Front Cover
 Title Page
 Prefatory notes
 Table of Contents
 List of maps
 Mediterranean, Malay, and Muhammadan...
 The Portuguese in Africa
 Spanish Africa
 The Dutch in Africa
 The slave trade
 The British in Africa, I (west...
 The French in west and north...
 Christian missions
 The British in Africa, II ( south...
 Great explorers
 Belgian Africa
 The British in Africa, III (Egypt...
 The Italians in Africa
 German Africa
 The French in Madagascar
 Supplementary notes
 Appendix I: Notable events and...
 Appendix II: Bibliography of the...

Group Title: Cambridge historical series
Title: A history of the colonization of Africa by alien races
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023172/00001
 Material Information
Title: A history of the colonization of Africa by alien races
Series Title: Cambridge historical series
Physical Description: xii, 319 p. : VIII maps. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Johnston, Harry Hamilton, 1858-1927
Bartholomew, J. G ( John George ), 1860-1920 ( ed )
Publisher: University Press
Place of Publication: Cambridge
Publication Date: 1899
Subject: Colonization -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 300-302.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sir Harry H. Johnston ... With eight maps by the author and J.G. Bartholomew.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023172
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000591413
notis - ADC0244
oclc - 03693600
lccn - 04017678

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page iii
    Prefatory notes
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    List of maps
        Page xiii
    Mediterranean, Malay, and Muhammadan invaders
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
    The Portuguese in Africa
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
    Spanish Africa
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The Dutch in Africa
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
    The slave trade
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The British in Africa, I (west coast, Morocco, north-central)
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    The French in west and north Africa
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 145
    Christian missions
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    The British in Africa, II ( south and south-central)
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Great explorers
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Belgian Africa
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 230a
    The British in Africa, III (Egypt and Eastern Africa)
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    The Italians in Africa
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    German Africa
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
    The French in Madagascar
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 274a
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
    Supplementary notes
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 288a
    Appendix I: Notable events and dates in the history of African colonization
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
    Appendix II: Bibliography of the history of colonization of Africa
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
Full Text

eambridge Vistorical Series


IfCT:: ^ r, YHE

Ronuon: C. J. CLAY AND SONS,
Clasgano: 263, ARGYLE STREET.

Leip)ig: F. A. BROCKHAUS.
b3omta: E. SEYMOUR HALE.


The aim of this series is to sketch the history of Modern
Europe, with that of its chief colonies and conquests, from about
the end of the fifteenth century down to the present time. In one
or two cases the story will commence at an earlier date: in the
case of the colonies it will usually begin later. The histories
of the different countries will be described, as a general rule,
separately, for it is believed that, except in epochs like that of the
French Revolution and Napoleon I, the connection of events will
thus be better understood and the continuity of historical develop-
ment more clearly displayed.
The series is intended for the use of all persons anxious to
understand the nature of existing political conioditions. e roots
of the present lie deep in the past," and the real significance of
contemporary events cannot be grasped unless the historical causes
which have led to them are known. The plan adopted makes
it possible to treat the history of the last four centuries in
considerable detail, and to embody the most important results of
modern research. It is hoped therefore that the series will
be useful not only to beginners but to students who have already
acquired some general knowledge of European History. For
those who wish to carry their studies further, the bibliography
appended to each volume will act as a guide to original sources
of information and works more detailed and authoritative.
Considerable attention will be paid to political geography,
and each volume will be furnished with such maps and plans
as may be requisite for the illustration of the text.


First Edition 1899.
Reprinted 1899.










[All Rightis reserved.]


S THE Editor of this Historical series asked me to compile
S this little work on the History of African Colonization; other-
wise it is doubtful whether I should have applied myself to a
task, which, until I had commenced it, appeared to me an act
S of supererogation in the presence of such admirable existing
works on African history as those of Mr McCall Theal, Dr
Scott-Keltie, Mr C. P. Lucas, Sir Edward Hertslet and others.
"' But when I was made aware that no attempt had yet been
made to summarise and review in a single book the general
history of the attempts of Asia and Europe to colonize Africa
S during the historical period, I admitted that there might be
S room and usefulness for such a work, and have since attempted
to fulfil the task to the best of my ability. Further preface
Should overload this unpretending compilation; but, turning
away from the public, I should like to dedicate my work in
personal friendliness and admiration to four men specially
'^ distinguished among many others by their services in the
cause of European civilization in Africa: SIR GEORGE TAUB-
MAN GOLDIE, who has risked life and fortune through twenty
years in founding Nigeria as a British dominion, which some
Sday in extent, population, and wealth may rival India; LORD
KITCHENER of KHARTUM, who for thirteen years has cherished,
in the face of much discouragement, and has at last accom-
Splished the task of, reconquering from barbarism the Egyptian

vi Prefatory Note.

Sudan; MONSIEUR RENA MILLET, French Resident General
in Tunis, who has shown how well a Frenchman can admin-
ister a great dependency when allowed liberty of action; and
missioner in Africa, who founded the State of German East
Africa, and who has done more than any living German to
establish and uphold the prestige of that great nation in the
darkest parts of the Dark Continent.


TUNIS, November, z898.

A REPRINT of this book having become necessary, the
author takes the opportunity to insert a few additional facts,
and to make corrections in certain details. Some of these
corrections are due to the suggestions of kind critics, who,
in private letters or in published reviews, have pointed out
errors or omissions. In one or two instances, however, the
author on consulting his original authorities has been obliged
to stick to his own version. In a future edition it is possible
that these debatable questions may be entered into with more
detail, and with explicit references to the sources from which
the information or statement has been derived.

TUNIS, June, x899.


The origin of African man-Distribution of native races three thousand
years ago-Bantu invasion of South Africa-The Phoenicians-
Carthage-Hanno's voyage-Greeks in Cyrenaica and Egypt-Per-
sians in Egypt-Rome replaces Carthage-Malay invasions of Mada-
gascar-Vandals in North Africa-Byzantine Greeks-Muhammadan
invasions of North Africa in the seventh century-Berber dynasties
which arose therefrom-Renewed Arab invasions-The Almoravide
dynasty from the Niger-succeeded by the Almohades-Counter attacks
of Portugal and Spain-Moorish conquests in Nigeria-Turkish inter-
vention in North Africa-Arab settlements on Zanzibar coast

Origin of the State of Portugal-Prince Henry the Navigator-Portuguese
explorations of West African coast-Rounding of Cape of Good Hope
-East African conquests-Portuguese in Abyssinia-in the Congo
Kingdom-in Angola-Paulo Diaz-The benefits the Portuguese con-
ferred on Africa-Their struggles with the Dutch-Progress of their
rule in West Africa-in East Africa-Monomotapa-Dr Lacerda e
Almeida-Livingstone's journeys-Present state of Mo9ambique-
Delagoa Bay-Beira-Mouzinho de Albuquerque-Mogambique Com-
pany .....27

viii Contents.

Spain's North African establishments in the 16th century-The Moorish
Pirates-Gradual loss of Spanish possessions in Algeria and Tunis-
Canary Islands-Fernando Po and Corisco 6

Dutch traders on the West Coast-Dutch settle at the Cape of Good Hope
-St Helena-Mauritius-The Netherland East India Co.-Huguenot
colonists-Governor Tulbagh-extensions of Dutch influence-First
hostile British expedition under Commodore Johnstone-First Dutch
war with the Kaffirs-First British occupation of the Cape of Good
Hope-Interregnum of Dutch rule-British finally annex Cape Colony
-Their rulers come into conflict with the sentiments of the Dutch
colonists (Boers)-The Boer Treks-Origin of Transvaal and Orange
Free State republics-Annexation and revolt of Transvaal-Sir
Charles Warren's expedition-Johannesburg, the Outlanders, and
Jameson's raid-Possible future of Dutch states 66

Negro predisposition for slavery-Slave trade in the Roman world, in
Muhammadan countries and India-Great development consequent on
the exploitation of America-English slave traders-English Anti-
Slavery movement-Author's own experiences of slave trade-Steps
taken by various European countries to abolish Slave Trade-By
Great Britain in particular-Rev. S. W. Koelle-Zanzibar slave trade
-Ethics of slavery-A word of warning to the Negro 9

(West Coast, JMorocco, North-Central.)
The English in West Africa-The Gambia-Sierra Leone-Gold Coast-
Lagos-Niger Delta-Mr E. H. Hewett-Nigeria-Sir G. Taubman
Goldie-Great Britain and Tripoli-and Morocco 103


The Dieppe adventurers-Jannequin de Rochefort and the Senegal-Briie
and the foundation of the colony of Senegal-Canpagnon-Progress of
French rule over Senegambia-Advance to the Niger-Samori and
Ahmadu-Timbuktu-Binger and the Ivory Coast-Samori-Tim-
buktu definitely occupied-Busa and the Anglo-French Convention
-France and Egypt-Algiers-Development of Algeria-Tunis-The
Sahara-The Gaboon-French Congo-The Shari and Ubangi-
French designs on Nileland-The convention with Abyssinia-Obok
and Somaliland 122

Their work the antithesis to the slave trade-Portuguese missions to
Congoland, to the Zambezi, to Abyssinia-First Protestant missions-
-Church Missionary Society-Dr Krapf-Wesleyans, Methodists,
Society for Propagation of the Gospel-Roman Catholic missions to
Algeria, Congoland, the Nile-Cardinal Lavigerie-The 'White
Fathers'-The Jesuits on the Zambezi-in Madagascar-The London
Missionary Society-Swiss and German Protestant Missions-French
Evangelical Missions-Presbyterian (Scotch) Missions-Norwegian
and American Missions-Linguistic work of latter-Universities'
Mission--Plymouth Brethren-Baptists-North African Mission-
Zambezi Industrial Mission-Abyssinian Christianity 46

(South and South-Central.)

Great Britain's seizure of the Cape of Good Hope-Permanent establish-
ment there-Abolition of slavery-Dutch grievances-Kaffir Wars-
Lord Glenelg and intervention of Downing Street-Boer Treks-
Responsible government in Cape Colony-Kaffir delusions as to
expected resurrection of their forefathers and expulsion of English-
St Helena, Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha-Discovery of dia-
monds in Grikwaland-History of Natal-Coolie labour and Indian


immigration Delagoa Bay arbitration Damaraland-Origin of
German entrance into South African sphere-Walfish Bay-Bechuana-
land-Zambezia-Nyasaland-British Central Africa-African Trans-
continental Telegraph-South African federation-The Transvaal-
Sir Bartle Frere-Zululand and the Zulu War-Boer revolt-Rhodes
and Rhodesia-Matabele Wars and Dr Jameson-Mauritius 16o



Old-time travellers-Herodotus-Strabo-Pliny-Ptolemy-The Arab
geographers-The Portuguese explorers-Andrew Battel-British on
the Gambia-French on the Senegal-James Bruce and the Blue Nile
-Timbuktu-Mungo Park and the Niger-South African explorations
-Portugal and Dr Lacerda-Captain Owen-Tuckey and the Congo
-Major Laing-Rene Caille-British Government expeditions in
Tripoli,-Bornu, Lake Chad, and Sokoto-Lander and the Niger
mouth-Barth and the Western Sudan-the Jewish explorer Mor-
dokhai-Krapf, Rebmann, and the Snow Mountains-Livingstone-
Burton and Speke, Speke and Grant-Samuel Baker-Livingstone
and Kirk-French explorers in North-West Africa-Livingstone and
Central Africa-Cameron-Rohlfs-Nachtigal-Alexandrine Tinn--
Paul du Chaillu-Winwood Reade-Stanley and the Congo-Por-
tuguese explorers-Schweinftirth and the Welle-Nile explorers-
Nyasaland explorations-Dr Felkin-Joseph Thomson-George Gren-
fell-Emin Pasha-Recent explorers and explorations 9o



Comite d'Etudes du Haut Congo-Mr H. M. Stanley founds the Congo
Free State-its subsequent history-Long struggle with the Arabs-
Lieut. Dhanis-Rumoured atrocities-Katanga-Extension to the
White Nile-Murder of Mr Stokes-Railway to Stanley Pool-Future
of Congo Free State 22


(Egypt and Eastern Africa.)
England wrests Egypt from the French-Rise of Muhammad Ali-Suez
Canal-Arabi's rebellion-Tel-el-Kebir-Mahdi's revolt-Gordon's
death-Lord Cromer-Lord Kitchener and the reconquest of the
Sudan-Fashoda-Aden and Somaliland-Zanzibar-Sir John Kirk-
Kilimanjaro-British East African Company-Colonel Lugard and
Uganda-Sir Gerald Portal-" Roddy Owen "-Zanzibar administra-
tion-Dissolution of British East Africa Company 23

Italian commercial intercourse with North Africa during Crusades and
Renaissance-Italy in Tunis and Tripoli-Assab Bay-Abyssinia-
Eritrea-Italian reverse at Adua-Italy in Somaliland 243

The Brandenburg traders and the West Coast-German aspirations after
colonies in the "40's" and "6o's "-German missionaries in South-
West Africa-Herr Liideritz-Angra Pequena-British indecision-
German South-West Africa Protectorate founded-Germany in the
Cameroons-in East Africa-Anglo-German partition of the Sultan of
Zanzibar's dominions-prospects of German rule in Africa-German
South-West Africa-Togoland 249

First rumours of the .existence of Madagascar-Confusion with Zanzibar
and the Comoro Islands-Portuguese discovery-French Company of
the East founded to colonize the Island-Fort Dauphin-Pronis, the
immoral governor-Vacher de Rochelle, King-Consort of a Malagasy
Queen-French East India Company founded. hle de Bourbon
colonized-The Madagascar Pirates-French found settlement of St
Marie de Madagascar-Send scientific expeditions to Madagascar


which first make known its peculiar fauna-Benyowski, the Polish
adventurer-The Malagasy-The Hovas-English capture Mauritius
and Bourbon and turn the French out of Madagascar-French regain
Bourbon and re-occupy St Marie de Madagascar-First missionaries of
the London Missionary Society arrive in Madagascar (1818)-Rise of
Radama and the Hova power-French repulse in 1829-The ship-
wrecked sailor, Laborde-Queen Ranavalona and persecutions of the
Christians-The Sakalavas-Prince Rakoto and Lambert's frustrated
coup d'etat-Accession of Rakoto (Radama II)-Deposition, and
death-French concession repudiated and indemnity paid-The
Laborde succession-Quarrel with France in 1883-The Shaw in-
cident-General Willoughby-England recognizes French protectorate
over Madagascar-final invasion, conquest and annexation of the
Island by the French 26r

Three classes into which Africa falls from colonization standpoint-
Healthy Africa-Yellow Africa-Black Africa-Prognostications as to
future race movements-Predominant European races in the future-
The seven great languages of New Africa-Paganism will disappear-
Muhammadan zeal will eventually decay-The Negro will become
identified in national interests with his diverse European rulers, and
will not unite to form a universal Negro nation with the cry of 'Africa
for the Africans' 277

Supplementary Notes 285

Appendix I. Notable events and dates in the history of African coloni-
zation .... 289

Appendix II. Bibliography 300

Index 303


1. Map of Africa as known to the Ancients; showing distribution of
native races and lines of Bantu invasion To face p. 4.

2. Muhammadan Africa .
3. The Portuguese in Africa
4. The Slave Trade
5. The French in Africa
6. The British in Africa
7. The Colonizability of Africa

8. Political Map of Africa in 1898 .

To face p. 26.
. To face p. 60.
To face p. 91.
To face p. 145.
To face p. 231.
To face p. z75.

At end.

Note. The spelling of African names adopted throughout this book is
the system sanctioned by the Royal Geographical Society, by which all
consonants are pronounced as in English and all vowels as in Italian.
P, fi represents the nasal sound of 'ng' in 'ringing,' 'song,' as distin-
guished from the 'ng' in 'anger.' No consonants are doubled unless
pronounced twice in succession: thus 'Massowah' is properly written
Masawa. But where old established custom has sanctioned a spelling
diverging from these rules the official spelling of the name is adopted.
Thus: Mogambique instead of Msambiki; Quelimane instead of Keliman;
Uganda instead of the more correct Buganda; Bonny instead of Obani.



THE theme of this book obviously deals rather with the
Invasion and settlement of Africa by foreign nations than with
the movements of people indigenous in their present types to
the African continent; but, nevertheless, it may be well to
precede this sketch of the history of African colonization by a
few remarks explaining the condition and inhabitants of the
continent-so far as we can deduce them from indirect evidence
-before it was subjected to historic invasions of alien peoples.
In all probability man first entered Africa from Asia, in
which continent he almost certainly originated. He followed
in the footsteps of those large mammals which now form the
most striking features in the African fauna, but which were
unknown in that continent before the end of the Tertiary
epoch. Later on, and still in prehistoric times, there were no
doubt migrations of European man from the northern side of
the Mediterranean, just as probably counter race movements
occurred from the north of Africa into southern Europe. But
it seems much more likely that the bulk of African humanity
in its original types passed from India into Arabia, and thence
into north-eastern Africa'.

1 Geologists seem still to be divided in opinion as to the existence in
Tertiary times of a land surface connecting southern Africa with southern
J.A. T

The Colonization of Africa.

Early African man was of a very low negroid type, like the
Bushmen and Hottentots, and was also akin to the negroid
peoples still existing in southern Asia and Oceania. From this
stock-either in its first place of expansion, Arabia, or in north-
east Africa-diverged the black Negro' and the yellow Hamite,
and from this latter, the white Semite; it is probable, how-
ever, that the divergence of the Hamites and Semites from the
primitive Negro stock took place in Arabia rather than in
Africa, though from historical results it is better to assume
that the Hamite is an African type and the Semite an Asiatic.
One branch of the Hamites invading Europe from north-west
Africa possibly created that dark-haired Iberian race which
has so permeated southern and western Europe. Another
Hamite development in the valley of the Nile resulted in that
great Egyptian people with whom the dawn of written history
commences, and who threw for a time an effulgent light on
north-east Africa. But the ancient Egyptians, being regarded
by most authorities as essentially an African people, cannot
come within the scope of this book as colonists, though their
wonderful civilization did much to attract Asiatic and European
races to the invasion of Africa.
About 3000 years ago-a minute in the duration of the
human genus-the distribution of African races was probably
as follows:-Egypt, Abyssinia, Somaliland, the northern part
of the Sahara Desert, and all North Africa, were peopled by

Asia. It is therefore much more easy to assume that the shallow Red Sea
was at one time reduced to a series of salt lakes, and that the land
between them was the route early man followed. Had Lemuria existed
in later Tertiary times why does not its relic, Madagascar, retain descend-
ants of the large African mammals which would have made their way
across this route from India to Africa?
1 Not perhaps black originally but a dirty yellow-brown, like the
Bushmen and Hottentots and new-born negro infants; the distinction of
hair is perhaps the best definition of these allied races-the woolly-haired
negro, the curly-haired Hamite, and the straight-haired Semite.


