The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Bulletin 163 October 1961
Florida Agricultural Extension Service Jel lies
.*. ... ... .-... ....
JELLIES, JAMS AND PRESERVES
LENA E. STURGES
Former Assistant Food Conservation Economist
A well planned food conservation program will include some
jams, jellies and preserves. These concentrated sweets are ex-
cellent sources of energy. They also add variety as well as energy
value to the meal, and often furnish the needed accent of color
and flavor to meats, vegetables and cereal foods. Surpluses
from the garden or orchard may be made into these products and
add to the family's food supply.
There are few requirements for equipment for making jellies
and preserves. They include: Sharp knives for paring and
cutting; large kettles for cooking; a colander; long-handled
wooden spoon or paddle for stirring; a flannel bag for straining
and filtering the juice; scales or measuring cups; and low, broad
jelly glasses or jars with lids for sealing.
A thermometer aids in making a perfect product. Other tests
are fairly accurate, but take a great deal of practice and experi-
ence. A large pan in which to sterilize the glasses, jar lifters
and a tray to hold glasses or jars while they are being filled are
"A fruit jelly is a semi-solid mass which holds its shape when
turned out onto a plate but quivers when the plate is moved. It
should have the color and delicate flavor characteristic of the
fruit from which it was made. Usually it is translucent (par-
tially transparent). Jelly should be so tender that it cuts easily,
yet breaks with a sharp edge when cut."
Selecting the Fruit.-The fruits best suited for jelly-making
must contain pectin and acid in proper proportions. Both of these
decrease as the fruit ripens. Therefore, for best results use a mix-
ture of slightly under-ripe and ripe fruit. The under-ripe will
furnish pectin and acid, and the ripe gives flavor and color. The
fruit should be firm and in good condition.
Function of Pectin; Test for Pectin.-Pectin is a carbohydrate
akin to starch and is usually found just under the skin of fruits.
It is necessary to cook the fruit to extract the pectin.
4 Florida Cooperative Extension
To determine the amount of pectin in fruit juices, add 1 tea-
spoon grain alcohol to 1 teaspoon cooked fruit juice (at room tem-
perature), mix and let stand 1 minute. Pour mixture gently
into another glass. If a solid mass has formed, the juice will
stand measure for measure of sugar. If the mass is slightly
broken it will be safer to use three-fourths as much sugar as
juice. If only a small amount of pectin is present, one-half
measure of sugar to a measure of juice is advisable.
Some fruits such as crabapples, wild grapes and mayhaws are
so rich in pectin the juice can be extracted from them a second
time. Barely cover fruit pulp with water and bring gradually to
a boil and then simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. Stir frequently.
Strain and add juice to juice extracted by first cooking.
Home-Made Orange or Lemon Pectin Extract.-Select oranges
and lemons with thick skins. Wash the fruit and remove the
yellow rind, using a stainless steel knife so as not to discolor the
For each pound of the fresh white peel, use 2 quarts of water
and 1 tablespoon of tartaric acid. Add the acid to the water and
stir until dissolved. Put the fresh peel through a meat grinder,
using the coarse plate. Place the ground peel in a large flat-
bottomed pan to permit rapid boiling and cover with the acid solu-
tion. Allow the mixture to stand for an hour or two. Measure
the depth of the mixture in the pan. Boil rapidly and stir con-
stantly until the volume is reduced to half. Strain through four
thicknesses of cheesecloth.
Make two more extractions in the same way, using 2 quarts of
water and 1 tablespoon of tartaric acid to the pomace each time.
It is not necessary, however, for the mixture to stand after the
Combine the three extractions. There should be about 21/2
pints. If the product is to be kept for future use, pour it while
hot into hot sterilized half-pint jars, partially seal, process on a
rack in a boiling-water bath for 20 minutes, complete the seal,
and store in a cool, dry place. Once the canned extract is opened,
it must be used immediately, as it will not keep.
