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mAfR4ULAR ATTENDANCE GOOD /OND OT ANJkTTEN K -O LE.'OURING THkE NOOD 'P4" ihHEAD TEA HER.LHi d3~~:il~~:iiiiiiiii~
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KIND WORDS AWAKENKIND ECHOES.* '**
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HOWARD AT THE GATE OF THE BASTILLEp"-ge 162l
KIND WORDS AWAKENKIND ECHOES;OR,Illuttrations of the oinwr of 3inbtess." It droppeth as the gentle rain from heavenUpon the place beneath; it is twice blessed-It blesseth him that gives and him that takes."Jonboan:T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW.EDINBURGH; AND NEW YORK.i88o.
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E plan of this volume, as a monitor of lovein illustration of the power of kindness,was suggested originally by an Americanwork, entitled "The Law of Kindness," from whichSsome interesting portions have been transplanted intoSour pages. In some essential points, however, thatwork appeared not only ill adapted for EnglishSreaders, but radically defective, as a practical ex-Sposition of the golden law of love. Hence the pre-Sparation of this volume. It is written as a humble11 but earnest recognition of the sacred maxim, "LetSthe same mind be in us as was in Christ;" and isoffered by the author to his readers in the anxioushope that it may teach many-of them practically torealize the truth of its title, that love begets love;ithat a soft answer turneth away wrath; and thatKIND WORDO AWAKEN KIND ECHOES.
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-----@goutentt.-A.-L THE POWER OF KINDNESS, ... ... ... .. 9U. THE HAPPY HOME, ... ... .. ... 46III. LOVE TO ENEMIES, .. .. ... 81IV. MOTIVES FOR LOVE TO ENEMIES, ... .. ... 110V. PHILANTHROPY, ... ... ... ... ... 152VI. KINDNESS AND JUVENILE DESTITUTION, .. ... 183VII. KINDNESS AND INSANITY, ... ... ... 221VIII. NATIONAL KINDNESS, ... ... ... 239IX. THE REWARD OF PRAOTIAL KINDNESS, ... ... 268X. THE LOVING KINDNESS OF GOD TO MAN, ... ... 271>4+
Bt ; iAer jof tainuns s."The drying up a single tear has moreOf honest fame than shedding seas of gore."BYRON.SHEN the people whom God had selected to bethe inheritors of many blessings, and therace through whom the Messiah shouldcome, were gathered in the wilderness of Sinai, heSgave them a law by which they should be guidedwhile they remained apart from all the other familiesof mankind. This law is embraced in what we stillrecognise as the Ten Commandments. It warns man,as his duty to his neighbour, that he must not wronghim, hurt him, rob him, or kill him: he must not evenSinjure him in his heart by coveting what he possesses.SIt was a divine law, and therefore still remains holy,and binding on all men. But when God himselfappeared among men as the man Christ Jesus, hesIummed up all the old commandments in one perfect
Io The Power of Kindness.law-" Love the Lord with all thy heart, and thyneighbour as thyself." " A new commandment," saidhe, "I give unto you, That ye love one another;" andin. that perfect law of love is summed up all the secondtable of the law. The New Testament -abounds withmaxims in accordance with this new law, which allhearts recognise to be true-" Perfect love casteth outfear "-" Love thinketh no evil"-" Love never fails;"and then that beautiful summary of its full expressionand unlimited extent: "If thine enemy hunger, feedhim; if he thirst, give him drink; so shalt thou heapcoals of fire on his head." We all know the force ofthis method of overcoming evil with good, howeverlittle we may practise it. No triumph can equal thatby which we overcome an enemy with love; and didpeople only sufficiently consider even the mingledfeeling of humiliation and shame which fills the mindof one who has received good in return for evil, theywould know it to be by far the noblest revenge thatman can have.We see, in the spiritual world, the Supreme Beingperfect in benevolence and love, as in all other attri-butes; while opposed to him is a spirit of evil, insti-gating to crime and to all sinful passions, which resultin misery to those who take this enemy of all good fortheir guide. So is it with the human race. Love isthe one characteristic of men which shows their like-ness to God, and revenge and hatred are the passions
The Power of Kindness. 1which prove them to be the servants of the devilMany men have been beautiful examples of the powerof love. It is this spirit that carried Elliot away tospend his life among the poor, ignorant Red Indians,and induced the benevolent Howard to expose himselfto danger and to pestilential contagion, that he mightrescue the most depraved and outcast class of humanbeings. It was love that instigated the good apostleJohn, and led him, in his old age when all the otherapostles were gone to their rest, to exclaim, as heentered the assembly of primitive Christian disciples,"Little children, love one another." He was the dis-ciple that Jesus loved, because he most resembledhimself. But the only perfect example of love everseen on earth was CHRIST. Love constrained him toleave heaven and dwell with men; love induced himto bear human contempt and wrong, to endure humi-liation, suffering, and scorn, while he went aboutcontinually doing good; and love alone at length ledhim to do what none other ever did-to lay down hislife for his enemies. No example of human love canever equal his; yet it is the pattern that we mustfollow, and strive to imitate, if we would wish to behis disciples."Thou shalt not kill!" is one of the old ten com-mandments, which still remains, like all the others, inSforce. But he whose heart is full of love, and who isiguided in all his actions by the law of kindness, will
12 The Power of Kindness.not feel this a difficult commandment to keep. Thereis, however, one way in which a Christian is permittedto kill his enemies. Does the reader ask how I Inself-defence, perhaps, you say. No! it is not that Imean. In war ? No! nor that neither. The way inwhich the Christian should kill his enemy, whether inpeace or war, in retaliation or self-defence, is by makinghim his friend; he is, in fact, to kill him with kind-ness. The mode of doing this can hardly be betterillustrated than by the following narrative, related byMrs Child, as a story founded on fact, ofTHE MAN THAT KILLED HIS NEIGHBOURS.Reuben Black was a torment in the neighbourhoodwhere he resided. The very sight of him producedeffects which may be likened to those said to follow aHindoo magical tune, called Rang, which is supposedto bring on clouds, storms, and earthquakes. His wifehad a sharp and uncomfortable look. His boys seemedto be in perpetual fear. The cows became startled assoon as he opened the barn-yard gates. The dogdropped his tail between his legs, and eyed himaskance, as if to see what humour he was in. The catlooked wild, and had been known to rush straight upthe chimney when he moved toward her. The de-scription of a certain stage-horse was well suited toReuben's nag-" His hide resembled an old hair trunk."Continual whipping and kicking had made him so
The Power of Kindness. 13insensible, that no amount of blows could quicken hispace, no cheering could change the dejected droopingof his head. All his natural language said, as plain asa horse could say it, that he was a most unhappy beast.Even the trees on Reuben's premises had a neglectedand desolate appearance. His fields were red withsorrel, or overrun with weeds. Everything about himseemed hard and arid as his own countenance. EverySday he cursed the town and the neighbourhood, becausethe people poisoned his dogs, and stoned his hens, andshot his cats. Continual lawsuits involved him ih somuch trouble and expense, that he had neither timenor money to spend on the improvement of his farm.Against Joe Smith, a poor labourer in the neighbour-hood, he had brought three suits in succession. Joesaid he had returned a spade he had borrowed, andReuben swore he had not. He sued Joe and recovereddamages, for which he ordered the officer to seize hispig Joe, in his wrath, called him an old swindler,and a curse to the neighbourhood. These remarkswere soon repeated to Reuben. He brought an actionfor slander, and recovered very small damages. Pro-voked at the laugh this occasioned, he watched for Joe"to pass by, and set his dog upon him, crying outSfuriously, "Call me an old swindler again, will you ?"An evil spirit is more contagious than the plague. Joewent home and scolded his wife, boxed little Joe's ears,and kicked the cat; and not one of them knew what it
14 The Power of Kindness.was all for. A fortnight after, Reuben's dog wasfound dead from poison. Whereupon he broughtanother action against Joe Smith, and not being. ableto prove him guilty of the charge of dog-killing, hetook his revenge by poisoning a pet lamb belonging toMrs. Smith. Thus feelings of ill-will were followed bymisery and loss. Joe's temper grew more and morevindictive, and the love of talking over his troubles atthe gin-shop increased upon him. Poor Mrs. Smithcried, and said it was all owing to Reuben Black, for abetter-hearted man never lived than her Joe when shefirst married him.Such was the state of things when Simeon Greenpurchased the farm adjoining Reuben's. This hadbeen much neglected, and had caught thistles and otherweeds from the neighbouring fields. But Simeon wasa diligent man, and one who. commanded well his owntemper, for he had learned of Him who is " meek andlowly in heart." He had been taught by the HolySpirit the evil of his own heart, and been led to ahumble but sure trust in Christ for pardon and sal-vation; and having this hope in him, he sought, bythe aid of the Holy Spirit, to purify himself even asGod is pure, and to walk worthy of the vocation where-with he was called, with all lowliness and meekness,with long-suffering, forbearing-in love.His steady perseverance and industry soon changedthe aspect of things on the farm. River mud, autumn
SThe Power of Kindness. 15leaves, old bones, were all put in use to assist inproducing fertility and beauty. The trees, hithertoov:errun with moss and insects, soon looked clean andvigorous. Fields of grain waved whee weeds hadonly grown before. Roses covered half the house withtheir abundant clusters. Even the rough rock, whichformed the door-step, was edged with golden moss.The sleek horse, feeding in clover, tossed his mane andneighed when his master came' near; as much as toSsay, " The world is all the pleasanter for having you init, Simeon Green!" The old cow, fondling her calfSunder the great walnut tree, walked up to him with aserious friendly face, asking for a slice of beet-rootw which he was wont to give her. Chanticleer, struttingSabout with his troop of plump hens and their downylittle chickens, took no trouble to keep out of his way,but flapped his glossy wings, and crowed a welcome inShis very face. When Simeon turned his way homeward,the boys threw their caps, and ran shouting, " Father'scoming !" and little Mary went toddling up to him,with a flower ready to place in his button-hole. His wifewas a woman of few words, but she sometimes said toher neighbours, with a quiet kind of satisfaction,"Everybody loves my husband that knows him. They: cannot help it."Simeon Green's acquaintance knew that he wasnever engaged in a lawsuit in his life, but they pre-Sdicted that he would find it impossible to avoid it now.
16 The Power of Kindness.They told him his next neighbour was determined toquarrel with people whether they would or not; thathe was like John Lilburne, of whom it was happilysaid, " If the world were emptied of every person buthimself, Lilburne would still quarrel with John, andJohn with Lilburne.""Is that his character T" said Simeon. "If heexercises it upon me, I will soon kill him."In every neighbourhood there are individuals whoSlike to foment disputes, not from any definite intentionof malice or mischief, but merely because it makes alittle ripple of excitement in the dull stream of life.Such people were not slow in repeating Simeon Green'sremark about his wrangling neighbour. "Kill me,will he ?" exclaimed Reuben. He said no more; buthis tightly compressed mouth had such a significantexpression that his dog slunk from him in alarm.That very night Reuben turned his horse into thehighway, in hopes he would commit some depredationon neighbour Green's premises. But Joe Smith, seeingthe animal at large, let down the bars of Reuben's owncornfield, and the poor beast walked in, and feasted ashe had not done for many a year. It would have been"a great satisfaction to Reuben if he could have brought"a suit against his horse; but as it was, he was obligedto content himself with beating him. His next exploitwas to shoot Mary Green's handsome cock, because hestood on the stone wall and crowed, in the ignorant(149). '.
