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Group Title: Pamphlet - Department of Agriculture, Tanganyika - no. 50
Title: Notes for beekeepers in Tanganyika
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023303/00001
 Material Information
Title: Notes for beekeepers in Tanganyika
Series Title: Pamphlet
Physical Description: 8 p. : ill. (some folded) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, F. G
Tanganyika -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Government Printer
Place of Publication: Dar es Salaam
Publication Date: 1951
 Subjects
Subject: Bee culture -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: <F.G. Smith>
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Pamphlet (Tanganyika. Dept. of Agriculture) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023303
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001913130
oclc - 38472922
notis - AJY8635

Table of Contents
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        Title Page
    Notes for beekeepers in Tanganika
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Full Text
08


- Paiphlet No. 50


TANGANYIKA



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



NOTES FOR BEEKEEPERS

IN TANGANYIKA




















1951
PRINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER
DAR ES SALAAM
Price Sh. 1/25


r: iLE~39 L~9E
------ -- -------I-----













NOTES FOR BEEKEEPERS IN TANGANYIKA
By F. G. Smith, B.Sc. (Forestry), Beeswax Officer

INTRODUCTION
In response to many requests from Beekeepers and those wishing to become
Beekeepers, these notes have been produced as a guide. The honey' bees, the
climate and the dangers bees have to contend with are rather different in Tanganyika
from those met with in the more temperate beekeeping regions of the World.
The standard text books on beekeeping are principally applicable to the temperate
regions. It is therefore necessary to modify the techniques described in the text
books to suit conditions here.
This leaflet attempts to guide Beekeepers in Tanganyika onto the right lines,
and is to be used in conjuction with one of the standard Beekeeping Text Books
listed herein.
TEXT BOOKS
Any one of the following books can be used in conjunction with this leaflet:-
The Bee Craftsman, by H. J. Wadey. The Apis Club.
The Art of Beekeeping, by William Hamilton.
Beekeeping in Britain, by R. O. B. Manley. Faber and Faber.
The Hive and the Honey Bee. Edited by Roy A. Grout. Dadant and Sons.
The books can be obtained from E. H. Taylor Ltd., Welwyn, Herts, England or
from Burtt and Sons, Stroud Road, Gloucester, England.

THE HONEY BEE
The Honey Bee in Africa, not including the Lower Nile, is a subspecies of the
European Honey Bee. The name of this subspecies is Apis Mellifica unicolor. There
are four named varieties of this subspecies, but Apis Mellifica unicolor Latr., the
all black bee, and Apis Mellifica unicolor var adansoni Latr., with three yellow stripes
on the abdomen and yellow hairs, are the more important.
The latter is the common honey bee in Tanganyika and is the variety that
will normally be used by beekeepers.
Although adansoni normally builds worker comb of cells which are a little
smaller than the European Apis Mellifica, it has been found that they draw out
standard foundation beautifully and breed in it freely. The spacing of the combs in
the natural state is lI" and it has been found preferable, when using frame hives,
to use the Langstroth frame spacing of 13" rather than the British and Dadant
spacing of 1.45" or 1I".
Another difference between adansoni and many of the European races is that
of temper. Whereas swarms are normally gentle, one does hear cases of attacks
made by vicious swarms. It is possible that such vicious swarms are not normal
reproductive swarms, but are hunger swarms, driven from their nest by lack of
nectar or water, seeking a better site. Or they may be bees that have been driven
out by a honey hunter or by insect attack.
The surplus honey comb can be gathered from native type hives and wild
nests with the aid of smoke, and with no serious stinging, after the rains are
finished when there is little brood in the hive.









It is found, however, that in the rainy season, once the colony has the equivalent
of six Langstroth frames of brood, management is extremely difficult, as the bees do
not appear to respond to smoke. The causes of the viciousness and how it may be
overcome, are matters that are receiving constant attention.
BEE HIVES
The hive is but the tool of the beekeeper, it is not a be all and end all in itself.
The type of hive to use is that which best suits the requirements of the beekeeper.