I.] Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

Hamite races, who varied in complexion from dark brown to
yellow white. To the south and east were mixed peoples, like
the Nubians, Tibbus, Fulas, Mandingoes, who either represent
superior offshoots from the negroid stock (though inferior in
upward development to the Hamite), or the result of inter-
breeding between the Hamites and their divergent relations the
true Negroes. The latter-the black, woolly-haired Negroes
-stretched right across the continent in a great belt from
Abyssinia to the Atlantic Ocean, but were arrested in their
progress southwards by the Congo forests and some other
obstacles unknown to us, which, until relatively recent times,
prevented their occupying the southern half of Africa. Through
these equatorial forests, and beyond them to the southernmost
extremity of Africa, ranged a dwarfish people of pigmy Bushman
type, to some extent degenerate, but on the whole representing
the earliest form of the Negro species which invaded Africa,
a type that perhaps had overrun all Africa and had penetrated
thence into Mediterranean Europe, but which had at the period
I am reviewing been in a great measure extirpated from all
Africa north of the Congo basin. Possibly in the east and west
coast regions black Negroes had penetrated to some degrees
south of the equator, though no further than the latitude of
Zanzibar. There were no foreign settlers then in Africa, unless
a few wandering Semites had settled in Egypt or in the
highlands of Abyssinia, and except for prehistoric invasions
of Mauritania by European savages.
A little later on occurred the great movement of the Bantu
Negroes. The actual centre of Africa had by this time (say
under 3000 years ago) become extremely populous. Want
of space, and possibly the invasion of stronger races from the
north or north-east, forced the Negro tribes speaking the Bantu
mother language-a speech distantly related to many language
groups in the lower Niger basin and on the west coast of Africa,
and still more distantly to other linguistic families in north
central Africa-to invade en masse the southern portion of the

4 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

continent till then inhabited only by Bushmen, Hottentots',
and such-like dwarfish tribes. Skirting the dense Congo forests,
they took the line of least resistance down the eastern side of
the continent, along the great lakes, the line by which their
main body proceeded due south, while section after section
curled back westward into the Congo basin, and eastward on
to the Zanzibar and Mogambique coasts. Soon these black
Bantu Negroes were the masters of southern Africa, and feeble
remnants of the aboriginal dwarf races lingered only in the
Congo forests and in the south-west corner of the continent.
Some evidence is adduced to show that Madagascar was first
inhabited by a dwarfish race of Bushmen stock known as the
Kimo. If this is the case, and the evidence offered is very
slight, these first inhabitants of Madagascar must have been
sufficiently civilized to have been able to travel in canoes from
the east coast of Africa by way of the Comoro islands to
Madagascar. However that may be, it is much more certain
that a section of the Bantu Negroes did invade Madagascar
from the east coast of Africa at a period antecedent to the
arrival of the Malay races. These were known as the Ba-Zimba
or Va-Zimba. They were subsequently absorbed by the later
invaders of Malay stock, so that along the west and south
coasts of Madagascar the people are very negroid in appearance.
Almost coincident with the Bantu race movement occurred
the first conscient Semitic attempts at colonizing Africa. The
enterprising Phoenicians founded Carthage and established
trading stations along the north and north-west coasts of Africa.
Nearly at the same time came Arabs from the west coast of
Arabia voyaging down the east coast of Africa till they ulti-
mately settled in the Sofala' district south of the Zambezi, and
1 The Hottentots are thought by some to represent a cross between the
black Negroes and the Bushmen: but it is more likely from linguistic and
other reasons that they are an independent offshoot of the original Negroid
stock related to the Bushman.
2 In Arabic: ,uj "Zufar."



F~i-* -

,, KbR~L


Idulr~ i.
8~1 El

1Iil JN

AR-A B 1Ar


7 ------

L 1. .. C 1
= Probable site of Bantu mother country
A rea of distribution of Black Negroes 200ooo years ago
S ,, ,, Pygmies, Bushmen, and Hottentots
S ,,> ,, Hamites and Semites
.. Malay races
This map shows also the probable distribution of races about the commencement of the Christian Era and
the lines of Bantu invasion. 7Te Blue lines give the directions of the principal Bantu invasions
The mingling of race tints indicates mixture of races
A Red line indicates the limits of more or less certainly known country; a red dotted line gives the
limits ofvaguely known regions. Red shading indicates the afProximate area ofcountry well
known to Europe or civilised Asia


I_ _~ ___ ~ ~_~_~_ ~~~ _~~__~_ _~ _~

____~~_~ _

"_ ''._ _-_._ ..... _*"., __ .. .
.r .,_, _,. ..- E U Y 2R 0 P E
r', _ri._ ,--. -

,P..J ','d sn : i -'
.... ..- .... --'. ,-^ --'"-
* -[, ," -.- d ... ... -1. .. ^ _. ',,

'*:afefflif l. ^: ^
? .11 ""t >
.j = -=


I.] Mediterranean and Muktammadan. 5

penetrating inland, commenced to work the gold-mines of
modern Rhodesia, leaving there as witnesses of their presence
the stone forts and buildings which we have recently re-
discovered'. A Semitic people also about the same time
began to settle in Abyssinia2, where it has remained the
dominant race ever since. Other Phoenicians, besides those
who founded Carthage, explored the coasts of Africa, especially
the east coast, where they founded stations as far south as
Moambique, possibly. They may have even reached the
gold-bearing districts of the Zambezi, and one expedition under
Phoenician navigators employed by the Egyptian king, Necho,
is said to have circumnavigated Africa from the Red Sea to the
Mediterranean (about 600 B.C.).
On the whole, the most fruitful of the pre-Roman invasions
of Africa (as it was almost the earliest) was the foundation of
Utica (about 0Ioo B.C.) and Carthage (about 280 years later).
The Phoenicians (whose descendants have become known as
the Carthaginians, though to the Romans they were always the
Poeni or Pani) in the main founded trading stations rather
than colonies; but the cities of Utica, Carthage, Hippo*, and
the other Carthaginian ports on the north-east coast of Tunis,
naturally under a centralized government to some extent main-
tained during centuries a domination over the Berber tribes of
what is now Tunisia. There are traces of a Carthaginian
causeway running up the valley of the Majerda and south-east
towards the country of the dates and the hot springs. When
Carthage was most vigorous, no doubt the Berber tribes within
100 miles of her strongest settlements gave her their allegiance
in a varying degree; but at the least weakening of her power
1 From the graven representations of the natives left by these early
Arab-Sabaean settlers we know that they belonged then exclusively to the
Hottentot-Bushman type.
2 Semitic invasions of Egypt probably preceded all the events I here
3 In this case, the Hippo Diarrhytus of the Greeks and Romans, and
the Benzert of modem Tunis. [Low Latin, Hippone-Zaryt.]

The Colonization of Africa.

they were ready to revolt and take part with her enemies. The
troops she employed were alien to her race and mercenaries.
A large proportion of them were recruited in Barbary. They
frequently mutinied and turned against their Syrian employers.
Yet occasionally Carthage produced a man like Hannibal who
could win the confidence of these Berber soldiers and lead
them to fight the battles of Carthage in Spain, Sicily, and
Italy. In the outlying districts of north Africa, however,
especially in Morocco, tradition states that the Berbers occa-
sionally rose en masse and destroyed the Carthaginian settle-
ments. These trading stations were dotted over the north
coast of Africa to the Straits of Gibraltar, and down the Atlantic
coast of Morocco to a point almost within sight of the Canary
Islands. There has been transmitted to us through the diligence
of ancient Greek geographers the Greek version of what is
supposed to be the original description in Punic of the voyage
of Hanno the Carthaginian. This Punic explorer started from
Carthage some time in the sixth century before Christ (perhaps
about 520 B.C.) with a fleet of 60 ships, and a multitude of men
and women (said to have been 30,000 in number), on a voyage
of discovery mainly, but also for the purpose of replenishing with
settlers the Carthaginian stations along the coast of Morocco.
In the account given of the journey it is stated that after passing
the Straits of Hercules, and stopping at the site of the modem
Sebu, they rounded Cape Cantin and came to a marsh in which
a large number of elephants were disporting themselves1.
They then continued their journey along the coast till they
came to the river Lixus, which has been identified with the
1 This is an interesting observation. Not only does the statement
repeatedly occur in the writings of ancient Greek and Roman geographers
that the African elephant was found wild in Mauritania in these times, but
this animal is pictured in the remarkable rock sculptures in the Sus country
in the extreme south of Morocco, and in the Roman mosaics and frescoes
found in the interior of Tunis, and now to be seen at the Bardo Museum
near Tunis. (See for this the travels of the Moroccan Jewish Rabbi,


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

river Draa. From here they coasted the desert till they
reached the Rio d'Ouro, and on an islet at the head of this
inlet they founded the commercial station of Kerne. From
Kerne they made an expedition as far south as a river which
has been identified as the river Senegal (having first visited
the Lagoon of Teniahir). Again setting out from Kerne, they
passed Cape Verde, the river Gambia, and the Sierra Leone
coast as far as the Sherboro inlet, which was the limit of their
voyage of discovery. Here they encountered "wild men and
women covered with hair "-probably the chimpanzees, which
are found there to this day, and not the gorilla, which is an
ape (so far as we know) peculiar to the Gaboon. As Hanno's
interpreter called these creatures "gorilla" that name was long
afterwards-I think wrongly-applied to the huge anthropoid
ape of the Gaboon. When this expedition visited the vicinity
of the Senegal river they were attacked by the natives, who
were described as wild men wearing the skins of beasts and
defending themselves with stones." So far as we know, this
was the first sight that civilized man had of his wild brother
since the two had parted company in Neolithic times, except
for glimpses of the Troglodytes, whom the Carthaginians appear
to have met with in the valley of the river Draa'.
At Kerne and-other trading stations on the coast to the
south of Morocco, the Carthaginians did no doubt a little trade
with the Berber natives in the produce of the Sudan, south of
the Sahara, but after a time the weakening of the power of
Carthage and the attacks of the natives must have destroyed
most of these West African settlements; for the Romans in
replacing the Carthaginians do not seem to have gone further
south than the river Draa.

1 It does not follow, however, that these Troglodytes were dwarfs or
Negroes, or greatly different in race from the Berbers. They may have been
akin to the Troglodytes I have recently seen in the Tunisian Sahara, a
Berber people living in caves, which are either natural hollows in the lime-
stone rock or have been deliberately excavated.

The Colonization of Africa.

The Carthaginians do not'seem to have tamed the indi-
genous African elephant (which was certainly still found in
Mauritania), but they introduced and used the Indian elephant.
They also seem to have imported from Asia the peacock, still
very common as a domestic bird in Tunisia. Compared with
the Romans, however, they did little to open up the.country,
and their trade was restricted by jealous monopolies; but their
religion-the worship of Baal and other Syrian deities-spread
to some extent among the Berbers, and the peculiar Semitic
influence emanating from Carthaginian rule seems to have
paved the way for the Judaizing of certain Berber tribes before
and after the Roman Empire, and for the Muhammadanizing
of the same at a still later date before the Jewish influence had
quite died away. Amid all their wrangles, Berber and Semite
throughout all the recorded history of North Africa seem to
have unconsciously recognized that by descent and language
they were more akin than either was with the Aryan peoples.
The earliest historical connection between Europe and
Africa was brought about by the Greeks, commencing some
600 years before Christ1, who settled in the country of Cyrene,
the modern province of Barca. After the successful repulse of
the Persians there was a great expansion of Greece. Prior to
the historical establishment of settlements in the Ionian
Islands, in Sicily, at Marseilles and on the east coast of Spain,
Greek seamen had no doubt ranged the coasts of the Mediter-
ranean, and from their adventures were evolved the fascinating
stories of the Argonauts and Ulysses. Prehistoric settlements
of Greeks on the coast of Tunis are argued by modem
French ethnologists to have taken place, on the strength of the
well-marked Greek type to be found amongst the present
population, for instance, in the Cape Bon peninsula; but these
Greek types may be more probably descended from the Byzan-
tine occupation of the country in the Christian era. The
1 The computation given by Eusebius would, according to the late Sir
E. H. Bunbury, place the founding of the colony in B.c. 631.


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

Island of Lotos Eaters, however, of Greek mythology, would
seem with likelihood to take its origin in the island of Jerba,
where the date palm is indigenous'. But about B.c. 631 an
expedition of Dorians from the island of Thera2 founded
Cyrene on the north coast of Africa, where that continent
approaches closest to the Greek Archipelago. Around Cyrene
were grouped four other cities-Barke, Teucheira, Euesperides,
and Apollonia. This Greek colony continued to exist with
varying fortunes-threatened at times with dissolution through
the civil wars of the colonists and the intermittent attacks of
the Berbers-till it came under the control of Rome ioo years
before Christ. It was occasionally dominated by the Greek
dynasty of the Ptolemies in Egypt. Its civilization was finally
extinguished by the disastrous Arab invasion in the seventh
century of the present era. But it had existed under various
lords for 1300 years, and it is curious that during this long
period its Greek settlers should have made no attempts to
open up communication with inner Africa. The fact is that
the Cyrenaica is separated from the Sudan by a more complete
and absolute stretch of desert than intervenes between Tripoli,
Tunis, or Morocco and the regions of the Niger and Lake
In the adjoining country of Egypt the Greeks began to
appear as merchants and travellers in the seventh century B.C.
A Pharaoh named Psammetik had employed Greek mercenaries
to assist him in establishing his claims to the throne of Egypt.
He rewarded their services by allowing their countrymen to
trade with the ports of the Nile delta. The city of Naucratis
was founded not far from the modern Rosetta, and became
almost a Greek colony. Nearly 200 years later Herodotus, a
native of Halicarnassus (a Greek settlement in Asia Minor),

1 The date was almost certainly the lotos of the ancients. It is much
more likely to have made a profound impression on them by its honey-
sweet pulp than the insipid berries of the Zizyphus.
2 The modern Santorin or Thira, the most southern of the Cyclades.

10 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

visited Egypt and Cyrene. It is probable that he ascended the
Nile as far as the First Cataract. He found his fellow-country-
men settled as merchants and mechanics and also as soldiers
in the delta of the Nile, and he records that the whole coast of
Cyrenaica between Dernah, near the borders of Egypt, and Ben-
ghazi (Euesperides) was wholly occupied by Greek settlements.
Through Herodotus and even earlier Greek writers, like
Hecataeus (who derived his information from the Phoenicians),
vague rumours reached the Greek world of the Niger River, of
ostriches', the dwarf races of Central Africa (then perhaps
lingering about the Sahara and the south of Morocco), and
baboons, described as "men with dogs' heads'."
The great development of the Persian Empire under Cyrus
brought that power into eventual conflict with Egypt; and
under Cambyses the Persians actually conquered Egypt (in
525 B.c.), besides then and subsequently dominating the
western and southern parts of Arabia, from which they oc-
casionally meddled with Ethiopia. The Persians were followed
up more than two hundred years later by their great conqueror,
Alexander of Macedonia, who added Egypt to his empire in
332, and founded in that year in the westernmost reach of the
Nile delta that great city which bears his name, and which has
been at times the capital of Egypt. Alexander's conquest was
succeeded in 323 by the rule of his general, Ptolomaeus Soter,
who founded in 308 the famous Greek Monarchy of the Ptole-
mies over Egypt, which lasted till near the commencement of the
Christian era, when it was replaced by the domination of Rome.
Subsequently the sceptre passed from Rome to Byzantium,
and Egypt again became subject to Greek influence. During the
Ptolemies' rule and under the Byzantine Empire the Red Sea
and the coast of Somaliland were to some extent explored, and
it is said that the Greeks settled on the island of Socotra. From
1 The 'cranes' with whom the pigmies fought.
2 Other evidence goes to show that baboons were found wild in the
southern parts of Mauritania in ancient days.

Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

these Greek explorations, coupled with Phoenician traditions,
the geography of Africa was hinted at as far as the neighbour-
hood of Zanzibar, and even the Comoro Islands; while the
great lakes forming the head waters of the Nile were first placed
on the map with some possibility of this information being
based not on mere guesswork, but on information trans-
mitted by the natives to Greek traders.
Carthage fought with Rome and drew that power to North
Africa. After destroying Carthage (in 146 B.c.), Rome settled
in her place. She first allied herself with the Numidian and
Mauritanian kings, then fought with them, and eventually
annexed their countries. The name of Rome's first African
colony, "Africa'," has since become the name of the entire
continent in the speech of civilized peoples. Soon the Roman
conquest spread westward from Carthage to the Atlantic coast
of Morocco, eastward to Cyrene and Egypt, and southward to
the very heart of the Sahara Desert in Fezzan (Phazania).
Direct Roman rule however was chiefly observable in what is
now the Regency of Tunis and in Egypt. Tunis for the
number and magnificence of its Roman remains almost sur-
passes Italy. Although the Romans were constantly warring
with the Berbers, still the settled portions of the country
colonized by European immigrants must have been remarkably
prosperous, to judge by the high degree of civilization they
attained, and the vast sums they were able to spend on public
works-expenditure often due to the munificence of private
citizens. The Roman colonization of this part of North Africa
was thus a very real one. Latin became the tongue most
commonly spoken, and the settled portions of what is now the
Regency of Tunis and eastern Algeria became more like Italy
in their buildings, mode of life, laws, manners, customs, and
religion than any portion of Algeria has yet resembled France.
1 This word after the Arab invasion of Tunis has survived in the form
of "Ifrikiah." It was almost undoubtedly a Berber word in origin, which
in Latin mouths assumed the form of Africa."

The Colonization of Africa.

But the Romans in the interior districts seem to have made
the mistake which the French have subsequently repeated of
regarding North Africa with its fairly abundant native popula-
tion (vigorous, warlike, and but little inferior in mind or body
to the European invaders) as a colony rather than a protected
state. They therefore aroused almost perpetually the hostility
of the aborigines, who in their hatred of foreign rule welcomed
any invader as a means of regaining their independence.
Throughout 500 years of Roman rule there was scarcely a
period so long as seventy years which passed without a Berber
We have little evidence to entitle us to believe that the
Romans became well acquainted with tropical Africa beyond
the Sahara Desert', though a certain trade must have sprung
up in the hands of Hamites, who brought the products of
tropical Africa across the desert to exchange with Romanized
traders for the manufactures of the Mediterranean world. The
Romans (in the time of Nero) pushed their explorations up the
Nile valley beyond the junction of the Bahr al Ghazal and the
White Nile, but were soon discouraged.
While these events were taking place in Northern Africa,
and perhaps even before they began, peoples of Malay or
Polynesian stock had been drifting across the Malay archipelago
to Madagascar, carried thither by prevailing currents. These
Malays-found purest in the modern Hovas-wrested Mada-
gascar from the black man, whom they absorbed or exterminated,

1 The only recorded instances of an apparent crossing of the Sahara by
a Roman expedition are those cited by Marinus Tyrius (who was edited by
Ptolemy the Alexandrian). Setting out from Fezzan (which the Romans had
occupied in B.c. 19), a general named Septimus Flaccus is said to have
reached the Black Man's country across the desert in three months' march-
ing. This occurred about the beginning of the Christian era. A few
years later Julius Maternus starting from Garama (southern Fezzan) with
the king of the Garamantes reached "Agisymba" (probably Kanem or
Bornu) after four months' march and found the country swarming with
rhinoceroses (which still abound there).


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

and henceforth they remained as the dominant race, to be sub-
dued latterly, though not perhaps to be extinguished, by one
of Rome's daughters.
In the fifth century of the present era came the abrupt
invasion of North Africa by the Vandals, a Gothic people
supposed to be not far off in origin from the Anglo-Saxons.
Roman hold over North Africa, though infinitely more com-
plete and extensive than that of Carthage, had never succeeded
during more than five centuries in completely subduing the
Berbers, who still formed the bulk of the indigenous popula-
tion. The independent Berbers were always ready to side
with the enemies of Rome, and their adhesion made the
Vandal conquest easy and rapid; just as their subsequent
defection afterwards assisted the defeat of the demoralized
Vandals by the Byzantine forces, after all North Africa had
been ruled by Teutonic kings for seventy years.
The Byzantine Empire, recovering by degrees portions of
the Western Empire, reconquered the province of Africa
(modern Tunis), and to some extent dominated all the north
African coast until the Muhammadan invasion.
When the first Muhammadan invasion took place in the
seventh century the Berbers at first sided with the Arabs, and
assisted in the defeat of the Byzantine forces, through which
action they did ultimately enjoy as a race several centuries of
The effect on Africa of the development of Muhammadanism
was almost more marked in its results than in Asia. Prior to
the Muhammadan invasions nothing was known of Africa
south of the Sahara which could be described as certain
knowledge. A few vague traditions and semi-fabulous stories
of Negro Africa reached and satisfied Greek and Roman
inquirers. But north of the tenth degree of north latitude the
Arab invaders and missionaries cleared a rough path across
Africa, letting in a dubious light on its geography and

The Colonization of Africa.

In 640 Amr-bin-al-Asi invaded Egypt from Arabia, and
he or his lieutenants pushed thence into Tripoli, and
even into Fezzan. A little later (647-8), under Abdallah-
bin-Abu-Sarh and Abdallah-bin-Zubeir, the Arabs invaded
Tripoli, and fought with a Byzantine governor known
as Gregory the Patrician (who had just before rebelled from
Byzantium, and proclaimed himself Emperor of Africa, with
his seat of government in central Tunisia). The battle lasted
for days, but Gregory was overmastered by a ruse and killed.
The Arabs pursued his defeated army into the heart of Tunisia,
and even into Algeria. For a payment of 300 quintals of gold
they agreed to evacuate Tunisia, but they left behind an agent
or representative at Suffetula (the modem Sbeitla), which had
been Gregory's capital.
In 661 the first dissenting sect of Islam arose, the Khariji.
These schismatics preached the equality of all good Moslems-
a kind of communism. As they were much persecuted some
of the Khariji fled at this period to the coast of Tunis, and in
the island of Jerba their descendants remain to this day, while
their doctrines were adopted by the bulk of the Berber popu-
lation of that island'.
In 669 the Arab invasions of North Africa were resumed.
Oqba-bin-Nafa overran Fezzan, and was appointed by the
Omeiyad Khalif governor of "Ifrikiah" (modern Tunis). The
Byzantines were defeated in several battles, and Kairwan2 was
founded as a Muhammadan capital about 673. Oqba was
1 Jerba, usually called Meninx by the ancients, is supposed to have
been the Island of Lotos Eaters of Greek mythology.
2 The origin of the name Kairwan has been much disputed. When I
visited this place I was told by an Arab that the word was the Arab name
for a small bustard-like courser (a bird which the French called Poule de
Kairouan), and that seeing this bird in large numbers-where it is still to
be found-in the marshy plain on which the city was built the Arabs gave
its name to the town. Kairwan was chosen as the site for the Muhammadan
capital by the early Arab invaders because it was considered sufficiently far
from the sea-coast to be beyond the reach of attack from a Byzantine fleet.