The Power of Kindness 17Sjoy of his heart, a few inches beyond the frontier lineSthat bounded the contiguous farms. Simeon said heSwas sorry for the poor bird, and sorry because his wifeand children liked the pretty creature; but otherwiseit was no great matter. He had been intending to' build a poultry yard with a good high fence, that hishens might not annoy his neighbours; and now he was: admonished to make haste and do it. He would buildSthem a snug warm house to roost in; they should haveSplenty of gravel and oats, and room to walk back andforth, and crow and cackle to their hearts' content;Sthere they could enjoy themselves, and be-out of harm'sway.- But Reuben Black had a degree of ingenuity andperseverance which might have produced great resultsfor mankind had those qualities been devoted to somemore noble purpose than provoking quarrels. A pearStree in his garden very improperly stretched an arm alittle over Simeon Green's premises. It happened thatthe overhanging bough bore more abundant fruit, andglowed with a richer hue than the other boughs. Oneday little George Green, as he went whistling along,picked up a pear that had fallen into his father's garden.SThe instant he touched it, he felt something on theback of his neck like the sting of a wasp. It wasReuben Black's whip, followed by such a storm ofangry words, that the poor child rushed into the houseSin an agony of terror. But this experiment failed also.(149) 2
x8 The Power of Kindness.The boy was soothed by his mother, and told not togo near the pear tree again; and there the matterended.This imperturbable good nature vexed Reuben morethan all the tricks and taunts he met from others. Evilefforts he cduld understand, and repay with compoundinterest, but he did not know what to make of thisperpetual forbearance. It seemed to him there mustbe something contemptuous in it. He disliked Simeonmore than all the rest of the people put together,because he made him feel so uncomfortably in thewrong, and did not afford him the slightest pretext forcomplaint. It was annoying to see everything in hisneighbour's domains looking so happy, and presentingsuch a bright contrast to the forlornness of his own.When their waggons passed each other on the road, itseemed as if Simeon's horse tossed his head higher andflung out his mane, as if he knew he was going byReuben Black's old nag. He often said he supposedGreen covered his house with roses and honeysuckleson purpose to shame his bare walls. But he did notcare-not he! He was not going to be fool enough torot his boards with such stuff. But no one resented hisdisparaging remarks, or sought to provoke him in anyway. The rose smiled, the horse neighed, and the calfcapered; but none of them had the least idea that theywere scorned by Reuben Black. Even the dog had nomalice in his heart, though he did one night chase
SThe Power of Kindness. 19home his geese, and bark at them through the barsReuben told his master the next day, and said hewould bring an action against him if he did not keepthat dog at home. Simeon answered very quietly thati he would try to take better care of him. For severaldays a strict watch was kept, in hopes Towzer wouldSworry the geese again; but they paced home undis-Sturbed, and not a solitary bow-wow furnished excuseSfor a lawsuit.The new neighbours not only declined quarrelling,Sbut they occasionally made positive advances towardsSa friendly relation. Simeon's wife sent Mrs. Black alarge basketful of very fine plums. Pleased with theunexpected attention, she cordially replied, "Tell yourmother it was very kind of her, and I am very muchobliged to her." Reuben, who sat smoking in thechimney corner, listened to this message for once with-out any impatience, except whifling the smoke throughhis pipe a little faster and fiercer than usual Butwhen the boy was going out of the door, and thefriendly words were repeated, he exclaimed, "Don'tmake a fool of yourself, Peg. They want to give us ahint to send a basket of our pears; that's the upshot ofte business. You may send them a basket, when theySripe; for I scorn to be under obligation, especially"4' your smooth-tongued folks." Poor Peggy, whoseheart had been for the moment refreshed by a little act'f kindness, admitted distrust into her bosom, and all
zo The Power of Kindness.the pleasure she had felt on receiving her neighbour'spresent departed.Not long after this advance toward good neighbour-hood, some labourers employed by Simeon Green,passing over a bit of marshy ground with a heavyteam, stuck fast in a bog occasioned by long continuedrain. The poor oxen-were unable to extricate them-selves, and Simeon ventured to ask assistance from hiswaspish neighbour, who was working at a short distance.Reuben replied gruffly, "I've got enough to do toattend to my own business." The civil request thathe might be allowed to use his oxen and chains for afew minutes being answered in this surly tone, Simeonsilently walked of in search of a more obligingneighbour.The men who had been left waiting with' the patientand suffering oxen scolded about Reuben's ill naturewhen Simeon came back to them, and said they hopedReuben would get stuck in the same bog himself.Their employer rejoined, " If he should, we will do ourduty and help him out." "There is such a thing as., being too good-natured," said they. "If Reuben Blacktakes the notion that people are afraid of him, it makeshim trample on them worse than ever.""Oh, wait a while," replied Green, smiling, "I willkill him before long. Wait and see if I do not killhim."It chanced soon after, that Reuben's team did stickdI
The Power of Kindness. 21fast in the same bog, as the workmen had wished.Simeon noticed it from a neighbouring field, and gaveSdirectionp that the oxen and chains should be imme-"diately conveyed to his assistance. The men laughed,shook their heads, and talked about the old hornet.SThey, however, cheerfully proceeded to do as theiremployer requested. "You are in a bad situation,neighbour," said Simeon, as he came alongside thefoundered team; "but my men are coming with twoy oke of oxen, and I think we shall soon manage toiilp you out." " You may take your oxen back again,"replied Reuben, quickly; "I want none of your help."In a very friendly tone Simeon answered, "I cannotconsent to do that; for evening is coming on, and youhave very little time to lose. It is a bad job at any, but it will be still worse in the dark." "Lightr dark, I do not ask your help," replied Reuben,emphatically. "I would not help you out of the bogthe other day when you asked me." But his goodneighbour replied, "The trouble I had in relieving my* oor oxen teaches me to feel for others in the samesituation. Do not let us waste words about it, neigh-hour. It is impossible for me to go home and leaveyou here in the bog, and night coming on."TIhe team was soon drawn out, and Simeon and hismien went away, without waiting for thanks. Whenuben went home that night, he was unusuallyAoughtful. After smoking awhile in deep contempla-
22 The Power of Kindness.tion, he gently knocked the ashes from his pipe, andsaid, with a sigh, "Peg, Simeon Green has killed me!""What do you mean " said his wife, dropping herknitting with a look of surprise. "You know, when hefirst came into this neighbourhood he said he wouldkill me," replied Reuben; "and he has done it. Theother day he asked me to help his team out of the bog,and I told him I had enough to do to attend to myown business. To-day my team stuck fast in the samebog, and he came with two yoke of oxen to draw itout. I felt ashamed to have him lend me a hand, soI told him I wanted none of his help, but he answeredjust as pleasant as if nothing contrary had happened,that night was coming on, and he was not willing toleave me in the mud." " He is a pleasant spoken man,"said Mrs. Black, "and always has a pretty word to sayto the boys. His wife seems to be a nice neighbourlybody, too." Reuben made no answer; but after medi-tating awhile, he remarked, " Peg, you know that bigripe melon down at the bottom of the garden I youmay as well carry it over there in the morning." Hiswife said she would, without asking him to explainwhere "over there" was.But when'the morning came, Reuben walked back-wards and forwards, and round and round, with thatsort of aimless activity often manifested by fowls, andfashionable idlers, who feel restless, and do not knowwhat to run after. At length the cause of his uncer-
The Power of Kindness. 23tain movements was explained. "I may as well carrythe melon myself, and thank him for his oxen. In myflurry down there in the marsh, I forgot to say that ISwas obliged to him."He marched off toward the garden, and his wife stood-at the door, with her hand shading the sun from hereyes, to see if he would carry the melon into SimeonGreen's house. It was the most remarkable incidentthat had ever happened since her marriage. She couldH hardly believe her own eyes. He walked quickly, as ifSafraid he should not be able to carry the unusual im-,pulse into action if he stopped to re-consider thequestion. When he got into Mr. Green's house, he felt: extremely awkward, and hastened to say, "Mrs. Green,Shere is a melon my wife sent to you, and we think it isa ripe one." Without manifesting any surprise at suchSunexpected courtesy, the friendly matron thanked him,Sand invited him to sit down. But he stood playingwith the latch of the door, and without raising his eyessaid, "Maybe Mr. Green is not in this morning I""He is at the pump, and will be in directly," sher. eplied; and before her words were spoken, the honestman walked in, with a face as fresh and bright as a'June morning. He stepped right up to Reuben, shookShis hand cordially, and said,-"I am glad to see you,neighbour. Take a chair-take a chair."" "Thank you, I cannot stop," replied Reuben. Hepushed his hat on one side, rubbed his head. looked
24 The Power of Kindness.out of the window, and then said suddenly, as if by,adesperate effort,-" The fact is, Mr. Green, I did notbehave right about the oxen.""Never mind-never mind," replied Mr. Green." Perhaps I shall get into the bog again, one of theserainy days. If I do, I shall know whom to callupon.""Why, you see," said Reuben, still very much con-fused, and avoiding Simeon's mild clear eye-"you seethe neighbours here are very provoking. If I hadalways lived by such neighbours as you are, I shouldnot be just as I am.""Ah, well, we must try to be to others what wewant them to be to us," rejoined Simeon. "You knowthe good Book says so. I have learned by experience,that if we speak kind words, we hear kind echoes. Ifwe try to make others happy, it fills them with a wishto make us happy. Perhaps you and I can bring theneighbours round in time to this way of thinking andacting. Who knows %-let us try, Mr. Black, let ustry. But come and look at my orchard. I want toshow you a tree which I have grafted with very choiceapples. If you like, I will procure you some cuttingsfrom the sams stock."They went into the orchard together, and friendlychat soon put Reuben at his ease. When he returnedhome, he made no remarks about his visit; for he couldnot, as yet, summon sufficient greatness of mind to telli
7/-i~~jjj> ~iMAYB M~ REE S TI TI ONN?
The Power of Kindness. 25his wife that he had confessed himself in, the wrong.A gun stood behind the kitchen door, in readiness toshoot Mr. Green's dog for having barked at his horse.He now fired the contents into the air, and put the gunaway into the barn. From that day henceforth, henever sought for any pretext to quarrel with the dog orhis master. A short time after, Joe Smith, to his utterastonishment, saw him pat Towzer on the head, andheard him say, " Good fellow!"Simeon Green was too magnanimous to repeat to anyone that his quarrelsome neighbour had confessed him-self to blame. He merely smiled as he said to hiswife, "I thought we should kill him after a while"Joe Smith did not believe in such doctrines. Whenhe heard of the adventures in the marsh, he said, "SimGreen is a fool. When he first came here, he talked verySbig about killing folks, if they did not mind their P'sand Q's. But he does not appear to have as much spiritas a worm; for a worm will turn when it is trod upon."Poor Joe had grown more intemperate and morequarrelsome, till at last nobody would employ him.About a year after the memorable incident of thewater-melon, some one stole several valuable hides fromMr. Green. He did not mention the circumstance toSany one but his wife; and they both had reason forsuspecting that Joe was the thief. The next week thefollowing anonymous advertisement appeared in thenewspaper of the county:-
26 The Power of Kindness."Whoever stole a lot of hides on Friday night, the5th of the present month, is hereby informed that theowner has a sincere wish to be his friend. If povertytempted him to this false step, the owner will keep thewhole transaction a secret, and will gladly put him inthe way of obtaining money by means more likely tobring him peace of mind."This singular advertisement, of course, excited a gooddeal of remark. There was much debate whether ornot the thief would avail himself of the friendly offer.Some said he would be a greenhorn if he did; for itwas manifestly a trap to catch him. But he who hadcommitted the dishonest deed alone knew whence thatbenevolent offer came, and he knew that Simeon Greenwas not a man to set traps for his fellow-creatures.A few nights afterwards, a timidknock was heard atSimeon's door, just as the family were retiring to rest.-When the door was opened, Joe Smith was seen on thesteps, with a load of hides on his shoulders. Withoutraising his eyes, he said, in a low humble tone, "Ihave brought them back, Mr. Green. Where shall Iput them I""Wait a moment till I can light a lantern, and Iwill go to the barn with you," he replied. " Then youwill come in, and tell me how it happened.-We willsee what can be done for you."Mrs. Green knew that Joe often went hungry, andhad become accustomed to the stimulus of gin.. She
The Power of Kindness. 27therefore hastened to make hot Ooffee, and brought fromthe closet some cold meat-pie.When they returned from the barn, she said, "Ithought you might feel better for a little warm supper,neighbour Smith." Joe turned his back towards her,and did not speak. He leaned his head against thechimney, and after a moment's silence, he said, in achoked voice, "It was the first time I ever stole any-thing, and I' have felt very bad about it. I do notknow how it is. I did not think, once, I should evercome to be what I am. But I took to quarrelling, andthen to drinking. Since I began to go down hill, everybody gives me a kick. You are the first man that hasoffered me a helping hand. My wife is feeble, and mychildren are starving. You have sent them many ameal, God bless you! and yet I stole the hides fromyou, meaning to sell them the first chance I could get.But I tell you, Mr. Green, it is the first time I everdeserved the name of thief."" Let it be the last, my friend," said Simeon, pressinghis hand kindly. "The secret shall remain betweenourselves. You are young, and can make up lost time.Come now, give me a promise that you will not drinkone drop of intoxicating liquor for a year, and I willemploy you, to-morrow, at good wages. Mary will seeto your family early in the morning, and perhaps weS may find some employment for them also. The littleboy can at least pick up stones. But eat a bit now,
28 The Power of Kindness.and drink some hot coffee. It will keep you fromwanting to drink anything stronger to-night. You willfind it hard to abstain at first, Joseph; but keep up abrave heart, for the sake of your wife and children, andit will soon become easy. When you feel the need ofcoffee, tell my Mary, and she will always give it you."Joe tried to eat and drink, but the food seemed tochoke him. He was nervous and excited. After anineffectual effort to compose himself, he laid his headon the table, and wept like a child.After a while, Simeon persuaded him to bathe hishead in cold water, and he ate and drank with goodappetite. When he went away, the kind-hearted hostsaid, "Try to do well, Joseph, and you shall alwaysfind a friend in me."The poor fellow pressed his hand, and replied, "Iunderstand now how it is you kill bad neighbours."He entered into Mr. Green's service the next day,and remained in it many years, an honest and faithfulman.How happily does this beautiful narrative illustratethe power of kindness in subduing the most unlovelyand unamiable of human passions It might be styledthe triumph of love. Simeon Green, simply providedwith the weapon of kindness, disarmed the churlishnessand evil passions of his neighbours. It is a fine ex-ample of the practical efficacy of Christian principle.
