• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Climatic divisions and soils
 Choice of rootstock
 Choice of scion varieties
 Planting site
 Selecting the tree
 Planting
 Care of non-bearing trees
 Care of bearing trees
 Some beneficial insects and fungi,...
 Cautions in use of pesticides,...
 Conversion tables and equivale...
 Credits
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 166A
Title: Citrus fruit for the dooryard
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020527/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus fruit for the dooryard
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 166A
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Lawrence, Fred P
Lawrence, Fred P.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Servic, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1960
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020527
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB2785
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Climatic divisions and soils
        Page 3
    Choice of rootstock
        Page 4
    Choice of scion varieties
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Planting site
        Page 11
    Selecting the tree
        Page 12
    Planting
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Care of non-bearing trees
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Care of bearing trees
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Some beneficial insects and fungi, and nutritional sprays
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Cautions in use of pesticides, harvesting, pesticide tolerances, and conclusion
        Page 28
    Conversion tables and equivalents
        Page 29
    Credits
        Page 30
    Historic note
        Page 31
Full Text



Bulletin 166A
March 1960


Single Copies free
to Florida residents


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. 0. Watkins, Director







Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard

FRED P. LAWRENCE


Fig. 1.-Citrus trees in dooryard plantings provide both shade and fruit.


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


I /










CONTENTS


Page
Climatic Divisions ...................... 3
Soils ....................... ........ .... 3
Choice of Rootstock ......... ... 4
Choice of Scion Varieties ......... 5
Early Maturing Varieties .... 6
Midseason Varieties ................ 7
Late Season Varieties -.......... 7
Grapefruit ..............:................. 8
Acid Fruits ........................... 8
Other Citrus .......................-..... 9
Planting Site ................................ 11
Selecting the Tree .................... 12
Planting ................................... ... 13
Care of Non-bearing Trees ........ 15
First Year .............................. 16
Second Year .............................. 17
Third Year ............................... 18
Fourth Year ......... --................. 18


Page
Care of Bearing Trees ............. 18
Fertilization ..............-------............. 18
Cultivation ................-............... 20
Pruning ................... .............. 20
Irrigation .................................. 21
Cold Protection ....................... 21
Pest Control .............................. 22
Spray Schedule ....................... 22
Specific Insects and
Their Control -..--.................. 23
Diseases .....................-............. 25
Some Beneficial Insects
and Fungi ............................. 25
Nutritional Sprays ...................... 25
Cautions in Use of Pesticides ... 28
Harvesting ...............-................- 28
Pesticide Tolerances .................. 28
Conclusion .--..................--....--..- ..-- 28
Conversion Tables and
Equivalents ......................... 29


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We are deeply grateful to those at the University of Florida,
the Citrus Experiment Station in Lake Alfred and the USDA
Horticultural Station in Orlando whose respective ideas and sug-
gestions have been of great value in the composition of this Bul-
letin. We also acknowledge with thanks the specimen plants
supplied for photographs by the Grand Island Citrus Nursery Co.
and Hall's Nursery of Eustis, Florida.









Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard

FRED P. LAWRENCE
Citriculturist, Agricultural Extension Service


Dooryard citrus plantings com-
plement Florida living. They pro-
duce fruits of excellent food value
which can be stored on the tree for
long periods without loss of nutri-
tional qualities, and they are beau-
tiful evergreens which enhance the
beauty of the grounds and increase
property value. Properly handled,
the plantings can be made to blend
with the overall landscape and
produce an abundance of delicious
fruit.
This bulletin has been prepared
to assist the home-owner in choice
of stocks and scions for effective
plantings and to give helpful sug-
gestions on selecting a planting
site, on preparation of the soil and
on planting. For those who al-
ready have bearing trees a cultural
program is offered, designed to
keep the trees at maximum pro-
ductivity.

CLIMATIC DIVISIONS
Florida may be divided into three
general climatic zones: Southern,
Central and Northern. These areas
may be fairly well defined by draw-
ing a line across the state from
Sarasota on the West Coast to Ft.
Pierce on the East Coast; the area
south of the line may be called
southern Florida. From this line
north to a second line drawn from
Brooksville through Ocala to Cres-
cent City may be described as cen-
tral Florida. From this line north


and west should be called northern
Florida.
Citrus will grow well in southern
and central Florida. However,
within these districts there may be
local areas where citrus cannot be
grown satisfactorily. The entire
northern Florida area is generally
unsuited to citrus, due to low win-
ter temperatures, although there
are certain locations within this
area where the hardier stocks and
varieties will survive.

SOILS
Florida soils generally fall into
one of four broad classifications:
sands, mucks, marls, and the rocky
soils of the southern tip of the pen-
insula. By far the greatest ex-
panse of soils fall under the classi-
fication of "sands." For citrus
growing, sands may be further di-
vided into three types: (1) the
deep, drought sands found in the
central coastal dunes and also in
the sand scrubs of the interior,
(2) the rolling, well drained sands,
and (3) the poorly drained flat-
woods lands, frequently underlaid
by hardpan.
Citrus can be grown with a min-
imum of soil preparation on well-
drained lands. It can be grown also
on most other types where drain-
age and irrigation can be provided.
Where drainage is not practicall.
special soil preparation, such as
bedding or mounding p r i or to






Florida Cooperative Extension


planting, may be required (Fig. 2).
Mounds should be at least 12 feet
in diameter at ground level, a min-
imum of 18 inches high (36 inches
is recommended for excessively wet
locations), and eight feet in di-
ameter on top.

CHOICE OF ROOTSTOCK
Citrus fruits do not always re-
produce true to type through seed.
They are best propagated by some
vegetative means, such as by cut-
tings or layering, or by grafting or
budding onto a rootstock of some
closely related species or type. In
Florida, the customary method of
propagation is by budding.
Rootstocks may be chosen to suit
the climatic conditions, the soil


type, the scion varieties, and the
landscape.
For Climatic Area. The five
root stocks commonly used in Flor-
ida are, in order of their hardiness
or resistance to cold: Trifoliate
orange, sour orange, sweet orange,
Cleopatra mandarin, and r o u g h
lemon. The exceptional cold hard-
iness of trifoliata makes it a desir-
able rootstock for most varieties in
home plantings in northern Flor-
ida. The fruit produced by varie-
ties budded onto trifoliate stocks is
of excellent quality. A hardy, cold-
resistant stock has a tendency to
render a tender scion more hardy.
For Soil Type. Trifoliate
orange is well adapted to a wide
range of soils. Sour orange or tri-


Fi. 2.-A 10-year-old tree on a 24-inch mound.
Fig. 2.-A 10-year-old tree on a 24-inch mound.






