• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Landscape uses for camellias
 Selection of varieties
 Selection of planting site
 Preparation of soil
 Planting
 Fertilization
 Mulching
 Watering
 Winter protection
 Bud drop
 Pruning
 Propagation
 Pest control






Group Title: Florida Agricultural Extension Service bulletin 161
Title: Growing camellias in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020570/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing camellias in Florida
Series Title: Fla. University, Gainesville. Agricultural Extension Service. Bul. 161, June 1955
Physical Description: 38 p. : illus. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McElwee, E. W ( Edgar Warren ), 1907-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Camellias   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "A revision of Bul. 142, Camellia growing, by R.J. Wilmot."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020570
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 16403084

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Landscape uses for camellias
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Community plantings
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Companion plants
            Page 7
    Selection of varieties
        Page 7
        Beginner's list of camellias for Florida
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    Selection of planting site
        Page 11
        Soils
            Page 11
        Protection
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Drainage
            Page 14
    Preparation of soil
        Page 14
        Importance or organic matter
            Page 14
        Soil reaction
            Page 15
        Materials for changing the reaction of the soil
            Page 16
    Planting
        Page 17
        When to transplant
            Page 17
        Spacing and depth of planting
            Page 17
        Transplanting from clay or muck
            Page 17
            Page 18
        The planting operation
            Page 19
    Fertilization
        Page 19
        Fertilizers
            Page 20
        Nutritional deficiencies
            Page 21
    Mulching
        Page 22
    Watering
        Page 23
    Winter protection
        Page 23
    Bud drop
        Page 24
    Pruning
        Page 25
    Propagation
        Page 25
        Seed
            Page 26
        Cuttings
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Layering
            Page 29
        Grafting
            Page 29
            Page 30
    Pest control
        Page 31
        Sprayers
            Page 31
        Precautions
            Page 32
        Insects and spider mites
            Page 32
        Summer oil emulsion sprays
            Page 33
        Insect and spider mite control measures
            Page 34
        Diseases
            Page 35
        Diseases and their control
            Page 36
            Page 37
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Bulletin 161 A


(


GIGANTEA



Growing Camellias

In Florida
1. W. MCELWEE
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


April 1962












CONTENTS
PAGE
LANDSCAPE U SES FOR CAMELLIAS ........................................ ...... ...--...-...... -- 3
Com m unity Plantings .............................. .... ..................... ....... ......... 5
Com panion Plants .....-...... .......... ....... ............ .. ....................7........ 7
SELECTION OF VARIETIES .....................................------------------- ---- 7
Beginner's List of Camellias for Florida ............... .................... 8
SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE ........... ..........-......- ..... 11
Soils ...........-- .--- .. --- ... -- ------ ........ ....... ...... ... ...-... .......... 11
P protection ....- .. .. ......... ................................ ......................... .... 11
D rainage --...........- ........ ...... ....... -......- ....-...... ...... ........ 14
PREPARATION OF SOIL ... ---------................-- ....14
Importance of Organic Matter ...-... -----------................ ......------- 14
Soil Reaction ............-- .........--....-...........-. .-------- -------......---..- 15
Materials for changing the reaction of the soil .........---......-------....--.... 16
PLANTING ..-................~..---. .... --. ... ...... ....... .... .. .. 17
W hen to Transplant .... ................ ............ ..... .. 17
Spacing and Depth of Planting .......... .... ........ .. 17
Transplanting from Clay or Muck ............... .............--....--.--. ... 17
The Planting Operation .........-- .- .........- .. ......... -.. -..... 19
FERTILIZATION ................ ... .. .. .. ..... -... -..- 19
Fertilizers ....--............- .....-----------------....-- ... ......... 20
Nutritional Deficiencies ......-.. ...............- ------------ .--.-- -....- .--.. 21
M ULCHING ............. ............ ----------------- .......-.........-......---.... 22
WATERING ......................--...-----... -------------------..--..-----....----- 23
WINTER PROTECTION ........--....----......... .....--............ ....- ..-- 23
B U D D ROP ............... ................... .. ..... ..... ...... ........ .... ......... 24
PRUNING ....-.... ..---------.......-- ..---...... ..-----...--............ 25
PROPAGATION -- ......--------.. .......... .... ........ 25
Seed ...........--------------- -- ------............ .-.. -........... -...... ... 26
Cuttings ........-......................................................... 27
Layering .....---...... -.-----...... --............................ 29
Grafting ......-..-- - --..... .... .........................------ 29
PEST CONTROL .....-........ .- --..----- .......................... .---...... 31
Sprayers ---------------------------.---............................------------------------------------------------- 31
Sprayutioers .... ............ ........................... ........................................ 31
Precautions ...---..--..-...--........ --- ---....-....- 32
Insects and Spider M ites .......................................................................... 32
Summer Oil Emulsion Sprays ............ ................. ........--- -...... 33
Insect and Spider Mite Control Measures ............................................. 34
Diseases .... .................- ----------------- -.................. .................... 35
Diseases and Their Control .......-....---........-----......... .--...........-... 36










Growing Camellias in Florida


E. W. MCELWEE 1
Ornamental Horticulturist

Camellias are grown throughout northern Florida, to some
extent in the central sections, and to a very limited extent in the
southern portion of the state. Most varieties will require special
care to grow and flower successfully under the climatic and soil
conditions of lower central and southern Florida. The high
summer temperatures, periodic freezes during warm winters,
sandy soil, salt spray, and a high water table present many prob-
lems to challenge the Florida gardener.
These may seem more than a challenge to the new resident
who is gardening in Florida for the first time, but this excellent
plant can be grown successfully in Florida if a few basic cultural
requirements are satisfied.
The pronunciation of the word camellia is confused and varies
between and within areas where camellias are grown. Some
prefer ca-mell'-ia, others use ca-me'-lia, and still others say
ca-may'-lia. Either of the first two pronunciations is correct.
The camellia was named after the Jesuit priest, George Joseph
Kamel, camellia being the Latinized form of Kamel's name.
Some varieties may be listed under several names because they
have been given American, English, European, and Japanese
names.
The accepted common name for Camellia japonica is common
camellia. The name camellia technically should also include va-
rieties of C. sasanqua, C. reticulata and other species. Because
of popular usage, camellia will be used in this bulletin instead
of common camellia. The prefix "common" to a plant name does
not mean that it is cheap, plentiful, or uninteresting.

LANDSCAPE USES FOR CAMELLIAS
Camellias are outstanding for their mass color effect during
the flowering period; however, the effect of the foliage and

1This is a revision of Bulletin 161, Growing Camellias in Florida. Ap-
preciation is expressed to the other members of the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Stations who assisted in
preparing the material for this bulletin.








4 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

branch pattern during the other seasons of the year should not
be overlooked. Camellias are excellent and versatile landscape
plants. They are ideal for this purpose because they are ever-
green, have interesting shapes and textures, are relatively slow-
growing, and flower during fall and winter when their display
of color is most welcome. They are more difficult to grow and
cost a little more than some commonly used ornamental plants,
but are worth the expense and trouble. Imagine the striking
plantings that would result from using camellias to replace some
plants now used as hedges!
It is difficult to form a satisfactory landscape picture when
many specimen plants are scattered over the lawn with little
relation to the overall landscape plan. This type of arrange-
ment seldom forms a pleasing landscape picture because it
features plants rather than the home and its surroundings. An
enclosed garden is a logical arrangement for specimen plants
such as camellias. This area may then become a part of the

Fig. 1.-The Alba Plena is a long-time favorite white variety. It has
double blossoms.







Growing Camellias in Florida


landscape development without clashing with the interests of
adjacent areas.
Camellias are adapted to many landscape uses, including base
or foundation plants, mass, screen, and accent plantings, lawn
and background groupings, clipped and unclipped hedges, and
as tubbed specimens for use on the patio or in sun rooms. Sasan-
qua camellias are useful as espaliers for creating foliage patterns
on otherwise uninteresting fences and wall spaces. The slow
but strong-growing varieties should be selected for base, accent,
and hedge plantings. Varieties having a globose, sub-globose,
or irregular and spreading habit of growth are adapted to mass,
group, and unclipped hedge plantings. Varieties having a pyra-
midal or upright habit of growth are better suited for accent,
formal plantings, and clipped hedges (Fig. 2).
The single and semi-double varieties usually will produce more
pleasing effects in base plantings than those with massive flowers.
Strong or striking colors and color combinations usually should
not be used in the base planting. The base planting should
complement the building and should not attract undue atten-
tion to plants.
The texture of a plant-size, color, and density of leaves and
branches-is particularly useful in affecting space and distance
relationships. Fine-textured plants appear farther away and
coarse-textured plants appear closer when both are the same
distance from the observer. The coarse-textured plants are
usually better as background plantings while the fine-textured
selections are excellent for accent in the front of the border.
Landscape plantings give the camellia fan a use for many
less spectacular seedlings and plants that accumulate around the
home of the average camellia enthusiast. In other words, it
seems worth while to use some of these seedlings and selections
for landscape purposes rather than to graft all of them to the
more expensive varieties for specimen plants. What better com-
panion plant for the expensive plants could one find than a
single-flowered seedling?

COMMUNITY PLANTINGS
Community-wide planting of camellias will usually present a
better picture if the home owners will cooperate and unify their
individual plantings into an overall street development rather
than to have unrelated plantings on each property. In this type





































spreading; and (4) upright.







Growing Camellias in Florida


of street development, camellias usually will appear best when
used as mass plantings and singularly in the plantings bordering
the front area, against a background of other shrubs, rather
than as specimen plants in the lawn area.

COMPANION PLANTS
Plants of similar characteristics and habits that can be used to
enhance the appearance of camellias include the following species:
Azalea Hollies, most species
Banana-shrub Japanese cleyra
Blueberry Japanese photinia
Common sweet-shrub Japanese stewartia
Florida anistree Laurustinus
Gardenia Mountain-laurel
Osmanthus, all species

SELECTION OF VARIETIES
There are thousands of named varieties offered by commer-
cial nurseries. More are being introduced each year which come
from seedlings and sports. Plants can be selected to give flower
types from single to tiered or double, in colors of white, pink,
red, and combinations of these colors in numerous patterns.
They can be selected also for forms and shapes ranging from for-
mal and upright to irregular and spreading. Within these, one
can secure several degrees of texture from fine to coarse and
several shades of green foliage color. An important point to in-
sure success in growing camellias is to select adaptable varieties
and to buy only healthy, well-branched plants, free of insects
and diseases and with well-developed root systems.
In selecting for a succession of blooms, the midseason varieties
that bloom from November through January are better adapted
to Florida conditions than early and late varieties. The earlies
may not develop properly under the high fall temperatures.
Frequently, the late selections begin vegetative growth before
the end of the flowering season, which results in "bullheads",
poor quality, or shedding, and seriously limits their adaptability
for Florida gardens. Some may be injured and still present an
acceptable landscape effect, but such an effect is not the objective
of a good gardener.
A long list of varieties in this bulletin would serve only to
confuse the gardener in selecting varieties for his first venture







Growing Camellias in Florida


of street development, camellias usually will appear best when
used as mass plantings and singularly in the plantings bordering
the front area, against a background of other shrubs, rather
than as specimen plants in the lawn area.