Tke Power of Kindness. 29" which does not expend itself in mere words, or exhaustitself in a single effort, but by patient continuance inthe work of charity and love is sure at last to triumph.S The case was, in all reasonable probability, a most un-promising one. The disposition and temper of ReubenBlack, though such as is unhappily by no means rarein this world, seemed such as the man of peace couldonly escape from by getting beyond its reach. ButSimeon knew of a power more potent than malignityand revenge, and had learned the lesson of "killing hisenemy," as a Christian only may, by acts of kindness.Yet even Christian love may fail The great patternof all love, the divine manifestation .of the perfectionof generous self-sacrifice-the God-man, Christ Jesus,when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he wasmocked, and scourged, and crowned with thorns, andat length nailed to the tree, suffered in patience, pray-ing for the forgiveness of his murderers; yet he sub-dued not all his enemies by his love. There was aJudas even among the twelve. There were faint-hearted and faithless ones among the disciples, andthere were thousands, fed, and healed, and refreshedby his miracles, who shouted, "Away with him!Crucify him!" who felt no sympathy for him at theS'judgment bar, and no sorrow for him on the cross ofCalvary. We must not therefore be discouraged, orthink our efforts have been altogether in vain, even if weS should lavish kind attentions and generous deeds on
30 The Power of Kindness.neighbours and companions as ungentle and churlish asReuben Black, and find that all our self-sacrifice hasbeen in vain. We must not weary in well-doing, sincewe may rest assured that our forbearance and kindness,if it fail to soften the churl, and kindle a return ofgratitude or a sense of shame in his rude breast, willat any rate return into our own bosoms with a senseof virtuous triumph, the sweetness of which contrastsstrangely, indeed, with the remorseful victory of revenge.The Bible tells us that the divine Redeemer cameto set us an example, that we should follow in his steps.When we read of his patient sufferings, his miracles ofhealing, his casting out of evil spirits, his raising thedead, it seems as if it were altogether vain that weshould attempt to imitate him. Yet the command isa most simple one,-" Let the same mind be in youthat was in Christ Jesus, who, when he was reviled,reviled not again; when he suffered, threatened not,"but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously."The conduct of Simeon Green is a most happy illustra-tion of one of the ways in which this spirit of love willmanifest itself, and though it may not always have itsreturn in such visible fruits upon the object againstwhom such milsiles of love are directed, yet we mayrest assured that patience hath her perfect work, andlove will have its triumph and its own sweet reward.Yet it is well calculated to fill the carnal mind withsurprise, when the powerful efficacy of such love is
The Power of Kindness. 3discovered. Reuben Black is no solitary instance ofvictory achieved, by such means, over the most moroseand stubborn self-will.Bishop Latimer tells us, in one of his sermons onthe Lord's Prayer, of an incident in the life of the well-known Humphrey Monmouth, the wealthy aldermanand sheriff of London, whom George Harvey has re-presented as one of the most prominent figures intro-duced by him in the group of citizens represented inhis noble picture of "The first reading of the Bible inthe crypt of Old St. Paul's:"-"Sheriff Monmouth had a poor neighbour, to whomhe had shown many acts of kindness. But the good7alderman became a Protestant, and his neighbourthenceforth regarded him as an heretic and an enemy,and would turn aside if he saw him in the street, lesthe should speak to him. 'One time it happened,' saysSLatimer, 'that the alderman met him in so narrow astreet, that he could not shun him but must comenear him; yet for all this, this poor man was mindedto go forward, and not to speak with him. The richman perceiving that, caught him by the hand, andasked him, saying, Neighbour, what is come into yourheart, to take such displeasure with me What haveSI done against thee? Tell me, and I will be ready atSall times to make you amends.'"Finally, he spoke so gently, so charitably, and
32 The Power of Kindness.friendly, that it wrought in the poor man's heart, sothat by-and-by he fell down upon his knees, and askedhis forgiveness.. The rich man forgave him, and tookhim again into his favour, and they loved each otheras well as ever hey did before."Still simpler is the following little incident, illustra-tive of the same power of love:-"A neighbour sent his servant to John Bruen, Esq.of Bruen, requesting him never to set a foot upon hisground; to whom he sent this reply,-' If it pleaseyour master to walk upon my grounds, he shall be verywelcome; but if he please to come to my house, heshall be still more welcome.' By thus heaping coalsof fire upon his head, he won him over to love andtenderness, and made him his cordial friend."The story of Simeon Green's mode of dealing withhis churlish neighbour, with which we have introducedthe illustrations of this chapter, in exhibition of thepower of kindness, finds a very striking parallel in thefollowing brief incident of an occurrence in the Stateof Massachusetts, in the United States. It does not,indeed, display the patient hope and long watching bywhich Simeon at length overcame his neighbour; butit shows most effectually how, actuated by the samespirit, a "soft answer turneth away wrath:"-" The horse of a worthy and pious farmer in Massa-
The Power of Kindness. 33chusetts happening to stray into the road, a neighbourof the man who owned the horse put him into thepound. Meeting the owner soon after, he told himwhat he had done. 'And if I catch him in the roadSagain,' said he, 'I'll do it again.' 'Neighbour,' repliedthe other, 'not long since I looked out of my windowSin the night, and saw your cattle in my meadow, andI drove them out and shut them in your yard; and I'lldo it again.' Struck with the reply, the man liberatedSthe horse from the pound, and paid the charges himself."Another anecdote, illustrating the fruits of the samelovely spirit, was thus related by a farmer in NewJersey, when describing the nature of his intercoursewith his neighbour:-" I once owned a large flock of hens. I generallykept them shut up; but, one spring, I concluded toSlet them run in my yard, after I had clipped theirwings, so that they could not fly. One day, when Icame home to dinner, I learned that one of my neigh-bours had been there, full of wrath, to let me know myhens had been in his garden, and that he had killedseveral of them, and .thrown them over into myyard. I was greatly enraged because he had killedSmy beautiful hens, which I valued so much. I deter-mined, at once, to be revenged-to sue him, or in someother way get redress. I sat down and ate my dinneras calmly as I could. By the time I had finished my
34 The Power of Kindness.meal I became more cool, and thought that perhaps itwas not the best plan I could devise to fight with myneighbour about hens, and thereby make him my bitter,lasting enemy. I concluded to try another way, beingsure tnat it would do better."After dinner, I went to his house. He was in hisgarden. I stepped out, and found him in pursuit ofone of my hens with a club, trying to kill it. Iaccosted him. He turned upon me, his face inflamedwith wrath, and broke out in a great fury,-"'You have abused me. I will kill all your hens,if I can get at them. I never was so injured. Mygarden is ruined.'."'I am very sorry for its' said I. I did not wishto injure you, and now see that I have made a greatmistake in letting out my hens. I ask your forgive-ness, and am willing to pay you six times the damage.'"The man seemed confounded. He did not knowwhat to make of it. He looked up to the sky-thendown to the earth-then at me-then at his club-and then at the poor hen he had been pursuing, andsaid nothing."' Tell me now,' said I, what is the damage, and Iwill pay your; and my hens shall trouble you no more.I will leave it entirely to you to say what I shall do.I cannot afford to lose the good will of my neighbours,and quarrel with them, for hens, or anything else.'"'I am a great fool,' said the neighbour. 'TheK'
The Power of Kindness. 35I damage is not worth talking about; and I have far"more need to compensate you, than you me, and to askSyour forgiveness than to receive it.'"Rare as it is to find this spirit of forgiveness andlove actuating men, such examples are much more fre-- quent than we are perhaps apt to conceive, since theyare not of the class of incidents which make the greatestshow, or attract the most general attention. We shallselect a few more of these homely but delightful evi-dences of the triumph of kindness over the most stub-born natures, with which to conclude this chapter:-"A lady residing in a country town had repeatedlytreated a young man whom she met with in the socialcircles of the neighbourhood with marked contemptand unkindness. Neither of them moved in thehigher circles of society; but the lady, without cause,took numerous occasions to cast reproachful reflectionson the young man as beneath her notice, and unfit tobe treated with common respect. This lady had themisfortune to meet with a considerable loss in thedestruction of a valuable chaise, occasioned by theSrunning away of the horse. She had borrowed thehorse and vehicle, and was required to make good thedamage. This was a serious draft on her pecuniaryresources, and she felt much distressed by her illfortune. The young man, being of a kind andgenerous disposition, and determined to return good
36 The Power of Kindness.for evil, instantly set himself about collecting moneyfor her relief. Subscribing liberally himself, andactively soliciting others, he soon made up a generoussum, and before she became aware of his movement,appeared before her and placed the money modestly ather disposal. She was thunderstruck. He left herwithout waiting for thanks or commendation. Shewas entirely overcome, and wept like a child."There is a name-that of William Ladd-wellknown throughout the whole United States of Americaas that of the great advocate of the principles of uni-versal peace, in opposition to armed conventions, offen-sive wars, and all the false ideas of military glory, andthe bloody and impure honours of war. The Apostleof Peace, as he is very frequently styled, used to relatethe following anecdote of his own personal experience, toprove the most effective way of subduing our enemies:-"I had," he was wont to say, "a fine field of graingrowing upon an out-farm at some distance from thehomestead. Whenever I rode by, I saw my neighbourPulsifer's sheep in the lot, destroying my hopes of aharvest. These sheep were of the gaunt, long-leggedkind, active as spaniels; they would spring over thehighest fence, and no partition-wall could keep themout. I complained to neighbour Pulsifer about them,sent him frequent 'messages, but all without availPerhaps they would be kept out for a day or two; but
. The Power of Kindness. 37the legs of his sheep were long, and my grain moretempting than the adjoining pasture. I rode by again-the sheep were still there; I became angry, and toldmy men to set the dogs on them; and if that wouldnot do, I would pay them if they would shoot thesheep."I rode away much agitated; for I was not so muchof a peace man then as I am now, and I felt literallyfull of fight. All at once a light flashed in upon me.I asked myself, 'Would it not be well for you to tryin your own conduct the peace principle you are teach-ing to others I thought it all over, and settleddown in my mind as to the best course to be pursued."The next day I rode over to see neighbour Pulsifer.I found him chopping wood at his door. Good morn-ing, neighbour!' No answer. Good morning!' Irepeated. He gave a kind of grunt without lookingup. 'I came,' continued I, 'to see about the sheep.'At this, he threw down his axe, and exclaimed, in anangry manner, 'Now, arn't you a pretty neighbour, totell your men to kill my sheep ? I heard of it; a richman, like you, to shoot a poor man's sheep !'"' I was wrong, neighbour !' said I; 'but it won't doto let your sheep eat up all that grain ; so I came overto say, that I would take your sheep to my homesteadpasture, and put them in with mine; and in the fallyou may take them back; and if any one is missing,you may take your pick out of my whole flock.'