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


foliata is recommended for the
heavier, poorly drained soils.
Rough lemon is suited to high, dry,
sandy soils. Cleopatra and sweet
orange are best suited to the inter-
mediate soils, but Cleopatra can be
used on the heavier soils and sweet
orange on the drier ones with a fair
degree of success.
For Variety. The five stocks
under consideration are, under nor-
mal conditions, compatible with all
the more common varieties, but a
degree of choice can be expressed.
Rough lemon produces large trees
faster on well drained soils and is
a prolific bearer but the fruit is of
poorer quality than other stocks.
(It is not recommended for low,
heavy, poorly drained soils, due to
its susceptibility to foot rot; it is
also one of the least cold-resistant
stocks.) If used in a home plant-
ing, rough lemon is best suited as
a stock for Valencias. Cleopatra
is especially recommended for man-
darin type fruits; trifoliata for sat-
sumas, and sour and sweet orange
stocks for other varieties.
For Landscape Design.-Unbud-
ded seedlings of sweet orange pro-
duce slender upright trees for the
first 10 or 12 years, often reaching
a height of 20 feet or more. About
the twelfth year the trees begin to
spread and, if not crowded, may
reach 40 feet or more in canopy
and height. During this time lower
limbs may be removed to form
umbrella-like shade trees. Sweet
seedlings begin to bear fruit at
seven to nine years and the yield
gradually increases until they are
approximately 30 years old.


Budded trees are low and com-
pact in growth habit. However,
they, too, will ultimately reach a
height of 20 to 30 feet, with a 30-
foot diameter, if not crowded by
adjacent trees. Most varieties
when budded on trifoliata stock
produce a semi-dwarf tree. These
are slower in growth habit, with
the result that the trees are some-
what smaller than those produced
by other commercial stocks.
Kumquats are quite decorative
and seldom exceed 15 feet in height
on any stock; the calamondin also
is a smaller tree. Where smallness
of tree is desired both of these va-
rieties should be placed on trifoli-
ata stock. Severinia buxifolia, a
citrus relative extensively used as
a hedge plant, can be used also as a
rootstock for most varieties to pro-
duce dwarf trees. This particular
plant is not used extensively as a
rootstock, due to lack of demand,
and it is difficult to obtain with
citrus varieties grafted onto it.
Otaheite orange is a true dwarf
citrus. It is grown in Northern
greenhouses as a potted plant but
is not much in demand in Florida,
possibly because of its insipid taste.
It should be grown for ornamenta-
tion only.

CHOICE OF SCION VARIETIES
In Florida there are many varie-
ties of citrus, including experimen-
tal hybrids, but only a relatively
small number are used commer-
cially. This leaves a group of ex-
otic and delicious varieties from
which the home gardener may se-
lect to produce something unusual






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 3.-Upright growth habit of a
seedling tree. Between 10 and 20 years
of age, if not crowded, the tree fills out
and becomes a large, symmetrical and
beautiful one.

in flavor. Some of these are listed
in the order of their season of
ripening, to enable the dooryard
grower to select varieties that will
produce fruit over the longest pos-
sible period.

EARLY MATURING VARIETIES
(OCTOBER TO DECEMBER)
Satsuma.-The satsuma is one
of the earliest ripening varieties.
Its hardiness or cold-resistance, es-
specially when budded on trifoliata
stock, makes it an important va-
riety for the northernmost section
of the citrus belt. This combina-
tion of stock and scion does well on
a wide range of soils and will grow


in all citrus areas of the state; how-
ever, it seems to be of best quality
when grown in the more northern
sections. The fruit retains its peak
quality for only a short time. If
not picked at maturity it becomes
puffy, large, rough in appearance
and insipid in taste. There are
many strains of the satsuma; one
of the most satisfactory is the
Owari.
Navel.-The navel orange is pe-
culiar in that the well-known
strains have not proved satisfac-
tory; the fruit tends to be large,
coarse, somewhat woody in texture
and will not carry long on the tree.
This is particularly true when bud-
ded on rough lemon rootstock.
There are other strains, however,
especially in the northern part of
the citrus belt, that produce large,
juicy, delicious fruits. Many of
these strains are unnamed or bear


Fig. 4.-Young budded tree the same
age as the seedling tree shown in Fig. 3.
It, too, will grow into a large, symmetri-
cal tree.


r -: ----------:*------
L






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


only local names. The State Bud-
wood Certification office in Winter
Haven is endeavoring to locate and
name some of these fine strains. A
check with that office would assist
in finding a desirable tree.
Orlando Tangelo.-The Orlando
is a hybrid of the Bowen grapefruit
pollinated by the Dancy tangerine.
The attractive appearance of the
foliage, which tends to roll up on
the edges to give a spoon-shaped
appearance, and the early maturity
of the fruit make it a very decora-
tive plant. When the fruit is ma-
ture the flesh is highly colored and
can be readily peeled.
Hamlin.-The Hamlin is one of
the principal varieties of e a r ly
oranges g r o w n commercially in
Florida. It produces fruit that is
nearly seedless (3 to 5 seeds) ; the
peel is thin and adheres tightly to
the pulp. The quality of this fruit
is acceptable, though lacking the
rich flavor of other varieties, es-
pecially when grown on rough
lemon stock.
Parson Brown.-This is a popu-
lar variety of early orange pro-
duced on a commercial scale. The
fruit is of excellent quality, a rich
orange color, and contains approxi-
mately 12 seeds. The rind tends to
be slightly rough. It will grow well
on all standard rootstocks.

MIDSEASON VARIETIES
(DECEMBER-MARCH)
Temple.-Grown in the proper
environment, the Temple orange is
one of the most beautiful and high-
ly-flavored citrus fruits. It is be-
lieved to be a hybrid between the


mandarin and the sweet orange.
Deep in color with a pebbled peel,
the fruit can be eaten easily from
the hand. It has given best results
when propagated on sour orange
stocks and grown on rich hammock
soils. It is also of good quality
when grown on Cleo or sweet seed-
ling stocks, but is not recommend-
ed on rough lemon stock for home
plantings.
Minneola Tangelo.-The Minne-
ola is of the same parentage as the
Orlando. It is of good color and
excellent flavor and has very few
seeds. It appears to do well on
sour, sweet, or Cleo rootstocks.
Mercott Honey Orange (some-
times referred to as Smith's tan-
gerine).-The origin, as well as the
correct spelling, of this variety is
debatable, but its superior quality
is well known. The peel is not as
deeply colored as the Dancy tan-
gerine but the flesh is a very deep
gold. The flesh is firm and pos-
sesses ample rich, sweet juice. It
peels easily and can be eaten from
the hand.
Ponkan (or Chinese Honey
Orange).-The fruit resembles the
Dancy tangerine but is of larger
size, with fewer seeds, and is pri-
marily characterized by its ex-
tremely sweet pulp combined with
an agreeable flavor.

LATE SEASON VARIETIES
(MARCH-JULY)
King Orange.-The King is the
latest maturing "kid glove" variety
grown in Florida. It is large in
size and oblate in shape. The peel
is deep orange in color, thick, rough






Florida Cooperative Extension


and loosely attached to the pulp.
Flavor and quality of the juice are
excellent.
Valencia.-This is the standard
commercial late variety in Florida.
It is medium to large in size and
slightly oval. The peel is a deep
orange and the orange-colored flesh
is firm, with seldom more than six
seeds. Although it can be eaten
from the hand, it is primarily a
juice orange of superior quality.
There are many other varieties,
but these listed are easily obtain-
able and are of proven quality.