There are two main approaches to beekeeping. One is to use the simplest
possible hives that bees will live in and to carry out no form of management other
than removing the honey comb when-the crop is ready. This is the primitive form
of beekeeping, which is carried out throughout the territory. The advantages of
this system are : (I) The hives are of negligible cost, requiring only two or three
days of the beekeepers time to make, and measured in terms of cash, three or four
shillings. (2) There is no labour charge in managing the hives. The disadvantages
are :-(I) Many hives are not occupied by bees during the flowering season, and so
yield no return. (2) Lack of management prevents the maximum use being made
of the available nectar. (3) Many bees are killed when brood and all the stores are
removed, and often the queen is killed too. This results in either starvation for the
bees, or their survival in such a weak condition that they are unable to make full use
of the next available nectar.
The second approach is that of the beekeeper who wants the simplest form of
hive that can be managed to control swarming, produce the maximum possible crop
of beeswax and honey, and provide adequate space for the broodnest and stores to
enable the bees to survive from one flowering season to the next, and to be strong
enough to collect the maximum amount of nectar. The hive that fulfils these
requirements is the frame hive.
The advantages of the frame hive are :-
(I) The hive can be stocked by the hiving of swarms, transferring bees
from primitive hives or wild nests, or by making artificial increase.
(2) The use of frames to hold the combs in the broodnest enables the
beekeeper to control swarming and manage the bees for maximum production.
(3) The ease with which the size of the hive can be increased or decreased
enables the beekeeper to give adequate room for the building of comb and storage
of honey, and enables the crop to be harvested without disturbing the broodnest.
The disadvantages of the frame hive are :
(I) The considerable cost of even the simplest commercial type of frame
hive.
(2) The cost of labour required for the proper management of frame hives
for the maximum production.
Whether this high capital outlay and labour cost is justified by the increased
production is a matter for considerable research. However, the universal use of
frame hives by commercial beekeepers throughout the world, would indicate that
their use is worth while. Whereas the capital outlay required for frame hives is
unavoidable, carefully thought out management reduces labour costs to a surpri-
singly small amount, chiefly owing to the ease and speed with which operations can
be carried out. This is particularly noticeable at harvest time, when it takes at
least half an hour to collect the crop from one native type hive hung in a tree, three
or four minutes being all that is required for all the operations necessary to remove
the crop from a frame hive.
There have been in the past, and there still are, many attempts to combine the
cheapness of a primitive hive with the advantages of a frame hive, but up to the
present, none has been wholly successful.