38 The Power of Kindness." Pulsifer looked confounded; he did not know howto take me. At last he stammered out, Now, 'Squire,are you in earnest i' 'Certainly I am,' I answered; 'itis better for me to feed your sheep in my pasture ongrass, than to feed them here on grain; and I see thefence can't keep them out.'"After a moment's silence,' The sheep shan't troubleyou any more,' exclaimed Pulsifer. 'I will fetter themall. But I'll let you know that, when any man talks ofshooting, I can shoot too; and when they are kind andneighbourly, I can be kind too.' The sheep neveragain trespassed on my lot. And, my friends," he wouldcontinue, addressing the audience, "remember thatwhen you talk of injuring your neighbours, they willtalk of injuring you. When nations threaten to fight,other nations will be ready too. Love will beget love;a wish to be at peace will keep you in peace. You canovercome evil with good. There is no other way."Another pleasant example will suffice to show thereward which the generous heart receives in returninggood for evil:-"A Christian farmer in Jersey had a neighbour ofsuch a malevolent character as made him a plague andterror to those with whom he became offended."One day he found the hogs of this good neighbourin his corn-field. He drove them out, and came totheir owner in a storm of passion, making a great bluster
The Power of Kindness. 39about the damage done to his crop. 'If I ever seeSthem in my corn again,' said he, 'I'll kill them-thatI will.'"The good man kept calm as a summer's evening,and said nothing but what was kind and good-naturedin reply."Farmer Ward, after he had spent all his fury, went"off very much vexed to see that none of it tookeffect."The good man shut up his swine at once; but,impatient for their favourite and new-found food, theysoon made their escape, and got into the same corn-field again without the knowledge of their owner."Mr. Ward discovered them, and at once attackedthem, slaughtering three or four of them before theycould make their retreat. Then, to aggravate hisneighbour's feelings to the utmost, he put the deadbodies on a cart, and drew them over to his house. Hethrew them down before the door, saying, with sarcasticbitterness, 'Your hogs got into my corn again, and Ithought I would bring them home !'S"The owner of the swine kept perfectly cool, givingno look or word of resentment at the injury done to him.He might have gone to law with Mr. Ward, and per-haps made him smart severely for destroying his pro-perty and insulting him as he did. But he thought itbest to keep out of the law.S "The next year he himself had a corn-field situated
140 The Power of Kindness.in a similar way beside the road. Now, it so happenedthat neighbour Ward had some unruly swine runningin the street, which got into the good man's corn-field,and committed a depredation similar to that which hishad done in Mr. Ward's field the year before. Hewent and told him what mischief his vagrant swine haddone, and requested him to shut them up. But hepaid no attention to the request."Soon after, the farmer discovered them in the samefield again, and he hit on a good-natured and wittyexpedient of being revenged on his neighbour. Insteadof killing them and carrying them home dead, hecaught them, tied 'their legs carefully, and drew themwith his team to their owner's door. Neighbour,' saidhe, 'Ifound your hogs in my corn again, and I thoughtI would bring them home !'"Never was a man more completely confounded!He saw the wide difference between his neighbour'sconduct and his own. It was too much. He told hisneighbour that he was very sorry, and that he wouldpay all damages the hogs had done. He offered to payhim, too, for the hogs he had killed the year before!'No,' replied the other,' I shall make no account of thedamages your.hogs have done; and I shall take nothingfor what you did to mine. I let that pass.'"Mr. Ward was completely overcome. He was everafter as kind and forbearing to his Christian neighbouras he had been mischievous and cruel before."
SThe Power of Kindness. 41' We shall only add one more anecdote. It occurred* among a band of settlers who went to establish them-selves in the great wilderness of the backwoods ofAmerica. They were a party of nearly forty emigrants,who were united together by higher principles thanmere gain, being, like the old Pilgrim Fathers of NewEngland, a little colony of Christian wayfarers, who_ sought a home in the wilderness. The account of theirexperience in their new settlement was related to Mrs.Child by one of the colonists; and is thus told by her:-S"Rich in divine knowledge, this little band startedfor the far west. They were industrious and frugal,and all things prospered under their hands. But soonwolves came near the fold, in the shape of recklessunprincipled adventurers; believers in force and cun-ning, who acted according to their creed. The colonyof practical Christians spoke of their depredations interms of gentlest remonstrance, and repaid them withkindness. They went farther-they openly announced,' You may do us what evil you choose; we will returnnothing but good.' Lawyers came into the neighbour-hood, and offered their services to settle disputes.They answered, 'We have no need. As neighbours, wereceive you in the most friendly spirit; but for us, youroccupation has ceased to exist' 'What will you do, ifSrascals burn your barns, and steal your harvests I' 'Wewill return good for evil. We believe this is the high-est truth, and therefore the best expediency.'
42 The Power of Kindness."When the rascals heard this, they considered it amarvellous good joke, and said and did many provok-ing things, which to them seemed witty. Bars weretaken down in the night, and cows let into the corn-fields. The Christians repaired the damage as well asthey could, put the cows in the barn, and at twilightdrove them gently home; saying, 'Neighbour, yourcows have been in my field. I have fed them wellduring the day, but I would not keep them all night,lest the children should suffer for want of their milk.'"If this was fun, those who planned the joke foundno heart to laugh at it. By degrees a visible changecame over these troublesome neighbours. They ceasedto cut off horses' tails, and break the legs of poultry.Rude boys would say to a younger brother, 'Don'tthrow that stone, Bill! When I killed the chickenlast week, didn't they send it to mother, because theythought chicken-broth would be good for poor Mary II should think you'd be ashamed to throw stones attheir chickens.' Thus was evil overcome with good;till not one was found to do them wilful injury."Years passed on, and saw them thriving in worldlysubstance beyond their neighbours, yet beloved by all.From them the lawyer and the constable obtained nofees. The sheriff stammered and apologized when hetook their hard-earned goods in payment for the wartax. They mildly replied, "Tis a bad trade, friend.Examine it in the light of conscience and see if it be
The Power of Kindness. 43not so.' But while they refused to pay such fees andtaxes, they were liberal to a proverb in their contribu-"tions for all useful and benevolent purposes."At the end of ten years, the public lands, whichS they had chosen for their farms, were advertised forsale at auction. According to custom, those who hadsettled and cultivated the soil, were considered to havea right to bid it in at the government price; which atthat time was seven shillings per acre. But the feverof land speculation then chanced to run unusually high.Adventurers from all parts of the country were flockingto the auction; and capitalists in Baltimore, Phila-delphia, New York, and Boston, were sending agents tobuy up western lands. No one supposed that customor equity would be regarded. The first day's saleshowed that speculation ran to the verge of insanity.Land was eagerly bought in at seventeen, twenty-five,and forty dollars an acre. The Christian colony hadsmall hope of retaining their farms. As first settlers,they had chosen the best land; and persevering in-dustry had brought it into the highest cultivation. Itsmarket-value was much greater than the acres alreadysold at exorbitant prices. In view of these facts, theyhad prepared their minds for another remove into thewilderness, perhaps to be again ejected by a similarprocess. But the morning their lot was offered for sale,they observed, with grateful surprise, that their neigh-bours were everywhere busy among the crowd, begging
44 The Power of Kindness.and expostulating: 'Don't bid on these lands Thesemen have been working hard on them for ten years.During all that time they never did harm to man orbrute. They are always ready to, do good for evil.They are a blessing to any neighbourhood. It wouldbe a sin and a shame to bid on their land. Let themgo at the government price.'"The sale came on; the cultivators of the soil offeredseven shillings; intending to bid higher if necessary.But among all that crowd of selfish, reckless speculators,not one bid over them Without one opposing voice,the fair acres returned to them! I do not know amore remarkable instance of evil overcome with good."In all these examples of the power of kindness we seethe true spirit of Christianity, and the fruits of thatperfect law of love, the full manifestation of which hasonly once been witnessed by men-in Him who, thoughhe was rich, yet for our sakes became poor, that we,through his poverty, might be made rich; even ourDivine Redeemer, who purchased eternal life for us byhis sufferings and death. Yet this spirit of love whichreigns throughout the New Testament is not wantingin the Old. Few more beautiful examples of it occurthan the touching appeal to the Prophet Jonah, whichcloses the brief narrative of his mission to Nineveh."And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry?Thou hast had pity on the gourd for the which thou
SThe Power of Kindness. 45hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which cameup in a night and perished in a night: and should notI spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more thansix-score thousand persons that cannot discern between- their right hand and their left hand; and also muchcattle " But, indeed, the spirit of love and mercypervades the whole Bible; being one of the most pro-minent of the Divine attributes which shines throughSthe providential dealings of God in the Old TestamentS history as well as in that of the New. It is a strikingproof of its Divine origin, to observe how completely itsecures the admiration of the most hardened and merci-less of men when manifested in its true character. Bysuch means it was that Penn secured the affections, andwon the entire confidence, of the untutored Red Indians;so that peace was maintained with his settlement whenall the surrounding colonies were exposed to incessanttreachery and slaughter. The power of kindness haseven proved potent to overcome the hardened criminaland the hopeless maniac; so that the discipline of theprison, and the conduct of the lunatic asylum, havebeen modelled anew, with the happiest effects, inaccordance with the manifestations of Divine govern-ment visible in all God's works. Hope has once moregilded the dark prison-house and the maniac's cell;and there also it has been proved that love neverfails.
7:IL"I crown thee king of intimate delights,Fire-side enjoyments, home-born happiness,And all the comforts that the lowly roofOf undisturbed retirement, and the hoursOf long, uninterrupted evening know."COWPER.RIRI O MESTIC happiness is one of the.most dis-j tinguishing privileges of man, compared- 1 with the inferior creatures endowed withlife by the same Divine Creator, and of civilized man,in contrast with the savage. It originates no lessessentially in the law of kindness and love, whichbegets commiseration for the afflictions of others,than the forbearance and generous self-denial exem-plified in the previous chapter. The duties of obedienceand honour to parents are enforced in the same divinely-instituted code of laws which require the rendering oflove and reverent obedience to God. The DivineRedeemer, amid all the wonderful manifestations of
SThe Happy Home. 47perfect love which he exhibited on earth, set us also anexample in the rendering of obedience and untiring loveto our parents. It is exhibited along with the earliestmanifestation of the Divine nature of the child Jesus.."His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feastof the passover. And when he was twelve years old,they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of thefeast. When they had fulfilled the days, as they"returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem;Sand Joseph and his mother knew not of it. But they,Ssupposing him to have been in the company, went aday's journey; and they sought him among their kins-folk and acquaintance. When they found him not,j they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him. Andit came to pass, that after three days they found himin the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, bothS hearing them and asking them questions. And allthat heard him were astonished at his understandingand answers. When they saw him, they were amazed:and his ,mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thusdealt with us ? behold, thy father and I have soughtthee sorrowing. And he said unto them, How is it thatye sought me I wist ye not that I must be about myFather's business ? "" Here the reference is not to his reputed fatherJoseph, but to the first person of the Godhead, withwhom the child Jesus was one in his Divine nature,though he had humbled himself, and for oun sakes
48 The Happy Home.assumed the human form. But then it is addedimmediately afterwards: "And he went down withthem, and came to Nazareth, and was subject untothem: but his mother kept all these sayings in herheart." This was the first exhibition of filial obedienceto his earthly parents which is recorded of the Re-deemer. The last is still more touching and memorable.When the weary pilgrimage of the Man of Sorrowswas drawing to a close; when the last passover hadbeen eaten with his disciples; when the kiss of Judashad been received by which he was betrayed; and de-serted by all who had seemed most faithful, he hadstood at Pilate's bar: had been mocked, scourged,crowned with thorns, and at length led away to thecross of Calvary, and nailed on the accursed tree;-the Apostle John relates-"Now there stood by thecross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Marythe wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. WhenJesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciplestanding by whom he loved, he saith unto his mother,Woman, behold thy son! Then saith he to thedisciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hourthat disciple took her unto his own home."In that last hour, when earth and hell were combinedagainst the Redeemer of mankind, and in agony of soulhe cried out, "My God, my God, why hast thou for-saken me ?" yet even then we find him looking withcompassion upon her, the highly-favoured among women
The Happy Home. 49-the mother of that human nature so mysteriouslylinked with the divine. It was the hour of fulflment-of the prophecy of the aged Simeon, when he held theSinfant Saviour in his arms, "Yea, a sword shall piercethrough thine own soul also." This manifestation offilial tenderness and compassionate love appears to havebeen the very last act of Christ in fulfilment of hisearthly mission. Immediately thereafter, the evan-gelist remarks: "After this, Jesus, knowing that allthings were now accomplished, that the Scripture mightbe fulfilled, saith, I thirst." And when the last pro-phecy had been accomplished, even to the minutest titleof Old Testament records, and the dying Saviour hadreceived the vinegar from the Roman soldier, he. said,"It is finished, and gave up the ghost." Familiarityis apt to lessen the influence of the most remarkablelessons of Scripture. Enjoying the privileges of dailyreading and hearing the word of God, we grow soSaccustomed to its lessons, that we forget all their power.When we dwell upon the remarkable incidents of thiswonderful narrative of Christ's last sufferings, and ofthe final manifestation of his filial love, we ought toSfeel constrained to cry out, like the Roman centurion," Truly this was a righteous man;" still more, "Thiswas the Son of God." Let the same spirit that wasin him be in us-a spirit of holy obedience to God,and of love to man.The illustrations of filial and parental affection are(149) 4
50 The Happy Home.happily so numerous that volumes might be filled withthem. Not a chapter, indeed, but a work might bewritten under the two titles of the happy and the un-happy home;-the home in which the spirit of kind-ness and the law of love prevail,-and that in whichdivisions, angry passions, and the consequent strifewhich results from these, convert the true arena of do-mestic joys into the scene of greatest misery. Thefirst and happiest of all human homes was that whichGod created in the garden of Eden; and it serves asan illustration of all others. Sin intruded upon it, andthen followed strife, jealousies, quarrelings, and at lastmurder. One brother rose up against the other, andCain became a wanderer and a vagabond on the earth,while the blood of his brother called out against himfrom the ground, where it had been impiously spilled.Yet though sin has marred so much of the lovelinessof creation, and has intruded on the perfect happinessof that domestic life created by God for the completeinterchange of love, yet somewhat of its spirit stillsurvives, and the Christian poet has justly exclaimed:-"Domestic happiness, thol only blissOf paradise, that hassurvived the fallThough few now taste thee unimpaired and pure,Or tasting, long enjoy theel Too infirm,Or too incautious, to preserve thy sweetsUnmixed with drops of bitter, which neglectOr temper sheds into thy crystal cup.Then art the nurse of virtue; in thine armsShe smiles, appearing, as in truth she is,Heaven-born, and destined to the skies again.