GRAPEFRUIT
Royal.-The Royal differs from
the typical grapefruit varieties in
that the fruit is slightly smaller in
size and of a darker orange-yellow
color. The juice is sweeter than
that of most grapefruit and the
rag has less bitterness and a milder
odor.
Triumph. Neither the Royal
nor the Triumph is grown as a
commercial crop in Florida. How-
ever, the quality of these fruits is
similar and recognized as exception-
ally good. Triumph is very juicy,
heavy and slightly larger than
Royal. Both fruits have a sugges-
tion of orange flavor and could
very well be orange-grapefruit
crosses. Both varieties are seedy.
Marsh. The Marsh is recog-
nized as one of the best commercial
varieties and is probably more ex-
tensively propagated t h a n any
other. The fruits are seedless,
white fleshed, and quite juicy. The
tree is vigorous, large and dense of
foliage.


Red Grapefruit. There are
many varieties of red- and pink-
fleshed grapefruit, some with seeds
and some without. The Ruby, or
USDA Red, has the deepest red
flesh of the many varieties and the
fewest seeds.

ACID FRUITS

LIMES
The lime is valued primarily as a
highly-flavored acid fruit. The
fresh juice of the lime exceeds that
of the lemon in both acid and sugar
content. It is highly aromatic and
prized for various culinary pur-
poses. It makes a delightfully cool-
ing beverage. The lime tends to
be everbearing, producing fruit the
year round, with peak production
coming in May through August.
Key or Mexican Lime.-This va-
riety is grown principally in the
Florida Keys, south of Miami and
along the Gulf coast. However, it
is known to survive in protected
areas in central Florida. The va-
riety is not strongly recommended
because of its lack of cold hardi-
ness and its excessive thorniness,
plus the fact that it is very suscept-
ible to the fungus, anthracnose,
which attacks both fruit and foli-
age.
Persian or Tahiti Lime.-This
variety is much larger than the
Key. The seedless fruit is oval,
with a smooth, dark green peel.
The pulp is pale green and yields
an abundance of acid juice of excel-
lent flavor. The Persian lime, like
the Key, is one of the less cold-
hardy varieties and its success out-






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


side the southern part of the state
is limited to the more protected
sites.
LEMONS
Florida has many varieties of
lemons but, unfortunately, nearly
all are subject to a gum disease
that seldom kills the tree outright
but reduces it to an unattractive
state. Most lemon trees will pro-
duce an abundance of fruit in
spite of the disease. It is believed
this condition will be corrected
through the budwood certification
program, but until certified and
disease-free trees are available the
dooryard grower should expect
some difficulty with practically all
true lemon varieties. Some of the
better strains are the Villafranca,
Avon, Harvey and Eureka.
Meyer Lemon.-Although this
fruit is not a true lemon, it is ap-
parently the most disease-free and
cold-resistant of the lemon group.
It develops into an apparently
healthy, well-shaped tree t h at
bears large golden fruit with a very
thin smooth peel. The fruit is prac-


Fig. 5.-The Villafranca lemon grows
well in some areas of southern Florida.


tically seedless, with flesh so ten-
der that it is prized by most home
owners.
OTHER CITRUS
Other attractive and useful va-
rieties of citrus are:
Kumquats.-Possibly the most
widely used of all dooryard citrus,
the kumquat bears small orange-
like fruit 3/ to 1 inch in diameter.
The fruit can be eaten, peel and all,
from the hand or used to make
marmalade, jellies, candies, etc.
The trees are small and can be
grown as shrubs, making excellent
ornamentals. Common varieties
are Nagami, Meiwa and Marumi.
Nagami fruit is oblong to slightly
pear-shaped; the others are round
and somewhat sweeter.
Calamondin.-This small fruit is
shaped like a tangerine and has
very acid pulp. The tree grows to
a height of 15 to 20 feet, is well-
formed with beautiful foliage, and
bears a very heavy crop of yellow-
to-orange fruit. It is used mainly
as an attractive ornamental, al-
though the fruit can be used as a
substitute for limes and lemons.
Limequat. These hybrids re-
sulted from crossing the lime with
the kumquat. All limequats have
produced fruit resembling the lime
in appearance and character. In
general, they should be considered
as substitutes for that fruit. They
are more hardy than the lime and
probably more resistant to certain
diseases. They can be recommend-
ed for cultivation only as a home
fruit for sections slightly too cold
for the lime. There are several
named varieties of the limequat,






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 6.-The citrus trees in center and left foreground are growing in too much shade.


Fig. 7.-This dooryard citrus tree is growing in direct sunlight.







Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


Eustis, Lakeland and Tavares be-
ing the more common.

PLANTING SITE
Citrus thrives best in direct sun-
light. Trees planted under even
partial shade will tend to be weak
and unsatisfactory. Practically all
varieties, when budded or grafted
on the more common stocks, are
rapid-growing symmetrical trees,
usually attaining an over-all height
and spread of approximately one
foot per year. In selecting a site,
keep this rate of growth in mind.
Spacing is most important. The
distance at which trees are planted
depends upon variety, soil type,
rootstock, and climatic influence.
Each of these factors has an im-


L 'ia-


Fig. 8.-A potted tree is easily
transplanted.


Fig. 9.-This bare-rooted tree has had
the top "hatracked" or "buckhorned" to
balance the root system.

portant effect upon size of the ma-
ture tree. The usual spacing for
most orange trees is 25' x 25',
grapefruit 30' x 30' or 25' x 30'.
Most of the mandarin types and
mandarin hybrids, such as the
Temple and tangelo, can be reduced
to 20' x 20'; satsuma, kumquat,
calamondin and most lime and
lemon varieties can be reduced to
15' x 15'.
Caution.-Septic tanks and their
drain fields are to be avoided when
planting; the tree roots will clog
the drain and detergents, soaps, al-
kalies, borax and other chemicals
used in the home are usually in-
jurious to the tree.


"WANK% ',






Florida Cooperative Extension


Poorly-drained soils are to be
avoided if at all possible; however,
this can be overcome in part by
special soil preparation such as
bedding or mounding the planting
site prior to planting the tree.

SELECTING THE TREE
Choose the variety and rootstock
that will best suit the site, soil and
area. Purchase trees from experi-
enced and reliable nurserymen.
Citrus trees are delivered from the
nursery in one of four methods:
(1) bare-rooted; (2) bare-rooted,
but placed in sphagnum moss, ex-
celsior or some similar material;
(3) balled and bagged (burlap
placed around a small root system


that has been lifted with the soil
still around the roots) ; and (4) as
potted trees. The latter two meth-
ods are better for the home garden-
er, as the root system is better
protected and less likely to dry
out before planting. Citrus root-
lets dry quickly when exposed, and
once dry, they cease to function.
Either one- or two-year-old bud-
ded trees are recommended; older
trees are likely to be culls and
should be avoided. Well-grown
one-year-old citrus buds should be
1/2 to % inch and two-year-old trees
%/ to 11/4 inches in diameter (usu-
ally called caliper) when measured
one inch above the bud union.
Larger trees may be planted, but
the transplanting requires skill and


Fig. 10.-Removing undesirable and bruised roots from a good root system.