NATIVE TYPE HIVES
Primitive hives in this Territory are constructed either from hollowed out logs,
Brachystegia bark,bound with straw, or bamboo and straw, according to the materials
and traditions of the neighbourhood. The most advanced forms of primitive hives
are three feet six inches to four feet long, and about fourteen inches in diameter.
The hives are either hung on sticks from the branches of smooth barked trees, or
actually laid along the branches, to afford protection from insects, the honey ratel,
and grass fires.
The primitive Type recommended is the Miombo Bark hive made of a cylinder
of the inner bark of Brachystegia or Isoberlinia trees, which is sewn up with bark
string and has a supporting series of hoops of thin sticks (fitu). One end is closed
with a piece of bar-k sewn over the end, and about four y" diameter holes burnt
in it to act as entrances for the bees. The other end' has a bung made of a disk o
bark bound with grass to make a tight fit. The cylinder of bark is protected from
the heat of the sun and the rain by binding straw round it with bark rope,
By means of a stick hooked over a branch the hive is suspended on a slant so that
the end containing the entrance for the bees is at least afoot lower than the end with
the bung. It is important that the trees selected for hanging hives should be tall,
straight clear stemmed and smooth barked, so that the honey ratel and other pests
cannot getat the hive easily.
FRAME HIVES
The most suitable frame hive for Tanganyika, is that used in the Union of South
Africa and by beekeepers in America, Australia and New Zealand, namely, the Langs-
troth or American Standard Hive. This is a frame hive in its simplest possible
form and its dimensions are standard almost everywhere.
The hive consists of a floor board, with entrance block, body boxes which hold
the frames, a crown board and roof. A queen excluder will be required and
possibly a feeder and a travelling screen, if the bees are to be moved about at all.
Each body box holds ten frames, spaced at H1", the normal Langstroth spacing,
which is more suitable for the local bees than the English and Dadant I-" spacing.
The Hoffman frames, which are normally used, are self spacing. A follow board for
each box is also required. In each frame is fitted a sheet of comb foundation. The
foundation ensures that the bees will build their combs in the frames as required,
and also provides for the maximum worker comb available for brood rearing. The
foundation should be wired to prevent sagging or distortion. Nowadays, ready
wired foundation is preferred. This has vertical wires embedded in the wax and
pin nails are driven through the wire loops at the top to prevent the foundation
slipping out of the frame,
Normally, Langstroth equipment is worked using body boxes of the same size
for the broodnest and for storing the honey. Some, however, will want to work
for comb honey sections. For this a special box is used, known as a section super,
and it holds 28 sections, 41"x4j"xl ". Shallow extracting supers are sometimes
used.
THE TIMBER FOR HIVE MAKING
The timber used for hive making should be of a species that has the minimum of
movement with changes of moisture content, should be durable, that is, resistant to
fungus and insect damage, and should, if possible, be light. The best wood of all is
Western Red Cedar. Hives are made of this material in the U.K. when it is available.
In East Africa, the most suitable timbers are the East African Cedar, (Juniper procero)
and Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis).
Timbers that expand and contract a lot with changes of moisture content should
not be used for hive making. Less durable timbers can be used, but they should be
treated with creosote.









FLOOR BOARDS
Length 20" breadth 161". The floor board consists of two side runners,
2"x-"x20". These runners are grooved on one side. The groove is 7" wide, 7"
from one edge and 3" deep. Between the side runners, and with their ends
fitting into the grooves are boards 7" thick, 15'" long and having a total width, when
tongued and grooved together, of 20", corresponding to the length of the side
runners. Between the runners at the back of the floor board is fitted a piece
9"X "X14". The entrance block is of the same dimensions but with a piece 5"Xj"
cut out on one side to form the entrance. When the block is turned the other way,
it can be used to close the entrance for moving. A stud is driven into each side
runner to prevent the entrance block being pushed in too far. Floor boards with
projecting alighting boards are not recommended as they catch the rain, and are a
nuisance when transporting the hives.

BODY BOX
The body box is composed of four pieces of 7" timber, 9%" wide. The internal
dimensions of the box are 181" long by 14" wide. Using 7" timber the external
dimensions will be 20" long by 161" wide. The internal dimensions and the depth
of 9 must be strictly adhered too. On the two shorter sides, a rabbet i'X-" is
cut along the top. A metal strip is nailed along each rabbet to present a bearing
surface for the frames, 5" from the top of the box. Hand holds are usually cut on
all four sides of the body box.

ROOF
The roof is usually made of or ," timber. A rim 3" deep is made, with internal
dimensions of 16\" by 20j". Boards are nailed over the rim and the roof is
covered with sheet metal to keep it dry.

INNER COVER OR CROWN BOARD
This is usually composed of g" boards, tongued and grooved, with a rim
|"XJ" round the sides. The size is the same as the external dimensions of the body
box, 20"XI61". Two holes to take Porter Bee Escapes are usually cut in the
crown board. These holes are 1I" wide, by 4" long, having rounded ends. In
normal use the holes are covered by flat pieces of wood or wire cloth. Through
these also the bees may be fed. Their presence however, enables the crown board
to be used as a super clearer when the Porter escapes are fitted. The bees can pass
down from the supers through the escapes, but they cannot get back.