COMPANION PLANTS
Plants of similar characteristics and habits that can be used to
enhance the appearance of camellias include the following species:
Azalea Hollies, most species
Banana-shrub Japanese cleyra
Blueberry Japanese photinia
Common sweet-shrub Japanese stewartia
Florida anistree Laurustinus
Gardenia Mountain-laurel
Osmanthus, all species

SELECTION OF VARIETIES
There are thousands of named varieties offered by commer-
cial nurseries. More are being introduced each year which come
from seedlings and sports. Plants can be selected to give flower
types from single to tiered or double, in colors of white, pink,
red, and combinations of these colors in numerous patterns.
They can be selected also for forms and shapes ranging from for-
mal and upright to irregular and spreading. Within these, one
can secure several degrees of texture from fine to coarse and
several shades of green foliage color. An important point to in-
sure success in growing camellias is to select adaptable varieties
and to buy only healthy, well-branched plants, free of insects
and diseases and with well-developed root systems.
In selecting for a succession of blooms, the midseason varieties
that bloom from November through January are better adapted
to Florida conditions than early and late varieties. The earlies
may not develop properly under the high fall temperatures.
Frequently, the late selections begin vegetative growth before
the end of the flowering season, which results in "bullheads",
poor quality, or shedding, and seriously limits their adaptability
for Florida gardens. Some may be injured and still present an
acceptable landscape effect, but such an effect is not the objective
of a good gardener.
A long list of varieties in this bulletin would serve only to
confuse the gardener in selecting varieties for his first venture












BEGINNER'S LIST OF CAMELLIAS FOR FLORIDA


No. Variety


WHITE

Alba Plena* .............

Purity .... .............

White Empress* ......


LIGHT PINK

4. Debutante* ........................

5. Pink Perfection* ............


DARK PINK

6. Elegans Pink ........ ........

7. Lady Clare (Empress)* ....

8 Rose Daw n ..........................

Floweri over a long period.
t Injured by 180F. temperature.


I I
Season Type of Shape of
of Bloom I Flower Plant


Early

Midseason
to late
Midseason




Early to
midseason
Early to
midseason



Midseason

Early

Midseason
to late


Imbricated
double
Imbricated
double
Semi-double]




SImbricated
double
Imbricated
double



Incomplete
double
Semi-double

Imbricated
double


Globose

Upright

Globose




Globose

Upright




Spreading

Spreading

Irregular


Rate of
Growth


Slow

Rapid

Rapid




Rapid

Slow




S Slow

Rapid

Medium


Bud
Damage
from Coldt


Remarks
|


Severe Adapted to
start.
Slight Young plan

Medium




Slight to Adapted to
medium Carnation-fl
Medium Favorite fo




Slight Often spott

Medium Flowers fal
opening.
Slight
I I


S. Fla. Slow to

ts flower.


S. Fla.
owered.
r many years.




ed with white.

1 soon after












No. Variety


RED

9. Kimberley .............--

10. Mathiotiana* .....-.....----

11. Prof. C. S. Sargent* ..--..

12. Prince Eugene Napoleon ..

13. Victor Emmanuel* ............


VARIEGATED

Adolphe Audusson Varieg.*

Elegans Varieg.* .............

Gigantea ...........---- ............

Governor Mouton .---....

Herme ............ .......... ........

Sweeti Vera ...-...................

Flowers over a long period.
t Injured by 18iF. temperature.


Season
of Bloom


Midseason

Midseason
to late
Early to
midseason
Midseason
to late
Late


Midseason

Midseason

Midseason

Midseason
to late
Midseason

Midseason


Type of
Flower


SSingle

Imbricated
double
Irregular
double
SImbricated
double
SIncomplete
double



Semi-double

Irregular
double
Incomplete
double
Irregular
double
Incomplete
double
Incomplete
double


Shape of Rate of
Plant Growth


Upright

Upright

Upright

Upright

Globose




Upright

Upright

Irregular

Upright

Upright

Irregular


Rapid

Rapid

Rapid

Medium

Slow




Weak

Slow

Rapid

Rapid

-Slow

Rapid


-nua


I Bua
I Damage
I from Coldt


Slight

Heavy

Slight

Medium

Severe




Medium

Slight

Heavy

Medium

Heavy

ISlight


Remarks




SVery hardy.

Very popular.

Adapted to S. Fla. Grows in
sun. Free-flowering.
Free-flowering, good keeper.


Very striking flowers.

Young plants flower.

Very large flowers.
Adapted to S. Fla.
First class variety. Some
solid red flowers.
Adapted to S. Fla. Young
plants flower, fragrant.
Large white and pale pink
flowers. Adapted to S. Fla.


.


c-~-----~----








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


into growing camellias. There is little doubt that the beginner
who is successful in growing his first camellia will get the "bug"
and progress to a wider selection of varieties, including those
that are difficult to grow. More complete listings and descrip-
tions of varieties are available in other publications. It is
realized that personal preferences and experience would cause
one to change or add to almost any list. The experience of com-
mercial nurserymen, more than 25 camellia growers, and many
home owners, indicates that varieties listed in the Beginner's
List are generally adapted to Florida conditions and will pro-
duce flowers in different colors and forms, more consistently
than many of the selections used in other sections of the
South.
Some home owners include the following in their selection of
varieties for Florida conditions:


C. M. Hovey
C. M. Wilson
Colletti
Daikagura
Donckelari
Gloire de Nantes (S. Fla.)


Lady Marion
Lallarook (S. Fla.)
Lady Mary Cromartie
Mrs. Charles Cobb
Rev. John Drayton
Semi-double Blush


The following varieties are suggested for some of the many
landscape uses for which camellias are adapted:


Base Plantings
Alba Plena
Appleblossom (S)
Cleopatra (S)
Colletti
Dawn (S)
Elegans Pink


Clipped Hedge
Appleblossom (S)
Cheerful
Cleopatra (S)
Dawn (S)
Prof. C. S. Sargent
Tricolor


Unclipped Hodge
and Screens
Appleblossom (S)
Cheerful
Cleopatra (S)
Dawn (S)
Herme
Tricolor


Informal Plantings
Elegans Pink
Gigantea
Jarvis Red
Lady Clare
Leucantha
Prince Eugene Napoleon
Sweeti Vera

(S)-Variety of sasanqua camellia.


Mass and Background
Debutante
Gigantea
Governor Mouton
Lady Clare
Mrs. Charles Cobb
Victor Emmanuel
White Empress








Growing Camellias in Florida


SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE
Another step in growing camellias is the selection of a site
that will supply as nearly ideal conditions as possible for their
growth. A location that provides these basic cultural needs
will enable the plant to withstand some adverse conditions. The
selection of a good planting site will save time and expense in
preparing a poor site and will aid in producing healthy plants
and flowers.
Cultural factors that should be considered are the selection
of a partially shaded area, protected from cold winds and with
good water and air drainage. If the soil is naturally fertile,
high in organic matter, and acid in reaction, so much the better;
but if not, it should be so prepared to provide these important
requirements.
SOILS
Camellias are being grown successfully on a wide range of
soils, which vary from sands to clays, mucks, and peats. Many
of the cultural problems can be attributed to failure to properly
prepare the soil or an unsatisfactory location. The soil may
require the addition of liberal amounts of organic matter. The
reaction of the soil may need adjusting if not within the range
of pH 5.0 to 6.5, the ideal range being pH 5.0 to 5.5.

PROTECTION
The site should have good air drainage; it should not be so
low that cold air settles in the area, but cold air should drain
away from it. However, the area should be protected from
cold winds. Trees, such as pines, that give a light shade or
shade early in the morning will aid in reducing cold damage.
Locations on the north or west of a house or shaded area usually
will show less cold damage because they are usually shaded
early in the morning and thaw or warm gradually before being
exposed to full sunlight. Plants in these locations usually go
dormant earlier and remain dormant later than plantings in
more exposed positions on the south side of buildings.
Too much shade may result in sparse foliage and poor growth
and flowering. Plants in full sunlight usually have light or
yellow-green color, but many produce more flowers than those
grown in full shade.








Growing Camellias in Florida


SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE
Another step in growing camellias is the selection of a site
that will supply as nearly ideal conditions as possible for their
growth. A location that provides these basic cultural needs
will enable the plant to withstand some adverse conditions. The
selection of a good planting site will save time and expense in
preparing a poor site and will aid in producing healthy plants
and flowers.
Cultural factors that should be considered are the selection
of a partially shaded area, protected from cold winds and with
good water and air drainage. If the soil is naturally fertile,
high in organic matter, and acid in reaction, so much the better;
but if not, it should be so prepared to provide these important
requirements.
SOILS
Camellias are being grown successfully on a wide range of
soils, which vary from sands to clays, mucks, and peats. Many
of the cultural problems can be attributed to failure to properly
prepare the soil or an unsatisfactory location. The soil may
require the addition of liberal amounts of organic matter. The
reaction of the soil may need adjusting if not within the range
of pH 5.0 to 6.5, the ideal range being pH 5.0 to 5.5.

PROTECTION
The site should have good air drainage; it should not be so
low that cold air settles in the area, but cold air should drain
away from it. However, the area should be protected from
cold winds. Trees, such as pines, that give a light shade or
shade early in the morning will aid in reducing cold damage.
Locations on the north or west of a house or shaded area usually
will show less cold damage because they are usually shaded
early in the morning and thaw or warm gradually before being
exposed to full sunlight. Plants in these locations usually go
dormant earlier and remain dormant later than plantings in
more exposed positions on the south side of buildings.
Too much shade may result in sparse foliage and poor growth
and flowering. Plants in full sunlight usually have light or
yellow-green color, but many produce more flowers than those
grown in full shade.








Growing Camellias in Florida


SELECTION OF PLANTING SITE
Another step in growing camellias is the selection of a site
that will supply as nearly ideal conditions as possible for their
growth. A location that provides these basic cultural needs
will enable the plant to withstand some adverse conditions. The
selection of a good planting site will save time and expense in
preparing a poor site and will aid in producing healthy plants
and flowers.
Cultural factors that should be considered are the selection
of a partially shaded area, protected from cold winds and with
good water and air drainage. If the soil is naturally fertile,
high in organic matter, and acid in reaction, so much the better;
but if not, it should be so prepared to provide these important
requirements.
SOILS
Camellias are being grown successfully on a wide range of
soils, which vary from sands to clays, mucks, and peats. Many
of the cultural problems can be attributed to failure to properly
prepare the soil or an unsatisfactory location. The soil may
require the addition of liberal amounts of organic matter. The
reaction of the soil may need adjusting if not within the range
of pH 5.0 to 6.5, the ideal range being pH 5.0 to 5.5.