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


knowledge and should be done only
by a thoroughly qualified person.
Good nursery stock (Figs. 8 and
9) will have large, thrifty leaves
and bright, clean bark. The bud
union should be smooth and at
least three inches above the ground
level. Avoid trees with a hard,
stunted appearance. The bark on


Fig. 11.-A cull tree. The large, hard
stump indicates that the rootstock has
been rebudded and is probably diseased.


such trees is usually dark grey, the
trunk crooked with definite areas
or joints reflecting arrested growth
(Fig. 11).

PLANTING
The preferred time for planting
is while the tree is most dormant,
usually in late January or Febru-
ary. Normally young trees will go
through several cycles of growth
during the year. If the planting
cannot be made in the early spring
prior to the start of these cycles,
it is well to let the current flush
mature before digging the tree for
transplanting.
The area where the tree is to be
planted should be spaded and all
roots, vines, sticks and foreign ma-
terial removed. The immediate


Fig. 12.-For spring or summer plant-
ing, the author trims the top of a fresh-
ly dug tree to balance the root system.






Florida Cooperative Extension


area should have all lawn sod and
grass removed prior to spading up
an area four to six feet in diam-
eter; this area should be leveled
with a steel garden rake.
Dig a hole sufficiently wide and
deep to accommodate the root sys-
tem. This can be judged by plac-
ing the tree in the hole and then
altering the hole to fit the tree.
If the tree is bare-rooted, inspect
it for broken or damaged roots.
Prune off these with an even, slop-
ing cut. If the root is larger than
1/) inch in diameter paint the cut
with a good pruning compound.
If the tree is bagged or potted,
remove the bag or pot completely;
place the tree gently in position
and throw in a few shovels of soil.


The tree should be set in such a
way that, after the soil has settled,
the tree will be just a little higher
than it was when growing in the
nursery. Fill the hole 13 to 1/2 full
with soil and settle the soil in the
bottom of the hole by using several
gallons of water. If a garden hose
can be used turn it on with full
force (no nozzle) to wash the soil in
place and remove all air pockets.
Cut off the water; allow that in the
soil to settle and continue to fill the
hole with soil until it is two-thirds
filled. Repeat the application of
water; shake the tree gently and
work the watery soil tightly around
the roots. Finish filling the hole
and pack the soil firmly around the
tree. If the danger of cold weather


Fig. 13.-Using a planting board to establish correct depth of planting.
Fig. 13.-Using a planting board to establish correct depth of planting.






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


has not passed, bank the tree im-
mediately. (See instructions on
banking under Cold Protection.)
Watering is one of the most im-
portant steps in growing a citrus
tree. Form a watering cup by
mounding the soil 3 to 4 inches
high in a circle around the tree.
The circle should be at least 30
inches in diameter.

CARE OF NON-BEARING
TREES
The young tree produces struc-
ture for future fruit bearing and
should be forced to produce as
much vegetative growth as possible


V


:tbt-. a


Fig. 14.-Half set tree ready to be
watered and have soil firmed around
roots.


Fig. 15.-Properly set tree with water
ring ready for future waterings.

I I i


y--'-
Fig 16.-Pruning roots of freshly
dug tree.


- I


euulrr

c~~C~ L:







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 17.-Painting pruning wounds
on larger roots.

during the first three or four years.
This entails watering, fertilizing
cultivating and protecting against
cold, insects and diseases.

FIRST YEAR
Water.-The young tree must be
watered thoroughly and consistent-
ly. On dry sandy soils, apply water


Fig. 18.-Lower roots properly cov-
ered; upper roots spread, ready to be
covered, watered and firmed.


Fig. 19. Painting cut surface of
straight or single-stocked tree with a
heavy water-repelling tree paint.

three times a week for the first
two weeks after planting. Heavier
soils may require only one water-
ing per week. For the first year,
the trees should be watered at least
once every week or 10 days during
periods of no rainfall.



~~


Fig. 20.-Newly planted citrus tree
banked to protect it from cold weather.


0= 'C







Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


Fertilization. Newly-set trees
should not be fertilized until they
show visible signs of growing, usu-
ally from four to six weeks after
they are set. The first application
should be light, not more than 1/2
pound of a 6-6-6 citrus special con-
taining minor elements. Each suc-
ceeding application, at six-week in-
tervals, may be increased slightly
until the tree is receiving approxi-
mately 11/3 pounds on the last ap-
plication of the first year. In areas
where the trees are subject to se-
vere winter cold, stop fertilization
by mid-August to allow sufficient
time for all new growth to mature.
Cultivation.-Maintain weed and
grass control around the base of
the tree by hoeing a circle two to
six feet in diameter. Mulching is
not recommended for citrus because
it frequently leads to fungus at-
tacks that seriously damage or kill
the tree. If this form of cultiva-
tion is used, however, never let the
mulching material come in contact
with the trunk of the tree; allow a
space at least 8 inches in diameter
adjacent to the tree exposed to sun-
light and air to reduce the possibil-
ity of fungus attack.
Cold Protection.-When young
trees are planted in northern or
north central Florida before the
danger of freezing temperatures
has passed, bank them with soil
that is free of grass, roots and leaf
mold, to a point well above the bud
union. The bank should be 14 to
20 inches high. Remove the bank
as soon as the danger of freezing
has passed. Bank them each win-
ter (in mid-November) for the first


two or three years, until the tree
has gained some size and is better
able to withstand freezing temper-
atures.
Pruning.-Avoid pruning unnec-
essarily; removal of leaves retards
growth and increases the time re-
quired for trees to come into bear-
ing. To develop a better fruiting
structure, remove while they are
still young and succulent the
sprouts that develop on the trunk
of the tree below the scaffold limbs.
In the case of a straight-stocked
tree, remove the sprouts that ap-
pear below the area to be branched,
to form the top of the tree. Leave
the tops unpruned until the tree is
bearing or trim only as is necessary
to remove dead wood.

SECOND YEAR
The program for the second year
will approximate that of the first,
except for watering and fertilizing.
Water second-year trees thorough-
ly, 10 to 20 gallons of water per ap-
plication, every two or three weeks,
depending on weather conditions.
In very dry weather the trees tend
to wilt at mid-day and it will be
necessary to water; if the season is
normal very little additional water
will be needed during the second
year.
The frequency of fertilization
and the analysis of the fertilizer
may remain the same throughout
the second year but the amount per
application should be increased.
Begin in the early spring (January
in the southern area, February 1
in the central and February 15 in
the northern area) with the same






Florida Cooperative Extension


rate used during the last applica-
tion in the preceding fall (about
11/3 pounds) and gradually increase
at six-week intervals until 21/9
pounds are applied during the last
application in the fall.

THIRD YEAR
Normally the tree will be estab-
lished by the third year and little
or no watering will be necessary.
However, d u r i n g droughts the
trees may tend to wilt badly be-
tween noon and 2:00 p.m. and
should receive 25 to 30 gallons of
water. Sometimes additional ap-
plications will be needed at from
two- to three-week intervals if
drought is prolonged.
Most varieties will bloom in the
third year and may set a few fruit.
This fruit may or may not be left
to mature. Normally, trees of this
age mature only a few fruit of poor
quality and for this reason the
fruit are usually removed.
Fertilization will be the same as
during the second year. Apply
21/% pounds and increase the amount
each six weeks; by the last applica-
tion the amount should be four
pounds. As the fertilizer rates are
stepped up increase the area of soil
on which it is applied. A good rule
of thumb is to begin at the base
of the tree and cover the soil even-
ly in a circle out to a distance of
at least two feet beyond the drip
of the tree.