Acid Test.-If a fruit has a decided tart or acid taste, it usually
is acid enough to jell. If you are not quite sure whether the fruit
juice has enough acid, compare it with a mixture made of 1 tea-
spoon lemon juice, 3 tablespoons water and 1/2 teaspoon sugar. If
Jellies, Jams and Preserves;, 5
the juice has a sub-acid taste, add an equal quantity .f tart fruit
juice, a few slices of lemon or a small quantity, of lemon juice.
JELLY MAKING STEPS
Select and Prepare Fruit-Select firm fruit. A mixture of one-
fourth half-ripe to three-fourths ripe makes a good jelly. Discard
bruised or damaged fruit. Wash, remove stem and blossom ends,
but retain cores and seed. Cut in pieces if large fruit; crush soft
fruits as berries.
-.--- Near the Jelly Stage
-"-.. r Jelly Stage-the Sheeting Test
Extract Juice.-The juice of fruit is extracted for jelly mak-
ing by cooking the fruit in water until soft-5 to 10 minutes for
soft fruits; 20 to 25 minutes for hard fruits. If acid is lacking,
add 1 tablespoon lemon juice for each cup of fruit before ex-
tracting the juice.
Strain.-After cooking the fruit, place it in a square of cheese-
cloth and allow it to drain without pressing. Juice should then
be filtered by pouring through a flannel jelly bag or heavy sack.
Making the Jelly.-1. Use a large flat-bottomed enamel-lined
or aluminum pan.
6 Florida Cooperative Extension
2. Cook only a small amount of jelly at one time-not more
than 4 cups of juice.
3. Measure juice and sugar accurately.
4. Boil juice rapidly for 2 to 3 minutes to evaporate some of
5. Add sugar gradually, boiling mixture rapidly until mixture
gives a sheet test. Dip a large spoon into the boiling syrup and
lift spoon so that the syrup drops from the side of the spoon.
When the drops run together in a "sheet," remove from fire. If
a jelly thermometer is used, it should be 105-106 C. or 219-
2210 F. Remove from fire.
6. Skim and pour immediately into hot sterilized glasses.
Seal as quickly as possible or cool and cover with hot paraffin.
7. Cool, label and store in a cool, dry place.
SCORE CARD FOR JELLY
Appearance-clear, sparkling, transparent ............. 25%/
Texture .............................. ....... 35%
Flavor ......... .......... -......----.......... 40%
Total .... .............. ........................100%
Color-should be as nearly like the natural color of product
Clearness-jellies should be clear, sparkling, transparent, no
cloudiness, no particles of pulp and no crystals.
Container-clean, sealed so as to protect from any foreign
substance and to prevent evaporation.
Jelly should be not stringy or tough, but tender and firm.
When slipped out of the glass, it should hold its form and quiver.
It should cut with a clean, distinct cleavage, retaining the clear
surface and angles made by the knife.
Natural fruit flavor should be preserved; either too much or
too little sugar spoils the natural flavor.
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 7
COMMON JELLY PROBLEMS
Soft or syrupy jelly:
Caused by using too much sugar
Too little cooking of juice
Long, slow cooking
Not enough pectin or acid, or wrong kind of fruit
Tough, gummy jelly:
Too little sugar to amount of juice
Cooking jelly too long
Cooking too much at one time
Cooking juice too long
Cooking juice too slowly
Cooking too much juice at a time
Poor method of extracting juice
Juice not well-strained or jelly not well-skimmed
Pouring jelly into glasses from too great a distance above glass
Too much pectin in juice
Allowing jelly to cool before pouring in glasses
Too little cooking of jelly
Improper sterilization of glasses
Improper sealing of glasses
Storage place too hot
Improper sterilization of glasses
Strain jelly stock (made by cooking and extracting juice as
outlined above). Make pectin test and add 2 to 4 cups sugar to
4 cups jelly stock. Cook rapidly until it flakes from spoon. Skim,
pour into glasses. Seal.