QUEEN EXCLUDER
The queen excluder consists of a series of wires so spaced as to allow the worker
bees to pass freely, but prevent the Queen from getting through owing to the
larger size of her thorax. Some Queen Excluders are made of stamped zinc, but
these sheets of zinc must be mounted in frames to prevent them sagging and impe-
ding the ventilation between the frames. The type of excluder recommended is
either the Waldron or the Seven Wood and Wire, in preference to the zinc type.
The Queen Excluder is used between the box or boxes containing the broodnest
and the storage supers, to confine the queen's egg laying to the broodnest.

FRAMES
Theframe is composed of atop bar, side bars, and bottom bars. The top bar has
a piece cut out on the underside which is used for holding the foundation in position.
When ready wired foundation is used, split bottom bars are required.









One edge of the side bar has a V shape and the other is flat. The frame is
assembled so that when in the hive a V edge always comes against a flat edge. The
usual rule is that when looking at the frame the right way up, the nearest edge of the
side bar on the left is a V edge, and that on the right is flat.
It is not recommended that beekeepers make their own frames, unless they
have access to a saw bench and a double ended spindle. Frames are far more
cheaply and accurately made by machinery than by hand.

FOUNDATION
Comb foundation is a thin rolled sheet of bees wax which has stamped on both
sides the impression of the bases of the cells. Foundation is supplied either wired
or unwired. Wired foundation should be used for the broodnest and for honey
extracting supers. When comb honey is required, thin unwired foundation is used
in the sections. When working for beeswax production, narrow strips of unwired
foundation known as starters, are used. To fix the foundation into the frame,
remove the wedge from the underside of the top bar, place the foundation in
position and nail the wedge back into place with 3" or I" frame pins, which are very
thin wire nails. The bottom of ready wired foundation should fit between the two
halves of the split bottom bar. The nails securing the wedge should pass through
wire loops at the top of the foundation, so holding it firmly in position.

THE BEE SPACE
In 1851, Langstroth, an American clergyman, discovered that if a space of
between -" and I" was left between the frames and the top and sides of the hive, the
bees neither stuck the frames in with propolis nor built comb in the space. This
discovery made possible the modern frame hive and laid the foundation of commercial
beekeeping. It is therefore important that the dimensions of frames and body
boxes be strictly adhered to, otherwise trouble will be experienced due to the bees
sticking the frames to the walls of the hive and the top of the frames of one box to
the bottoms of the frames in the box above.

APIARY SITE
All the usual recommendations about selecting the apiary site should be born
in mind, but above all, proximity to water is the most important. At all times of the
year the bees require water, and if they cannot get water near their hive, they will
abscond. Whatever the supply of water, the bees must be able to get it without
being drowned. Where there are streams, pools or water holes, the bees collect
the water from the moist earth at the edges. If a water container is provided for
the bees, it must have some sort of raft, of twigs or sacking, on which the bees can
alight to drink without falling in.

THE STOCKING OF HIVES-NATIVE TYPE HIVES

There are two methods of stocking a native type hive. One is to hive a swarm
into it, the other, the method normally used, is to bait the hive, hang it up and hope
that a swarm will come along and occupy it.
To hive a swarm, it is first necessary to wait for the swarm to settle and cluster.
When it is clustering quietly, shake the swarm into the hive or brush it in, and set
the hive down near by in the shade. If the queen is inside, the flying bees will
presently be seen entering the hive. Leave the hive until evening or night time and
then hang it up where you want it.









To bait a hive, smear hot beeswax inside. The natives then normally place
a piece of beeswax on some hot embers, so that it smoulders, without bursting into
flame. The hive is then stood over the smouldering embers, open end down, so
that the smoke thoroughly penetrates into every part of the hive. The hive is then
closed and hung in the tree. If you are lucky, a swarm will come along and occupy
it in due course.

