• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Crops suitable for silage
 Types of silos
 Silage densities
 Methods of harvesting
 Application of preservatives or...
 Forage handling equipment
 Feeding-out silage
 Cost of production
 Summary
 Reference
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 173
Title: Silage processing equipment and structures for Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020519/00001
 Material Information
Title: Silage processing equipment and structures for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holmes, Elwyn S
Harrison, D. S ( Dalton Sidney ), 1920-
Skinner, T. C ( Thomas Cobb )
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Silos -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 19).
Statement of Responsibility: by E.S. Holmes, D.S. Harrison, and T.C. Skinner.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "November 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020519
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 42002555
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Crops suitable for silage
        Page 3
    Types of silos
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Silage densities
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Methods of harvesting
        Page 11
    Application of preservatives or conditioners
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Forage handling equipment
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Feeding-out silage
        Page 16
    Cost of production
        Page 17
    Summary
        Page 18
    Reference
        Page 19
    Historic note
        Page 20
Full Text



November 1959


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







Silage Processing Equipment and

Structures for Florida



By E. S. HOLMES, D. S. HARRISON and T. C. SKINNER


Fig. 1.-A horizontal concrete walled silo.


, *


Ap


/ tl




. ,- ,
:n ..^ sc- /,.. .
*^^- ~-
- **^ *' '^ -' *-


Bulletin 173


I~ .." ~L i. r.

'3~C1 "*.~'






















CONTENTS

Page


INTRODUCTION ..................... ............... --- --- -----.. .. 3


CROPS SUITABLE FOR SILAGE ........................ ------- ........ ------- 3


TYPES OF SILOS ................................... ---.. .......- -. 4


SILAGE DENSITIES ........................... ............. --. ... ... ....... .


METHODS OF HARVESTING ......................... .. 11


APPLICATION OF PRESERVATIVES OR CONDITIONERS .............................. 12


FORAGE HANDLING EQUIPMENT .................. ... --------------------- 14


FEEDING-OUT SILAGE ............ .... ........ ................. .- ....-- 16


COST OF PRODUCTION ............... ........... --------- 17


SUM M ARY ...... .............. ... .... .... 18


R EFEREN CES .................... ...... -- .... --- ---- ----........... .-- 19










Silage Processing Equipment and

Structures for Florida

By E. S. HOLMES, D. S. HARRISON and T. C. SKINNER

INTRODUCTION
The process of conserving green succulent crops without the
need for reducing the water content to an appreciable degree
is known as ensilage. The product of this process is called silage.
Any crop may be ensiled. However, only grasses and certain
grain crops are normally made into silage.
Until recent years silage was not used to any great extent
in Florida, although a few dairymen have fed silage for many
years. Vagaries of the weather have caused the farmer to
realize the need for a cheap winter feed. As far south as the
Florida Everglades, recent freezes have caused much concern
for storing winter feed for livestock. Silage is a convenient and
economical solution to this need.

CROPS SUITABLE FOR SILAGE
The type of crop to be used for silage is important not only
from the standpoint of nutritive value and cost of production
but also in harvesting and storing. The two types of crops
normally recommended by agronomists and used for silage are
grasses such as Pangola, Bahia, Para, Carib, St. Augustine or
Bermuda, and grains such as corn or sorghums. Consult the
county agent for information on varieties of silage crops best
suited to your area.
If you make silage from grasses, purchase the forage har-
vester with a grass head attachment. If you make silage from
corn or sorghum, the harvester must have a row crop attachment.
You can expect to harvest grasses at about one-half the rate of
harvesting corn or sorghum. Considerably large yields can be
harvested from corn and sorghum, but the cost of production
is higher. Corn has the most food value per ton.

1Holmes, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of Florida; Harrison, Assistant Agricultural Engineer,
and Skinner, Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Service, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.










Silage Processing Equipment and

Structures for Florida

By E. S. HOLMES, D. S. HARRISON and T. C. SKINNER

INTRODUCTION
The process of conserving green succulent crops without the
need for reducing the water content to an appreciable degree
is known as ensilage. The product of this process is called silage.
Any crop may be ensiled. However, only grasses and certain
grain crops are normally made into silage.
Until recent years silage was not used to any great extent
in Florida, although a few dairymen have fed silage for many
years. Vagaries of the weather have caused the farmer to
realize the need for a cheap winter feed. As far south as the
Florida Everglades, recent freezes have caused much concern
for storing winter feed for livestock. Silage is a convenient and
economical solution to this need.