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

replaced for a time by Dinar Bu'l-Muhajr, who pushed his
conquests as far west as Tlemsan, on the borders of modern
Morocco. Oqba resumed command in 681, and advanced
with his victorious army to the shore of the Atlantic Ocean,
and received a somewhat friendly reception from Count Julian
at Ceuta' (Septa).
But now the Berbers began to turn against the Arab
invaders, finding them worse for rapacity than Roman or
Greek. A quondam ally, the Berber prince Kuseila, united
his forces with the Greek and Roman settlers, and inflicted
such a severe defeat on Oqba near Biskra that he was enabled
afterwards to rule in peace as king over Mauritania for five
years, being accepted as ruler by the European settlers.
Kuseila however was defeated and killed by another Arab
invasion in 688, though these same invaders subsequently
retired and suffered a defeat at the hands of the Byzantines in
Barka. Queen Dihia-al-Kahina2 succeeded her relative Kuseila.
The Arab general, Hassan-bin-Numan, was successful in taking
Carthage (698), but afterwards was defeated and driven out of
Tunisia by Queen Kahina. Unfortunately this brave woman
ordered a terrible devastation of the fertile province of Africa,
so that the want of food supply might deter the Arabs from
returning; and this action on her part was the first step in the
deterioration of this magnificent country, now known as Tunis.
She was finally defeated and slain by the Arabs under Hassan-
bin-Numan in 705. Arab conquests then once more surged
ahead under Musa-bin-Nusseir. The whole of Morocco was
conquered except Ceuta, where they were repelled by Count
Julian. To some extent also Morocco was Muhammadanized;
and no doubt through all these invasions the Arabs experienced

1 Count Julian appears to have been a Byzantine governor on the coast
of Morocco, who after the Byzantine downfall to some extent attached
himself to the Romanized Gothic kingdom of Spain.
2 This is the Arab rendering of her name. Al-Kahina means "the
wise woman" or "prophetess."

The Colonization of Africa.

little difficulty in converting the Berbers to Islam, even though
they might subsequently enrage them by their depredations.
Before the arrival of the Arabs the Berbers in many districts
had strong leanings towards Judaism'. Amongst the Berber
chiefs converted to Muhammadanism by the invasion of Mo-
rocco was a man of great gallantry known as Tarik, who
became a general in the Arab army. Tarik was left in charge
of Tangiers by Musa, and entered into friendly relations with
Count Julian at Ceuta. Count Julian having quarrelled with
the last Gothic king of Spain urged Tarik to invade that country.
After a recognizance near the modern Tarifa Tarik invaded
Spain at or near Gibraltar2 with 13,000 Berbers officered by
300 Arabs, and was shortly afterwards followed by Musa with
reinforcements; and Spain was thus conquered.
For a few years longer all North Africa remained loosely
connected with the Khalifs of Bagdad; then Idris, a descendant
of Ali, and consequently of Muhammad, established himself in
Morocco as an independent sultan, afterwards asserting his
claim to be Khalif and Imam. At his death he was succeeded
by his son Idris II, and his blood is supposed to have filtered
down through many generations and devious ways to the
present ruling family in Morocco. During the whole of the
ninth century Tunis was ruled by an independent dynasty
known as the Aghlabite from Aghlab, a successful soldier, who
founded it. This again was succeeded by the Arab Fatimite
dynasty, derived from the Fatimite Caliphate of Egypt3. All
this time the Arab element in North Africa was extremely
slight, represented by a few thousand bold, rapacious warriors,

1 Jewish colonies began to settle in North Africa soon after the de-
struction of Jerusalem, or even as far back as the Ptolemaic rule over
2 The rocky peninsula where Tarik landed was called by the Arabs
Jibl-al-Tarik, a name which subsequently became corrupted by the
Spaniards into Gibraltar.
3 This dynasty had founded Cairo (Al-Kahirah) in 969 A.D.


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

who had in a marvellous manner, difficult to explain, forced
their religion, and to some extent their language and rule on
several millions of Berbers, and on some hundreds of thou-
sands of Romans, Greeks, Goths, and Jews. But in the
eleventh century took place those Arab invasions of North
Africa which have been the main source of the Arab element
in the northern part of the continent, and without which
Muhammadanism might have faded away, and a series of
independent Berber states have been formed once more under
Christian rule.
About 1045 two Arab tribes, the Beni-Hilal and the Beni-
Soleim (originally from Central Arabia, and deported thence
to Upper Egypt), left the right bank of the Nile to invade
Barbary. They had made themselves troublesome in Upper
Egypt, and the weakened rulers of that country to get rid of
them had urged them to invade north-western Africa. About
two or three hundred thousand crossed the desert and reached
the frontiers of Tunis and Tripoli. They defeated the Berbers
at the battle of Haideran, and then settled in southern Tunis
and western Tripoli. Eventually some portion of them was
unseated by the Berbers and driven westward into Morocco.
They were succeeded by fresh drafts from Egypt and Arabia,
but many of these later invaders settled in Barka and eastern
Tripoli. Later on other Arab tribes left the West coast of
Arabia, and settled on the central Nile (avoiding the Abyssinian
highlands, where they were kept at bay by their Christianized
relatives of far earlier immigrations). From the upper Nile
they directed many and repeated invasions of Central and
Western Africa. To this day tribes of more or less pure Arab
descent are found in the district of Lake Chad, in Darfur,
Wadai, and in the western Sahara north of Senegambia.
About the same time began the real revival of the Roman
Empire from the onslaught of Arabia and the prior Teutonic
invasions. The cities of Italy, forming themselves into repub-
lics, were tempted by their extending commerce to interfere
T A. 2

18 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

with North Africa. The Venetians, in spite of the hare-brained
crusades, and the damage that they did by reviving Muham-
madan fanaticism, began to open up those commercial rela-
tions with Egypt, which for four and a half centuries gave
them the monopoly of the Levant and Indian trade. The
Normans, who had conquered the Saracens of Sicily and
Malta', and had founded the Kingdom of Naples, commenced
a series of bold attacks on the coasts of Tunis and Tripoli,
which did not however lead to permanent occupation. The
Pisans and Genoese began a series of sharp reprisals against
the Moorish pirates, and so inspired some respect for Italy in
the minds of Tunisians and Algerians. Afterwards they were
enabled to open up commercial relations, especially with the
north coast of Tunis, and these, to the advantage of both Italy
and Barbary, continued, with fitful interruptions, until the
16th century.
In the xIth century another great Berber movement took
place-the rise of the "Almoravides." The name of this sect
of Muhammadan reformers is a Spanish corruption of Al-
fMurabitin, which is the plural of MAarabut, and Marabut is
derived from the place-name Ribat, meaning "the people
living at Ribat," though the word has since come to mean
in North Africa and elsewhere a Muhammadan saint. The
Almoravides owed their origin to one of the first of the African
Mahdis or Messiahs, of whom the tale has subsequently been
repeated and repeated with such servile imitation of detail
that one can only imagine the mass of African Muhammadans
to have been without any philosophical reflections on history
or any sense of humour, since Mahdi after Mahdi arises as an
ascetic saint, and dies a licentious monarch, whose power
passes into the hands of a lieutenant, who is the first in the
1 Malta is said to have been colonized by the Phoenicians and to have
retained Phoenician words in its dialect to the present day. Then came
Greeks, Sicilians, Romans and Arabs-the last invaders leaving their
tongue in Malta to be spoken to this day.

fMiediterranean and .JIni'.:n:a,:".,:.

line of a slowly crumbling dynasty. Far away across the
Sahara Desert, and near the Niger, was a tribe of Tawareq
Berbers known as the Lamta or Lemtuna, who had been
recently converted to Muhammadanism. The chief of this
tribe, returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, met a Berber of
South Morocco known as Ibn Yasin, who on his Meccan
pilgrimage had acquired a great reputation for austere holiness.
The chief of the Lemtuna invited Ibn Yasin to his court, and
the latter, after arriving in the Niger countries, established him-
self on an island named Ribat, on the upper Niger, where he
collected adherents round him and promulgated his puritanical
reforms. Gradually Ibn Yasin's influence extended over the
whole Lamta or Lemtuna tribe, and he urged these Berbers
towards the conversion of Senegambia. It was mainly through
his influence that the Berbers were carried by their conquests
into Senegambia and Nigeria. Then he led them north-west
across the Sahara Desert and they conquered Morocco, and
from thence invaded Muhammadan Spain. By this time Ibn
Yasin, the teacher, was dead, but the warrior chief of the Lamta
tribe-Yussuf-bin-Tashfin-had become sovereign of Morocco
and Spain, and had assumed the title of Amir-al-Mumenin1.
A hundred years afterwards another Berber Mahdi arose in the
person of Ibn Tumert, who was "run" by Abd-al-Mumin of
Tlemsan, and the programme was the same-to start with
puritanical reform, afterwards degenerating rapidly into mere
lust of conquest. This small sect known by us as the "Almo-
hades" (from Al-Mudhadim or "Disciples of the Unity of
God ") attacked the decaying power of the Almoravides.
Ibn Tumert-an exact parallel of all the Mahdis-died early
in the struggle, but was succeeded by the man who "ran" him,
Abd-al-Mumin, as "Khalifa," who pursued his conquests until
he had brought under his power all North Africa and Muham-
madan Spain, and had founded the greatest Berber empire
1 Prince of the Faithful.
2 From the Arabic Wahad, "The One."

The Colonization of Africa.

that ever existed. Concurrently, however, with the sway of his
overlordship the Ziri and Hamadi dynasties of Berber sultans
continued to exist at Tunis and in eastern Algeria. After ruling
for a century the Almohade empire broke up, and was succeeded
by independent rulers in Tunis and Tripoli, in Algeria, and in
Morocco. Remarkable among these was the Hafs dynasty,
which governed Tunis and part of Tripoli for 300 years, and
proved the most beneficent of all Muhammadan rulers in
North Africa. Abu Muhammad Hafsi was a Berber governor
of Tunis under one of the last of the Almohade emperors, and
eventually became the independent sovereign of Tunisia.
The Almohade rulers towards the end of the 12th century had
transported most of the turbulent Arabs of southern and
central Tunisia to Morocco, where for the first time the Arabs
began to form an appreciable element in the population.
About this time Kurdish and Turkish mercenaries commenced
finding employment in Tunisia and in Tripoli under chiefs
who rebelled against the Almohade empire. Concurrently
with the Hafs in Tunis the descendants of Abd-al-Wadi and
Ibn Merin ruled in Morocco and in western Algeria. They'
also were Arabized Berbers. In 1270 that truly good but
erratic monarch, St Louis of France, deflected a crusade in-
tended for the Levant to Tunis, as being a Muhammadan
country much nearer at hand and more accessible. He landed
at Carthage, but owing to failing health his imposing invasion
was followed by military inaction. He died at Carthage, and
a capitulation subsequently took place by which the Crusaders
retired from Tunisia. After their departure the Muhammadans
entirely destroyed all that remained of Roman Carthage, as
the buildings had afforded to the invaders the protection of
fortresses. Up till that time a good deal of Roman civilization
had lingered in Tunisia, but now the country became more
and more Arabized. Christian bishops, however, continued
to exist, and Christians were not much persecuted till the
16th century, when the attacks of the Spaniards, and the


Mediterranean and Mukammadan.

intervention of the Turks roused Muhammadan fanaticism to
a degree which only began to abate within the memory of the
present generation.
During this time Spain, which had been once more riveted
with Muhammadan fetters by that extraordinary incursion of
the Berbers, was rapidly returning to Christian rule, and in
the 15th century the kings of Spain and Portugal felt them-
selves sufficiently strong to carry the war into the enemy's
country. In 1415 the Portuguese army, to which was attached
Prince Henry, afterwards known as the Navigator, captured
the Moorish citadel of Ceuta on the Morocco coast, and from
this episode started the magnificent Portuguese discoveries
initiated by Prince Henry which will be described in the next
chapter. The Portuguese subsequently captured Tangier,
Tetwan, and most of the ports along the Atlantic coast of
Morocco. Spain, bursting out a little later, when she had
conquered the last Moorish kingdom on Spanish soil (Granada),
seized Melilla in 1490, and, on one pretext or another, port
after port along the coasts of Algeria and Tunis, until by 1540
she had established garrisons at Oran, Bugia, Bona, Hunein,
and Goletta'; and instigated the Knights of Malta-the out-
come of the crusades-to hold for a time the town of Tripoli
in Barbary, and the Tunisian island of Jerba. The Portuguese
kings by the middle of the i6th century were practically
suzerains of Morocco. The penultimate ruler of the brilliant
House of Avis-young Dom SebastiaS-determined in 1578,
soon after his accession to the throne of Portugal at the age of
23, to thoroughly conquer Morocco. He landed with 1oo,ooo
men at Acila2, then marched inland and took up a position
behind the Wed-al-Makhazen on the fatal field of Kasr-al-Kabir.
But he was utterly defeated by the Moors under Mulai Abd-al-
Malek (who died during the battle) and Abu'l Abbas Ahmad-
1 She also later on left traces of her temporary occupation on the island
of Jerba, where a fine Spanish fortress remains intact to this day.
2 Arzila.

The Colonization of Africa.

al-Mansur. The latter became Sultan of Morocco after the
defeat and death of the unfortunate Dom SebastiaS. Never-
theless, the Portuguese retained most of their fortified ports on
the Atlantic coast of Morocco, and also Ceuta. During the
60 years of the abeyance of the Portuguese monarchy these
places became nominally Spanish, but returned to Portugal
with the restoration of the House of Braganga, though Ceuta
and Melilla were subsequently ceded to Spain, and Tangier to
England. Thus ended what might very well have been, but
for the battle of Kasr-al-Kabir, the Portuguese Empire of
At the end of the i3th century, certain sharifs' of Yanbu,
the coast port of the holy city of Medina in Arabia, who
professed to be descendants of Ali, the son-in-law of the
Prophet, following returning Moorish pilgrims, established
themselves at Sijilmassa or Tafilat in South Morocco, and one
of them, Hassan-bin-Kassim, increasing greatly in power, be-
came the founder of the present Sharifian dynasty of Morocco;
though some centuries elapsed before these Sharifian sultans
succeeded in establishing universal rule. At the close of the
15th century a Muhammadan Negro dynasty had arisen on
the upper Niger, and in the western Sudan. One of these
Negro kings, who made a pilgrimage to Mecca, obtained from
the descendant of the Abbaside khalifs residing at Cairo the
title of "Lieutenant of the Prince of Believers in the Sudan."
He made Timbuktu2 his capital, and it became a place of
great learning and flourishing commerce. His grandson, Ishak-
bin-Sokya3, became rich and powerful, and attracted the rapacity
of the Sharifian emperor of Morocco (Abu'l Abbas Mansur,
who had distinguished himself by wiping out the Portuguese
under Dom Sebastia5 at the battle of Kasr-al-Kabir), who had
1 Sharif, plur. Shorfa, means in Arabic "nobly born."
2 Timbuktu had been founded by a Tawareq (Berber) tribe about
I 1oo A.D.
3 or Askia.


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

recently extended his rule across the Sahara to the oasis of
Twat'. The Moorish emperor attempted to pick a quarrel by
disputing this Negro king's right to the title of Lieutenant of
the Khalifs in the Sudan, demanded his vassalage, and a tax
on the Sahara salt mines along the route to Timbuktu. Ishak-
bin-Sokya refused, whereupon a Moorish army under Juder
Basha was despatched by Abu'l Abbas-al-Mansur in 1590 to
conquer the Sudan. This army crossed the Sahara, defeated
Ishak Sokya, and captured Timbuktu, but raised the siege of
Gaghu or Gao, lower down the Niger, whither Ishak had fled.
But a more vigorous commander, Mahmud Basha, completed
the Moorish conquest of the Sudan, a conquest which extended
in its effects to Bornu on the one hand and to Senegambia on
the other, and only faded away in the i8th century, mainly
owing to the uprise of the Fula, and the attacks of the Tawareq.
Gradually all Morocco was brought under Sharifian rule, all
European hold over the country was eradicated, and the reign
of culminating glory was that of the emperor Mulai Ismail, who
ruled for 57 years, and is said to have left living children to the
extent of 548 boys and 340 girls. Mulai Ismail died in 1727.
He had attained to and maintained himself in supreme power
by the introduction of regiments of well-drilled Sudan Negroes.
Once more, in fact, in African history the black man of the
Sudan was the indirect means of driving back the civilization
of Europe. Meantime, the Berber and the Arab power was
weakening in Tunis, Tripoli, and Egypt. The Turks, who had
replaced the Arabs of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Asia Minor as
Muhammadan rulers, had captured Constantinople in 1453,
and had seized Egypt in 1517, and were becoming the rising
Muhammadan power. When the Muhammadans of North
Africa appealed to Turkey for help against the attacks of
the Christian Spaniards the Turks took advantage of their

1 Now in the hinterland of Algeria, and perhaps to be occupied some
day by the French.

The Colonization of Africa.

intervention to establish, through the Turkish Corsairs, Turkish
regencies in Algeria (1519), Tunis (I573), and Tripoli (r551)',
while Egypt came directly under Turkish rule through the
heterogeneous Mamluk guard, which furnished Circassian mili-
tary rulers. With the exception of Morocco, which still remains
to this day an independent Berber state, Turkish control re-
placed Arab influence in northern Africa, and extended by
degrees far into the Sahara Desert to the old kingdom of
Fezzan, and along the coasts of the Red Sea. "Plus ca
change, plus c'est la meme chose "-no matter whether Turk,
Circassian, Albanian, Arab, Berber, or Arabized Negro ruled,
Muhammadan influence and Arab culture continued to spread
overall the northern half of Africa. Somaliland, Sennar, Nubia,
Kordofan, Darfur, Wadai, Bornu, Hausa-land, and the Sahara,
much of Senegambia, and most of the country within the bend
of the Niger and along the banks of the upper Volta were con-
verted to Muhammadanism, and became familiar with the Arab
tongue as the religious language, and with some degree of
Arab civilization.
The pre-Islamic settlements of southern Arabs along the
East coast of Africa were revived by fresh bands of militant
traders and missionaries of Islam. Arabs established them-
selves once more at Sofala, at Sena and Quelimane on the
lower Zambezi, at Mozambique, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Mombasa,
and various ports on the Somali coast. A colony of Muham-
madanized Persians joined them in the Ioth century at Lamu,
and Persian as well as Muhammadan Indian influence began
to be very apparent in architecture on the East coast of Africa.

1 Algeria and Tunis were conquered by Turkish pirates, quite as much
from the mild Berber dynasties possessing them as from the Spanish en-
croachments. Tripoli was taken from the Knights of Malta. Gradually
all these three Regencies detached themselves from the Turkish Empire in
everything but the mere acknowledgment of suzerainty; but, in 1835, the
Turks abruptly resumed the direct control of Tripoli and Barka, to which
they added Fezzan in 1842.


Mediterranean and Muhammadan.

