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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Selection of plants
 Climatic conditions
 Planting and care
 Species and varieties of plants...
 Common names






Group Title: Bulletin ;, 178B
Title: Ornamental hedges for Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020668/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental hedges for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 35 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
Mowry, Harold
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Ornamental hedges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.D. Dickey and Harold Mowry.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May, 1969."
General Note: "This is a revision of Extension Service Bulletin No. 162"--P. 3.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020668
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40811850

Table of Contents
    Main
        Main
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Selection of plants
        Page 4
    Climatic conditions
        Page 5
    Planting and care
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Species and varieties of plants for hedges
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Common names
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Bulletin 178B


Ornamental Hedges

For Florida
R. D. Dickey and Harold Mowry

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


May, 1969
























CONTENTS


Page


......... 3


......... 4


......... 5


INTRODUCTION .... ...... .- .......


SELECTION OF PLANTS ... .. .....-. .......-- ..


CLIMATIC CONDITIONS .....---......-..........


PLANTING AND CARE ......................................

Time of Planting ..................- ... ....

Preparation of the Soil ................ .......

Handling and Setting the Plants ..............

Fertilization and Cultivation .........-...

Pruning or Shearing ................................

Kinds of Outline .-........ ..-- ........--.


SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS FOR HEDGES


INDEX OF COMMON NAMES .............. ......


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Dean


6

6

6


. 6

.... 8

... 9

.... 10


.... 10


.... 34


---------- ------------------ ...............

------------------------- ---------------

---------------------------------------------








Ornamental Hedges for Florida


By R. D. DICKEY1 and HAROLD MOWRY

Introduction
Ornamental hedges under some conditions are desirable and
should be given due consideration in the planting plan through-
out Florida. Often they can be substituted for unsightly fences,
which are frequently seen where no actual barrier is needed.
The very low hedges are decidedly more ornamental than the
larger ones, but the latter can be used on larger properties and
to enclose playgrounds, gardens, clothes-drying yards, etc., as
well as to screen unsightly objects.
Few states are so favored as Florida with a climate that will
permit the growing of such a wide assortment of plants for
hedge purposes. Recognizing this splendid opportunity for uti-
lizing hedge plants in Florida, and their possibilities to the land-
scape gardener, Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former director of the Florida
Experiment Station, instituted about 50 years ago a series of
experiments with hedge plants on the Horticultural Grounds
at Gainesville. These have been continued and results secured
form the basis for a large part of this bulletin (Fig. 1).


















Fig. 1.-Hedge group on horticultural grounds of the University of
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
1Dickey, Horticulturist, and Mowry, formerly Director, Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations. This is a revision of Extension Service Bul-
letin No. 162.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Numerous hedge plants are suited to Florida conditions. It
is possible to use not only many plants grown farther north but
also many others found only in tropical and subtropical climates.
The range of varieties includes, besides those with the usual
green foliage, shrubs which are a mass of color during the sea-
son of bloom and others with foliage of various hues. There is
also a wide range in size and habit of growth of the plants avail-
able. Some of the more dwarf varieties can be trimmed to one
foot or less, while the heavier growing ones can be trimmed to
almost any desired height.

Selection of Plants
Careful consideration should be given to the individual loca-
tion, the variety of plants to be used, and the type of hedge to
be grown. If the lot is small a low hedge can be used effectively
or, if the lot is larger, one or more hedges in combination with
other plantings can be used to advantage.
On properties where ample room is available the informal or
unsheared hedge should be given preference. Such a hedge fits
in well with the present tendency toward a more natural group-
ing of materials instead of the old formal or "geometrical" meth-
od of planting. Hedges planted in the front or on the sides
toward the front of a lot usually should be of the smaller sizes.
Taller and large kinds should be toward the rear.
In selecting plants for hedge planting consider the following:
Hardiness of the plant in question in the locality where plant-
ing is to be made. Tender or sub-tropical varieties should not
be selected for planting in the northern portions of the state.
Type of soil-whether high or low, well drained or wet, sand,
clay or muck. Plants should be suited to the soils on which they
are to be set. The possibility of increasing soil fertility makes
this of minor importance, except in regard to moisture condi-
tions. Some varieties thrive on light, dry soils while others
require moist soils.
Location-whether in the sun or partial shade, or whether
exposed to winds from salt water. Some varieties will thrive
in partial shade where others will perish, and few will with-
stand exposure to salt winds or spray.
Size of hedge desired. Plants which will normally attain the
height desired should be selected. A thrifty, large-growing
type can be kept pruned down to the desired size, but a naturally
dwarf plant may not reach the height wanted.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Climatic Conditions
Satisfactory hedging plants should be well adapted to the
environment in which grown, so that they produce vigorous,
thrifty growth. Some plants growing in colder regions fail to
adapt themselves to warmer climates; also there is considerable
variation in hardiness of the plants used. Because of differences
in winter temperature minimums between northern and southern
sections, comparatively few plants are entirely adapted to plant-
ing throughout Florida. Differences between low temperatures
in various parts of the state are not wide, but within that range
there is a critical point for many tropical plants that are more
or less severely damaged or are killed when exposed for several
hours to temperatures below freezing. Duration of temperatures
has considerable bearing on amount and severity of injury, and
this necessarily varies considerably for different sections of the
state. Some plants growing in colder climates apparently re-
quire a period of dormancy induced by or coincident with low
temperatures and short day lengths. They are, consequently,
not climatically adapted to the warm winters of the sub-tropics.
It is difficult to make a classification showing the exact range
to which any given species may be adapted, due to the various
factors involved, such as latitude, elevation, water protection,
proximity to the coast, as well as factors affecting temperatures
in a given locality.
On the basis of normal prevailing winter temperatures, the
state may be divided into three regions, designated as northern,
central and southern, to which certain plants are climatically
adapted. The limits of these areas cannot be exactly defined
because local conditions of elevation, water protection, and prox-
imity to the coast influence temperatures. At the same time
any delimitation of these areas according to a specified tempera-
ture minimum would fluctuate from year to year with seasonal
variation so that their boundaries are necessarily vague and
broad rather than exact. The northern area includes generally
that part of the state lying north of a line through Marion
County and subject to the heaviest frosts; the southern, that
of the extreme south having the warmest winter temperatures
and extending northward along the coast approximately to Palm
Beach and Punta Gorda; and the central, that lying between
the northern and southern sections.
The ornamental value of any plant used for hedging is greatly
impaired if it is subject to damage by frost or is not otherwise






Florida Agricultural Extension Service


climatically adapted to the locality in which it is to be grown.
Choose only a variety that meets the requirements.