CROPS SUITABLE FOR SILAGE
The type of crop to be used for silage is important not only
from the standpoint of nutritive value and cost of production
but also in harvesting and storing. The two types of crops
normally recommended by agronomists and used for silage are
grasses such as Pangola, Bahia, Para, Carib, St. Augustine or
Bermuda, and grains such as corn or sorghums. Consult the
county agent for information on varieties of silage crops best
suited to your area.
If you make silage from grasses, purchase the forage har-
vester with a grass head attachment. If you make silage from
corn or sorghum, the harvester must have a row crop attachment.
You can expect to harvest grasses at about one-half the rate of
harvesting corn or sorghum. Considerably large yields can be
harvested from corn and sorghum, but the cost of production
is higher. Corn has the most food value per ton.

1Holmes, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of Florida; Harrison, Assistant Agricultural Engineer,
and Skinner, Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Service, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TYPES OF SILOS2

Upright.-The upright silo, as its name implies, is an above-
ground vertical structure (Fig. 2). This type of silo has been
used for many years by dairymen. Today, most of them are
found on dairy farms.


Fig. 2.-Upright silo.


The upright silo may be constructed of wood, metal or con-
crete. Temporary upright silos may be constructed with welded
wire fencing or woodslat fencing lined with a heavy paper
especially designed for the purpose. Feeding from the upright
silo may be done manually or mechanically. In upright silos
little packing of silage is required and spoilage is insignificant.
Some advantages of an upright silo are: (1) can be located
adjacent to feeding out area, (2) does not require complete filling
at one time, (3) low percentage of spoilage.

2 See Table 1.









Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


-Conc. Cast to
original grade
before outside
forms are set.


Type 1 Cast-in-place Reinforced Concrete Lining

6"x6" wall cap continuous

'-t i ,rig. grade


n in e st on bank
Panel cast on floor and set on bank
tilted to final posi- A to hold panels to
Back fill after tion for all.\ temp. alignment.
panels are a
tilted. --re-n-
Drainclx
6" Cone. Fl. 8x112" Wall footing with 2"x6" notch for panel


Type 2 Tilt up Concrete Lining

Panel cast on floor, tilted, then
moved to final position


12" wide buttresses
at 10-0" centers
along wall


Type 3 Above-ground Horizontal Concrete Silo

Fig. 3.-Three types of concrete horizontal silos.


Fig. 4.-Trench silo.


Shaped
walls


earth'


Deadma
earth


Back fill
Min. 2'-0"








Florida Cooperative Extension


Some disadvantages are: (1) high cost per ton of capacity,
(2) requires a blower or elevator for filling, (3) difficulty in feed-
ing out.
Trench.-A trench silo (Fig. 4) is a horizontal structure
located on sloping land. The site must have good drainage and
at the same time have at least 5 feet of depth. This type land
is found mostly in central and northern Florida. For perma-
nence, the walls and floor should be lined with concrete. Earth
trench side-wayys often cave in after short usage.

TABLE 1.-COMPARISONS OF SILO TYPES.


Features Upright Bunker Trench

Cost of construction High Low ILow
Spoilage Low Medium Medium
Quality silage Excellent Good Good
Ease of filling and
feeding out Difficult Good Fair
Investment in equip-
ment I High Medium Medium
Labor costs High Medium ILow


Plastic Stack

Low None
Low High
Excellent Poor


Difficult

High
Medium


I Good

Low
Low


When properly located, the trench silo has the advantages
of (1) low cost, (2) ease of filling and feeding out and (3) silage
from it can be self-fed. The principal disadvantage is difficulty
in locating a suitable site near a desired feeding area.
Bunker.-A horizontal structure built above the ground for
storing silage is known as a bunker silo (Figs. 5 and 6). This
type is well suited for use in areas with a high water table.
(Oftentimes it is too expensive to pour a concrete foundation
and floor.)
A minimum width of 14 feet is recommended for bunkers.
This gives more ease in shifting the unloading from side to side,
thus permitting better packing.
Bunker silos are ideally suited for self-feeding operations.
Their height may be as much as 6 to 8 feet. The length is de-
pendent on the amount to be stored. Where moisture content
of grasses runs from 80 to 85 percent, silage as it is fed out will
average 50 to 65 pounds per cubic foot, depending on the variety
of grass.








Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


Fi. 5-oncrete sio



Fig. 5.-Bunker silo (above); filled bunker silo with plastic cover (below).


Fig. 6.-A type of bunker quite common in the Florida sand area is the
sand bank bunker made by building the walls with banks of sand. A bunker
of this type is very inexpensive but has to be rebuilt each year. Spoilage
is normally high.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Wheel tractors do a better packing job in bunker silos. How-
ever, where the moisture content of grass is high it may be
necessary to use a crawler tractor to fill the bunkers.
Spoilage in bunker silos without covers (Fig. 7) may run
as high as 35 percent. This can be reduced by using covers and
treated timber sides (Fig. 5) and, in addition, packing thoroughly
against the sides, using manual labor.






'-'







Fig. 7.-Bunker silo without cover.

Stack.-Stack silos are constructed by stacking silage ma-
terial on the surface of the ground in uniform layers. Because
of exposure on all sides, good compaction of the silage is most
important. However, it is difficult, especially near the edges.
This usually results in a high rate of spoilage. Normally, the
stack silo is not recommended. However, if no other method
of storage is feasible, the use of a plastic cover will reduce
spoilage considerably (Fig. 8).
Plastic.-Vinyl plastic silos are now commercially available
in a number of sizes, with capacities ranging up to 80 tons. They
are 0.008 inch thick and are constructed as a "sleeve". Prelimi-
nary trials at the Everglades Experiment Station have shown
that spoilage in plastic silos may be as low as 5 percent. A
14- to 16-gauge wire fence (Fig. 9) is placed around the circular
plastic silo while filling, to hold it in place. After it is filled the
fence may be removed to support another silo while filling.
Covers made from vinyl plastic are available for tops and
sides of bunker and trench-type silos. These are retailed at
from 2 to 8 cents per square foot.








Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


Fig. 8.-Stack silo with plastic cover.

SILAGE DENSITIES


Some variations can be expected in the amount of actual
silage found in any type of silo because density is affected by
(1) maturity of the crop being ensiled, (2) length of cut by har-
vester, (3) initial moisture, (4) depth of silage, (5) amount
of packing during the filling period, (6) use of preservatives
and (7) type of crop being ensiled.

TABLE 2.-CAPACITIES OF HORIZONTAL SILOS 6 FEET DEEP, 20 FEET WIDE
AND 100 FEET LONG, FILLED WITH VARIOUS FORAGES IN NORTH AND CEN-
TRAL FLORIDA.*

Material Density Capacity
(Lbs. per Cubic Foot) Tons

Corn ................................ 49.1 290

Corn and cane ......... 52.8 317
M illet ........................... 40.7 244

Pangola ........................ 47.7 286

Unpublished data, Agricultural Engineering Department, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of Florida, 1958.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Table 2 shows the amount of silage that one would expect
to find in a horizontal silo in northern and central Florida when
stored about 6 feet deep. Other factors being equal, an upright
silo will have more capacity per cubic foot because of the greater
depth.


A


4~ ;-

.
i.Y ~Z
;e
,
~'
.,


Fig. 9.-Plastic silo being filled (top) and filled (bottom).








Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


METHODS OF HARVESTING
Forage and silage harvesters are of 3 general types. The
vertical or flywheel type is the oldest. It has been used pri-
marily on row crops, although it has proven satisfactory for
grasses when used with a grass head attachment. It makes the
most uniform length of cut of any type on the market.
The drum type harvester was first designed for grasses and
other low-growing crops and does a very satisfactory job in
grasses.
The horizontal or flail type harvester is relatively new in
forage and is satisfactory only in grasses and other low-growing
crops. It will tend to pick up sand if the ground is highly ir-
regular. An example is mounds that might be made by gophers.
Many farmers have found the flail type satisfactory in nearly
all their forage crops.
In all types of harvesters, keeping the knives or cutting sur-
faces sharp speeds the cutting rate.
During the past 3 years a detailed study was made on a
number of farms of the harvesting and feeding out of silage.
Results on 10 of these farms are reported in Table 3.
Many factors entered into the variations in harvest rate and
total costs, but management of machinery and labor had the
most pronounced effect. Field stops through breakdowns, re-
fueling, etc., varied from 16 to 40 percent of the time. Further
explanations of data in this table will be found under handling
equipment and costs.