The Happy Home. 5IThou art not known where pleasure is adored,-That reeling goddess, with the zoneless waistAnd wandering eyes, still leaning on the armOf novelty, her fickle, frail support;For thou art meek and constant, hating change,And finding in the calm of truth-tried love,Joy that her stormy raptures never yield! "-On no single principle does this precious gift of ahappy home so entirely depend as on the self-denyingspirit of each preferring another better than himselfIt was by such a spirit that the good Philip Henrymade the domestic circle at Broad Oak one of thefairest exhibitions of family peace and mutual forbear-ance which English biography records. One of hisbiographers remarks :-"The scene of domestic happiness and piety whichthe Broad Oak family presented, was one of the love-liest examples of virtuous contentment and kindlyaffections that was probably ever exhibited among thehappy homes of England.' Everything moved inwell-ordered harmony and peace; no discords jarringits sweet melody. Of the genial domestic piety, andthe sweet interchange of Christian sympathy whichbound him and his wife so closely together, some ideamay be formed from the following remarks of his son.After referring to the following reflection of his fatheras to secret prayer, 'There are two doors to be shutwhen we go to prayer; the door of our closet, that wemay be secret; the door of our hearts, that we may be
52 The Happy Home.serious;' Matthew Henry adds, 'Besides this he andhis wife constantly prayed together morning andevening; and never, if they were together, at home orabroad, was it intermitted: and from his own experi-ence of the benefit of this practice, he would take'allopportunities to recommend it to those in that relation,as conducing very much to the comfort of it, and totheir furtherance in that which, he would often say, isthe great duty of yoke-fellows; and that is, to do allthey can to help one another to heaven. He. wouldsay, that this duty of husbands and wives prayingtogether is intimated in that of-the apostle, where theyare exhorted to live as heirs together of the grace oflife, that their prayers'-especially their prayerstogether-'be not hindered;' that nothing may bedone to hinder them from praying together, nor tohinder them in it, nor to spoil the success of thoseprayers. This sanctifies the relation and fetcheth ina blessing upon it, makes the comforts of it the moresweet, and the cares and crosses of it the more easy,and is an excellent means of preserving and increasinglove in the relation."In a family Where such Christian principles reign, asthe actuating principle of each of its members, self-denial becomes a habitual and an easy duty. Some-times, however, the Christian is forced to exhibit a self-denying love, that seems to rob the objects of his affec-
The Happy Home. 53tion of that which they have a right to, and thereforeseems the most difficult of all duties to practise."A poor negro woman, in the island of Jamaica, wasmuch valued by the family in which she lived for thefidelity she had shown in all her duties. They becameso pleased with her conduct, that she was at lengthpromised liberty, not only for herself, but for her largefamily of children. Orders were given for the papersto be drawn up, which, when they were signed, wouldset her free. We may well conceive how it rejoicedher heart to think that herself and children wouldsoon be slaves no longer."About this time she was led to attend the preach-ing of the gospel Her master was not a pious man,nor did he wish his slaves to be taught; and when hefound out that his negro servant went to hear themissionaries, he was angry. He thought that slaveshad nothing to do with religion; and threatened, ifshe did not give up her attendance on the preaching,she should not have her promised liberty. The negresswas ready to obey her master in all things that wereright; but, in this matter, she had already learnedthat she must 'obey God rather than man.' She hadbeen brought to love Christ as her Saviour, how, then,could she keep away from the house of God! Hermaster severely reproached her, saying that she waswithout a mother's affection, for, by her obstinate
54 The Happy Home.conduct, she would deprive her children of theirfreedom. How hard was the trial here of a Christianmother's love! It is difficult, indeed, for us fully tocomprehend the painful trial involved in such a conflict.But she knew that the self-denial which was to robboth herself and her children of their liberty was aduty even to them She sought counsel and directionin prayer to him who could alone direct and supporther through such a trial. Tears flowed down her darkcheeks, but she was firm. A few days were given herto consider whether she would leave the preaching ofthe gospel, or remain a slave for life. At the appointedtime she was called into the presence of her master.The papers which would restore her and her childrento liberty were shown her, and the terms again pro-posed. In prayer she had found grace for this time oftrial: tears fell from her eyes as she said, Massa, mewant to be free, but me cannot deny my Saviour.'The master, overcome with rage, told her to take upthe papers from the table, and throw them into thefire. She did so, and saw them destroyed in a moment:she then returned to her work as a slave, and themother of slaves. Yet, would it have been the love ofa mother, even for the freedom of her children, to havedenied the Lord that bought her, and winning theirliberty from man, to have cast from her the libertywherewith Christ makes his people free t"This proof of Christian steadfastness became known
The Happy Home. 55to the wife of a missionary. She made great efforts onbehalf of the negro mother ; and, through the blessingof God, she at last obtained freedom for all the family."It may not be out of place to contrast, with theanguish of the poor West Indian negress, the last part-"ing scene of an English family, born in a station aspre-eminently exalted as that of the Christian negresswas humble and degraded. The scene is the palaceof Whitehall; the period the 29th of January 1649,Sthe day after doom had been pronounced on themonarch of England. It tells so keenly of lovinghearts and human affections mingling amid the sternestdeeds of unrelenting justice and retribution, that it maymost fitly find a place here, though the self-denial in-culcated by the king on his infant son may perhapsappear a mean sacrifice, if we compare it with thatwhich the poor negress made in her fidelity to a DivineMaster and King :-S"Charles was then a prisoner in what was once hisroyal palace. After morning prayer, he produced abox containing broken crosses of the order of St. Georgeand of the garter: You see,' he said to Bishop Juxon,'all the wealth now in my power to give my twochildren.' The children were then brought to him;on seeing her father the princess Elizabeth, twelveyears old, burst into tears; the Duke of Gloucester,who was only eight, wept also when he saw his sister
56 The Happy Home.weeping; Charles took them upon his knees, dividedhis jewels between them, consoled his daughter, gaveher advice as to the books she was to read to strengthenherself against Popery; charged her to tell her brothersthat he had forgiven his enemies; her mother, that inthought he had ever been with her, and that to thelast hour he loved her as dearly as on their marriage-day; then turning towards the little Duke, My dearheart,' he said, 'they will soon cut off thy father's head.'The child looked at him fixedly and earnestly : 'Mark,child, what I say; they will cut off my head, and per-haps make thee king; but mark what I say, thou mustnot be king so long as thy brothers Charles and Jameslive, but they will cut off thy brothers' heads if theycan catch them; and thine too they will cut off atlast! Therefore, I charge thee, do not be made a kingby them.' I will be torn in pieces first!' replied thechild, with emotion. Charles fervently kissed him,put him down, kissed his daughter, blessed them both,and called upon God to bless them; then suddenlyrising, 'Have them taken away,' he said to Juxon; thechildren sobbed aloud; the king, standing with hishead pressed against the window, tried to suppress histears; the door opened, the children were going out,Charles ran from the window, took them again in hisarms, blessed them once more, and at last tearinghimself from their caresses, fell upon his knees andbegan to pray with the bishop and Herbert, the only
The Happy Home. 57i witnesses of this deeply painful scene. Already theSsounds of axe and hammer announced that the scaffoldwas preparing for the last act of this great tragedy.The morrow-the 30th of January 1649-was the dayappointed for execution."The delightful picture of domestic happiness ex-hibited in the family-circle of the good old Englishpuritan divine, Philip Henry, has already been referredto ; and its entire origin and sustaining source may beshown to have flowed from the constant operation ofthe law of love and mutual self-denial. There, indeed,Swe see proof of the apostolic maxim, "Love never fails."Mr. Matthews, whose daughter Philip Henry loved andS sought for his wife, would by no means consent to thematch. By patient and consistent perseverance he atlength so far overcame the opposition, that he obtainedthe wife of his choice. It was not until the 26th ofApril 1660 that their marriage was at length accom-plished, and Mr. Hamilton has well remarked in hislife of his son, "Seldom has a scene of purer domestichappiness been witnessed than the love of God and oneanother created there." In his own quaint way, theold divine tells, that after living many years with her,S he was never reconciled to her-because there neverhappened between them the slightest jar that neededreconciliation. The opposition of the father, howeverstrong while it lasted, appears to have been cordially
58 The Happy Home.withdrawn. He gave his full consent to their union atthe last, and himself gave away his daughter, whenthey were united in the bands of marriage.The spirit of patient love by which he thus triumphed,helped him also to counsel others, and extend the samehappiness through a wide sphere. He was indeed asa sun in the centre of the district where he resided,diffusing a vivifying sunshine that made all aroundhim smile. To him-as to Job-" men gave ear andwaited, and kept silence at his counsel; after his wordsthey spake not again;" and many of the neighbourswho respected him not as a minister, yet loved andhonoured him as a knowing, prudent, and humbleneighbour. In the concernments of private familieshe was very far from busying himself; but he was veryfrequently applied to to advise many about their affairs,"and the disposal of themselves and their children, andin arbitrating and composing differences among relationsand neighbours, in which he had an excellent faculty,and often good success, inheriting the blessing entailedupon the peace-makers. References have sometimesbeen made to him by rule of court, at the assizes, withconsent of parties. He was very affable and easy ofaccess, and admirably patient in hearing every one'scomplaint, which he would answer with so muchprudence and mildness, and give such apt advice, thatmany a time to consult with him was ",to ask counselat Abel," and so to end the matter. He observed, in
The Happy Home. 59almost all quarrels that happened, that there was faulton both sides; and that generally they were most inthe fault that were most forward and clamorous intheir complaints. One making her moan to him of abad husband that in this and the other instance wasunkind; "Sir," saith she, after a long complaint whichhe, patiently heard, "what would you have me to donow!" "Why truly," saith he, "I would have you to goS home, and be a better wife to him, and then you will- find that he will be a better husband to you." Labour-S ing to persuade one to forgive an injury that was donehim, he urged thus, Are you not a Christian ? andfollowed the argument so close that at last he pre-vailed.He was very industrious, and oft successful, in per-suading people to recede from their right for peace'sake; and he would for that purpose tell them Luther'sstory of the two goats, that met upon a narrow bridgeover a deep water; they could not go back, they durst:not fight; after a short parley, one of them lay down,and let the other go over him, and no harm was done.He would likewise relate sometimes a remarkable story,worthy to be inserted here, concerning a good friendof his, Mr. T. Yates of Whitchurch, who in his youthwas greatly wronged by an unjust uncle. Being anS-orphan, his portion, which was 200, was put intothe hands of that uncle; who, when he grew up,shuffled with him, and would give him but 40 instead|-:
60 The Happy Home.of his 200, and he had no way of recovering his rightbut by law; but before he would engage in that, hewas willing to advise with his minister, who was thefamous Dr. Twis? of Newbury; the counsel he gavehim, all things considered, was, for peace' sake, andfor the preventing of sin, and snares, and trouble, totake the 40 rather than contend; and Thomas, saidthe Doctor, if thou dost so, assure thyself that Godwill make it up to thee and thine some other way, andthey that defraud thee will be the losers by it at last.He did so; and it pleased God so to bless that littlewhich he began the world with, that when he died, ina good old age, he left his son possessed of somehundreds a-year, and he that wronged him fell intodecay.How much wisdom and truth is there in the homelyadvice of the good English divine to the complainingwife. How many a scene of domestic dissension andstrife would be converted into a happy home by thevery simple process of the member of it that conceivedhimself most wrdhged striving to be still kinder, morefaithful, more affectionate and self-denying than ever.An old Arabian proverb says, "It is the second blowwhich begins the quarreL" Herein lies deep wisdom.It is, indeed, only another version of the noble Christianmaxim, "A soft answer turneth away wrath;" whileeven in return for a blow, a word of kindness and for-
