• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Main
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Plot or ground plan and the basic...
 Landscaping the front area
 Landscaping the service area
 Landscaping the outdoor living...
 Selection and use of ornamental...
 Planting plan
 Ornamental plants for Florida
 Basic list of ornamental plant...
 Alphabetical list of plant...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin ;, 179B
Title: Landscaping Florida homes
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020665/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscaping Florida homes Bulletin 179B
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 51 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: McElwee, E. W ( Edgar Warren ), 1907-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Paperback.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020665
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11598165

Table of Contents
    Main
        Main
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
    Plot or ground plan and the basic arrangement plan
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Landscaping the front area
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Landscaping the service area
        Page 19
    Landscaping the outdoor living area
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Selection and use of ornamental plants
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Planting plan
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Ornamental plants for Florida
        Page 35
    Basic list of ornamental plants
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Alphabetical list of plant names
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Back Cover
        Page 52
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




Bulletin 179B
March, 1966



Lan llca ing
SFLORIDA HOM S
E. W. McELWEE .
-, '/! !^.






SUI...... ...







Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

THE PLOT OR GROUND PLAN ................. .....- ............ ..----. 4

THE BASIC ARRANGEMENT PLAN .....-......................-----...-----.... 4

LANDSCAPING THE FRONT AREA ...............................----- ------------- 9
Walks and Drives --.......-.. .............. ---..- ....----- ---. 10
Lawn and Trees .......~...........-.... -. ----. .....--------- 11
Plantings .................-- ..................--......--------. ----- -------- 13

LANDSCAPING THE SERVICE AREA ........................................ ... ...-- ....-- .... 19
LANDSCAPING THE OUTDOOR LIVING AREA .....................................--------- 20

SELECTION AND USE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS ..............-.......................... ----24
Growth Characteristics of Ornamental Plants .................................... 27
External Factors Affecting Plant Growth ..................................--...... 30

THE PLANTING PLAN ............................ ------------..------- 32

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FOR FLORIDA ...................-...-- .--- ....--------- 35
Basic List of Ornamental Plants ............------........---..--- ..---.. ... 36
Alphabetical List of Plant Names ................--..---....................--.. 49









First Printing, June 1962
Second Printing, January 1965


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director









LANDSCAPING FLORIDA HOMES

E. W. MCELWEE
Ornamental Horticulturist
A well-landscaped home is a credit and asset to the owner
and his family, to the community, neighbors, and many others
as well. The intangible values-such as enjoyment, pride, pres-
tige, and good will-cannot be measured in dollars and cents.
Cost of materials, plants, and labor in planning and carry-
ing out a landscape scheme can be determined readily. The
pleasure and enjoyment the family derives from an attractive
and useful outdoor area is difficult to evaluate. What is the
value of a landscaped home to the neighborhood and community?
How can one appraise the prestige the designer gains from
having a part in developing a beautiful home grounds? The
pride that comes to the one who takes care of the plantings
and helps produce the pleasing landscape effects should also be
taken into consideration. A well-landscaped home is a credit
to all who take part in its development and maintenance.
Attractively landscaped homes do not just happen; they
are the result of careful planning, close attention in carrying
out the plan, and good care after planting.
All who are able to do so should employ a professionally
trained landscape architect or landscape nurseryman to plan
and develop their home grounds. Some may prefer to have the
planning done by an experienced designer, but do the actual
work themselves. Others may wish to do their own planning
and landscaping.
The purpose of this bulletin is to encourage home owners
to begin home grounds improvement and provide information
and guides for determining what to do and how.
Landscaping, as applied to small home grounds, is planning
and arranging buildings, outdoor areas, plantings, and other
features into useful and pleasing surroundings for the enjoy-
ment of a family (Illus. 1).
A well-landscaped home should take into consideration the
landscaping of nearby homes and reflect the general character
of the neighborhood.
Make a list of landscape features to be included, in the plan.
All of the family should assist in preparing this list. These







4 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

features should then be rated as to relative importance and
the most important planned first. Do not plan more features
than the lot can conveniently accommodate.


SUGGETIONS 01LAMDSCAPING
L tL JHOME GROUNDS
1. List octivitias an4 speeds of family.
2. Make o o' fr-iitngs that exist on lot,
3. Study kt .4o situation carefully.


6. Folow Pan.


The Plot or Ground Plan
First, carefully make a map or diagram of the lot showing
existing features that should be considered in planning and
developing the grounds. This plan should show locations of
borders, buildings, trees, roads, walks, plant beds, banks, and
shaded areas. Good and bad off-property views and other fea-
tures that will affect the landscaping should be noted.
Graph paper is useful in making an accurate plot plan to
represent the size and shape of the lot; the size, shape, and lo-
cation of the house; trees; and other features. When the plan
is drawn to scale, all of the features will be in the same rela-
tionship as they exist on the property.
Tracing paper may then be placed over the plot plan for
sketching different schemes for development of a pleasing and
useful arrangement for the lot. Tracing paper drawings can be
easily reproduced by blueprinting or other means. A ruler with
several different scales, a triangle, a T-square, and drawing
board are useful in drawing landscape plans. This equipment is
not absolutely necessary, but it is important at least to make
sketches in planning the landscape (Illus. 2 and 3).

The Basic Arrangement Plan
A general arrangement plan should be worked out that will
make the best use of the lot and meet the requirements of
the family.














-- W I sun



idr Screen

Shade



hf S
Service

DECISION S!




Picture
index of the keys to good landscaping.
Illustration 1.--Planning is one of the keys to good landscaping.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


GRAPE
e PAPER.


RECORD MEASUREMENTS ON GRAPH PAPER

Illustrations 2 and 8.-Equipment used in preparing a plot plan
and other landscape drawings.







Landscaping Florida Homes


When plants are already in place, the problem is to plan the
best use of the area and adapt the plan to the existing plant-
ings and needs of the family. It is difficult to rearrange un-
related plantings and poorly located areas into a coordinated
and satisfactory landscape scheme; therefore, the general plan
should be made without regard to existing plantings and fea-
tures. Adaptations and minor changes may be made in the
general plan to take advantage of existing plantings and fea-
tures that will fit into the scheme. The resulting plan is
more likely to be a satisfactory solution than one that at-
tempts to fit new needs and requirements to existing condi-
tions.








v IP j &" v .I P I f BR i
P



P




BR J (I S BR. B D K P BR. BR
LR BR L g LR





A & C

Illustration 4.-Landscape schemes for a small home. A. Landscaping
by owner with limited landscaping and gardening interest. B. Changes
by new owner with small children and an interest in gardening. C. Later
changes related to remodeled house and outdoor activities of teen-age
children.

It is important to plan within a budget of both time and
money so the family can maintain the grounds and plantings in
an attractive condition. This involves the selection of low
maintenance plants for busy families. This limitation may







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


not be necessary for retired people and others who have time
and enjoy working in the yard.
Individuality in landscaping will result from development of
a landscape plan that provides a pleasing setting for the home,
reflects the personality of the owner and his family, and in-
corporates the needs of the family. These characteristics
will vary with each home and family.
The owner who wishes to landscape his own home can profit
by studying several good books on the subject. This will help
him understand basic principles of design. Design principles
that should be employed in good landscape planning include
balance, dominance or focalization, scale, proportion, contrast,
transition, rhythm, and unity (Illus. 5, 8, 9, 10, 18 and 22).
After the problems and conditions have been firmly estab-
lished, landscape planning should be started by making a plan
to show location and size of the three major outdoor areas:
the front yard, service section, and outdoor living room. Sev-
eral different schemes and arrangements should be sketched
and the best one selected for further study and detailed plan-
ning (Illus. 4).
The front yard is usually definitely located but may need
to be re-organized and adapted to serve as a proper foreground
for the entire home scene (Illus. 5).
The service section is a work area that should be closely
related to the kitchen and garage. Only enough space should
be allocated to adequately accommodate service features.
In most cases, the private area or outdoor living room is
the most used spot. A large portion of the lot should be re-
served for the recreational features that will be included in
this area. It should be close to the house, especially to the
living room and porch.
The next planning step is to organize the general location
and size of border plantings, trees, shrubs, flower beds, hedges,
patios, and other units that are to be a part of the landscape
scene. The kind and location of specific plants should not be a
consideration at this stage. The basic and most important
features and plantings should be developed first and the less
important ones later. The importance of various features or
parts of the landscape scheme is determined by what units will
be most used and enjoyed by members of the family.
A partially shaded spot of lawn can be enjoyed by all mem-
bers of the family all year. A garden of annuals, on the other








Landscaping Florida Homes


hand, is seasonal and may be of interest mainly to those mem-
bers of the family interested in flowers and gardening.
A tall border or hedge can be used for privacy in the yard.
A clipped hedge, however, may be monotonous because it is
made up of one type of plant with little seasonal change. It
may require much more pruning and care than a border plant-
ing. A well-planned border can screen as effectively as a
hedge, and can present a variety of interesting plant combina-
tions and seasonal effects as well.
The landscape plan should be sufficiently flexible to permit
revision and alteration to conform to the changing needs of a
family. For example, the recreational requirements of chil-
dren change about every six or seven years-pre-school, elemen-
tary school, high school, and college. The need for periodic
changes is an opportunity rather than a disadvantage in land-
scaping, since plants and features that have become uninter-
esting may be exchanged for more useful and attractive ones.

Landscaping The Front Area
The visitor gets his first impression of the home and the
family from seeing the house as he passes along the street or
enters the grounds. The front lawn should be open and rela-
tively free of shrub plantings, so that the house is the first
and most important thing seen from the street.




HOUSEE CP HOUSE CP HOUSE





/ C
,% B C
Illustration 5.-An open lawn and plantings arranged to focus attention
on the house provide a proper setting for the home. A. The house is
partially hidden by a disorderly planting. B. Front lawn limited to the
width of the lot by planting. C. A wide front lawn with plantings well
back on the property.

Usually the yard appears more spacious if it is wider than
it is deep. A narrow, deep lawn appears restricted. Plantings







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


along the borders, if they are needed, should be placed near the
house and arranged to help focus attention on the house.
















Walks and Drives
Walks and drives are an important part of the landscape of
the small home. They should be of proper size and convenient-
ly located. These elements are conspicuous and have a definite
influence on the appearance of an area and should be planned to
be large enough to be easy to use and inviting and pleasing in
appearance.
Straight or gracefully-curved walks and drives are more
likely to be in keeping with the street and house than those
that are strongly curved. This is particularly true of short
walks and drives. It may be necessary to curve these features
to avoid shrubs and other obstacles or to fit them to the con-
tour of a slope. They should join other walks, drives, steps
and landings at pleasing angles. The walk and drive are often
combined to save space and to avoid chopping up the front
lawn into several small areas (Illus. 6).
The width of the front walk should be determined by the
length and the size of the steps or entrance to which it leads.
It should be at least 3/2 feet wide to accommodate two people
walking abreast. Long, narrow walks leading to a prominent
entrance usually result in a weak and inadequate combination.
Casual walks are used mainly for appearance, to indicate di-
rection, and for casual use. They are constructed of materials
that are more interesting in color, texture, and shape than







Landscaping Florida Homes


those used for utility walks. Suitable materials for casual
walks include stepping stones, flagstones, gravel, tan bark,
straw, and crushed shell.
The drive should be placed on the service side of the house
for convenient access to the kitchen, garage, and street. A
turn or back-up area is a safety feature for long drives and
for drives entering a busy street. It is usually not advisable
to use a circle drive in front of the average small home; how-
ever, a pleasing arrangement can be worked out for a circle drive
on a very deep or very wide lawn (Illus. 7).

HOUSE



HoUSE

S\ FRONT VIAL.K CURVED
TO AVOfO T1RE



WALK OIIMT\
0. \ y TO 5JNTRANCE

SIDEWALK
PARKING
Illustration 6.-Walks should be as direct as possible.

Lawn and Trees
A good lawn is essential to a well-landscaped front area.
The lawn serves as a foundation for the entire landscape pic-
ture.
The lawn is an important landscape feature because it in-
creases the usefulness and improves the appearance of outdoor
areas. Its uniform color, texture, and height help to unify
the whole development. It has a cooling effect on the home
through transpiration and reduction of reflected heat. It re-
duces dust, soil tracked into the house, and erosion.
Detailed information on selecting grasses and establishing
and caring for the lawn can be found in Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service Circular 210, "A Comparison of Lawn Grasses







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


for Florida," Florida Agricultural Extension Service Circular
217, "St. Augustine Lawn Grasses," and Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station Circular S-123, "Floratine St. Augustine Grass."
Trees play an important role in the landscape. They are
used to stabilize and unify the home scene as well as to soften
architectural lines. Framing trees should be located to soften
the corners and roof of the house, to form patterns against
the sky and to focus attention on the house. This can be best


TURN FOR SAFETY IN
ENTERING BUSY STREET


ROAD

HOUSE CLOSE TO ROAD


HOUSE WELL BACK FROAM ROA4D
Illustration 7.-Location and arrangement of the drive is an important
part of the landscaping of the front area.







Landscaping Florida Homes


accomplished by locating them slightly forward and outside
the corners of the house and positioned so the branches par-
tially screen or "break" the corners of the house (Illus. 6 and 7).
In the private yard, trees furnish shade and serve as a
background for the house.
The mature size of trees should be considered in selecting
them for landscaping small areas. A large tree on a small lot
or near a small house can appreciably reduce the apparent size
of the house or area. Small and medium-sized trees are more
desirable for landscaping the average home than are large
trees.
Indoor and outdoor areas can be made more enjoyable
through the use of deciduous and evergreen trees to control
shade during different seasons of the year. Evergreen trees
provide year-around shade to an area. Deciduous trees are use-
ful in situations where it is desirable to have sun during the
winter and shade for the remainder of the year.
Properly located, trees have an appreciable cooling effect on
the home. Low-branched trees may materially reduce air move-
ment through the house and grounds. High-branched trees
permit free movement of air through the shaded area which cools
the air before it reaches the house.
Plantings
The primary purpose of the base planting is to provide an
attractive setting for the house. The size, proportions, form,
and lines of the house should be considered in determining the
location, size, and type of plants to be used in the base plant-
ing.
A picture or drawing of the front elevation of the house
is useful in planning for plantings around the house. Sketches
can be made on tracing paper laid over the photograph or
drawing to determine the height and type of plantings that
are best suited to the house. Each house is a different prob-
lem and should be so treated (Illus. 8).
The planting around the house often gives the impression
that a wide variety of plants have been used to fill space and
to make a striking display of colors and shapes rather than to
present the home to best advantage.
Informal plantings are ideal for a ranch-style or rambling
house. These plantings are accomplished by using unsymmetri-
cal, irregular, and naturalistic combinations of plants (Illus. 8
and 10).







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Formal plantings are more in keeping with the house that
has a formal arrangement of the features of the house. They
are made by arranging plants in geometric patterns or designs.
Formal arrangements are usually easier to plan and carry out
successfully than informal or naturalistic arrangements (Illus. 8,
9 and 10).






A l














Illustration 8.-Arrange shrubs in base planting to focus attention on
entrance. A. Planting for an off-center entrance. B. Planting for a
balanced arrangement of entrance and windows. C. Planting for an
asymmetrical relationship of entrance, windows and house.

Unusual or colorful plants that may attract attention to
themselves and away from the house are not recommended for
use in the front yard. These plants should be worked into
other plantings about the property where they will not de-
tract from the house. In most cases they will serve a better
landscape purpose when used in the garden, side yard, or back
yard than when used in the front yard.
Shrubs in the front area should be arranged to focus atten-
tion on the house and entrance. They should also soften cor-
ners and lines of the house and be in scale with the house and
the yard. They should not dominate the house or divert the
viewer's attention from the house. They should be arranged







Landscaping Florida Homes


to allow full use of doors, windows, and walks. Small to
medium-sized shrubs and trees should be used around a small
house so that it will appear larger.
In most cases, the house's foundation should not be com-
pletely covered by plants. Some of the foundation should be free
of plantings and show that the house is firmly based on the
ground.
For landscape purposes, the entrance to the home is made
up of the steps, landing or porch, doorway, roof, columns, and
other features associated with the front door. Plants used
around the entrance should be selected for year-around effects
and should be of a height and size in good proportion with the
entrance. In most cases, the tallest plant should not be more
than two-thirds as high as the entrance.













Illustration 9.-A symmetrical planting for a formal entrance.

The same kind of plants should usually be used on each side
of the doorway of a symmetrical house. For an unsymmetrical
house, one with an off-center entrance, the most attractive
and striking plants should be located on the side with the
shortest distance from the entrance to the corner. Plants on
the opposite side of the entrance should be more informal and
less striking in character, that is, they should have less inter-
est value (Illus. 8 and 10).
Corner plantings are used to soften the corners and to
frame the house. Plants for these locations should be irregu-
lar or informal in habit of growth. Generally, they should not
grow higher than two-thirds the distance from the ground to
the eaves or second story. Sometimes it is advisable to use a
foreground tree as part of the corner planting of a very tall







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


house when a tall shrub would be out of scale or proportion with
the house.
The location of the corner plants should be determined by
the size and proportions of the house. Generally, plants are lo-
cated inside of the corner of a wide house to reduce its appar-
ent width. For a narrow or tall house, they are placed beside
the corner to add apparent width. The corner plant is placed
in front of the corner of a house having good proportions as to
height and width (Illus. 11).







1 10 .
SYMM.TRtCAL BALANCE
Plantings for a centered, formal entrance.




^ -" ^ n


ASYNfETRICAL. BALANCE
Plantings for an off-center entrance.
Illustration 10.-Two types of entrance plantings.

Wall plantings are used to improve or add interest to un-
interesting or poorly-proportioned wall areas. These plantings
are used as plant patterns, for emphasis, for contrast, and to
frame wall areas. They may be used to break a large wall area
into smaller units having better proportions. For example, a
planting may be used to frame a window or series of windows to
improve their relationship to the house or for emphasis. Quite
often, an otherwise uninteresting wall along the walk or drive
can be improved by creating formal and informal plant patterns
against it. It is quite important to keep the plants in scale with
this area and not allow them to become so large that they domi-
nate the scene (Illus. 12, 13 and 14).








Landscaping Florida Homes


.' 0

Illustration 11.-Corner plantings should soften corners and angles and
complement the house. Left: A planting for a tall house and a small win-
dow near corner. Right: A planting for a low house with a wide picture
window near corner.


Illustration 12-Plantings for pattern and accent on large wall areas.
Illustration 12.-Plantings for pattern and accent on large wall areas.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Separation or screen plantings are quite often needed be-
tween the front yard and other areas to define lines, screen
unsightly service units, create privacy, or affect the impres-
sion of depth of the lot. These plantings should be carefully
planned and should be in keeping and in scale with the house.


Illustration 13.-A planting to frame
a bay of windows.


Informal plantings, unclipped hedges, or clipped hedges may
be used as screens. Whether the screen planting is formal or
informal should be determined by what is needed or best suited
to the house and other plantings in the front area. These
plantings may serve as barriers when made up of plants that
are thick, heavily-branched, or thorny.


Illustration 14.-A planting to
unify two windows.


Fences and walls can be used as separation or screening
units when the home owner does not wish to clip or maintain
a planting. A light, open-work fence will be satisfactory to
partially separate two areas-that is, to allow some view into
the back area to give an impression of depth to the property.






Landscaping Florida Homes


Sometimes a slow-growing vine or spreading plant may be used
effectively on a wire fence to add interest.

Landscaping the Service Area

The service area should be planned to be sufficiently large to
contain such elements as garbage cans, drying yards, vegetable
garden, garage, driveway, and other things required for the ser-
vice and maintenance of the home and yard. The service area
should be located close to the kitchen and conveniently connected
with other outdoor areas (Illus. 4).










This area, because of its nature and use, is likely to be less
attractive than the parts of the property landscaped primarily
for recreational uses and for beauty. It should, however, be
carefully planned and landscaped to be neat, as attractive as
possible, and convenient. It will be frequently seen and used by
members of the family. Walks, gates, and openings should be
placed for convenient passage to and from this area to the house
and other parts of the yard.
Most service units should be enclosed and screened from
view from both the outdoor living area and the front yard. The
garage and driveway will usually be a part of the front view.
In many cases, a play pen or play yard for small children is
placed in the service area so the children can be easily observed
and supervised from the kitchen.
Because of space limitations, it may be necessary to locate
some of the utility units in the outdoor living area or in other
parts of the yard. For example, a movable umbrella-type
clothesline can be located in the back lawn or on the patio to
substitute for a permanently located drying yard. The vegetable
garden may need to be separated from other service units to take
advantage of a better location or soil.






Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Landscaping the Outdoor Living Area
The private area is used by more members of the family
more often than other outdoor areas. It should, therefore,
provide for the recreational needs of all the family (Illus. 4
and 17).

SUGGESTIONS FOR LANDSCAPING
THE OUTDOOR LIVING AREA
1. Iefbri- list of family needs.
2. Locat. area so it can be conveniently seeni.id used fro m
hause.
3.Us& trBs toserve as background for ho ius:
'4. 0I fr pln-ty of lawt and shade.- '
.. -. ,.: ,r ,r:ivac;.
^ to moeutfr,^ plontirtgsto b *ei 4sem:



8: IB. '.-l0 ehte but dont -eW

One of the first considerations in developing this area is to
secure privacy or limit the yard area. Therefore, it should be en-
closed with a hedge, border planting, or a fence. A good lawn and
trees are important features of the outdoor living area. An open
lawn serves many recreational purposes and gives a sense of
freedom and spaciousness to the private area. One or more of the
trees should be placed to serve as a background for the house.
In planning the outdoor living area it is important to pro-
vide convenient connections between the house and adjacent
parts of the property. Such features as flower beds, barbecue
pit, and sitting area should be located so as to leave the center
of the lawn open (Illus. 15).
Locate the private area near the living room, dining room,
Florida room, or porch. A patio or terrace is frequently used
as a connection between the house and garden or lawn area
and developed as an outdoor extension of the house. It is usu-
ally paved and used as a sitting area and outdoor dining area.
The plants used in developing the patio should be types
that are interesting when observed at close range. They
should be adapted to shade. Plants that are too tender to







Landscaping Florida Homes


use in unprotected sites may be useful in this area. Plants
used close to the house should not have an objectional odor or
be thorny or poisonous.


OPENING






Illustration 15.-Preliminary planning
of connection between outdoor areas for
Scheme C of Illustration 4.

The shrubs and features used in this section should provide
as many interesting and pleasant views from as many rooms
in the house as possible. Study the views from windows, porch-
es, and other areas and locate specimen trees, plants, flower








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Illustration 16.-Scenes from windows are important. Make your own
and screen out undesirable views.



Illustration 17.-Arrangement plan for a small home grounds.-
Compare with Scheme C, Illustration 4.







d


















rz 4



moub








A 7ME4N- IA O
A ML OEI
Wm"syuEF~f4







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


beds, gardens, and architectural features to offer pleasing
views from the house (Illus. 16).
Striking and colorful plants such as azaleas, camellias, and
crotons, often misued in the front area, can be used effective-
ly in border plantings of the outdoor living room to emphasize
important views.
It is important to take advantage of views outside of
the property. Pasture scenes, water, trees, hills, and other
natural or artificial elements may be made an interesting part
of the landscape scene through framing or otherwise organizing
the plantings to take advantage of these views.
Border plantings affect the usefulness and appearance of
outdoor areas. They are used to enclose, for privacy, to screen
out undesirable views, and to provide attractive plant composi-
tions to be viewed from the house and other areas.
Border plantings are better adapted for a large lot rather
than a small lot since a successful border planting depends to
some extent on the width and depth of plantings. Space is at
a premium on a small lot.
Border plantings differ from other types of separation and
screen plantings in that they combine many different species
and types of plants to form the overall effect. These plant-
ings may also serve as a background for lawns, flowers, and
shrubs (Illus. 22).
Specimen and accent plants and plantings are probably mis-
used more often than any other class of planting. They should
be used to frame or pinpoint important views, to provide con-
trast, and to lend emphasis to special features. They should
not be scattered over the garden area without real landscape
purpose or repeated so often that the effectiveness of other
plantings is decreased.
Up to this point, landscape planning has been concerned
with the organization of areas and plantings to improve the
usefulness of the home and grounds. The next planning step
is the selection of plants to produce the effects envisioned in the
planning stage.

Selection and Use of Ornamental Plants
Study the arrangement plan and begin to work out the de-
tails of plantings required to carry out the plan (Illus. 17).
The planting plan is a working plan or drawing. It shows
details of grading, construction, number and kinds of plants,







Landscaping Florida Homes


location of plants within groupings, and other information
needed for carrying out the landscape plan (Illus. 21).
The arrangement plan and planting plan are sometimes
combined into one drawing or plan. A confused situation usu-
ally results from a combination plan because the purposes of
the two types of drawings are different. The arrangement
plan shows general space relationships and landscape effects.
The planting plan shows the details and specifications neces-
sary to produce the landscape effects.
















In thinking of plants for their home grounds, many home
owners give undue emphasis to striking plant characteristics.
Plants having unusual colors or habits of growth can be used

effectively in landscaping, but their locations must be skillfully
planned (Illus. 18 and 22).
The use of a wide variety of plants is likely to produce much
contrast and reduce the unity of plantings.
Some home owners are primarily interested in plants that
produce an immediate effect. It is difficult to use many small,
------ OW 000-m*rk












fast-growhinking plants wi thout later having crowded and over-
gowners give undue emphasis to striking plan b better be obtained
Plants having largerunusual colors or habitimens of slower-growing species, which willused





tend to reduce the over-growth problem. A less desirable al-
ternaffectivel in landscaping, but time and effort later in pruning
plants to keep them within bounds. There is a limit to how22).
The use of a wide variety of plants is likely to produce much
contrast and reduce the unity of plantings.
Some home owners are primarily interested in plants that
produce an immediate effect. It is difficult to use many small,



severely owing plant can be pruned without later destroying crowded and over-
grown plantings. An immediate effect can better be obtained
by using larger specimens of slower-growing species, which will
tend to reduce the over-growth problem. A less desirable al-
ternative is to spend much time and effort later in pruning
plants to keep them within bounds. There is a limit to how
severely a plant can be pruned without destroying its natural
habit of growth. Usually its natural shape is lost when it is
reduced more than one-third in height or width.







Florida Agricultural Extension Servce


Good design requires that plants in a landscape be used to
serve a definite function. Plants that improve the appear-
ance or usefulness of the home and grounds should be used.
Many "foundations" are over-planted, resulting in loss of iden-
tity and effect of functional plants at the corners, entrances,
and other locations.


. -NoN MONoTOMOdo5






b-SoME EMPHASIS
Change in, size





e- EMPHASIS by ISO5ATION






f- EMPHASIS by COLoR


C-HMoR EMPHASIS
COLume tA 5sxe 2 t0."iwre





d- 5TIL HORE EMPHASIS
chbamie iv size form








3-EMPHAS/.S FROM CHANCE
IN IZE FORM COLOR


Illustration 18.-Skillful planning and use of plants can add interest
to a planting.

The problem of plant selection is one of selecting the plants
that have useful characteristics and qualities necessary to
make up the plantings that appear "at home" on a particular
area.







Landscaping Florida Homes


Growth Characteristics of Ornamental Plants
Ornamental plants have many growth characteristics that
are important in landscaping. These qualities include size,
shape, color, mass, texture, and lines. Some of these growth
habits are included in the plant list in this bulletin. These
qualities should be kept in mind in selecting landscape plants.
The size and shape of a plant are very important qualities
because they involve the space the plant itself occupies and its
relation to other plants, the house, and the size of the yard.
A plant's size varies with its rate of growth and age. It
changes rapidly for fast-growing plants and less rapidly for
slow-growing ones.
In many landscape situations, a few large plants will usually
produce more satisfactory results than many small plants.
Ornamental shrubs should be selected and placed so they serve
their purpose when three-fourths mature.
Each plant has a natural shape that may change radically
with age. For example, the southern magnolia tree may have
a pyramidal shape when young and become irregular and spread-
ing as it becomes older. The natural shape of plants should be
considered when producing landscape effects of plant combina-
tions (Illus. 18 and 19).
Color, other than greens, is one of the more distinctive
qualities of plants. Since color variations may be striking,
color should be used for accent. It should be used so it will not
draw attention away from other important landscape features
and effects. This element can be used more freely in landscape
plantings than in many other design situations because of the
amount of green foliage, shade, and distance associated with it
in landscape plantings (Illus. 18).
Warm colors-red, orange, and yellow-are advancing colors
and are useful in landscape work to decrease apparent distance.
Cool colors-blue, green, and violet-are receding colors and are
useful in increasing the impression of distance. In landscape
work, it is difficult to determine the effectiveness of a color
because it changes with season, time of day, and climatic con-
ditions. This constant change, however, is a very useful de-
sign element in landscaping. Color harmony in landscape plant-
ings may be attained by balancing the amount of warm and
cool colors, by mixing and blending colors, by varying the dis-
tance of plants from the house, and by using flowering plants
repeatedly throughout the planting.











OVAL-


RouND WEPI N


TREE FORMS




SPREADING


a


a.l n i~e


CeSUPINGk





lir
IRREGuLAR -WPtleHT


4






S oNiCAL
C&NICALL


ROUND HEADOED


p.aTuREsqu



#-^ A1f


PY.y.,o SHRUB FORMS
Illustration 19.-Plants have many interesting shapes that should be
considered in making landscape compositions.


50B- GLOBOSE


i


ulfW.Sf







Landscaping Florida Homes


The mass or "weight" of a plant, or its size and density, are
useful landscape qualities. The mass of a plant is the impres-
sion of heaviness or lightness gained from the size of the plant
and the size and density of its leaves and branches. Mass in
plants varies from large and light or dense, and small and light
or dense. In landscape design, a large plant may be used to
dwarf or reduce the apparent size of a foreground object or
feature. The same type of plant when used in the foreground
of a view tends to increase apparent distance to the object.
There are many other landscape situations where the mass
relationship of plants is useful.


__\hLLLJL


Illustration 20.-The straight canes of the hedge bamboo, and the
curved trunk and drooping fronds of the coconut palm are representative
of the line qualities of plants that can be effectively used in plant com-
positions.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Texture is the impression of coarseness or fineness of a
plant gained from seeing or feeling it. In landscaping, texture
is sensed primarily through sight and sometimes by feel. The
texture of a plant is mainly a relationship of size, number,
spacing, and type of leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruits. Some
comparisons in plant texture include coarse or fine, rough or
smooth, hard or soft, shiny or dull, light or dark, and combina-
tions of these qualities. All of these growth characteris-
tics are useful in making complimentary or contrasting plant
compositions in relation to other plants and design elements.
The line qualities of a plant is the impression left with the
viewer by the dominant direction of growth of twigs, branches,
trunks, and leaves. These line qualities include vertical, hori-
zontal, arching, drooping, and irregular habit of growth (Illus.
20).
Vertical lines characteristic of aralia, nandina, and saw cab-
bage palmetto can be used to compliment vertical lines of a
building or to contrast with horizontal elements. Horizontal
lines of plants like the flowering dogwood and Pfitzer juniper
increase the perception of width. These qualities can be used
to contrast with vertical lines or complement horizontal lines.
The irregular lines of spirea and Japanese privet give very little
line effect. The drooping lines of some of the jasmines and
powderpuff plant are slightly depressive in effect. On the
other hand, the sweeping lines of the coconut palm blend well
with the spacious view of water or land.
The line effects of some plants vary with season of the year.
For example, the foliage and branches of the Jerusalem-thorn
give the plant a fine-textured and drooping effect during the
summer, but during the winter, the stems exhibit a rustic
and ascending line effect.
External Factors Affecting Plant Growth
A large part of the value of a plant in a landscape planting
depends on how well it produces the type of growth for which
it was selected. Several external factors that affect plant
growth should be taken into consideration in selecting and
using ornamental plants. These include soil, amount of sun or
shade, exposure to salt water and spray, susceptibility to pest
damage, and the amount of care the plants receive. Information
of some of these factors is included in "Basic List of Ornamen-
tal Plants for Florida" beginning on page 36.







Landscaping Florida Homes


Most sandy soils are low in nutrient content and require
amending and frequent fertilization to produce good plant
growth. Mucks and peats are high in organic matter and, if
properly drained, produce excellent plant growth. Almost any
of these soils may be either dry or wet.
A well-landscaped home is partially dependent upon selec-
tion of plants that grow well in the soil present on the lot.
However, the home owner may prefer to amend or change
soil conditions to suit the principal type of plants he wishes
to grow. These operations are sometimes difficult and costly.
Better plant growth will result from selecting plants adapted
to the existing soil type than from disregarding the soil prefer-
ence of the plants.
Ornamental plants can be selected that will tolerate al-
most any degree of sun or shade to be found around the aver-
age home. Some species grow best in full sun, others grow well
in either sun or shade, and still others grow best in full shade.
Plants vary in their ability to produce sufficient food for
satisfactory growth under different amounts of sunlight. The
amount of food produced is reflected in the plant's vigor, size,
leaf color, size of flower, and amount of flowering and fruiting.
The amount of sun or shade also affects loss of water from
a plant, the amount of sun scald, and ability to tolerate dry
soils and winds. Most plants require less water when grown
in shade than when grown in full sun.
Plants protected by trees are less subject to cold injury
than those in exposed locations. Plants shaded during the ear-
ly morning hours are less subject to cold injury than plants ex-
posed to the early morning sun.
Plants should be selected for the principal light conditions
of the site in which they are to be grown. Usually there will
be several variations in light on the property which will permit
the home owner to select the best site for favorite plants.
Plant tolerance of salt water and salt spray is of particu-
lar concern to home owners living in Florida's coastal areas.
Plants can be selected that are well-adapted to the soils and
exposure conditions of coastal areas. Information on the salt
spray tolerance of selected ornamental plants is included in the
plant list. The most salt-tolerant plants will grow in ex-
posed sites along the coast. Under extreme conditions, such
as in an exposed site near the water lines, they may show mar-
ginal leaf burn. Moderately-tolerant plants will tolerate some








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


salt spray, or short exposure to salt spray. They should be
used away from the shore line and protected from salt sprays
by other plants. Slightly tolerant species should be used well
back from the shore line and in locations protected from salt
spray by buildings or dense plantings of tolerant plants.

The Planting Plan
The outline for the planting plan can be made by placing a
piece of tracing paper over the arrangement plan and drawing
in the outline of plant beds and areas to be devoted to plant-
ings. The plant areas should be divided into smaller areas or
divisions to be planted with one kind of plant. The size of
these divisions should be carefully proportioned to the size of
the plant grouping or border planting. These divisions should
be of different sizes and shapes similar to the parts of a jigsaw
puzzle. These areas should be sketched in on the plan so that
they vary in width and depth. When plants are assigned to
these areas, they will blend together well. Each plant area
should be large enough to accommodate three or more plants of
a species or variety (Illus. 21 and 22).

Planting Key For A Small Home
Gainesville, Florida
Key Quantity
No. Needed Scientific Name Common Name

1 1 Acer rubrum Red maple
2 1 Albizzia julibrissin Silk-tree
3 3 Ardisia crenata Coral ardisia
4 9 Belleperone guttata Shrimp plant
5 6 Callicarpa americana French mulberry
9 17 Camellia japonica Camellia
10 15 Camellia sasonqua Sasanqua camellia
11 6 Citrus mitis Calamondin
13 2 Cleyere japonica Sakaki
15 1 Cocculus laurifolius Cocculus
16 5 Cornus florida Flowering dogwood
18 1 Cycas revoluta Sago-palm
21 2 Elaeagnus pungens 'Fruitlandi' Fruitland elaeagnus
22 3 Eriobotrya japonica Loquat
23 4 Euonymus americana Strawberrybush
25 5 Erythrina herbacea Eastern coralbean
This is a partial planting key for Planting Plan (next page) to show informa-
tion needed to secure plants.

Illustration 21.-A planting plan and planting key for a small home.
Compare with Illustration 17.
















- -


- VEONTA6LL




0G


PLANTING3 PLAN
FOR
A SMALL HOME
j. GAIl~ttCUE, VLOWIOA-







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


A group or planting of shrubs should be carefully planned as
a landscape feature. A poorly-planned, haphazard planting be-
comes nothing more than an unrelated collection of plants. A
well-executed planting is a landscape feature that can be en-
joyed throughout the year because of the seasonal variations
in plants used in the planting (Illus. 22).
The number of plants to be used in each plant group can be
determined by estimating the spread of the plant and thus
the number that will be required to fill the allotted space.


Illustration 22.-Careful planning is the secret of an interesting bor-
der planting. A. Subdivide the bed up into irregular and free formed
areas. B. Select plants for each area to carry out planned effects.

In some groups the plants should be planted close together to
form a mass or group. In other instances, the plants should be
spaced far enough apart to allow each plant to develop its na-
tural form or shape.
The next step in landscape planning is the use of all available
sources of information in the selection of the plants best suit-
ed to the landscape job.







Landscaping Florida Homes


Ornamental Plants for Florida

The most popular ornamental plants for the several sec-
tions of Florida are covered in the list that follows. As much
information as possible as to adaptability, habit of growth,
size, tolerance, preferred soil conditions, acceptable sun and
shade conditions, tolerance to salt spray, and suggested land-
scape uses has been included to aid in selecting plants for land-
scape use.

The following are suggestions for using the plant list.

1. Study the list and select plants for the conditions of the
soil, light, and other conditions that apply to your plant-
ing situation.

2. Place favorite plants in appropriate grouping.

3. Write, under appropriate heading, the names of plants
you know and want to use. Include those plants that
do well in your community. If a plant is not on the
"Basic List", consult garden books in your municipal li-
brary for information about the plant.

4. Select from "Basic List" other plants having the growth
habits and characteristics that will be needed in mak-
ing landscape plantings. These groupings may include
flower color, season of flower, low shrubs, ground covers,
small trees, and other groupings.

5. Select the best plants listed for the various landscape
uses. Those that should be discarded may include those
not recommended for local conditions, those subject to
insect and disease pests, and those that have limited
landscape uses.

6. Use plants in bold groups. Use fewer different kinds
of plants and more plants of a kind in groups and in
different areas over the property.








BASIC LIST OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Abbreviations, Designations and Terms Used in Table

1. General designations: (N), Native; (P), Part of plant poisonous; *, Adapted for listed use; Does not apply or
not known.
2. Section of state to which adapted:
a. N, North Florida-Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala.
b. C, Central Florida-Leesburg south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce.
c. S, South Florida-Stuart to Fort Myers and south to Homestead.
d. NCS, entire state.
3. Shape of plant:
a. Ground cover; creeping plant or vine.
b. Vine, a climbing plant. Some can be pruned and used as shrubs.
c. Round-headed; sub-globose, globose or round.
d. Irregular; indefinite in shape.
e. Irregular-spreading; indefinite in shape and somewhat scrambling or drooping.
f. Spreading; wider than high, scrambling, weeping or drooping.
g. Upright-spreading; some growth upright then vase shaped, drooping or weeping.
h. Upright; most of stems upright, pyramidal, columnar or conical in shape.
4. Flower color or season:
a. Color: Lay, lavender; 0, orange; Pk, pink; R, red; Various, color varying with variety; W, white.
b. Season: Spr, spring, Sr, summer; F, fall; and Wr, winter.
5. Light conditions-amount of sun or shade: Part. Sh., partial shade.
6. Soil conditions: Avg, Average; Fert, fertile; "Sweet", alkaline; Well-dr, well-drained.
7. Salt spray tolerance: +, slightly tolerant, use in well-protected spot back from shore line; ++ moderately tolerant,
may be used near shore line if protected by other plants, a fence, a building or by other means; -++, highly tolerant,
may be used in exposed situations near shore line.
8. Hedge and screen: Plants adapted for clipping indicated by *; those good for unclipped hedges indicated by Unc.H.
Bailey's "Manual of Cultivated Plants" (1949) was used as the authority for scientific names. Some common names
are those in common usage in Florida.








SConditions Plant Some landscape uses:
Scientific Name Section will tolerate:
Common Name of State Shape Flower Box
GRO D-C R 1-' to Which of Color & Salt or Barreln
GROUND-OVER 1-2Adapted Ht. Plant Season Light Soil Spray Tub Edging Banks Areas


Ajuga genevensis NCS
Geneva bugleweed
Hedera canariensis NCS
Algerian ivy
Hedera helix NCS
English ivy
Juniperus conferta NCS
Shore juniper
Kalanchoe spp. CS
Airplant
Lantana montevidensis NCS
Weeping lantana
Liriope spp. NCS
Lily-turf
Ophiopogon japonicus NCS
Mondo
Rhoeo spathacea (R. discolor) S
Oyster-plant
Tradescantia spp. C
Spiderwort (wandering Jew)
Wedelia trilobata CS
Wedelia


5-14"

1'

1'

1-2'

2-3'

1-3'

1'

1'

2'

1-3'

1'


B
Si


Ground
Cover
Vine

Vine

Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover
Ground
Cover


0
t(
L
A
SW
S


Y
S


lue Sun or
summer Shade
- Shade

- Shade

- Sun

range Sun
Sred
lavender Sun
.11 Year
T& Pk Sun or
summer Shade
- Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Shade

ellow Sun or
pr-Sr Shade


Avg -

Dry +++-

Any +++ *

Dry ++ *


Any ++

Dry ++

Any +4-
Well-dr.
Any ++

Avg -

Any -

Avg ++


* -


* *



* *

* *


* a


- o
a
(tt
__ M


* *


12. Zebrina pendula
Wandering Jew


NCS 4" Ground R-Purple
Cover Spr-Sr


Shade Wet


- *











.tific Name
mmon Name
ES


S
o0
tc
A


Scien
Coi
VINI


13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.


section
e State
Which
dapted Ht.

CS Variable

C 30-40'

CS 20'

NCS 30'

NCS 20'

CS 20'

CS 40'

NC 20'


Shape
of
Plant

Vine

Vine

Vine

Vine

Vine

Vine

Vine

Vine


Spreading

Spreading

Vine


Flower
Color &
Season

Yellow
All Year
Pk & W

Various

Orange
Spr-Sr
Lavender
Spring
Pk-Red
Wr-Spr
Pk & Lay

Yellow
Spring

W & Pk
All Year
White
Sr-F
White


Conditions Plant
will tolerate: Some landscape uses:
Salt Trel- Wall & Speci- Tree
Light Soil Spray lis Fence men Trunk


Allamanda spp.
Allamanda (P)
Antigonon leptopus
Coral-vine
Bougainvillea spp.
Bougainvillea
Campsis radicans
Trumpet creeper (N)
Clytostoma callistegioides
Painted trumpet
Combretum grandiflorum
Showy combretum
Cydista aequinoctialis
Garlic vine (equinox flower)
Gelsemium sempervirens (P)
Carolina yellow-jessamine
(N)
Jasminum nitidum
(J. amplexicaule)
Jasminum multiflorum
Downy jasmine
Monstera deliciosa
Ceriman


Part. Sh

Sun

Sun

Sun or
Shade
Sun

Sun

Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade

Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Part. Sh


Avg ++

Any -

Any +++

Any -

Avg -

Dry -

Fert & -
Moist
Dry -


Any -

Avg ++

Moist -


* *

* 0

* *

* 3.

* -

* *

C.$.
* -
Co
* 0


* -

* *

* *








VINES (Continued)


24. Petrea volubilis S 35' Vine
Purple wreath
25. Philodendron spp. CS Variable Vine
Philodendron
26. Podranea ricasoliana CS 30' Vine
Podranea
27. Pyrostegia ignea CS 50' Vine
Flame-vine
28. Scindapsus aureus CS 40' Vine
Hunter's robe (Pothos)
29. Senecio confuses CS 25' Vine
Mexican flame-vine (P)
30. Tecomaria capensis CS 6-10' Vine
Cape-honeysuckle
31. Trachelospermum jasminoides NCS 20' Vine
Confederate-jasmine
32. Wisteria sinensis NC 60' Vine
Chinese wisteria


Purple Sun or Well- -
Part. Sh dr.
Part. Sh Moist -

Pink Sun Avg -

Orange Sun Avg +++
Wr-Spr
Shade Avg ++

0 & Red Sun or Any
Part. Sh
O-Red Sun Avg -
Spr-Sr
White Sun or Any +
Spring Shade
W, Pk. Lay Sun or Avg. -
Spring Part. Sh


to



Fl




* *
* 9
t
CFL








Scientific Name Section Conditions Plant Some landscape uses:
Common Name of State Shape Flower will tolerate: Hedge
SMALL SHRUBS 1-4' to Which of Color & Salt Base &
Adapted Ht. Plant Season Light Soil Spray Plant Screen Border Patio


33. Buxus harlandi
Harland boxwood
34. Cuphea hyssopifolia
Cuphea
35. Gardenia jasminoides
prostrataa'
Dwarf Cape-jasmine
(Gardenia)
36. Ilex crenata
Japanese holly (Dwarf)
37. Ilex vomitoria
Dwarf yaupon
38. Jasminum floridum
Showy jasmine
39. Lonicera pileata yunnanensia

40. Malpighia coccigera
Holly malpighia
41. Pyracantha spp.
Dwarf firethorn
42. Rhapidophyllum hystrix
Needle palm
43. Rhododendron obtusum
Kurume azalea
44. Serissa foetida
Serissa
45. Yucca smalliana
Adams-needle (N)
46. Zamia integrifolia
Coontie (N)


NC 3-5' Upright

CS 2' Irregular
Spreading
NCS 2' Irregular
Spreading


NC

NCS

NC

NC

CS

NCS

NCS

NCS

NCS

NCS


Round-
headed
Round-
headed
Spreading

Spreading

Irregular

Spreading

Spreading

Spreading

Spreading

Spreading


Sun or
Shade
Lavender Sun or
All Year Part. Sh
Cream Sun or
Wr-Spr Part. Sh


Ye
Si
W
Sj
Pi
S
W
S.


Vi

PI
Sp
W
S1


NCS 2-3' Spreading


- Sun or
Part. Sh
- Sun or
Shade
yellow Sun or
spring Part. Sh
white Sun
spring
nk Shade
pr-Sr
rhite Sun
pring
- Part. Sh

various Part. Sh

k & W Sun
'r-Sr
bite Sun
summer
- Sun or
Shade


Fert -

Any ++

Avg ++


Well- *
dr.
Wet +++ *
to Dry
Any + *

Well- *
dr.
Avg. ++

Dry *

Moist *

Acid *

Avg *

Dry +++ *

Wet to ++ *
Dry


*

*

*



*

*

*

*

*

Unc. H. *

- *

*


* *


* c













Cg
C
2.





e
-





-





o







MEDIUM SHRUBS 5-10'


47. Abelia grandiflora N 6-10' Spreading
Glossy abelia
48. Ardisia crenata NC 6' Upright
Coral ardisia (spice-berry)
49. Buzus microphylla japonica N 4-6' Round-
Japanese boxwood headed
50. Carissa grandiflora CS 5' Round-
Dwarf natal-plum headed
51. Codiaeum variegatum S 10' Upright
Croton Spreading
52. Dizygotheca kerchovesna S 6' Upright
False aralia
53. Ervatamia coronaria CS 10' Spreading
Crape-jasmine (P)
54. Gardenia jasminoides NCS 6-8' -
Cape-jasmine (Gardenia)
55. Ilex cornuta 'Burfordi' NCS 10' Round-
Burford holly headed
56. Ixora coccinea CS 8-15' Upright
Ixora Spreading
57. Jasminum meanyi N 10' Spreading
Primrose jasmine


P
S


W
s


k & W Sun or
summer Part. Sh
- Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade
whitee Sun or
pring Shade
- Sun or
Part. Sh
- Sun or
Shade
whitee Part. Sh


White
Wr-Spr



Various
Summer
White
Spr-Sr


Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun


Avg ++


Fert
Acid
Avg


Avg +-

Avg

Any

Avg

Avg +


Well-
dr.
Avg

Avg


Unc. H. *


++ *


-+ *

*

_-

*

- *

+ -

-+ Q

_ _


58. Juniperus chinensis
'Pfitzeriana'
Pfitzer juniper
59. Lantana camera
Common lantana


N 8-10' Spreading -


NCS 6' Upright Various
Spreading Summer


Sun or Avg
Part. Sh Well-dr


__ *


Any ++ -


_ *


W







Scientific Name
Common Name
MEDIUM SHRUBS (Continued)


60. Nandina domestic
Nandina
61. Philodendron spp.
Philodendron
62. Phoenix roebeleni
Pygmy date palm
63. Photinia glabra
Japanese photinia
64. Plumbago capensis
Plumbago
65. Rhaphiolepis app.
Hawthorn
66. Rhapis excelsa
Broadleaf lady palm
67. Rhododendron indicum
Indica azalea
68. Severinia buxifolia
Chinese boxorange
69. Spiraea cantoniensis
Reeves spirea
70. Thryallis glauca
Thryallis
71. Thunbergia erecta
Bush clock-vine
72. Trachycarpus fortune
Windmill palm
73. Viburnum suspensum
Sandankwa viburnum


n Conditions Plant Some landscape uses:
Section will tolerate:
of State Shape Flower tolerateHedge
to Which of Color & Salt Base &
Adapted Ht. Plant Season Light Soil Spray Plant Screen Border Patio


M 5' TTUri1ht W


CS

CS

N

NCS

NCS

CS

NC

NCS

N

CS

CS

NCS 1

NCS


6-10'

7'

10'

5'

5'

10'

8'

6-8'

6'

5-9'

8'

0-15'

6-12'


Spreading
Spreading

Upright
Spreading
Upright

Irregular
Spreading
Round-
headed
Upright

Spreading

Round-
headed
Spreading

Round-
headed
Irregular

Upright

Irregular


Sr


W

BI
Sp
Pi
Si



Vs



W

Sl
Y
Sr
P
S]



W
S8


white Sun or
ring Part. Sh
- Shade

- Sun or
Part. Sh
white Sun

ue Sun or
r to F Part. Sh
nk Sun or
spring Shade
- Shade

various Part. Sh
pring
white Sun or
Shade
white Sun
spring
yellow Sun or
pr to F Part. Sh
purple Sun or
)r to F Part. Sh
Part. Sh

hite Part. Sh
spring


Wet *-


Fert

Avg

Avg

Wet to
Dry
Avg

Avg

Acid

Dry

Well-
dr.
Avg

Avg

Moist

Avg


*


* *


S*

- *

-4- *


*


- *

*


* *


* c






* *
ce



* *




* *


--








LARGE SHRUBS 10-20'


74. Calliandra haematocephala
Powderpuff
75. Callistemon spp.
Bottlebrush
76. Camellia japonica
Camellia
77. Camellia sasanqua
Sasanqua camellia
78. Carissa grandiflora
Natal-plum
79. Chamaerops humilis
European fan palm
80. Cleyera japonica
Sakaki
81. Coccoloba uvifera
Sea-grape (N)
82. Eugenia uniflora
Pitanga (Surinam-cherry)
83. Euphorbia pulcherrima
Poinsettia (P)
84. Feijoa sellowiana
Pineapple guava (Feijoa)
85. Fortunella japonica
Kumquat
86. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Chinese hibiscus


CS

NCS

NC

NC

CS

NC

NC

CS

CS

CS

NC

NCS


10-15'

10-15'

20'

12-20'

18'

15'

20'

20'

20'

12'

18'

12'


Spreading

Irregular
Spreading
Upright
Spreading
Upright
Spreading
Round-
headed
Upright-
Spreading
Upright
Spreading
Irregular

Round-
headed
Upright

Spreading

Upright
Spreading


CS 10-20' Spreading


R, Pk, W

Red
Spring
Various
F to Spr
Various
F to Spr
White
Spring



White
Spring



White

R, Pk, W
Winter
W & Red

White
Spring
Various
Spr-Sr


Sun

Sun

Shade

Shade

Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun

Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun


Avg

Avg

Avg

Avg

Avg

Any

Wet-
Dry
Dry

Avg

Well-
dr.
Avg

Avg


- Unc. H.

- Unc. H.

+ Unc. H.

+ *


t


-+ *

-*


* *

* *


*+ *

+* *


Avg + Unc. *


+-


tL
Cz
-

*
5'

- 2
-.
a

3
ro










Scientific Name
Common Name
LARGE SHRUBS (Continued)

87. Ilex vomitoria
Yaupon (N)
88. Illicium anisatum
Japanese anise-tree
89. Lagerstroemia indica
Crape-myrtle
90. Ligustrum japonicum
Japanese privet (Glossy)
91. Malpighia glabra
Barbados-cherry
92. Murraya paniculata
Orange-jessamine (Chal
93. Nerium oleander
Common oleander (P)
94. Osmanthus spp.

95. Pittosporum tobira
Japanese pittosporum'
96. Psidium cattleianum
Cattley guava
97. Pyracantha koidzuini
Formosa firethorn
98. Triphasia trifolia
Limeberry
99. Yucca aloifolia


Spanish bayonet


Section
of State
to Which
Adapted Ht.

NCS 12-20'

NCS 20'

NCS 20'

NCS 15'
(P)
S 10'

CS 10-20'
cas)
NCS 20'

NC 8-18'

NCS 20'

CS 20'

NC 20'

S 15-25'

NCS 20'


Conditions Plant Some landscape uses:
Shape Flower will tolerate: Hedge
of Color & Salt Base &
Plant Season Light Soil Spray Plant Screen Border Patio

TTn.- r W nT, + .-L-L --


Spreading
Spreading

Irregularding

Irregular

Irregular
Irregular

Upright

Spreading

Irregular
Spreading
Round-
headed
Round-
headed
Spreading

Upright

Upright


Red
Spring
Various
Spr-Sr
White
Summer
Pink

White
Spr-F
Various
Summer
White
Spring
Cream
Winter
White
Spring
White
Spring
White

White
Summer


Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun

Sun or
Shade
Part. Sh

Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun

Sun

Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade


Dry
Any

Avg

Wet
Dry
Avg

Any

Dry

Avg

Any

Dry

Dry

Avg


++



++






+++


++



++


Dry +++


Unc. H. *

*

*

*

*

-_ *

__

*

Unc. H. *


* *


-

- S

'



- t
*




-
X








--


e r,-







Scientific Name Section Conditions Plant
Common Name of State Shape Flower will tolerate: Some landscape uses:
SMALL TREES 15-30' to Which of Color & Salt Speci- Street
Adapted Ht. Plant Season Light Soil Spray Frame Shade men Tree


Bauhinia spp.
Orchid-tree
Butia capitata
Butia palm
Caryota mitis
Fish-tail palm
Cercis canadensis
Redbud
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens
Cane palm
Chrysobalanus icaco
Coco-plum (N)
Citrus spp.
Orange, grapefruit, lemon,
etc.
Cordia sebestena
Geiger-tree (N)
Cornus florida
Flowering dogwood (N)
Eriobotrya japonica
Loquat
Koelreuteria formosana
Goldenrain tree
Livistona chinensis
Chinese fan-palm


CS

NCS

CS

NC

S

S

CS


S

N

NCS

NC

NCS


25' Round-
headed
15-30' Spreading

25' Spreading

15-30' Irregular
Spreading
30' Upright
Spreading
30' Round-
headed
Var Spreading


30' Round-
headed
15-35' Irregular
Spreading
20-30' Spreading

30' Irregular

30' Upright


Lavender
Summer





Purple
Winter



Various

White
Spring




White
Spring
White
Fall
Yellow
Fall


Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun

Shade

Sun

Shade


Well-
dr.
Dry + *

Fert *

Avg + *

Any *


Sun Well-
dr.

Sun or Any
Shade
Sun or Avg
Part. Sh
Sun or Avg
Part. Sh
Sun or Any
Part. Sh
Sun or Any
Shade


- *


* *




*


*

*


_ *

*


0

C.R







*










Scientific Name
Common Name
SMALL TREES (Continued)


Myrica cerifera,
Wax-myrtle (N)
Parkinsonia aculeata
Jerusalem-thorn
Paurotis wright
Saw cabbage palmetto (N
Phoenix reclinata
Senegal date palm
Schinus terebinthifolius
Brazilian pepper-tree (P)
Tabebuia argentea
Silver trumpet tree
Veitchia merrilli
Manila palm
Viburnum odoratissimum
Sweet viburnum


Section
of State
to Which
Adapted

NCS

NCS

CS
CS

CS

S

S


NCS


F
C
S



Y
S


Shape
of
Plant

Spreading

Irregular

Upright

Upright
Spreading
Spreading

Irregular

Upright

Irregular
Upright


Conditions Plant
lower will tolerate: Some landscape uses:
olor & Salt Speci- Street
eason Light Soil Spray Frame Shade men Tree

- Sun or Wet +++ *
Shade or Dry
ellow Sun or Any -
ummer Part. Sh
- Sun or Moist + *
Part. Sh
Sun or Avg -
Part. Sh
Sun Any ++- *

various Sun or Avg -- -
pring Part. Sh
- Sun or "Sweet" *
Part. Sh
'hite Sun or Any + -
pring Shade


---


V
S.



W
S






MEDIUM TO LARGE TREES
35' & OVER


120. Acer rubrum
Red maple
121. Albizzia julibrissin
Silk-tree (mimosa)
122. Arecastrum romanzoffianum
Queen palm
123. Archontophoenix alexandrae
Alexandra palm

124. Coccoloba diversifolia
Pigeon-plum (N)
125. Cocos nucifera
Coconut palm"
126. Delonix regia
Royal poinciana
127. Ficus benjamin
Benjamin fig (Weeping
laurel)
128. Ficus retusa
Indian laurel (Cuban
laurel)
129. Grevillea robusta
Silk-oak
130. Ilex opaca
American holly (N)
131. Jacaranda acutifolia
Jacaranda
132. Magnolia grandiflora
Southern magnolia (N)


NCS 80' Irregular Red
Spreading Spring


Spreading

Upright

Upright

Round-
headed
Upright

Spreading

Spreading


S 50' Upright


Irregular

Upright

Spreading

Irregular


Sun or Any
Shade


Pink Sun or
Summer Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade
O-Red Sun

Sun or
Part. Sh

Sun or
Part. Sh

Orange Sun or
Spring Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Lay & BI Sun
Spring
White Sun or
Summer Shade


- *


Avg

Avg

Well-
dr.
Avg

Any

Avg

Any


Any


Dry

Well-
dr.
Avg

Fert


*


++*


* b



-
* 3

*
0
*
~i


0
*




*


* *


___ *

*


*,








Scientific Name
Common Name
MEDIUM TO LARGE TREES t
(Continued)

133. Mangifera indica
Mango (P)
134. Melaleuca leucodendra
Cajeput-tree
135. Persea americana
Avocado
136. Phoenix canariensis
Canary Island date palm
137. Podocarpus spp.
Podocarpus
138. Quercus laurifolia
Laurel oak (N)
139. Quercus nigra
Water oak (N)
140. Quercus virginiana
Live oak (N)
141. Roystonea regia
Cuban royal palm
142. Sabal palmetto
Cabbage palm (N)
143. Spathodea campanulata
African tulip-tree
144. Swietenia mahogani
Mahogany
145. Washingtonia robusta
Mexican Washington palm


Section
of State
o Which
Adapted Ht.

S 30-40'

CS 80'

CS 60'

NCS 50-60'

NCS 50-90'

NCS 100'

NCS 100'

NCS 60'

S 60'

NCS 90'

S 60-70'

S 75'

NCS 50-90'


Conditions Plant
Flower will tolerate: Some landscape uses:
Color & Salt Speci- Street
Season Light Soil Spray Frame Shade men Tree


P


Shape
of
Plant

Round-
headed
Upright

Round-
headed
Upright
Spreading
Upright

Irregular
Spreading
Irregular
Spreading
Spreading

Upright

Upright

Irregular

Spreading

Upright


k & W Sun
r & Spr
Thite Sun

- Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun

Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Shade
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Part. Sh
Sun or
Shade
ed Sun or
pring Shade
Sun or
Part Sh.
Sun


Avg

Any

Well-
dr.
Wet
Dry
Any

Any

Any

Any

Moist

Any

Avg


Avg

Wet
Dry


+ :

-II





++ *




__ *


*h







*





* *


- *


R
S








Landscaping Florida Homes


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT NAMES

List Name List Name
No. No.
47 Abelia grandiflora 104 Chrysalidocarpus lutescens
120 Acer rubrum 105 Chrysobalanus icaco
45 Adams-needle 106 Citrus
143 African tulip-tree 80 Cleyera japonica
5 Airplant 17 Clytostoma callistegioides.
1 Ajuga genevensis 124 Coccoloba diversifolia
121 Albizzia julibrissin 81 Coccoloba uvifera
123 Alexander palm 105 Coco-plum
2 Algerian ivy 125 Coconut palm
13 Allamanda 125 Cocos nucifera
130 American holly 51 Coriaeum variegatum
14 Antigonon leptopus 18 Combretum grandiflorum
122 Arecastrum romanzoffianum 59 Common lantana
123 Archontophoenix alexandrae 93 Common oleander
48 Ardisia crenata 31 Confederate-jasmine
135 Avocado 46 Coontie
48 Coral ardisia
91 Barbados-cherry 14 Coral vine
100 Bauhinia 107 Cordia sebestena
127 Benjamin fig 108 Cornus florida
75 Bottlebrush 53 Crape-jasmine
15 Bougainvillea 89 Crape-myrtle
116 Brazilian pepper-tree 51 Croton
66 Broadleaf lady palm 141 Cuban royal palm
71 Bush clock-vine 34 Cuphea hyssopifolia
55 Burford holly 19 Cydista aequinoctialis
101 Butia palm
33 Buxus harlandi 126 Delonix regia
49 Buxus microphylla japonica 52 Dizygotheca kerchoveana
22 Downy jasmine
142 Cabbage palm 35 Dwarf cape-jasmine
142 Cabbagjeput-tree 41 Dwarf firethorn
134 Cajeput-tree 36 Dwarf Japanese holly
74 Calliandra haematocephala 50 Dwarf natal-plum
75 Callistemon
76 Camellia japonica 37 Dwarf yaupon
77 Camellia sasanqua 3 English ivy
16 Campsis radicans 19 Equinox flower
136 Canary Island date palm 109 Eriobotrya japonica
104 Cane palm 79 European fan palm
30 Cape honeysuckle 53 Ervatamia coronaria
54 Cape-jasmine 82 Eugenia uniflora
50, 78 Carissa grandiflora 83 Euphorbia pulcherrima
20 Carolina yellow-jessamine
102 Caryota mitis 52 False aralia
96 Cattley guava 84 Feijoa sellowiana
103 Cercis canadensis 127 Ficus benjamin
23 Ceriman 128 Ficus retusa
79 Chamaerops humilis 102 Fish-tail palm
68 Chinese boxorange 27 Flame-vine
111 Chinese fan-palm 108 Flowering dogwood
86 Chinese hibiscus 85 Fortunella japonica
32 Chinese wisteria 97 Formosa firethorn
Ground Covers, No. 1-12; Vines, No. 13-32; Small Shrubs (1-4 Ft.),
No. 33-46; Medium Shrubs (5-10 Ft.), No. 47-43; Large Shrubs (10-20
Ft.), No. 74-99; Small Trees (15-30 Ft.), No. 100-119; and Medium to
Large Trees (35 Ft. and over), No. 120-145.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


List
No.
35,
54
35

19
107
20
1
47
110
106
129

33
65
2
3
86
40
28

55
36
130
37,
88
67
128
56

131
88
49
36
63
95
90
21
38
21
57
22
21
113
58

4
5
110
85
43

89
59
6
138
106
90


Lagerstroemia indica
Lantana camera
Lantana montevidensis
Laurel oak
Lemon
Ligustrum japonicum


N

54 Gardenia
Gardenia jasminoides
Gardenia jasminoides
prostrataa'
Garlic vine
Geiger-tree
Gelsemium sempervirens
Geneva bugleweed
Glossy abelia
Goldenrain-tree
Grapefruit
Grevillea robusta

Harland boxwood
Hawthorn
Hedera canariensis
Hedera helix
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Holly malphigia
Hunter's robe

Ilex cornuta 'Burfordi'
Ilex crenata
Ilex opaca
87 Ilex vomitoria
Illicum anisatum
Indica azalea
Indian laurel
Ixora coccinea

Jacaranda acutifolia
Japanese anise-tree
Japanese boxwood
Japanese holly
Japanese photinia
Japanese pittosporum
Japanese privet
Jasminum amplexicaule
Jasminum floridum
(Jasminum ilicifolium)
Jasminum mesnyi
Jasminum multiflorum
Jasminum nitidum
Jerusalem-thorn
Juniperus chinesis
'Pfitzeriana'
Juniperus conferta
Kalanchoe
Koelreuteria formosana
Kumquat
Kurume azalea


ame List
No.
7
98
7
109
140
111
39

132
144
40
91
133
133
118
134
29
145
121
8
92
112

60
78
42
93

8
106
92
100
94
9

17
113
114
135
24
58
25,
136
115
62
63
124
84
82
95
64
137
26
83
28
74
57
96
24


Name

Lily-turf
Limeberry
Liriope
Loquat
Live Oak
Livistonia chinensis
Lonicera pileata
yunnanensis
Magnolia grandiflora
Mahogany
Malpighia coccigera
Malpighia glabra
Mango
Mangifera indica
Manila palm
Melaleuca leucodendra
Mexican flame-vine
Mexican washington palm
(Mimosa)
Mondo
Murraya paniculata
Myrica cerifera

Nandina domestic
Natal-plum
Needle palm
Nerium oleander

Ophiopogon japonicus
Orange
Orange-jessamine
Orchid-tree
Osmanthus
Oyster-plant

Painted trumpet
Parkinsonia aculeata
Paurotis wright
Persea americana
Petrea volubilis
Pfitzer juniper
61 Philodendron
Phoenix canariensis
Phoenix reclinata
Phoenix roebeleni
Photinia glabra
Pigeon-plum
Pineapple guava
Pitanga
Pittosporum tobira
Plumbago capensis
Podocarpus
Podranea ricasoliana
Poinsettia
(Pothos)
Powderpuff
Primrose jasmine
Psidium cattleianum
Purple wreath








Landscaping Florida Homes


Pygmy date palm
Pyracantha
Pyracantha koidzumi
Pyrostegia ignea

Queen Palm
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus nigra
Quercus virginiana


Name List
No.
132
99
143
48
10
69
82
119
144


Redbud
Red maple
Reeves spirea
Rhapis excelsa
Rhapidophyllum hystrix
Rhapiolepis
Rhododendron indicum
Rhododendron obtusum
Rhoeo spathacea
(R. discolor)
Royal poinciana
Roystonea regia

Sabal palmetto
Sakaki
Sandankwa viburnum
Sasanqua camellia
Saw cabbage palmetto
Schinus terebinthifolius
Scindapsus aureus
Sea-grape
Senecio confusus
Senegal date palm
Serissa foetida
Severinia buxfolia
Shore juniper
Showy combretum
Showy jasmine
Silk oak
Silk-tree
Silver trumpet-tree


Name

Southern magnolia
Spanish bayonet
Spathodea campanulata
(Spice-berry)
Spiderwort
Spiraea cantoniensis
Surinam-cherry
Sweet viburnum
Swietenia mahogani

Tabebuia argentea
Tecomaria capensis
Thyrallis glauca
Thunbergia erecta
Trachlospermum
jasminioides
Trachycarpus fortunei
Tradescantia
Triphasia trifolia
Trumpetcreeper


118 Veitchia merrilli
119 Viburnum odoratissimum
73 Viburnum suspensum

(10), 12 Wandering Jew
145 Washingtonia robusta
139 Water oak
112 Wax-myrtle
11 Wedelia trilobata
6 Weeping lantana
127 (Weeping laurel)
72 Windmill palm
32 Wisteria sinensis
87 Yaupon
99 Yucca aloifolia
45 Yucca smalliana

46 Zamia integrifolia
12 Zebrina pendula






FOR YOUR

FUTURE IN

ORNAMENTAL

HORTICULTURE

LET THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA TRAIN YOU


The University of Florida College of Agriculture
is equipped and staffed to give you the best possi-
ble training as a
LANDSCAPE NURSERYMAN
Opportunities are unlimited in this rapidly ex-
panding field due to a widespread interest in
living plants and flowers. You can profitably
take advantage of this interest in providing well-
landscaped homes, office buildings, public buildings
and recreational areas.
The Department of Ornamental Horticulture
can train you in the identification and production
of high-quality ornamental plans and how to plan
for their proper use and maintenance in land-
scaping.


FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE


DEAN MARVIN A. BROKER
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




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