Fig. 10.-A power takeoff type forage harvester operating in corn.









AjS^.
*S I.











.'* .. --
.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Both motor driven and power take-off harvesters (Fig. 10)
were used. The power take-off type was just as satisfactory
as the motor-driven type as long as the pulling tractor had
sufficient power. As a matter of fact, the initial saving made
in buying a power take-off harvester would counterbalance the
buying of a heavier tractor.

APPLICATION OF PRESERVATIVES OR CONDITIONERS
Where the water content of the crop to be ensiled is about
65 percent, it is not necessary to use preservatives. This is
especially true of grain silage materials. In southern Florida,
the moisture content is normally above 65 percent and may run
as high as 85 percent.
The following materials are commonly used as preservatives
and conditioners in Florida: (1) molasses, (2) sodium metabi-
sulphite, (3) citrus pulp and (4) ground corn.
Molasses.-Undiluted molasses can be added directly to the
chopped silage as it leaves the discharge chute of the forage
harvester. This can be accomplished by mounting a 11/2-inch
internal gear pump driven from the PTO shaft of the tractor
pulling the harvester. A 55-gallon drum mounted on the tractor
rear frame serves as a source of supply directly to the pump
beneath. From the pump, a 1-inch neoprene hose is run directly
to the discharge chute of the forage harvester being pulled. A
bracket on the end of the discharge chute holds the hose fastened
to a 1/4-inch pipe "T" into which are drilled two 1/8-inch holes,
through which the molasses is pumped directly into the stream
of chopped silage as it leaves the discharge chute (Fig. 11).


Fig 11.-Molasses being added to grass forage.









Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


TABLE 3.-THREE-YEAR AVERAGES OF RATES
HARVESTING COSTS FOR VARIOUS SILAGE
NORTHERN FLORIDA.


OF HARVEST, MAN HOURS AND
MATERIALS IN CENTRAL AND


Silage Material


Corn

Corn

Corn

Corn


Corn and cane

M illet .........


SAverage Rate of Man
Harvest, Hours
Tons per Hour per Ton

6.7 1.90

5.2 1.00

5.5 0.80

4.7 0.90

7.0 0.51

2.7 2.20


Machinery
and Labor
Cost per Ton*

$4.07

2.19

1.63

2.18

1.50

4.74


Grain sorghums, millet
sorghum and hairy
indigo ............. 3.7

Pangola ........ ............. 2.5

Pangola ..................... 4.1

Pangola** ..................... 2.2
Excludes cost of fuel and oil.
** Averages include data for 2 years only.


As the temperature of the molasses rises and it becomes less
viscous, a second "T" with 3 3/32-inch holes may be substituted
so as to deliver the same amount of molasses.


Fig. 12.-Dump truck being used to unload forage into bunker.


".Y ,;.: "aw .-




~-4aV


t







Florida Cooperative Extension


This arrangement will deliver approximately 100 pounds of
molasses per ton of chopped silage, when harvesting at the rate
of 4 to 5 tons per hour. At least 40 to 60 pounds molasses per
ton for grasses and 60 to 80 pounds per ton for legumes should
be added. Operating pressure of the molasses pump should be
100 p.s.i.
Sodium metabisulphite is another preservative which aids in
the preservation of silage. It may be applied directly by hand
as the silage is dumped into the silo. This is laborious and time-
consuming. To add sodium metabisulphite automatically, a star-
wheel type fertilizer hopper may be mounted directly over the
feed roll of the forage harvester. Speed of the hopper must be
7 to 10 r.p.m. Sometimes a counter shaft is necessary to get
the desired reduction. At these speeds, sodium metabisulphite
will be added to the silage at a rate of 8 to 10 pounds per ton
of silage. The knife end of the blower mechanism of the har-
vester causes a thorough mixing of the preservatives.
Citrus pulp or ground corn is an excellent preservative for
grass silage and also contributes to the nutritive value of the
material. These materials may be applied by hand, being care-
ful to secure uniform distribution, or a device such as that
described for applying sodium metabisulphite may be used. Cit-
rus pulp or ground corn should be applied at a rate of about 150
pounds per ton of silage.

FORAGE HANDLING EQUIPMENT
Self-Unloadng Wagons and Dump Trucks.-For handling for-
ages from field to silo the most commonly used equipment is
dump trucks and self-unloading wagons pulled by small tractors.
Either is quite satisfactory, but unless dump trucks have other
specific uses on a farm, they are a very expensive way of handling
silage. If the haul distance from field to silo is 12 mile or less,
2 trucks or trailers are adequate for horizontal silos. A third
haul unit might be necessary for upright silos for a distance
longer than 1/2 mile.
On farms studied and reported in Table 3, the least expensive
silage was made with a combination of 3 tractors, 2 self-unload-
ing wagons and 1 harvester. In each case, 1 tractor was used
for packing silage.
Filling and Packing.-Proper filling and packing of a silo are
important in making a quality silage. In filling horizontal silos,








Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


dump trucks and self-unloading wagons can spread the forage
uniformly by moving slowly through the trench or bunker while
being emptied. For an upright silo, the haul unit must dump
the silage into a blower or elevator, which in turn places the
forage into the silo. This involves an extra piece of equipment.
Both rubber tire and track type tractors are used to pack
forage in horizontal silos. In the study mentioned in Table 3,
both types were used and spoilage was measured from each silo.3
There is some indication that wheel-type tractors have an ad-
vantage over track-type tractors.
For most crops, 65 to 70 percent moisture is ideal for silage.
However, experience is one's best teacher in deciding the proper
cutting time. The stage of growth is important for nutritive
values. Consult your county agent when in doubt. Best quality
silage is made by continuous packing during the filling period
and for short intervals for 2 to 3 days after the silo is filled.
Upright silos are not always packed, but if they are, this is
done by a man walking on the forage during filling.

3Unpublished data, E. S. Holmes, Assistant Agricultural Engineer,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.

Fig. 13.-Self-unloading wagon being used to unload forage into
earth trench.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FEEDING-OUT SILAGE

UPRIGHT
One of the weaknesses of an upright silo has been finding
a satisfactory and efficient method of feeding-out. A man with
a fork pitching into a haul unit or feed trough at the bottom of
the silo chute has been common practice for years. Mechanical
unloaders on the market today work satisfactorily but require
careful management and maintenance. One type works on the
principle of a chain saw. Another unit works off the top of the
silage, using a drive motor and pickup conveyor as a pivot point
in the center of the silo. From this pivot point an arm with
pickup or digging tines revolves slowly around the top of the
silage, loosening and carrying the silage to the pickup conveyor.


-%TIEFL -5 j-TFa.-^,p


2,' X,,


x6 "


_ LY8 7-
S

~-'--)--
- ~zYr


Fig. 14.-Two types of feeding gates.


F" &LOC INC5







Silage Processing Equipment and Structures


HORIZONTAL
Trench.-Self-feeding gates (Fig. 14) may be installed in
trench silos as in bunker silos. However, the feeding can be
done from one end only. In many instances the trench silo does
not lend itself to self-feeding, and the silage has to be removed
from the silo and carried to the animals. The silage may be
removed by hand methods or power equipment in the form of
a front-mounted or rear-mounted tractor fork lift.
Bunker.-One of the chief advantages of bunker silos is
ability to self-feed. Gates may be installed as shown in Fig. 14,
and cattle can feed themselves. The gate is moved daily as the
feed is consumed. Certain waste is evident as the cattle feed,
but the cost is small compared to hauling. Over 100 head of
cattle have been fed daily from 2 ends of a silo 15 feed wide.
Better feeding results are normally obtained by allowing 6 inches
of feeder space per animal being fed.
Stack.-In most instances silage is self-fed from the stacks.
Normally, silage placed in a stack silo is intended to be utilized
rather rapidly. Since spoilage is usually higher in stacks than
in other type silos, a sufficient number of animals should have
access to the silage to prevent that which is exposed daily from
spoiling.
PLASTIC
Feeding from a plastic silo may be handled in much the same
way as from stack silos. Where large capacity (40 to 80 tons)
plastic silos are used, manual feeding-out is used similar to that
of upringht silos.