The Happy Home. 61giving forbearance will often not only put an end tothe quarrel, but make him who begun it more grievedand ashamed than any triumph of force over him couldShave done. In no sphere is this more frequently illus-trated than in the intercourse of brothers and sisters.A pleasant, familiar writer, in a little tract which hehas entitled "A Peep at Home," thus remarks :-"A peep at home! Well, what can there be in apeep at home My young friends, have a littlepatience, and we shall see. I live in a place wherefrequently we have the privilege of meeting a numberof little girls who go to repeat a portion of Scriptureto their minister. He is kind enough to explain it tothem in a manner so plain, affectionate, and familiar,that he gains the attention and esteem of all who hearhim. I cannot help feeling my own heart glow withaffection to all of them, when I see their little smilingSfaces looking eagerly to 'catch every word he utters,and ready to answer the questions he puts to them.Christianity makes us love each other. God is love;Christ is love, and showed his love in a wonderful way,by dying for us; and we should be all love: but,alas, this is not the case so much as it ought to beamongst us."I know two little girls who always attend thesemeetings, and who are very anxious to repeat theirverse, and attentive to listen, and they are happy tc
62 The Happy Home.contribute their pence to the Bible Society, and theMissionary, and the Tract Societies. But see them athome: they are always quarrelling, not violently, butquite enough to render it very unpleasant to hear them,and to give their parents much pain. One, perhaps,wants a book; it happens to be the very one the otherwas going to take: this occasions a dispute, neither ofthem being disposed, to give up, except in that pettishmanner which is quite opposed to the peaceable dis-position of a Christian. Then, when lessons are to belearned, instead of helping each other on, they interruptone another: if one is disposed to be diligent andstudy, the other will make a noise and disturbance;or they both play away the time, and are not ready,and then accuse each other of being the cause of thisfault."You would think, to hear their constant disputes,that they had a great dislike to each other, and thatthey had never been taught the commandment to love;but I know that their mother has taken great pains toteach them the good and right way, and that her spiritis grieved every day with their disputings and apparentchoice of the. spirit of strife and contention ratherthan of kindness."Homely as this latter tale may appear, it might bestudied with advantage in thousands of families wherecontention about trifling things robs the circle of many
The Happy Home. 63a happy smile, and many a sweet hour of interchanginglove and kindness. It is fit, indeed, to fill the heart ofa good man with the deepest sorrow, to think howoften, for lack of a kind word spoken in due season,strife is engendered where love would otherwise pre-vail. Yet a word of wisdom has been known to over-come the heart better than all the force of reasoningcould have effected. An incident of very recent occur-rence is told of a man who had an only son, on whomhe had lavished every kindness that affection coulddictate, and at length put him in possession of all thathe had. But this son grew up to return ingratitudefor all this parental love. He was undutiful and un-kind to his aged father, and at length went so far thathe refused to supporthim, and turned him out of thehouse, where now his own child was growing up underthe eye of his gray-haired grandfather. The old man,too deeply wounded to remonstrate with his ungratefulson, rose to depart, saying only to his little grandson,"Hasten and fetch me the covering from my bed, thatS I may go and sit by the way-side and beg." The childburst into tears, and ran for the covering. He met hisfather, to whom he said, "I am going to fetch the rugfrom my grandfather's bed, that he may wrap it roundhim, and go a-begging." Tommy went for the rug,and brought it to his father, and said to him, "Pray,father, cut it in two; the half of it will be large enoughfor grandfather, and perhaps you may want the other
64 The Happy Home.half when I grow a man, and turn you out of doors."The words of the child struck him so forcibly, that heimmediately ran to his father, besought his forgiveness,and continued ever after kind and dutiful to him aslong as he lived.It was a pretty saying of a little boy, who, seeingtwo nestling birds pecking at one another, inquired ofhis elder brother what they were doing. "They arequarrelling," was the answer. "No," replied the child,"that cannot be, they are brothers."In all the exhortations to forgiveness, charity, andlove, which the Scriptures enjoin, it is more frequentlyin the character of domestic duty and enjoyment thanin any other form, that the spirit of heavenly love isinculcated. Heaven is spoken of as our home, Christas an obedient and willing son, and his disciples asbrethren, as children, and even as little children. Inthe wide compass of Christ's all-embracing charity, heseeks to make once more of the children of men onefamily, teaching each member of it to look on all menas his brethren, that all may be actuated towards eachother by the self-denying law of love. "Whoso haththis world's good, and seeth his brother have need, andshutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, howdwelleth the love of God in him? My little children,"adds the beloved disciple, who thus*exhorts to practical
The Happy Home. 65" manifestations of love, "let us not love in word, neitherin tongue; but in deed, and in truth." So, too, it isS in the endearing character of a Father that God mostdelights to represent himself to us, and when he givesS expression to the unbounded tenderness of his pitytowards man, it is done in the touching comparisonwith a mother's love-" Can a mother forget her child,that she should not have compassion on the son of herwomb She may forget, yet will not I forget thee."Again, it is said, " Like as a father pitieth his children,so the Lord pities them that fear him." The NewTestament abounds with similar beautiful illustrationsof Divine love, drawn from the manifestations ofparental affection, or exercised in fulfilment of itsdesires-as in the healing of the centurion's son, theraising of the daughter of Jairus, and above all, in therestoring to life of the widow's son. But perhaps nonarrative could be selected as more touching than theparable of the Prodigal, wherein God is pictured to usas a father, having compassion on his wayward, erringchild. 'I will arise and go to my Father," are thefirst words of penitence, "and will say unto him,Father, I have sinne& against heaven and before thee,and am no more worthy to be called thy son;" whilethe Father, even while he is yet a far way off, hascompassion on the penitent wanderer, and welcomeshim back, with the striking exclamation, which has sooften since suggested itself to the gladdened heart of(149) 5
66 The Happy Home.an earthly parent-" This my son was dead, and is aliveagain; he was lost, and is found."Many striking instances might be referred to ofindividuals who, after wandering like the prodigal, intoseemingly hopeless courses of sin and misery, have atlength heard the voice of God, and become the heirs ofgrace and pardoning mercy. The celebrated JohnNewton, one of the ablest and most useful ministersof the Church of England, was a remarkable exampleof this; and no less so was John Welsh, an equallydistinguished minister of the Church of Scotland, whoaccomplished, and was honoured also to suffer much inthe cause of Christ."Mr. John Welsh was born a gentleman, his fatherbeing Laird of Colieston (an estate rather competentthan large, in the shire of Nithsdale), about the year1570, the dawning of our Reformation being then butdark. He was a rich example of grace and mercy, butthe night went before the day, being a most hopelessextravagant boy. It was not enough to him, frequently,when he was a young stripling, to run away from theschool, and play the truant; but after he had passedhis grammar, and was come to be a youth, he left theschool and his father's house, and went and joinedhimself to the thieves on the English border, wholived by robbing the two nations; and amongst themhe stayed till he spent a suit of clothes. Then, when
The Happy Home. 67he was clothed only with rags, the prodigal's miserybrought him to the prodigal's resolutions; so he| resolved to return to his father's house, but durst notadventure till he should interpose a reconciler. So, inhis return homeward, he took Dumfries in his way,Swhere he had an aunt, one Agnes Forsyth; and withher he diverted some days, earnestly entreating her toY, reconcile him to his father. While he lurked in herhouse, his father came providentially to the house tosalute his cousin, Mrs. Forsyth; and after they hadStalked a while, she asked him whether ever he hadSheard any news of his son John. To her he repliedwith great grief, O cruel woman, how can you namehis name to me I the first news I expect to hear of": him is, that he is hanged for a thief.' She answered,' Many a profligate boy has become a virtuous man,'and comforted him. He insisted upon his sad com-: plaint, but asked whether she knew his lost son wasyet alive I She answered, Yes, he was, and she hopedhe should prove a better man than he was a boy;' andwith that she called upon him to come to his father.He came weeping, and kneeled, beseeching his. father,for Christ's sake, to pardon his misbehaviour, andI deeply engaged to be a new man. His father reproachedShim and threatened him; yet at length, by the boy'sStears and Mrs. Forsyth's importunities, he was persuadedSto a reconciliation. The boy entreated his father toput him to the college, and there to try his behaviour,
68 The Happy Home.and if ever thereafter he should break, he said he shouldbe content his father should disclaim him for ever. Sohis father carried him home, and put him to the college,and there he became a diligent student of great expecta-tion, and showed himself a sincere convert, and so heproceeded to the ministry."Mr. Welsh became a distinguished minister in theChurch of Scotland, and proved his fidelity to thecause of Christ by suffering boldly in defence of thetruth. We shall select, however, a different example ofthe domestic affections, from the life of a humblersufferer and martyr in the same good cause.The death of John Brown, the Covenanter, is justly 'cherished in the heart of every true Scotsman as a nobleincident of Christian fidelity and conjugal affection.It is thus related in the " Biographia Presbyteriana:"-"The next morning, between five and six hours, thesaid John Brown, having performed the worship ofGod in his family, was going with a spade in his handto make ready some peat ground; the mist being verydark, he knew not until bloody cruel Claverhouse compassed him with three troops of horse, brought him tohis house, and there examined him. Though he was aman of a stammering speech, yet he answered him dis-tinctly and solidly; which made Claverhouse examinethose whom he had taken to be his guides through themdors, if ever they had heard him preach I They an-
The Happy Home. 69wered, 'No, no, he never was a preacher.' He said,,If he has never preached, much has he prayed in hisime;' and then said to John, Go to your prayers, foro shall immediately die.' When he was praying,laverhouse interrupted him three times. One timethat he stopped him, he was pleading that the Lordwould spare a remnant, and not make a full end in theiay of his anger. Claverhouse said, I gave you timet pray, and you are begun to preach.' He turnedabout upon his knees, and said, Sir, you know neitherthe nature of preaching nor praying, that call thispreaching;' and then continued without confusion.When ended, Claverhouse said, 'Take good night ofyour wife and children.' His wife standing by, withher child in her arms, that she brought forth to him,and another child of his first wife's, he came to her,and said, 'Now, Isabel, the day is come that I told youwould come, when I spake first to you of marrying me.'She said, Indeed, John, I can willingly part with you.'Then he said,' That's all I desire; I have no more todo but die-I have been in case to meet with death forso many years.' He kissed his wife and bairns, andwished purchased and promised blessings to be mul-tiplied upon them, and his blessing. Claverhouserdered six soldiers to shoot him; the most part of thebullets came upon his head, which scattered his brainsun the ground. Claverhouse said to his wife, 'Whatthinkest thou of thy husband now, woman " She
70 The Happy Home.said, 'I thought ever much good of him, and as muchnow as ever.' He said, 'It were but justice to lay theebeside him.' She said, 'If ye were permitted, I doubtnot but your cruelty would go that length; but howwill you make answer for this morning's work 9' Hesaid, 'To man I can be answerable; and for God, Iwill take him in my own hand.' Claverhouse mountedhis horse, and marched, and left her with the corpse ofher dead husband lying there; she set the bairn uponthe ground, and gathered his brains, and tied up hishead, and straightened his body, and covered him withher plaid, and sat down and wept over him; it beinga very desert place, where never victual grew, and farfrom neighbours. It was some time before any friends *came to her; the first that came was a very fit hand,that old singular Christian woman in the Cummerhead,named Jean Brown, three miles distant, who had beentried with the violent death of her husband at Pent-land, afterwards of two worthy sons, Thomas Weir,who was killed at Drumclog, and David Steil, who wassuddenly shot afterwards, when taken. The said IsabelWeir, sitting upon her husband's grave-stone, told me,that before that she could see no blood but she was indanger to faint, and yet was helped to be a witness toall this, without either fainting or confusion, exceptwhen the shots were let off her eyes dazzled. Hiscorpse was buried at the end of his house where hewas slain."