PROTECTION
The site should have good air drainage; it should not be so
low that cold air settles in the area, but cold air should drain
away from it. However, the area should be protected from
cold winds. Trees, such as pines, that give a light shade or
shade early in the morning will aid in reducing cold damage.
Locations on the north or west of a house or shaded area usually
will show less cold damage because they are usually shaded
early in the morning and thaw or warm gradually before being
exposed to full sunlight. Plants in these locations usually go
dormant earlier and remain dormant later than plantings in
more exposed positions on the south side of buildings.
Too much shade may result in sparse foliage and poor growth
and flowering. Plants in full sunlight usually have light or
yellow-green color, but many produce more flowers than those
grown in full shade.








Types and Forms of


Single


Incomplete
double or
anemone form


Semi-double


Irregular
double or
peony form







Camellia Flowers


Imbricated
double or
rose form



















Tiered or
formal
double












Regular
imbricated
or double
i/ formal double







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


DRAINAGE
The site should be well-drained. Poor drainage not only may
cause severe root damage during wet weather but may result
in a shallow root system, which causes the plant to be more
subject to injury during dry weather than one with a well-
developed root system. If a hardpan is close to the surface,
it is important either to break through the hardpan or to provide
artificially some means of drainage. It is a poor practice to
plant camellias so that they are growing on a mound. These
plants are difficult to water and are more subject to injury dur-
ing dry weather.

PREPARATION OF SOIL
The time to prepare for the extensive spread of the root sys-
tem is before planting. It is better to prepare the entire bed
where several camellias are to be grouped than to prepare a
restricted hole for each plant. The bed should be prepared by
first removing poor or packed soil and soil that contains cement,
sand, or other debris left from construction work. The second
step is to add up to 6 inches of organic matter. Superphos-
phate, a complete fertilizer, and acidifying agent should be added
as needed. These materials should then be mixed thoroughly
with the top 12 to 18 inches of soil.
The holes for individual plants should be dug about twice as
wide as the ball of soil or spread of the root system. Soil used
for filling should be prepared in bulk before planting begins.
This soil mixture can be prepared by adding to a good garden
soil 1/3 to 1/2 peat or other organic matter by volume, complete
fertilizer, and acidifying agent as required by the particular soil.
IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER
Select the most inexpensive organic material available and
use more of it. Peat, leafmold, peanut hulls, well-rotted saw-
dust, well-rotted manure, and decomposed ramie, grass, and straw
have all been used successfully in soils for camellias. The organic
material or combination of materials should not pack and should
add humus to hold water and fertilizer nutrients. At the same
time, this organic matter should contain enough coarse material
to promote aeration of this soil and movement of water into
the soil.
The question may arise as to the possible detrimental effects
of resin in pine sawdust and the beneficial effects of tannic acid







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


DRAINAGE
The site should be well-drained. Poor drainage not only may
cause severe root damage during wet weather but may result
in a shallow root system, which causes the plant to be more
subject to injury during dry weather than one with a well-
developed root system. If a hardpan is close to the surface,
it is important either to break through the hardpan or to provide
artificially some means of drainage. It is a poor practice to
plant camellias so that they are growing on a mound. These
plants are difficult to water and are more subject to injury dur-
ing dry weather.

PREPARATION OF SOIL
The time to prepare for the extensive spread of the root sys-
tem is before planting. It is better to prepare the entire bed
where several camellias are to be grouped than to prepare a
restricted hole for each plant. The bed should be prepared by
first removing poor or packed soil and soil that contains cement,
sand, or other debris left from construction work. The second
step is to add up to 6 inches of organic matter. Superphos-
phate, a complete fertilizer, and acidifying agent should be added
as needed. These materials should then be mixed thoroughly
with the top 12 to 18 inches of soil.
The holes for individual plants should be dug about twice as
wide as the ball of soil or spread of the root system. Soil used
for filling should be prepared in bulk before planting begins.
This soil mixture can be prepared by adding to a good garden
soil 1/3 to 1/2 peat or other organic matter by volume, complete
fertilizer, and acidifying agent as required by the particular soil.
IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER
Select the most inexpensive organic material available and
use more of it. Peat, leafmold, peanut hulls, well-rotted saw-
dust, well-rotted manure, and decomposed ramie, grass, and straw
have all been used successfully in soils for camellias. The organic
material or combination of materials should not pack and should
add humus to hold water and fertilizer nutrients. At the same
time, this organic matter should contain enough coarse material
to promote aeration of this soil and movement of water into
the soil.
The question may arise as to the possible detrimental effects
of resin in pine sawdust and the beneficial effects of tannic acid







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


DRAINAGE
The site should be well-drained. Poor drainage not only may
cause severe root damage during wet weather but may result
in a shallow root system, which causes the plant to be more
subject to injury during dry weather than one with a well-
developed root system. If a hardpan is close to the surface,
it is important either to break through the hardpan or to provide
artificially some means of drainage. It is a poor practice to
plant camellias so that they are growing on a mound. These
plants are difficult to water and are more subject to injury dur-
ing dry weather.

PREPARATION OF SOIL
The time to prepare for the extensive spread of the root sys-
tem is before planting. It is better to prepare the entire bed
where several camellias are to be grouped than to prepare a
restricted hole for each plant. The bed should be prepared by
first removing poor or packed soil and soil that contains cement,
sand, or other debris left from construction work. The second
step is to add up to 6 inches of organic matter. Superphos-
phate, a complete fertilizer, and acidifying agent should be added
as needed. These materials should then be mixed thoroughly
with the top 12 to 18 inches of soil.
The holes for individual plants should be dug about twice as
wide as the ball of soil or spread of the root system. Soil used
for filling should be prepared in bulk before planting begins.
This soil mixture can be prepared by adding to a good garden
soil 1/3 to 1/2 peat or other organic matter by volume, complete
fertilizer, and acidifying agent as required by the particular soil.
IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER
Select the most inexpensive organic material available and
use more of it. Peat, leafmold, peanut hulls, well-rotted saw-
dust, well-rotted manure, and decomposed ramie, grass, and straw
have all been used successfully in soils for camellias. The organic
material or combination of materials should not pack and should
add humus to hold water and fertilizer nutrients. At the same
time, this organic matter should contain enough coarse material
to promote aeration of this soil and movement of water into
the soil.
The question may arise as to the possible detrimental effects
of resin in pine sawdust and the beneficial effects of tannic acid







Growing Camellias in Florida


in oak sawdust on the growth of camellias. The usual amounts
of pine sawdust do not add enough resin to be harmful, and the
amount of tannic acid added by oak sawdust does not materially
affect the acidity of the soil. The sawdust may be partially
decomposed to reduce nitrogen deficiency in plants grown in
sawdust mixtures. Bacterial decomposition of the sawdust tem-
porarily uses up the nitrogen. This condition can be remedied
by light but frequent applications of a nitrogenous fertilizer,
about 1/4 pound of ammonium nitrate or 1/2 pound of ammonium
sulfate per 100 square feet of area or 2 tablespoonfuls for a three-
to four-foot plant every two to three weeks.

SOIL REACTION
The ideal soil reaction or pH for camellias, as far as the avail-
ability of nutrients and plant growth is concerned, lies between
pH 5.0 and 5.5. They will grow in soils with a reaction from
pH 3.5 to pH 6.5 without undue detrimental effects if other
conditions are satisfactory. There is little reason for the gar-
dener to worry about the soil reaction until it drops below pH
4.5 or rises above pH 6.5.
There are several chemicals and mixtures used for changing
the soil reaction. The choice of material depends on preference,
care used in applying the material, and how rapidly one wishes
to change the condition of the soil. In some instances only a
slight change in reaction is needed, and the use of acid peat in
the soil and as a mulch plus acid-forming fertilizers usually will
do the trick. If the soil or water is alkaline or "sweet", above
pH 7.0, repeated applications of an acidifying agent will be re-
quired to obtain the desired reaction.
Sulfur is about three times as strong in acidifying properties
as ammonium sulfate. It does not change the reaction of the soil
as rapidly, but it is effective for a longer time. Sulfur does not
tie up nutrients as completely as does aluminum sulfate. It will
cause root injury, however, if too much is applied or it is not
properly mixed with or watered into the soil. The coarse grade,
flowers of sulfur, may be used, but the finely-ground dusting
(325-mesh) or wettable grades of sulfur are more satisfactory,
as they act more quickly and are more easily incorporated into
the soil.
Care must be exercised in using sulfur to acidify the soil.
Heavy applications will cause severe injury to the roots of plants.
It is usually not safe to use more than 1 pound of sulfur per








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


100 square feet or 1/2 pound per cubic yard of soil when plants
are to be set or potted immediately. If a higher rate is needed
to lower the pH, the sulfur should be split into several applica-
tions or mixed with the soil, watered thoroughly, and allowed
to stand or "age" for about two weeks before being used for
planting or potting.
Recent experimental work has shown that camellias make
poor growth when the level of calcium and magnesium in the
soil is low. It has been demonstrated that the use of dolomite
in the soil or as a top-dressing around established plants not
only improves growth but increases cold resistance. Dolomite
is useful also in raising a very low pH to increase the availability
of other nutrients. In situations where calcium is low, but the
pH is at a satisfactory level, gypsum may be substituted for
dolomite. Soils containing peat or organic matter should con-
tain at least 600 pounds per acre of calcium oxide and 150 pounds
of magnesium oxide.
The table below shows the amounts of sulfur, acidifying mix-
ture, and dolomite required to change the reaction of an average
Florida soil.

APPROXIMATE AMOUNT OF MATERIALS REQUIRED TO CHANGE
THE REACTION OF SOME SOILS

Pounds per 100 Square Feet* to Change
pH of the Soil Acidity to pH 5.2 for
I Sandy Soil Loam Soil Muck or Peat
Add sulfur or acidifying mixture to lower pH to 5.2

7.0 2 3 6
6.5 1 2 5
6.0 1 2 4

Add dolomitic lime to raise pH to 5.2

4.5 2 3 7
4.0 4 7 15
3.5 7 10 23

For a wheelbarrow of soil (2/2 bu.) add 1/15 of above amounts.
For a square yard of area (9 sq. ft.) add 1/10 of above amounts.
For a cubic yard of soil (27 cu. ft.) add 1/2 of above amounts.