Planting and Care
The use of young, thrifty plants is recommended-such
plants cost less and usually give better results. However, if
special attention can be given, the use of larger plants may be
advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always hasten
the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it is neces-
sary to cut back severely, and some large plants when so treated
are slow in recovering. This results in unequal growth along
the row. The use of hardened plants generally should be avoided.

Time of Planting
Many varieties of hedge plants and especially those of tropi-
cal origin may be set at any time during the year. The cooler
months, however, are preferable because at this time most plants
are in a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from
transplanting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved dur-
ing the winter months only.

Preparation of the Soil
A good way to prepare the soil for planting is to cultivate
a strip 4 or 5 feet wide and incorporate in it a heavy applica-
tion of peat by placing a layer of peat 2 to 4 inches deep on the
soil surface and spading or rototilling it into the soil. Another
method that can be used where it is not possible to cultivate a
strip of this width is to dig a trench from 18 inches to 2 feet
deep and fill it with a mixture of top soil and organic matter in
the form of compost, leaves, dead grass or peat. If well rotted
manure is available it can be mixed with the soil used in filling
the trench. Fertility of the soil on which the planting is made
should serve as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount
of fertilizing materials used.
Handling and Setting the Plants
Soil preparation should be completed before the plants are
received so that setting can begin immediately upon their ar-
rival. No set rule can be given as to the exact distance apart
to set the plants, because of their varied nature and the height
of hedge desired. A good rule for a low, compact hedge is space






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


the plants 6 inches. The average distance of spacing is about
12 inches. The higher the hedge is to be the more space there
should be between plants. An ideal arrangement for planting
dwarf, slow-growing species is to set the plants in two stag-
gered rows with 12 inches between plants.
Before planting bare-rooted plants trim off long or broken
roots with a sharp knife or pruning shears. In setting the
plants dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared strip
sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or breaking
them. Extended exposure of the roots to the wind or direct rays
of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth they were
in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are well
spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots and the
plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.
After setting, most plants should be cut back to within 5 or
6 inches of the ground. This will tend to cause more side
branching and give a denser hedge from the ground up.
Broad-leaved evergreens and coniferous plants are often dug
with a ball of earth about the roots and sewed up in burlap
to hold the ball in place, or are grown in containers. In setting
a hedge with container-grown or "balled and burlapped" plants,
dig a hole slightly larger than the ball of earth, set the plant
in the hole, fill the soil in around it and water thoroughly. The
plant should be at the same depth it grew in the nursery. It
is not necessary to remove the burlap, as the roots grow through
it and it soon decays.
Some plants are difficult to transplant as, for example, the
bottlebrushes, and are usually grown in pots or cans. They are
handled in the same way as balled plants. Care should be taken
not to break the ball of earth in removing it from the pot or can.
Potted or balled plants usually require no pruning other than
to cut back shoots that extend beyond the general outline of
the plants.
A mulch of leaf mold, grass, weeds, peat, straw or rotted
manure completes the planting. To insure against loss of plants
and to stimulate early growth, water regularly. After it is es-
tablished the hedge should be watered sufficiently to keep it in
a good thrifty condition.
It is not the best practice to set other shrubbery immediately
adjacent to the hedge, because eventually one of the two will
suffer.






Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Fertilization and Cultivation

Fertilize and cultivate periodically. The mineral soils of
Florida are usually deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and potas-
sium. Applications of fertilizers containing from 4 to 8 percent
nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 4 to 8 percent pot-
ash, such as a 6-6-6 or 8-8-8, are satisfactory. The amount to
apply will vary with age of plants, native fertility of the soil
and quantity of organic matter supplied, but may range from 2
to 4 pounds for each application per 100 square feet. The fer-
tilizer should be broadcast over the cultivated strip in which
the hedge is planted. Usually four applications per year are
given, the first in early spring, the second in mid-summer, the
third in late summer and the fourth in mid-winter.
A chlorosis of several ornamental plants used as hedges in
Florida is caused by a deficiency of certain of the micro elements,
such as manganese, zinc and iron. Of these, manganese defi-
ciency is the most prevalent and is found on both acid and alka-
line soils. A manganese deficiency has been identified for the
following plants used for hedges: crape-myrtle, cattley guava,
flame vine, wax privet, camphor-tree, cape plumbago, bougain-
villea and pale butterfly-bush. Foliage applications of a 1/2 or
1 percent manganese sulfate solution will correct the trouble.
Applications to soils acid in reaction of 1 ounce to 1/2 pound of
manganese sulfate per plant, depending upon age and size, is
usually effective in correcting the trouble. However, this may
not prove satisfactory on soils with an alkaline reaction.
Zinc deficiency has been observed on surinam-cherry, wax
privet and orange-jessamine growing on the marl soils of the
extreme southern area. This deficiency can be controlled by
using zinc sulfate as a spray.
Iron deficiency of azaleas, gardenia, ixora and hibiscus, is a
serious problem in many locations but is more severe on alka-
line soils. Soil applications of iron chelates have proven effec-
tive in correcting this trouble on these and other woody orna-
mental plants in Florida. There are forms of iron chelate effec-
tive on both acid and alkaline soils. Maximum efficiency is ob-
tained when they are applied to moist soil around the plants and
washed in with water from a hose, or dissolved in water and ap-
plied about the plants as a drench. These iron chelates are ef-
fective in relatively small amounts and an overdose may burn






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


the plant. Therefore, the manufacturer's directions for their
use should be carefully followed. If soil applications of iron che-
lates do not give the required response, it may be desirable to
supplement them with iron sulfate sprays. However, iron de-
ficiency of gardenia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by spray
applications of iron. Acidifying the soil with sulfur or iron sul-
fate, either alone or in combination in conjunction with soil ap-
plications of an iron chelate and the addition of considerable
quantities of leaf mold, acid peat or muck, will control the trouble
on these plants.
A narrow strip on each side of the hedge should be kept cul-
tivated to conserve moisture and permit the hedge to have full
benefit of all plant food within this area. However, from the
standpoint of health and vigor of plants, mulching is a desirable
practice and is recommended wherever possible.

Pruning or Shearing

The amount and type of pruning or shearing given will be
influenced by the height of hedge wanted, its rate of growth
and the manner in which it is to be used. The desired condition
for a formal hedge is a soft outline of foliage from the ground
up. By shearing at frequent intervals during the growing sea-
son this, with most species, is easily secured and retained. When
removing large twigs or branches cut them well inside the
sheared lines of the hedge. This puts the stubs well out of the
way and leaves only the finer growth to make up the outlines
of the hedge. Many of the plants grown as informal hedges or
screens require little shaping after the first two or three years,
though occasionally some pruning is required.
Those of the flowering type grown formally should be sheared
after they have bloomed. Frequent pruning or shearing will
reduce the amount of bloom. The bloom, however, is of sec-
ondary importance, since the growing of a heavy mass of foli-
age is the primary objective. The plants do not suffer so severely
from frequent hearings as they do when a large portion of the
plant is cut off. This becomes necessary when the hedge has
grown entirely out of bounds.
In the colder sections of the state the final pruning should
not be made so late that the cut ends will remain bare during
the winter months. All pruning should usually cease by the
middle of September in this area.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Kinds of Outline
Types of outline generally used in sheared or formal hedges
are rectangular, triangular and curvilinear, as shown in Figure 2.
Choosing the outline is a matter of personal taste. Advo-
cates of the triangular and curvilinear forms argue that by use
of these outlines the foliage will better cover the ground and
that sunlight can more easily penetrate to the interior and base
of the plant, consequently resulting in less dying out. The rec-
tangular and curvilinear forms are giving satisfaction and are
not difficult to maintain (Fig. 2).





Rectangular Triangular Curvilinear
Fig. 2.-Diagram showing outlines for trimmed hedges.

A hedge should not be trimmed in varied, fantastic shapes,
even though a topiary effect may at first be considered pleasing.
A novelty soon wears itself out and a hedge so treated can easily
ruin the effect of an otherwise well kept and well arranged
planting.

Species and Varieties of Plants for Hedges
The following list covers most species and varieties of plants
suitable for hedge planting in Florida. No attempt, however,
has been made to include all plants which may be used as sub-
jects for hedging.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their vari-
able use, the arrangement is alphabetical according to botani-
cal name. Throughout, for each, genus and species are given
first, followed in order by the family to which the plant belongs,
the common name or names, the section to which apparently
best adapted and, lastly, its native habitat. In some instances
the botanical synonym is included, in parentheses directly after
the scientific name. The common names are indexed. The first
common name given is the preferred one, others listed are in
common usage.
Abelia grandiflora Rehd. (Hybrid A. chinensis R. Br. x A.
uniflora R. Br.). Caprifoliaceae. Glossy Abelia. Northern
area.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


The glossy abelia is a hardy evergreen, with small dark-
green glossy leaves and small white flower clusters. It blooms
throughout the summer months, is a vigorous grower, and will
succeed anywhere with ordinary care. It is especially suited to
low formal hedg-
es, but is also
v e r y attractive
when grown with
but little pruning.
More bloom is ob-
tained when little
pruning is done
but I e s s foliage
will result, and if
a compact hedge
is desired this
pruning must be
continued (Fi g.
3). Strong, suc-
culent shoots
should be cut well
within the outline
of the plant.
Acacia longi-
folia Willd. Le-
guminosae. Syd- .
ney Acacia. Syd-
ney Golden Wat- -." -.:
tie. Southern and
C e n t ra 1 areas. Fig. 3.-Left, cherry laurel; right,
SAbelia grandiflora.
Australia.
The sydney acacia is a hardy evergreen willowy plant suitable
for a large informal hedge or screen. It succeeds well under ad-
verse conditions such as exposed locations and poor soils. Owing
to the nature of the plant it cannot be trimmed to formal shape
but some pruning can be given to advantage. The flowers are
golden yellow in color, opening in late winter.
--- Azalea spp. (Rhododendron spp.). Ericaceae. Azalea. Cen-
tral and Northern areas. China, Japan and Korea.
All species of Azalea are now classified botanically as Rhodo-
dendron. The name azalea has been applied to certain species
and its usage for these groups is of long standing.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Azaleas are very desirable for use as a flowering hedge and
warrant a greater popularity for this purpose than they now
enjoy. The varieties that can be used for this purpose in Flor-
ida are not derived from a single species but are those belong-
ing to two principal groups, the Indian azaleas and the Kurume
azaleas. Many varieties, which afford a wide range in size of
plants and size and color of flowers, are available. The more
heavily foliaged varieties are best suited for this purpose. They
should be grown informally with a minimum of pruning so that
flower production will be reduced as little as possible. Strong
succulent growth should be pinched low and well inside the out-
line of the bush. Azaleas should be kept well mulched.


Fig. 4.-Variety Fernleaf of Bambusa multiplex.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeuschel. Gramineae. Hedge
Bamboo. Southern, Central and Northern areas. China.
The variety Fernleaf of B. multiplex is a dwarf variety hav-
ing slender dark canes and a luxuriant mass of foliage. This
variety stands trimming well and makes a very dense growth
from ground to top. It is hardy and a vigorous grower. With
care and shaping it makes a hedge which is decidedly attrac-
tive. However, like other bamboos, it is a heavy feeder and can-
not be planted close to other plants without injuring them (Fig.
4). Its root system can be kept within bounds by annually dig-
ging a trench between the hedge and the plants to be protected.
This severs all roots, but they are vigorous growers and this
operation must be repeated yearly.
-- Bougainvillea spp. Nyctaginaceae. Bougainvillea. South-
ern and Central areas. South America.
The bougainvillea, although hardly a true hedge plant, is
strikingly effective if trained along a wall, fence or trellis. It
flowers profusely in winter, until late spring, and can be ob-
tained in shades of mauve, magenta, purple, pink, red, orange
and white. The plants are usually vigorous growers but are
only semi-hardy and can be grown only in the central and south-
ern portions of the state.
The common purple-flowered variety of B. glubra Choisy,
Sanderiana (paper flower), is more of a shrub in habit than
the other varieties and will form a low hedge when planted
close together and pruned frequently.
Breynia nivosa Small. (Phyllanthus nivosus W. G. Smith.).
Euphorbiaceae. Snow-Bush. Josephs Coat. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. South Sea Islands.
For the warmer sections, the snow-bush makes an attractive
low hedge. The leaves are from 1 to 2 inches in length, are
broad and mottled or speckled green and white. The variety
atropurpurea has attractive dark purple leaves. Another va-
riety, roseo-picta, has a pink and red mottling in the foliage,
in addition to the white and green of the first-mentioned type.
The ornamental value of these plants is often impaired by the
injury done to the foliage, branches and trunks by the larvae
of a moth.
Buddleia officinalis Maxim. Loganiaceae. Pale Butterfly-
Bush. Southern, central and warmer parts of Northern areas.
China.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


