from what he
had heard of Congress, lie didn't think they would vote away the public
money for anything of the sort. Besides, the members of Congress would
not wish to deprive.themselves of the privilege of sleeping on feather pil-
lows, and therefore they wouldn't vote away their liberties. So he ad-
vised Frank to study Japan a little longer before he suggested the adop-
tion of the Japanese pillow in America.
This conversation occurred while the boys were in front of the hotel,
and waiting for the Doctor, whom they expected every moment. When
he came, the three went out for a stroll, and returned in good season for
breakfast. While they were out they took a peep into a Japanese house,
where the family were at their morning meal, and thus the boys had .an
opportunity of comparing their own ways with those of the country they
A dignified native, with the fore part of his head closely shaven, was
squatted on the floor in front of a little box about a foot high, which
served as a table. Opposite was his wife, and at the moment our party
looked in she was engaged in pouring something from a bottle into a
small cup the size of a thimble. Directly under her hand was a bowl
filled with freshly boiled rice, from which the steam was slowly rising; and
at the side of the table was another and smaller one, holding some plates
and chopsticks. A tiny cup and a bowl constituted the rest of the break-
fast equipment. The master was waited upon by his wife, who was not
supposed to attend to her own wants until his had been fully met. She
sat with her back to the window, which was covered with paper in small
squares pasted to the frame, and at her right was a screen, such as one
A CUP OF SA-KEE.
-l Vi ll 1 1 .`
- j I ,'i
A JAPANESE BREAKFAST.
finds in nearly all Eastern countries. On her left was a chest of drawers
with curious locks and handles, which doubtless contained the family
wealth of linen.
As they went on, after their view of a Japanese interior, Frank asked
what was the name and character of the liquid the woman was pouring
into the glass or cup for her husband.
That was probably sa-kee," replied the Doctor.
And what is sa-kee, please ?"
"It is," answered the Doctor, "a sort of wine distilled from rice.
Foreigners generally call it rice wine, but, more properly speaking, it is
rice whiskey, as it partakes more of the nature of spirit than of wine.
It is very strong, and will intoxicate if taken in any considerable quantity.
The Japanese usually drink it hot, and take it from the little cups that
you saw. The cups hold so small a quantity that a great many fillings
are necessary to produce any unpleasant effect. The Japanese rarely drink
to intoxication, and, on the whole, they are a very temperate people."
Fred thereupon began to moralize on the policy of introducing Japan-
ese customs into America. He thought more practicable good could be
done by the adoption of the Japanese cup-which would teach our people
96 THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
to drink more lightly than at present--than by Frank's plan of introduc-
ing the Japanese pillow. He thought theretwould be some drawbacks to
Frank's enterprise, which would offset the good it could do. Thus a great
number of people whom the pillow might bring up at an early hour
would spend the time in ways that would not be any benefit to society,
and they might as well be asleep, and in many cases better, too. But the
tiny drinking-cup would moderate the quantity of stimulants many per-
sons would take, and thus a great good might be accomplished.
While thus talking, and trying to conjure up absurd things, they
reached the hotel, and soon were seated at breakfast.
During breakfast Doctor Bronson unfolded some of the plans lie had
made for the disposal of their time, so that they might see as much as
possible of Japan.
"We have taken a look at Yokohama since we arrived," said he, but
there is still a great deal to see. We can study the place at our leisure, as
I think it best to make this our headquarters while in this part of the
empire, and then we will make excursions from here to the points of in-
terest in the vicinity. To-day we will go to Tokio."
Can't we go first to Yeddo ?" said Fred ; "I want so much to see that
city, and it is said to be very large."
Doctor Bronson laughed slightly as he replied,
"Tokio and Yeddo are one and the same thing. Tokio means the East-
ern capital, while Yeddo means the Great City. Both names have long
been in use; but the city was first known to foreigners as Yeddo. Hence
it was called so in all the books that were written prior to a few years
ago, when it was officially announced to be Tokio. It was considered the
capital at the time Japan was opened to foreigners; but there were polit-
ical complications not understood by the strangers, and the true relations
of the city we are talking about and Kioto, which is the Western capital,
were not explained until some time after. It was believed that there were
two emperors or kings, the one in Yeddo and the other in Kioto, and that
the one here was highest in authority. The real fact was that the Slho-
goon, or Tycoon (as he was called by the foreigners), at Yeddo was subor-
dinate to the real emperor at Kioto; and the action of the former led to
a war which resulted in the complete overthrow of the Tycoon, and the
establishment of the Mikado's authority through the entire country."
"Then the emperor is called the Mikado, is he not ?"
"Yes ; that is his official title. Formerly he was quite secluded, as his
person was considered too sacred to be seen by ordinary eyes; but since
the rebellion and revolution he has come out from his seclusion, and takes
THE JAPANESE EMPEROR.
TSU KAD OF JAPAN.
MITSUHLITO, MIKADO OF JAPAN.
part in public ceremonials, receives visitors, and does other things like the
monarchs of European countries. lHe is enlightened and progressive, and
is doing all he can for the good of his country and its people.
"The curious feature of the revolution which established the Mikado
on his throne, and made him the ruler of the whole country is this-that
THE BOY TRAVELLERS.
the movement was undertaken to prevent the very things it has brought
"How was that?" Frank asked.
"Down to 1853 Japan was in a condition of exclusiveness in regard to
other nations. There was a Dutch trading-post at Nagasaki, on the west-
ern -coast; but it was confined to a little island, about six hundred feet
square, and the people that lived there were not allowed to go out of their
enclosure except at rare intervals, and under restrictions that amounted to
practical imprisonment. In the year I mentioned Commodore Perry came
here with a fleet of American ships, left some presents that had been sent
,.__-- > -.. 4- C
.\, '-' ^ i "^ ^
LANDING OF PERRY S EXPEDITION.
by the President of the United States, and sailed away. Before he left he
laid the foundation for the present commercial intercourse between Japan
and the United States; and on his return in the following year the priv-
ileges were considerably enlarged. Then came the English, and secured
similar concessions; and thus Japan has reached her present standing
among the nations.
"Having been exclusive so long, and having been compelled against
her will to open her ports to strangers, there was naturally a good deal of
opposition to foreigners even after the treaty was signed. The govern-
ment endeavored to carry out the terms of the treaty faithfully; but there