Growing Camellias in Florida


PLANTING
This detailed procedure is intended more for the beginner
than for the experienced camellia fancier. Care in preparation
of the soil and in the transplanting operation will result in better
plant growth.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT
It is better to transplant during the dormant season, Novem-
ber to February, as root growth during the dormant season
enables the plant to become better established and make better
growth during the first year than would be possible from late
planting. Camellias can be transplanted in late spring, summer,
or fall if the gardener will give extra care and protection neces-
sary to compensate for the more unfavorable conditions. Con-
tainer-grown plants can be transplanted at any time of the year.
One should handle the plants carefully to retain as many roots
as possible and to reduce the loss of water from the plant. An-
other important point in transplanting is to prune the top to
reduce it in proportion to the reduced root system. Spraying
with a wax emulsion before transplanting, use of mist, shade,
mulch, and water after transplanting all help to reduce the shock
to the plant.
SPACING AND DEPTH OF PLANTING
Camellias should be spaced according to their size and rate of
growth to allow the full and natural development of the plant,
usually at least five or more feet apart.
Camellias should be planted so that the root system will be
no deeper than it was in the container or nursery row. The soil
mixture used under the plants should contain less organic mat-
ter than the soil used around the plant. The decomposition of
an organic matter may allow the plant to settle, resulting in
poor growth. Some gardeners leave a cone of undisturbed earth
in the center of the hole on which to set the plant to prevent
settling (Fig. 3).

TRANSPLANTING FROM CLAY OR MUCK
Camellias grown in muck or clay soil may grow poorly when
transplanted into a sandy soil. Once clay or muck is dry, it
is difficult to wet. The water usually follows the line of least
resistance and flows off into the sandy soil rather than into the
soil around the roots. Some practice should be followed that will
facilitate getting water to the roots. One method is to care-








Growing Camellias in Florida


PLANTING
This detailed procedure is intended more for the beginner
than for the experienced camellia fancier. Care in preparation
of the soil and in the transplanting operation will result in better
plant growth.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT
It is better to transplant during the dormant season, Novem-
ber to February, as root growth during the dormant season
enables the plant to become better established and make better
growth during the first year than would be possible from late
planting. Camellias can be transplanted in late spring, summer,
or fall if the gardener will give extra care and protection neces-
sary to compensate for the more unfavorable conditions. Con-
tainer-grown plants can be transplanted at any time of the year.
One should handle the plants carefully to retain as many roots
as possible and to reduce the loss of water from the plant. An-
other important point in transplanting is to prune the top to
reduce it in proportion to the reduced root system. Spraying
with a wax emulsion before transplanting, use of mist, shade,
mulch, and water after transplanting all help to reduce the shock
to the plant.
SPACING AND DEPTH OF PLANTING
Camellias should be spaced according to their size and rate of
growth to allow the full and natural development of the plant,
usually at least five or more feet apart.
Camellias should be planted so that the root system will be
no deeper than it was in the container or nursery row. The soil
mixture used under the plants should contain less organic mat-
ter than the soil used around the plant. The decomposition of
an organic matter may allow the plant to settle, resulting in
poor growth. Some gardeners leave a cone of undisturbed earth
in the center of the hole on which to set the plant to prevent
settling (Fig. 3).

TRANSPLANTING FROM CLAY OR MUCK
Camellias grown in muck or clay soil may grow poorly when
transplanted into a sandy soil. Once clay or muck is dry, it
is difficult to wet. The water usually follows the line of least
resistance and flows off into the sandy soil rather than into the
soil around the roots. Some practice should be followed that will
facilitate getting water to the roots. One method is to care-








Growing Camellias in Florida


PLANTING
This detailed procedure is intended more for the beginner
than for the experienced camellia fancier. Care in preparation
of the soil and in the transplanting operation will result in better
plant growth.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT
It is better to transplant during the dormant season, Novem-
ber to February, as root growth during the dormant season
enables the plant to become better established and make better
growth during the first year than would be possible from late
planting. Camellias can be transplanted in late spring, summer,
or fall if the gardener will give extra care and protection neces-
sary to compensate for the more unfavorable conditions. Con-
tainer-grown plants can be transplanted at any time of the year.
One should handle the plants carefully to retain as many roots
as possible and to reduce the loss of water from the plant. An-
other important point in transplanting is to prune the top to
reduce it in proportion to the reduced root system. Spraying
with a wax emulsion before transplanting, use of mist, shade,
mulch, and water after transplanting all help to reduce the shock
to the plant.
SPACING AND DEPTH OF PLANTING
Camellias should be spaced according to their size and rate of
growth to allow the full and natural development of the plant,
usually at least five or more feet apart.
Camellias should be planted so that the root system will be
no deeper than it was in the container or nursery row. The soil
mixture used under the plants should contain less organic mat-
ter than the soil used around the plant. The decomposition of
an organic matter may allow the plant to settle, resulting in
poor growth. Some gardeners leave a cone of undisturbed earth
in the center of the hole on which to set the plant to prevent
settling (Fig. 3).

TRANSPLANTING FROM CLAY OR MUCK
Camellias grown in muck or clay soil may grow poorly when
transplanted into a sandy soil. Once clay or muck is dry, it
is difficult to wet. The water usually follows the line of least
resistance and flows off into the sandy soil rather than into the
soil around the roots. Some practice should be followed that will
facilitate getting water to the roots. One method is to care-








Growing Camellias in Florida


PLANTING
This detailed procedure is intended more for the beginner
than for the experienced camellia fancier. Care in preparation
of the soil and in the transplanting operation will result in better
plant growth.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT
It is better to transplant during the dormant season, Novem-
ber to February, as root growth during the dormant season
enables the plant to become better established and make better
growth during the first year than would be possible from late
planting. Camellias can be transplanted in late spring, summer,
or fall if the gardener will give extra care and protection neces-
sary to compensate for the more unfavorable conditions. Con-
tainer-grown plants can be transplanted at any time of the year.
One should handle the plants carefully to retain as many roots
as possible and to reduce the loss of water from the plant. An-
other important point in transplanting is to prune the top to
reduce it in proportion to the reduced root system. Spraying
with a wax emulsion before transplanting, use of mist, shade,
mulch, and water after transplanting all help to reduce the shock
to the plant.
SPACING AND DEPTH OF PLANTING
Camellias should be spaced according to their size and rate of
growth to allow the full and natural development of the plant,
usually at least five or more feet apart.
Camellias should be planted so that the root system will be
no deeper than it was in the container or nursery row. The soil
mixture used under the plants should contain less organic mat-
ter than the soil used around the plant. The decomposition of
an organic matter may allow the plant to settle, resulting in
poor growth. Some gardeners leave a cone of undisturbed earth
in the center of the hole on which to set the plant to prevent
settling (Fig. 3).

TRANSPLANTING FROM CLAY OR MUCK
Camellias grown in muck or clay soil may grow poorly when
transplanted into a sandy soil. Once clay or muck is dry, it
is difficult to wet. The water usually follows the line of least
resistance and flows off into the sandy soil rather than into the
soil around the roots. Some practice should be followed that will
facilitate getting water to the roots. One method is to care-


































Fig. 3.-Planting camellias. Settling can be reduced by: (1) leaving an undisturbed mound of soil under the plant; or
(2) firmly compacting soil low in organic matter under it. (3) To facilitate wetting the clay or muck, the top of the ball
can be flattened and edges of the ball loosened. (4) The soil can be removed and the plant set "bare-root". (5) The proper
steps in transplanting are: (a) partially fill and firm the soil at sufficient height to place the plant at the proper depth;
(b and c) repeat partial filling, settling with water; and (d) leave saucer-shaped depression on top, and mulch.







Growing Camellias in Florida


fully wash the muck or soil off the roots and transplant "bare
root" into prepared soil. A second method is to place the plant
in the hole at the proper depth and carefully loosen the com-
pacted edge of the ball and remove the rounded top of the ball
to improve the chances of wetting the soil. A third method
is to loosen the compacted soil by forcing a stream of water
into it. This may be a poor practice, as the stream of water
may destroy many small roots as it breaks the soil away from
the larger roots.

THE PLANTING OPERATION
In setting the plant the hole should be partially filled with
the soil mixture, which is then settled among the roots or around
the ball by soaking with water rather than by packing. The
same procedure may be used for planting "bare root" plants
except that the soil should be carefully worked between the
roots with the hands or by gently shaking the plant up and
down before the soil is finally settled by watering. Repeat the
filling and watering process until the hole is filled and the top
shaped to a saucer-like depression to facilitate watering the
plant. The mulch should be applied before the final watering
to retain the loose soil surface and to promote better aeration
and water penetration into the soil (Fig. 3).

FERTILIZATION
The fertilization recommendations for camellias, in many
cases, have been unduly complicated with special azalea and
camellia mixtures. These fertilizers have been widely used and
have given good results, but they are often quite expensive as
compared to the same grades of garden fertilizers. If the re-
action of the soil is at the desired level, or if it is corrected, the
cheaper grades of acid-forming fertilizer such as 6-6-6 or 8-8-8
can be used effectively. The nitrogen of a fertilizer high in or-
ganics may be more slowly available than the nitrogen from
chemical sources, but it is usually more expensive. The relative
merits of an organic fertilizer as compared to a chemical fertilizer
depend on whether or not the slow availability and less frequent
application of the organic fertilizer can justify the extra cost.
Leaching of some fertilizer nutrients, particularly nitrogen
and potash, may be quite rapid in sandy soils. As compared to
the heavier soils of other sections, sandy soils have less ability
to retain fertilizer nutrients. This indicates that light but fre-







Growing Camellias in Florida


fully wash the muck or soil off the roots and transplant "bare
root" into prepared soil. A second method is to place the plant
in the hole at the proper depth and carefully loosen the com-
pacted edge of the ball and remove the rounded top of the ball
to improve the chances of wetting the soil. A third method
is to loosen the compacted soil by forcing a stream of water
into it. This may be a poor practice, as the stream of water
may destroy many small roots as it breaks the soil away from
the larger roots.

THE PLANTING OPERATION
In setting the plant the hole should be partially filled with
the soil mixture, which is then settled among the roots or around
the ball by soaking with water rather than by packing. The
same procedure may be used for planting "bare root" plants
except that the soil should be carefully worked between the
roots with the hands or by gently shaking the plant up and
down before the soil is finally settled by watering. Repeat the
filling and watering process until the hole is filled and the top
shaped to a saucer-like depression to facilitate watering the
plant. The mulch should be applied before the final watering
to retain the loose soil surface and to promote better aeration
and water penetration into the soil (Fig. 3).