FRAME- HIVES
Frame hives can be stocked in three different ways :-
(I) Hiving a swarm : by far the best way. (2) Baiting the hive as with a native
type hive. (3) Transferring bees into it from a native hive.

HIVING A SWARM
A swarm can be hived direct into a frame hive by shaking or brushing it in. It can,
however first be shaken into a box, which is then set in the shade, mouth down
but raised off the ground so that the flying bees can enter. In the evening, a wide
board covered with a white cloth is placed sloping gently up to the entrance of the
hive. The entrance block should be removed so as to allow free entry of the
bees into the hive. The bees are shaken out of the box on to the cloth. As is
the normal instinct of the bees, they will walk up hill into the hive. A watch can be
kept for the queen, and if she is seen and placed at the entrance of the hive, she will
run in quickly out of the light and the bees will then follow rapidly. The sight
of many bees fanning at the entrance of the hive, displaying the scent gland at the
end of the abdomen, is an indication that the queen is in the hive.
A little smoke may be used at the sides of the board or behind the bees to guide
them up to the hive.
Once all the bees are safely in the hive, usually not until it is practically night
time, the entrance should be closed and the hive taken to a cold dark room, where
it should be left for 36 to 48 hours. While in the dark room the bees should be fed
with sugar syrup.
For this feeding a close contact type of feeder is most suitable. The feeder can
be composed of a jar with a piece of americani tied over the top or a treacle tin with
a friction lid with small holes punched in it. The jar or tin filled with sugar syrup,
strength one pound of sugar to one pint of water, is inverted over the porter
escape hole in the crown board, so that the bees can suck the syrup down through
the holes in the lid or cloth cover.
This feeding in the dark gives the bees a chance to settle down and to start
comb building, and so lessens their tendency to abscond.

TRANSFERRING BEES
Bees can be fairly easily transferred from a native or box hive to a frame hive.
The requirements for this operation are a length of rope or wire, a smoker, prefer-
ably two, a complete hive with frames of foundation, a travelling screen, some crate
staples and a hammer, three or four empty made up frames, some string and a knife.
The assistance of a boy or two, preferably well protected with veil and gloves, is
also required. The first thing to do is to light the smoker, and make sure it is
working well. One of the boys then climbs the tree with the rope. If the hive is
resting on, or tied to the branches of the tree, the boy should also take up the
smoker, and puff some smoke into the hive entrances before he touches the hive.
If the hive is hanging from a hooked stick,smoking at first is not usually required.
Next the smoker should be lowered to the ground. If you have two smokers, this
is not necessary. The rope is then tied round the hive br in the case of the hanging









type of hive, round the hooked stick. The hive is cut loose and swung out over the
branch, or the hooked stick is unhooked from the branch, so that the beekeeper
can, by gently paying out the rope, lower the hive to the ground.
Before the hive touches the ground, puff some smoke into the entrances. Do
not forget that there may be entrances at both ends of a native hive, and in the
split log hive, some along the sides too. Once on the ground untie the rope,
and carry off the hive twenty or thirty yards, preferably into the shade. Smoke
again and open the end of the hive. See how the combs are hanging and arrange the
hive so that it is sloping with the open end uppermost, and in such a position as to put
as little strain on the combs as possible. Above the open end, and in contact with
the hive of bees, rig up your frame hive. The frame hive should have its floor board
removed, and the travelling screen fixed on top. Now pound the native hive gently
but firmly, using some smoke applied at the lower end. The bees will climb up
out of the pounded hive into the frame hive. Be careful not to pound so
hard as to break the comb. When most of the bees are out of the native hive
and in the frame hive, cut out the combs. The honey combs must be put
quickly into a tin with lid, any bees adhering to them being brushed off. Any bits
of comb that may fall on the ground must also be put in and covered up.
This is most important to prevent robbing. The brood comb is put on a
board and cut to fit the empty frames. It is then tied into the frames with
string passing round the top and bottom bars. When all the brood comb is
tied in, smoke the top of the frame hive through the travelling screen and
put the frames of brood into the hive. If there are any clusters of bees about,
brush or shake them into the hive, and replace and secure the travelling screen.
Staple the floor board in position, but do not put in the entrance block. Put on
the roof over the travelling screen, and take the frame hive to the foot of the tree in
which the native hive was hanging. Secure the rope to the hive, using crate staples
to ensure that the rope or wire won't slip. Hoist the hive clear of the ground, and
make sure that it is hanging level in the rope sling. Then hoist the frame hive up
into the tree as near as possible to the former position of the native hive. Secure the
rope in such a manner that the hive can be lowered easily without jarring it.