The powerful Sultanate of Kilwa was founded in the ioth
century, and exercised for some time a dominating influence
over the other Arab settlements on.the East coast of Africa.
Arabs had also discovered the island of Madagascar, which
they first made clearly known to history. They had settled as
traders on its north and north-west coasts, while the adjoining
Comoro Islands or Islands of the "Full Moon" (Komr)
became little Arab sultanates practically in the hands of Arab-
ized Negroes. Until the coming of the Portuguese in the i6th
century these Arab East African states were sparsely colonized
by Himyaritic or south Arabian Arabs from the Hadhramaut,
Yaman, and Aden. But a development of power and enter-
prise amongst the Arabs of Maskat, which led to their driving
away the Portuguese from their own country, and subsequently
attacking them on the East coast of Africa, caused the Maskat1
Arab to become the dominant type. The Maskat Arabs
founded the modern Zanzibar sultanate, which quite late in the
present century was separated by the intervention of the
British Government from the parent state of 'Oman.
As the result of the Muhammadan invasion of Africa from
Arabia-only just brought to a close at the end of the 19th
century-it may be stated that Arabized Berbers ruled in north
and north-west Africa; Arabized Turks ruled in north and
north-east Africa; Arabized Negroes ruled on the Niger, and
in the central Sudan; Arabs ruled more directly on the Nile,
and on the Nubian coast; and the Arabs of south Arabia and
of 'Oman governed the East African coast, and eventually
carried their influence, and to some extent their rule, inland
to the great central African lakes, and even to the upper
Muhammadan colonization of Africa was the first step in
the bringing of that part of the continent beyond the Sahara
1 or 'Oman. Maskat is the capital of the principality of 'Oman (a word
which is really pronounced 'Uman) in East Arabia, ruled by an "Imam" or
laicized descendant of a line of preacher-kings or "Prince Bishops."

The Colonization of Africa.

and upper Egypt within the cognizance of the world of civiliza-
tion and history. The Arabs brought with them from Syria
and Mesopotamia their architecture-" Saracenic "-which was
an offshoot of the Byzantine', with a dash of Persian or Indian
influence. This architecture received at the hands of the
Berbers and Egyptians an extraordinarily beautiful develop-
ment, and penetrated on the one hand into Spain, and less
directly into Italy, and on the other reached the lower Niger,
the upper Nile, the vicinity of the Zambezi, and the north
coast of Madagascar. They spread also certain ideas of Greek
medicine and philosophy and taught the Koran, which
admitted all those Berber and Negro populations into that
circle of civilized nations which has founded so much of its
hopes and philosophy and culture on the Semitic Scriptures.
And through their contact with Europeans, Arabs and Arabized
Berbers first sketched out with some approach to correctness
the geography of inner Africa, and of the African coasts and
islands. The direct and immediate result of this Muham-
madan conquest of Africa was the drawing into that continent
of the Portuguese, themselves but recently emancipated from
Muhammadan rule, and still retaining some conversance with
Arabic; who, thanks to their intimate acquaintance with
Muhammadans, and with this far-spread language used in their
commerce and religion, were now able to take a step further
in the colonization of Africa by superior races.

1 The architectural style known as Saracenic made its beginnings in
Inner Syria and Mesopotamia a century or nearly so before the Mu-
hammadan invasion; and the "Horseshoe Arch" or the arch prolonged
for more than half a circle was invented by Hellenized Syrians in the sixth
century of this era. The 'Mahrab' of the Mosque and some of the doing
were added by the Arabs and actually descend from the symbols of phallic



T IJ7 .4 N T '

(I r E A .V

N -, L k,

-- I .. ...T -- .... -" .a .. .
.-" ', -. $ i
ir 1."Y
E iA

"i i ."', .
-. -+.. J.'l '
-,y 2ii-i '~ "-r.' .'

r' -... r. *.,.
,_ ,1B CA .. ......

late D

SIndicates approximate area over which Islam is the dominating religion at the present day
(N.B. The present area is larger than it has ever been in the fast)
Dotted spots of colour illustrates sporadic establishments of Muhammadanism
The Boundaries of most important Muhammadan Empires when at their greatest
extent are shown in coloured line

._.____ __~_~



THE mother of Portugal was Galicia, that north-western
province of the present Kingdom of Spain. It was here at
any rate that the Portuguese language developed from a dialect
of provincial Latin, and hence that the first expeditions started
to drive the Moors out of that territory which subsequently
became the Kingdom of Portugal. A large element in the
populations of Galicia and of the northern parts of Portugal
was Gothic. The Suevi settled here in considerable numbers,
and their descendants at the present day show the fine tall
figures, flaxen or red hair, and blue eyes so characteristic of
the northern Teuton. Central Portugal is mainly of Latinized
Iberian stock, while southern Portugal retains to this day a
large element of Moorish blood. The northern part of
Portugal was first wrested from the Moors by a French
adventurer (Henry of Burgundy) in the service of the king of
Leon, and this man's son became the first king of Portugal.
Little by little the Moors were driven southward, till at last
the southernmost province of Algarve' was conquered, and at
the close of the 12th century the Moors had ceased to rule
any longer in the Roman Lusitania.
1 From the Arabic Al-gharb, the 'west,' the 'sunset.' The title of
the King of Portugal is "King of Portugal and the Algarves, on this side
and on the other side of the sea in Africa, etc."

The Colonization of Africa.

But the Portuguese, like the Spaniards, not content with
ridding the Peninsula of the Moorish invaders, attempted to
carry the war into the enemy's country, urged thereto by the
irritating attacks of Moorish pirates. In 1415, as already
related, a Portuguese army landed on the coast of Morocco,
and captured the citadel of Ceuta-the Roman Septa.
Bit by bit the Portuguese continued conquering the
coast towns of Morocco, or building new settlements-till
in the second half of the i6th century the king of Portugal
was almost entitled to that claim over the Empire of Morocco
which still asserts itself in the formal setting-forth of his
dignities. Most of these posts were either abandoned some
years before or just after the defeat of the young king
"Sebastia5 o Desejado"-Sebastian the desired-who at the
age of only 23 was defeated and slain by the founder of the
Sharifian dynasty of Morocco on the fatal field of Al Kasr-al-
Kabir in 1578. Ceuta was taken over by Spain in 1580, was
garrisoned, that is, by Spanish soldiers': the two or three
other Morocco towns which remained in Portuguese hands
after the battle of Kasr-al-Kabir, being garrisoned by Por-
tuguese soldiers, reverted to the separated crown of Portugal in
1640. Of these Tangier was ceded to England in 1662, Saffi
was given up to the Moors in 1641, other points were snatched
by the Moors in 1689, and Mazagan was finally lost in 1770.
The second son of the king Dom Joa5 I (who reigned
from 1385 to 1433) and Philippa, daughter of the English
John of Gaunt, was named Henry (Henrique), and was
subsequently known to all time as "Henry the Navigator"
from the interest he took in maritime exploration. He was
present at the siege of Ceuta in 1415, and after its capture was
said to have inquired with much interest as to the condition of
Morocco and of the unknown African interior, and to have
heard from the Moors of Timbuktu.

x And was finally ceded to Spain by Portugal in 1668.


II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 29

On his return to Portugal he established himself on the
rocky promontory of Sagres, and devoted himself to the
encouragement of the exploration of the coasts of Africa.
Under his direction expedition after expedition set out. First
Cape Bojador to the south of the Morocco coast was doubled
by Gil Eannes in 1434'. In 1441-2 Antonio Gonsalvez and
Nuno Tristam passed Cape Blanco on the Sahara coast, and
reached the Rio d'Ouro or River of Gold', from whence they
brought back some gold dust and ten slaves. These slaves
having been sent by Prince Henry to Pope Martin V, the
latter conferred upon Portugal the right of possession and
sovereignty over all countries that might be discovered between
Cape Blanco and India. In 1445 a Portuguese named Joa5
Fernandez made the first over-land exploration, starting alone
from the mouth of the Rio d'Ouro, and travelling over
seven months in the interior. In the following year the river
Senegal was reached, and Cape Verde was doubled by Diniz
Diaz, and in 1448 the coast was explored as far as Sierra
Leone. In 1455-6 Cadamosto (a Venetian in Portuguese
service) discovered the Cape Verde Islands, and visited the
rivers Senegal and Gambia, bringing back much information in
regard to Timbuktu, the trade in gold and ivory with the coast,
and the over-land trade routes from the Niger to the Mediter-
ranean. It is asserted by the Portuguese that some years later
two Portuguese envoys actually reached Timbuktu; but the
truth of this assertion is somewhat problematical, as had they
done so they would probably have dissipated to some extent
the excessive exaggerations regarding the wealth and import-
ance of that Negro capital. In 1462, two years after the
death of Prince Henry, Pedro Da Cintra explored the coast as
far as modern Liberia. By 1471 the whole Guinea coast had

1 Though it had been known to Italian and Norman navigators a
century earlier.
2 Only an inlet in the Desert coast.

The Colonization of Africa.

been followed past the Niger delta, and as far south as the
In 1448, under Prince Henry's directions, a fort had been
built on the Bay of Arguin, to the south of Cape Blanco, and
a few years later a Portuguese company was formed for carry-
ing on a trade with the Guinea coast in slaves and gold. The
first expedition sent out by this company resulted in the
despatch of 200 Negro slaves to Portugal, and thenceforward
the slave trade grew and prospered, and at first resulted in
little or no misery for the slaves, who exchanged a hunted,
hand-to-mouth existence among savage tribes in Africa for
relatively kind treatment and comfortable living in beautiful
Portugal, where they were much in favour as house servants.
In 1481 the Portuguese, who had been for some years ex-
amining the Gold Coast, decided to build a fort to protect
their trade there. In 1482 the fort was completed and the
Portuguese flag raised in token of sovereignty. This strong
place, for more than a hundred years in possession of the
Portuguese, was called Sa5 Jorge da Mina'. In the same year
in which this first Portuguese post was established on the Gold
Coast2, exploration of the African coast was carried on beyond
the mouth of the Ogowe by Diogo Cam, who three years later
-in 1485, discovered the mouth of the Congo, and sailed up
that river about as far as Boma. Diogo Cam's discoveries
were continued by Bartolomeu Diaz, who, passing along the
south-west coast of Africa, rounded the Cape of Good Hope
in stormy weather without knowing it, and touched land at
Algoa Bay, whence, on his return journey, he sighted that
famous cape, which King John II christened "the Cape of
Good Hope."

1 Nowadays known as Elmina.
2 As will be seen in another chapter, there are traditions of Norman
merchants from Dieppe having established forts or trading stations along
the West African coast in the i3th century, especially at La Mine d'Or"-
Elmina-where the Normans possibly preceded the Portuguese.


i.] The Portuguese in Africa. 31

Already.the Portuguese were full of the idea of rounding
Africa and so reaching India. They had begun to hear from
the Arabs, who were now in full possession of the East African
coast, rumours of the circumnavigability of Africa'. A Por-
tuguese named Pero de Covilha5 started for Egypt in 1486,
and travelled to India by way of the Red Sea. On his return
he visited most of the Arab settlements on the East coast
of Africa as far south as Sofala. The information he sent
back decided the despatch of an expedition under Vasco da
Gama to pass round the Cape of Good Hope to the Arab
colonies, and thence to India. Vasco da Gama set out in
1497, and made his famous voyage round the Cape (calling at
and naming Natal on the way) to Sofala, where he picked up
an Arab pilot who took him to Malindi, and thence to India.
On his return journey Vasco da Gama took cognizance of the
island of Mogambique, and visited the Quelimane river near
the mouth of the Zambezi. Numerous well-equipped ex-
peditions sailed for India within the years following Vasco da
Gama's discoveries. While India was the main goal before the
eyes of their commanders, considerable attention was bestowed
upon the founding of forts along the East coast of Africa, both
to protect the Cape route to India, and to further Portuguese
trade with the interior of Africa. In nearly every case the
Portuguese merely supplanted the Arabs, who-possibly them-
selves supplanting Phoenicians or Sabaeans-had established
themselves at Sofala, Quelimane, Sena (on the Zambezi),
Mogambique, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and
Magdishu. Sofala was taken by Pedro de Anhaya in 1505;
Tristan d'Acunha captured Socotra and Lamu in 1507, in
which year also Duarte de Mello captured and fortified
Mogambique. Kilwa and the surrounding Arab establish-
ments were seized between 1506 and 1508, and a little later
1 It was even alleged that certain Arab ships had been driven by stress
of weather past the Cape of Good Hope, and had brought back word
of the northward trend of the west coast.

The Colonization of Africa.

the remaining places already mentioned on the East coast
of Africa were in possession of the Portuguese, who had also
Aden on the south coast of Arabia, the island of Ormuz on the
Persian Gulf, and various places on the coast of 'Oman, includ-
ing Maskat. Pero de Covilha5 had already, as has been
mentioned, visited the East coast of Africa (after travelling
overland to India) before Vasco da Gama's rounding of the
Cape. He then directed his steps to Abyssinia, of which he
had heard when in Cairo.
Before this period of the world's history, and from the time
of the earlier crusades, a legend had grown of the existence of
Prester John-some Christian monarch of the name of John,
who ruled in the heart of Asia or of Africa, a bright spot in the
midst of Heathenry. The court of Prester John was located
anywhere between Senegambia and China; but the legend had
its origin probably in the continued existence of Greek Chris-
tianity in Abyssinia, and towards Abyssinia several Portuguese
explorers and missionaries directed their steps from the time
of Pero or Pedro de Covilha5 until the 17th century. Some
Portuguese Jesuit missionaries penetrated far south of Abys-
sinia into countries which have only been since revisited
by Europeans within the last few years. Portuguese civili-
zation distinctly left its mark on Abyssinia in architecture and
in other ways. The very name which we apply to this modern
Ethiopia is a Portuguese rendering of the Arab and Indian
cant term for 'negro'-f-abesh-a word of uncertain origin.
About this time, also, the Portuguese visited the coasts of
Madagascar, as will be related in the chapter dealing with that
island. They also discovered (in 1507) the islands now known
by the names of Reunion and Mauritius, though they made no
permanent settlements on either.
On the West coast of Africa geographical discovery was
soon followed by something like colonization. The island of
Madeira, which had been known to the Portuguese in the
14th century, was occupied by them in the i5th, and a


It.] The Portuguese in Africa. 33

hundred years afterwards was already producing a supply of
that wine which has made it so justly famous '. The island of
St Helena-afterwards to be seized by the Dutch and taken
from them by the English East India Company-was dis-
covered by the Portuguese in 1502, and this island also, at
the end of a century of intermittent use by the Portuguese,
possessed orange groves and fig trees which they had planted.
When Diego Cam returned from the Congo in 1485 he
brought back with him a few Congo natives, who were bap-
tized, and who returned some years later to the Congo with
Diego Cam and a large number of proselytizing priests. This
Portuguese expedition arrived at the mouth of the Congo in
1491 and there encountered a vassal chief of the king of the
Congo who ruled the riverain province of Sonyo. This chief
received them with a respect due to demi-gods, and allowed
himself to be at once converted to Christianity-a conversion
which was sincere and durable. The Portuguese proceeded
under his guidance to the king's capital about 200 miles from
the coast, which they named Sa5 Salvador. Here the king and
queen were baptized with the names of the then king and queen
of Portugal, Joa5 and Leonora, while the crown Prince was
called Affonso. Christianity made surprising progress amongst
these fetish worshippers, who readily transferred their adoration
to the Virgin Mary and the saints, and discarded their indi-
genous male and female gods. Early in the i6th century the
Congo kingdom was visited by the Bishop of Sa5 Thomr, an
island off the Guinea coast, which, together with the adjoining
Prince's Island, had been settled by the Portuguese soon after
their discovery of the West coast of Africa. The Bishop of Sa5

1 The Canary Islands, inhabited by a race of Berber origin, had been
rediscovered (for Greek and Roman geographers knew of them) by
Normans and Genoese in the 14th century. They were conquered by a
Norman adventurer, Jean de Betancourt or Bethencourt, in the service of
Portugal. Portugal, however, after a brief occupancy transferred them to
Castile in 1479.

34 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

Thomd being unable to take up his residence in the kingdom
of Congo procured the consecration of a native Negro as
Bishop of the Congo. This man, who was a member of the
Congo royal family, had been educated in Lisbon, and was, I
believe, the first Negro bishop known to history. But he was
not a great success, nor was the next bishop, in whose reign
in the middle of the i6th century great dissensions arose in
the Congo church among the native priesthood, which led to a
considerable lessening of Christian fervour. After the death of
Dom Diego a civil war broke out, and one by one the males
of the royal house were all killed except "Dom Henrique," the
king's brother. This latter also died soon after succeeding to
the throne, and left the state to his son, "Dom Alvares."
During this civil war many of the Portuguese whom the kings
of Congo had invited to settle in the country as teachers,
mechanics, and craftsmen were killed or expelled as the cause
of the troubles which European intervention had brought on
the Congo kingdom; but Dom Alvares, who was an en-
lightened man, gathered together all that remained, and for
a time Portuguese civilization continued to advance over the
country. But a great stumbling-block had arisen in the way of
Christianity being accepted by the bulk of the people-that
stumbling-block which is still discussed at every Missionary
conference-polygamy. A relation of the king Dom Alvares
renounced Christianity and headed a reactionary party. Curi-
ously enough he has been handed down to history as Bula
Mlatadi, the Breaker of Stones," the name which more than
three hundred years afterwards was applied to the explorer
Stanley by the Congo peoples, and has since become the
native name for the whole of the government of the Congo
Free State.
In the middle of the i6th century Portuguese influence
over the Congo received a deadly blow. That kingdom, which
must be taken to include the coast lands on either side of the
lower Congo, was invaded by a savage tribe from the interior

I.] The Portuguese in Africa. 35

known as the "Jagga" people, said to be a race related to the
Fans'. The Jagga were powerful men and ferocious cannibals,
and they carried all before them, the king and his court taking
refuge on an island on the broad Congo, not far from Boma.
The king of Congo appealed to Portugal for help, and that
ill-fated but brilliant young monarch, Dom SebastiaS, sent him
Franciso de Gova with 600 soldiers. With the aid of these
Portuguese and their guns the Jagga were driven out. The
king, who had hitherto led a very irregular life for a Christian,
now formally married, but was not rewarded by a legal heir,
and had to indicate as his successor a natural son by a concu-
bine. About this time the king of Portugal pressed his brother
of Congo to reveal the existence of mines of precious metals.
Whether there are such in the Congo country-except as
regards copper-has not been made known even at the present
day, but they were supposed to exist at that time; and certain
Portuguese at the Congo court dissuaded the prince whom
they served from giving any information on the subject, no
doubt desiring to keep such knowledge to themselves. The
king of Congo, Dom Alvares, when the Jagga had retired,
made repeated appeals for more Portuguese priests, and sent
several embassies to Portugal; but Dom Sebastia5 had been
killed in Morocco, and his uncle, the Cardinal Henrique, who
had succeeded him and who was the last Portuguese king of
the House of Avis, was too much occupied by the affairs of
his tottering kingdom to reply to these appeals. But when
Philip II of Spain had seized the throne of Portugal he
despatched a Portuguese named Duarte Lopes to report on the
country of the Congo. After spending some time in Congo-
land Duarte Lopes started to return to Portugal with a great
amount of information about the country, and messages from
the king of Congo. Unfortunately he was driven by storms to
1 Possibly a more purely Bantu tribe. Their descendants seem still to
be found living on the river Kwango behind Angola under the name of

The Colonization of Africa.

Central America, and when he reached Spain the king was too
busy preparing the Great Armada to listen to him. Therefore
Duarte went on a pilgrimage to Rome to appeal to the Pope,
but the latter for some reason gave him no encouragement.
Whilst staying in Italy, however, he allowed an Italian named
Filippo Pigafetta to take down and publish in 1591 his account
of the Congo kingdom, together with a recital of the Portu-
guese explorations and conquests in East Africa.
Although Portuguese priests-Jesuits probably-continued
for a hundred years longer to visit the kingdom of Congo, from
the end of the i6th century both Christian and Portuguese in-
fluence slowly faded, and the country relapsed into heathenism.
The Portuguese appear to have excited the animosity of a
somewhat proud people by their overbearing demeanour and
rapacity. They held intermittently Kabinda, on the coast to
the north of the Congo estuary, and occasionally sent missions
of investiture to Sa5 Salvador to represent the king of Portugal
at the crowning of some new king of Congo; and the king of
Congo was usually given a Portuguese name and occasionally
an honorary rank in the Portuguese army. But it was not
until the end of the present century that Portugal actually
asserted her dominion over the Congo countries. England had
during the last and nearly all the present century steadily
refused to recognize Portuguese rule anywhere north of the
Congo, but in 1884 proposed to do so under sufficient
guarantees for freedom of trade set forth in a treaty which was
rendered abortive by the opposition of the House of Commons.
If this treaty had been ratified it would have brought under
joint English and Portuguese influence the lower Congo,
besides settling amicably Portuguese and British claims in
Nyasaland. The foolish and unreasoning opposition of a
knot of unpractical philanthropists in the House of Commons
wrecked the treaty, and gave to the other powers of Europe an
opportunity for interfering in the affairs of the Congo. The
result to Portugal, nevertheless, was that she secured the


n.] The Portuguese in Africa. 37

territory of Kabinda north of the Congo, and the ancient
kingdom of Congo south of that river.
Although the Portuguese discovered the coast of Angola in
1490 they did not attempt to settle in that country until 1574,
when, in answer to an appeal of the chief of Angola (a vassal
of the king of Congo), an expedition was sent thither under the
command of Paulo Diaz'. This expedition landed at the
mouth of the Kwanza river, and found that the chief of Angola
who had appealed to the king of Portugal was dead. His
successor received Diaz with politeness, but compelled him to
assist the Angolese in local wars which had not much interest
for the Portuguese. Diaz found in the interior of Angola
many evidences of Christian worship, which showed that
missionaries from the Congo had preceded his own expedition.
When Diaz was at last allowed to return to Portugal, the king
-Dom Sebastia5-sent him back as "Conqueror, Colonizer,
and Governor of Angola" with seven ships and 700 men.
His passage out from Lisbon in the year 1574 occupied three
and a half months-not a long time at that period for sailing-
vessels. Diaz took possession of a sandy island in front of
the bay which is now known as the harbour of Sa5 Paulo de
Loanda. Here he was joined by 40 Portuguese refugees from
the Congo kingdom. Eventually he built on the mainland of
Loanda the fort of Sa5 Miguel, and founded the city of Sa5
Paulo, which became and remains the capital of the Portuguese
possessions in West Africa.
For six years perfect peace subsisted between the Portu-
guese and the natives; then, afraid that the Portuguese would
eventually seize the whole country, the king of Angola enticed
500 Portuguese soldiers into a war in the interior where he
massacred them. But this massacre only served to show the
splendid quality of Paulo Diaz, who was a magnificent repre-
sentative of the old Portuguese type of Conquistador. Leaving

I Grandson of the explorer, Bartolomeu.

The Colonization of Africa.

Loanda with 150 soldiers-nearly all that remained-he
marched against the king's forces near the Kwanza river, and
routed them with great loss, being of course greatly helped in
securing this victory by the possession of muskets and cannon.
The Angolese were defeated repeatedly before they gave up
the struggle; but at length in 1597 the Portuguese had estab-
lished themselves strongly on both banks of the river Kwanza.
In that year 200 Flemish colonists were sent out by the king
of Spain and Portugal. In a very short time all were dead
from fever. In spite of many reverses, however, the Portuguese
slowly mastered the country south of the Kwanza nearly as far
as Benguela. In 1606 an interesting but unsuccessful attempt
was made to open up communication across south-central
Africa between the Kwanza and the Zambezi settlements. But
the explorer never got beyond the King of Congo's capital,
that potentate refusing him permission to proceed further into
the interior. Nevertheless, from Portuguese annals it is clear
that numerous venturesome priests and soldiers attempted at
this period to penetrate Darkest Africa, and were never heard
of again. What a subject for romance would be their
experiences in these lands, at that time absolutely free
from the influence of the European-a condition which no
longer applied to the natives of Darkest Africa when Stanley
first made known the geography of those regions. For in the
three and a half centuries which had elapsed, even those
S savages in the heart of Africa, who possibly knew nothing of
the existence of white men, had nevertheless adopted many of
the white man's products as necessities or luxuries of their
lives-such as maize, tobacco, yams, sweet potatoes, manioc,
the pine-apple, and the sugar cane.
We may here fitly consider the greatest and most beneficial
results of the Portuguese colonization of Africa. These
wonderful old Conquistadores may have been relentless and
cruel in imposing their rule on the African and in enslaving
him or in Christianizing him, but they added enormously to


II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 39

his food-supply and his comfort. So early in the history of
their African exploration that it is almost the first step they
took, they brought from China, India, and Malacca the orange
tree, the lemon and the lime, which, besides introducing into
Europe (and Europe had hitherto only known the sour wild
orange brought by the Arabs), they planted in every part of
East and West Africa where they touched. They likewise
brought the sugar cane from the East Indies and introduced it
into various parts of Brazil and West Africa, especially into the
islands of Sa5 Thom6 and Principe and the Congo and Angola
countries. Madeira they had planted with vines in the 15th
century; the Aqores, the Cape Verde Islands and St Helena
with orange trees in the i6th century. From their great
possession of Brazil-overrun and organized with astounding
rapidity-they brought to East and West Africa the Muscovy
duck (which has penetrated far into the interior of Africa, if
indeed it has not crossed the continent), chili peppers, maize
(now grown all over Africa, cultivated by many natives who
have not even yet heard of the existence of white men), tobacco,
the tomato, yam, pine-apple, sweet potato (a convolvulus tuber),
manioc (from which tapioca is made), ginger and other less
widely known forms of vegetable food. The Portuguese also
introduced the domestic pig into Africa, and on the West coast,
the domestic cat, possibly also certain breeds of dogs; in East
tropical Africa the horse is known in the north by an Arab
name, in the centre by the Portuguese word, and in the
extreme south by a corruption of the English. To the Arabs
also must be given the credit (so far as we know) of having
introduced into Africa from Asia the sugar cane, rice', onions,
cucumbers, here and there the lime and orange, wheat and
perhaps other grains'; among domestic animals, the camel, in

1 Rice and sugar cane were in some cases brought by the Portugtese.
2 Such wheat as is cultivated in Africa north of 15 N. Latitude is
similar to the European and Egyptian kinds : the wheat introduced by the
Arabs into the Zambezi is red wheat apparently from India.

The Colonization of Africa.

some parts the horse, and in a few places superior breeds of
domestic fowls and also the domestic pigeon'. The English-
man has brought with him the potato, and has introduced
into most of his colonies the horse, and in places improved
breeds of cattle, sheep, and goats, a good many European
vegetables and fruit trees; the tea plant, the coffee plant
(which, however, has only been transferred from other parts of
Africa), and many shrubs and trees of special economic value;
-but what are these introductions-almost entirely for his own
use-compared in value to the vast bounty of Portugal? Take
away from the African's dietary of to-day a few of the products
that the Portuguese brought to him from the far East and far
West, and he will remain very insufficiently provided with neces-
sities and simple luxuries. I may, add one or two dates con-
cerning these introductions by the Portuguese:-the sugar
cane and ginger were first planted in the island of Principe, off
the coast of Lower Guinea in the early part of the i6th century.
Maize was introduced into the Congo (where it was called
maza manfuto) about the middle of the i6th century2.

1 Which however is a wild bird (the rock dove) in N. Africa.
2 De Lopes, who records this fact in his description of the Congo
region at the end of the i6th century, gives incidentally or directly other
interesting scraps of information, such as, that the coco-nut palm was
found by the Portuguese growing on the West coast of Africa. This palm,
we know, originated in the Asiatic or Pacific Archipelagoes. It is possible
to imagine that its nuts may have been carried over the sea to the coast of
East Africa and that it was thus introduced to that side of the continent;
but, inasmuch as the coco-nut palm cannot grow further south than
Delagoa Bay owing to the cooling of the climate, it is not very clear how
it reached the tropical West African coast. I believe it was introduced
on the tropical Atlantic coast of America by Europeans. De Lopes
mentions the banana for the first time under the name "banana," which
he applies to it as though it were a Congo or African word. Hitherto
this fruit had only been known vaguely to Europe by its Arab name,
which was latinized into Musa. Lopes states that the zebra was
tamed and ridden by the natives. He must be referring to the zebra of
southern Angola, as any form of wild ass has probably always been
entirely absent from the forest countries near the Congo.


II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 41

In 1621 a chieftainess, apparently of the Congo royal family,
known as Ginga Bandi, came to Angola, made friends with the
Portuguese, was baptized, and then returned to the interior,
where she poisoned her brother (the chief or king of Angola),
and succeeded him. Having attained this object of her am-
bitions, she headed the national party, and attempted to drive
the Portuguese out of Angola. For 30 years she warred against
them without seriously shaking their power, though on the
other hand they could do little more than hold their own. But
a much more serious enemy now appeared on the scene. The
Dutch, who took advantage of the Spanish usurpation' of the
throne of Portugal to include that unfortunate country in their
reprisals against Spain, made several determined attempts
during the first half of the I7th century to wrest Angola from
the Portuguese. They captured Sa5 Paulo de Loanda in 1641,
one year after Portugal had recovered her independence under
the first Braganga king. The Portuguese concentrated on the
Kwanza. The Dutch attempted by several very treacherous
actions to oust them from their fortresses on that river. At
last, however, following on the reorganization of the Portuguese
empire, reinforcements were sent from Brazil to Angola, and a
siege of SaO Miguel took place. The Portuguese imitated
with advantage the Dutch game of bluff, and by deceiving the
besieged as to the extent of their army they secured the sur-
render of IIoo Dutch to under 750 Portuguese. In the pre-
liminary assault on the Dutch at Sa5 Paulo de Loanda the
Portuguese lost 163 men. After the recapture of this place
they proceeded methodically to destroy all the Dutch establish-
ments on the Lower Guinea coast as far north as Loango. In
the concluding years of the 17th century nearly all the
remaining Portuguese missionaries in the kingdom of Congo

1 Perhaps "usurpation" is harsh. Philip II of Spain had the best
claim to the Portuguese throne after the death without heirs of the
Cardinal-King Henrique. But the Portuguese disliked union with Spain
and would have preferred to elect a Portuguese king.

42 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

migrated to the more settled and prosperous Angola. In 1694
Portugal introduced a copper coinage into her now flourishing
West African colony-flourishing, thanks to the slave trade,
which was mightily influencing the European settlement of
West Africa.
In 1758 the Portuguese extended their rule northwards from
Sa5 Paulo de Loanda into the Ambriz country, where however
their authority continued very uncertain till within a few years
ago. About the same time Benguela was definitely occupied,
and Portuguese influence continued extending slowly southward
until, in 1840, it reached its present limits by the establishment
of a settlement (now very prosperous) called Mossamedes,
almost exactly on the fifteenth parallel of south latitude'.
Between 1807 and 18io attempts were made to open up
intercourse with the kingdom of the Mwato Yanvo, and thence
across to the colony of Mozambique, but they proved un-
successful. In 1813 and in the succeeding years a renewed
vigour of colonization began to make itself felt in the creation
of public works in Angola. Amongst other improvements was
the bringing of the waters of the Kwanza by canal to Sao Paulo
de Loanda, which until then had no supply of good drinking
water. The Dutch had attempted to carry out this, but were
interrupted. The Portuguese efforts in the early part of this
century proved unsuccessful, but some ten years ago the canal
was at last completed, and it has made a great difference to
the health of the town. Portuguese rule inland from Angola
has waxed and waned during the present century, but on the
whole has been greatly extended. Livingstone even found
them established to some extent on the upper Kwango, an
affluent of the Congo, and for long the eastern boundary of
Angola. From this, however, they had to retire owing to
native insurrections; though now their power and their in-
fluence have been pushed far to the east, to the river Kasai.
I This place was named after the Baron de Mossamedes, a Portuguese
Governor of Angola; afterwards Minister for the Colonies.

II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 43

In 1875 a party of recalcitrant Boers quitted the Transvaal
owing to some quarrel with the local government, trekked
over the desert in a north-westerly direction, and eventually
blundered across the Kunene river (the southern limit of
Portuguese West Africa) on to the healthy plateau behind the
Chella Mountains. It was feared at one time that they would
set the Portuguese at defiance and carve out a little Boer state
in south-west Africa. About this time, also, Hottentots much
under Boer influence and speaking Dutch invaded the district
of Mossamedes from the coast region; but by liberal con-
cessions and astute diplomacy, joined with the carrying out of
several important works, like the waggon road across the Shela
(or Chella) Mountains, the Portuguese won over the Boers to
a recognition of their sovereignty, and they have ever since
become a source of strength to the Portuguese. Slavery was
not abolished in the Portuguese West African dominions until
1878; but the slave trade had been done away with in the
first quarter of the 19th century. Prior to that time the
slave trade had brought extraordinary prosperity to the islands
of Sa5 Thom6 and Principe, to the Portuguese fort on the
coast of Dahome, and to Angola, all of which countries were
more or less under one government. The abolition of the
slave trade however caused the absolute ruin of Principe
(which has not yet recovered), the temporary ruin of Sa5
Thome (since revived by the energy of certain planters, who
have introduced the cultivation of chinchona), and the partial
ruin of Angola, which began to be regarded as a possession
scarcely worth maintaining. Brazil (though it had been severed
from the crown of Portugal) did almost more than the Mother
Country to revive trade in these dominions. Enterprising
Brazilians such as Silva Americano came over to Angola in
the '6o's' and '70's,' started steam navigation on the river
Kwanza, and developed many industries. Through Brazilian %\
United States, and British influence a railway was commenced^-
in the '8o's' to connect Sa5 Paulo de Loanda with the rich

The Colonization of Africa.

interior, especially with the coffee districts on the water-shed
of the Congo. The magnificent island of Sa5 Thomd, just
under the Equator, possesses mountains which rise high into a
temperate climate. On these, flourishing plantations of cin-
chona and coffee have been established. Public works in the
shape of good roads and bridges have been carried out in many
parts of Angola, and this country is certainly the most success-
ful of the Portuguese attempts at the colonization of Africa.
Portuguese rule has been extended northwards to the
southern shore of the Congo, and over the small territory of
Kabinda, which is separated by a narrow strip of Belgian
territory from the other bank. On the other hand the Portu-
guese protectorate over Dahome-a protectorate which never
had any real existence-has been abandoned together with its
only foothold, Sa5 Joa5 d'Ajuda'. The Portuguese forts on
the Gold Coast had not been held very long before they were
captured by the Dutch at the beginning of the i7th century.
Portugal, in spite of discovering and naming Sierra Leone,
never occupied it; but in varying degree she continued to
maintain certain fortified posts amid that extraordinary jumble
of rivers in Senegambia, between the Gambia and Sierra Leone.
This is a district of some 20,000 square miles in extent, to-day
carefully defined, and known as Portuguese Guinea. But in
the '70o's' it was doubtful whether Portuguese sovereignty over
this country had not been abandoned. England, which exercised
exclusive influence in these waters, attempted to establish
herself in the place of Portugal, but the Portuguese protested
1 This fort, by the abortive Congo Treaty of 1884, was to have been
made over to England, the result of which would have been the prevention
of a French protectorate over Dahome. Although the Portuguese never in
any sense ruled over or controlled Dahome, their indirect influence and
their language were prominent at the Dahomean court because certain
Brazilians had during the first half of this century established themselves
on the coast and in the interior as influential merchants and slave traders.
Their coffee-coloured descendants now form a Portuguese-speaking
Brazilian caste in Dahome.


The Portuguese in Africa.

and proclaimed their sovereignty. The matter was submitted
to arbitration, and the verdict-of course-was given against
England. Consequently the Portuguese reorganized their
colony of Guinea, which in time was separated from the
governorship of the Cape Verde islands. These latter are a
very important Portuguese asset off the north-west coast of
Africa. They have been continuously occupied and adminis-
tered since their discovery in the I5th century. They possessed
then no population, but are now peopled by a blackish race
descended from Negro and Moorish slaves. In one or two of
the healthier islands are settlers of Portuguese blood. Owing
to the magnificent harbours which these islands offer to shipping
-especially Sa5 Vicente-and their use as a coaling station,
they may yet figure prominently in the world's history.
Both Ascension and St Helena were discovered and named
by the Portuguese. The first-named was never occupied until
England took possession of it as an outpost of Napoleon's
prison in I815. St Helena was taken in the early part of the
16th century by the Dutch, and passed into the hands of
the English in the middle of that century. Another Portuguese
discovery was the most southern of these isolated oceanic islets,
Tristan d'Acunha, which bears the name of its discoverer, but
which, so far as occupation goes, has always been a British
On the East coast of Africa Portuguese colonization did
not commence until the i6th century had begun, and
Vasco de Gama, after rounding the Cape, had revealed the
1 Most prominent features, and some countries on the west and south
coasts of Africa from the Senegal round to the Cape of Good Hope and
Mogambique, bear Portuguese names: Cape Verde is "The Green Cape,"
Sierra Leone (Serra Leoa) is "The Lioness Mountain," Cape Palmas The
Palm-trees Cape," Cape Coast is Cabo Corso "The cruising Cape,"
Lagos is "The Lakes," Cameroons is Camaroes "prawns," Gaboon is
Gaba "The Hooded Cloak" (from the shape of the estuary), Corisco is
"Lightning," Cape Frio is "The Cold Cape" and Angra Pequena is
"The Little Cove," and so on.

The Colonization of Africa.


existence of old Arab trading settlements and sultanates be-
tween Sofala and Somaliland.
The need of ports of call on the long voyage to India
caused the Portuguese to decide soon after Vasco de Gama's
famous voyage to possess themselves of these Arab settlements,
the more so because hostilities against the "Moors" were a
never-ending vendetta on the part of Spaniard or Portuguese,
while the conquest was at that date an easy one, as the
Portuguese had artillery and the East African Arabs had none.
By I520, the Portuguese had ousted the Arabs and had
occupied in their stead Kilwa, Zanzibar, Pemba, Mombasa,
Lamu, Malindi, Brava (Barawa), and Magdishu (Magadoxo):
all north of the Ruvuma river. South of that river they had
taken Sofala and Mogambique. Here they had-it is said-
established a trading station in 1503, but Mozambique island'
was not finally occupied by them till 1507, when the existing
fortress was commenced and built by Duarte de Mello. The
fort was then and is still known as "the Praga de Sa3
Sebastia5." It had been decided before this that Mogambique
should be the principal place of call, after leaving the Cape of
Good Hope, for Portuguese ships on their way to India; but
when in 1505 the Portuguese deliberately sanctioned the idea
of a Portuguese East African colony they turned their attention
rather to Sofala as its centre than to Mogambique. Sofala,
which is near the modern Beira, was an old Arab port and
sultanate, and had been for some 1500 years the principal port
on the south-east coast of Africa, from which the gold obtained

1 This is a little coral islet about 2 miles long by I of a mile broad,
situated between 2 and 3 miles from the coast [a shallow bay], in i; degrees
south latitude, where the East African coast approaches nearest to Mada-
gascar. It commands the Mogambique Channel. Its native name was
probably originally lusambiki. By the neighboring East African tribes
it is now called Muhibidi, Msambiji, and Msambiki. It has sometimes
been the only parcel of land remaining in Portuguese hands during the
vicissitudes of their East African empire.

II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 47

in the mines of Manika was shipped to the Red Sea and the
Persian Gulf. Consequently the first proposed Portuguese
settlement on the East coast of Africa was entitled "the
Captaincy of Sofala." But later on Mogambique grew in
importance, and eventually gave its name to the Portuguese
possessions in East Africa.
The Quelimane river, taken to be the principal exit of
the Zambezi by the Portuguese, was discovered and entered
by Vasco de Gama in the early part of 1498, and was by him
called the "River of Good Indications." He stayed a month
on this river, where there seems to have been, on the site of the
present town of Quelimane, a trading station resorted to by the
Arabs, who were even then settled in Zambezia. The name
Quelimane (pronounced in English Kelimane) is stated by the
early Portuguese to have been the name of the friendly chief
who acted as intermediary between them and the natives, but
it would rather appear to have been a corruption of the
Swahili-Arabic word "Kaliman," which means "interpreter."
The first Factory" or Portuguese trading station at Queli-
mane was established about the year 1544, and by this time
the Portuguese had heard of the River of Sena (as they called
the Zambezi) and of the large Arab settlement of Sena on its
banks. They had further heard both from Quelimane and
from Sofala of the powerful empire of Monomotapa', and
especially of the province of Manika, which was reported to
be full of gold. Having found it too difficult to reach Manika
from Sofala, owing. to the opposition of the natives, they resolved
to enter the country from the north by way of Sena, on the
Zambezi; and consequently, in 1569, an exceptionally powerful
expedition left Lisbon under the command of the Governor

1 A corruption of Mwene-mulafa "Lord Hippopotamus," according
to some authorities, for on the Zambezi above Tete the hippopotamus was
looked on as a sacred animal. I am inclined to think however that
Mwene-mutapa is really Lord of the Mine, or gold mining," mutapa or
mtapo being a shallow pit dug in clay or sand for mining, or washing gold.