FERTILIZATION
The fertilization recommendations for camellias, in many
cases, have been unduly complicated with special azalea and
camellia mixtures. These fertilizers have been widely used and
have given good results, but they are often quite expensive as
compared to the same grades of garden fertilizers. If the re-
action of the soil is at the desired level, or if it is corrected, the
cheaper grades of acid-forming fertilizer such as 6-6-6 or 8-8-8
can be used effectively. The nitrogen of a fertilizer high in or-
ganics may be more slowly available than the nitrogen from
chemical sources, but it is usually more expensive. The relative
merits of an organic fertilizer as compared to a chemical fertilizer
depend on whether or not the slow availability and less frequent
application of the organic fertilizer can justify the extra cost.
Leaching of some fertilizer nutrients, particularly nitrogen
and potash, may be quite rapid in sandy soils. As compared to
the heavier soils of other sections, sandy soils have less ability
to retain fertilizer nutrients. This indicates that light but fre-







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


quent applications of fertilizers should be made to ornamental
plants in most sections of Florida. Experimental work in Ala-
bama has shown that camellias can utilize rather heavy rates
of fertilizer when it is split into several applications. The best
results were obtained from the use of 4 pounds of a complete
fertilizer divided in four applications of about 1 pound per 100
square feet of area for each application. This is equivalent to
using about 2,000 pounds per acre.
When and How to Apply.-In preparing soil for planting, the
fertilizer should be added and mixed along with the peat or other
organic matter. In new, fertile soil only superphosphate may
be required. For other soils a complete fertilizer, such as 6-6-6
or 8-8-8, should be added. Both of these materials may be used
at the rate of 3 to 4 pounds per 100 square feet of area, l1/2 to
2 pounds per cubic yard, or 1/4 pint per wheelbarrow of soil.
During the growing season a complete fertilizer, such as
6-6-6 or 8-8-8, should be used at the rate of about 1 to 11/
pounds per 100 square feet of area, 2 to 3 ounces per square
yard of area, or 2 to 3 tablespoonfuls for a 3 to 4 foot plant for
each of 4 applications. It is recommended that the applications
be timed as follows: (1) before growth starts in the spring, to
supply the first flush of growth; (2) after the first flush of
growth has begun to harden, in April or May, to supply the
second flush of growth; (3) in mid-summer, to replace fertilizer
leached by the summer rains and to maintain growth; and (4)
in early winter after the danger of late growth is past, to en-
courage root growth during the dormant season.
The fertilizer should be applied uniformly to the area under
and slightly beyond the spread of the branches of the plant. The
effectiveness of the fertilizer for large or old plants can be in-
creased by applying in holes 8 to 12 inches deep scattered uni-
formly over the area under the plant. In either case, water the
plant before and after applying the fertilizer to protect roots
and aid in getting the fertilizer into the root zone.
APPROXIMATE MEASURES OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS

II
Material ..................... 1 pint 1 pound 1 ounce
Sulfur .......................... 3/ lb. 1%/ pints 3 tablespoons
6-6-6 I
Ammonium sulfate
Iron sulfate ................ 1 lb. 1 pint 2 tablespoons
Dolomite







Growing Camellias in Florida


Use of Acidifiers.-In addition to using acid-forming ferti-
lizers, it may be desirable to use an acidifying agent to maintain
an optimum pH range. Sulfur or a mixture of 3 parts of
dusting sulfur and 1 part of finely-ground iron sulfate is a good
acidifying agent for camellias. The mixture not only acidifies
the soil but supplies iron that is deficient in some Florida soils.
A variation of this mixture that may be used when the plants
need additional nitrogen consists of substituting 1 part of am-
monium sulfate for 1 part of sulfur in the above mixture, or
by mixing 2 parts of sulfur, 1 part of iron sulfate, and 1
part of ammonium sulfate. Sulfur and mixtures containing sul-
fur should not be used around living plants more often than
two or three times per year, and at least six to eight weeks
should elapse between applications. It is not safe to use more
than 1 pound per 100 square feet or 2 ounces per square yard
per application. The plants should be watered thoroughly before
and after applying the acidifying agent.
Aluminum sulfate has been widely used to acidify soils for
camellias, but this material has several undesirable character-
istics. It changes the acidity of the soil quite rapidly, but the
effect is short-lived. A heavy application or the continued use
of this material may tie up phosphorus and certain other nu-
trients to the point of reducing growth. Furthermore, relatively
small concentrations of free aluminum may cause root injury.
Excess aluminum in the soil may be neutralized with superphos-
phate or gypsum.
NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES
Occasionally, chlorotic plants may appear, chiefly on the
coastal soils slightly acid or alkaline in reaction. This condition
can usually be attributed to a deficiency or unavailability of
one or more of the necessary nutrients or minor elements, iron,
manganese, magnesium, or zinc. It is difficult to distinguish or
separate the symptoms of deficiencies of these nutrients. This
chlorosis or condition can be temporarily corrected with a nutri-
tional spray, but the soil also should be treated.
A nutritional spray can be made by using 2 ounces each of
ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, and zinc sulfate in 3 gallons
of water and adding a paste of 3 ounces of hydrated lime. Add
about 1 teaspoonful of a detergent per gallon to increase the
wetting and spreading qualities of the spray.
This spray can be used also for the soil application. A mix-
ture of minor elements for applying dry to the soil may be made







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


by mixing 4 parts of magnesium sulfate, 1 part of manganese
sulfate, 1 part of iron sulfate and 1 part of sulfur. This material
is used at the rate of about 1 ounce or 2 teaspoonfuls per 3 to 4
foot plant or 1 to 11/2 pounds per 100 square feet of area.
There are several commercial mixtures of minor elements on
the market for use as nutritional sprays or for treating the soil.
These should be used as recommended by the manufacturer,
since concentrations of the mixture and material differ.
Chelated iron may be used to correct iron deficiency in the soil.
Concentrations of different commercial formulations of this
material vary, and the recommendations of the manufacturer
should be followed. Generally, 1 ounce of 12 percent or 2 ounces
of 6 percent chelated iron per 100 square feet of area or 25
gallons of water is adequate. The EDTA iron chelates have been
effective in correcting this trouble.

MULCHING
There is little doubt that mulching is a worthwhile gardening
practice in Florida. However, a brief summary of some of the
benefits derived from its use may serve to emphasize the im-
portance of this practice.
Ideally, a mulch material should stay in place, break down
slowly, be easy to wet, and remain loose. A mulch increases
aeration and water penetration into the soil. It is more effective
if the soil is not compact before it is applied. A mulch reduces
evaporation, moderates soil temperatures, and lessens compaction
and weeds. Decomposition of the mulch adds humus to the soil
and improves granulation. A soil that is properly prepared and
mulched does not require cultivation. Cultivation may destroy
many feeder roots. These roots are also more easily injured by
fertilizers than the deeper roots. The water-fertilizer-water pro-
cedure also pays dividends in less root and foliage damage to
the plants.
Many types of material have been used successfully as
mulches for camellias. Such materials as pine straw, shredded
cypress bark, peanut hulls, cane bagasse, straw, and leaves that
normally do not lie flat or pack usually are better mulch materials
than peat or fine sawdust. Other materials used include saw-
dust, leaves, peat, sawdust-peat mixtures, and pine bark. Some
growers do not like sawdust because they feel that it encourages
termites to attack plants.







Growing Camellias in Florida


WATERING
Florida's climate may be quite dry, especially during winter
months, even with an average annual rainfall of 50 inches. The
sandy nature of many Florida soils further complicates the situ-
ation, and dry weather may be more injurious to plant growth
than the same conditions on the heavier soils. It takes less
water to wet a sandy soil, but sand loses water more quickly
than the heavier soil types.
Each individual should determine for his particular soil how
long it should be irrigated to wet to a depth of 14 to 18 inches.
Moisten the soil to this depth each time water is applied and
then allow the soil to dry out before watering again. Camellias
maintained in this manner usually need watering only every
10 days to 2 weeks during dry weather. This practice encour-
ages the deep roots to grow rather than those near the surface,
which are likely to dry out. Watering lightly and frequently
may cause unsatisfactory plant growth in several ways:
(1) The soil in most of the root zone may not be wet at all, and
the plant may suffer for lack of water even though watered
daily. (2) Watering lightly may cause roots near the surface
to develop and to be more subject to drought or adverse condi-
tions. Many cases of drought injury have been noted on plants
handled in this manner. (3) Keeping the surface constantly wet
may reduce the areation of the soil to the point of causing root
injury.
WINTER PROTECTION
The susceptibility of camellias to cold injury varies with age
and vigor of the plant, variety, stage of maturity of wood and
buds, protection, and severity of the cold. Sudden drops in the
temperature to 18 to 240F. in fall or early winter may injure
camellias worse than the same temperature during January or
early February. Temperatures that drop gradually over a period
of 24 to 48 hours usually cause less damage than rapid drops in
temperature. Hardy varieties will withstand about 20 degrees
lower temperature than will very tender varieties.
Healthy plants are also more resistant to cold than diseased
or unhealthy plants. Older plants are usually not hurt by cold
as much as young plants. Plants making rapid and vigorous
growth may be damaged more than dormant plants. Watering
the plants thoroughly before cold weather may also increase cold
resistance. Mature buds are less likely to become a casualty







Growing Camellias in Florida


WATERING
Florida's climate may be quite dry, especially during winter
months, even with an average annual rainfall of 50 inches. The
sandy nature of many Florida soils further complicates the situ-
ation, and dry weather may be more injurious to plant growth
than the same conditions on the heavier soils. It takes less
water to wet a sandy soil, but sand loses water more quickly
than the heavier soil types.
Each individual should determine for his particular soil how
long it should be irrigated to wet to a depth of 14 to 18 inches.
Moisten the soil to this depth each time water is applied and
then allow the soil to dry out before watering again. Camellias
maintained in this manner usually need watering only every
10 days to 2 weeks during dry weather. This practice encour-
ages the deep roots to grow rather than those near the surface,
which are likely to dry out. Watering lightly and frequently
may cause unsatisfactory plant growth in several ways:
(1) The soil in most of the root zone may not be wet at all, and
the plant may suffer for lack of water even though watered
daily. (2) Watering lightly may cause roots near the surface
to develop and to be more subject to drought or adverse condi-
tions. Many cases of drought injury have been noted on plants
handled in this manner. (3) Keeping the surface constantly wet
may reduce the areation of the soil to the point of causing root
injury.
WINTER PROTECTION
The susceptibility of camellias to cold injury varies with age
and vigor of the plant, variety, stage of maturity of wood and
buds, protection, and severity of the cold. Sudden drops in the
temperature to 18 to 240F. in fall or early winter may injure
camellias worse than the same temperature during January or
early February. Temperatures that drop gradually over a period
of 24 to 48 hours usually cause less damage than rapid drops in
temperature. Hardy varieties will withstand about 20 degrees
lower temperature than will very tender varieties.
Healthy plants are also more resistant to cold than diseased
or unhealthy plants. Older plants are usually not hurt by cold
as much as young plants. Plants making rapid and vigorous
growth may be damaged more than dormant plants. Watering
the plants thoroughly before cold weather may also increase cold
resistance. Mature buds are less likely to become a casualty







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


of cold weather than young buds. The buds of single and semi-
double varieties are more hardy than those of incomplete double
and double varieties. In Mississippi it was found that the buds
of some varieties were much more resistant than the twigs and
foliage, while other varieties showed severe bud damage but
little foliage or twig injury. Of the 87 varieties tested, those
that showed most cold resistance in buds, foliage, and twigs in-
cluded Brown's Red, Flame, Governor Mouton, Kimberly, Semi-
double Blush, Tricolor, and Vedrine.
An important way to reduce winter injury to camellias is to
select a partially shaded planting site that also has other desir-
able characteristics.
Measures that may provide some protection to the camellias
include the use of windbreaks which protect the plants from cold
or dry winds. Covering plants is a protection more against
frost than against extreme cold. The greatest value of the cover
comes from the shading during the thawing period than from
the protection afforded in maintaining a higher temperature.
Most methods of heating the plants will aid in protecting them
from cold, but heating plants growing in the open is rather ex-
pensive and inconvenient.