The Happy Home. 71A monument has been erected on the spot to com-memorate the heroic death of John Brown; but a farS more worthy and enduring monument is the faithful-ness with which his memory is cherished by those whohave inherited the Christian liberty for which he died."The remarkable incidents in the early life of theSeminent Scottish minister, John Welsh, have alreadySfurnished one instance of the returning prodigal; andSthat of the well-known John Newton, one of the mostSfaithful ministers of the Church of England, has beenreferred to as another and no less striking one. Bothof these were destined to become, like the great ApostleSof the Gentiles, distinguished as the honoured preachersof that gospel which once they had despised andscorned. Numerous other incidents of a similarcharacter might be referred to, supplying no less strik-ing examples of the restoration of the prodigal inS answer to a parent's prayers, though their fulfilment isnot, in many cases, granted until the fond parent bywhom they had been uttered was at rest in his grave.But sufficient space has already been devoted to theillustration of the self-sacrificing character of parentallove. Both in Welsh and Newton, we see the goodfruits which rewarded a Christian parent's prayers;and many are the instances which might be recorded inillustration of the same assurance, that prayer is notmade in vain.
72 The Happy Home.Prayer is the simplest form of speechThat infant lips can try;Prayer the sublimest strains that reachThe Majesty on high.Prayer is the Christian's vital breath,The Christian's native air;His watchword at the gates of deathHe enters heaven by prayer.Nor prayer is made on earth alone,The Holy Spirit pleads;And Jesus, on the eternal throne.For sinners intercedes.Doubtless, a future day will reveal thousands of in-stances in which the secret prayers of Christian parentshave received their abundant answer, though thosewho offered them in faith went sorrowing all their days,and had often their gray hairs brought down withsorrow to the dust by those with whom they willrejoice through eternity in singing of the unmeritedmercy and redeeming love of God in Christ.Leaving, however, these delightful evidences ofparental affection, manifested, in its noblest forms,under the guidance of Christian principles, we shallselect an instance in illustration of the domestic affec-tions, as shown'in the fidelity of conjugal love. It iswell calculated to teach a lesson to many a sorrowingwife, suffering under one of the most terrible of allhuman trials, by showing her how she may overcomeby love, and enjoy the fulfilment of the apostolic injunc-
The Happy Home. 73tion and promise, which engages that the unbelievinghusband shall be won by the believing wife :-"A lady, who at the time of her marriage had been,like her husband, gay and thoughtless, and taken uponly with the pleasures of the world, became by DivineI:grace an exemplary Christian; but her husband re-mained unchanged, and was a lover of sinful pleasure.When spending an evening as usual with his jovialcompanions at a tavern, the conversation happened toturn on the excellences and faults of their wives. Hepronounced the highest encomiums on his wife, sayingishe was all that was excellent, only she was aMethodist; 'notwithstanding which,' said he, 'wereI to take you, gentlemen, home with me at midnight,and order her to rise and get you a supper, she wouldSdo it with the utmost cheerfulness !' The companySregarded this merely as a vain boast, and dared him tomake the experiment by a considerable wager. Thebargain was made, and about midnight the companyadjourned as proposed. Being admitted, Where isB[ your mistress V' said the husband to the maid-servant,Swho sat up for him. She is gone to bed, sir.' Callher up,' said he. 'Tell her I have brought some friendshome with me, and that I desire she would preparethem a supper.' The good woman obeyed the un-reasonable summons; dressed, came down, and re-ceived the company with perfect civility: told themshe happened to have some chickens ready for the spit.
74 The Happy Home.and that supper should be got as soon as possible. Itwas accordingly served up, when she performed thehonours of the table with as much cheerfulness as if.she had expected them at a reasonable hour."After supper, the guests could not refrain fromexpressing their astonishment. One of them par-ticularly, more sober than the rest, thus addressed him-self to the lady : 'Madam,' said he, 'your civility fillsme with surprise. Our unreasonable visit is the con-sequence of a wager, which we have certainly lost. As.you are a very religious person, and cannot, therefore,approve of our conduct, give me leave to ask, what canpossibly induce you to behave with so much kindnessto us I' Sir,' replied she, when I married, my hus-band and myself were both unconverted. It haspleased God to call me out of that condition. Myhusband continues in it. I tremble for his future state.Were he to die as he is, he must be miserable forever : I think it my duty at least to render his presentexistence as comfortable as possible.'"This wise and faithful reply affected the wholecompany. It left a deep impression on the husband'smind. 'Do you, my dear,' said he, 'really think I shouldbe eternally miserable ? I thank you for the warning.By the grace of God I will change my conduct.' Fromthat time he became a changed man; and his faithfulwife enjoyed the reward of her fidelity and patience inthe Christian fellowship of a believing husband."
The Happy Home. 75In contrast to this, the following anecdote is not lesspleasing:-A man once came to the Rev. Jonathan Scott ofMatlock, complaining of his wife. He said she was soexceedingly ill-tempered, and so studiously tormentedS him in such a variety of ways, that she was the greatburden of his life. Mr. Scott exhorted him to trywhat a redoubled affection and kindness would do. He1 went away much dejected, resolving, however, if possible,to follow this advice. He accordingly increased hisattention; and, as an instance of his kindness, theS next Saturday evening brought to his wife his wholeweek's wages, and, with an affectionate smile, threwSthem into her lap, begging her entire disposal of them.This did not succeed: she threw the wages, in a passion,S accompanied with many bitter execrations, at his head.Y ears elapsed, during which he sustained, as patientlyas he could, this wicked and undutiful treatment, whenProvidence favoured him with another interview withhis kind friend, Mr. Scott; but, he said, he believedhe had really found out a remedy, which, if it shouldmeet Mr. Scott's approbation, would not fail of effectinga cure; for it had been tried by a neighbour of his ona wife, who, though she had been in all respects as badas his, was, by one application only, become one of themost obedient and affectionate creatures living. "Andwhat is this excellent remedy '" said Mr. Scott. "Why,sir, it is a good horse-whipping I You hear, sir, what
76 The Happy Home.good effects have been produced; do you think I mayventure to try it !"Mr. Scott replied, "I read, my friend, nothing abouthusbands horse-whipping their wives in the Bible, butjust the reverse; namely, love, which I before recom-mended; and I can by no means alter the word of God:but I doubt not, if you persevere, it will be attendedwith a happy result." This advice was accompaniedwith exhortations to more earnest prayer. The man,though he left Mr. Scott both with a mind and coun-tenance very different from those with which he came,resolved to follow his direction, as his esteem for himwas very great; and Providence calling Mr. Scott sometime after to preach at Birmingham, his old friend, whothen resided there, came into the vestry to him afterhe had concluded the service, and with a countenanceexpressive of exalted happiness, said that he shouldhave reason to bless God through eternity for theadvice he had given him; and that he had not beeninduced, by his weak importunities, to alter or relaxit; adding, that his wife, who then stood smiling withapprobation by his side, was not only become a con-verted woman, through a blessing on his kind atten-tions to her, but was one of the most affectionate anddutiful of wives.To this we may add the following simple little in-cident :-
The Happy Home. 77"A decent countrywoman," says an English divine,S"came to me one market day, and begged to speakwith me. She told me with an air of secrecy, that herhusband behaved unkindly to her, and sought thecompany of other women; and that, knowing me tobe a wise man, I could tell what would cure him.The remedy is simple, said I, always treat your hus-band with a smile. The woman thanked me, droppeda courtesy, and went away. A few months after, shecame again, bringing a couple of fine fowls. She told me,with great satisfaction, that I had cured her husband;and she begged my acceptaice of the fowls in return."This was the victory of love in one of its sweetestforms, and, at the same time, one of the most pleasingexamples of the reward of patience. Be not weary inwell-doing, is the Divine maxim; for, in due season,ye shall reap, if ye faint not. A simple instance ofthe reward of conjugal affection shows, in like manner,the force of generous self-denial. It is exceedinglysimple, yet not the less fitted to instruct, and furnishus with an example for our guidance:-S "The wife of a pious man told him one day, that ifhe did not give over running after the missionaries, aname often applied, in the neighbourhood where thisS event occurred, to Christian ministers of differentdenominations, she would certainly leave him. Find-ing that he continued obstinate, she, on one occasion,
78 The Happy Home.sent for him from the harvest-field, and informed himthat she was about to carry her threats into execution;and that, before she left the house, she wished somearticles to be divided, to prevent future disputes. Shefirst produced a web of linen, which she insisted shouldbe divided. 'No, no,' said the husband; 'you havebeen, upon the whole, a good wife to me: if you willleave me, though the thought greatly distresses me, youmust take the whole with you; you well deserve it all.'The same answer was given to a similar proposal re-specting some other articles. At last the wife said,'So you wish me to leave you Far from that,' saidthe husband; I would do anything but sin, to makeyou stay; but if you will go, I wish you to go in com-fort.' 'Then,' said she, 'you have overcome me byyour kindness; I will never leave you.'"This subject is, in truth, inexhaustible. It is onegreat aim of Christianity to make of every family a"happy home; and though the spirit which it inculcatesis marred by many jealousies and strifes, yet, even inits imperfect state, Christianity does effect much to-wards ameliorating the condition of our social life, andintroducing some of its own benignant elements intothe family-circle. Still more does Christianity carryalong with it the spirit of domestic and social love, byteaching not only every family to emulate the patternof love which our Redeemer has set us, but also, by
The Happy Home. 79binding all together into one family union, by the in-spiring anticipation that the whole family in heavenand earth are one in Christ-one family, of which Godisthe Father, and in which Christ condescends to callS himself the Elder Brother. Could such a spirit beinfused into each of us, how would our hearts burnwithin us, and our affections find a constant expressionin acts of generous self-denial and mutual forbearanceand love. Edmeston has thus beautifully given ex-S pression to the feelings which this idea of the "onefamily in heaven and earth," is so well calculated tosuggest :--'Tis but one family,-the sound is balm,A seraph-whisper to the wounded heart,It lulls the storm of sorrow to a calm,And draws the venom from the avenger's dart"Tis but one family,-the accents comeLike light from heaven to break the night of woe,The banner-cry, to call the spirit home,SThe shout of victory o'er a fallen foe.SDeath cannot separate-is memory dead ?Has thought, too, vanished, and has love grown chill?Has every relic and memento fled,And are the living only with us still?No! in our hearts the lost we mourn remain,Objects of love and ever-fresh aelight;And fancy leads them in her fairy trainIn half-seen transports past the mourner's sightDeath never separates; the golden wiresThat ever trembled to their names before,Will vibrate still, though every form expires,And those we love, we look upon no more.
80 The Hapy Home.No more, indeed, in sorrow and in pain,But even memory's need ere long will cease,For we shall join the lost of love againIn endless bands, and in eternal peace.Such are the thoughts which should fill up the hopeand the joy of each of us. Like the sister of the happyfamilyat Bethany, when he whom Jesus loved, and whomthey all loved, had been taken away, we must be able tosay, " I know that he shall rise again in the resurrectionat the last day." On that one occasion, indeed, he whoproclaimed himself as the Resurrection and the Life, re-stored the buried Lazarus to his mourning sisters, buthow strange are the reflections which that happyfamily-circle at Bethany suggest to us. He who hadbeen dead, and had lain in the grave, once more satwith his sisters at the social board, and Jesus, as afriend, united with them in the interchanges of sym-pathy and love. But death again visited that family-Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, each was summonedaway to meet no more here below. How delightfulthe anticipation to them, as to us, that there is a re-union to be looked forward to which no death shallbreak, which no unkindness shall mar, which no hatred,or variance, or strife shall even interfere with; wherethe one law which will supersede all others, and sufficefor all, will be the perfect law of love.