Leave the hive hanging in the tree for a day or two, to give the bees a chance to
settle down, and to secure the combs of brood in the frames. After a day or two,
late in the evening, when all bees are in the hive, carefully lower the hive, quickly
slip in the entrance closing block and remove the roof. Do not leave the roof on a
moment more than necessary in case the bees panic. Secure the entrance closure
block in position, untie the rope, and take the hive off to an apiary site at least two
miles away. If there is no honey flow on, feed the bees, starting with the direct
contact type feeder, and then when they have got into the way of coming up to the
crown board for food a Miller feeder can be used.
If the bees take down their food readily, and if pollen is being brought into the
hive, you may be pretty sure that all is well and the bees are going to stay. .
It may happen, that by some mischance, the queen gets killed during the transfer-
ring, but so long as there are eggs or very young brood present in the hive, the bees
can raise a new queen. There is however a danger of the bees absconding when the
virgin goes out to mate. If you have a spare frame or two of young brood that can
be taken from another hive and place it in the hive with the virgin, it is unlikely
that they will abscond, as bees rarely desert young brood.
The often recommended placing of queen excluder over the entrance to prevent
absconding is a practice that should be avoided. The queen excluder prevents the
free passage of drones, frequently scrapes the pollen off the legs of the incoming
bees, and should the bees supersede their queen, the virgin will be prevented from
going out to mate, with disastrous results to the colony.









THE MANAGEMENT OF NATIVE HIVES
The only Management native hives require is the removal of the crop of surplus
honey and beeswax at the appropriate time. This varies in different parts of the
territory. Normally it is after the honey which was collected during the main
nectar flow has been ripened. In most beekeeping areas, this is about a month
after the flowering of the Isoberlinia globiflora) Kinyamwezi-Muwa; Southern
Province-Mchenga and Lichenga). The Isoberlinia globiflora flowers towards the
end of the rains so the honey is usually ready in May, June or July. At this time
brood rearing has been reduced so the majority of combs in the hives hold surplus
honey, and there are few brood combs.
To collect the crop the hive is lowered and smoked. The bung is opened and
the bees gently smoked off the honey combs. The honey combs and any empty
combs are cut out and any adhering bees shaken off. The brood combs, which
should be at the lower end of the hive, are not touched. The hive is then replaced
in the tree and the bees can continue their colony life.
Leaving the brood and a little honey in the hive enables the bees to survive
until the next flowering season, provided they can get water. Colonies so preser-
ved will be strong and be able to store larger crops than would be obtained if the
brood nest was destroyed.
THE MANAGEMENT OF FRAME HIVES
The beekeeper will of course follow whatever form of management given in the
text books that may appeal to him. It may however be found that, owing to the
viciousness of the colony during the breeding season, the only form of management
possible will be the addition of extra boxes as required, and their removal with the
aid of a porter escape when they are filled and the honey is ripe.
PREPARATION OF BEESWAX AND HONEY FOR MARKET
Users of Frame Hives will normally use centrifugal extractors for separating the
honey from the comb, and one of the modern appliances for rendering beeswax.
The techniques are fully described in the text books mentioned and in the
pamphlet "Modern Methods of Rendering Beeswax" (Department of Agriculture
Pamphlet No. 49).
It is however, necessary to describe the more primitive methods, suitable for use
when dealing with the crop from native type hives, where irregular pieces of comb
have to be dealt with.
HONEY
The honey is ready for removal from the hive when the cells are covered with
caps of wax. Honey in open cells contains too much moisture and is liable to
ferment if kept. Care should be taken not to mix any Honey dew or honey from
objectionable sources, such as rubber trees, with the good honey.
The ripe honey comb is placed in a suitable container and broken up into small
pieces. If a honey press is available, then the broken up comb can be wrapped in
cloth and the honey squeezed out in the press. Alternatively, the native method of
pouring the broken honey, comb into a grass strainer can be used. The honey is
squeezed out between two sticks. The wax that remains is then put with any
empty combs for melting. The honey should never be heated over a fire. Solar
extractors should be used with caution for if the honey remains too long in them,
there is a danger of its becoming over heated. Overheated honey loses its aroma,
becomes dark and the sugars in the honey become caramelized, giving the honey
a burnt sugar flavour.
Good native produced honey is sold either in the form of unbroken sealed
honey comb, or honey comb finely broken up in a container, or with the wax
removed by careful straining. Honey that has been strained only by passing it
through a grass strainer should be strained through two thicknesses of butter
muslin before use.