BUD DROP
Bud drop can be caused by several conditions or factors, any
one of which may have been in operation for some time before
the buds actually dropped. It is, therefore, difficult to trace down
the cause or causes of bud abscission. This condition is the re-
sult of extreme or sudden changes in climatic or growing condi-
tions, unfavorable to the plant as far as flowering is concerned.
Some varieties show an inherent tendency to drop their buds.
Conditions that promote vigorous growth, such as a heavy ap-
plication of fertilizer, may cause it. This is more likely to hap-
pen in late varieties here in Florida, as early growth may begin
before the plants have finished flowering. Other extreme
changes in culture or care may aggravate this response, includ-
ing insufficient watering, overwatering, poor drainage, exposure
to cold or drying winds, spray injury, nematode infestation, and
nutrient deficiencies.
The effects of sudden and extreme changes in temperature
should be familiar to all, yet gardeners send in bud samples for
examination which have obviously been injured by the cold.







Growing Camellias in Florida


Buds injured by the cold usually show blackened centers or stems
and the flower pulls away from the central cone.
Buds sometimes swell, show color, and drop before fully open,
or "bullhead". This condition is worse on late varieties during
mild winters or when very warm weather early in the spring
follows cold weather, resulting in rapid bud development during
the late stages of growth.
Many of the causes of bud drop can be eliminated by choosing
midseason varieties flowering from November to February, by
avoiding those that are known to have a tendency to shed flower
buds, by selecting a good planting site, and by giving more atten-
tion to cultural practices to avoid extreme changes.

PRUNING
Camellias ordinarily require little pruning to maintain accept-
able shape as a landscape plant. Any major pruning should be
done on midseason varieties in very early spring. When large
plants are transplanted, the branches and branchlets should be
thinned to reduce the amount of top the reduced root system
must maintain. A large top growth may overtax a limited root
system to the point of retarding the recovery of the plant after
transplanting. The plant may not begin to grow until after it
has passed through a dormant period, during which the roots
develop.
Prune by thinning the branches and branchlets to retain a
natural shape and branching habit. Thinning does not affect
the natural shape as does "heading back" or shearing. Plants
with very dense tops, as a result of shearing, should be thinned
so that light will penetrate into the plant to encourage new
growth. To thin a plant, cut branches to a side branch to pre-
vent multiple branching from the cut. Cutting back to a bud
produces many branches and should be used to thicken or fill
in open areas in the plant.
Plants with roots injured by poor drainage, insects, or disease
stand a better chance of recovery if the top is thinned rather
severely and permitted to grow back in proportion to what the
roots are able to maintain.

PROPAGATION

Camellias can be propagated by seed, cuttings, grafting, and
layering. The choice of the method of propagation depends
quite largely on the gardener's interest, the equipment he has







Growing Camellias in Florida


Buds injured by the cold usually show blackened centers or stems
and the flower pulls away from the central cone.
Buds sometimes swell, show color, and drop before fully open,
or "bullhead". This condition is worse on late varieties during
mild winters or when very warm weather early in the spring
follows cold weather, resulting in rapid bud development during
the late stages of growth.
Many of the causes of bud drop can be eliminated by choosing
midseason varieties flowering from November to February, by
avoiding those that are known to have a tendency to shed flower
buds, by selecting a good planting site, and by giving more atten-
tion to cultural practices to avoid extreme changes.

PRUNING
Camellias ordinarily require little pruning to maintain accept-
able shape as a landscape plant. Any major pruning should be
done on midseason varieties in very early spring. When large
plants are transplanted, the branches and branchlets should be
thinned to reduce the amount of top the reduced root system
must maintain. A large top growth may overtax a limited root
system to the point of retarding the recovery of the plant after
transplanting. The plant may not begin to grow until after it
has passed through a dormant period, during which the roots
develop.
Prune by thinning the branches and branchlets to retain a
natural shape and branching habit. Thinning does not affect
the natural shape as does "heading back" or shearing. Plants
with very dense tops, as a result of shearing, should be thinned
so that light will penetrate into the plant to encourage new
growth. To thin a plant, cut branches to a side branch to pre-
vent multiple branching from the cut. Cutting back to a bud
produces many branches and should be used to thicken or fill
in open areas in the plant.
Plants with roots injured by poor drainage, insects, or disease
stand a better chance of recovery if the top is thinned rather
severely and permitted to grow back in proportion to what the
roots are able to maintain.

PROPAGATION

Camellias can be propagated by seed, cuttings, grafting, and
layering. The choice of the method of propagation depends
quite largely on the gardener's interest, the equipment he has







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


available, the type of material, and the time he wishes to spend
in taking care of the propagation unit. Seed may be used for
producing new plants or varieties which may be totally different
from the parent plants.
The vegetative means of propagation may be used for produc-
ing plants like the parent plant or for increasing sports which,
like seedlings, may be quite different from the parent plant, but
which occur frequently on certain varieties.

SEED
Some of the single and semi-double varieties set seed quite
readily, while others do so infrequently. Most of the incomplete
double and all of the double varieties may rarely produce seed.
Many seedlings are being grown by camellia fanciers in an effort
to develop new varieties from natural and controlled crosses.
The method of making controlled crosses is a rather detailed
procedure and will not be covered here. Plant breeding is a slow
process, as only one or two seedlings among a thousand plants
may produce a desirable type of flower, and even this flower may
be similar to named varieties in the trade.
Seed may also be used for producing plants for use as under-
stock for grafting.
Harvesting, Storage, and Planting.-The seed should be har-
vested and planted as soon as they are ripe, July to September.
If not convenient to plant as soon as ripe, dry and store in an
air-tight container in a cool place until planted. Germination
may be hastened by scarifying or "nicking" the hard seed coat
to hasten the intake of water. Seed are sown in pots or flats of
peat, sand and peat mixture, vermiculite, or leafmold, and covered
to a depth of 1 to 2 inches. They should germinate in two to four
months. Rodents may destroy them, and, if planted in the open,
some provision should be made to protect them.
Transplanting.-At the end of the first growing season the
seedlings should be transplanted, and many growers prune the
taproot at this time. Seedlings are again selected and trans-
planted during the second year. Those with very strong root
systems may be selected for growing to flower or for understock,
discarding those with weak and poorly developed root systems.
Recent work in California shows that small seedlings can be
forced into flower the first year under long-day treatment pro-
duced with electric lights. This work has shown that the long-
day treatment to set buds should be applied during the first







Growing Camellias in Florida


month after growth begins in the spring. The day length dur-
ing the summer is long enough to encourage flower bud initiation
and development on the summer flush of growth.
CUTTINGS
Propagation by tip cuttings is probably the most popular
method for economically producing large numbers of plants.
This method of propagation is also well adapted for home use.
Many different methods of handling camellia cuttings are being
used successfully by gardeners. Practices vary from sticking
cuttings in the ground in a moist, shaded spot to rooting them in
elaborate structures and interrupted mist under plastic or glass.
Preparing the Propagation Bed.-The propagation unit (Fig.
4) should be set up in a partially shaded spot near a source of
water. It should contain a well-drained, well-aerated medium
and should provide a warm and humid atmosphere for good re-
sults in rooting cuttings. A satisfactory propagation unit can be
constructed from a grape box or similar material. The details of
more elaborate structures and their management are available
in Extension Circular 127.
Fill the box or bed with 3 to 4 inches of coarse, sharp builder's
sand, a sand and peat mixture, or peat alone, and sterilize if
possible. This can be accomplished by pouring ample quantities
of boiling water over the medium or by baking it in an oven at
1800F. for an hour.
Some type of cover should be provided for the propagating
bench to shade it and aid in maintaining a high humidity around


Fig. 4.-Left, commercial type mist propagator. Right, home garden
mist propagator.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


the cuttings. A covering of burlap, muslin, cheesecloth, or plastic
screen can be used during the summer months, and a sheet
plastic or glass cover may be needed during late fall, winter,
and early spring months to maintain a higher temperature.
Making the Cuttings.-Tip cuttings should be selected from
healthy, maturing or half-ripe shoots from moderately vigorous
plants. Usually by April or May the spring growth will have
hardened sufficiently for use as tip cuttings. Cutting wood
should be kept moist from the time the cuttings are removed
from the plant until they are in the propagating bed. A piece of
wet burlap or a basket lined and covered with wet paper is
adequate for protecting cuttings during the propagating oper-
ation.
It is best to take the cuttings early in the morning, during the
cool part of the day, when the leaves are full of water. Cuttings
should be 4 to 6 inches long, with as many leaves as possible
left on, and leaves removed only from the lower 11/2 to 2 inches
of the cutting. If the leaves do not wilt, rooting will be approxi-
mately in proportion to the amount of leaf surface on the cut-
tings. Treatment with a hormone or rooting compound will
usually hasten this process, but these aids are not a substitute
for good propagating wood and good care.
Care.-The cuttings are "stuck" upright about 1 to 11/2 inches
deep in the medium and spaced so that not more than one-third
of the leaves overlap. If possible the cuttings should be spaced
to allow free circulation of air between the cuttings. Firm the
medium around the cuttings and water thoroughly. Keep the
cutting bed moist but not wet and maintain as high humidity
as possible. The cuttings should root in six to eight weeks and
be ready for potting or transplanting as soon as the roots are
about 1 inch long. They should be shaded and the roots kept
moist during transplanting. It usually is not advisable to fer-
tilize cuttings until the roots are well established and new growth
has begun.
Some of the common sources of trouble that result in poor
rooting of cuttings are: (1) allowing the cuttings to dry out
or wilt after they are removed from the plant and before they
are stuck, (2) removing too many leaves from the cutting, (3)
"sticking" the cuttings too deeply in a fine medium, (4) use
of a fine, poorly aerated medium and overwatering, (5) too
much shade over the cuttings.







Growing Camellias in Florida


LAYERING
Mound, tip, and air layering are not commonly used methods
of propagation. Since these methods are covered in detail in
Extension Circular 141, they will not be covered here.
GRAFTING
Grafting is used extensively by commercial nurserymen and
amateur horticulturists for propagating camellias that have a
weak root system, and thus make poor growth, or for changing
less desirable varieties over to more desirable ones. Both the
cleft and bark graft are used. The cleft graft is by far the
more popular method and is the one that will be discussed here.
Camellias may be grafted at any time of the year if given
good care. When C. japonica understock is to be used, grafting
is usually done in January and February. The period may be
extended to later in the season when C. sasanqua understocks
are used. Summer grafting is risky because of the danger of
sunscald and damage to the tender growth. Winter grafts are
slow and require special protection during cold weather.
The Grafting Procedure.-The stock is cut off smoothly above
the surface of the ground, and depending upon the size, is split
once or more with a chisel 1 to 1/ inches deep, or enough to
accommodate the scion. The lower end of the scion, a tip cutting
of vigorous growth of the previous summer, is cut to a long
tapering wedge, slightly thicker on the bud side of the scion. The
scion is inserted into the split stock with the thick edge toward
the outside. A grafting tool or a screwdriver may be used to
open the stock. Sometimes a small wooden wedge may be re-
quired to relieve the pressure of the stock on the scion.
The growing area of a plant, the cambium, is between the
bark and the wood. To form a perfect union, the cambium
layers of the stock and scion must be aligned. If the stump
is small, about 1/2 inch in diameter, only one scion should be
inserted, but larger stock, over 1 inch, will accommodate two or
more scions. The stock may be tied with a string or rubber
band or covered with plastic strips to hold the scion firmly in
place. After the graft has been made, it should be covered with
grafting wax, grafting cloth, or pruning compound and then
covered with clean sand, sphagnum moss, or soil almost to the
leaves on the scion (Fig. 5).
A wide-mouthed glass jar is then inverted over the graft and
shaded with a piece of burlap or with Spanish moss. Trans-







Growing Camellias in Florida


LAYERING
Mound, tip, and air layering are not commonly used methods
of propagation. Since these methods are covered in detail in
Extension Circular 141, they will not be covered here.
GRAFTING
Grafting is used extensively by commercial nurserymen and
amateur horticulturists for propagating camellias that have a
weak root system, and thus make poor growth, or for changing
less desirable varieties over to more desirable ones. Both the
cleft and bark graft are used. The cleft graft is by far the
more popular method and is the one that will be discussed here.
Camellias may be grafted at any time of the year if given
good care. When C. japonica understock is to be used, grafting
is usually done in January and February. The period may be
extended to later in the season when C. sasanqua understocks
are used. Summer grafting is risky because of the danger of
sunscald and damage to the tender growth. Winter grafts are
slow and require special protection during cold weather.
The Grafting Procedure.-The stock is cut off smoothly above
the surface of the ground, and depending upon the size, is split
once or more with a chisel 1 to 1/ inches deep, or enough to
accommodate the scion. The lower end of the scion, a tip cutting
of vigorous growth of the previous summer, is cut to a long
tapering wedge, slightly thicker on the bud side of the scion. The
scion is inserted into the split stock with the thick edge toward
the outside. A grafting tool or a screwdriver may be used to
open the stock. Sometimes a small wooden wedge may be re-
quired to relieve the pressure of the stock on the scion.
The growing area of a plant, the cambium, is between the
bark and the wood. To form a perfect union, the cambium
layers of the stock and scion must be aligned. If the stump
is small, about 1/2 inch in diameter, only one scion should be
inserted, but larger stock, over 1 inch, will accommodate two or
more scions. The stock may be tied with a string or rubber
band or covered with plastic strips to hold the scion firmly in
place. After the graft has been made, it should be covered with
grafting wax, grafting cloth, or pruning compound and then
covered with clean sand, sphagnum moss, or soil almost to the
leaves on the scion (Fig. 5).
A wide-mouthed glass jar is then inverted over the graft and
shaded with a piece of burlap or with Spanish moss. Trans-
























































Fig. 5.-Cleft grafting of camellias: (1), Scion, showing long, wedge-
shaped cut and cross-section; (2) scion fitted in understock, (a) cambiums
matched. Scion and understock secured by (3) tying with string or rubber
bands. Point of union can be protected with (4) grafting wax or pruning
compound, (5) plastic wrap, (6) tin can filled with sand, vermiculite, or
similar material, or (7) mound of clean sand. Method of protecting grafts
with (6) wide-mouthed glass jar and burlap or (7) wire frame and opaque
plastics. (8) Young graft shaded with hamper to harden after jar or cover
has been removed.








Growing Camellias in Florida


lucent plastic over a wire frame may be used for this purpose.
When the scion and stock have united, the glass jar is not re-
moved immediately, but should be gradually raised at the bottom
to admit some air. The amount of air admitted should be grad-
ually increased until the wood becomes slightly hardened. After
the glass jar is removed, the graft should be covered with a
hamper or basket until the growth will stand exposure to the
sun. Growth up to 3 feet or more and even flowers may be
expected in one year in a graft from a large understock.

PEST CONTROL2
Control for the major insect pests and diseases are presented
in outline form in the tables that follow.
It is important to use a good sprayer that delivers a fine spray
under pressure. (See following section on sprayers.) Also, for
best results with both insecticides and fungicides, cover thor-
oughly both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. Many
instances of lack of control, charged against the pesticide, are
due to failure to spray thoroughly. It is well to repeat a spray
to clean up any insects or disease spores that escape the first
application. When practicable, water plants during dry seasons
the day before spraying to reduce the chances of injury.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee
or warranty of the products named and does not signify that
they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable com-
position.
SPRAYERS
Sprayers of many types and sizes, ranging from the simple
1- to 3-gallon compressed air sprayer to the large high-pressure
power rigs, are on the market. The kind of sprayer needed varies
with the type planting to be protected. A 1-, 2-, or 3-gallon com-
pressed air sprayer is excellent for homes with an ordinary
number of landscape plants. A home gardener who has a large
garden may want to consider getting a small power sprayer of
some type which can be moved about wheelbarrow-fashion.
Sprayers which attach to the end of garden hoses are popular
2 Material on insect and mite pests and their control was prepared by
J. E. Brogdon, Entomologist, Extension Service; L. C. Kuitert, Entomolo-
gist, Experiment Stations; and S. H. Kerr, Assistant Entomologist, Experi-
ment Stations.
Material on diseases and their control was prepared by R. S. Mullin.
Plant Pathologist, Extension Service.








Growing Camellias in Florida


lucent plastic over a wire frame may be used for this purpose.
When the scion and stock have united, the glass jar is not re-
moved immediately, but should be gradually raised at the bottom
to admit some air. The amount of air admitted should be grad-
ually increased until the wood becomes slightly hardened. After
the glass jar is removed, the graft should be covered with a
hamper or basket until the growth will stand exposure to the
sun. Growth up to 3 feet or more and even flowers may be
expected in one year in a graft from a large understock.

PEST CONTROL2
Control for the major insect pests and diseases are presented
in outline form in the tables that follow.
It is important to use a good sprayer that delivers a fine spray
under pressure. (See following section on sprayers.) Also, for
best results with both insecticides and fungicides, cover thor-
oughly both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. Many
instances of lack of control, charged against the pesticide, are
due to failure to spray thoroughly. It is well to repeat a spray
to clean up any insects or disease spores that escape the first
application. When practicable, water plants during dry seasons
the day before spraying to reduce the chances of injury.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee
or warranty of the products named and does not signify that
they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable com-
position.
SPRAYERS
Sprayers of many types and sizes, ranging from the simple
1- to 3-gallon compressed air sprayer to the large high-pressure
power rigs, are on the market. The kind of sprayer needed varies
with the type planting to be protected. A 1-, 2-, or 3-gallon com-
pressed air sprayer is excellent for homes with an ordinary
number of landscape plants. A home gardener who has a large
garden may want to consider getting a small power sprayer of
some type which can be moved about wheelbarrow-fashion.
Sprayers which attach to the end of garden hoses are popular
2 Material on insect and mite pests and their control was prepared by
J. E. Brogdon, Entomologist, Extension Service; L. C. Kuitert, Entomolo-
gist, Experiment Stations; and S. H. Kerr, Assistant Entomologist, Experi-
ment Stations.
Material on diseases and their control was prepared by R. S. Mullin.
Plant Pathologist, Extension Service.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


with home gardeners but are less satisfactory, in general, for
use on ornamental plants and, in particular, against pests like
scales and spider mites. The spray pattern from a garden hose
attachment is usually coarse, and it is difficult to direct the spray
to reach and adequately cover the underside of the leaves, espe-
cially those near the ground, and the side of plants close to a
building or a fence. If a hose-attachment sprayer is used, the
emulsifiable concentrate formulation of insecticide is preferred
over the wettable powder.
READ THE LABEL
Anyone applying pesticides should read the entire
manufacturer's label, including the small print, before
opening the container, and then observe all safety pre-
cautions. Store all pesticides in the original labeled con-
tainer out of reach of children, pets, and irresponsible peo-
ple. Dispose of empty containers properly.
INSECTS AND SPIDER MITES
Scales, spider mites, aphids, and. leaf-eating beetles are the
most important pests of camellias.
The three important scales are tea scale, Florida red scale,
and camellia scale. Of these, tea scale is the most ,difficult to
control. It infests the underside of the leaves and often is not
noticed until the populations become large and yellow spots begin
to show on -the top of the leaf as a result of feeding by these
insects. When the leaf is turned over, the scales are conspicuous
because of the males, which are white in color and often mis-
taken for mildew diseases.
Scale insects become much more difficult to control as they
grow older and larger. Control is also difficult after the popula-
tions build up to large numbers. The grower is urged to make
frequent inspections of his plants, particularly the underside of
the leaves, and to make thorough spray applications when the
scales are still in the young stage and before populations in-
crease greatly. A good time to spray is soon after the first flush
of growth hardens in the spring. Large populations will require
a repeat application in three to four weeks. For this treatment,
use dimethoate or the combination of ethion and oil emulsion.
(See chart for amounts.)
Oil emulsion, dimethoate, or a combination spray containing
ethion and oil emulsion is effective against scales on camellias.
(See chart, page 34, for amounts.)