COST OF PRODUCTION
Harvesting Equipment.-Sickle-bar-type harvesters are priced
from $1,500 to $3,500, depending on whether or not they are
PTO-operated or auxiliary engine-operated. Flail-type harvest-
ers are priced from $900 to $1,500. Where the grass is wet, the
terrain rough and the operator not cautious, maintenance on
sickle bar harvesters may run high. However, they cut the
material into short lengths and are especially desirable for best
handling of silage. Flail-type harvesters have less maintenance,
since they have fewer moving parts. However, they do not cut
in short lengths but merely shred the silage. This is not ad-
vantageous when silage is to be unloaded from the silo.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Handling Equipment.-To handle the ensilage efficiently, the
haul unit must have a quick way of unloading into the silo. For
horizontal silos a dump truck is very good but expensive, costing
about $3,000. A wagon in which the ensilage is dumped by
pulling off a false botton with the silo packing tractor is very
inexpensive, costing about $400. Other wagons costing slightly
more use endless chains with cross slats driven by the tractor
power take-off or a dump wagon driven by the tractor hydraulic
system.
The least expensive 3 silage making operations found in the
study reported in Table 3 used 2 self-dumping wagons and blades
on small tractors to spread the ensilage. This same tractor was
used to pack the silage by moving back and forth across it. For
uprights these haul units dump the ensilage into a blower or
mechanical conveyor, which in turn carries it into the upright.
In many cases the ensilage is not packed in an upright.
Harvesting Operational Costs.-Three years of data at the
Everglades Experiment Station on grasses show that costs for
fuels, labor (3-man crew) and preservatives amount to $1.76
to $1.84 per ton. This was based on harvesting at an average
rate of 4.0 to 5.0 tons per hour. Divided into the 3 categories,
total costs were 11% for fuels, 52% for preservatives and 37%
for labor.
SUMMARY
Before deciding upon the type silo to construct, consider many
factors, such as number of animals to be fed, how the animals
are to be handled, whether the silage is to be hauled to the ani-
mals or self-fed, cost and terrain. The upright silo is normally
used in a dairy operation where the silage is to be fed at the
milking barn.
If the silage is fed in a holding area near the barn or the
place of feeding is in the pasture, a horizontal type silo would
be more practical and economical. The horizontal silo is most
often used in connection with beef cattle, although upright silos
have been used satisfactorily in feed lot operations. In most
areas of Florida, the above-ground or partially above-ground
horizontal silo (Fig. 11) is used because of the flat terrain and
high water table in many areas of the state.
There is a wide range in cost of silo construction. Uprights
range in cost from about $8.00 to more than $30.00 per ton
capacity. Trench and bunker-type silos cost from about $2.00








Silages Procesing Equipment and Structures


to $7.00 per ton capacity, depending upon capacity and type
construction used.
In harvesting and storing silage, all costs exclusive of fuel
and oil varied from $1.51 to $6.17 per ton in silo. Grasses were
normally harvested at a slower rate and consequently were more
expensive to make into silage than corn. Over-mature grasses
gave the most trouble to harvesting equipment.
The combination of equipment that was least expensive in
making silage was 1 power take-off forage harvester, 1 large
pulling tractor, 2 self-dumping wagons, 1 small pulling tractor
and 1 packing tractor with rubber tires.
Plans referred to in this publication may be obtained through
the County Agricultural Agent or the Extension Agricultural
Engineer, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

REFERENCES
1. CONCRETE HORIZONTAL SILOS. Portland Cement Association, 33 W.
Grand Avenue, Chicago. 1954.
2. HARRISON, D. S. Making and Storing Grass Silage. Everglades Ex-
periment Station Mimeograph Report 57-13. March 1, 1957.
3. HARRISON, D. S., and R. J. ALLEN, JR. Harvesting Grass Silage in the
Everglades. Proceedings, The Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Vol. 16:
314-319. 1956.
4. HENDRIX, A. T. 1957. Equipment and Labor Requirements of Different
Methods of Storing and Feeding Silage. USDA Mimeo Report.
5. JOHNSON, J. M., and C. W. REAVES. The Trench Silo. Mimeo Report,
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida. 1953.
6. SILOS. New Series Bulletin 71. Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee,
Florida. 1943.
7. WATSON, S. J., and M. SMITH. Silage. Crosby, Lockwood & Son Ltd.,
London. 1956.








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs