Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Lecture on a Candle
 Lecture on a Tea-Kettle
 Lecture on Smoky Chimneys
 Lecture on Echoes
 Lecture on Black and White
 Lecture on the Papyrus
 Trades Carried on By Birds, Beasts,...
 How Much are You in Debt?
 Try the Other Way
 Village Idols
 The Shining Hour
 Back Cover

Group Title: New series of fourpenny books for the young ;, 2
Title: Old Humphrey's lively lectures and cheerful chapters
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023510/00001
 Material Information
Title: Old Humphrey's lively lectures and cheerful chapters
Series Title: New series of fourpenny books for the young
Alternate Title: Lively lectures and cheerful chapters
Physical Description: 94, 2 p., 1 leaf of plates : col. ill. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Old Humphrey, 1787-1854
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
Kronheim & Co ( Lithographer )
Publisher: Religious Tract Society
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: c1800
Subject: Christian life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1870   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1870
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Summary: Uncle Humphrey uses common things such as a candle and tea kettle, to teach Edwin Christian principles.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
General Note: Baldwin Library's copy contains inscription dated 1870.
General Note: Illustrations lithographed by Kronheim & Co.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023510
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234448
notis - ALH4880
oclc - 29922950
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Title Page
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Lecture on a Candle
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Lecture on a Tea-Kettle
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Lecture on Smoky Chimneys
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Lecture on Echoes
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Lecture on Black and White
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Lecture on the Papyrus
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Trades Carried on By Birds, Beasts, and Insects
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    How Much are You in Debt?
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Try the Other Way
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Village Idols
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    The Shining Hour
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Back Cover
        Page 105
        Page 106
Full Text
This page contains no text.

!|The Baldwin LibraryQ q"r, UnivmrityofR mB\II^JJ Floridai---..-- ..... .... ..--

*/ : ::; :'i* '.f 'Si' X .00^v- t-f' 6 t'./^ *.^ '*'''"'.'' :^ ~>^i!J( ^ ^ *"* *'**..* '**::'ts,~~~~~~~~~~~~; 1 A/*1 .. ';'."^V An A~df b: ?,,II

This page contains no text.

Atrf^ ,' ,***1';_ ;1E: ''\ ', 1 ; \ ; ^ ^;.-. n'.L:;l~ir*c






LIVELY LECTURESANDCHEERFUL CHAPTERS.LECTURE ON A CANDLE."PLEASE, Uncle Humphrey, you told methat you would, some time, give me a littlelecture on a candle."" Well, Edwin, the promised lecture shallnow be given, and let me tell you that myobject in making you well acquainted withcommon things, is to accustom you toreflect on the things around you. I willnot lose time in asking you questions which,J

OLD HUMPHREY'Safter all, I might have to answer myself;but proceed at once to give you as much in-formation as I can about a candle."" Thank you, uncle. The other day you-were speaking about 'the division of labour,so we may as well divide it now. You shalldo, if you please, all the talking, and I willdo all the listening."" A most unequal division, certainly; butwe will not quarrel about it. A candle, tospeak of it in the plainest way that I can,is a twisted cotton or linen wick, coveredover with tallow, or wax, or spermaceti.At one time there were no better candlesthan strips of wood, or skewers, dipped infat; but these must have burned away veryfast."" What a sight it would be, to see a partyin the parlour, with the room lit up withskewers dipped in fat !""True, Edwin; but, when greasy skewerswere used for candles, there were not many

LIVELY. LECTURES.parlour parties. Commnon candles are made:by dipping the wicks repeatedly into hottallow. Mould candles are made by passingthe wick up a metallic mould, and thenpouring in hot tallow. Wax candles areformed by softening wax in warm water,spreading it flat, and then rolling it round.a wick. The candles are afterwards rolledbetween two flat boards, and made smooth.Spermaceti candles are made of a waxysubstance, obtained from, the whale of thasouthern seas; and some candles are formedfrom cocoa-nut oil. I hardly need tell youthat the use of a candle is to give light in.the absence. of the sun; but now I mustproceed to a few particulars, requiring alittle more thought on your part than whatI have already told you." ." I will do all I can to understand."" Though you may know that wax isobtained from bees, that oil is obtained fromanimal and vegetable substances, and that

8OLD HU MPHREY'Stallow is the melted fat of animals; you maynot know that oil, tallow, and wax areprincipally composed carbon, (charcoal,lamp-black, or coke,) an hydrogen gas (oneof the principal ingedents in water).The heat of the wick, when lighted, bringsout from the tallow the carbon and hydro-gen; and the hydrogen mixing with theoxygen (another gas) of the air, producesflame. A little thought will make this'much plainer to you.""But where does the tallow go, as theeandle burns; for it all goes away withoutanybody seeing it ?"" The heat of the flame melts the tallow,which then rises up through the fine tubesof the wick, and is eaten up by the flame, or,more properly,-changed or dissolved. Thereason why the flame of a candle is hot, is,because it liberates or sets free the latentheat of the air and the tallow. By latentheat, I mean heat that is not perceivable.

99 ..-|LIVELY LECTURES.If you take two cold flint stones, and strikethem together, you liberate the latent heatof the stones and the air, and a spark isvisible.""How very curious that there should beheat, though we cannot feel it !""The flame of a candle is a vary curiousobject: the lower part of it is of a violet, orblue colour, occasioned by the hydrogengas; the upper, where the combustion orflame is perfect, is yellow; and the inside ofthe flame is hollow; or, rather, it is com-posed of vapour not in a state of combus-tion. If the candle were large enough, andyou were to convey through a metal tubea bank of England note into the hollo win the middle of the flame, it would not/ eburned.""I should never expect to see it again.""The flame of a candle points upwards,because the surrounding air, being heated,rises rapidly, and takes the flame up withA 2ii4: fJ;-: fIE XAA I: :.X

OLD HUMPH-REY Sit. The upper part of the flame, being morelively, and lighter than the other part, cannotresist the pressure of the surrounding air;it is therefore pressed, or pinched up, intoits taper form."" I cannot make out how you discover allthese things.""A little reading, observation, and re-flection soon puts us into possession of agreat deal of knowledge. There is somephilosophy even in puffing out a candle,for if you blow it gently, you rather feedthe flame than otherwise, by driving freshair into it: but if you blow it sufficientlyto separate the flame from the wick, it goesout for want of support, or supply.""That never entered my head before.""When you put an extinguisher over acandle, the flame soons burns the oxygenwithin it, and when that is done the flamegoes out for want of more. If you use anextinguisher made of paper, it is just the

LIVELY LECTURES.11same, for the flame will go out and not burnit.""I should have thought it would haveburned it directly.""The smoke of a candle is composed ofthe small particles that fly off without beingperfectly consumed. The reason why acandle requires snuffing is because the heatof the flame is not great enough to burn thewick. If you leave a common candle burn-ing for some time without snuffing it, thereis soon a sort of black cauliflower appear-ance at the top of it, occasioned by im-perfectly burned particles that have notbeen carried off into the atmosphere inthe shape of aime.""Oh, there is one thiing I wanted to askyou. The other night Mary stuck a pinthrough a 'rashilght, and the flame wentout when it came to the pin: what was thereason ?""The pin being metal, and a good con-

12 OLD HUMPHREY'Sductor of heat, robbed the wick of the heatof the flame; that was the reason. One ofour great writers has very prettily said,How far the little candle throws his beams!So shines a good deed in a naughty world.And now I must leave you by yourself, thatyou may think over what I have told youabout candles."I "i

LIVELY LECTURES.13LECTURE ON A TEA-KETTLE."UNCLE HUMPHREY, yOU have given me alecture on the candle, I wish you wouldnow give me one on the tea-kettle. I havejust been into the kitchen, and seen Marymaking the water boil in the kettle, readyfor tea.""Willingly, Edwin; nor do I think thatyou have chosen a bad subject, though itmay at first appear to be an odd one. Therewill be, too, this advantage in such a lecture,that, as I can give it you while we have ourtea, we shall always have the tea-kettlebefore us. You will have no objection, Idare say, to my beginning directly."

14OLD HUMPIREY'S"No; that is just what I should like.""The tea-kettle now simmering by thefire is an article of very general usefulness;but, though every one is familiar with itsappearance and use, very few, in compa-rison, at all understand the several points,or particulars, it presents to a thoughtfulmind."" Mention as many of them as you can,mncle.""First, then, the material of which it ismade. It is required to endure the heat ofthe fire, and is therefore formed of a hardmetal that will not melt. Then, as to itssize; for, though kettles are made of allsizes, the most useful one holds a consider-able quantity of water to supply the tea-table. Nor is its shape unimportant; forthe water in it must be boiled without beingtainted by the smoke, and the kettle mustbe easy to fill, pleasant to handle, and con-veniently formed to Dour outthe water "

LIVELY LECTURES.15"Not one of these things have I everthought of before."" Every one knows, that before the waterboils, it simmers; but how few know whatsimmering or boiling is, and what occasionsit."" I do not, I am sure.""The simmering of a tea-kettle is a slightshaking, or trembling, on the surface of thewater; and it is occasioned by the particlesof water low down in the kettle being turnedinto steam by the heat of the fire. Thissteam shoots up in bubbles, which burstbefore they come to the top of the water;for the upper water, being colder than thelower water, condenses the steam bubblesinto water again: myriads of small bubblesbursting in this way occasion the simmer-ing."" But what is the difference between sim-mering and boiling ?"'"In simmering, as I told you, the steam-

16OLD HUMPHREY'Sbubbles burst before they come to tne surface;but, in boiling, the water is too hot to con-dense' the steam-bubbles, they therefore allrise to the surface.""But why does not the water make thesame noise in boiling as in simmering ?""Because in boiling it is turned intosteam, and finds a vent through the spout:I will try to explain it to you. Suppose anumber of people were in a house, and youamong them, when a fire broke out in thecellar, what should you do ?""Do! why get out of the house directly.""No doubt you would be willing to doso; but what if the door happened to befastened on the outside ? ""Qh, then I would get through the win-dow.""Suppose there were no windows, or thatthey had been all bricked up ? ""In such a case, rather than stop in thehouse, I would try to get up the chimney."

LIVELY LECTURES.17"Exactly so; and this is the case withthe steam; for as the door, or opening tothe kettle, is closed by the lid, it rushesup the chimney or spout of the kettle, andmakes its escape."" Well, that is very plain. Is steamalways as white as when it comes out ofthe spout of the kettle ? "" Steam is of no colour, for it is invisible.What we see, is the steam when the colderair has condensed it into vapour, or mist.It is the same with our breath in coldweather; for though it is not usually visible,we then see it very distinctly, as it comesfrom our mouths.""Thank you, for making it so plain tome. But there is another thing that I wantto know. As soon as the water boils in atea-kettle, it runs over, if the lid is loose;what is it that makes the water run over?"" Water consists of small particles, which,like air, expand when heated. If, therefore,

OLD I{UMPHREY'Sthe kettle be full when the particles are of Itheir natural size, it can no longer containthem when they are rendered larger by heat.No wonder, then, that the kettle should boilover.""Very true. The other day, when sittingby the fire, the loose lid of the tea-kettlemade a rattling noise, but I could not findout what was the cause. How it did puzzleme! I was obliged to give it up at last;but I made up my mind to ask you all aboutit."" This rattling noise is more frequentlymade by the lid of a pot, or boiler, than bythe lid of a tea-kettle, and for this reason-the pot, or boiler, has no spout to let off thesteam. The steam, in struggling to get out,lifts up the lid; but losing a little of itspower by the colder air, it is no longer ableto sustain it. The lid then falls down of itsown weight. Again the steam lifts it up,and once more it comes down; and so long

wLIVELY LECTURES. 19as this battle between the steam and theloose lid continues, so long is the rattlingnoise heard." A boy named James Watt sat quietly bythe fire one evening, doing nothing butwatch the tea-kettle lid 'dance,' as it wasmoved up and down by the steam from theboiling water. He did not say anything,but he was thinking how much power theremust be in steam if it could move the heavylid. He kept thinking about it; and yearsand years after, when he was a man, hemade important improvements on the steam-engine, that can do as much work as a greatmany horses, just by the steam of boilingwater moving wheels and rods, that movemachinery in their turn. So when you seesteam-mills, steam-boats, and railroad cars,you may consider how much we are indebtedto the man who thought about a tea-kettlelid.""I do wonder how you can know all these

OLD HUMPHREY'Sthings. What would I give to be as wise asyou are.""I hope, Edwin, that some day you willbe much wiser than I am, and be disposedto turn all your knowledge and wisdom tothe good of others, and to God's glory. Ithas been said, that by a Christian mindevery subject may, in one way or other, beturned to a good account; and I think thesaying is a trru one. Our subject, the tea-kettle for instance, should remind us thatwe are indebted for the luxury of tea toidolaters. If then they, heathens as theyare, have done so much for Christians, whatcan Christians do for them? There areseveral hundred millions of them bowingdown to stocks and stones; can we, then,make them a better return than by puttingthem in our prayers, and doubling ourefforts to send them, in every shape wecan, the Holy Scriptures and religioustracts; that they may learn to cast their

LIVELY LECTURES. 21idols to the moles and to the bats, and toknow the Saviour of sinners, whom to knowis eternal life. Thoughts such as these arealways suitable to the tea-table, but theyought on no account to be overlooked ingiving a lecture on a tea-kettle. Let thisbe our inquiry-What Christian plan can I pursueTo serve the heathen, Turk, or Jew ?How shall I best the Lord adore,And love and praise him more and more?"

OLD HUMPHREY'SLECTURE ON SMOKY CHIMNEYS."You said, Uncle Humphey, that one ofthese days you would give me anotherlecture, and that it should be on smokychimneys ? ""I did, Edwin; and if you can renderany good reason why I should do it now,you shall at once have my lecture.""Then I will give you two reasons: yousaid, yesterday, that we ,ahould always fulfilour promises as soouas possible; and thatwhat we can Edo to-ey ought not to be putoff till to-morriw.'"There is also another ewaon; your sisterMary is now with us, and she, whilst knit-ting, can listen to what we are talking about.

LIVELY LECTURES.23You shall not wait another minute, for Iwill begin now; only let me just ask you,if you know what smoke is, and why it goesup the chimney at all ?""Oh, smoke is-is-smoke; and it goesup the chimney because the chimney ismade for it to go up.""Your answer is far from being the bestthat might be given, and the latter part ofit reminds me of a boy who, when askedwhat was the use of flies, said, to be foodfor spiders; and when asked for whatpurpose spiders were made, replied, whyto eat up the flies, to be sure.""Then you must please to tell me, uncle,instead of asking me questions.""Perhaps that will be the better mode.Smoke, then, is formed of very small parti-cles of coal, which, though separated fromthe larger lumps by combustion or flame, arenot consumed; and the reason why smokegoes up the chimney is, that the air passing

OLD HUMPHREY'Sinto and over the fire, becoming lighter bybeing heated, ascends and carries the smokeup the chimney."" It seems very simple and plain, when weknow it.""So do most things, however they mayhave puzzled us before. As the smoke as-cends it meets with resistance from thecolder air, and the different currents, andthus it is turned round and round; but Imust tell you why some chimneys smoke.""Yes; I want to know what makes themsmoke, and how they are to be cured.""A chimney is very apt to smoke if it isdamp, no fire having been used in the gratefor some time; or, when it is cracked andout of repair; or, when it is too wide at thebottom; or, when the flue or funnel, thepart through which the smoke passes, isvery short; or when the top of the chimneyhas higher objects near it; or when thereare two fires in the same room, the one

LIVELY LECTURES. 25robbing the other of the air; or in gustyweather: but a frequent cause why chimneyssmoke is, because the room in which the fireis burning is not sufficiently supplied withfresh air.""If you had been a builder, you couldhardly know more about chimneys. Butyou have not made it plain to me why achimney smokes in all these cases.""I will tell you. Remember, it is theheated air that takes the smoke up thechimney, and the hotter it is the morerapidly it ascends. If, then, the chimneybe damp, the heated air is so much chilledthat it will not carry up the smoke. It isthe same when there is a hole or a crackin the chimney, or when the chimney istoo wide at the bottom.""Why does the chimney smoke when theflue is short ?""The higher the smoke ascends when theflue is hot, the faster it goes; therefore, the

OLD HUMPHREY'Shigher the flue the fiercer the draught.*When the flue is short the fire is sluggish,the smoke never acquires its full speed, andthe wind and the rain have more influenceover a short funnel than they have over along one.""I can tell why the chimney smokes ingusty weather; it is because the wind blowsthe smoke down again: but I do not knowwhy a chimney smokes for want of freshair."" Listen. If you take a spadeful of earthfrom the garden, you leave a hole: but ifyou take a pitcher of water from a pond,you do not leave a hole; because the sur-rounding water runs into the void spaceand fills it up. It is just the same withair; the moment a part is taken away, thatmoment other air supplies its place. Doyou not see, then, that if the heated airgoes up the chimney, the fresh air, if theroom is not otherwise supplied, will come

LIVELY LECTURES.27down the chimney to supply its place, andin coming down it will, of course, bringdown the smoke with it.""I understand it better now; but howis a smoky chimney to be cured ? ""In the same way that a doctor cures hispatient. He first finds out his disease, andthen prescribes medicine according to thecase: if a chimney be only damp, the fireof itself will soon cure it: if it be out ofcondition, it must be repaired: if too wideat the bottom, it must be somewhat en-closed; and if too short, it must be builtup higher.""But suppose there is not air enough tosupply the fire, what can be done then ? "" If sufficient air does not come into theroom through the key-hole, and under andabove the door, the best of all modes is, Ibelieve, to have a pipe carried under thefloor, with one end open to the air outsidethe house, and the other end opening by

28OLD HUMPHREY'Sthe hearth near the fender; fresh air willthus be supplied, without occasioning adraught through the room. There are fewsmoky chimneys that might not be curedby a prudent application of these rules. Iwill finish my lecture by telling you a story.Abel Grove had a smoky chimney: it madehim cross, his wife cross, and their lodgercross; so that little comfort was to be foundin the cottage, night or day. Put a slateor two at the top of your chimney, if youwant to cure it,' said a slater. 'Slates willnever do,' said a glazier, there must be awhirligig in the window.' 'Neither slatesnor whirligigs will keep your chimney fromsmoking,' said a bricklayer, you must haveit bricked up closer at the bottom.' PoorAbel was so puzzled by these differentopinions that what to do he did not know.'Listen to me, Abel,' said old AbrahamIreland, 'try the slate plan first, for that isthe easiest and the cheapest; the whirligignext, and if both fail, it will bertime enough

LIVELY LECTURES.29to employ the bricklayer.' Abel had a slateor two put on his chimney, and it mendedthe draught a little; he had a whirligigfixed in his window, and that mended thedraught more; but when the bricklayer hadsomewhat enclosed the fire-place, the smokychimney was thoroughly cured. Abel wasagain good-tempered, his wife was good-tempered, and the lodger was good-tempered,and the cottage was one of the most comfort-able habitations in the village. It is a wisecourse in a difficulty to listen to advice, toturn it over in our minds, and, if it appearsgood, to act upon it, not rashly, but pru-dently. This mode of proceeding may beput in practice on a hundred occasions; forP it will lighten a care and lessen a troublequite as well as it will cure a smokychimney.""Thank you, uncle, thank you. I willtry to remember the lecture, and I feel sure*that I shall not soon forget your tale of theI smoky chimney."

OLD HUMPHREY'SLECTURE ON ECHOES."UNCLE HUMPHREY, Mary and I have beenon the high hill opposite the Common, andhalfway up the hill as you turn round towardsthe rocks. When you call out, there is sucha beautiful echo ""Yes, Edwin, I have heard it myself;and not only is the echo interesting, but theDwarf Holes too. I have thought more thanonce of taking you with me, that we mightexplore them together.""That I should like very much indeed;but there is something that I want you todo now. Will you please to give me j'.littlo lecture on echoes ? "

LIVELY LECTURES."On echoes! Let me see. You shouldhave given me notice, that I might haverevived my memory a little. However, Iwill do my best.""I am not afraid of your telling me agreat deal, if I can only get you to begin.""Before I speak of echoes, it will benecessary to give you some conception ofsound. You must always remember, Edwin,that in my little lectures, I by no meansundertake to tell you all about the subjecton which I treat. I only tell you what Ithink you can comprehend. When you areolder, we must go deeper into our subjects:but a little lecture is best suited to a littleboy.""Yes, that it is. I almost always under-stand you when you try to explain anythingto me; and I dare say that I shall under-stand what you tell me about echoes. Soundis a noise, is it no;:""Certainly; sound is a noise; but that

OLD HUMPHREY'Sgives no explanation. Sound is usually saidto be produced by the vibration or tremblingof some sounding substance, imparting motionto the air, and causing sound-waves. Whenthese waves strike against the drum of theear, or, in other words, box our ears, wehave the sensation of sound.""What a boxing of ears there must bewhen a peal of bells is ringing !""True; and, as you have mentioned abell, I may as well tell you, that when abell is struck by the clapper, if you put yourfinger on it, it will directly cease to sound,because by so doing you put an end to thevibrations, which occasioned the waves inthe air.""I am glad that I mentioned the bell.""When a trumpet is blown, or cymbalsare clashed together, or a drum is beaten,the tremulous motion of the instrumentsoccasions the sound-waves that I spoke of.But now let us come to the echo. Sound

IIVELY LECTURES.33travels, as I told you, like waves of water-When a stone is thrown into a pond, itoccasions circles in the water; the nearerthe place where the stone made the plunge,the deeper and more plain are the circles;while those which are more distant are butfaintly seen: it is the same with sound.The nearer the place whence the soundcomes, the more forcibly is the air agitated;while the more distant air is but faintly putin motion. Whenever a sound-wave strikesfully against any object, it is flung backagain, like a wave of water beaten backfrom a rock: the beaten-back sound is amecho.""But why, then, are there not echoeseverywhere; for there are, in almost alplaces, hills or houses, or something else farthe sound to strike against ? ""True; brt it is not enough to strikeagainst it, unless it strike against it fullyand is beaten back. The Dwarf Holes giveB

1:34 OLD HUMPHREY'San echo, because the sound that enters themstrikes fully against the rock at the end ofthem, and cannot escape. Caverns, andhills, and icebergs, and large buildings-such as castles and churches-are the mostcelebrated for echoes.""But how is it, uncle, that, when we talkin a room, we do not hear an echo; for thesound must then go right against the walls?""True; but to produce an echo the airmust be put in motion with some force; andthen I ought to explain to you that soundtravels so swiftly (as much, and indeed morethan a dozen miles a minute) that, unlessyou are at a distance from the object whichoccasions the echo, the original sound andthe echo mingle together at the samemoment, so that you hear but one sound.Unless you are at least sixty-five feet fromthe object that gives the echo, you cannothear it.""How very curious What is the rea-

LIVELY LECTURES.35son that, in some places, there are severalechoes ? ""Because the sound beaten back fromone object strikes fully against another; butevery succeeding echo becomes fainter andfainter as the air is less agitated.""I shall be sure to go again to the hillopposite the Dwarf Holes.""I have heard very fine echoes near thelake of Bala in Wales, and among the rocksof Nant Frangon, and the ivy-hung walls ofOld Tintern Abbey, as well as in Scotland.It is said that there is an echo near Milan,in Italy, that will repeat a cry fifty-sixtimes; and, if a gun is fired, it sounds justlike the running fire of a company of soldiersat their exercise.""That must be something like an echo!Fifty-six times over ""There are few echoes that affect themind more than those produced by thewaves of the mighty deep dashing against

36OLD HUMPHREY'Sthe hollow rocks that resist their furtherprogress. These echoes seem to repeat thelanguage of ocean waves, as though theywould say, Great is the Lord, and worthyto be praised. The sea is his, and he madeit, and his hands formed the dry land.'" It is related that, near the ancient fortressof Dunstaffnage, in Scotland, once the abodeof Scottish kings, there is a rock at no greatdistance from the ruins of a small chapel,once used by the soldiers of the garrison.On this rock a traveller was once standing,when he heard, as he thought, from the oldruined' chapel, the solemn sound of praiseand prayer in Gaelic, the language of theHighlanders of Scotland; but though hewent to the building, and examined everypart of it, no person was there to be found,This much amazed him.What voice disturbs the calm of eve,Where nought but ruined walls appear ?Can fancy thus the sense deaive,Or are they mortal tones I hear ?

LIVELY LECTURES. 37"Afterwards, however, he discovered thatthe sounds came from a pious pedlar, whowas sitting behind the very rock on whichhe had been standing. The sound had beenbeaten back by the old walls of the chapel,and thus caused the echo. But I must nowconclude my lecture. Oh, that more echoesgave back the praise of the Redeemer!May England loud her hallelujahs raise,And grateful nations echo back the praise."

38OLD HUMPHREY'SA SHORT LECTURE ON BLACKAND WHITE."UNCLE, I want to puzzle you.""Do you, Edwin ? I am very muchobliged to you; but suppose, instead of yourpuzzling me, I were to try to puzzle you:would not that do quite as well ?"" No; for I should not be half so likely tofind out your puzzle as you would be to findout mine.""Well, then,, ief Yu tik so, proposeyour puzzle.""I passed yesterday by the side of thepond, where the people were sliding andskating, and the landscape was covered with

LIVELY LECTURES.snow; but to-day there was a thaw, and thesnow had all melted away in the churchyard,but not on the two flat stones near the yew-tree, for there it lay an inch deep. Pleaseto tell me, if you can, why the snow did notmelt on the gravestones."" Simply because the stones are of a lightercolour than the ground.""But what difference could that make?Surely one colour cannot be warmer thananother ?""Dark colours absorb heat more readilythan light colours, and therefore are warmer.The following scale will let you know theorder in which colours are colder: black,violet, indigo, blue, green, red, yellow, andwhite. Black is the warmest, and white thecoldest colour.""How very odd! But all dark-colouredthings are not warmer than those that arelighter.""Certainly not. A red-hot poker is

OLD HUMPHREY'Swarmer than a black piece of coal, but thatis owing to other causes than its colour. Allsubstances and colours vary, among otherthings, in these three particulars: some re-fect heat more than others-that is, theythrow it back; some absorb it more thanethers-that is, they receive it, and do notsoon part with it; and some are good con-nuctors of heat-that is, they receive itreadily, and give it away readily.""But how do you know that black iswarmer than white? A black piece ofeloth feels to me no warmer than a whitepiece."" There are endless differences in thingswhich are not set forth in a sufficient degreeier us either to see, hear, smell, taste, or feelthem. Though you may not feel any dif-ference between cloth of opposite colours,yet if two pieces of cloth, the one black andthe other white, are laid on snow, in a littletime the snow under the black cloth will be

LIVELY LECTURES.41melted, while the snow under the other willremain a much longer time unchanged.The reason of this is, the black cloth receivesthe heat of the sun in a greater degree thanthe white cloth, and thereby melts the snow.""I see now: the white cloth and thewhite gravestone act in the same manner.""Exactly so: as the white tombstoneabsorbs so little heat, it remains too cold tothaw the frost or the snow on its surface.""How hot negroes must be in theircountry; for they are black all over."" No doubt they are hot enough beneaththe beams of an African sun; but if theirskins were white instead of black, it wouldbe worse for them.""Why, you said, uncle, that black wasthe hottest colour, and white the coldest."" I did, Edwin; but I said too, that blackabsorbs heat, and white does not. The black,or colouring matter, is not in, but under theouter coat of the skin; so that, by absorbing

42OLD HUMPHREY'Sheat, it conveys it beneath the skin, pro-ducing sensible heat and perspiration, andthereby defending it from being scorched.White will not absorb heat; the hot sun,therefore, rests on the surface of the skinand scorches it."" How very curious !""If a negro's eyes were not black, theywould receive the sun's rays without absorb-ing them, so that when much exposed blind-ness would follow.""How very good God is to the negro !"" He 'is good to all: and his tender mer-cies are over all his works.' (Ps. cxlv. 9.)When glittering suns are shining bright,When all the world is wrapped in night,In summer, winter, spring, and fall,The Lord is good and kind to all."Perhaps, Edwin, I can make you under-stand how heat acts on black and white inanother way. Black kid gloves are not

LIVELY LECTURES.43pleasant to wear in summer, for they absorbthe heat of the sun, and hold it, and theywill not allow the heat of the hand toescape: for these reasons they are too hotfor summer wear.""My summer gloves are thread, and mtkid."" Yes; they are made of Lisle thread, andare of a grey colour. They do not absorbthe heat of the sun, but they do absorb per-spiration, and thus conduct away the heat dfthe hand.""A black glove, then, is warmer than awhite one.""It is; but if you were to wear whitegloves in burning hot weather, it would bea mistake.""Why, uncle? If white is colder thablack, I should think that a white glovewould be the very thing in hot weather.""If, when the sun has great power, yoawere to put a black glove on one hand, and

44OLD HUMPHREY'Sa white glove on the other, the hand in theblack glove would feel the hotter, but thehand in the white glove would be scorchedthe most.""For what reason? I should havethought the hand that felt the hottest wouldhave been the most scorched.""The black glove holds the heat morethan the white one, and thereby defends thehand. The white glove, by not holding theheat so readily, allows it to fall upon theskin and scorch it."" I wish I knew as much as you do, uncle:it must be very pleasant to understand thereason of everything. I will try to re-member all that you have told me. Darkcolours take in the heat readier than thelight ones, and are on that account warmer.A negro's skin is not blistered, because theblack colour conducts the heat of the sununder it. Negro's eyes, if they were notblack, would be very likely to go blind.Light-coloured thread gloves are cool be-I

LIVELY LECTURES.cause they do not absorb heat, and becausethey take up perspiration; and a black glovefeels hotter than a white one in a burningsun, but it defends the hand better frombeing scorched, because it holds the heatinstead of letting it go to the skin."" You seem to have paid attention, Edwin,to most of the points that I touched upon;but one of them, I fear, you have forgotten.""Have I? Is it about the colours, thetombstone, the negro, the cloth, or thegloves ?""Neither, Edwin. It is the goodness ofGod, not only to the negro, but to all thingsbeneath his care.""Oh yes, uncle. I ought not to haveforgotten that.""The more we know of him, the morereason shall we have to praise him.On earth below, in heaven above,We read a record of his love:His wondrous works and holy wordProclaim the goodness of the Lord."

OLD HUMPHREY'SLECTURE ON THE PAPYRUS."LooK, uncle, look!" cried Edwin, runninginto the study one day, upon his return fromschool. "We have had our examinationthis morning, and see what I have broughthome as a reward."Uncle Humphrey looked up, and saw inhis nephew's hand a book nicely bound, withgilt edges; and on the back of it he read, inletters of gold, "The Traveller; or, Won-ders of Nature and Art.""I do love a book!" said Edwin, watch-ing his uncle while he turned over theleaves and glanced at the contents of hisprize. "And that seems to be so very en-

LIVELY LECTURES.47tertaining; for I could not help peepinginto it now and then as I came along thestreet.""It is a happy thing for you, my boy,"said his uncle, " that you live in times whenbooks are numerous, and easy to be ob-tained. Four hundred years ago, when theart of printing was only just discovered, abook was a treasure indeed.""Ah I am glad I was not born in thosedays," answered Edwin. "How many dullhours I must pass, if there were no books;for, even if it were good for me, I could notalways be at play. I am sure I am muchobliged to Gutenberg and Faust, who werethe first inventors of printing, and aboutwhom I was reading the other day.""True," said his uncle; "nor must ybuforget your obligations to your own country-man, William Caxton, who set up the firstprinting-press in England, as long ago asthe reign of King Edward the Fourth.

48OLD HUMPHREY'SAgain, as knowledge and skill of differentkinds are required for the perfection of book-making, I think you owe something to thepaper-manufacturer, the ink-maker, thebinder, and to the author who furnishes yourbook with its contents.""Well," said Edwin, smiling, "I thankthem with all my heart for the pains theyhave taken to please me. And I am gladyou happened to mention paper, uncle, for itreminds me of something which puzzled meon the day that you took me to the paper-mills. I had not an opportunity of askingyou to explain it at the time, and afterwardsit went out of my head. You said thatpaper, like ours, was quite unknown topeople in ancient times; and I cannot makeout how they could contrive to write withoutpaper, or something of the kind.""Without paper !" repeated Uncle Hum-phrey; "did my words convey such ameaning ? Think again."

LIVELY LECIURESEdwin reflected for a moment. "Yousaid paper like ours-I did not think of that.So, then, I suppose they had some of a dif-ferent kind.""Yes: the paper that we use is madefrom linen rags, and was unknown in theearly ages, though its manufacture has nowbeen carried on throughout Europe duringsome hundreds of years. There were, how-ever, many other substances from whichpaper was formerly made; such as the innerbark of trees, and their leaves, especiallythose of the palm-tree: but the most ancientpaper was that of Egypt, which is known tohave been in use for centuries before thebirth of our Saviour. This kind of paperwas probably that upon which Alexander theGreat and the Roman emperors wrote; forit formed an extensive branch of commercewith the Egyptians, and was sent by themto France, Italy, and other European coun-tries. The only material employed for the

50 OLD HUMPHREY'SEgyptian paper was a kind of reed whichgrew on the banks of the Nile, and in themarshy grounds that were caused by theyearly overflowing of the river. It wascalled the papyrus; from which name theword paper is derived.""A reed, did you say, uncle ? How verystrange! They must have been cleverpeople-those Egyptians! How high didit grow, I wonder ?""To the height of eight or ten feet; orevei higher, according to the statement ofBruce, a famous traveller, who wrote a veryinteresting account of this reed, which hehad often seen along the borders of the Nile.He had a book in his possession with leavesof the papyrus, the binding also being madefrom the woody part of the plant."" How I should like to have such a bookBut you have not told me from what partof the papyrus the Egyptians made theirpaper "

LIVELY LECTURIES.51"It was from the stalk, which theydivided, with a kind of needle, into thinstrips, like pieces of ribbon. Having cutr these strips to the length which was desiredfor the paper, they laid them upon a smoothtable; other pieces were placed across them,and when the whole had been moistenedwith water from the Nile, a weight was putupon it, and it was left to dry in the sun."" What a strange method !" said Edwin."No doubt the Egyptians greatly valuedtheir papyrus.""They had good reason to do so," repliedhis uncle, " for it had many uses besides thatwhich I have mentioned. The root waslarge and strong; very firm and hard, likewood; and you may imagine that it wouldbe serviceable for many purposes. Fromthe stems, compactly woven together, theboats of the Egyptians were made; and ves-sels of papyrus are mentioned in the Scrip-tures, though another word is used to describe

OLD HUMPHREY'Sthem. Perhaps you will be able to guessthat other word, when I tell you that in alittle boat of papyrus, among the flags onthe brink of the Nile, a tender infant wasonce found by an Egyptian princess."" Oh, uncle surely you must mean littleMoses in the ark of bulrushes! Was theark really made of the papyrus ?""Yes; the papyrus is many times spokenof in Scripture by the name of bulrush:other writers also describe the Egyptianships and vessels of the Nile as being madeof this valuable substance. Let us turn tothe eighteenth chapter of Isaiah," continueduncle Humphrey, putting his hand upon aBible which lay beside him. " Here we findit written, 'Woe to the land shadowingwith wings, which is beyond the rivers ofEthiopia: that sendeth ambassadors by thesea, even in vessels of bulrushes upon thewaters.'"" Thank you, dear uncle, for this inforna-

LTVETLY LECTURES..53tion ;" said Edwin. "I shall try to remem-ber all that you have told me about thepapyrus."r "Remember, also," said his uncle, "thatas the means of acquiring knowledge arenow offered to you on every side; as theimportant discoveries which have been madehave removed the difficulties there were informer times in the path of learning,-soyou should seek with all diligence to im-prove. Above all, you should praise Godfor the precious gift of his own most holyWord; and pray, that as it is now sent tothe east and to the west, to the north and tothe south, carrying in its pages the tidingsof salvation to all the world-that it may beknown, and read, and believed, until theRedeemer shall be glorified by every peoplebeneath the sun, and the earth be 'filledwith the knowledge of the Lord, as thewaters cover the sea.'"

OLD HUM1PHREY'STRADES CARRIED ON BY BIRDS,BEASTS, AND INSECTS."PLEASE to tell me something to amuse me,uncle, will you? for I am so tired.""But if you are so tired, Edwin, whatlikelihood is there of your listening to mewith attention ""Oh, I will not lose a word. I shouldnever be tired of hearing you talk.""Well, if I am to talk to amuse you, itmust be about something entertaining. Sup-pose I tell you of the trades which are car-ried on by the lower creatures ?""Trades! Why how can they carry on

LIVELY LECTURES.any trade ? Do you mean to say that beastsand birds, and such like, carry on trade ?""You shall hear. The fox is a dealer inpoultry, and a wholesale dealer too; as thefarmers and farmers' wives know to theircost."" That is true, certainly."" Not satisfied with ducklings and chickens,he must needs push on his trade among thefull-grown cocks and hens; and many agood fat goose is conveyed to his storehousein the woods.A wily trader in his wayIs Reynard, both by night and day."The otter and the heron are fishermen,though they make use of neither a line nora net. It is not very often that we catchsight of the otter, for he carries on his tradefor the most part under the water; but the, heron is frequently seen, standing with his>long thin legs in the shallow part of thej

OLD HUMPHREY'Sriver, suddenly plunging his lengthy billbelow the surface, and bringing up a fish.You cannot deny that the heron and theotter are like good fishermen."" No, that I cannot; but never should Ihave thought of it, if you had not told me."" Ants are day-labourers, and very indus-trious too in their calling: they always seemin earnest at their work. Catch them asleepin the daytime if you can. They set us anexample of industry.Ants freely work without disguise:Their ways consider, and be wise.""Go on, uncle; I am not half so tired asI was."" You seem all attention, certainly, Edwin.The swallow is a fly-catcher; and the numberthat he catches in a day would quite astonishyou. Often have you seen him skimmingalong the surface of the brook and the pond.""Yes, that I have; and swallows are asbusy as ants, I think.""The beaver is a woodcutter, a builder,

LIVELY LECTURES. 57and a plasterer; and is a good workman iall these trades. He cuts down the smalltrees with his teeth, and after he has builthis house he plasters it skilfully with histail."" Well done, beaver! iHe seems to outdoall the rest."'"The wasp is a paper-maker, and hemakes his paper out of materials that noother paper-maker would use. If ever youshould examine a wasp's nest, you will findit all made of paper.""What many curious things there are inthe world that I never thought of!""Singing birds are musicians, and no-other musicians can equal them in harmony.Hardly can we decide which has the advan-tage-the lark, the blackbird, the throstle,o the nightingale.On feathery wing they freely rove,And wake with harmony the grove."The firefly and the glowworm are lamp-

58 OLD HUMPHREY'Slighters. Fireflies are not seen in thiscountry; but, abroad, they light up the airjust as the glowworms do the grassy andflowery banks in country places here.""Yes; I have seen them. I shall notforget the lamp-lighters.""The bee is a professor of geometry; forhe constructs his cells so scientifically, thatthe least possible amount of material isformed into the largest spaces with the leastwaste of room. Not all the mathematiciansat the University could improve the con-struction of his cells.""The bee is much more clever than Ithought he was."" The caterpillar is a silk-spinner, and farbefore all other silk-spinners in creation.For the richest dresses that we see, we areindebted to the silkworm. With what won-derful properties has it pleased our HeavenlyFather to endow the lower creatures!"" I shall be made wiser to-day, uncle, thanI have ever been before."

LIVELY LECTURES. 59"The mole is an engineer, and forms atunnel quite as well as if he had been in-structed by the most clever men of science.The nautilus is a navigator, hoisting andtaking in his sails as he floats along thewater, and casting anchor at his pleasure.The jackal is a hunter, and the monkey thebest rope-dancer in the world."" ell done, uncle; you have amused me,indeed. I could listen an hour longer with-out being tired.""And now, as you are learning all youcan as a scholar, let me advise you to set upat once the trade or calling of a school-master, by teaching with humility and kind-ness those around you who may happen toknow less than yourself. We all should becarrying on .the calling of a schoolmaster,teaching others by precept and example,Without a rod, or angry word,To love and glorify the Lord."

OLD IIUMPHREY'SHOW MUCH ARE YOU IN DEBT?ONE day little Edwin came into my count-ing-house just as I was putting up my books-the day-book, the journal, and the greatledger; so I playfully put the latter lightlyon his head. Edwin cried out to have ittaken off again, for that was more than hecould bear. No sooner was the great ledgerput up in its proper place than the followingconversation was carried on:-" How much money you must owe people,uncle; or what a great deal they must oweyou, for such a big book to be wanted asthat to keep the accounts in. Why it isbig enough to put down thousands andthousands."

LIVELY LECTURES.61" It is hardly fair to judge by the size ofmy books, Edwin; for different people havedifferent plans of book-keeping. I knowsome people who are very deeply in debt,and yet they keep no books at all.""Indeed! that must be a very bad plan.Well! nobody owes me anything, and I oweno one a penny in the world.""I am not quite sure of that; indeed,when I said there were people deeply indebt who kept no books, I meant to includeyou among them."" What, uncle, do you think I am in debt ?I paid my sister the shilling she lent me,and now I owe no one a single farthing.""A great deal of mischief is done in theworld by bad book-keeping, and I am ratherafraid that Edwin has fallen into some sadmistakes. What if, after all you have said,I should find out that you are over head andears in debt ? What would you say then ?""I see that you are joking; but nobodyA

1ffZo OLD HUrMPHREY' Scan make it out that I am in debt, for I oweno one anything.""That being the case, you can have noobjection to my inquiring a little into youraffairs."" Not at all, uncle; you may ask me whatquestions you please. Say what you like,you will not bring me in debt.""Very well! We will see. Take yourplace there beside me, while I play the partof an accountant. I might bring in yourfather's account for seven years' food, cloth-ing, lodging, and education: for which hemight fairly charge you a few hundredpounds, but I will pass this by.""Oh! I never thought of such things.""And for that very reason it is my dutyto think of them in examining your affairs;for, as I told you before, I am afraid youhave committed mistakes. Your two prin-cipal creditors are your earthly father andyour Heavenly Father. What you owe toiJ

LIVELY LECTURES.63the former is not worthy of being mentionedin comparison of what you are indebted tothe latter. If your earthly father make anjwrong charge you can correct him.""I begin to see that I shall soon be puz-zled.""You are indebted to your Heavenly Fatherfor life, with all your senses of seeing, hear-ing, feeling, tasting, and smelling. Now,tell me truly, would you part with these fora thousand pounds?""No, uncle Nor for ten thousand! ""That being the case, we shall not do youany great injustice in charging your accountwith ten thousand. Next comes your under-standing-including reason, thought, judg-ment, memory, fancy, and all other powersof the mind. We may venture, perhaps, tomake the same charge as before."" If you go on in this way I shall owe morethan the richest man in the world has in hisiron chest."

OLD HUMPHREY'S"Gently, Edwin, gently! I have but justbegun the account of your debts, and havea very long list to go through. No doubtyou set some value on the faculty of speech.I hardly think that you would willingly bedumb for a trifle.""Dumb! No, not for all the money in theworld !""Then this item will swell up your debtgreatly. But what shall we put down foryour health ? For what sum would you partwith health, and agree to be racked withpain, and bed-ridden all your days ?"" Uncle! I never heard of such a thing;health is above all price.""Then we must put down a high price inyour account. What shall we say for friends ?I will put as low a sum as you like; but youmust remember that your mamma, papa, andyour sister, are included.""Put down just as much as you please,uncle; for you cannot make it more thanthey are worth to me."

LIVELY LECTURES. 65"I hardly know what to charge you foryour Bible, though when we consider that'all scripture is given by inspiration ofGod, and is profitable for doctrine, forreproof, for correction, for instruction inrighteousness,' we must not estimate itlightly."" What a debt you have brought in againstme ""There cannot be many wise and goodmen in the world, who do not put a veryhigh value on God's holy day. If I chargeyou with three hundred Sabbaths, with alltheir sermons and prayers, and all theirquietude and peace, they will amount to nosmall sum.""You forget nothing, uncle; you bringeverything into my account.""I ought to do so in rendering a just ac-count ; but what say you will be a propercharge for a throne of grace, and the hope ofglory through Him who died on the cross,the only true and sufficient sacrifice for sin ?C

OLD HUMPHREY'SWhy, Edwin, if you had a thousand worlds:o give in payment, it would be as nothingcompared with a Saviour's love."" I believe so, uncle: what a debt you havebrought against me! There is no need foryou to put down anything more; for, insteadof owing nothing, I seem now to owe every-thing.""But, if I leave off here, the balance willbe greatly against you; for you will be likethe servant who owed his Lord a sum of tenthousand talents, and he had not wherewith.to pay it. Let me see how the accountstands as far as we have proceeded. Youare indebted for life, understanding, speech,health, friends, the Bible, some hundreds ofSabbaths, a throne of grace, and the hope of:glory through our Lord and Saviour JesusChrist, worth more, as you acknowledge, thana thousand worlds, and to pay it you havenot ten thousand farthings.""I see now that you are right; and that

LIVELY LECTURES. 67many are very deeply in debt, though theykeep no books at all. You will never againhear me say that I owe nothing.""I hope not, Edwin; I heartily hope not:for we are every one of us in debt, beyondour power of payment, and all that we cando is to acknowledge the goodness, forbear-ance, and love of our Heavenly Father. Verysuitable to our situation is the language ofthe hymn:-Oh! to grace how great a debtorDaily I'm oonstrain'd to be;Let that grace now, like a fetter;Bind my wandering heart to theeProne to wander, Lord, I feel it,Prone to leave the God I love;Here's my heart, oh, take and seal it,,Seal it from thy courts above."

68OLD HUMPIHREYVSFIREWORKS.IT was the fifth of November, and a dark andgusty night, when the boys from the schoolassembled round the fire which they had madeon the waste ground. Having obtained leavefrom their master to have a fire, they hadbegged faggots and logs of wood from thefarmers near, and had fixed a pole in theground that they might let off their fire-works to advantage.Hardly ever are boys happier than whenengaged in letting off fireworks; thoughthis is an amusement that requires greatcare. Many a haystack and barn have beenburned down, through carelessness in lettingoff fireworks; but on this occasion, JacobMoore, a steady, careful, wise old man, who

LIVELY LECIURES.69lived in the village, and who was a favouritewith the young people, was with them; notonly to see that no mischief was done, butalso to help them in their amusement.The wood was nice and dry, the fire flaredup beautifully, and the darkness only madethe fire and the bright light the more plea-sant. Many a beaming face was gatheredround the blazing pile.Fearful, aged, and infirm people wouldmuch rather sit within doors, with curtainsdrawn and shutters closed, by the warm fire,than venture into the open air on a blusteringnight to stand round a bonfire; but whatwould a boy say, were we to try to persuadehim to remain in the house. "Oh!" hewould say, "it is the fifth of November! itis the fifth of November !" and gladly wouldhe sally forth in spite of cold, or fog, ordarkness.Away he would go, on this noisiest nightof the whole year, to join his companionsgathered round the burning pile. The wind

OLD HUMPHREY'Smight blow the smoke in his face, and blacksmuts might fall upon him; but what wouldhe care for smarting eyes and a begrimedcountenance ? The curling up of the brightflame, and the glittering sparkles from theburning log, would make him more thanamends.It was just so with the young people fromthe school; for they were as happy as a bon-fire and pleasant pastime could make them.At one time a cracker was held to a piece ofburning wood, and then flung into the dark-ness at a distance, where it burst, andbounced, and flashed in its zigzag course,half a dozen times, to the great delight ofthe boys.Then a squib was lighted and thrown intothe air, where it mounted up hissing like aserpent, and sparkling in its course, till itburst with a loud report.Then a wheel was fastened to the pole bymeans of a large pin, and soon it was seenturning rapidly round, flinging out fiery

LIVELY LECTURES. 71sparkles, changing its colour, and burstingout afresh when it seemed to be altogetherspent. Oh, it was a happy night, that fifthof November; but for all that, it could notlast so long as the noisy group wished it tolast. The time came when the fireworks hadbeen let off, and the fire was getting low.There is, after every noisy joy, a -sort ofunpleasant stillness; and though the boyskept up their spirits as well as they could,now and then striking the red logs of wood,that a flare-up of sparkles might follow, theywould.have been sadly at a loss had it notbeen for old Jacob Moore, who much amusedthem by describing the fireworks that he hadseen and heard of in his day.He began by saying he had no great lovefor fireworks, as they were dangerous an&expensive sport, and there were better waysof boys enjoying themselves, than by squibsand crackers. Many accidents, he told them,had occurred through wild and careless con-duct. He, however, went on to tell them of-

72 OLD HUMIPHIREY'Sa grand display of fireworks at which he waspresent, when peace was proclaimed in Lon-don, nearly forty years ago. "Oh!" saidhe, "you would have been delighted, boys,to see the rockets rushing into the air, adozen of them together, and mounting upseemingly to the very skies by streams offire, leaving bright trains behind them, untilthey burst up above, flinging out a cluster ofsparkling stars, and pouring down a showerof golden rain."Then there were Roman candles of alarge size, pouring out coloured fire, andthrowing about red, purple, yellow, andgreen stars; and golden flower pots, maroonsto imitate cannon, Bengal lights, makingthe whole place as bright as if the sun wereshining at noonday. There were, too, bal-loons throwing glittering shells, and foun-tains of different coloured fires, and Katharinewheels of surprising beauty; but the lastfirework was the best of all."I

LIVELY LECTURES.73The young people here gathered closerround Jacob Moore, as he went on in hisdescription." The last firework was made to imitate aburning mountain. First came the blacksmoke, then the bright flames, then the hotburning lava flowed down the mountain side,and lastly, the glowing stones and cinderswere shot up high into the air. What withthe cinders, the flowing lava, the blue andred flame, and the black smoke, it was anastonishing sight."Before the party broke up, old JacobMoore delighted the young people, by tellingthem of a grand display of fireworks, of whichhe had lately read, which took place amongthe Chinese."The Chinese are famous," said Jacob," for fireworks; on a late occasion they hada fine collection. They displayed a vinearbour which burned without consuming-the trunk, branches, leaves, grapes, burnedin their proper colours. After this had de-c2r4A

74OLD HUMPHREY'Slighted the spectators, another piece wasbegun. A dozen cylinders discharged animmense number of rockets, which formedthemselves into stars, serpents, and flyingdragons. This magnificent scene was followedby a grand discharge on all sides of a showerof fire, with which was intermixed globe-shaped lanterns, with sentences written onthem. Then ascended a display of fireworksin the shape of pillars formed of rings oflight, which seemed for a moment to turnnight into day. At last the grand displaytook place; the Chinese dragon appeared inall his glory, surrounded by ten thousandwinged creatures, standards, and banners,and suddenly upon his back appeared thefigure of the emperor in blue lights. Thesesuccessively changed to yellow, and lastly tothe most intense white. A roar of tenthousand reports now shook the air-a canopyof green arose over the figure of the em-peror, from the midst of which a volcano ofrockets was shot aloft."

LIVELY LECTURES.75All the assembled group thought theChinese must be a very clever people. "Why,yes!" said old Jacob, looking grave, "nodoubt they are clever in many things; but,for all this, they are greatly to be pitied, forthey bow down to idols, and believe not inthe Saviour. The only way to salvation,"he continued, "is by faith in Jesus Christ,who died for sinners on the cross; but ofthis the poor Chinese know nothing. Ohwhat a thing it would be, even if they knewless than they do about fireworks, if theywere acquainted with the grace and thegoodness of God! Do not forget to praythat your eyes and your hearts may be openedto holy things, and that your names may bewritten in the book of life."The bonfire was nearly out as Jacob finishedhis remarks, so he spread about the few re-maining pieces of glowing wood that theymight soon be extinguished, and walkedaway with the youthful throng.

76OLD HUMPHREY'STRY THE OTHER WAY."TRY the other way, Peter," said UncleHumphrey, to a servant man who had a letterto deliver, "for you see the house is a strangehouse to you, and the front door may answerbetter than the back. The nearest way isnot always the best way in going throughthe world. I once, to save a little time,made straight for the back door of a farm-house, but, before I reached it, the house-dogfrom a kennel which I had not seen, reachedme, tearing my trousers and stocking withhis teeth. Try the other way, Peter." -A little prudent thought is necessary atall times, but especially when we are insituations which are new to us.

LIVELY LECTURES.77" Cannot I take a short cut through thisnarrow alley ?" asked a porter with a heavyload on his shoulder. " You can," repliedUncle Humphrey, "but if I were you Iwould try the other way, for I am not quitesure that you can get out at the other end.I once went that way, and got half a bucketof dirty water thrown over my clothes by awoman who was washing her house. Begpardon,' said she, and then slammed to thedoor. After all, I found a gate at the endof the alley, with a padlock on it; so, if Iwere you, I would try the other way."The experience of one often saves anotherfrom much disappointment and vexation;how willingly, then, should we listen to theexperience of such as are wiser than our-selves. He who will walk in by-paths mustexpect, now and then, to meet with dis-appointment."Try the other way," said Uncle Hum-phrey, to ene who was brutally beating his

78OLD HUMPHREY'Shorse, because he would not pass a black andwhite post which somewhat scared him. "Itis a case where kindness will answer betterthan cruelty. Get off your horse, soothe hisruffled temper, pat him on the neck insteadof lashing his sides, lead him gently to thepost, going to it yourself first to give himconfidence. Do this, and you will have butlittle trouble with him. Nothing can beclearer than this, that you are going wrongnow; do try the other way."It becomes us all to practise kindness toman and beast, for we have much need of itourselves. " Blessed are the merciful, forthey shall obtain mercy." (Matt. v. 7.)"I cannot make out how it is," said onewho was rich, and striving with all his heartto get richer; " do what I will, I cannot sleepat night. Why, often and often, I hear theclock strike almost every hour, from thetime I go to bed till the time I get up inthe mormng. I eat well and drink well,

LIVELY LECTURES.79why should I not sleep well? I must go tothe doctor about it.""Hardly do I think that necessary," saidUncle Humphrey; "I would try anotherway. Strive after contentment instead ofhankering after money, and you will sleepwell enough, I have no doubt; but he whowill, at any rate, be rich, must make up hismind to hear the church clock strike in thenight, for God's Word says, The sleep of alabouring man is sweet, whether he eat littleor much: but the abundance of the rich willnot suffer him to sleep.'" (Eccles. v. 12.)The servant-man going round to the backof the house to deliver his letter; the portertaking a short cut through the narrow alley;the cruel rider lashing his afrighted horse;and the rich man about to eanslt his doctorbecause he could not sleep at night, are onlya few of the many instances in which peoplewould act wisely in trying the other way.One thing is certain, that though we may

80 OLD HUMIPHREYJ8err in a thousand ways, we shall commit noerror in fearing the Lord and keeping hiscommandments, for-Whether the path be darl or light,The distance short or long;This is the way that guides us right,And cannot lead us wrong.

I.VELY TECTTRES.81VILLAGE IDOLS.OLD Hannah Price, who lived in the littlecottage at the entrance of the village, had atortoiseshell cat, of which she was so fondthat it seemed to occupy half her time.Not content with feeding her cat with thedaintiest bits she could get for her, she puta red collar round her neck, and placed acushion for her to lie on before the fire. Tosuch a ridiculous length did old Hannahcarry her fondness, that she never could behappy when her favourite was out of hersight. She wasted her time in attendingto her, and pinched herself in her food topamper her appetite. The blacksmith saidthat if the cat had been a Christian, old

82OLD HUMPHREY'SHannah would not have paid it half so muchattention. Hannah Price's cat was heridol.Richard Parker, the wheelwright, by thevillage green, had a pointer dog, and suchanother dog, in his opinion, was not to befound in the world. To speak the truth,Parker's pointer was a fine fellow ; broad in,he chest, strong in the limbs, and with askin snowy white marked with liver-colouredblotches; he was just the dog to have hispicture taken; but for all this RichardParker acted but a silly part in being so fondof him. When Parker was within doors thedog was within doors; and when he wasout of the house, his pointer was out too.Wherever Parker went, the dog went. Manyan hour were they roving about together bythe brook side, or in the fields, or on the com-mon, when Richard ought to have been busilyoccupied in his business. Many of the vil-lagers said he paid more attention to his dog.4

LIVELY LECTURES.83than he did to his wife and children. RichardParker thought it a foolish thing for HannahPrice to be so fond of her tortoiseshell cat;but he saw no folly in his being equally fondof his pointer. Parker's dog was his idol.Miss Timmins, at the Tan House, hada pet parrot that her sailor brother hadbrought her from the Brazils. The birdhad certainly very beautiful plumage, butthe squalling that it made from morning tonight was anything but agreeable. Theparrot had been taught by her mistress torepeat a few sentences, and "Poor Poll!"" How do you do ? " " What o'clock is it ?"and "I can't get out!" were heard everyhour of the day, and almost every minute ofthe hour, from breakfast to tea time. MissTimmins loitered away most of her morningswith her bird. She could find time to teachit to talk, but she could not find time tovisit her sick neighbours. She wonderedmuch that Richard Parker should idle away

84 OLD HMP'HREY'Shis time with his dog, but she did not won-der at all that she herself should squanderstill more time on her pet parrot.Madam Bolton, at the High Grange, hadan excellent garden, and being very fond offlowers, no expense was spared by her intheir cultivation. It was really beautiful tohear her talk, and then she would wind upher remarks with a text of Scripture."Even wild flowers," she would say, "areentitled to our best attention. Considerthe lilies, how they grow: they toil not,neither do they spin: and yet I say untoyou, that even Solomon in all his glory wasnot arrayed like one of these.'" The worstof all this was, that while she talked muchabout the clothing of the lilies, she did verylittle towards the clothing of the poor. Sheexpended a great deal more money on tuliproots than she did in charity. Madam Boltonwas heard many times to exclaim againstMiss Timmins for her foolish fondness for

LIVELY LECTURES.her parrot, but no one ever heard her onceexclaim against her undue partiality for hergarden.Squire Brindley, at the Hall, who wasvery rich, took it into his head to new pewthe church, and put up new tablets in thechancel. Comfortable seats are doubtlessvery desirable, and the ten commandmentscan hardly be too plain to our eyes, or toodeeply graven on our hearts; but the evil ofit was this, that Squire Brindley was puffedup with pride by what he had done. It woulabe hard to say whether or not he had everread the words-Who builds a church to God, and not to fame,Will never mark the marble with his name.But if he had, he was not at all disposed toheed them, for though he did not have hisname graven on marble, he had it printed inletters of gold in the very front of the singinggallery, with an account of the church having

86 OLD HUMPHREY'Sbeen new pewed, and the chancel furnishedwith commandment tablets, at his sole ex-pense. Wherever he went he was soundinghis own trumpet, and boasting of his owngood deeds. He often expressed his surprisethat Madam Bolton should be so proud of hergarden; but it never occurred to him thathis own pride on account of what he haddone to the church was equally great, andeven still more censurable.But are there no Hannah Prices, RichardParkers, Miss Timminses, Madam Boltons,and Squire Brindleys, in the town and city,as well as in the country ? None who clingfondly to follies, or who allow favourite pur-suits to engross their time and resources,which ought to be devoted to more worthyobjects? So far from this, I am afraid thatthey are to be found everywhere. What sayyou, my young readers; are there none suchto be seen among you?On those tablets that Squire Brindley set

LIVELY LECTURES.87ip in the chancel of the church, the firstcommandment was, " Thou shalt have noneother gods but me;" but, unmindful of thiscommandment, he had been setting up hisidols there; for when he attended Divineservice, he thought much more of his pewsand commandment tables than he did of hisHeavenly Father. In this sense, then, every-thing which draws away our hearts fromGod, and prevents us from the discharge ofthe duties he enjoins, is an idol, whether itbe an animal, a garden, or any other thing.Have you any idol in your hearts ?You may not have a tortoiseshell cat, apointer dog, or a pet parrot, to tempt you totrifle away time, which is more precious thandiamonds; you are not, I dare say, expendingin tulip roots what ought to be devoted tocharity, or to useful purposes; nor do I atall suspect that you have been pewing achurch or chapel, or setting up the com-mandments there; and yet there may be

188 OLD HIUMPIREY'Sother things which are unduly absorbingyour attention, and leading you astray.Think not that I am without sympathy forthe lowlier creatures which God has made.I love them, and would have them treatedkindly. Suppose not that I have no delightin a garden; on the contrary, few peoplerevel in one more joyously than myself; andimagine not that I would be a niggard inaught that appertains to the house of God.Willingly would I have it to be so comfortableand desirable a place to go to, that noneshould stay away from it, but all go withgladness of heart to offer up their thanks-givings and praises to Him, who manifestedhis love towards us in sending his onlybegotten Son into the world, that we mightlive through him; but I would have no idolsor foolish pets. Be kind to dumb creatures;enjoy what the Giver of all good has merci-fully bestowed upon you, and be liberal inall things, especially in holy things; but, in'I

.IVELY LECTURES. 89the midst of them all, " fear God, and keephis commandments."There are some young people who thinkthat every idol must resemble the goldenimage set up by Nebuchadnezzar, or besomething like Baal, or Dagon, or Moloch,of old times; but this is a mistake, as youmay gather from the village idols of whichI have told you. Give your hearts toGod, and say to him, with humility andsincerity-Try me and cleanse me, Lord, in every part,And leave no idol in this erring heart.

",0OLD itUMAPTI'EY STHE SHINING HOUR."Improve each shining hour."IP I am to improve every shining hour, Ihave quite enough to do, for every hourwhen the sun is in the sky may be said to.bea shining hour; yes, and when the moonand stars shine too: so that whoever will beidle, I must be as busy as a bee.It is a shining hour when the sun rises, forI have seen it-manya time. At first there isonly a little light iin dthe:east, but it growsbrighter by degrees, till the sun appears andgilds heaven aail :arth i with glory. Thebirds begin to sing,fhe breeze gently wavesthe top branches of-the trees, and the hilland the valley seem to rejoice.

LIVELY LECTURES.'91The rising sun, with glory bright,Bids me in duty's paths delight.It is a shining hour when the sun is in the' middle of the sky, throwing his bright beamsdirectly down upon everything. You cannotlook at him, he is so bright. Yes, that isa shining hour, for you are glad to get intothe shade out of the glare. The mid-day sundrinks up the vapours, infuses life throughthe creation, calls forth myriads of insects tocome forth and be happy. .It makes the hay,opens the flowers, ripens the fruit and thegrain, and sets forth the power, the wisdom,and goodness of God. The sun in:his mid-day mightis is indeed a glorious orb. AndOh may we, in our homeward -wy,Shine more and more to perfect Av.It is a shining hour when the sun sets, forthen he seems bigger than he was before,and makes the clouds look so-glorious, thatyou might almost weep with jayto behold

92OLD HUMPHREY'Sthe sight. What sunsets have I seen! whatglowing skies of yellow, red, and blue Nopicture in the world is fit to compare with it.We are apt to think that when the sun sets,he has done his day's work, whereas he hasonly gone to bid the other side of the worldrejoice.The fading day and setting sun,Declare how swift my moments run.It is a shining hour when the moon andstars are in the sky, and all things are quietand peaceful. Then is the time for calmreflection. We call look up without the sunblinding our eyes, and pleasantly trace thesnow-white silvery clouds as they gentlyglide across the sky. How good is God togive us such shining hours! " The heavensdeclare the glory of God, and the firmamentshoweth his handy work."When moon and stars are in the sky,Then let my thoughts beyond them fly.The hour of prayer is a shining hour, for

LIVELY LECTURES.93then, we seem to be nearer to God than atother times. It is a high and a holy thingto be permitted to talk with God; to comeinto the presence of the Saviour, to confessour sins, to thank him for his goodness andhis grace, and to tell him of all our wants,that he may relieve them and take us underhis almighty care. The shining hour ofprayer should indeed be improved, for heart-felt prayer makes us calm, and strengthensus for duty; therefore we " ought always topray and not to faint." I think one of lhebest prayers we can offer is this: "Lord,teach us to pray."O Lord, my heart and soul prepare,To seek thy face with praise and prayer.Sabbath hours are all shining ones, espe-cially those which are passed in God's house,listening to his holy word and learning hisholy will. We are then reminded that weare sinners, and directed to the Saviour," the Lamb of God which taketh away the.,

94 OLD HUMPHREY'S LIVELY LECTURES.sin of the world." Surely the shining hoursof the Sabbath should be improved.Oh, may the day of sacred restBe always prized and always bless'd.What a shining hour that will be, whenthe great multitude that no man can num-ber shall stand before the Lamb, clothed inwhite robes, and holding palms in theirhands! It will be so bright and shiningthat the sun and the moon and the stars willnot be wanted. I have said much aboutshining hours, and if what I have said shouldlead us to improve them more, this will be ashining hour to us both. And with thiswish on his tongue, Old Humphrey bidsyou farewell.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs