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 Historic note
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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 155
Title: Canning Florida fruits and vegetables
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 Material Information
Title: Canning Florida fruits and vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 155
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Cromartie, Alice L
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1953
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Bibliographic ID: UF00020579
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Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Bulletin 155 January 1953
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
Gainesville, Florida
ALICE L. CROMARTIE
STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION OFFICE
Tallahassee, Florida






















SIR A
V E G E T. A B L E S





-gym Ail il







BOARD OF CONTROL
Frank M. Harris, Chairman Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
St. Petersburg W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
Hollis Rinehart, Miami Geo. W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
George J. White, Sr., Mt. Dora Mrs. Jessie B. duPont, Jacksonville
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University 1
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M. Agr., Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Assistant'
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor
L. O. Griffith, A.B.J., Assistant Editor 1
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, B.S.A., District Agent
F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. McLendon, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.'
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist
O. F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman
L T. Nieland, Farm Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management'
D. E. Timmons, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing'
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Assistant Economist
Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' 4-H Club Agent
John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist"2
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edyth Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent
Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Lorene Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, B.S.H.E., Assistant Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Cleo M. Arnett, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Helen D. Holstein, M.S., Food Conservation Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Assistant Economist in Food Conservation
Katherine Simpson, M.S., Extension Clothing Specialist
Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent
1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F. On leave. In cooperation with U. S.









Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables

ALICE L. CROMARTIE

Assistant Specialist, Food Conservation

CONTENTS
Page Page
Use the Right Method ............................. 4 Be Clean ......................................... 12
Use the Right Equipment ....................... 6 Be Quick ............................................... 12
Take Good Care of Equipment ............. 8 Some Points to Remember ............. 12
Care of Canned Foods ........ .................... 9 How to Pack Fruits .......................... 12
Family Food Budget ................................ 10 Vegetables .......... I ............................ 13
Yield Table ............................. ... ........... 11 Fruit Canning Tables ................................ 14
Tips on Canning ...................................... 12 Vegetable Canning Tables ........................ 19

Florida offers every family a pantry full of home-canned foods.
Whether you grow your own in a garden or field crop or get it
from the local market or a kind neighbor, can it and have it for
your family long after the fresh season has ended.
Our bodies are only as healthy as the foods we eat, so can a
variety, can it quickly and correctly. Can only the best of the
crop while it is young and tender. Can just enough for your
family for one year.
All of the fruits and vegetables grown in Florida can be yours
for good eating by canning.





















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Grateful appreciation is expressed to those Home Demonstration Agents
whose valuable suggestions have helped create this bulletin. Appreciation
is expressed also to the Publications Department of Florida State Univer-
sity for their help with readability and all art work.








4 Florida Cooperative Extension

USE THE RIGHT METHOD
There are only two canning methods that can be recommended
as safe. They are:
I. The boiling water bath for processing fruits and tomatoes.
II. The steam pressure cooker and pressure sauce pan for
processing all vegetables.

THE WATER BATH
In the boiling water bath the temperature is about 212 F.
This is adequate for canning high-acid fruits and tomatoes.
It is NEVER recommended for vegetables. The heat in a water
bath is not high enough to kill the organisms that grow in
vegetables. A boiling water bath may be made from any large
container with a tight cover, as a lard can or a large pot. The
water bath must have a rack
in the bottom.
Have a rack to hold jars 1/
inch off bottom. The rack
S --- --WATER may be made of metal or of
-- LINE wood strips fitted and nailed
together.
Have water bath large
enough to hold a number of
jars, or cans, covered with 2
S. v inches of water and placed 1/
inch apart on the rack.
Cover water bath with a lid to keep water and heat from
escaping. Lid should fit loosely enough so that the steam can
escape.
Bring water to a boil.
Put cans into water with tongs. Lower jars slowly in the
water to keep them from breaking.
Count processing time when water returns to a rolling boil.
When processing time is up, remove the cans or jars. Place
jars on a rack out of draft. Cool slowly. Plunge cans into cold
water to cool.
THE PRESSURE COOKER
The steam pressure cooker is a steam-tight, air-tight con-
tainer. It holds steam in under pressure. This causes the
temperature to rise' higher than the temperature in a water








Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 5

bath. A pressure gauge on the lid registers pounds of pressure
and temperature. The safety valve lets off steam if pressure
rises too high. The pressure cooker may be used on any
type stove.
Always put a rack in the bottom, covered with 2 to 3 inches of
water.
Place glass jars on rack with % inch space between them for
circulation of steam. Tin cans may
be stacked in the cooker.
Close and fasten cover according
to manufacturer's directions. Leave
petcock open until steam comes
from it in a steady stream, 7-10
minutes. This is called exhaust-
ing. Then close petcock.
Allow pressure to rise slowly to
number of pounds given in tables
and then adjust heat to keep that
pressure during the processing
time. A sudden change in pressure
will draw the liquid from the glass WATER
jars. LINE
Begin to count processing time
as soon as desired pressure is reached. Allow cooker to cool to
zero when canning in glass jars and #3 cans. Pressure may be
released when processing time is up when canning in #2 and
#21/ cans. In all cases the pressure should register zero and
the petcock be opened before taking the lid off the cooker.
After taking canned foods from cooker, plunge cans into cold
water to cool. Do not plunge jars into water but place on a
rack out of a draft to cool.
The Pressure Sauce Pan can be used in place of the pressure
cooker. Use it when a pressure cooker is not available, or when
only one to four pint jars or cans are
to be canned. Not all pressure sauce
Sa pans can be used. The one to use must
be tall enough to hold pint jars or cans
,, on a rack and allow 1/ inch between
Sjars for circulation of steam. The
sauce pan must be equipped with a
Sgauge that will register pounds of pres-
sure. The pressure sauce pan is smaller