4 cups crushed or sliced ripe carissa Sugar (1 cup to each cup of
2 cups water strained juice)
Wash and drain fruit; slice or crush if fruits are very soft.
Add water and bring to boiling point, then simmer 15 to 20 min-
utes, or until tender. Drain through jelly bag. Measure juice
and bring to boiling point. Add measure of sugar for measure of
juice. Boil until jelly stage is reached.
4 cups grape jelly stock 3 cups sugar (make pectin test)
Strain jelly stock. Add sugar, following general directions.
1 pint peeled grapefruit 2 pints water
% pound sugar
After the peel has been removed, weigh fruit, cut into small
pieces, place in a large kettle and for each pound of fruit add 2
pints of water. Boil until it cooks thoroughly. Pour into flannel
bag to drain juice. Bring drained juice to a boil, and add 3/
pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. Continue boiling until
jelly stage is reached. Fill sterilized glasses and seal.
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 9
Put 4 cups strained juice into a 6- or 8-quart aluminum boiler
and bring to a boil. When juice begins to boil add 4 cups sugar
and stir until dissolved. Cook rapidly. Slow cooking darkens
jelly and destroys the pectin.
1 pound kumquats 1 pound sugar
1/2 pints water
Wash kumquats, clean thoroughly and cut in slices. Boil for
15 minutes in 11/ pints water for each pound of fruit. Cover and
let stand overnight. Boil again about 5 minutes. Remove from
heat and allow to stand 1 hour. Drain in a flannel bag.
Place juice in a large kettle, add sugar and boil rapidly until
jelly stage is reached. Remove from fire, skim, pour into ster-
ilized glasses and seal.
Wash and seed slightly under-ripe fruit. Cover with water
and cook until tender. Strain through a jelly bag. Use 2 cups
sugar to 3 cups juice. If loquats are the sweet variety, add 2
teaspoons lemon juice before adding sugar. Cook rapidly until
jelly test is reached.
Select mayhaws. Wash and cull. To each gallon of mayhaws
add 2 cups of water and 1/2 cup lemon juice. Heat slowly to boil-
ing and simmer with cover on kettle for 15 to 20 minutes. Crush
and turn mixture in jelly bag.
Measure not more than 4 to 6 cups of juice in large kettle.
Measure sugar following pectin test. Add sugar gradually to
boiling juice. When done by thermometer or "sheet" test, re-
move, skim, pour in glasses and seal.
Roselle makes a beautiful jelly of a very tender texture. The
jellying point seems to be easily lost by over-cooking, and the jelly
must therefore be removed promptly from the fire when the jelly-
ing point has been reached. Limited laboratory tests indicate
that the best jelly is obtained at 1070 C. Cut base of calyx with
a sharp knife, separate from seedpod and wash well. Two
measures of water to 3 of calyxes should be used for making the
10 Florida Cooperative Extension
extraction. Boil gently. After boiling 15 minutes cover and
allow the roselle to cool before straining. To each cupful of juice
add from 1/2 to 3/4 cup sugar. Boil briskly until jellying point is
reached. Use a low jelly glass, if the product is to be removed
from the glass for serving. Make only a few glasses at a time.
Jelly may be made from the dried product, but this does not make
a tender sauce after it has been kept for a long time.
SOUR ORANGE JELLY
2 cups sour orange pulp 2 pints water (4 cups)
1 pound sugar (2 cups)
Add water to pulp and boil until thoroughly disintegrated.
Pour into jelly bag and remove all juice.
Bring juice to a boil, add sugar and stir until all sugar is dis-
solved. Boil rapidly until jelly point is reached.
Cap, wash and crush berries. Add only enough water to keep
them from burning. Cook until soft and strain juice. To 1 pint
strawberry juice add 1 pint orange-pectin juice and 1 pound of
sugar. Cook until jelly stage is reached. Skim, pour into
sterilized glasses, seal and store.
SURINAM CHERRY JELLY
5 pounds Surinam cherries 1 cup sugar to each cup of juice, or
7% cups water or enough to % cup sugar and Y2 cup corn syrup, or
barely cover fruit % cup sugar and 1/2 cup honey.
Wash cherries, remove stems and blossom ends. Add water to
the fruit and simmer for 25 minutes, or until the cherries are
soft. Strain the juice through a flannel jelly bag or two thick-
nesses of flour sack.
Measure the juice and place it in a shallow kettle with a capac-
ity at least four times the volume of juice. Heat to the boiling
point and boil 5 minutes. Add the sugar or the sugar combina-
tion and remove the scum as the mixture starts to boil. Boil
rapidly until the juice gives the jelly test (sheets off the spoon in
large drops), or until the temperature reaches 1050 C. or 221' F.
on a clear, dry day; or 106 C. or 222' F. on a damp, cloudy day.
Pour the jelly into hot,, sterile glasses and seal immediately.
When corn syrup or honey is used, a slightly longer cook is
A good preserved fruit is one which has been cooked in sugar
syrup until it is clear, tender and transparent. It should keep its
form and plumpness and be crisp rather than tough or soft.
Small citrus fruits like the kumquats, limequats, orangequats
and calamondins may be preserved whole. The larger, heavier
fruits, as the sweet orange, grapefruit, ponderosa lemon and
shaddock, should be cut into convenient halves or quarters, with
or without inner pulp and juice cells removed, as preferred; or
a slice may be removed from one end, the inside pulp removed and
only the shells preserved. In the case of the strong-flavored
varieties it may be necessary to parboil them in several changes
of water to rid them of excess undesirable flavor.
Begin preserving in a thin syrup and cook rapidly until fruit
Pre-cook figs 5 to 8 minutes, depending on degree of ripeness.
Add sugar in proportion to 3/4 pound sugar to 1 pound figs. Cook
gently, without stirring, until syrup thickens slightly and figs
become semi-transparent. Allow to stand overnight to "plump".
Continue cooking the fruit until it is thoroughly saturated with
sugar. Pack in jars, cover with syrup and seal.
Process in water bath 15 minutes.
Use seeded, thick-meated fruit. Use 11/2 cups sugar and 3
cups guava shells. If skin is of fine and smooth texture, do not
peel-just remove blossom end, cut in half and seed.
12 Florida Cooperative Extension
Cover guava shells with sugar, add 1/4 cup water and allow to
stand 3 to 4 hours or until sugar is dissolved. Add 1 tablespoon
ginger root and a few slices of lemon; boil until the syrup is some-
what thickened and the fruit transparent. Allow to stand over-
night. Pack in hot, clean jars and process pints 15 minutes at
simmering in a water bath.
2 cups fresh kumquats 1 stick cinnamon (may be omitted)
1 cup water 1 lemon (sliced thinly)
2 cups sugar
Wash and drain kumquats. Cut a small gash crosswise in each
kumquat or use a skewer or clean ice-pick to puncture kumquats.
Cover kumquats with water and bring to a boil. Drain. Make
a syrup of sugar and water. Bring to a boil. Drop kumquats
and sliced lemon into hot syrup and cook 10 minutes. Let stand
overnight. Cook again uncovered for 10 minutes. Let stand
again until cool. Bring to a boil again and cook until fruit is
clear and syrup thick. Pack into clean jars while hot. Cover
with the hot syrup and seal at once.
1 quart fresh fruit 11/2 cups sugar
1 cup water
Wash, scald and seed the fruit. If desired, they may be peeled.
Make a syrup of sugar and water, add fruit and cook to 223' F.,
or until fruit has a transparent look. Put into hot sterilized jars,
seal, process in water bath for 15 minutes.
Use sound, full ripe fruit. Peel and cut in shapely, uniform
pieces. Remove seed or not as preferred. Weigh, and for every
pound of papaya add 1 pound of sugar. Sprinkle over fruit and
allow to stand overnight until sugar is dissolved. If enough
liquid is not drawn from fruit to cover, it may be necessary to add
a small amount of water.
Place over heat, bring to boil and boil 10 minutes or until fruit
is clear. Cover tightly and let stand overnight. Bring again to
boil and boil until syrup is thick.
Pack in hot, sterile jars and cover with the hot syrup. Seal
Lime juice, calamondin or other citrus juices may be added if
desired, but many prefer only the mild, distinctive flavor of the
papaya. The syrup is golden in color and most delicious in flavor.
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 13
1 pound pears 2 cups sugar
1 lemon (sliced thin)
The fruit may be preserved whole, in halves or in quarters.
Boil sugar and water together for 5 minutes, add pears and sliced
lemon, and cook until pears are clear and transparent and the
syrup is thick. Pack into clean, hot, sterilized jars, cover with
boiling syrup, and seal at once.
An alternate method is to combine the sugar and fruit in alter-
nate layers and let stand overnight before cooking.
4 quarts plums 3 quarts sugar
2 pints water
Wash and drain fruit. Prick and put into preserving kettle.
Cover with cold water and bring to the boiling point. Add sugar
and cook until the syrup is thick and transparent, the fruit is
clear and the syrup sheets from the spoon. Pour into hot steril-
ized jars and seal.
Select firm, tart berries. Wash, drain and remove caps. For
each pound of fruit use 1 pound of sugar. Combine in alternate
layers and let stand 8 to 10 hours or overnight. At the end of
this period, stir and bring to a boil. Boil rapidly for 15 or 20
minutes or until syrup is quite thick. Skim. Pour at once into
hot sterilized jars and seal.
Select firm, small, yellow or red pear-shaped tomatoes. Wash
and drain. If a tomato preserve without skins is desired, dip the
tomatoes into boiling water, then into cold water, and remove the
skins before starting the preserving process. The tomatoes must
then be handled with extra care to prevent their going to pieces.
To each pound of tomatoes allow 3/ cup of water, 3/ pound of
sugar, 1/4 lemon thinly sliced and 1 piece of ginger root. Boil the
lemon for 5 minutes in part of the water. Boil the remainder of
the water with the sugar for 5 minutes to make a syrup. Add
the tomatoes, the ginger root, the lemon and the liquid in which
the lemon was cooked. Boil until the tomatoes are clear and the
syrup somewhat thick. Remove the scum; then pour the pre-
serves at once into hot sterilized jars and seal.
14 Florida Cooperative Extension
Select thick watermelon rind and trim off the outer green skin
and the pink flesh, using only the greenish-white part. Cut into
12 or 1-inch cubes and weigh. For each 4 pounds of the prepared
rind, prepare 2 quarts of lime water containing 2 tablespoons of
lime (calcium oxide). Let the melon stand in the lime water for
1 hour to make it crisp. Drain and place in clear water for 1
hour. Drain and boil for 11/2 hours in fresh water. Drain again.
To each 4 pounds of the prepared watermelon rind weighed
before the lime water treatment, allow 4 quarts of water, 4
pounds of sugar, 2 lemons thinly sliced and, if desired, 4 small
pieces of ginger root. Boil the lemon for 5 minutes in 1/2 cup of
the water. Boil the rest of the water with the sugar for 5 minutes
to make a syrup. Add the watermelon and the ginger root to the
syrup. Boil for 1 hour. When the syrup thickens, add the lemon
and the water in which it was cooked. Continue to boil, stirring
constantly, until the syrup is somewhat thick and the melon is
clear. Pack at once into hot sterilized jars and seal.
~7".:.: :::". .... ..
A good marmalade should be bright and clear, free from all
cloudiness, with the pulp and peel suspended in the jellied juice.
The jelly should be sufficiently soft to spread easily, the solids
evenly distributed throughout and transparent or translucent.
1 orange 1 lemon 1 grapefruit sugar
(shredded pineapple optional)
Wash and run the fruit through a food chopper, add 3 times
the bulk of water, boil for 15 minutes and let stand overnight.
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 15
Next morning boil for 15 minutes, or until the peel is tender, and
let stand again. When cold, measure pint for pint of marma-
lade stock and sugar and cook over a rapid fire until jelly stage
is reached (2220 F.).
A variation may be made in this by the addition, when sugar
is added, of 1 cup or less of shredded pineapple previously boiled
for 5 minutes, used fresh.
ORANGE MARMALADE-QUICK METHOD
1 pound or 3 to 4 medium oranges, 3% cup sliced lime or lemon
or 3 cups sliced oranges
Preparation of Stock.-Select ripe, firm, bright-colored fruit.
Wash. Grate lightly to remove outer rind. Remove stem end
from fruit. Cut fruit into thin slices. Keep knife sharp. Cut
slices into quarters. Remove seeds and core. Measure. Place
in pressure saucepan. Add 2 cups of water for each cup of sliced
fruit. Cook at 10 pounds pressure for 3 minutes. Cool cooker
4 cups of orange marmalade stock 1 teaspoon citrus pectin
4 cups of sugar (optional)
Making Marmalade.-Measure 4 cups marmalade stock. Place
in heavy kettle. Add 4 cups sugar slowly. Mix 1 teaspoon citrus
pectin thoroughly with last of sugar before adding to stock. Stir
gently until sugar is dissolved. Boil rapidly until jelly stage is
reached, which is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from the
spoon (about 20 minutes to reach 220 F.). Cool to about 180 F.
Pour into sterilized containers. Seal immediately.
Note.-If desired, 3 cups of sugar to 4 cups of marmalade
stock may be used. This makes a more tart marmalade.
Yield 1% quarts
10 cups sliced firm, ripe papaya Grated rind of 1 orange and 2 lemons
1 cup fresh shredded pineapple 3 tablespoons grated green ginger root
1/2 cup orange juice 1 cup sugar to each cup cooked fruit
Vz cup lemon juice
Combine all ingredients except sugar and boil for about 30
minutes. Measure cooked fruit, add an equal measure of sugar,
and cook together for 30 minutes. Stir frequently to prevent
burning, and when done pour into hot, sterilized jars and seal
immediately. Store in cool, dry, dark place.
Jams are made from crushed fruits cooked with sugar until
the mixture is more or less smooth and thick. Well-ripened,
yet sound berries and soft-fleshed fruits like apricots, peaches
and plums make good jam. The standard proportion of sugar
varies from /4 to 1 part by weight of sugar to 1 part by weight
of the prepared fruit.
BLACKBERRY AND OTHER BERRY JAM
Wash the berries carefully, drain, and remove the caps and
stems. To each pound of the prepared fruit allow an equal
weight of sugar. Crush the berries and bring slowly to boiling,
stirring constantly. Add the sugar and boil until the fruit
mixture has thickened to jelly-like consistency. Stir throughout
the cooking. Pour into hot sterilized jars and seal.
If the seeds in blackberries and black raspberries are objec-
tionable, boil the fruit for a few minutes, then put through a
fine sieve to remove the seeds before weighing the fruit and
adding the sugar.
10 cups figs, chopped and peeled 51/% cups sugar
(5 pounds) V cup lemon juice
Peel and chop figs. Add sugar, then divide quantity into two
kettles. Cook slowly until fruit is thick (about 1/2 hour). Stir
frequently to prevent scorching. Add lemon juice just before
removing from fire. Pour into hot sterile jars and seal.
4 cups cooked guava pulp 8 cups sugar
4 cups fresh papaya pulp 6 tablespoons lemon juice
Grated rinds of 2 lemons
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 17
Combine fruit pulp and cook until most of the water has been
evaporated. Add sugar and lemon and cook until thick. Pour
into hot sterile jars. Seal.
1 pound fruit 1/2 pint water
% pound sugar
Wash, scald, peel and seed fruit. Put through food chopper.
Make syrup of sugar and water. Add chopped fruit and cook to
jellying point, that is, about 223" F. or 107 C. Put in hot
sterilized containers and seal.
STRAWBERRY PINEAPPLE JAM
Wash the strawberries, drain, and remove the caps. Wash
the pineapple and remove the top. Cut the pineapple into half-
inch slices. Pare the slices, remove the eyes, then cut into
half-inch cubes. Prepare 2 pounds of strawberries for every
pound of pineapple.
For each 2 pounds of strawberries, use 11/2 pounds of sugar,
and for each pound of pineapple use 1 pound of sugar. Heat
slowly the pineapple and its equal weight of sugar, stirring
until the sugar is dissolved. Then bring to a brisk boil and cook
for 10 minutes, stirring constantly. Add the strawberries and
their quota of sugar. Stir while boiling for 15 to 20 minutes, or
until the jam is somewhat thick. Pour into hot sterilized jars
SURINAM CHERRY JAM
3% cups seeded Surinam cherries 2% cups sugar or
1 cup water 1/2 cane sugar and % mild
Combine the sugar and water, bring to the boiling point, and
add cherries. Cook slowly for 20 to 25 minutes until the juice
thickens slightly, but not until it gives the jelly test (sheets off
the spoon in large drops). Pour into hot, sterile jars and seal
Wash ripe guavas. Remove blossom and stem ends with
paring knife. If skin is rough and blemished, peel. If not, slice
unpeeled into sieve to remove seed. Pulp left from jelly making
may be used.
Measure pulp. Measure out sugar, allowing 1/2 to 3/% cup
sugar to each cup of pulp-according to sweetness or acidity
desired-and set aside. Place pulp in a smooth, heavy alumi-
num pan and cook quickly. Stir until it begins to thicken. Then
add sugar and continue cooking until very thick. After sugar
is added, stir constantly to prevent scorching.
Butter made from pulp left from jelly drip gives a little
darker colored product than that made from the fresh fruit.
12 cups peeled half-ripe % teaspoon ground cloves
mango slices teaspoon ground allspice
3 cups water 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
6 cups sugar 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
Add water to mangos and cook until soft enough to mash.
Press through a sieve if the mangos are stringy. Add sugar
and spices. Cook slowly for 45 minutes or until thick. Stir
frequently to prevent burning. Pour into hot sterile glasses
After straining off juice from cooked mayhaws for jelly,
use pulp for the butter. Put pulp through a sieve. Measure and
cook 10 to 15 minutes to thicken, stirring to prevent burning. Add
Jellies, Jams and Preserves 19
cup sugar for each cup pulp. Stir in well and continue stirring
to prevent sticking. Cook 20 minutes, or until as thick as de-
sired. Pour into hot sterile jars and seal at once.
SWEET PEAR PICKLES
Wash, pare and core pears. If very hard, cover with water
and pre-cook 8 to 10 minutes.
Make a syrup of 6 cups sugar, 2 cups vinegar, 4 cups water,
1 tablespoon ginger root, 11/2 teaspoon whole cloves, 2 table-
spoons stick cinnamon.
Pour this hot syrup over pears and let stand overnight. Drain
off syrup and reheat it. Pour over fruit and let stand again.
After repeating 2 to 3 times, fruit should be well saturated and
Pack in jars, cover with boiling hot syrup and seal.
Farmers' Bulletin 1800, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Bulletin 96, University of Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station.
Circular 460, Oklahoma A. and M. College Extension.
Bulletin 144R, University of Florida Extension Service.
Bulletin 158, University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
Reprinted October 1961
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director
Growth Through Agricultural Progress