BEESWAX
The best native method of rendering beeswax is as follows:-
(I) The wax is soaked in water for a few hours to dissolve any honey and to
saturate any cocoons or pollen present in the comb.
(2) The wax is then put into fresh water in a debe or cooking pot. There should
be as much water as there is wax. The water is heated until the wax is all melted.
Frequent stirring is necessary and care must be taken not to let the water boil or
there will be a danger of the wax boiling over and causing afire.
(3) While one person holds a long grass strainer such as is used in beer making,
another pours in the melted wax. The strainer is squeezed between two sticks
to separate as much of the wax from the rubbish as possible.
(4) One now has a mixture of beeswax, with the bigger rubbish separated from
it, and water and slumgum. To separate the beeswax from the slumgum, or
propolis, the hand, or a piece of flat board, is plunged into cold water, and then
placed carefully on the surface of the wax for a moment. A film of wax will adhere to
the hand or board. Dip again in cold water and then onto the surface of the wax.
Continue this until there is no more wax left floating on the slumgum and water.
The wax can be peeled off the hand or board, whenever too much has accumulated.
(5) Once again the wax, now free of the larger rubbish and slumgum, is melted
in clean water, as much water as there is wax,
(6) Enamel bowls are prepared to receive the wax. They should be clean,
and it is convenient to smear the insides with a thin film of soapy water, to prevent
the wax from sticking to the bowl. Oil or fat must never be used for this purpose.
(7) The melted wax is poured through a piece of fine cloth into the bowls. This
cloth removes the remaining particles of dirt. Some water may go through into
the bowls as well, but that does not matter, as the wax will solidify on top of the
water.
(8) The bowls of wax are put into a place out of draughts of air and where no
dirt will fall into them. When the wax is quite cold the cakes can be knocked out
of the bowls. If there is any dirty wax on the bottom, this should be scraped off
and put in with the next lot of wax to be melted. The cakes are then ready for
market.
ADVICE AND INFORMATION
The beeswax Officer, Beekeeping Research Station, Tabora, will be pleased to
advise Beekeepers on the purchase of equipment and on any other Beekeeping
problems, but neither he nor his staff can undertake the management of hives for
Beekeepers.
The Beeswax Officer will be glad to receive any of the following:-
(a) Samples of flowers, each species separately packed, from which bees are
collecting nectar or pollen;
(b) Samples of different kinds of honey;
(c) Specimens of pests of bees; and
(d) should disease appear, samples of not less than thirty infected bees, or pieces
of diseased comb.
In connection with (c) and (d), advice will be given where required.


Printed by the Government Printer, Dar es Salaam,









NOTES







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BARK DISK SouNo WrTH
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FOR. BEES





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AND BOUND WI1H BARK I OPE
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