6 Florida Cooperative Extension

than the pressure cooker and is made of light-weight metal.
Because of this it takes less time to exhaust the air from a
pressure sauce pan and to reach 10 pounds pressure. The time
required for the pressure sauce pan to cool to zero pressure
is also less. Because of these things, processing times for
vegetables are longer in a pressure sauce pan than in the pres-
sure cooker.
Count time exactly from the time 10 pounds pressure is
reached. At the end of processing time remove sauce pan from
heat and allow to cool gradually until the pressure has reached
zero. Do not cool under water.
Move gauge slightly. If no steam comes out, sauce pan can
safely be opened.

USE THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT
"Tin Cans.-There are several finishes on tin cans. The plain
tin may be safely used for canning any food. The tin cans with
special enamel linings are nice, but not essential for canning
vegetables and fruits.
R-enamel is bright gold in appearance and is used when can-
ning berries, beets and pumpkin or winter squash. These foods
discolor the plain tin cans, but this discoloration will not spoil
the food.
C-enamel is a lacquer which is dull gold in appearance and is
used for meats, fish, lye hominy, corn and beans. These foods
all have sulphur in them, which discolors plain cans. C-enamel
prevents this discoloration from happening. The discoloration
does not spoil the food.
Sealing the tin cans is a simple operation, using a hand sealer.
Leaks will sometimes occur around the seam of the cans. This
lets air into the can, causing spoilage. Reseal. If this does not
stop the leak, open can, reheat food and pack into new can.
Glass Jars.-Many types of jars can be used. Old jars are
good, but must be checked to be sure lids can be bought to fit
them. There must be no nicks or cracks in jars which would
prevent an air-tight seal.
Jars and cans do not need to be sterilized when foods are pro-
cessed in pressure cooker or water bath. Jars and cans must
be very clean and rinsed in very hot water before using. When
canning preserves, relishes and jellies which are not to be proc-
essed, the jars or cans must be sterilized.






Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 7

Lids for Glass Jars.-Buy the best
quality lids to save products from WMTAL SCREW
spoilage. A
There are several types of lids for L METL LID
sealing. The most commonly used WT, EL^U"
ones are:
1. The flat metal lid with a sealing
compound on it and a narrow metal
screw band; fits a standard mason jar.
Read manufacturer's directions. Place
flat lid on jar, then metal band; screw
tightly. Do not touch lid until jar is
completely cool. METAL SCREW
BAND
2. The three-piece lid, glass lid, rub- G- LASS LsI
ber ring and a metal screw band, fits e- aRUsBa
a standard mason jar also. Scald rub-
ber ring, place on underside of glass
lid. Place lid with rubber on packed
jar. Screw metal band on firmly, then
turn back a quarter turn. As soon as
processing is complete and jar is re-
moved from cooker, screw band on
tightly to complete seal. Leave jar
upright. PORCELAIN
3. The zinc or other metal lid has a SCREW ToP
porcelain-lined cap with a shoulder- IC RUBBER
rubber to fit a standard mason jar.
Place rubber ring on jar before fill-
ing. When jar is filled, screw cap down
firmly, then turn back 1/2 inch. As soon
as jar is removed from cooker, screw
cap down firmly to make a perfect seal.
4. The lightning-type lid is used on
a jar with a wire bail. It has a glass / ,G LASs LID
cap and a rubber ring. Place rubber
on jar before filling. Place glass lid on <- RUBeER
rubber and push long upper wire bail
over glass until it clicks into notch on W .
WIRE BAIL
top of lid. Leave short wire bail up.
Push it down as soon as jar is taken
from the cooker to complete seal.








8 Florida Cooperative Extension

TAKE GOOD CARE OF EQUIPMENT
The Pressure Cooker should be scrub-
bed and dried after use. Never put lid
into water, but keep it clean. Do not
scrub with a hard cleaner. Keep the
petcock clean. Wash the ball and
socket type after using. Use a tooth-
pick to clear the petcock and pressure
...... gauge opening. When storing cooker,
stuff loosely with newspaper, turn lid
upside down on cooker and do not fas-
ten down. Store in dry place.
The Pressure Gauge should be checked
once each year. Gauge testers are
available for this check. A county home
Sdemonstration agent can help check the
Sgauge and tell you where to buy a new
one. Gauge-testing is simple. It can
be done quickly and safely at home.
When replacing gauges buy a gauge
that is geared in action. This type will
last longer.
Some pressure cookers have rubber
gaskets on the sealing edge of the lid.
When such a cooker is not used often
the gasket will leak. Remove the gas-
ket, stretch it, turn it over and replace
it. This should stop the leak. When
the gasket is old and worn it must be
replaced with a new one. Order directly
from the maker of your cooker.
Sealers should be operated and oiled
according to manufacturer's directions.
The booklet which comes with the
sealer will have information on how to
adjust sealer when the rollers are loose.
Store sealer attached to a shelf so that
it is upright and stationary. Store in
a dry place.
When buying a sealer be certain that
it is one for which new parts are easily
obtained.






Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 9


CARE OF FOODS AFTER CANNING
Marking.-All canned foods in glass or in tin should be plainly
marked and dated. Rubbing the tin surface with a rubber pencil
eraser will make it easy to write on with a pencil.
Storage.-Canned foods may change in flavor, color and tex-
ture and lose nutritive values by sitting in sunlight and heat
during storage.
Storage places, permanent or temporary, are important to
the home canner. The best storage is in a place that has circula-
tion of cool air, is well-ventilated, dry, clean, dark, free from
odor. A ventilated pantry would provide a permanent storage
space for the type specified above. A home demonstration agent
can help plan for storage.
Spoilage.-Spoiled food usually has mold growth, is fermented,
or forms gas in the jar or can. When gas forms, bubbles rise
to the top of the jar, and the ends are "swelled" or bulged in tin
cans. In glass jars the cloudy appearance of the liquid in the
lower portion of the jar shows flat sour. In tin cans there is a
bad odor when the can is opened if the vegetables have flat sour.
Flat sour comes from over-ripe vegetables or vegetables that
have been kept too long after being picked and prepared. If
jars or cans are filled too slowly, or stored in a warm place, flat
sour will develop. The organisms which cause flat sour can live
without air. Air-tight containers do not always prevent their
growth. Only fresh foods canned the right way can keep flat
sour from occurring. Canned foods should be discarded if there
is any sign of spoilage.
Use.-Canned foods provide variety in the family menu. Use
your canned meats in stews, casseroles, chile, soups and meat
pies and loaves. Vegetables are delicious "as is," seasoned with
a small amount of bacon drippings or butter. Heat them well
to cook seasoning into the food.
Fruits are wonderful for cobblers, bettys, pies and tarts.
Many are good in salads and as plain fruit for dessert. Plan to
include each day for your family at least one dish containing
meat, a green leafy vegetable, and citrus or fine canned tomatoes,
and a serving of fruit from your pantry. Besides your home-
canned foods, use any fresh fruit or vegetable in season.







10 Florida Cooperative Extension


FAMILY FOOD BUDGET

A planned food budget will help to meet the food needs of the
family.
A planned food budget will help to stretch the family food
dollar.
A planned food budget will help you decide how much to can.
Can a variety of foods and use them up during the year. Old
canned foods lose their flavor, food value and color.
A family will need to fit the family food budget to their area
and ways of living. Example: If you grow green leafy vege-
tables year round, then you would naturally need to can less of
those.



Foods Amount to Can* (quarts)
Per Person for 8 Months Per Family for 8 Months
Tomatoes, citrus and/
or guava ................ 15 20
Vegetable (green and
yellow) .................. 20 25
Vegetable (root
legume) ................. 10 15
Other fruits (pears,
peaches, loquats,
berries) .................... 10 15
M eats .......................... 15 20
If you freeze some of the family food supply, frozen foods may be
substituted in the same amounts as canned foods in the budget.

The above canning budget is adequate to supply a person for
eight months. Reduce the amount canned if you grow fresh
products for more than four months out of each year.
Note that the canning budget includes tomatoes and citrus or
guava or both. These foods are high in vitamin C and neces-
sary to our health. If you do not have citrus or guava in your
area, be sure to can tomatoes.
Green and yellow vegetables furnish vitamin A and we need
to eat some of them every day. Other vegetables and fruits add
variety, color and flavor to our meals. Meats help to build body
tissue-serve your family some daily. Let's can a variety of
these good foods.







Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 11




HOW MUCH WILL YOU GET?


Fruits Amount Yield (Approximate)

Berries (except strawberries) 24 quarts 16 quarts or 32 pints
Strawberries 24 quarts 12 quarts or 24 pints
Cherries, Surinam 1 peck 4 quarts or 8 pints
Figs 1 basket
(14 pounds) 10 quarts or 20 pints
Grapefruit 1 bushel 12 quarts or 24 pints
Grapes, whole 1 bushel 18 quarts or 36 pints
Grapes, sauce 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints
Guavas, shells 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints
Guavas, sauce 1 bushel 12 quarts or 24 pints
Loquats, whole 1 bushel 18 quarts or 36 pints
Loquats, sauce 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints
Mango, ripe 1 bushel (large) 16 quarts or 32 pints
Mango, green 1 bushel 12 quarts or 24 pints
Peaches 1 bushel 20 quarts or 38 pints
Tomatoes 1 bushel 18 quarts or 36 pints


Vegetables Amount Yield (Approximate)

Beans, green 1 bushel 20 quarts or 40 pints
Beans, lima 1 bushel 16 pints
Beans, shell 1 bushel 8 quarts or 16 pints
Beets 1 bushel 20 quarts or 40 pints
Carrots 1 bushel 20 quarts or 40 pints
Corn, cream or kernel 1 bushel (5 doz. ears) 12 pints
Eggplant 12 medium 7 quarts or 14 pints
Greens 1 bushel (25 lbs.) 8 quarts or 16 pints
Okra 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints
Peas, blackeye or field 1 bushel 16 pints
Peas, garden or green 1 bushel 12 quarts or 24 pints
Pumpkin 1 bushel (40 lbs.) 10 quarts or 20 pints
Squash, summer 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints
Squash, winter See Pumpkin
Sweet Potatoes 1 bushel 16 quarts or 32 pints











BE CLEAN
Cans, jars, caps, rubber rings should be washed
in hot sudsy water and rinsed in scalding hot
water. SYRUPS
Do not use cracked wooden spoons to fill jars or
cans or to stir. Germs hide in cracks. Syrup
Keep canning center and all pots and pans clean.
Empty all waste. Keep the insects away. Very thin .......................
Thin ....................... ....
Use only clean cloths to wipe mouths of jars Medium ....................
and cans. Heavy -----------y.. ............
BE QUICK
Plan so that all equipment is ready before can-
ning begins. Have jars or cans clean and ready
to use. Make syrup for fruits in advance. Wash, HOW TO
grade and sort before you begin.
The sugar syrup t
"Two hours from garden to can" is a safe rule in the fruit and t
to go by. Never hold overnight. Prepare just fourths to 1 cup of
what can be canned in a day. When filling jars pack 1 quart of fruit
or cans, speed will pay off. Fill and seal cans or
jars and follow directions carefully for processing. Fruits for desserts




2. Use only a pressure cooker or a pressure texture.
sauce pan for canning vegetables and a water bath Honey and cane sy
for canning fruits and tomatoes. sugar and can be usei
3. Follow instructions and time tables care- honey or cane syrup
fully (pages 14 through 23). juice or water. Use
used with sugar. (E:
4. Salt for seasoning vegetables may be used. add 3 cups of water
Place 1 teaspoonful in a quart. It does not help
"keep" the vegetable. Use a mild-flavor(
freshly gathered.
5. Fruits may be canned with water, but a hey wil er
sugar syrup makes flavor better.
When fruits float i
6. Jars should be cooled upright. The caps or overcooking, undercc
lids should not be touched until jar is cool. placing in a syrup
7. Tin cans may be placed in cold water to heavy syrup draws j
cool before storing. ing it shrink and float






-. .. :: : ........................



VEGETABLES

Hot Pack or Pre-shrinking Vegetables.-This
FRUITS method gives a good full pack. The washed, pre-
pared vegetables are pre-cooked in water for a
;ugar Water short time and packed into jars or cans and
Cups Cups covered with the hot liquid. The jars or cans are
1 4 then sealed and processed in a pressure cooker or
1 2% pressure sauce pan. Hot pack, or pre-shrinking,
1 2
1 1 of vegetables is a good method to use in home
11/2 1 canning.

The Exhausting Pack Method is often used in
FRUITS home canning. In this pack the vegetables are
prepared and packed into jars or cans. The
depends on the acid packed jars or cans are then placed in a deep pan
lily's likes. Three- of boiling water. Each jar or can is then filled
Smay be needed to with boiling hot water. After 12 minutes foods
in the jars or cans should be packed down with a
.est canned in med- spoon. Vegetables will shrink, and it will be best
lits for salads and to use one jar or can to refill others. Add season-
Sthin or very thin ing. Leave 1/2 inch head space.. Seal and process
ot "keep" the fruit in a pressure cooker or pressure sauce pan. This
flavor and improve method is good for canning vegetables.

-e about as sweet as Cold Pack is a variation of the exhausting pack.
ace of sugar. Make Vegetables are packed tightly into cans or jars.
Ssyrup using fruit Leave 1/2 inch head space. Cover with boiling hot
ater or juice than water, add seasoning, and seal. Processing times
: To 1 cup of honey are 5 minutes longer in the pressure cooker for
ery thin syrup). this method because there is no pre-cooking time.
ey that has been The water must be boiling when poured over
ng-flavored or old vegetables. Seal and process as soon as boiling
vor of the fruit. water is added. The cold pack method often
jar, it may be from makes a vegetable flat sour unless care and speed
packing cold, or are used in canning. Often jars will not be full
s too heavy. The and the liquid will be cloudy. Because of this,
om the fruit, mak- cold packing is not the easiest or best method to
use for all vegetables.






14 Florida Cooperative Extension

PREPARING AND CANNING FRUITS

Processing Time in Boil-
ing Water Bath at
212F. in Minutes
Kind of Fruit How to Prepare
Glass Tin
Pint lQuart No. 2 No. 3

BERRIES (except strawberries)
Sort berries. Wash. Use 1 cup berries cooked in 3 cups
water and sugar to make a medium syrup. Pack berries,
leaving %/ inch head space in glass jars and '/ inch in
tin cans. Shake down while filling. Have fruit syrup
boiling. Cover packed berries, leave Y inch head space
in jars and fill cans to top with hot syrup. Seal and
process. 10 15 10 20

STRAWBERRIES
Wash in cold water. Cap. To each quart of berries add
1/2 to % cup sugar. Alternate berries and sugar in
layers in kettle. Let stand several hours. Cover and
heat slowly to simmering. Do not boil. Remove from
heat. Let stand overnight. Stir occasionally. Reheat
to simmering or 160F. Pack into clean jars or R-
Enamel cans. Seal and process. 8 12 8 12

CHERRIES, SURINAM
Use only ripe sound cherries freshly picked. Wash, re- I
move pit and precook 2 minutes. Use pre-cooking water
to make a medium syrup. Pack pre-cooked cherries
into jars. Shake down. Cover with boiling hot syrup.
Seal and process. 12 16 12 16

PIGS
Figs must be freshly picked. Wash, drain, precook 4 to
5 minutes. Place precooked figs in a medium hot syrup
and cook until figs are clear. Will take 11/ hours. Let
stand overnight. Bring to a boil, pack hot into clean jars
or cans. Seal and process at once. 5 10 5 10

GRAPEFRUIT
Wash fruit. Remove skin from both ends. Use a cut-
ting board and slice the peel and rag off in wide strips.
Use a knife or spatula to remove segments. Pack seg-
ments firmly into cans or jars. Add 3 tablespoons heavy
syrup. If cans are used, exhaust in hot water 10 minutes
before sealing. Seal and process. Flavor is better if Simmering
water bath is simmering, not boiling. Tin is recom-
mended for canning grapefruit. 10 15 10 15

GRAPES
Whole: Wash firm grapes. Remove seeds. Pack into
jars or cans and cover with heavy syrup. Shake down.
Exhaust container 30 minutes in boiling water, adding
more syrup if necessary. Seal and process. 10 12 10 12







Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 15



Processing Time in Boil-
ing Water Bath at
212F. in Minutes
Kind of Fruit How to Prepare 212. in
Glass Tin
I Pint |Quart I No. 2 I No. 3

GRAPES (Continued)
Sauce: Wash fruit, separate skin and pulp. Place hulls
in kettle, add 1 cup water to 3 cups hulls. Cook hulls
tender. Heat pulp and strain to remove seeds. Com-
bine hulls and pulp. Add 1 cup sugar to 6 cups pulp.
Bring slowly to a boil and cook 5 minutes. Pack into
clean containers. Seal and process. 5 8 5 8

Juice: Use firm ripe grapes. Wash, stem and crush with
a potato masher. To 4 quarts crushed grapes add cup
water and simmer for 10 minutes. Do not boil. Strain
and refrigerate overnight. Re-strain, add 2 cups sugar
to 4 quarts juice and heat to 180F. or simmering. DO
NOT BOIL. Pour into clean jars or cans. Process in
simmering water bath. 5 10 5 10


GUAVAS
Shells: Wash, remove stem and blossom. Peel. Re-
move seeds with a spoon and drop shells into a medium
syrup. Cook 2 to 3 minutes. Pack in overlapping or
"peach" pack. Add 1 to 2 tablespoons syrup with each
layer. Seal and process. 16 20 16 20

Sauce: Wash and trim fruit. Run through dilver or
sieve to remove seeds. Cook until thickened. Add 2
cups sugar to 4 cups pulp for sour guavas, less for
sweeter guavas. Cook rapidly 10 minutes. Stir con-
stantly. Pour in hot clean containers and seal. Process. 5 8 5 8

Juice: Wash, stem, slice. To 4 quarts of fruit add 2
cups water. Boil 20 minutes. Strain. Reheat juice to
boiling, fill containers, seal and process. To can juice
for punch add 1% to cup sugar to a quart of juice,
reheat and proceed as above. 5 8 5 8


LOQUAT
Whole: Use freshly gathered fruit clipped from tree.
Remove stem and blossom end. Peel. Seeds may be
left in or removed. Cook 2 to 4 minutes in medium
syrup. Pack hot into clean containers. Seal and pro-
cess. 15 20 15 20

Sauce: Prepare as above, remove seed, leave skin on.
Run through food chopper with a medium blade. Add
1 cup water to 4 cups pulp. Cook until tender. Add
1% cups sugar to 4 cups pulp. Cook 5 minutes. Seal
and process. 10 15 10 15
r







16 Florida Cooperative Extension


Processing Time in Boil-
ing Water Bath at
212F. in Minutes
Kind of Fruit How to Prepare Ga inu
Glass Tin
SPint !Quart 1 No. 2 No. 3
MANGO, RIPE
Select ripe firm fruit. Wash. Peel from stem to
blossom end. Slice and place in a hot thin or medium
syrup. Let stand 1 to 2 minutes, then pack into jars.
Boil syrup down 5 to 8 minutes. Strain while hot over
fruit. Seal and process. 15 20 15 20


MANGO, GREEN
Select mango before any color shows. Peel as above and
slice. Let stand in a hot medium syrup 2 minutes.
Pack into jars or cans. Cover with boiling hot syrup.
Seal and process. 15 20 15 20


MAYHAW
Sauce: Gather fruit when first color shows. Use as soon
as gathered. Wash. Cover with 1% cups water to 1
cup haws. Cook until soft. Put through sieve to remove
seed. Add % cup sugar to each cup pulp. Cook, stirring
constantly, until desired thickness is reached. Pour into
clean jars or cans. Seal and process. 5 10 5 10
Juice: Gather and prepare as above, adding 1% gallons
water to 1 gallon fresh fruit. Cook until soft. Strain.
Let cool and restrain. Heat to boiling. Fill clean con-
tainers and process. 5 10 5 10


PAPAYA, RIPE
Make a medium syrup. Let cool and add juice of one
lime or lemon. Select firm ripe fruit, wash, cut and re-
move seed. Slice fruit into cool syrup. Bring slowly
to boil. Cook 2 to 3 minutes. Pack hot into clean jars
or cans. Cover with hot syrup. Seal and process. 15 20 15 20


PAPAYA, GREEN
Wash and peel. Make a spiced syrup of 3% cups sugar,
1 cup vinegar, 1 cup water, 1/2 oz. gingerroot, 2 table-
spoons cracked cinnamon. Boil. Strain. Pour over
green papaya that has been precooked 4 minutes. Bring
to a boil and pack hot into clean jars or cans. Cover
syrup. Seal and process. 15 20 15 20


PEACHES
Halves: Use firm ripe fruit. Dip in boiling water %
minute. Immerse in cold water. Remove skin with
sharp knife. Cut in halves, remove seed. Drop into
medium syrup at once. Cook 2 minutes to heat through.
Pack in overlapping layers into hot clean jars or cans.
Cover with hot syrup. Seal and process. 10 15 10 15







Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 17



Processing Time in Boil-
ing Water Bath at
212F. in Minutes
Kind of Fruit How to Prepare Gls I
Glass Tin
Pint Quart I No. 2 1 No. 3

PEARS
Wash fruit. Peel, core and immerse in cold water.
Make a medium syrup. Bring syrup to boil, add drained
pears and cook 5 to 8 minutes. Pack hot fruit into
clean jars or cans with rounded side out. Cover with
boiling hot syrup. Seal and process. 12 16 12 16

Baked: Remove stem, blossom end and core. Bake until
barely tender, using brown sugar or honey. Pack into
clean jars or cans, add juice used in baking. Seal and
process. 15 20 15 20


PECANS, SHELLED
Use only freshly shelled nuts. Clean. Sort and place
in shallow pan. Heat through in oven at 375. Do not
roast or parch. Pack into clean jars or cans. Seal and
process. 25 30 25 30


PERSIMMON
Sauce will darken upon heating. For 1 quart of pulp
add /2 cup orange juice and cook to thicken. Add 2 cups
sugar to 1 quart of pulp and cook to desired consistency.
Seal while hot into clean jars or cans. Process. 5 10 5 10


PINEAPPLE
Wash fruit, slice and remove peel. Core. Cut or leave
in slices. Precook 10 minutes in a medium syrup. Pack
into clean jars or cans. Cover with syrup. Seal and
process. 10 15 10 15
_--------------_------------------ I

PLUMS
Use only firm ripe fruit. Wash, pit and drop into a
boiling medium syrup. Cover and remove from heat.
Let stand until cool. Remove fruit. Add 1 cup sugar
to each cup of medium syrup and boil 10 minutes. Add
plums and let cool. Heat to boiling and pack into clean
jars or cans. Seal and process. 5 10 5 10

Juice: Wash, cover with water and simmer below boiling
for 30 minutes. Crush with potato masher. Strain.
If to be used for jelly, can without sugar. For bever-
age add 1 cup sugar to 4 cups juice. Heat thoroughly
and pour into clean jars or cans. Seal and process. 5 10 5 10







18 Florida Cooperative Extension







Processing Time in Boil-
ing Water Bath at
212'F. in Minutes
Kind of Fruit How to Prepare 212F. in Minutes
Glass I Tin
__Pint [Quart No. 2 I No. 3
ROSELLE
Sauce: Use full grown calyces. Remove stem and seed
and use equal amounts of calyces and water. Cook
slowly until tender. Run through food mill or dilver.
Add 1 cup sugar to 6 cups pulp and bring to a boil.
Pack hot into clean jars or cans. Seal and process. 8 12 8 12
Juice: Prepare as above. Cook 15 minutes. Cool.
Strain. Reheat and can without sugar for jelly. 8 12 8 12

TOMATOES
Whole: Use firm vine-ripened fruit. Discard all toma-
toes with bad spots. Scald few at a time for 1 minute.
Place in cold water. Peel. Pack into clean jars or cans.
Add 1 teaspoon of salt and sugar mixture per quart.
Leave 1/ inch head space. For jars seal and process.
For tin cans, exhaust for 15 minutes in large pan of
boiling water. Seal and process. 20 25 20 25
Juice: Hot extraction. Wash, core and cut red-ripe
tomatoes. Cook slowly about 20 to 30 minutes. Do not
boil. Rub through a coarse sieve. Heat juice just to Simmering
simmering, but do not boil. Pour into clean jars or I
cans, seal and process. 15 20 [ 15 20
Juice: Cold extraction. Extract juice from red-ripe
tomatoes with a pulper or press. Strain through co rse Simmering
sieve. Heat to simmering (190F.) and fill clean jars I
or cans. Seal and process. 15 20 15 20
Puree: Use ripe fruit. Wash, core and cook until soft.
Run through sieve. Boil down to original volume.
Season with 1 teaspoon salt to a quart. Pack hot into
clean jars or cans. Seal and process. 15 20 15 20
Hot Sauce: Add chopped onions and peppers to tomatoes
before cooking. Use % cup chopped onions, cup
chopped green pepper and 3 to 4 red hot peppers.
Sieve as for puree and proceed as outlined above. Seal
and process. I15 20 15 20







Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 19


PREPARING AND CANNING VEGETABLES

S PROCESS Pres-
Pressure Cooker Isure
Vegetable Preparation and Pack -10 Pounds Pressure ISauce
Glass Tin Pan
SPints I Qts. No. 2 No. 3 Pints

BEANS, LIMA
Shell, pick out old beans, wash. Preheat by boil-
2 minutes. Pack hot and add seasoning. Leave 1
inch head space. Cover with hot liquid, seal and
process. 35 55 40 60 55
or
Pack into containers, add seasoning and cover
with boiling water. Place in exhausting bath
for 12 minutes. Pack down. Leave inch head
space. Seal and process. 35 55 40 60 55


BEANS, SHELL
Pack as for lima beans. 35 55 40 60 55


BEANS, SNAP
Wash, snap or cut beans into 1-1 inches. Pre-
heat, pack hot, leave /2 inch head space. Add
seasoning. Cover with hot liquid. Seal and
process. 20 25 25 30 40
or
Pack firmly into containers. Add seasoning.
Cover with boiling water. Place in exhaust bath
for 10 minutes. Pack down. Leave inch head
space. Seal and process. 20 25 20 25 40


BEETS
Scrub beets. Leave 1 to 2 inches stem and root
on. Cook to remove skin. If small, leave whole;
if large quarter or dice. The younger the beet
the better the color. Pack hot and add season-
ings. Cover with boiling water. Seal and pro- I
cess. 25 30 25 30 I 45


CARROTS AND OTHER ROOTS
Scrub young tender carrots. Scrape and slice
or dice. Can whole only when carrots are small.
Precook and pack into cans or jars. Leave 1/
inch head space. Add seasoning. Cover with
hot liquid. Seal and process. 20 25 20 25 40
or
Pack into containers. Season. Cover with boil-
ing water. Place in exhaust bath 10 minutes.
Pack down, leave z inch head space. Seal and
process. 20 25 20 25 40








20 Florida Cooperative Extension


S PROCESS Pres-
Pressure Cooker sure
Vegetable Preparation and Pack 10 Pounds Pressure Sauce
Glass Tin I Pan
Pints Qts. No. 2 1 No. 3 Pints

CELERY
Wash, cut into 1 to 2 inch lengths. Precook 2
minutes. Pack hot into cans or jars. Leave 1/
inch head space. Add seasoning. Cover with
hot liquid. Seal and process. 20 25 20 25 40

CORN, CREAM
Select young tender corn. Prepare and can with-
in 2 to 3 hours after gathering. Wash and cut
corn from cob. Scrape cob. Add 1 cup boiling
water to every 2 cups of corn. Season and boil
10 minutes. Stir to prevent sticking. Pack while
boiling hot into containers. Leave 1 inch head
space. Seal and process. 70 75 90


CORN, WHOLE KERNEL
Select young tender corn. Wash. Cut from cob.
Add boiling water to cover. Add seasoning.
Cook 4 minutes. Fill containers with boiling
hot corn. Leave 1 inch head space. Seal and
process. 55 65 60 60 75


EGGPLANT
Use only freshly cut eggplant. Peel and cube.
Soak in salt water, 1 tablespoon to 1 quart of
water, for 15 minutes. Drain and cook in small
amount of hot water for 5 minutes. Pack boiling
hot. Seal and process. 45 50 45 50 65

GREENS: KALE, MUSTARD, TURNIP,
COLLARD
Wash tender young greens several times. Re-
move large stems. Precook in small amount of
water until wilted. Pack loosely while hot.
Leave % inch head space. Add hot liquid to
cover. Add seasonings. Seal and process. 35 45 40 50 55

OKRA
Use tender pods. Wash and cut off stem. If
small, do not cut into the pod. Drop into boiling
water. Cook 1 minute. If large, cut into 1 inch
lengths and cook 1 minute. Pack containers.
Cover with hot liquid. Leave % inch head space.
Season. Seal and process. 25 35 25 35 45
_________ I. ... .. ...___ __________ ____









Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 21


PROCESS Pres-
Pressure Cooker sure
Vegetable Preparation and Pack 10 Pounds Pressure Sauce
Glass I Tin Pan
Pints Qts. iNo. 2 No. 3 Pints
OKRA AND TOMATOES
Prepare as above. Combine peeled quartered
tomatoes with cut okra or small, whole pods.
Heat to boiling. Season and pack hot into con-
tainers. Leave % inch head space. Seal and
process. 25 35 25 35 45

PEAS, BLACKEYE OR FIELD
Shell and wash. Remove old peas. Cover with
boiling water. Bring to full boil. Fill containers
carefully. Do not pack down. Leave 1 inch head
space. Season and cover with boiling liquid.
Seal and process. 35 40 30 40 '55
or
Shell, wash and sort peas. Fill containers with
raw peas. Do not pack down. Leave 1%" inch
head space. Season and cover with boiling water.
Place in exhaust bath 12 minutes. Refill jar or
can if necessary. Seal and process. 35 40 30 40 55

PEAS, GARDEN
Shell, wash, sort peas. Cover with boiling water
and bring to full boil. Fill cans or jars. Leave
1 inch head space. Season and cover with liquid.
Seal and process. 35 40 35 40 55
or
Prepare as above. Fill containers with raw peas.
Leave 1%1 inches head spacec. Season. Cover with
boiling water. Place in exhaust bath 12 minutes.
Fill jar. Seal and process. 35 40 35 40 55

PEANUTS, BOILED
Use immature peanuts. Wash carefully through
several waters. Place in large amount of salt
water (1 tablespoon salt to 1 quart of water)
and boil rapidly 15 minutes. Fill cans or jars
leaving 1 inch head space. Do not pack down.
Cover with hot salt water. Seal and process. 40 50 40 50 65

PEANUTS, SHELLED
See directions for pecans.

PUMPKIN, CUBED
Peel and cube. Cover with water and boil 5
minutes. Fill cans or jars. Leave 1 inch head
space. Cover with hot liquid. Seal and process. 50 60 50 60 70








22 Florida Cooperative Extension


PROCESS Pres-
Pressure Cooker sure
Vegetable Preparation and Pack 10 Pounds Pressure Sauce
S Glass Tin Pan
Pints Qts. No. 2 No. 3 Pints
PUMPKIN, MASHED
Cook until tender. Mash. Add 1 cup hot liquid
to 1 quart mashed pumpkin. Heat to boiling.
Fill cans or jars. Do not pack down. Seal and
process. 60 80 60 80 80

SQUASH, SUMMER
Scrub young tender squash. Slice, or, if very
small, can whole. Add small amount of boiling
water and bring to a boil. Pack into cans or
jars. Leave Vz inch head space. Season and
cover with hot liquid. Seal and process. 30 35 30 35 50
or
Prepare as above. Pack raw into containers.
Season and cover with boiling water. Place in
exhaust bath for 12 minutes. Add to jar to make
full. Leave %/ inch head space. Seal and pro-
cess. 30 35 30 35 50

SQUASH, WINTER
Follow directions and processing time for
mashed pumpkin.

SAUERKRAUT, QUICK METHOD
Select firm, crisp cabbage. Wash and shred
finely. One pound of cabbage after shredding
will pack into a pint jar. To 1 pound of cabbage
add 2 teaspoons salt and mix thoroughly. Mix
cabbage and salt in small amounts of 4 to 5
pounds at a time. Pack into pint jars. Place
lid on, do not seal tightly, as air must escape.
Place jars in an enamel pan and store in a cool
place. Fermentation will be complete in 8 to 10
days. When completed add enough brine (2
tablespoons salt to 1 quart of water) to cover Water Bath
kraut. Wipe mouth of jar and seal. Process in
a boiling water bath. 15 20 15 20
CROCK OR LONG METHOD
Write for Circular 62 or ask County Home
Demonstration Agent for this leaflet.

SOUP MIXTURE
Use tomatoes, green beans, okra, onions, celery
and carrots. Cook all together at boiling for 5
minutes. Pack hot into containers. Leave Y2
inch head space. Season and seal while hot.
Process. 30 35 30 35 50
__________________________________________________ ___i _____________ J__________









Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables 23


PROCESS Pres-
Pressure Cooker sure
Vegetable Preparation and Pack 10 Pounds Pressure I Sauce
Glass Tin Pan
SPints 1 Qts. INo. 2 No. 3 Pints
SOUP MIXTURE-II
Use tomato pulp, young corn, young lima beans,
peas, turnip roots, onion and celery. Cook to-
gether at boiling for 10 minutes. Pack into con-
tainers while hot. Leave 1 inch head space.
Season. Seal and process. 40 50 40 55 60


SOUP MIXTURE-III
Scald and peel ripe tomatoes. Put through a
sieve or strainer. Place in a large pan. To every
quart of tomato pulp add 2 cups fresh tiny lima
beans, 1 cup okra cut, 3 medium onions chopped,
2 cups young corn cooked on cob for 3 minutes
then cut and scraped. Cook together 10 minutes.
Add 2 teaspoons salt to this amount. Pack boil-
ing hot into clean containers. Leave 1 inch head
space. Seal and process. 40 45 40 45 60


SWEET POTATOES, MOIST PACK
Scrub potatoes. Boil until skins slip off easily.
Skin. Cut into pieces if potatoes are large.
Pack while hot. Cover with clear boiling water
or a hot thin syrup. Leave %/ inch head space.
Seal and process. 55 60 55 60 75

















COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR





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