48 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

and Captain-General Francisco Barreto, and after a preliminary
tour up and down the East coast of Africa as far as Lamu, and
a rapid journey to India and back, Francisco Barreto with his
force, which included cavalry and camels, landed at Quelimane,
arid set out for Sena. The expedition was accompanied, and,
to a certain extent, guided by a mischief-making Jesuit priest
named Monclaros, who wished to avenge the assassination of
his fellow-priest, Gonialo de Silveira, martyred not long pre-
viously in the Monomotapa territories. Francisco Barreto
found on arriving at Sena that there was already a small
Portuguese settlement built alongside an Arab town. These
Arabs appear to have got on very well with the first Portuguese
traders, but they evidently took umbrage at Barreto's powerful
expedition, and are accused of having poisoned the horses and
camels. What really took place, however, seems to have been
that the horses and camels were exposed to the bite of the
Tsetse fly, and died in consequence of the attacks of this
venomous insect. From Sena, Barreto sent an embassy to the
Emperor of Monomotapa, whom he offered to help against a
revolted vassal, Mongase. After receiving an invitation to
visit the emperor, a portion of the Portuguese force commenced
to ascend the right bank of the river Zambezi, but apparently
never reached its destination, because it was so repeatedly
attacked by the hostile natives that it was compelled to return
to Sena. Shortly afterwards there arrived the news of a revolt
at Mogambique, and consequently Barreto, together with the
priest Monclaros, having handed over the.command of the
expedition to a lieutenant, entered a canoe, descended the
Zambezi to the Luabo mouth, and from there took passage in
a dau to Mocambique. He and Monclaros subsequently re-
turned to Sena, but Barreto died soon after his arrival. The
Portuguese chroniclers of this expedition write with consider-
able bitterness of the Jesuit Monclaros, to whose counsels most
of the misfortunes and mistakes are attributed. The expedition
after Barreto's death returned to Mocambique, and attempted

II.] The Portuguese in Africa. 49

later on to enter Monomotapa by way of Sofala, but was
For some time to come further exploration of the Zambezi
or of the interior of Mogambique was put a stop to by the
struggle which ensued with the Turks. Towards the end of
the i6th century (in 1584), following on the conquest of
Egypt and at the instigation of Venice, the Turkish Sultan
sent a powerful fleet out of the Red Sea, which descended the
East coast of Africa as far as Mombasa, and prepared to dis-
pute with Portugal the dominion of the Indian Ocean. The
Turks, however, were defeated with considerable loss by the
Admiral Thome de Sousa Coutinho, and Portuguese domination
was not only strengthened at Zanzibar and along the Zanzibar
coast, but was also affirmed along the south coast of Arabia
and in the Persian Gulf.
At the end of the i6th century the Portuguese had
terrific struggles with the natives in the interior of Monomotapa,
behind Kilwa, on the mainland of Mocambique', and in the
vicinity of Tete on the Zambezi; and shortly afterwards
appeared the first Dutch pirates in East African waters, some
of whom actually laid siege to Moqambique. In 1609 there
arrived at Mocambique the first Portuguese Governor of the
East coast of Africa, and this province was definitely separated
from the Portuguese possessions in India, while at the same
time it was withdrawn from the spiritual jurisdiction of the
Archbishop of Goa, and placed under the Prelate of Mozam-
bique. Meantime the efforts to reach the gold-mines to the
south of the Zambezi had been so far successful that a con-
siderable quantity of gold was obtained not only by the officers,
but even by the private soldiers of the different expeditions;
but the expectations of the Portuguese as to the wealth of gold
and silver (for they were in search of reported silver-mines on

1 Where they are only now bringing the sturdy Makua tribe under

The Colonization of Africa.

the Zambezi) were considerably disappointed, and later on,
in the 17th century, their interest in these East African
possessions waned, largely on account of the poor results
of their mining operations. In the middle of the 17th
century, however, a new source of wealth was discovered,
which for two hundred years following gave a flickering prospe-
rity to these costly establishments on the East coast of Africa
-I mean the slave trade. In 1645 the first slaves were
exported from Mozambique to Brazil. This action was brought
about by the fact that the province of Angola had fallen for a
time into the hands of the Dutch, and, therefore, the supply of
slaves to Brazil was temporarily stopped.
In consequence of this Mozambique and the Zambezi for
some years replaced West Africa as a slave market. In 1649
the English first made their appearance on this coast, and two
years afterwards the Portuguese were perturbed by the definite
establishment of a Dutch colony at the Cape, and by the
establishment of French factories on the coast of Madagascar
-events which are prophetically described by a contemporary
writer as "Quantos passes para a ruina de Mocambique !"-
"So many steps towards the ruin of Mocambique!" At the
same time the Arabs in the Persian Gulf drove the Portuguese
out of Maskat, and towards the end of the i7th century
began to attack their possessions on the Zanzibar coast. By
1698 Portugal had lost every fortress north of Mogambique,
and in that year this, their last stronghold, was besieged straitly
by the Arabs and very nearly captured. In fact it was only
saved by the friendly treachery of an Indian trader who warned
the Portuguese of an intended night attack. All of these posts
on the Zanzibar coast were finally abandoned' by the Portu-
guese in the early part of the i8th century by agreement with
the Imam of Maskat, who founded the present dynasty of
Zanzibar. In 1752 this fact was recognized by the formal

1 Except Mombasa, which was retaken and held till 173o.


In.] The Portuguese in Africa. 51

delimitation of the Portuguese possessions in East Africa at the
time when they were also removed from any dependency on
the Governor of Goa. In this decree of the 19th of April,
1752, the government of Mozambique was described as extend-
ing over "Mogambique, Sofala, Rio de Sena (Zambezi), and
all the coast of Africa and its continent between Cape Delgado
and the Bay of Lourengo Marquez (Delagoa Bay)." Hitherto
commerce in Portuguese East Africa had been singularly
restricted, and after being first confined to the Governors and
officials of the state, was then delegated to certain companies
to whom monopolies were sold; but in 1687 there was a fresh
arrival, after a considerable interval, of Indian traders, who
established themselves on the Island of Mogambique, and by
degrees the whole of the commerce of Portuguese East Africa
was thrown open freely to all Portuguese subjects, though it
was absolutely forbidden to the subjects of any other European
power, and considerable anger was displayed when French and
Dutch endeavoured to trade on the islands or on the coast in
the province of Mogambique. In the middle of the i8th
century the principle of sending the worst stamp of Portuguese
convicts to Mocambique was unhappily adopted in spite of the
many protests of its governors. About this same time also
there occurred a series of disasters attributable to the deplor-
able mismanagement of the Portuguese officials. The fortresses
of the gold-mining country of Manika had to be abandoned,
like Zumbo' on the upper Zambezi. The forts of the mainland
opposite Mocambique were captured by an army of Makua,
and the Island of Mogambique itself very nearly fell into the
hands of the negroes of the mainland.
Towards the close of the last century, however, occurred a
great revival In fact, the period which then ensued was the
only bright, and to some extent glorious phase of Portuguese

1 Zumbo was given up (though it was never much more than a Jesuit
Mission Station) in 1740.

The Colonization of Africa.

dominion in South-east Africa. A remarkable man, Dr Francisco
Jose Maria de Lacerda e Almeida, was first made Governor of
Zambezia at his own request, and commenced the first scientific
exploration of southern Central Africa. His journey resulted in
the discovery of the Kazembe's division of the Lunda empire, a
country on the Luapula and Lake Mweru. It is interesting to
note that in 1796, only one year after the British had seized
Cape Town, Dr Lacerda predicted this action would lead to
the creation of a great British Empire in Africa, which would
stretch up northwards like a wedge between the Portuguese
colonies of Angola and Mogambique. But Dr Lacerda in time
fell a victim to the fatigues of his explorations, and Portuguese
interest in East Africa waned before the life-and-death struggle
which was taking place with France in Portugal itself. Long
prior to this also, in the middle of the i8th century, the
Jesuits had been expelled from all Portuguese East Africa, and
with them had fallen what little civilization had been created
on the upper Zambezi. In fact, it may be said that after
Lacerda's journey the province of Mogambique fell into a state
of inertia and decay, until Livingstone, by his marvellous
journeys, not only discovered the true course of the Zambezi
river, but drew the attention and interest of the whole world
to the development of tropical Africa.
On all old Portuguese maps, indeed on all Portuguese
maps issued prior to Livingstone's journeys, there was but
scanty recognition of the Zambezi as a great river. It was
usually referred to as the "rivers of Sena," the general im-
pression being that it consisted of a series of parallel streams.
No doubt this idea arose from its large delta; on one or two
maps, however, the course of the Zambezi is laid down pretty
correctly from its confluence with the Kafue to the sea; but
the fact cannot be denied that its importance as a waterway
was quite unknown to the Portuguese, who usually reached
it overland from Quelimane and travelled by land along its
banks in preference to navigating its uncertain waters. The


The Portuguese in Africa.

Shire was literally unknown, except at its junction with the
Zambezi. The name of this river was usually spelt Cherim,
but its etymology lies in the Mafianja word chiri, which means
"a steep bank." Captain Owen, who conducted a most
remarkable series of surveying cruises along the West and East
coasts of Africa in the early part of the 19th century, was
the first to make the fact clearly known that a ship of light
draught might enter the mouth of the Zambezi from the sea
and travel up as far as Sena.
Livingstone's great journey across the African continent in
the earlier '50's' attracted the attention of the British nation
and Government to the possibilities of this region, so highly
favoured by nature in its rich soil and valuable productions.
Livingstone was appointed Consul at Quelimane, and placed
at the head of a well-equipped expedition intended to explore
the Zambezi river and its tributaries. Prior to this the Portu-
guese had abolished the slave trade by law, though slavery did
not cease as a legal status till 1878, and had thrown open
Portuguese East Africa to the commerce of all nations, and
undoubtedly these two actions were an encouragement to the
British Government to participate in the development of South-
east Africa, especially as Livingstone's journeys had shown
conclusively that the rule of the Portuguese did not extend
very far inland, nor to any great distance from the banks of
the lower Zambezi. The second Livingstone expedition may,
therefore, be regarded as the first indirect step towards the
foundation of the present Protectorate of British Central Africa,
which dependency follows to a great extent in its frontiers the
delimitations suggested by Dr Livingstone at the close of his
second expedition.
A jealous feeling, however, arose at the time of Living-
stone's explorations between Portuguese and British, and con-
siderable pressure was brought to bear on the British Govern-
ment to abandon the results of Livingstone's discovery; and
these representations, together with other discouraging results

The Colonization of Africa.

of British enterprise in East and West Africa, induced the
British Government during the later '6o's' and earlier
'70's' to hold aloof from any idea of British rule in the
interior of the continent. Meantime the Portuguese were
making praiseworthy efforts to develop these long-neglected
possessions. Great improvements were made, and a wholly
modern aspect of neatness and order was given to the towns of
Quelimane and Mogambique, which in many respects compare
favourably with otier ropean settlements on the East coast
of Africa. Large sums were spent on public works; indeed,
in the year i880, the sum of not less than 157,000 was
provided by the mother country for the erection of public
buildings in Portuguese East and West Africa, and at this
period the handsome hospital in the town of M biue was
erected, together with a good deal of substantial road and
bridge making. A good many more military posts were
founded, and Zumbo, on the central Zambezi, at the con-
fluence with the Luangwa, was reoccupied. Nevertheless,
Livingstone's work, and especially his death, inevitably drew
the British to Zambezia. In 1875 the first pioneers of the
present missionary societies travelled up the Zambezi and
arrived in the Shire highlands. In 1876 the settlement of
Blantyre was commenced, and the foundations of British
Central Africa were laid. These actions impelled the Portu-
guese to greater and greater efforts to secure the dominion to
which they aspired--a continuous belt of empire stretching
across the continent from Angola to Mogambique; and an
expenditure exhausting for the mother country was laid out on
costly expeditions productive not always of definite or satis-
factory results. This policy culminated in the effort of Serpa
Pinto to seize by force the Shire highlands, despite the
resistance offered by the Makololo chiefs, who had declared
themselves under British protection. Thence arose the inter-
vention of the British Government and a long discussion
between the two powers, which eventually bore results in a fair


1I.] .The Portuguese in Africa. 55

delimitation of the Portuguese and British spheres of influence,
and the annulling-it is to be hoped for all time-of any
inimical feeling between England and Portugal in their African
enterprises. Mocambique has proved a costly dependency to
the mother country. From the year 1508 to 1893 there was
always annually an excess of expenditure over revenue, some-
times as much as an annual deficit of Z5o,o0o. In the year
1893, for the first time since the creation of the colony, a small
surplus was remitted to Lisbon. It is questionable whether
this possession will ever prove profitable to Portugal. At the
present day nearly two-thirds of the trade is in the hands of
British subjects-Indians and Europeans. The remainder is
divided amongst French, German, Portuguese, and Dutch
commercial houses, and a small amount of commerce is
carried on by natives of Goa or other Portuguese Indian
The chief article of trade in the Mogambique province is
ground-nuts-the oily seeds of the Arachis hypogca, a species
of leguminous plant, the seed-pods of which grow downwards
into the soil. These ground-nuts produce an excellent and
palatable oil which is hardly distinguishable in taste from olive
oil, and which indeed furnishes a considerable part of the so-
called olive oil exported from France. This, perhaps, is the
reason why the ground-nuts find their way finally to Marseilles.
The india-rubber of Mogambique is of exceptionally good
quality and fetches a good price in the market. Other exports
are oil-seeds derived from a species of sesamum, copra, wax,
ivory, and copper. A few enterprising people started coffee
plantations on the mainland near Mogambique some years ago;
but the local Portuguese authorities immediately put on heavy
duties and taxes, so that the coffee-planting industry was soon
killed. The same thing may be said about the coco-nut palm.
At one time it was intended to plant this useful tree in large
numbers along a coast singularly adapted for its growth; but
owing to the fact that the local Portuguese Government

The Colonization of Africa.

imposed a yearly tax on each palm the cultivation of the
coco-nut was given up. The ivory comes chiefly from Ibo
and Cape Delgado, and also from Quelimane, and is derived
from elephants still existing in the Zambezi basin and in the
eastern parts of Nyasaland. Nevertheless, most of the
products above alluded to, with the exception of ivory, are
only furnished by the fertile coast belt, for beyond the twenty
mile strip of cultivated land which extends more or less down
the whole coast of Mocambique, the interior of the country is
dry and arid except in certain favoured river valleys.
Unfortunately all the trade in the Mozambique province is
terribly hampered by the very high import duties, which in
many cases are as much as 37 per cent. ad valorem; there are
also export duties on some of the products of the country.
Were it not for this fiscal policy, undoubtedly this part of
Africa would be frequented by innumerable Indian traders
and by a very much larger number of Europeans than is at
present the case.
Portuguese influence, though not Portuguese rule, was
carried southward to the northern shore of Delagoa Bay at the
end of the i7th century. Here the settlement of Lourenco
Marquez was founded as a trading station. At the beginning
of the i8th century this Portuguese station was abandoned, and
the Cape Dutch came and built a factory there, which however
was destroyed by the English in 1727. Nevertheless Portugal
continued to assert her claims to Lourenco Marquez; and
when in 1776 an Englishman named Bolts (formerly in the
employ of the English East India Company), who had entered
the service of Maria Theresa in order to found an Austrian
Company to trade with the East Indies from Flanders, came
thither with a large band composed of Austrian-Italian subjects,
and made treaties with the chiefs at Delagoa Bay, the Portu-
guese protested and addressed representations to the Austrian
Government. These protestations would have been of but
little avail had not a terrible outbreak of fever carried off


The Portuguese in Africa.

almost all the European settlers. The Austrian claim was
therefore abandoned, and the Portuguese continued at intervals
to make their presence felt there by a quasi-military com-
mandant or a Government trading establishment. When
Captain Owen's expedition visited Delagoa Bay between 1822
and 1824 they found a small Portuguese establishment on the
site of the present town of Lourengo Marquez'. Realizing
the importance of this harbour, and finding no evidence of
Portuguese claims to its southern shore, Captain Owen con-
cluded treaties with the King of Tembe by which the southern
part of Delagoa Bay was ceded to Great Britain. The Portu-
guese made an indirect protest' by removing the British flag
during Captain Owen's absence, but the flag was rehoisted in
1824. Owen's action, however, was not followed up by effec-
tive occupation, though on the other hand the Portuguese did
nothing to reassert their authority over the south shore of the
bay until in the '6o's' when the growing importance of
South Africa led the English to reassert their claims. The
matter was submitted to arbitration, and Marshal MacMahon,
the President of the French Republic, was chosen as arbitrator.
His verdict-a notoriously biassed one-not only gave the
Portuguese the south shore of Delagoa Bay, but even more
territory than they actually laid claim to. England had to
some extent prepared herself for an unfavourable verdict by a
prior agreement providing that whichever of the two disputing
powers came to possess the whole or part of Delagoa Bay
should give the other the right of pre-emption.
Reading the vast mass of evidence brought forward and
preserved in Blue Books, it seems to the present writer that
any dispassionate judge would arrive at these conclusions:
That the Portuguese claims to the northern shore of Delagoa
Bay were valid, but that over the southern shore of that

1 The modern and existing town of that name was not founded till

The Colonization of Africa.

important inlet they had exercised no occupation and raised
no claim until the arrival of Captain Owen and his treaty-
making, and that even after the action taken by Captain Owen
their only procedure was to remove the flag he had raised,
but not to follow up any such step by occupation or treaty-
making on their own account. Captain Owen's action was
not repudiated by the British Government, who besides had
other rights over the territory in question inherited from the
Dutch. Captain Owen's action was not, it is true, suc-
ceeded by immediate occupation, and the British case would
have been a very weak one judged by the severe rules of
the Berlin Convention of i884. But then, if Portuguese
territory in East Africa had been delimited by the same
severe rules it would have been reduced to a few fortified
settlements. Great Britain had a fair claim to the south shore
of Delagoa Bay, and the award of Marshal MacMahon was a
prejudiced one, said to have been mainly due to the influence
of his wife, who was an ardent Roman Catholic, and had been
won over to the Portuguese cause in other ways.
Subsequent to the Delagoa Bay award, the Portuguese
made determined efforts to explore and conquer the South-east
coast of Africa and the countries along the lower Zambezi.
To the extreme north of their fMoambique possessions they
had a dispute with the Sultan of Zanzibar as to the possession
of Tungi Bay and the south shore of the mouth of the river
Ruvuma. After their disastrous struggle with the Arabs in
the 17th and i8th centuries the Portuguese had defined the
northern limit of their East African possessions as Cape
Delgado, and Cape Delgado would have given them the whole
of Tungi Bay, though not the mouth of the Ruvuma. It is
evident that the Sultan of Zanzibar was trespassing as a ruler
when he claimed Tungi Bay, though not when he claimed the
mouth of the Ruvuma. Portugal, losing patience at the time
of the division of the Zanzibar Sultanate between England and
Germany, made an armed descent on Tungi Bay in 1889, and


ii.] The Portuguese in Africa. 59

has since held it, though the Germans withdrew from her
control the Ruvuma mouth, which they claimed as an in-
heritance of the Sultan of Zanzibar.
The establishment of the British South African Company
in 1889, and the consequent development of Mashonaland and
Matabeleland subjected the Portuguese territories south of
the Zambezi to a searching scrutiny on the part of these
merchant adventurers, who laid hands on behalf of Great
Britain on all territory wre" te Portuguese could notprve
laims supported by occupation or ruling influence. The
strongest temptation existed to ignore Portuguese claims on
the Pungwe river and push a way down to the sea at Beira;
but a spirit of justice prevailed and no real transgression of
Portuguese rights was sanctioned by the British Government,
or indeed attempted by the Company. In June, 1891, after
several unsuccessful attempts, a convention was arv at
between Englan ana ortual. which defined tolerably clearly
the boundaries of British and Portuguese territorh-
east, South-west, and South-central Africa. Rights of way were
obtained under fair conditions both at Beira and at Chinde.
Since this time a friendlier feeling has been growing up
between the English and Portuguese. The Portuguese have
been making steady efforts to bring under control their richly
endowed East African province. For some time after their
settlement with Great Britain they were menaced in the south
by the power of Gungunyama, a Zulu king who ruled over the
Gaza country, and who had been in the habit of raiding the
interior behind the Portuguese settlements of Lourengo
Marquez and Inhambane. The Portuguese warred against
him for three years without satisfactory results, until Major
Mouzinho de Albuquerque by a bold stroke of much bravery
marched into Gungunyama's camp with a handful of Portuguese
soldiers and took the king prisoner. For this gallant action he
was eventually promoted to be Governor-General of Portuguese
East Africa, and has since done something towards bringing

60 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP. II.

under subjection the turbulent Makua tribes opposite Mogam-
bique. The Portuguese have never yet conquered the Angoche
country which lies between Quelimane and Mocambique, and
which is largely in the hands of chiefs descended from Zanzibar
The greater portion of their south-east African possessions
has been handed over to the administration of a Chartered
Company-which although entirely Portuguese in direction
derives its capital mainly from English and French sources.
This Mogambique Company since its institution in 1891 has
done much to open up the country, but further development is
chiefly due to the British South African Company, who have
constructed a line of railway from the Pungwe river, near
Beira, to the eastern frontier of Mashonaland.