III.B|"fn to enenixs."Children we are allOf our great Father, in whatever limeHis providence hath east the seed of life,Th' all-seeing Father-He in whom we live-He, the impartial Judge of all-regardsNations, and hues, and dialects alike."SoUTEnY.N this duty of love to our enemies, as in everyother principle which ought to guide ourconduct, the Christian finds at once hishighest example and his rule of action in the teachingand the life of our Saviour. There had, indeed,existed an old law of retaliation among the Jewishpeople, dictated not by the spirit of love, but by thelaw of revenge, but that was entirely done away by thegreat Teacher: "Ye have heard that it was said bythem of old time, Thou shalt love thy neighbour andliate thine enemy; but I say unto you, Love yourenemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them(149) 6
82 Love to Enemies.that hate you, and pray for them which despitefullyuse you and persecute you; that ye may be thechildren of your Father which is in heaven; for hemaketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good,and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust."How happy a world would ours be if this Divinemaxim were universally acted upon, and men were tokill .their enemies only by kindness. Some convictionof this seems even now to be gaining ground, and menwho cannot see the sinfulness of retaliating wars arebecoming in some degree alive to their folly. Thelaw of retaliation to which Christ referred was, in partat least, a temporary legislation for the Jewish nation,designed to put away idolatry and vice from amongthem. The saying, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour,and hate thine enemy," to which Christ replied, occursnowhere in the Old Testament. It was probably aproverbial maxim of the Jews, as it is sufficiently con-sistent with the ideas which human nature is generallyfound to adopt. But many of the laws againstidolatry and other sins were conceived in accordancewith the Mosaic law, as where the cities of idolaterswere to be utterly destroyed and made heaps, theirinhabitants, the children, and even the cattle, smittenwith the edge of the sword. "'With equal abhorrenceof idolatry, and of all the crimes of those who areholden to be outlaws and doomed enemies under theformer Testament, but in striking contrast with theI
Love to Enemies. 83authorised hatred and vengeance exercised towardsthem, Jesus says, love, bless, do good to, and pray forthem, even though they be your bitter foes and per-secutors. He includes among enemies haters and per-secutors, all injurers, whether personal, social, religious,or national -His words are equally irreconcilable withall hatred, all persecution, all cruelty, all wrong .whichone man, one family, one community, or one nation,can do to one another. The truly Christian individualcould not devise, execute, or abet any injury againstan offending fellow-man. What, then, ought a trulyChristian family, neighbourhood, community, state, ornation do 1 If they loved, blessed, benefited, andprayed for the worst of aggressors and offenders, whata spectacle would be presented! What a conquestwould be achieved over all evil doers! Does notJesus enjoin this sublime love and heavenly practice 1Can he mean anything less than appears upon thebeautiful face of his words I What professed Chris-tian can gird on his weapon for aggressive war, or givehis sanction to any cruelty by individuals' or society,and yet plead that he is in the spirit and practice ofthis his Lord's commandment ? Does that man lovehis enemies, bless those who curse him, do good tothose that hate him, and pray for his injurers 9 Letus hear the Saviour urge his own precepts: 'That yemay be the children of your Father which is in heaven;for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the
84 Love to Enemies.good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.For if ye love them only which love you, what rewardhave you? do not even the publicans the same?And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye morethan others? do not even the publicans so ? Be yetherefore perfect, even as your Father which is inheaven is perfect.' Your Father loves his enemies,blesses those that curse him, and does good to themthat hate him. Else the sun would not shine as itdoes on the evil, nor the rain distil on the unjust, norsalvation descend from heaven for the lost. Imbibethe spirit of your Father. Imitate his goodness to theunthankful and evil. Put on his moral character.Be his children. Be not content barely to love themthat love you. Love, forbear with, benefit, and seekto save even the guilty and undeserving."But it is objected that the practice of this Divinemaxim is altogether incompatible with the presentstate of society. We may be sure that Christ has notcommanded us to do that which is impossible. A fewexamples will suffice to show what results do in realityflow from the practice of such a spirit of forbearance,for the principle itself has been long recognised, menbeing compelled, in spite of their own inclinations anddesires, to own, that if every man would only act onthe principle of doing as he would be done by, andpreferring his neighbour to himself harmony and hap-piness would take the place of strife; ambition would
Love to Enemies. 85no longer think it an honourable wish to covet thelaurels won in a violent aggression on neighbouringstates, and retaliating wars and the desire of conquestwould have an end. But on this theme we shall haveoccasion to speak more fully when referring to nationalkindness. Meanwhile, the power of love can be shownto be no less effectual and not less beautifully mani-fested in individual instances.The following incident, which so happily illustratesthe nature of love to our enemies, is taken fromthe diary of Hans Egede Saabye, a grandson of thecelebrated Hans Egede, first missionary to. Green-land :-S "It has ever been a fixed law in Greenland, thatmurder, and particularly the murder of a father, mustbe avenged. About twenty years before the arrival ofSaabye a father had been murdered in the presence ofhis son, a lad of thirteen, in a most atrocious manner.The boy was not able then to avenge the crime, butthe murder was not forgotten. He left that part ofthe country and kept the flame burning in his bosom,no suitable opportunity offering for revenge, as theman was high in influence and many near to defendhim. At length his plan was laid, and with some ofhis relations to assist him he returned to the provinceof the murderer, who lived near the house of Saabye.There being no house unoccupied where they mightremain but one owned by Saabye, they requested it,
86 Love to Enemies.and it was granted without any remark, although heknew the object of their coming."The son soon became interested in the kind mis-sionary, and often visited his cabin, giving as his reason,' You are so amiable I cannot keep away from you.'Two- or three weeks after he requested to know moreof 'the great Lord of heaven,' of whom Saabye hadspoken. His request was cheerfully granted. Soonit appeared that himself and all his relatives weredesirous of instruction, and ere long the son requestedbaptism. To this request the missionary answered:'Kunnuk'-for that was his name-'you know God,you know that he is good, that he loves you and de-sires to make you happy; but he desires also that youshould obey him.'"Kunnuk answered, I love him, I will obey him.'"' His command is, Thou shalt not murder.' Thepoor Greenlander was much affected, and silent. 'Iknow,' said the missionary, 'why you have come herewith your relations, but this you must not do if youwish to become a believer.'"Agitated, he answered, 'But he murdered myfather !""For a long time the missionary pressed this point,the poor awakened heathen promising to 'kill onlyone.' But this was not enough. Thou shalt do nomurder,' Saabye insisted was the command of 'thegreat Lord of heaven.' He exhorted him to leave
Love to Enemies. 87the murderer in the hand of God, to be punished inanother world; but this was waiting too long for re-venge. The missionary refused him baptism withoutobedience to the command. He retired to consult hisfriends. They urged him to revenge."" Saabye visited him, and without referring to thesubject read those portions of Scripture and hymnsteaching a quiet and forgiving temper. Some daysafter Kunnuk came again to the cabin of Saabye. Iwill,' said he, 'and I will not; I hear, and I do nothear. I never felt so before; I will forgive him, andI will not forgive him.' The missionary told him,'When he would forgive then his better spirit spoke,when he would not forgive then his unconverted heartspoke.' He then repeated to him the latter part ofthe life of Jesus, and his prayer for his murderers. Atear stood in his eye. 'But 'he was better than I,'said Kunnuk. 'But God will give us strength,'Saabye answered. He then read the martyrdom ofStephen, and his dying prayer for his enemies. Kun-nuk dried his eyes and said: The wicked men! Heis happy; he is certainly with God in heaven. Myheart is so moved; but give me a little time-when Ihave brought the other heart to silence I will comeagain. He soon returned with a smiling countenance,saying, 'Now I am happy; I hate no more; I haveforgiven; my wicked heart shall be silent.' He andhis wife having made a clear profession of faith in
88 Love to Enemies.Christ were baptized and received into the church.Soon after he sent the following note to the murdererof his father: I am now a believer, and you haveAothing to fear;' and invited him to his house. Theman came, and invited Kunnuk in his turn to visithim. Contrary to the advice of his friends Kunnukwent, and as he was returning home he found a holehad been cut in his kajak, or boat, in order that hemight be drowned. Kunnuk stepped out of the water,saying, 'He is still afraid, though I will not harmhim !'"What a noble example of self-conquest does thisexhibit! How rarely, indeed, do we meet, even amongthe professing Christians of our own highly favouredland, with an example to be compared with this illus-trious exhibition of the power of the gospel in a poorheathen Greenlander 7A beautiful instance of the disarming force of kind-ness has already been furnished in a previous chapter.The following narrative is no less illustrative of thesame great truth. It is related of the house of W-and D- Brothers, a firm of wealthy merchants inManchester, consisting of two brothers, from whom, itis affirmed, that a celebrated living fictitious writerderived his model of the " Cheeryble Brothers.""The elder brother of this house of merchant
Love to Enemies. 89princes amply revenged himself upon a libeller whohad made himself merry with the peculiarities of theSamiable fraternity. This man published a pamphletin which one of the brothers (D.) was designated asSBilly Button, and represented as talking largely oftheir foreign trade, having travellers who regularlyvisited Chowbent, Bullock-Smithy, and other foreign"parts. Some 'kind friend' had told W. of thispamphlet, and W. had said that the man would live torepent of its publication. This saying was conveyedto the libeller, who replied that he should take carenever to be in their debt. But the man in businessdoes not always know who shall be his creditor. Theauthor of the pamphlet became bankrupt, and thebrothers held an acceptance of his which had been:indorsed by the drawer, who had also become bank-rupt. The wantonly libelled men had thus becomecreditors of the libeller. They now had it in theirpower to make him repent of his audacity. He couldnot obtain his certificate without their signature, andwithout it he could not enter into business again. Hehad obtained the number of signatures required by thebankrupt laws, except one."It seemed folly to hope that the firm of 'Brothers'would supply the deficiency. What! they who hadcruelly been made the laughing-stock of the publicforget the wrong and favour the wrong-doer! Hedespaired; but the claims of a wife and children
9o Love to Enemies.forced him at last to make the application. Humbledby misery, he presented himself at the counting-roomof the wronged. W. was there alone, and his firstwords to the delinquent were, Shut the door, sir!'sternly uttered. The door was shut, and the libellerstood trembling before the libelled. He told his tale,and produced his certificate, which was instantlyclutched by the injured merchant." You wrote a pamphlet against us once! exclaimedW. The supplicant expected to see his parchmentthrown into the fire; but this was not its destination.W. took a pen, and writing something on the docu-ment, handed it back to the bankrupt. He, poorwretch, expected to see there, 'rogue, scoundrel,libeller,' inscribed; but there was, in fair roundcharacters, the signature of the firm 'We make it arule,' said W., 'never to refuse signing the certificateof an honest tradesman, and we have never heard youwas anything else.' The tear stood in the poor man'seyes."'Ah !' said W., 'my saying was true. I said youwould live to repent writing that pamphlet. I didnot mean it as a threat; I only meant that some dayor other you would know us better, and would repentyou tried to injure us. I see you repent of it now.''I do, I do,' said the grateful man. 'Well, well, mydear fellow,' said W., 'you know us now. How doyou get on ? What are you going to do The poor
Love to Enemies. 91man stated that he had friends who could assist himwhen his certificate was obtained. 'But how are youoff in the meantime And the answer was, thathaving given up everything to his creditors, he hadbeen compelled to stint his family of even commonSnecessaries that he might be enabled to pay the costSof his certificate. 'My dear fellow,' said W., 'thiswill never do; your family must not suffer. Be kindenough to take this ten-pound note to your wife fromme. There, there, my dear fellow-nay, don't cry-itwill be all well with you yet. Keep up your spirits,Sset to work like a man, and you will raise your headyet.' The overpowered man endeavoured in vain toSexpress his thanks-the swelling in his throat forbadewords; he put his handkerchief to his face, and wentSout of the door crying like a child."Was not this a literal fulfilment of the command,and also a literal reaping of the promised reward-S "If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, givehim drink; so shalt thou heap coals of fire on his head."But not only does kindness supply the noblest andonly true revenge; it also brings back its own rewardsevenfold on the practiser :" A worthy old coloured woman, in the city of NewYork, was one day walking along the street, on some" errand to a neighbouring store, with her tobacco-pipe
92 Love to Enemies.in her mouth, quietly smoking. A jovial sailor, ren-dered a little mischievous by liquor, came along thestreet, and, when opposite our good Phillis, saucilyshouldered her aside, and with a pass of his handknocked her pipe out of her mouth. He then haltedto hear her fret at his trick, and enjoy a laugh at herexpense. But what was his astonishment, when shemeekly picked up the pieces of her broken pipe, with-out the least resentment in her manner, and giving hima dignified look of mingled sorrow, kindness, and pity,said, God forgive you, my son, as I do.' It toucheda tender chord in the heart of the rude tar. He feltashamed, condemned, and repentant. The tear startedin his eye; he must make reparation. He heartilyconfessed his error; and, thrusting both hands into histoo full pockets of change, forced the contents uponher, exclaiming, God bless you, kind mother, I'll neverdo so again.'"Ballou, a zealous advocate for the doctrine of non-resistance, as carried out in its very fullest sense, relatesthe following anecdote of a circumstance which occurredwithin his own sphere of observation:-"Two of my former neighbours had a slight contro-versy about a few loads of manure. One of them wasthe other's tenant. The lessor had distinctly stipulatedto reserve all the manure of the stable, and had offsetit with certain privileges and favours to the lessee.