The pale butterfly-bush is a vigorous-growing, hardy ever-
green shrub. It is very desirable for use as screen or informal
hedge of large size. The lilac-like flowers are borne in profu-
sion in mid-winter and are very attractive to butterflies. It
cannot be trimmed to formal shape. In early spring after flow-
ering the plants should be pruned back to within 12 to 18 inches
of the ground. This results in a more dense and firmer growth
of foliage and prevents the plant from assuming a tree shape.
Summer pruning should consist in pinching back tips to en-
courage lateral branching.
B. asiatica Lour., Asian butterfly-bush, may be used in the
same manner as the above species, which it resembles in gen-
eral habit. This species is only semi-hardy and can be grown
only in the central and southern portions of the state. The
white flowers, borne in drooping spikes, are produced in profu-
sion in late winter.
- Buxus spp. Buxaceae, Boxwood. Northern half of Central
area and Northern area.
Box has long been a favorite hedge or border plant in colder
climates; however, there are three species that can be grown
successfully in Florida. The species grown here are attacked
by the root-knot nematode and periodic treatment with a nemati-
cide drench and mulching will be helpful.
B. harlandi Hance, Harlands box, is a dwarf, slow-growing,
dense-foliaged plant with, small dark-green leaves, which is suit-
able for a low formal or informal hedge or as a border plant.
Its upright and flat-top growth habit gives a clipped appear-
ance. This species is best adapted to northwestern Florida.
It is native of China.
B. microphylla japonica Rehd. & Wils., Japanese box, is a
dwarf, globose, dense-foliaged plant with light green leaves,
which is suitable for a low formal or informal hedge or as a
border plant. This species is adapted over a wider area of
Florida than either Harlands or common box and can be grown
in the northern half of peninsular and in northwestern Florida.
It is native of Japan.
B. sempervirens L., common box, is better adapted to north-
western Florida and in this area grows best on the clay soils.
In general appearance it is similar to the above species and is
used in the same way. Common box is a native of southern
Europe, North Africa and western Asia.








Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Callistemon spp. Myrtaceae. Bottlebrush. Southern, Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Australia.
Several species of bottlebrush are suitable for hedge plant-
ing, and when in bloom, in early spring, make a hedge of unusual
attractiveness. The flower clusters are scarlet or crimson in
color and resemble bottlebrushes in shape, from which the plants
derive their common name. They cannot be cut to formal shape
but should be pruned enough to keep them within bounds. Prun-
ing following flowering will tend to increase the quantity of
bloom the following season. After becoming established they
succeed well with little attention and are adapted to a variety
of soils.
-- Camellia japonica L. Theaceae. Common Camellia. Ca-
mellia. Central and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The camellia is a slow-growing shrub or small tree with
smooth, dark-green, glossy foliage. Its period of bloom occurs
during the winter months. At this time it is very beautiful,
which makes it a desirable subject for an informal flowering
hedge. A large number of varieties which afford flowers in
many colors, white, shades of red and pink and variegated, in
double and single forms, are available. This plant should be
kept well mulched.
-- C. sasanqua Thunb. may be used in the same manner as the
above species, which it resembles except that it is more willowy
and open in growth. It produces a profusion of single or semi-
double white, pink or red flowers in early fall.
Carissa grandiflora A. DC. Apocynaceae. Carissa. Natal-
Plum. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. South
Africa.
The carissa, an evergreen spiny shrub, is well adapted to a
wide variety of Florida soils and is used extensively in southern
Florida as a hedge plant. The dark green leathery foliage and
the dense shrubby habit of growth make it particularly desir-
able for that purpose. The branches are heavily armed with
strong two-pointed spines. The flowers, white, solitary, 2 inches
across, are very conspicuous against the background of dark
green foliage. It should be sheared to formal shape.
C. arduina Lam. Amatungula Carissa. In appearance this
plant is similar to the above, but both fruit and flowers are
smaller. It is used in the same manner.
Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Beefwood. Australian Pine.
Southern and Central areas. Australia and Tropical Asia.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


The casuarinas are adapted to a wide range of ornamental
uses. Some of these are: For closely clipped hedges, for trim-
med and untrimmed specimens, screen and windbreaks (Fig. 5).



















Fig. 5.-Seashore planting of Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia.
The hedge, formally pruned trees and trees in the background are all of
this species.

They are strong, vigorous growers and thrive under a wide
range of soil conditions. About the only factor limiting their
growth is low temperature. However, there is considerable
variability in the ability of species to withstand cold.
C. cunninghamiana Miq. is one of the most widely grown
species and is considered to be the most resistant to cold. It has
withstood a temperature of 160 F. at Gainesville. As it is not
injured by severe pruning, it can be shaped to suit the grow-
er's desires. It will not withstand salt spray. C. lepidophloia
F. v. M. is as desirable as the above species. It has much thicker
foliage but is somewhat less hardy. C. equisetifolia L. is partic-
ularly desirable for planting on the seacoast, as it thrives in
brackish soils and withstands salt spray without apparent injury.
Cephalotaxus harringtonia K. Koch. Taxaceae. Plum-Yew.
Northern area. Japan.
In general habit of growth and appearance of foliage this
species is similar to podocarpus. It is particularly desirable
for use as a low formal hedge, due to its very slow growth, and








Ornamental Hedges for Florida


for this purpose warrants a greater popularity. It is quite
hardy and is well adapted to the northern sections.
- Cinnamomum camphora L. Lauraceae. Camphor-Tree.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The camphor-tree is a hardy, broad-leaved evergreen which
forms a dense hedge when properly pruned. It grows well on
poor soils. As a hedge this plant is attractive during the active
growing season but is susceptible to attack by red spider and,
as a result, often presents a poor appearance during the winter
months. Chlorosis, due to a manganese deficiency, is of common
occurrence on this plant but can be controlled by spraying with
manganese sulfate.
Cocculus laurifolius DC. Menispermaceae. Cocculus. South-
ern and Central areas. Himalayas.
Cocculus is an evergreen plant with dense foliage and leath-
ery, dark green, oblong leaves to 6 inches in length. Though
as yet not much used for hedges, this plant deserves greater
popularity. It may be used as a formal or informal medium to
high hedge or screen.
Duranta repens L. (D. plumieri Jacq.). Verbenaceae. Gold-
en Dewdrop. Sky-Flower. Southern and Central areas. Na-
tive through tropics to Brazil.
When planted as a high informal hedge or screen and ample
room is available, the golden dewdrop will be found satisfac-
tory. In such instances rather close planting is required, as
the plants will help to support each other. This plant is a
strong grower and very attractive but cannot be trimmed to
formal shape. The lilac flowers, borne in racemes, and yellow
berries are in evidence several months of the year.
*-- Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Elaeagnaceae. Elaeagnus. North-
ern area. Japan and China.
Elaeagnus is a vigorous growing, hardy, evergreen shrub.
The leaves are oval to oblong 2 to 4 inches long, silvery beneath
dotted with brown scales, becoming smooth and dark green
above. The silvery-brown effect, produced by the foliage and
brown branches, particularly when young, gives the plant an
unusual appearance. It makes an attractive hedge if kept well
trimmed. It is a good hedge plant for the northern area, well
adapted to a variety of soils found there and quite hardy (Fig. 6).
Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae. Pitanga. Surinam-Cherry.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Brazil.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


The surinam-cherry is particularly well adapted to the south-
ern half of the state, since it is subject to injury by heavy frosts.
It is used extensively in that area as a hedge plant. The leaves
are small and are a light glossy green color. It is well suited to
hedge plantings as continued shearing does not injure it (Fig. 7).












"r












E. paniculata Banks. (E. hooker; hookeriana Hort.), the
Australian brush-cherry is a small, vigorous tree, with oblong-
lanceolate leaves up to 3 inches or more long. The leaves are a
glossy green and tinged with red when young. The white flow-
ers with conspicuous stamens are borne in terminal clusters. The
flowers are followed by a showy rose-purple fruit. It is well
adapted to a variety of soils, particularly the sandy types, and
is a desirable subject for formal or informal hedges or screens.
The variety australis, commonly known as E. myrtifolia Sims,
because of its smaller foliage and bushy habit of growth, is a
more desirable subject for this purpose.
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Euphorbiaceae. Poinsettia.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico and
Central America.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Fig. 7.-Surinam-cherry, Eugenia uniflora.


This well known and popular plant, which blooms in the fall
and winter months, makes an attractive informal hedge in the
areas where it is adapted. The flowers are relatively inconspic-
uous but the upper leaves surrounding them become a bright
red and are the showy part of the plant. There are forms in
which the floral leaves are white or pink. Poinsettias are best
cut back to within 12 to 18 inches of the ground in the spring
following blooming. Subsequent pruning consists of pinching
off the tips of the shoots from time to time during the growing
season to make them branch more freely.
- Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Myrtaceae. Feijoa. Pineapple-
Guava. Southern, Central and Northern areas. South America.
Feijoa is a hardy evergreen plant that has shown itself well
adapted to all parts of Florida. It is a shrubby plant, slow of
growth, and for that reason, lends itself well to use as a hedging
plant. It is satisfactory for a formal hedge of medium height,
as it stands shearing well. The foliage and bark are grayish,
the leaves small, not over 21/2 inches in length, light shiny green
on the surface and gray tomentose beneath. Though as yet not







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


much used for hedges, this plant undoubtedly deserves a much
greater popularity. The grayish-green effect produced by the
branches and foliage provides a pleasing contrast to the normal
dark green foliage of most plants (Fig. 8). Feijoa does well
in partial shade.
Flacourtia indica Merr. (F. ramontchi L'Her.). Flacourtia-
ceae. Ramontchi. Governor's-Plum. Southern area. Madagas-
car and Southern
N Asia.
The ramontchi
Sis well adapted to
most locations in
southern Florida
and will make an
attractive medi-
um to high for-
mal hedge. Edi-
S- ble fruit are pro-
l b ".-. duced, about an
.... inch in diameter
and dull red to
purple when ripe.
d The leaves, 2 to 3
inches long, are
glabrous, d a r k
green above and
slightly pale be-
low, glossy and
slightly leathery.
Fig. 8-Right, feijoa, Feijoa sellowiana; left,
Variety Fernleaf of Bambusa Multiplex Hibiscus rosa-
sinensis L. Mal-
vaceae. Chinese Hibiscus. Southern and Central areas. Asia.
For central and southern Florida, the Chinese hibiscus, a
broad-leaved evergreen, will make a beautiful informal hedge of
the larger type. It should not be sheared to formal shape but
should be cut back just enough to keep the plants dense and
well shaped. It grows vigorously and flowers freely, the blos-
soms being from 3 to 9 inches in diameter. Several shades of
color, in both single and double bloom, are available.
Ilex opaca Ait. Aquifoliaceae. American Holly. Central
and Northern areas. Native.
By heading back moderately low and with a small amount







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


of pruning the American holly will make a hedge of unusual
type. The plant is a hardy native and has few troublesome insect
pests or diseases. The red berries, which persist for several
months, and the dark green glossy leaves make a pleasing com-
bination. The Chinese holly, I. cornuta Lindl., and its variety
Burford, can be used to good advantage.
- I. vomitoria Ait., the yaupon, makes a dense formal hedge
which, after becoming established, is one of the most desirable
grown from native stock. Close trimming does not injure it
and, when so treated, it will make a solid bank of green. A well
drained soil is required. As on the American holly, red berries
persist during the fall and winter months. This species is
adapted only to the northern area. Like all of the hollies, it is
slow-growing.
--- Ixora coccinea L. Rubiaceae. Red Ixora. Jungleflame Ixora.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. East Indies.
The red ixora is an evergreen shrub with attractive dark
green foliage. Bright red star-shaped flowers on slender tubes,
borne in dense corymbs, are produced in profusion during the
summer months and some are in evidence most of the year. It
stands shearing well but shearing reduces flowering. Its com-
pact habit of growth and profuse flowering make it one of the
most desirable subjects for a formal or informal medium-sized
flowering hedge in the areas where it is adapted.
Juniperus chinensis L. Pinaceae. Chinese Juniper. North-
ern area. Himalayas, China and Japan.
The Chinese juniper is well adapted to the northern area and
can be used similarly to the red cedar. There are a number of
varieties and these differ in size, form and color of foliage.
--- Juniperus virginiana L. Pinaceae. Eastern Red-Cedar.
Northern area. Native.
For a formal hedge the eastern red-cedar can be used effec-
tively, since it shears well and makes a dense wall of foliage.
Without pruning or shearing it serves well as a windbreak or
large screen. The growth is slow. Like the thujas, its use prob-
ably should be restricted, since there are many other plants
adapted to Florida which do not grow in other areas.
Southern red-cedar, J. silicicola (Small) Bailey, is as desir-
able for this purpose as is the eastern red-cedar.
Lagerstroemia indica L. Lythraceae. Crape-Myrtle. South-
ern, Central and northern areas. China.
Crape-myrtle is a rapid-growing, hardy, deciduous plant,








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


which, when not pruned back too severely, flowers profusely for
several weeks during early summer. Flower colors are available
in white, purple, scarlet or crimson, and pink. Owing to its vig-
orous nature it cannot be used for low plantings and is not suit-
ed for use in small areas (Fig. 9).


















Fig. 9.-Left, crape-myrtle; right, Myrtus communis microphylla.

SLantana spp. Verbenaceae. Lantana. Southern, Central
and Northern areas. Tropical America and South America.
The dwarf species of Lantana are very satisfactory for use
where a flowering border is wanted. They are evergreen and
bloom almost the entire year. Flower colors in red, white, yel-
low and combinations are obtainable. The trailing lantana,
L. montevidensis Briq. (L. sellowiana L. & O.), has deep lilac
flowers and is a vigorous grower and profuse bloomer. All of
them are half hardy, and if killed back by frosts will come
again from the roots. They should be cut back annually, in
late winter, to prevent the plants from becoming coarse and
straggly in appearance (Fig. 10).
- Ligustrum spp. Oleaceae. Privet.
The privets have long been regarded as the dominant hedge
plants because of their rapid growth, large mass of foliage and
ability to withstand heavy shearing, as well as neglect. All of
them are hardy and thrifty growers.
L. sinense Lour., the Chinese privet, is probably the most
widely planted species in the South. This plant has long been








Ornamental Hedges for Florida


known erroneously as Amur River privet or Amur River privet
"South", L. amurense Carr. The leaves are small and the plants
produce dense foliage from the ground up to the top of the hedge.
It can be
shaped as de-
sired, since it
is not injured
by clipping. It /
is particularly
adapted to the
northern part
of the state
and to heavy
clay soils. An
objection to its
use is its sus-
ceptibility to
attack by
whitefly, which
will make the
plants unsight-
ly if not con-
trolled.
L. ovalifoli- -
um Hassk.,
Calif or
nia privet, and .
L. quihoui
Carr., quihou
privet, are oth-
ers of the
smaller leaved
sp e c i e s that
may be used
for hedges.
They are not,
however, con-
sidered as sat- Fig. 10.-Lantana hedge.
i s f a c t oryas
the Chinese privet, and likewise are subject to attack by whitefly.
L. japonicum Thunb. Japanese Privet. Wax Privet. Central
and Northern areas. Japan and Korea. Through an error of







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


some sort, it seems that the two species, L. japonicum and L.
lucidum, were confused at some time in the past, and the correct
names transposed, each now being commonly known by the
name of the other. This species, commonly known in the trade
as L. lucidum, is, therefore, L. japonicum. A vigorous growing,
compact evergreen, with thick, dark glossy green leaves. One
of the most popular plants for use as a formal hedge in the areas
where it is adapted (Fig. 11). This plant is attacked by the


Fig. 11.-Hedges of wax privet, Ligustrum japonicum


root-knot nematode, which is a limiting factor in its successful
growth in many localities, particularly in sandy locations. This
trouble may be overcome by obtaining this plant grafted on
L. quihoui, which is highly resistant to root-knot attack.
The nepal privet, L. indicum Merr., is another species of the
broad-leaved evergreen type which makes an effective hedge.
The nepal privet and wax privet are less susceptible to the
whitefly than are the smaller-leaved species.
Malpighia coccigera L. Malpighiaceae. Holly Malpighia.
Southern area and warmest parts of Central area. West Indies.
The holly malpighia is a dwarf compact shrub with small,
spiny, leathery, shining leaves which resemble the hollies. Where
a slow-growing, formal or informal, low hedge is desired it is








Ornamental Hedges for Florida


an excellent subject in the areas where it is adapted. The small
light pink flowers are followed by bright red fruit.
Malvaviscus arbioreus Cav. Malvaceae. Turk's Cap. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico.
Turk's Cap is a rapid-growing flowering shrub, of good fo-
liage, which is closely related to the hibiscus. Its red, droop-
ing flowers are borne freely throughout the year, and this makes
it desirable where a flowering hedge is wanted. Pink and white
flowered varieties are to be had. Like hibiscus, this plant is
possibly best used as an informal high hedge or screen. How-
ever, it may be trained to formal shape, but when this is done
the number of flowers will be reduced in proportion to the sever-
ity of the pruning.
In localities where it is susceptible to frequent injury by cold
there are other plants which are much more acceptable as a
hedge and these should replace it.
Murraya paniculata Jack. Rutaceae. (Chalcas exotica
Millsp.). Orange-Jessamine. Southern area and warmer parts
of Central area. India.
This member of the citrus family is an attractive evergreen
shrub or small tree with glossy green pinnately-compound leaves.
The white, very fragrant flowers are produced at intervals
throughout the year, followed by clusters of red ovoid fruit.
It is a vigorous grower and may be used as an informal high
hedge or screen, or may be trimmed to a formal shape. When
so trimmed it is suggestive of boxwood in an area where that
plant is out of the question.
Myrica cerifera L. Myricaceae. Wax-Myrtle. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Native.
Wax-myrtle is a vigorous native evergreen which can be
utilized for hedge planting. It may be used as a formal or in-
formal high hedge or screen. The foliage is not large and it
shears well. It is of value for planting in proximity to the
coasts, as salt winds do not seem to injure it. Likewise, it will
make a good hedge on land that is not well drained.
Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae. True Myrtle. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Mediterranean region.
The foliage of the true myrtle is small, dark green, dense and
fragrant. It is a fairly rapid grower and shears perfectly. The
plant is a hardy evergreen. It is not suited to shade but rather
prefers full sunlight (Fig. 12). The varieties microphylla
(Rosemary), which has small, overlapping leaves (Fig. 9) and







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


italica, with small sharp-pointed leaves, are particularly suitable
for growing in very small formal hedges.
- Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae. Common Oleander. South-
ern and Central areas and warmer parts of Northern area.
Mediterranean region.
The common oleander is another flowering plant which can
be used for informal hedge planting where ample room is avail-


Fig. 12.-True myrtle, Myrtus communis.


able. It is a vigorous grower and thrives in almost any soil.
It will withstand exposure to salt spray with only a slight injury
to the foliage. Numerous varieties, having a wide range in
character and color of bloom, are available. Careful pruning
will overcome its rangy nature to a marked extent. Unfortu-
nately this plant is often attacked by the larvae of the oleander
caterpillar which produces an unsightly condition. All parts
of the plant are extremely poisonous if taken internally.
SPittosporum tobira Ait. Pittosporaceae. Japanese Pittospo-
rum. Pittosporum. Tobira. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. China and Japan.
Pittosporum is a hardy evergreen which is one of the best
of plants for hedge planting if given proper trimming and fer-
tilization. It thrives in either sunny or partially shaded loca-







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


tions and can be used for planting near the coast, since salt air
does not seem to injure it. The leaves are a dark glossy green
in color and grow in clusters or rosettes. This plant is subject
to attack by a fungus which may severely spot the foliage, thus
greatly reducing its ornamental value.


























Fig. 13.-Cape plumbago, Plumbago capensis.

The variety Whitespot (variegatum) of P. tobira has light
green foliage with white variegation and can be used to ad-
vantage where contrast is desired, or in brightening up a shaded
location.
The pittosporums are rather slow in growth but their attrac-
tiveness amply repays for the time required in growing them.
Pruning should be started early with these plants in order to-
force branching near the ground. Their natural tendency is
toward an upright habit of growth which results in a leggy ap-
pearance if pruning is neglected.
- Plumbago capensis Thunb. Plumbaginaceae. Cape Plum-
bago. Southern, Central and Northern areas. South Africa.






Florida Agricultural Extension Service


The plumbago is a flowering plant with small, light-green
foliage which makes a desirable informal hedge of medium
height. The small flowers, light blue in color, are in evidence
most of the year. The variety alba has white flowers. No at-
tempt should be made to trim to formal shape and little prun-
ing is required. If severely damaged by frosts the plants should
be cut to the ground. They will quickly recover and within a
few months at-
tain their normal
size (Fig. 13).
Podocarpus
macrophylla maki
Endl. Taxaceae.
a aYew Podocarpus.
Podocarpus.
Southern, Central
and N o rth er n
areas. Japan and
China.
This is an ex-
cellent subject
h- for hedging, as it
m ir- b becomes very
compact after
clipping. The
leaves are lanceo-
,-" late 1 to 21/
inches long, dark
.. green and rigid.
The mature foli-
age is very at-
Fig. 14.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right, tractive, a n d a
Podocarpus macrophylla maki.
pleasing contrast
is provided by the lighter shades of the new growth (Fig. 14).
Polyscias spp. Araliaceae. Polyscias. Aralia. Southern
area. Polynesia and New Caledonia.
The polyscias (aralias), because of their adaptability to a
wide range of soil types and striking foliage, are among the
most popular shrubs grown in southern Florida. They are
adapted to a wide range of ornamental uses and are suitable for
hedge planting where they are used as a formal or informal
medium to high hedge or screen. Because of their strict or up-






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


right habit of growth they are particularly desirable for use as
a screen in a very narrow place.
Two species of polyscias, P. balfouriana Bailey (Aralia bal-
fouriana Hort.) and P. guilfoylei Bailey (Aralia guilfoylei
Bull.) and its three horticultural varieties, are the ones usually
grown.
Poncirus trifoliata Raf. (Citrus trifoliata L.). Rutaceae.
Trifoliate-Orange. Trifoliata. Northern area. China.
Trifoliate-orange is a hardy deciduous plant of truly defensive
type. Its branches are heavily armed with strong sharp spines.
The leaves are trifoliate and dark green in color. When kept
pruned, it makes an almost impenetrable barrier. Although it
cannot be recommended as a plant for ornamental purposes,
it is not unattractive during the summer months when in fo-
liage (Fig. 8).
- Prunus caroliniana Ait. (Laurocerasus caroliniana Roem.).
Rosaceae. Carolina Laurelcherry. Cherry Laurel. Central and
Northern areas. Native.
Cherry laurel is a native, hardy, broad-leaved evergreen suit-
able for a medium or high hedge. It thrives in nearly all well
drained soils and situations and seems to be practically immune
to disease and insect injury. Usually it is trimmed into a for-
mal hedge and will stand heavy shearing. These advantages
make it one of the desired species. It is slow-growing but vig-
orous when once established (Figs. 3 and 15).


Fig. 15.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right, cherry laurel.






Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Psidium cattleiantum Sabine. (P. littorale Raddi). Myr-
taceae. Cattley Guava. Strawberry Guava. Southern and Cen-
tral areas. Brazil.
The cattley guava is a broad-leaved evergreen plant that can
be used to advantage for hedging materials. It may be allowed
to grow naturally with the exception of enough pruning to pre-
vent a rangy appearance, or may be sheared to formal shape.
The leaves are dark glossy green and the plant makes a heavy,
dense growth. It will succeed in dry locations but, being only
semi-hardy, its general use is restricted to the lower half of the
peninsula (Fig. 16).
Pyrostegia ignea Presl. (Bignonia venusta Ker.). Bignonia-
ceae. Flame Vine. Southern area and warmer parts of Cen-
tral area. Brazil.
The flame vine requires support like the bougainvillea. It is
a semi-hardy, vigorous grower which is strikingly attractive
when in bloom. Tubular orange-red flowers, from which it de-
rives its name "flame vine," are produced in abundance. The
blooming period is from mid-winter to early spring.
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian
Pepper-Tree. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. Brazil.


Fig. 16.-Cattley guava hedge.






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


The Brazilian pepper-tree is a desirable subject for a formal
or informal hedge or screen. It has dark-green foliage and, when
not too closely clipped, clusters of small bright red fruits are
produced for an extended period during the winter months, add-
ing to its attractiveness. This is a vigorous shrub or small tree
well adapted to a variety of soils. As this plant is dioecious,
it is necessary to select female plants to have the red berries
which are a desirable feature of this subject.
--- Severinia buxifolia Tenore. Rutaceae. Chinese Box-Orange.
Severinia. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. Southern China and Formosa.
The severinia is an attractive plant for a low formal or in-
formal type of hedge. It belongs to the citrus group but bears
little resemblance to it. The plant, somewhat dwarf and some-
what reclining in habit of growth, is armed with short spines
and has small dark-green leaves. It is fairly hardy (Fig. 17).
--- Thuja orientalis L. (Biota orientalis Endl.). Pinaceae. Ori-
ental Arbor-Vitae. Central and Northern areas. North China
and Korea.
Although less desirable for hedges than some of the broad-
leaved evergreens, several varieties of Oriental arbor-vitae are
used for this purpose, particularly in northern Florida. The
range in size afforded by the different varieties gives forms
which are adaptable to the various uses to which hedges are
put. The varieties most commonly grown are: T. orientalis
var. area conspicia Hort., area nana Hort., pyramidalis Endl.,
compacta Beiss, Blue Green and Bonita.
Rosedale (Rosedale hybrid). This plant, a hybrid between
T. orientalis aiurea Dauvesse and Chamaecyparis pisifera squar-
rosa Beiss and Hochst., is one of the varieties of the oriental
group most commonly grown in Florida. It is one of the smaller
varieties, having delicate blue-green foliage which turns more
or less bronze during the winter months. Where ample room
is available and a hedge of this kind is wanted, Rosedale is per-
haps one of the best to use (Figs. 14 and 15).
All of these arbor-vitaes are hardy and relatively slow in
growth. After becoming well established, however, they will
withstand long periods of drought and require little care. They
can be sheared or trimmed but are more attractive in their nat-
ural shapes, as trimming tends to give them an unnatural or
artificial appearance. Arbor-vitae should be used sparingly
for hedge purposes in this state as there are many other plants,








32 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

less common in latitudes farther north, which are as well adapted
and more suggestive of a tropical and sub-tropical Florida. A
serious disease, cercospora blight, attacks many varieties of
arbor-vitae, making the affected plants unsightly.