& .. A t vA -

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i A tea of Portuguese Possessions in 182o
Possessions lost or exchangd



THE enterprise of Spain in Africa was relatively so small
(the greater part of Spanish energy being devoted to founding
an empire in the New World, in the far East, in Italy and
Flanders) and was also politically so knit up at first with the
Portuguese colonial empire that the little there is to say about
it may be recorded in the shortest chapter of this book.
At the close of the i5th century the Spaniards followed up
their expulsion of the Moors from Spain by attacking them on
the North coast of Africa. They established themselves at
Melilla', Oran, Algiers2, Bugia, Bona, Hunein, Susa, Monastir,
Mehedia, Sfax, and Goletta3. The apogee of Spanish power in
North Africa was reached about 1535, at which time the
Spaniards alternately with the Turks dominated the Barbary
States. Then, owing to victory inclining to the Turkish
corsairs*, the Spaniards' hold over the country began to
1 In 1490.
2 Or the rock, or Peflon," overlooking the town, seized and garrisoned
by Cardinal Ximenez in 1509. It was taken by Khaireddin, the Turkish
corsair, in i53o.
3 Held by Spain from 1535 to 1574.
4 The following is a rlsumd of the history of the intervention of Turkey
in Barbary. In 1504 Uruj (Barbarossa I), a pirate of mixed Turco-Greek
origin, attracted by the rumours of American treasure-ships in the western
Mediterranean, captured Algiers (r516) and Tlemsan (i517); but he was
defeated and killed by the Spaniards coming from Oran. His younger
brother Khaireddin (Barbarossa II) appealed to Turkey, which had just
(1518) conquered Egypt, and received from Sultan Selim the title of
Turkish Beglerbeg of Algiers and a reinforcement of 2ooo Turks. He

The Colonization of Africa.

decline. A resolute attempt was made by Charles V in 1541
to take and hold the town of Algiers, the Spanish having lost
Pefion, a rock fortress overlooking part of the town. This
attempt of 1541 (only less serious than the French expedition
of 1830) would probably have succeeded but for a torrential
downpour of rain, which made the surrounding country impass-
able to the Spanish guns and cavalry, and led to a terrible rout.
Had Algiers fallen at this time its capture might have resulted
in a Spanish empire of North Africa. As it was, this twenty-
four hours' downpour of rain changed the future of the northern
part of the continent, or rather prevented a change which
might have had very far-reaching results. Charles V had
invaded Tunis in 1535 at the appeal of the last sovereign but
one of the House of Hafs, who had been dispossessed by the
Turkish pirate, Khaireddin. Although his intervention was
ultimately unsuccessful, and his protigi was killed and suc-
ceeded by his son-who more or less intrigued with the
Turkish corsairs-the Spaniards retained their hold on Goletta
till 1574, the Turks having then definitely intervened in the
affairs of Tunis. The Spaniards surrendered Goletta to the
renegade pirate, Ochiali, and with it went all their influence
over Tunis. An expedition which they had sent to the island
of Jerba in 1560, under the Duke de Medina-Coeli and the
younger Doria, ended in a great disaster, a defeat at the hands
of the Moorish pirates who massacred, it is said, not less than
18,ooo Spaniards (May, 1560). Their skulls were built into
a tower, which remained visible near the town of Humt Suk
till 1840, when the kindly Maltese settlers on this island
obtained permission from the Bey of Tunis to give Christian
burial to the Spanish skulls, which now are interred in the
mastered almost all Algeria; was made Admiral of the Turkish fleet
in 1533; captured Tunis in r534; was driven out by Charles V; and
retired to Turkey in 1535. His successors were sometimes Sardinian,
Calabrian, Venetian, Hungarian renegades; but among the more celebrated
was Dragut, a Turk of Caramania.


Spanish Africa.

Christian cemetery at Humt Suk. For brief intervals the
Spaniards held other coast towns' of Tunis, but in retiring
from Goletta they withdrew from all their places in the
They were finally expelled from Oran in 1791. They had
been turned out of this place in 1708, but recaptured it
after a period of 24 years, and held it for 59 years longer.
Spain only retains at the present day on the North coast
of Africa the little island of Melilla', the island of Alhucemas,
the rock of Velez de la Gomera, the Chafarinas Islands5,
and the rocky promontory of Ceuta. Ceuta (and Tetwan,
which she once possessed) she inherited from Portugal after
a separation had once more taken place between the two
monarchies in 1640. On the strength of some clause in an
old treaty Spain has also recently secured from Morocco the
town of Ifni, near Cape Nun on the Atlantic coast and nearly
opposite the Canary Islands.
The Canary Islands were discovered by a Norman adven-
turer, Jean de Bethencourt, were occupied by Portugal, but
ceded by that country to Spain (or rather, Castile) in 1479.
Prior to their occupation the islands were inhabited by a
Berber race of some antiquity known as the Guanches. These
were partly exterminated, and partly absorbed by the Spanish
settlers, to whom they were so much akin in blood that
complete race fusion was rendered easy, especially as the
Guanches had not been reached by Muhammadanism. The
Canary Islands now form politically part of Spain. They are
thoroughly civilized, and are well governed and prosperous.
The two principal islands, Tenerife and Grand Canary, are
favourite health resorts.

1 Susa, Sfax, and Monastir, which were lost to the Turks by i55o.
2 The oldest of her continental African possessions, dating from 149o.
3 The Chafarinas Islands are off the mouth of the Muluya river, near
the Algerian frontier. They were seized by the Spaniards in 1849,
forestalling the French.

The Colonization of Africa.

Curiously enough Spain allowed her influence over the
coast opposite the Canary Islands to lapse between the end of
the i6th century and the scramble for Africa which com-
menced in 1884. Meantime an English trading firm with
agencies in the Canary Islands had been established at Cape
Juby, south of the Morocco border, and British influence for a
time dominated the coast immediately opposite the Canary
Islands, and arrested Spanish action in that neighbourhood.
When the scramble for Africa took place in 1884, however, the
Spanish, who were greatly interested in the North-west coast,
raised their flag at an inlet called the Rio d'Ouro', and de-
clared a Protectorate over the Sahara coast between Cape
Blanco and Cape Bojador and for a varying distance inland.
This Protectorate has since been extended slightly to the
north beyond Cape Bojador, but the Empire of Morocco now
extends to the south of Cape Juby to meet the Spanish
frontier, the Moorish Government having bought up the claims
of the English company. The inland boundary of this Spanish
Protectorate is not yet settled as between France and Spain.
The only settlement of any importance or size is at the Rio
In 1778 Spain, which had become very much interested in
the slave trade on the West coast of Africa, on account of the
need for a regular supply of slaves to her South American
possessions, obtained from Portugal the cession of the island
of Fernando Po, and also took over the island of Anno Bom
-the last of this series of equatorial volcanic islands and the
smallest. About the same time the Spaniards made a settle-
ment at Corisco Bay". The Spanish claims extend some
distance up the river Muni. No boundaries have as yet been

1 This Portuguese name becomes in Spanish Rio de Oro.
2 This also, like so many other places on the West coast of Africa, was
named by the Portuguese; Corisco meaning "sheet lightning," a name
applied to the place because it was first seen during a violent thunder-


III.] Spanish Africa. 65

settled with the French. This very interesting strip of Equa-
torial West African Coast is emphatically the home of the
At the end of the i8th century the Spanish island of
Fernando Po was almost abandoned. When the British under-
took to put down the slave trade off the West African Coast,
Fernando Po became their head-quarters (in 1829), and in
time they were allowed to administer it by the Spanish
Government, the British representative or "Superintendent"
being made at the same time a Governor with a Spanish
commission. But in 1844 the Spanish decided to resume the
direct administration, and refused to sell their rights to Great
Britain, though overtures were made to that end. Until ten
years ago nothing had been done to develop the resources
of this densely forested, very fertile, but unhealthy island. Of
late, however, some encouragement has been given to planters.
From the island having been for so long under British control,
English is understood in Femando Po much better than
Spanish, and a number of freed slaves from Sierra Leone are
settled there who talk nothing but an English dialect. The
indigenous inhabitants are a Bantu tribe of short stature
known as the Bubex. This tribe is distantly related to the
people of the northern part of the Cameroons, and speaks a
Bantu dialect.

1 Bube is said to be a cant term meaning "male" (from the Bantu
root, -ume, -lume) and the real name of this race is Ediya.



ALTHOUGH, as will be seen in Chapter VI, British explorers
were the first adventurers of other nationalities to follow the
Portuguese in the exploration of Africa, the Dutch, as
settlers and colonists, are almost entitled to rank chronologi-
cally next to the Portuguese and Spanish. The Dutch made
their first trading voyage to the Guinea Coast in r595, 16 years
after throwing off the yoke of Spain. On the plea of warring
with the Spanish Empire, which then included Portugal, they
displaced the latter power at various places along the West
coast of Africa-at Arguin, at Goree (purchased from the
natives 1621), Elmina (1637), and at Sa5 Paulo de Loanda
about the same time; while they also threatened Mogambique
on the East coast, and possessed themselves of the island of
Mauritius, which had been a place of call for Portuguese ships.
On the West coast of Africa, besides supplanting the Portu-
guese, the Dutch established themselves strongly on the Gold
Coast by means of 16 new forts of their own', in most cases

1 Their "capital" was at Elmina; they held-when in full vigour-
Fort Nassau (built before they took Elmina from the Portuguese),
Kormantin, Secondee, Takorari, Accra, Cape Coast Castle, Vredenburg,
Chama, Batenstein, Dikjeschopt (Insuma), Fort Elise Carthage (Ankobra),
Apollonia, Dixcove, Axim, Prince's Fort near Cape Three-points, Fort
Wibsen, and Pokquesoe. Before the abolition of the slave trade, Dutch
Guinea was very prosperous. It was governed by a subsidized Chartered

The Dutch in Africa.

alongside British settlements, which were regarded by the
Dutch with the keenest jealousy.
Dutch hold on the Gold Coast produced an impression in
the shape of a race of Dutch half-castes, which endures to this
day, and furnishes useful employes to the British Government
in many minor capacities. But after the abolition of the slave
trade Dutch commerce with the Guinea Coast began to wane,
and their political influence disappeared also: so that by 1872
the last of the Dutch ports had been transferred to Great
Britain in return for the cession on our part of rights we
possessed over Sumatra. Meantime Dutch trade had begun
to take firm hold over the Congo and Angola Coast, and it is
possible that, had the cession of the Gold Coast forts been
delayed a few years longer, it would never have been made, for
Holland possesses a considerable trade with Africa, and there
has been a strong feeling of regret in the Netherlands for
some time past at the exclusion of that country's flag from
the African continent.
But a far more important colonization than a foothold on
the Slave-trade Coast was made indirectly for Holland in the
middle of the 17th century; the Dutch East India Company,
desirous of making the Cape of Good Hope something more
than a port of call, which might fall into the hands of Portugal,
France, England, or any other rival, decided to occupy that
important station. The Dutch had taken possession of St
Helena in 1645, but a Dutch ship having been wrecked at
Table Bay in 1648, the crew landed, and encamped where

Company-the Dutch West India Co.-under the control of the States
General, and the local government consisted of a Governor-General at
Elmina, a chief Factor (or trader), a chief Fiscal (or accountant-general),
an under-fiscal (or auditor) and a large staff of factors, accountants,
secretaries, clerks and assistant clerks. There was a chaplain; there were
Dutch soldiers under Dutch officers who garrisoned the forts. After the
wars of the French Revolution the Dutch Government took over the
management of these establishments on the Gold Coast.


The Colonization of Africa.

Cape Town now stands. Here they were obliged to live for
five months, until picked up by other Dutch ships; but during
this period they sowed and reaped grain, and obtained plenty
of meat from the natives, with whom they were on good terms.
The favourable report they gave of this country on their return
to Holland decided the Dutch Company, after years of hesita-
tion, to take possession of Table Bay. An expedition was
sent out under Jan van Riebeek, a ship's surgeon, who had
already visited South Africa. The three ships of Van Riebeek's
expedition reached Table Bay on the 6th of April, 16521.
At different periods in the early part of the i6th century
the Dutch had consolidated their sea-going ventures into two
great chartered companies-the Dutch Company of the West
Indies, and the Dutch Company of the East Indies. The
West Indian Company took over all the settlements on the
West Coast of Africa, and had the monopoly of trade or rule
along all the Atlantic Coast of tropical America. The East
India Company was to possess the like monopoly from the
Pacific Coast of South America across the Indian Ocean to
the Cape of Good Hope. The head-quarters of the East
India Company, where their Governor-General and Council
were established, was at Batavia, in the island of Java. It was
not at first intended to establish anything like a colony in
South Africa-merely a secure place of call for the ships
engaged in the East Indian trade. But circumstances proved
too strong for this modest reserve. The inevitable quarrel
arose between the Dutch garrison at Table Bay and the
surrounding Hottentots. At the time of the Dutch settlement
of the Cape all the south-west corner of Africa was in-
habited only and sparsely by Hottentots and Bushmen; the
prolific Bantu Negroes not coming nearer to the Dutch than

1 As Mr Lucas points out in his Historical Geography of the British
Colonies, 165 years after Bartolomeu Diaz had sighted the Cape of
Good Hope."


iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 69

the vicinity of Algoa Bay. A little war occurred with the
Hottentots in 1659, as a result of which the Dutch first won
by fighting, and subsequently bought, a small coast strip of
land from Saldanha Bay on the north to False Bay on the
south, thus securing the peninsula which terminates at the
Cape of Good Hope. French sailing vessels were in the habit
of calling at Saldanha Bay, and in i666 and 1670 desultory
attempts were made by the French to establish a footing there.
Holland also about this time was alternately at war with
England or France or both powers. Therefore the Dutch re-
solved to build forts more capable of resisting European attack
than those which were sufficient to defend the colony against
Hottentots. Still, in spite of occasional unprovoked hostilities
on the part of the Dutch, they were left in possession of the
Cape of Good Hope for more than a hundred years. The
English had St Helena as a place of call (which they took
from the Dutch in 1655), and the French had settlements
in Madagascar and at Mauritius, where they succeeded a
former Dutch occupation. On the other hand, the officials of
the Dutch Company were instructed to show civility to all
comers without undue generosity; they might supply them
with water for their ships, but they were to give as little as
possible in the way of provisions and ships' stores. It was to
the interest of both France and England that some European
settlement should exist at the Cape of Good Hope for the
refreshment of vessels and the refuge of storm-driven ships.
After several attempts, which continued down to 1673, to
dispossess the English of St Helena, the Dutch finally sur-
rendered the island to them. They had also in 1598
taken the Island of Mauritius, and commenced a definite
occupation in 1640. But this island was abandoned in 171o,
and became soon afterwards a French possession. So that the
French at Mauritius on the one hand (and also at the Island
of Bourbon) and the English on the other at St Helena, had
places of call where they could break the long voyage to and

The Colonization of Africa.

from India, and were therefore content to leave the Dutch
undisturbed in South Africa.
The Government of the Netherlands East India Company
was thoroughly despotic. It was administered by a Chamber
of 17 directors at Amsterdam, with deputies at Batavia. The
Commandant at the Cape, who was alternately under the
orders of Amsterdam and Batavia-and who might be over-
ruled by any officer of superior rank who called at his station
in passing-was the slave of the Company, and had to carry
out its orders implicitly. He was advised in his local legis-
lation by an executive council, which consisted of a number of
officers, who assisted him in the administration, and who
legislated by means of proclamations and orders in council
without any representation of popular opinion among the
colonists, who, however, in time were allowed to elect mem-
bers of the Council of Justice (i.e. High Court).
After the first three years' hesitation, strenuous efforts were
directed to the development of agriculture, especially the
cultivation of grain. Wheat was sown in suitable localities,
and vines were planted on the hillsides at the back of Cape
Town. Nevertheless the colonists were terribly hampered by
restrictions, which made them almost slaves to the Company.
White labour proving expensive and somewhat rebellious, an
attempt was made to introduce Negro slaves from Angola and
Guinea, but they were not a success as field labourers. The
Dutch therefore turned towards Madagascar, and above all, to
the Malay Archipelago, and from the latter especially workers
were introduced who have in time grown into a separate
population of Muhammadan freemen of considerable pros-
perity'. As Dutch immigrants still held back from settling
the Cape with an abundant population (owing to the greed
and despotic meddlesomeness of the Company), it became
more and more necessary to introduce black labour, and in

1 The "Cape Malays."


Iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 71

the first half of the i8th century many negro slaves were
imported from West Africa and from Mozambique. The
Cape became a slave-worked colony, but on the whole the
slaves were treated with kindness; their children were sent to
school, and some attempt was made to introduce Christianity
amongst them. The people really to be pitied, however, were
not the imported slaves, but the Hottentots, who had become
a nation of serfs to the Dutch farmers, and whose numbers
began greatly to diminish under the influence of drink and
syphilis, and from being driven away by degrees from the
fertile, well-watered lands back into the inhospitable deserts.
After the colony had been established 30 years a census
showed a total of 663 Dutch settlers, of whom 162 were
children. For about the same period few if any attempts were
made to explore the country ioo miles from Cape Town; but
the coast from Little Namaqualand on the West to Zululand
on the East had been examined by the end of the 7lth cen-
tury. Indeed the Bay of Natal was purchased by a represen-
tative of the Netherlands Company in 1689, but the ship
bringing back the purchase deed was lost, and no further
attempt was made to push the claim. In 1684 the first export
of grain to the Indies took place, and in 1688 some Cape wine
was sent to Ceylon. In 1685 and in subsequent years repre-
sentations were made to the directors in Amsterdam that the
colony consisted mainly of bachelors, and that good marriage-
able girls should be sent out. The result of this appeal was
that in 1687 many of the free Burghers (namely, persons more
or less independent of the Company) had been furnished with
wives, and they and their families amounted to nearly 600, in
addition to 439 other Europeans, who were mainly employes
of the Company.
In 1685, Louis XIV unwittingly dealt a fearful blow to
France in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which resulted
in thousands of French Protestants emigrating to other countries
where they might enjoy freedom of religion. The Protestant

The Colonization of Africa.

Dutch sympathized with the homeless Huguenots, and the
Netherlands Company decided to give free passages and grants
of land to a number of these refugees. By 1689 nearly
200 French emigrants had been landed at the Cape and
settled in the mountain country behind Cape Town. Here,
however, they were not allowed to form a separate community.
They were scattered amongst the Dutch settlers, their children
were taught Dutch, and in a few years they were thoroughly
absorbed in the Dutch community; though they have left
ineffaceable traces of their presence in the many French sur-
names to be met with amongst the South African Dutch at
the present day (always pronounced however in the Dutch
way), and in the dark eyes, dark hair, and handsome features
of the better type of Frenchman. Handsomer men and women
than are some of the Afrikanders it would be impossible to
meet with, but this personal beauty is almost invariably trace-
able to Huguenot ancestry. The French settlers taught the
Dutch improved methods of growing corn and wine, and
altogether more scientific agriculture. Towards the latter end
of the i7th century the Dutch introduced the oak tree into the
Cape Peninsula and the suburbs of Cape Town, where it is
now such a handsome and prominent feature. All this time
the Hottentots gave almost no trouble. They were employed
here and there as servants; but they attempted no insurrection
against the European settlers, though they quarrelled very
much amongst themselves. In 1713 large numbers of them
were exterminated by an epidemic of smallpox. The Dutch
had not yet come into contact with the so-called Kaffirs'.
Towards the middle of the i8th century the Dutch Com-
pany ceased to prosper-suffering from French and English
competition. Already, at the beginning of the i8th century,
1 It will be no doubt remembered that this term is derived from the
Arab word "unbeliever." The Arabs of south-east Africa applied this
term to the Negroes around their settlements. The Portuguese took it up
from the Arabs, and the Dutch and English from the Portuguese.


iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 73

its oppressive rule, and the abuse of power on the part of its
governors, who used its authority and its servants to enrich
themselves, resulted in an uprising amongst the settlers, and
although some of these were arrested, imprisoned, and exiled,
the Company gave some redress to their grievances by for-
bidding its officials in future to own land or to trade. Even
before this the Company had found it necessary to place a
special official, answering to an Auditor-General and an in-
dependent judge combined, alongside the Commandant or
Governor, directly responsible to the Directors and independent
of the Governor's authority; but this institution only led to
quarrels and divided loyalty. Amongst the governors there
were some able and upright men, and special mention may be
made of Governor Tulbagh, who ruled without reproach and
with great ability for twenty years (1751-71)'.
In spite of licences and monopolies, tithes, taxes, and
rents, the Company could not pay its way in Cape Colony.
In 1779, it was more closely associated with the State in
Holland by the appointment of the Stadhouder (or Head of
the State) as perpetual Chief Director. With this change, the
Company, partly supported by the State, managed.to continue
the direction of its affairs, and there was possibly some lessen-
ing of restrictions, which enabled settlers to live further afield.
Until the beginning of the i8th century a standing order had
forbidden trading between the settlers and the natives, but
this order being abolished, the farmers commenced to buy
cattle from the Hottentots, and the population became more
scattered. In leasing land to the farmers the Company laid
down the rule that clear spaces of three miles should intervene
between one homestead and the next, and this rule brought
about a wider distribution of European settlers than was con-
templated in the Company's policy.
1 Tulbagh deserves special remembrance not only from his geo-
graphical explorations, but from the fact that he was the first person
to send specimens of the giraffe to Europe.

The Colonization of Africa.

By the beginning of the i8th century the Dutch settlers
had begun to cross the mountains which lie behind the narrow
belt of coast land that forms a projection into the ocean on
either side of the Cape of Good Hope. Seventy years later
the boundaries of Cape Colony on the north and west were
the Berg River and the Zwartebergen Mountains, and on the
east the Gamtoos River. A few years later the pioneers of
colonization had crossed the Berg River, and had established
themselves as far north as the Olifants River, so named be-
cause earlier explorers had seen on its banks herds of hundreds
of elephants. The Orange River was first discovered in 1760,
and in 1779 Captain Gordon, a Scotchman in the service of
the Dutch Company, had traced it for some distance down to
its mouth, and had named it after the head of the Dutch State.
Hitherto, the Dutch Government was confined to a narrow
coast strip, but in 1785 the district of Graaf Reinet' was formed,
and the same name was given to the village which formed its
capital. Then the Dutch boundary crept up to the Great Fish
River, which rises far away to the north, near the course of the
Orange River. This Great Fish River remained the eastern-
most boundary of the Colony in Dutch times. To the north
its limits were vague, and in one direction reached nearly to
the Orange River, beyond the second great range of South
African mountains-the Sneeubergen. But beyond the imme-
diate limits of Cape Colony the Dutch displayed some interest.
They attempted to seize Mozambique from the Portuguese in
1643. They opened up a furtive and occasional trade with
the Portuguese coast of East Africa, which at first began for
slaves (numbers of Makua were brought from Mogambique to
Cape Town) and continued for tropical products, and, with
many interruptions, resulted in the establishment at the present

1 Named after Van de Graaf, who was Governor at the time.
"Reinet" means in Dutch "a goat's beard," but I have not been able
to discover why this term should have been added to the name of the


Iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 75

day of important Dutch commercial firms along the Mogambique
coast. In 1720, after abandoning Mauritius, an expedition
was sent from Cape Colony to Delagoa Bay, which, though
claimed by the Portuguese, had been abandoned by them at
the beginning of the i8th century, so far as actual occupation
was concerned. (See above, p. 56.) A fort was built by the
Dutch which was named Lydzaamheid, and tentative explora-
tions were made in the direction of the Zambezi, from which
gold dust was procured. During ten years of occupation,
however, the deaths from fever were so numerous that the
settlement was given up in 1730.
In 1770 the total European population in Cape Colony
was nearly xo,ooo, of whom more than o8000 were free colonists,
and the remainder "servants" and employes of the Company.
All this time, although the prosperity of the Cape increased and
its export of wheat, wine, and live-stock progressed satisfactorily,
the revenue invariably failed to meet the expenditure, and if
other events had not occurred the Dutch Company must soon
have been compelled by bankruptcy to transfer the administra-
tion of the Cape to other hands. But towards the close of the
i8th century, the Dutch, too weak to resist the influence of
France and Russia, were showing veiled hostility towards
England, with the result that England-which on the other
hand was secretly longing to possess the Cape, owing to the
development of the British Empire in India-declared war
against the Netherlands at the end of 1780. In 1781 a British
fleet under Commodore Johnstone left England for the Cape
of Good Hope with 3000 troops on board. Johnstone, how-
ever, from storms and other reasons not so apparent, but
possibly due to a certain indecision of mind, delayed his fleet
at Porto Praya, in the Cape Verde Islands, and news of the
expedition having been treacherously imparted to France by
persons in England who were in her pay, Admiral Suffren-
one of the greatest of seamen-surprised the British fleet at
the Cape Verde Islands with a squadron of inferior strength,

The Colonization of Africa.

and gave it such a sound drubbing that Johnstone was delayed
for several months in reaching Cape Town, where the French
had preceded him, and had landed sufficient men to make a
British attack on Cape Town of doubtful success. Johnstone
therefore contented himself in a not very creditable way with
destroying the unarmed Dutch shipping in the port, and then
left Cape Town without effecting a landing. The result was the
garrisoning of Cape Town by a French regiment for two more
years, during which time however another attempt was made
by the British to seize the Cape, which was nearly success-
ful. During this war, however, England apparently made
up her mind that the possession of the Cape of Good Hope
and of Trincomalee in Ceylon was necessary to the welfare
of her Indian possessions, and did not lose sight of this policy
when the next legitimate opportunity presented itself to make
war upon Holland. On the other hand, the French, though
they withdrew their troops in 1783, were equally alive to the
importance of the Cape, and in the great duel which was to
take place between the two nations it is tolerably certain that
South Africa would never have remained in the hands of the
Dutch; if it had not become English it would have been taken
and kept by the French.
About this time the Dutch came into conflict with the
Kaffirs. This vanguard of the great Bantu race had been
invading southern Africa almost concurrently with the white
people. Coming from the north-east and north they had-we
may guess-crossed the Zambezi about the commencement of
the Christian Era, and their invasion had brought about the
partial destruction and abandonment of the Sabaean or Arab
settlements in the gold-mining districts of south-east Africa.
The Semitic inhabitants of Zimbabwe and other mining centres
had been driven back to the coast at Sofala. The progress of
the black Bantu against the now more concentrated Hottentots
and Bushmen was then somewhat slower, delayed no doubt by
natural obstacles, by the desperate defence of the Hottentots,


Iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 77

the tracts of waterless country on the west, and internecine war-
fare amongst themselves. Overlaying the first three divisions
of Bantu invaders came down across the Zambezi from the
districts of Tanganyika the great Zulu race, akin to the Maka-
laka and Bechuana people who had preceded them, but less
mixed with Hottentot blood, and speaking a less corrupted
Bantu language1. By the beginning of the x8th century this
seventh wave-as one may call it-of Bantu invasion had
swept as far south as the Great Kei River, and some years
later had pushed the Hottentots back to the Great Fish River.
In 1778 they came into direct contact with the Dutch, and the
Governor of the Cape entered into an agreement with the
Kaffir chiefs that the Great Fish River should be the boundary
between Dutch rule and Kaffir settlement. Nevertheless, this
agreement was soon transgressed by the Kaffirs, who com-
menced raiding the Dutch settlers. In 1781 the first Kaffir
war ended disastrously for the Bantu invaders, who were
driven back for a time to the Kei River. Eight years later
they again invaded Cape Colony. A foolish policy of con-
ciliation was adopted, which ended by the Kaffirs being
allowed to settle on the Dutch side of the Great Fish River
in 1789.
In 1790 the Netherlands East India Company was prac-
tically bankrupt, and in the following year (when it was com-
puted that the European population of the Cape numbered
14,600 persons, owning 17,000 slaves) the Dutch Governor was
recalled to Europe, and the country was for a year left in a
state of administrative chaos, until two Commissioners, sent out
by the States General, arrived and took over the government.
But the next year these Commissioners went on to Batavia,
SNevertheless, by their final and more complete contact with the
Hottentots the Zulu-Kaffirs adopted three of the Hottentot clicks; whereas
earlier invaders-Makalaka, Bechuana, and Herero-though adopting a
few Hottentot terms, kept clear of Hottentot phonetics, and use no clicks
to this day.

The Colonization of Africa.

and the Burghers of the interior districts became so dissatisfied
with the mismanagement of affairs that they expelled their
magistrates and took the administration of their district into
their own hands, calling themselves "Nationals," and becoming
to some degree infected with the spirit of the French Revolution.
Meantime, in the same year, 1793, the Dutch Government had
joined England and Prussia in making war upon France. Two
years afterwards-in 1795-the French troops had occupied
Holland, and had turned it into the Batavian Republic, a state
in alliance with France. The Prince of Orange, hereditary
Stadhouder of the Netherlands, had fled to England, and in
the spring of 1795 he authorized the British Government to
occupy Cape Colony on behalf of the States General in order
to obviate its seizure by the French. In June 1795 a British
fleet carrying troops commanded by General Craig arrived at
False Bay. The Dutch were not very willing to surrender
Cape Town at the first demand, even though the interior of
the country was in revolt against the Company. Both the
officer administering the Company's Government and the dis-
satisfied Burghers sank their differences in opposition to the
landing of the British. The latter were anxious to avoid
hostilities, and therefore spent a month in negotiations, but
on the 14th of July the British forcibly occupied Simon Town,
and three weeks later drove the Dutch from a position they
had taken up near Cape Town. In September 3000 more
troops arrived under General Clarke, and in the middle of that
month marched on Cape Town from the south-east. A capi-
tulation was finally arranged after an attack and a defence
which had been half-hearted. Thenceforth for eight years the
English occupied Cape Town and administered the adjoining
colony. At first their rule was military, just, and satisfactory;
afterwards when a civilian governor was sent out a system of
corruption and favouritism was introduced which caused much
dissatisfaction. The British also had made it known that they
only held the colonyin trust for the Stadhouder, and this made


Iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 79

the Dutch settlers uncertain as to their allegiance. Meantime,
however, the British administration gave some satisfaction to
the settlers by its policy of free trade and open markets, and
by certain reliefs in taxation; also by the institution of a
Burgher Senate of six members. But the Boers of the interior
remained for some time recalcitrant. The Dutch, moreover,
made an attempt to regain possession of the Cape by despatch-
ing a fleet of nine ships with 200ooo men on board, which, how-
ever, was made to surrender at Saldanha Bay by Admiral
Elphinstone and General Craig without firing a shot. Kaffir
raids recommended, and the British having organized a
Hottentot corps of police, the other Hottentots who were
serfs to the Dutch rose in insurrection against their former
masters. When in 1803 the British evacuated Cape Town
they did not leave the colony in a sufficiently satisfactory
condition to encourage the Dutch settlers to opt for British
rule. From 1803 to 1806 the Dutch Government ruled Cape
Colony as a colony, and not as the appendage of a Chartered
company, which had now disappeared. The Cape ceased to
be subordinate to Batavia, and possessed a Governor and
Council of its own. A check was placed on the importation
of slaves, and European immigration was encouraged. Postal
communication and the administration of justice were organized
or improved. In fact, the Commissioner-General De Mist and
Governor Janssens, in the two years and nine months of their
rule, laid the foundations of an excellent system of colonial
government. But the march of events was too strong for
them. The great minister Pitt, in the summer of 1805, secretly
organized an expedition which should carry nearly 7000 troops
to seize the Cape. In spite of delays and storms, this fleet
reached Table Bay at the beginning of January, 1806. Six
British regiments were landed 18 miles north of Cape Town.
Governor Janssens went out to meet them with such poor
forces as he could gather together-2000 in all against 4000
British. The result of course was disastrous to the Dutch,

80 The Colonization of Africa. [CHAP.

whose soldiers mainly consisted of half-hearted German mer-
cenaries. On the i6th of January, Cape Town surrendered,
and after some futile resistance by Janssens in the interior,
a capitulation was signed on January 18, and Janssens and
the Dutch soldiers were sent back to the Netherlands by the
British Government.
By a Convention dated August 13, 1814, the Dutch
Government with the Prince of Orange at its head ceded Cape
Colony and the American possession of Demerara to Great
Britain against the payment of (6,000,000, which was made
either by the actual tendering of money to the Dutch Govern-
ment, or the wiping off of Dutch debts.
On the other hand, the surrender of the Cape to Great
Britain induced the latter power to give back to Holland most
of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, which we had
seized and administered during the Napoleonic wars. If
Holland lost South Africa-which she had only directly ruled
for three years-she was enabled by our friendly attitude of self-
denial to build up an empire in the East only second in wealth
and population to the Asiatic dominions of Great Britain.
Yet, in an indirect fashion, Dutch Africa exists still, though
the flag of Holland no longer waves over any portion of
African soil as a ruling power. The old rivalry between the
English and the Dutch, which had begun almost as soon as
the Dutch were a free people, and competitors with us for the
trade of the East and West Indies, had created a feeling of
enmity between the two races, which ought never to have
existed, seeing how nearly they are of the same stock, and how
closely allied in language, religion, and to some extent in
history-also how nearly matched they are in physical and
mental worth. Curiously enough, there is far greater affinity
in thought and character between the Scotch and the Dutch
than between the Dutch and the English. The same thrifti-
ness, bordering at times on parsimony, oddly combined with
the largest-hearted hospitality, the same tendency to strike a

IV.] The Dutch in Africa. 81

hard bargain, even to overreach in matters of business, and
the same dogged perseverance characterize both Dutch and
Scotch; while in matters of religion, almost precisely the same
form of Protestant Christianity appeals to both; so much so,
that there is practically a fusion between the Dutch Reformed
Church and the Presbyterians. Had Scotchmen been sent
out to administer Cape Colony in its early days, it is probable
that something like a fusion of races might have taken place,
and there would have been no Dutch question to cause
dissension in South African politics in the 19th century. The
Scotch would have understood the Boer settlers and their
idiosyncracies, and would not have made fun of them or been
so deliberately unsympathetic as were some of the earlier
English governors. Slavery would have been abolished all the
same, but it would have been abolished more cautiously, in a
way that would not have left behind the sting of a grievance.
But after Cape Colony had been definitely ceded to Great
Britain its governors in the early days were mostly Englishmen,
who, though often able and just men, were at little pains to
understand the peculiarities of the Boer character, and to
conciliate these suspicious, uneducated farmers. Another
source of trouble was the influx of British missionaries, who
found much to condemn in the Dutch treatment of the
natives, which resembled that in vogue amongst Britons of the
previous century, before the spirit of philanthropy was abroad.
Curiously enough, some of these missionaries were Scotchmen,
though belonging to Protestant sects of more distinctly
English character. At any rate, the missionaries no doubt
had so much right on their side in condemning the Boers
for their conduct towards the natives, that their feelings in
this respect overcame their national affinity for the Dutch.
The Boer settler at no time showed that fiendish cruelty to the
natives he was dispossessing which was so terribly character-
istic of the Spanish colonization of Mexico, or of some of the
English, French, and Portuguese adventurers on the West

The Colonization of Africa.

coast of Africa in the 17th century; but he was determined to
make of the native a serf, and denied him the rights of a man
like unto himself. If the native revolted against this treat-
ment he was exterminated in a business-like fashion; but if he
submitted, as did most of the Hottentots, he was treated with
patriarchal kindness and leniency. The Dutch settlers appear
from the first to have dissociated their dealings with the
Hottentots from their ordinary code of morals. It was not
thought dishonest to cheat them, not thought illegal to rob
them, not thought immoral to use their women as concubines.
So entirely without scruples were the Dutch on this last point,
that whole races arose, and have since become nations likely
to survive and prosper, whose origin was the illicit union of
Dutch men and Hottentot women. These "bastards," as
they were frankly called, were well treated by the Dutch-they
were not disowned, were usually converted to Christianity,
taught to lead a more or less civilized life, and to talk the
Dutch language, which they speak in a corrupt form at the
present day. In short, the morals of the South African Dutch
were the morals of the Old Testament, as were those of
Cromwell's soldiers, and in this and many other modes of
thought the Dutch Afrikanders lived still in the i7th century,
whereas the British missionaries were of the early i9th, in the
red-hot glow of its as yet disillusioned, and somewhat frothy
philanthropy. The Dutch settlers were denounced at Exeter
Hall and on every missionary platform, and the fact that many
of the accusations were true in great measure did not make
them more palatable to the accused.
As the Government policy at the Cape was for the first
half of the century greatly influenced by Exeter Hall, the
Dutch with some justice regarded the attacks of the mis-
sionaries as the result of a British Government, and hence
withdrew from or rebelled against our rule. The dissentient,
dissatisfied Boers began to trek away from the settled portion
of Cape Colony into the wilderness behind, where they might


Iv.] The Dutch in Africa. 83

still lead the pleasant, unfettered, patriarchal life they had
grown to love. They passed beyond the Orange River, which
had come to be the northern limit of British influence, and,
avoiding the deserts of Bechuanaland, passed north-eastwards
into the better-watered territories now known as the Orange
Free State and the Transvaal. They also sought a way out
towards the sea in what is now the colony of Natal. Here
they came into conflict first with the Kaffirs and Basuto on
the West, and then with the Zulus on the East. The former
were to some extent under British protection, therefore the
British Government was ready to espouse their cause if they
were unjustly dealt with. The Zulus, on the other hand, were
strong enough and numerous enough to prevent a Boer settle-
ment on their land. Nevertheless, the Boer invasion of Natal
from the north was at that time a transgression into territory
recently conquered and depopulated by one of the most
abominable shedders of blood that ever arose amongst Negro
tyrants-Chaka, the second' king of the Zulus. This latter
saw the danger, and lured the pioneers of the Boers into a
position where he was able to massacre them at his ease.
With splendid gallantry-one's blood tingles with admiration
as one reads the record of it-the few remaining Boers
mustered their forces and avenged this dastardly murder by a
drastic defeat of the Zulus. But this was in the early "forties,"
when British adventurers-more or less discouraged or unen-
couraged by the Home Government-had founded a coast
settlement in Natal, on the site of what is now the town of
Durban. The usual shilly-shally on the part of the British
Government misled the Boers into thinking that they could

1 If Dingiswayo, his master, can be regarded as the first. Dingiswayo
was rather the paramount chief of a Kaffir confederation, of which the
Zulu tribe was a member. Chaka was the younger son of the Zulu chief,
but was eventually elected chief in his father's place and then succeeded to
the paramount sway of Dingiswayo. Racially and linguistically there is
very little difference between Zulus and Kaffirs.

The Colonization of Africa.

maintain themselves in Natal against our wishes. As they had
further broken an agreement with us by attacking the Basuto
and the Kaffirs, a British force was despatched against them in
1842 which, after a brief struggle, induced them to capitulate.
Natal was then secured as a British colony, and the Boers with
bitter disappointment had to seek their independent state to
the north of the Orange River. But here also they were
followed up, and had the Governor of the Cape-Sir George
Grey-been supported from Downing Street, the Orange River
sovereignty would never have become the Orange Free State,
and it is probable that even the territory beyond the Vaal
River might in like manner have been subjected to British
But Downing Street for eighty years from the cession of
the Cape of Good Hope persistently mismanaged affairs, now
blowing hot with undue heat, now blowing cold, and nipping
wise enterprise in the bud. The action of the Governor was
repudiated, and the Sand River Convention unratified. In the
most formal manner the Boers north of the Orange River
were accorded absolute independence, subject to certain pro-
visions about slavery, and the like privilege had been previously
accorded to those who had further trekked across the Vaal
River at a time when the Orange River state was likely to
become a British Colony. So from 1852 and 1854 respectively',
the South African Dutch have formed two states entirely inde-
pendent of British rule in their internal affairs, and but
dubiously governed by us in their external relations. The
Orange Free State, which contained a considerable British
element dating from the period of British sovereignty, has had
1 The Sand River Convention, recognizing the independence of the
Transvaal, was signed in January, 1852; the Bloemfontein Convention,
which loosed the Orange Free State from British control, was signed in
February, 1854. In 1858, Sir George Grey laid before the Cape Parlia-
ment proposals from the Orange Free State for reunion in a South African
Federation, and was recalled by the Home Government for advocating
this policy.


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