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


with home gardeners but are less satisfactory, in general, for
use on ornamental plants and, in particular, against pests like
scales and spider mites. The spray pattern from a garden hose
attachment is usually coarse, and it is difficult to direct the spray
to reach and adequately cover the underside of the leaves, espe-
cially those near the ground, and the side of plants close to a
building or a fence. If a hose-attachment sprayer is used, the
emulsifiable concentrate formulation of insecticide is preferred
over the wettable powder.
READ THE LABEL
Anyone applying pesticides should read the entire
manufacturer's label, including the small print, before
opening the container, and then observe all safety pre-
cautions. Store all pesticides in the original labeled con-
tainer out of reach of children, pets, and irresponsible peo-
ple. Dispose of empty containers properly.
INSECTS AND SPIDER MITES
Scales, spider mites, aphids, and. leaf-eating beetles are the
most important pests of camellias.
The three important scales are tea scale, Florida red scale,
and camellia scale. Of these, tea scale is the most ,difficult to
control. It infests the underside of the leaves and often is not
noticed until the populations become large and yellow spots begin
to show on -the top of the leaf as a result of feeding by these
insects. When the leaf is turned over, the scales are conspicuous
because of the males, which are white in color and often mis-
taken for mildew diseases.
Scale insects become much more difficult to control as they
grow older and larger. Control is also difficult after the popula-
tions build up to large numbers. The grower is urged to make
frequent inspections of his plants, particularly the underside of
the leaves, and to make thorough spray applications when the
scales are still in the young stage and before populations in-
crease greatly. A good time to spray is soon after the first flush
of growth hardens in the spring. Large populations will require
a repeat application in three to four weeks. For this treatment,
use dimethoate or the combination of ethion and oil emulsion.
(See chart for amounts.)
Oil emulsion, dimethoate, or a combination spray containing
ethion and oil emulsion is effective against scales on camellias.
(See chart, page 34, for amounts.)







Growing Camellias in Florida


Spider mites or "red spiders" are tiny pests which are diffi-
cult to see without a magnifying glass. When full-grown, they
are only about 1/50 inch in length. Because of their small size
and because they are usually more numerous on the underside
of the leaves, most home gardeners do not realize they are pres-
ent until damage is severe. Infested leaves take on a rusty or
reddish color. Plants should be inspected frequently and treat-
ments made promptly when an infestation appears.
Effective materials for controlling mites include Kelthane,
Tedion, and Aramite. Oil emulsion, dimethoate, and the com-
bination of ethion and oil emulsion mentioned above under scales
are other effective spider mite controls.
Leaf-eating beetles and climbing cutworms may feed on ca-
mellia foliage at night and remain in the mulch beneath the
plant during the day. Chlordane or toxaphene is effective against
these pests and should be applied to the mulch under the plant
as well as on the foliage.
Aphids or plant lice are small insects which live in colonies
and attack the tender growth of camellias. They suck the juices
from young leaves and cause them to curl and become distorted.
Aphids excrete a sweet, sticky substance referred to as "honey-
dew," which attracts ants and provides an excellent medium for
the development of sooty mold, a black fungus. Make frequent
inspections of new leaves and apply insecticides before leaves
curl. Malathion or dimethoate will control aphids. Ants do not
damage camellias but are a nuisance. Chlordane or dieldrin
is excellent for the control of these insects.
Snails and slugs occasionally feed on camellias. Metaldehyde
as a spray, dust, or bait is the recommended material for these
pests. Grasshoppers and katydids sometimes feed on camellia
foliage, but are not considered to be major pests. Katydids feed
at night. When only small numbers, of either of these insects
are present, many gardeners hand pick or kill them mechanically.
Dieldrin, toxaphene, and chlordane are effective treatments.

SUMMER OIL EMULSION SPRAYS
Summer oil emulsion sprays for use on foliage are old fa-
vorites for control of scales and spider mites and have very little
toxicity to persons handling them. They have been used less
since the advent of the newer insecticides, however, because the
oil emulsions sometimes injure ornamental plants. Neverthe-









INSECT AND SPIDER MITE CONTROL MEASURES
Amount per
Insect Material Gallon of Remarks
Water
Scales: Dimethoate, 43% EC 1 teaspoon Spray both sides of leaves thoroughly after growth hardens
Tea Oil emulsion, 80-90% 4 tablespoons in spring. Large populations will require a repeat ap-
Florida red Ethion, 46% EC 1 teaspoon plication in 3 to 4 weeks. For this treatment, use di-
Camellia plus plus methoate or the combination of ethion and oil emulsion.
Oil emulsion, 80-90% 2 tablespoons See caution on use of oil sprays.
Spider mites Kelthane, 18%% WP 2 tablespoons Inspect plants frequently during spring and summer and
(red spiders) Tedion, 25% WP 1 tablespoon make applications before mites build up to large popu-
Aramite, 15% WP 2 tablespoons lations.
NOTE: Materials recommended for scales
are also effective against spider mites.
Leaf-eating 10% toxaphene dust Ample coverage Watch for holes in leaves. Certain beetles feed at night.
beetles 10% chlordane dust Apply to mulch under plant as well as to foliage. Sprays
Climbing cut- may be used.
worms
Aphids Dimethoate, 43% EC 1 teaspoon Aphids cause curling of young leaves. Inspect new growth
Malathion, 57% EC 2 teaspoons and apply insecticide before leaves curl.
Malathion, 25% WP 4 tablespoons
Grasshoppers 10% toxaphene dust Ample coverage Insects occasionally chew foliage. Katydids feed at night.
Katydids 1%% dieldrin dust Hand picking or mechanical control is effective for small
5 or 10% chlordane dust infestation. Sprays may be used.

NOTE: Equivalent amounts of other formulations of the recommended insecticides and miticides may be used. Follow
directions on the label.
Add 1 teaspoon of a good detergent per gallon of spray to increase spreading and wetting.
WP = wettable powder; EC = emulsifiable concentrate (liquid concentrate).







Growing Camellias in Florida


less, they are effective sprays and can be used during moderate
weather in spring and fall. Oil emulsion sprays should not be
applied when there is danger of cold periods (below 400F.) or
hot periods (above 850F.) within two weeks after treatment.
They should not be applied to new, tender growth or to plants
that are in need of water. The preferred time of application is
in the spring. A fall application may be desirable if weather
conditions permit.
DISEASES
Dieback.-Probably the worst disease of camellias in Florida
is the one called dieback, or canker. It is most noticeable in
spring when the new growth is expanding. At this time the
new growth will suddenly wilt and die out and turn brown. How-
ever, the disease will affect plants during other periods of the
year also, when branches or large parts of the plant may die.
Usually the leaves hold on for considerable period of time be-
fore dropping.
The best control of this disease is by pruning off all infected
parts. Pruning cuts should be made low enough to be into
healthy wood so that no infection is left in the plant. Parts
which are pruned off should be destroyed by burning. Applica-
tions of a copper-containing fungicide following pruning and
immediately after the new growth has formed in the spring will
assist in controlling the disease.:
Leaf Gall.-One of the most conspicuous diseases of camellias
is leaf gall. This disease is present in the spring when the new
growth is being formed on camellias. It causes a thickening
and enlarging of the leaves with a change in color to light green,
nearly white, or even reddish. Buds may also be attacked.
Normally this disease does no particular damage and will dis-
appear as weather becomes warmer. However, leaves of se-
verely infected plants may be picked off by hand and one or
more applications of a copper fungicide applied.
Scab.-Sometimes rough corky lines or spots appear on one
or both surfaces of the leaves. As far as has been determined,
this trouble of camellias is not parasitic but is caused by ex-
tremes of soil moisture and temperature. Where this condition
appears, care should be taken to improve drainage, avoid over-
watering, and protect plants from excessive sunlight.
Root Rot.-Occasionally camellias are attacked by root rot.
The diseased plant will gradually become unthrifty and die.










DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL


Disease or Description Control
Disorder
Dieback New twigs wilt and die suddenly. Older parts Prune and burn affected twigs. Clean out large
(canker) may also die but more slowly. Canker on canker and paint with wound paint. Apply a
twigs or branches may girdle stem. copper fungicide.
Flower blight Small brown spots on petals enlarging to cover Remove and burn affected flowers. At end of
flower. Black, hard bodies develop at base season remove and burn mulch, old flowers, and
of flower, leaves from under plant.
Leaf spot Irregular blotches on leaves, with silvery over- Hand pick and burn affected leaves. Prune and
Leaf blotch cast. Later, tiny black fruiting bodies on burn affected twigs. Protect plants from cold
Twig blight dead portion of leaf. and sun. Make one or more applications of
copper spray where severe.
Leaf and bud gall Leaves and buds become thickened, fleshy, and Pick and burn affected leaves, spray with Bordeaux
pale-green, white, or reddish, or copper spray.
Root rot Reduced growth, thin and unhealthy appear- Remove plant and do not replace with a camellia.
ance, often wilted. Roots blackened and un- Soil can be fumigated or sterilized but may
healthy. Disease favored by wet soil. become infected again.
Scab White, brown, or black, angular or oval corky Disease caused by extreme variations in tempera-
(scar tissue, raised spots on the leaves, ture and moisture. Hand pick and burn affected
edema) leaves. Protect plant from sun, move to well-
drained site. Avoid overwatering.
Yellow mottle leaf Mottled and variegated leaf. Variegation with- Virus disease. No control. Do not propagate
Ring spot out definite pattern or as rings, from affected plants.
Algal spot Circular, slightly raised, gray to orange spots Apply copper fungicide after new foliage has
on leaves, matured.








Growing Camellias in Florida


Once it is attacked, nothing can be done for the individual plant.
However, as a protection for other plants in the group or yard,
all infected plants should be removed and destroyed. Care should
be taken to remove as much of the root system as possible.
Since the disease is soil borne, a new plant should not be placed
in this location without treatment of the soil.
Algal Spot.-This disease occurs on mature foliage, most
often in heavily shaded locations. The individual spots are
usually round, slightly raised, and gray to orange in color. They
may be one-half inch or more in diameter. Applications of cop-
per fungicides are effective in controlling this disease. The best
time for applying the fungicide is as new growth is maturing
but before the summer rainy season has started.
Leaf Spots.-Very often leaf spots in the form of irregular
blotches, probably with a silvery overcast or with black spots
in them, can be found on camellia leaves. Normally these leaf
spots do no particular damage, as they are mainly on plants or
leaves weakened or damaged by some other cause. Attention
to general cultural practices will assist in controlling the con-
dition. Where severe, removal of infected leaves, protection of
the plant from weather or mechanical injury, and application
of fungicides will assist in controlling the disease.




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