F. 17
I P.
rt-Z.


--~I



:Pl

,eE~~
~ u
*I


Fig. 17.-Hedge of Severinia buxifolia.

' Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem. (Rhynchospermum jas-
minoides Lindl.). Apocynaceae. Confederate Jasmine. Chinese
Star Jasmine. Central and Northern areas. China.
This vine, like the flame vine and bougainvillea, requires sup-
port. It is an evergreen woody vine that is quite hardy and
which thrives on a wide range of soils, but is somewhat slow-
growing until it becomes well established. A dense mass of
dark-green foliage is produced. The white star-shaped flowers,
which are borne in profusion during April and May, make it
a desirable subject for this purpose.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida 33

Triphasia trifolia P. Wils. Rutaceae. Limeberry. Southern
area. Southern China and Malaya.
The limeberry, a citrus relative, is well adapted to the south-
ern area. It stands shearing well and because of its slow growth
and dense, graceful, evergreen foliage is very desirable for a
low formal hedge or as a border plant. The leaves are deep
green, 1 to 2 inches long and tri-foliate. Small, slender, very
sharp spines are borne in pairs in the leaf axils.
Additional plants that may be planted in hedge formation in-
clude the acalypha or copper-leaf, Acalypha spp.; cape-jasmine,
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis; chaste-tree, Vitex agnus-castus L.;
nandina, Nandina domestic Thunb.; firethorn, Pyracantha spp.;
spirea, Spiraea spp.; and Japanese photinia, Photinia glabra
Maxim. All of these with the exception of firethorn and pho-
tinia should be grown informally; that is, without shearing and
with enough pruning to keep well shaped. All of those grown
informally, with the exception of nandina, require considerable
space and should not be grown as hedges on small properties.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service



Index of Common Names


Abelia, glossy ....................
A calypha .................... .........
Amatungula carissa ..............-
A ralia ........ .. ...... .--.. ....-
-Arbor-vitae, oriental .........-
Australian brush-cherry ...
Australian Pine .............
S Azalea ...................... -- ..


Bamboo, hedge -..-....- ...
Beefwood .......... .. --. -- .
Bottlebrush ..-...--.......---
SBoungainvillea ........... ........
B ox ............... ..... ...
Box, common ...-.... ...-
Box, harlands .......................
S Box, Japanese .. .......
Boxwood ......... ..... ..........
Brazilian pepper-tree .......-..
Butterfly-bush, Asian ........
Butterfly-bush, pale ..........


' Camellia, common ..
-Camphor-tree ....--
"-Cape-jasmine ..........
..-Cape plumbago .........
Carissa -.. --....
.Carolina laurelcherry .
Cattley guava ............
Chaste-tree ...........
-. Cherry laurel ..........
Chinese box-orange ..
.--Chinese juniper .........
Chinese star jasmine
Cocculus ...... ..........
a-Confederate jasmine -
Copper-leaf .-..........
-Crape-myrtle -....-.......
Creeping sky-flower ..-


Page
...- 10-Eastern red-cedar ...
..-.. 33 -Elaeagnus ........
.... 15
..... 28 .Feijoa ... ......
..... 31 Firethorn .......
..... 18 Flame vine .............
..... 15
... 11 Gardenia .....
Golden dewdrop .....
..... 13 Governor's-plum ......
.... 15
.... 15- Hibiscus, Chinese .
.... 13 Holly, American ...
... 14 Holly, Chinese ....-
14 Holly malpighia ....
.... 14
.. 14- Ixora, red ................
.... 14
-- 30 -Japanese photinia
14 Josephs Coat ...........
13 Jungleflame ixora _


15 -Laanta .......
17 Limeberry ...
. 33
. 27 Myrtle, true -


.. 29 Nandina ............-
.. 30 Natal-plum ..... -....
.... 33
.-. 29 Oleander, common ..
31 Orange-jessamine ..
S21
-- 32 Pineapple-guava ....
17 Pitanga ........... .
32 Pittosporum .......-..
-- 33 Plum-yew ..............
S21 -Podocarpus ............
17 Poinsettia ............


Page
... 21
.... 17


............. 20
............. 20
............ 21
.............. 24


...... 33
....... 13
...... 21


........ 22
........ 33


....... 25


..........-.... 33
-.....-........ 15


....-......... 26
.................. 25


................ 19
........... .. 17
... .-.- ..... 26
.. .......... 16
- ...... .. 28
................ 18









Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Polyscias
Privet


Page
............. 28 r Spirea


.... -- -...........- .. 22


Privet, Amur River .......----............... 23
Privet, California ....................- 23
-Privet, Chinese .....-................ 22
Privet, Japanese .............---........ 23
Privet, nepal ................................ 24
Privet, quihou ..............-.............. 23
Privet, wax .............-...-............. 23


Ram ontchi ................. ................. 20
Red-cedar, eastern .......-.....--...--. 21
Red-cedar, southern ............-..... 21
Rosedale, arbor-vitae ................... 31


Severinia .........-..-..... ------..... 31
Sky-flower ............................------------------ 17
Snow-bush .--......--..........-----------... 13


Page
.- 33


Strawberry guava ..............-........ 30
Surinam-cherry .............................. 17
Sydney acacia ............................. 11
Sydney golden wattle .............-- .. 11


Tobira ...............-................ ...... 26
Trifoliata ...............----............--- ... 29
Trifoliata-orange ......................---- 29
Turk's cap ....................--...........-. 25


Wax privet .................................... 23
Wax-myrtle ---.....--------............................. 25
Whitespot pittosporum ................ 26


Yaupon ........-........-..................... 21
*-Yew podocarpus ........................... 28




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