FOURTH YEAR
The primary concern for the first
three years is to establish a tree
with good vegetative growth. At


the beginning of the fourth year,
however, certain changes are due;
the fertilization schedule should be
reduced to only three or four appli-
cations of four pounds each for the
entire year. If dry weather pre-
vails, water the trees thoroughly a
day or two before the application
and again a day or two after the
fertilizer has been applied.
During the fourth year, also,
allow the tree to mature whatever
fruit it sets. This will not be top
quality fruit but will be acceptable
and the practice will tend to re-
duce vegetative growth and pro-
mote fruitfulness in future years.
By the fifth year the tree should
be producing good fruit-in quan-
tity.

CARE OF BEARING TREES
Cultural requirements for suc-
cessful fruit production include
fertilization, cultivation, pruning,
irrigation, cold protection, control
of pests and diseases and harvest-
ing.
FERTILIZATION
Citrus will grow under a wide
range of nutritional levels and it
is impossible to outline any one
program of fertilization which is
better than all others for all condi-
tions. It must also be emphasized
that the size and quality of the
fruit of any one crop in any given
year is not determined solely by
the ratio or poundage of any single
fertilizer application or even of a
single year's fertilization. It is de-
termined rather by the condition of
the trees, which reflects past prac-
tices for a period of several years.







Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


Not only fertilize
sect and disease c
soil conditions, w
factors exert an
quality.
Ordinary lawn
fertilizers seldom
the three primary
ments of nitrogen
potassium. Citru
edition to these,
ganese, zinc, copp
boron, iron and
best growth and
For average s
Florida the follow
alysis will be gi
tory for citrus tr


This mixture c;
applications thro
Make three applic
about the follow
ary or February,
October or Noven


ition but also in- years. After 10 years, 1 pound
control, irrigation, of the 6% mixture for each year
weather and other of the tree's age should be suffi-
influence on fruit cient at each application. A total
of 90 pounds per year will suffice
and shrubbery for trees 30 years old or older.
contain any but This recommendation is made
y plant food ele- for trees without lawn grasses
i, phosphorus and growing under them. If the tree
is requires, in ad- is growing in a sod, 25 to 50% ad-
magnesium, man- ditional fertilizer will have to be
er and sometimes applied to allow for the amount
molybdenum for the grass will absorb. Do not ap-
fruiting. ply fertilizer to dry lawn grass.
oil conditions in Wet the grass, apply the fertilizer
iing fertilizer an- and then wash all fertilizer into the
generally satisfac- soil to avoid burning the lawn.
ees in dooryards: Trees growing on alkaline soils
g Mn C will require at least one nutritional
Mg Mn Cu
spray per year. For best results
4 0.75 0.25
apply a dormant spray in the early
an be used for all spring, just before growth starts.
ughout the year. Most garden supply houses carry
nations per year at nutritional elements already mix-
ng periods: Janu- ed; however, if they are not readily
May or June and available in prepared form the fol-
nber. Appml fer- lowing mixture is recommended.


tilizer to the entire rooting area,
which usually extends well beyond
the drip of the tree.
The amount of the application is
an important factor. Over-fertil-
ization tends to make the tree ex-
cessively vegetative, with a re-
sultant reduction in quality and
quantity of fruit. On the other
hand, yellowing or lightness of
color (other than that of immature
growth) is a sign of hunger in the
tree. To maintain foliage of a
good dark green color a fairly safe
rate in each application is 3 pound
of the 6% nitrogen mixture, per
year of age of the tree, up to 10


W ater ............................. 3 Gals.
Basic copper sulphate
or neutral copper
compounds ............ 3 Tablespoons
Zinc sulphate .........--..... 2% Tablespoons
Manganese sulphate .... 3% Tablespoons
Hydrated lime ---....... 61/2 Tablespoons
It is recommended that the soil
pH around citrus trees be main-
tained between 5.5 and 6.2. This is
accomplished more easily on sandy
soils than on alkaline. On the acid
sandy soils apply sufficient liming
material, such as dolomite or agri-
cultural lime, each year to prevent
the pH from dropping below 5.5.
This requirement can be deter-
mined by drawing soil samples






Florida Cooperative Extension


from beneath the drip of the
branches and having them ana-
lyzed by your county agent or other
competent authority.

CULTIVATION
Cultivation is not an absolute es-
sential for successful citrus grow-
ing, but a certain amount of shal-
low tillage appears to stimulate
growth. Cultivation of dooryard
trees with large tools is usually un-
desirable and impractical; how-
ever, the soil can be well aerated
and tilled by the use of such simple
hand tools as the hoe and rake.
Keep soil free of weeds and lawn
grasses from the trunk of the tree
out to the drip. This practice af-
fords ample cultivation, allows for
satisfactory fertilization and pre-


sents an attractive landscape pat-
tern.
PRUNING
Pruning of citrus trees that are
grown for fruit production should
be confined almost entirely to the
removal of dead or broken limbs.
The removal of healthy, well-de-
veloped leaves reduces the ability
of the tree to bear fruit and should
be avoided as much as possible. In
older trees the periodic removal of
dead wood is important. Also, for
the sake of appearance and to fa-
cilitate care, remove sprouts from
the tree trunk. Prune out only
enough growth of the center of
the tree to facilitate fruit picking
and the control of insects and dis-
eases. Most citrus trees at times
will produce long, vigorous sprouts


Fig. 21.-Citrus trees make better growth when grass is not permitted to grow too
close to them. The grass takes up much of the plant food.






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


called suckers. If these suckers
or water sprouts are left alone they
tend to fill the inside and top of
the tree with a tangle of growth
that is susceptible to attack by dis-
ease and insects.
In pruning, make all cuts smooth,
leaving no stub or ragged edges.
Remove all twigs or branches at
a fork or branch, if possible; if
not, dress the wound down until
the cut area is flush with an area of
surrounding bark. Treat and seal
all cuts over 1/2 inch in diameter
with a heavy water-repellent paint.
Tree surgical paints with an as-
phalt base are preferable. A tree
wound cannot be coated with or-
dinary house paints, as they are
likely to contain mineral spirits,
solvents or other substances that
will further injure the bark and
prevent healing.
In removing dead twigs, limbs
and decayed areas always make the
final cut into live healthy wood.
Waterproof the wound and it will
usually callus over.
Citrus trees in some sections oc-
casionally suffer serious injury
from cold. It is impossible to de-
termine the full extent of a severe
injury at once, as mature trees may
continue to deteriorate for several
months following a freeze. If only
slight damage is caused by cold,
pruning may be done as soon as
new growth indicates the extent
of the injury. However, since
pruning stimulates growth, it is
advisable to withhold all pruning
until danger of cold has passed
completely. Where trees have been
killed back to large limbs, no prun-


-rin N('FiEEMER ...'Hli fll
Fig. 22.-Another young tree banked for
protection against winter cold.

ing should be attempted for at
least six months to allow the tree
to recover from the shock and to
ascertain which limbs should be re-
moved.
IRRIGATION
Watering of bearing dooryard
citrus trees seldom becomes neces-
sary under Florida conditions. If
the trees are growing in the lawn
or in an area where lawn sprinklers
are operated, there is a possibility
of damaging the tree by too-fre-
quent applications. Arrange the
sprinkler system so that areas con-
taining citrus trees are not watered
more than every other day on well-
drained soils. On poorly-drained
soils waterings should be less fre-
quent.
COLD PROTECTION
In spite of Florida's mild, sunny
winters, there are times when cold






Florida Cooperative Extension


air comes rolling in to send the
temperatures tumbling. At such
t i m e s trees in colder locations
should receive some frost protec-
tion. Young trees, under four
years of age, should be banked
with clean soil to a height of 14 to
20 inches.
In areas that are likely to have
damaging temperatures, curtail
spraying, fertilizing and cultiva-
tion by early September to allow
the tree to "harden-off" for the
winter.
The final resort is the commer-
cial grove heater. The stack re-
turn-type heater is most satisfac-
tory for the dooryard in that it
eliminates most of the smoke and
soot and there is no exposed flame.
No heating directions will be ap-
propriate for all conditions. Gen-
erally, Florida cold comes out of
the north and northwest; if there
are no buildings or heavy wind-
breaks on that side of the citrus
to be protected, a minimum of two
heaters for the individual tree will
be required, one on the north, the
other on the west. Where several
trees are grouped fewer heaters
will be necessary.

PEST CONTROL
Frequently the home owner does
more harm than good in his at-
tempt to combat citrus insects and
diseases. There are many reasons
for this, the primary one being
his lack of experience, which leads
him to follow ill advised recom-
mendations. To be successful, the
correct material in the right dilu-
tion must be applied at a preferred


time. Otherwise, it is better not
to spray or dust at all. This is not
intended to imply that dooryard
citrus should not be sprayed or
dusted. It does mean however,
where there is doubt competent as-
sistance, such as the local County
Agent, should be sought.
A grower with a few citrus trees
can either follow the spray sched-
ule suggested in this bulletin or
make frequent inspections and ap-
ply pesticides as they are needed.
If he chooses the latter course he
should learn to identify the com-
mon pests of citrus and apply the
recommended controls before the
infestations become severe. (Ex-
tension Circulars 137 and 200 will
be very helpful in learning to
identify the common pests of cit-
us. Circular 139 gives a detailed
spray program.)
There are many instances where
dooryard, and even commercial,
plantings are never sprayed and
yet the trees thrive and produce
good crops of satisfactory fruit.
This is primarily the result of the
presence of beneficial insects such
as ladybeetles and helpful fungi
like the Aschersonias that kill de-
structive pests. This is known as
n a t u r a or biological control.
Where this condition exists and
trees maintain a healthy growing
condition with satisfactory fruit,
you don't need to use pesticides.
Unfortunately, most growers sel-
dom attain this condition or, if
they do, it is frequently destroyed
or thrown off balance by conditions
that are more unfavorable for the
friendly insects and diseases than






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


for the pests. When this occurs
artificial or chemical control meas-
ures are usually necessary.

SPRAY SCHEDULE
The following suggested pro-
gram should be followed with em-
phasis on thorough coverage of all
wood, leaves and fruit.
1. Post-Bloom Spray. T h i s
spray should be applied immedi-
ately after the flower petals have
fallen and before the young fruits
are 3i/ inch in diameter. This
usually occurs in late March or
April. The post-bloom spray
should be a mixture of malathion,
zineb and kelthane.
A neutral copper may be added
for melanose control on older trees
(see discussion on melanose under
disease).
2. Summer Scalicide. Spray
all trees thoroughly with an oil
emulsion-zineb combination spray
between June 15 and July 15. This
is primarily for scale and rust mite
control, but will also remove sooty
mold from the foliage and control
most other pests attacking citrus
at that time of year.
3. Fall Miticide.-(Usually ap-
plied between October 15 and
November 15.) A combination of
zineb and tedion or zineb and kel-
thane will normally carry the tree
through to the next post-bloom
spray; however, if mites become a
problem during the winter or early
spring or if scab and/or melanose
have been a problem in the past,
use a dormant spray.
4. Dormant Spray. (Usually
applied in January.) This is an


optional spray and may be omitted.
Unless scab has been a serious
problem in previous years or the
mite population shows signs of
building up to dangerous levels.
In either case, use a combination
spray. Kelthane and zineb for rust
mites and spider mites and neutral
copper for scab control. This spray
should be applied before spring
growth starts. NOTE-If zineb
and neutral copper are used in the
same spray mixture, use 3 tea-
spoonsful of zineb instead of the
customary 2 teaspoons per gallon
of mixture.

SPECIFIC INSECTS AND
THEIR CONTROL
Florida red scale is an armored
scale with a protective covering,
dark reddish-brown in color with
a nipple-shaped center that is gray
to reddish-yellow. The adult fe-
male is about 1/12 inch in diam-
eter and almost circular in outline.
These scales infest leaves and fruit
and may cause them to drop. There
are at least four generations a
year.
Purple scales also have a protec-
tive armor. The mature scales are
shaped somewhat like an oyster
shell, purplish-brown in color and
about 1/8 inch long. Purple scales
feed on leaves, fruits and wood of
all ages. They collect particularly
along midrib and base of leaves,
but may occur on any part, the up-
per as well as the lower surfaces.
Injury to leaves results in a yellow
or chlorotic area or spot. These
scales can cause leaf drop, fruit






Florida Cooperative Extension


drop and dead wood. This is Flor-
ida's most destructive citrus pest.
Purple mites are only about 1/50
inch long. They are rose to deep
purple in color and infest leaves,
fruit and new growth. Injury ap-
pears as a scratching or etching of
the upper surface of the leaf. They
may cause a collapse of leaf cells
and leaf drop. Use a magnifying
glass to inspect for purple mites
and eggs on the upper surface of
the leaf, especially along the mid-
rib and in angular crevices of leaf
stems and young, tender twigs.
They cannot be seen readily with-
out a magnifying glass. Purple
mites are more numerous from
November to April, but may be
found at other times of the year.
Six-spotted mites are about the
same size as purple mites and are
white-yellow to sulfur-yellow in
color. Adults usually have six dark
spots arranged in two rows on the
back or abdomen that are barely
visible with a 10-power magnify-
ing glass. These mites live in col-
onies on the under surface of leaves
only, particularly along the veins
and midribs. Injury appears as
yellow spots, often cupped toward
the top of the leaf. Six-spotted
mites prefer grapefruit, but are
found on other types of citrus.
They usually disappear with rainy
weather.
Rust mites are present most of
the year and their injury, although
not materially affecting fruit qual-
ity, often results in a brown, rusty
color of the fruit. About 1/200
inch long, they cannot be seen with
the naked eye and are difficult to


recognize with a 10-power magni-
fying glass. Mites occur on green
fruit and both sides of leaves. Un-
less you are interested in bright
fruit, it will not be necessary to
apply a chemical for rust mite con-
trol. If you want bright fruit, ap-
ply sulfur or zineb about every six
weeks from fruit set until harvest.
(CAUTION: Sulfur should not be
mixed with oil; do not use one
within three weeks of the other.)
Whiteflies. Whiteflies that in-
fest citrus are not considered seri-
ous pests in commercial groves.
The nymph (immature stage, sel-
dom recognized by the grower) in-
fests the under side of the leaves
and withdraws quantities of sap
from them, resulting in some in-
jury to trees. Dooryard growers
object to the sooty mold fungus
which is brought about by the
whitefly in its nymph stage. In
controlling whiteflies, do not apply
the spray when large numbers of
adult flies are seen but rather 10
to 20 days after they have stopped
flying. This will allow the eggs
time to hatch and the young to be
killed before they effect much in-
jury.
Sooty Mold. Aphids, mealy-
bugs, certain soft scales and par-
ticularly immature whiteflies ex-
crete a sweet, syrupy material
known as honeydew that falls on
leaves and fruit. In it grows sooty
mold fungus. Sooty mold blackens
the entire tree, including the fruit,
and dulls the luster of foliage. Con-
trolling these insects can prevent
sooty mold. However, where sooty
mold is present, oil sprays will usu-






Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


ally cause it to flake off, making
the leaf bright and shiny again.
Aphids or plant lice attack
young, tender growth and cause
leaves to wrinkle and curl. Apply
controls to young growth as soon
as aphids appear to prevent leaf
curl. There is little value in apply-
ing an insecticide after many leaves
are curled or new growth nearly
mature.

DISEASES
Scab is a fungus disease that at-
tacks young leaves, small fruit and
tender twigs of grapefruit, temple
oranges, lemons, sour oranges, Sat-
sumas and some varieties of tan-
gelo. It is especially troublesome
in coastal areas and on young sour
orange and lemon seedlings wher-
ever they grow.
Scab causes raised, light brown,
corky areas on fruit and leaves and,
if uncontrolled, will destroy young
twigs, foliage and fruit. A copper
spray, applied just before growth
starts in the spring is an effective
control.
Melanose is a fungus disease that
attacks leaves, fruit and tender
twigs. Diseased leaves have raised,
dark-brown lesions that make them
feel like sandpaper. This injury
should not be confused with russet-
ing or rust mite injury, in which
case leaves are smoother to the
touch. Trees are usually over 10
years of age before melanose be-
comes a problem. This disease can
be controlled by coating the young
fruit, leaves and tender twigs with
a copper spray just after the flow-
ers are shed (usually in April).


SOME BENEFICIAL INSECTS
AND FUNGI
There are many beneficial para-
sites and predators that prey on
the various pests of citrus. These
three are the most common.
Ladybeetles are small beneficial
insects. Some are black with two
red spots and others orange with
several or no black spots. Both
the larvae and adults feed on harm-
ful insects.
Red Aschersonia, commonly
found on citrus trees, is a beneficial
or friendly fungus that kills imma-
ture whiteflies. It forms pink and
reddish pustules 1/8 inch or less in
diameter, on the under side of
leaves. It is so colorful that many
growers are quite concerned when
it appears and usually think it is
harmful.
Brown whitefly fungus also aids
in control of whiteflies. It appears
as cinnamon or brownish-colored
pustules about 1/8 inch in diameter
on the under side of leaves. This
fungus is often confused with Flor-
ida red scale. However, it can be
quickly distinguished from red
scale because it does not have the
raised reddish-brown center pecu-
liar to the red scale.

NUTRITIONAL SPRAYS
Nutritional or physiological
sprays are very important and nec-
essary for citrus growing in alka-
line soils. Many growers find the
sprays beneficial to all citrus, re-
gardless of soil acidity or fertilizer
practice.
A good nutritional spray can be






DOORYARD CITRUS PEST CONTROL CHART


Pest


Scales (except cot-
tony-cushion),
whiteflies


Spider mites
(red spider, purple
mite, six-spotted
mite and Texas
citrus mite)




Rust mite


Material


emulsion spray


or
Malathion 25% wet-
table powder


Amount


4 to 5 tablespoons of 80
to 90% oil per gallon of
water (3 pints in 25
gallons)

5 tablespoons per gal.
of water (1 lb. in 20
gals.)


or 2 teaspoons per gal. of
Malathion 50% emulsi- water (% pint in 25
fiable concentrate gals.)


Oil emulsion
or
Tecion (25% wet-
table powder)
or
Kelthane (liquid)
18%%


Zineb
or
Sulfur spray
or
Sulfur dust


Same as for scale

lb. per 100 gals. or
2 teaspoons to one
gallon
2 teaspoons to one
gallon of water


2 teaspoons to one
gallon of water
4 tablespoons to
1 gallon of water
% to 1% Ibs. per tree
depending upon tree
size


Remarks


Oil emulsion sprays may be applied from petal fall in the
spring through September, but the preferred time is June
15 to July 15. Cover upper and lower surfaces of all leaves
and branches thoroughly. (See cautions on use of oil
sprays.)
Malathion may be used any time insects become numerous.
It is not as effective as oil emulsion sprays against heavy
infestations of Florida red and purple scales.

Under these conditions make a second application of mala-
thion 3 to 4 weeks after the first. -Thorough coverage of
all tree surfaces is necessary.


Use oil sprays at same dosage as recommended above (for
scale). See cautions for the use of oil-(Page 28).


If Zineb and copper are combined in one spray mixture
such as recommended in the dormant spray, it is suggested
that the zineb rate be increased to 3 teaspoons to the gallon
of spray mixture.

Apply sulfur every 6 weeks from fruit set until harvest,
unless zineb is substituted for its use.


DO NOT mix oil with sulfur or use either within three
weeks of the other.





DOORYARD CITRUS PEST CONTROL CHART-(Continued)


Material


Amount


Remarks


Cottony-cushion
scale, mealybugs


Malathion 25% wet- Same as under scales
table or Malathion 50% above
emulsifiable


A second application may be necessary 3 to 4 weeks after
the first. Oil emulsion sprays are not satisfactory against
these pests. The Vedalia or Australian ladybeetle is an
effective predator of cottony-cushion scale.


Aphids Malathion spray As directed on con- Aphids cause a curling of young, tender leaves. Observe
or tainer label young growth carefully and treat before leaves curl. After
Nicotine sulfate spray a large percentage of leaves are curled or new growth is
nearly mature, control is not practical.


Ants 5% Chlordane dust Ample coverage Sprinkle chlordane dust around base of trees or in nests or
hills about the area. Chlordane sprays may be used.


Grasshoppers,
Katydids



Scab (disease)


10% Toxaphene dust
or
5% Chlordane dust


Ample coverage


trainer label


Neutral copper spray


As directed on con-
tainer label


Sprays may be used. Many gardeners control these pests
mechanically on a few trees by catching and killing them
while infestations are light.


Scab is a fungus disease that is very important on many
varieties of citrus trees. (See discussion under diseases.)
Apply spray thoroughly to all surfaces just before new
growth starts in the spring.


Trees are usually more than 10 years of age before melanose
becomes a problem. Apply sprays thoroughly to young
fruits, leaves and tender twigs just after the flowers shed.


* DN (Dinitro-O-Cyclohexyl Phenol).


Melanose
(disease)






Florida Cooperative Extension


made by mixing 3 tablespoons of
copper sulphate, 21/4 tablespoons of
zinc sulphate, 31/3 tablespoons of
manganese sulphate, and 61/2 table-
spoons of hydrated lime in 3 gal-
lons of water. Make the hydrated
lime into a paste and add to the
mixture. Stir the spray constantly
until used; if you don't use it im-
mediately, throw the material away
and make a new mixture.
You may use neutral copper,
zinc and manganese instead of the
sulphate materials, if they are
available, and the hydrated lime
will not be needed. NEUTRAL
MATERIALS ARE EASIER TO
MIX AND USE.
Apply nutritional sprays in the
spring before growth starts, usual-
ly between January 15 and Febru-
ary 15. Later applications can be
made. However, it is not a good
practice to apply these to new
growth until it is at least two-
thirds mature.

CAUTIONS IN USE OF
PESTICIDES
Treat all pesticides as poisons
and handle according to the cau-
tions on manufacturer's product
labels. ALWAYS READ THE LA-
BEL! Do not apply oil emulsion
sprays to a tree which shows signs
of wilt or during the winter
months. If two oil sprays are nec-
essary, allow six weeks to elapse
between applications. Do not mix
oil with sulfur or apply the two
separately without a lapse of three
weeks, as injury to fruit and foli-
age may result.


HARVESTING
Naturally, all varieties of citrus
have a peak ripeness when they
are at their best but fruit can be
left on the tree for considerable
periods after maturity without se-
rious deterioration. This allows
the home gardener to enjoy an ex-
tended harvest period. Eventually
the fruit will begin to lose its bou-
quet and acidity; finally the juice
of the fruit is absorbed by the tree.
Overly mature fruit will start to
granulate or dry out at the stem
end and if allowed to hang too long
will become juiceless.

PESTICIDE TOLERANCES
Citrus consumed by the producer
is not subject to Food and Drug
Administration pesticide residue
tolerance regulations. If, however,
fruit is sold or offered for sale, it
must conform with Federal and/or
State food and drug regulations.
Since these regulations will change
from year to year, growers who
anticipate offering fruit for sale
are advised to obtain a current
copy of the Better Fruit Spray and
Dust Schedule and follow the resi-
due and tolerance program outlined
therein.

CONCLUSION
Citrus is a hardy evergreen that
will do well under a wide range of
conditions. Often, disorders ex-
perienced by the home grower are
due to over care rather than neg-
lect; watering too often, fertilizing
too heavily, or using sprays that
are harmful. If in doubt, consult







Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard


a competent authority, preferably
your county agricultural agent.

Other recommended publications:
Circular 116, Pruning Citrus in Rela-
tion to Diseases; Circular 137, Insects
and Mites of Florida Citrus; Circular
139, Controlling Insects and Diseases
of Dooryard Citrus; Bulletin 536, Rec-
ommended Fertilizers and Nutritional
Sprays; Bulletin 587, Handbook of
Citrus Diseases in Florida.

CONVERSION TABLES AND
EQUIVALENTS

It is sometimes convenient to
use a measuring cup and measur-


ing spoons in making up sprays for
dooryard applications. The follow-
ing equivalents are of use in this
connection:


3 teaspoonfuls
2 tablespoonfuls
16 tablespoonfuls
8 fluid ounces

16 tablespoonfuls
2 gills
% pint
8 fluid ounces
237 milliliters

1 pint
16 fluid ounces
457 milliliters


tablespoonful
fluid ounce
cup
cup


1 cup


= 2 cups


The number of pounds of any wettable powder to
given quantity of spray (or dip) of a given percentage
calculated by the use of the following formula:


be used in any
toxicant can be


Number of gallons of spray X 8.345 X percent toxicant desired in spray
Percent toxicant in wettable powder
=Pounds of wettable powder to be used

EXAMPLE-500 gallons of spray containing 0.25 percent DDT is needed. The
wettable powder to be used contains 50 percent DDT.
500 X 8.345 X 0.25
--= 21 lbs. wettable powder
50
Water is then added to make 500 gallons of dilute spray









BOARD

J. J. Daniel, Chairman, Jacksonville
James J. Love, Quincy
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville


OF CONTROL

James D. Camp, Fort Lauderdale
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven
Frank M. Buchanan, Miami
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director,
Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., President of the
University 1
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agri-
culture 1
M. 0. Watkins, D.P.A., Director of Extension
J. N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Director
F. E. Myers, M.Agr., Asst. to Director 2
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Adm. Manager 1

GAINESVILLE STAFF

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor
W. G. Mitchell, M.S., Assistant Editor
J. W. McAllister, B.S.Com., Asst. Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, M.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.
H. B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Dairyman
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.1
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-Lay-
ing Test, Chipley
L. W. Kalch, M.Agr., Asst. in Poultry Husb.
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist 1
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
K. L. Durrance, M.Agr., Asst. An. Indus-
trialist
R. L. Reddish, Ph.D., Asst. An. Industrialist
T. G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S.A., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing
Specialist
S. E. Grigsby, M.S.A., Training Specialist
R. A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Assoc. Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Hort.1
S. A. Rose, M.S., Asst. Ornamental Hort.
F. L. Wilson, M.Agr., Asst. Ornamental Hort.
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, M.Agr., Asst. Horticul-
turist
W. H. Mathews, M.Agr., Asst. Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., State Boys' 4-H Club
Agent
G. M. Godwin, M.Agr., Asso. State Boys'
4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, M.Agr., Asst. Boys' 4-H Club
Agent
G. H. White, Jr., M.S., Asst. Boys' 4-H Club
Agent
T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agr. Engineer



1 Cooperative, other divisions of U. of F.


A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Farm Electrification
Specialist and Asso. Agr. Engineer
D. S. Harrison, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Engineer
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
C. L. Madsen, B.S., Rodent Control Special-
ist 3
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Veg. Crop Specialist'
S. E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crops
Specialist
J. D. Norton, M.S., Asst. Veg. Crops Spec.
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Asso. Veg. Crop
Spec.
M. E. Marvel, M.S., Asst. Veg. Crops Spec.
Kenneth Gilbraith, M.S.A., Veg. Mktg. Spec.
J. E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
R. S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Soil Conservation-
ist
H. C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Mktg. Spec.
C. B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Veterinarian

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State Home
Demonstration Agent in Trainee Work
Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District Agent
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Agent
Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Agent
Roberta C. Halcomb, M.S.H.E., Home Im-
provement Specialist
Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and
Marketing Specialist
Emily King, M.Ed., State Girls' 4-H Club
Agt.2
Ann Thompson, M.Ed., Acting State Girls'
4-H Club Agent
JoAnn Tilley, M.Ed., Asst. Girls' 4-H Club
Agt.
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Nutritionist
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Asst. Nutritionist
Farm and Home Development Specialist
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.S., Clothing and Tex-
tile Specialist
Alma Warren, M.A., Asst. Editor and Visual
Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
and Recreation Specialist
Ruth E. Harris, M.S., Family Life Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Floy Britt, M.S., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

2 On leave. 3 In cooperation with U. S.









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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of Florida




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