• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 The Imperial Russian Post
 The Russian Post in Turkey
 The Russian Post in China
 The Post in the Kingdom of...
 Index
 Appendix
 Bibliography






Group Title: Russkaia pochta v Imperii, v Turtsii, v Kitae, i pochta v TSarstve Polskom.
Title: The Russian post in the Empire, Turkey, China, and the post in the Kingdom of Poland
CITATION PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020468/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Russian post in the Empire, Turkey, China, and the post in the Kingdom of Poland a detailed reference book for collectors of Russian postage stamps, entires and postmarks
Series Title: Rossica translation
Uniform Title: Russkaia pochta v Imperii, v Turtsii, v Kitae, i pochta v TSarstve Polskom
Physical Description: vi, 196 p., 24 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Prigara, S. V ( Sergei Vasilþevich )
Publisher: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: U.S
Publication Date: c1981
 Subjects
Subject: Postal service -- History -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Postage stamps -- History -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 195-196.
Statement of Responsibility: compiled by S.V. Prigara ; translated by David M. Skipton.
General Note: Translation of: Russkaia pochta v Imperii, v Turtsii, v Kitae, i pochta v TSarstve Polskom.
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020468
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2679
lccn - 81052834

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Frontispiece
        Plate
    Title Page
        Title 1
        Plate
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    The Imperial Russian Post
        The history of the Post in Russia
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Plate
            Page 8
        Postage stamps and entires
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Postmarks
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Plate
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        The history of the City Post
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Postage stamps and entires
            Page 95
            Plate
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Postmarks
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
        The history of the Railway Post
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Postmarks
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Plate
            Page 121
            Page 122
        The history of the Ship Post
            Page 123
            Plate
            Page 124
            Page 125
        Postmarks
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
        The history of the Field Post
            Page 130
        Postmarks
            Page 131
            Page 132
    The Russian Post in Turkey
        Page 133
        Postal history
            Page 134
            Page 135
        Postage stamps and entires
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
        Postmarks
            Page 145
        Postmarks
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
    The Russian Post in China
        Postal history
            Page 149
            Page 150
        Postage stamps and entires
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
        Postmarks
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
    The Post in the Kingdom of Poland
        Postal history
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
        Postage stamps and entires
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
        Postmarks
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
    Index
        Page 174
        Plate I
        Plate II
        Plate III
        Plate IV
        Plate V
        Plate VI
        Plate VII
        Plate VIII
        Plate IX
        Plate X
        Plate XI
        Plate XII
        Plate XIII
        Plate XIV
        Plate XV
        Plate XVI
        Plate XVII
    Appendix
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Bibliography
        Page 195
        Page 196
Full Text















THE RUSSIAN POST IN THE EMPIRE,
TURKEY, CHINA, AND THE POST IN
THE KINGDOM OF POLAND




A detailed reference book for collectors of
Russian postage stamps, entire and postmarks

COMPILED BY S. V. PRIGARA

Honorary Member of the Russian Philatelic Society,
"Rossica"


TRANSLATED BY DAVID M. SKIPTON

















"Rossica Translation No. 1"
Copyright 1981. All rights reserved.
Library of Congress Card No. 81-528-34


























































-Jr


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1i& A -.

Dop# AoeosctN ^AswMTbrPn.h npAtWtb-HaI4OaKIoM




f^ > *- .. ....,


Boyarin Afonasij Lavrent'evich Ordyn-Nashchokin -- The first organizer of a
regular postal service for State correspondence and private commercial mail.













4 4




i ^MISPIH





S rPOKHuH. va-HPi.
lAS COBMPAlOlpHXb
inOTOBbM MAPHH t/\bHbMi BEqJH H
014TOBblE TEMnEA,9.

CocTABvAz C.B. PH APA
Sc104 noMETrHbl Hu MOAEL HZ
PJccNAro OSnJE CTBA rTEAHnCTOBZ
.H POCCMKA".
H1941

rCHA- IOCFPH LA.
rinPho- Iowz (



















































S.V. Prigara


























This translation is dedicated
to my wife Cathy, who put up
with it and me with equal fortitude.

















PREFACE

The purpose of this work is to satisfy the needs of those who collect
the postage stamps, entire (among which are included stamped envelopes,
postcards, and other issues with postal payment or postage stamps imprinted
on them), and postal cancellations of Russia.
Both the growing interest in Russian philately among Russians and
Americans, especially after the Russian Philatelic Exhibition in New York
(which was put on by the New York Chapter of the Russian Philatelic
Society "Rossica"), and the complete lack of Russian philatelic literature
on the book market, prompted me to write "The Russian Post in the Empire,
Turkey, China, and the Kingdom of Poland" and to illustrate the descrip-
tions with pictures, some of which were borrowed from philatelic literature in
my possession, and also from collections of various persons who are mem-
bers of the Rossica Society-to these I give my thanks, and especial thanks
to G.M. Shenitz.
I also cannot pass by in silence and fail to express my gratitude to those
people who contributed to the publication of this book with their participa-
tion and help.
The difficulty in the realization of this work is explained by the lack
of Russian Postal Archives in America, and also by the insufficiency of
Russian philatelic literature.
Nevertheless, I hope that my Reference Book will be of sufficiently
great help to collector-specialists of the pre-Soviet Russian Post.
-Sergej Vasil'evich Prigara


21 August, 1941
New York









i









Some explanatory notes and comments on the translation:
Sergej Vasil'evich Prigara's masterwork on Imperial Russian-period
philately is undoubtedly the greatest compilation of such information con-
tained in one book, but for many years much of the knowledge it held re-
mained largely unavailable to non-Russian-speaking collectors. It is hoped
that this translation will afford them a better understanding and grasp of the
depth and richness of the Russian field.
In the 39 years since the handbook's publication, much information
which was unavailable or unknown to Mr. Prigara has come to light. As a
result, there are a few errors and omissions in the original that have been
retained-it must be kept in mind that this is a translation and not an update
or re-write. In some instances, clarifications have been made and a few holes
plugged, but the translation has adhered as closely to the original as possible.
The reader is invited to refer to the "bibliography" in the back for more
recent information; some of them are definitive and almost all acknowledge
some debt to Mr. Prigara's monumental work.
An additional page has also been appended concerning the translitera-
tion system used in this translation and the months in Russian, to aid the
reader in deciphering many of the lists and tables (reprinted as they ap-
peared in the original). The transliteration system was chosen not for its
phonetic approximation, but to provide a one-for-one substitution method
so that the reader may reconstruct the exact Russian spelling. Placenames
cause considerable difficulty in an endeavor such as this, because some cities,
such as Moscow or St. Petersburg, are more recognizable to the English-
speaking reader than are their transliterations "Moskva" and "Sankt Peter-
burg". In numerous instances, it is a toss-up whether a town in, say, Poland
or one of the Baltic countries would retain its Russian form (Varshava,
Libava, Vindava, etc.) or be represented by that area's own spelling (Wars-
zawa, Libau/Liepaja, Windau/Ventspils). Some attempt has been made to
provide the placenames in their countries' spellings, but many do not appear
in any gazetteers available to the translator, so they have been left in their
transliterated Russian form. The reader is warned that, while the system is
largely uniform, enough exceptions are present to render it mildy chaotic.
Any errors in translation are entirely mine.
Finally, a tremendous "Thank you!" is owed to Mr. Rimma Sklarevski
for a long proof-reading job; to Dr. Gordon Torrey for his constant liaison
work; to Mr. Alexis Lysloff for some great photography; to Mr. Norman
Epstein for his tremendous efforts in publishing it, and some additional pho-
tography; to Col. Eugene Prince for helping me out of some very sticky
translation questions; to the Kenner Printing Co. for their help and consid-
eration, and to the many other members of Rossica whose comments, sug-
gestions and corrections have been invaluable, and whose gracious help on
this "project" made it possible.
Dave Skipton
Glen Burnie, Md.
March 6, 1980

ii







THE MONTHS IN RUSSIAN (OLD ORTHOGRAPHY)
Because of the many tables in this book concerned with postmarks, the
following list of the months in Russian is provided for the non-Russian-
speaking reader in order that the tables may remain in their original form. The
listing in the second column shows the usual form of abbreviation found on
postmarks from that period.
IHBAPb IHB. January IIOJIb IIOJI. July
(DEBPAJIb (DEB. February ABICT'b ABF. August
MAPTT' MAP. March CEHT5IBPb CEH. September
AIIP lJIb AIP. April OKTSIBPb OKT. October
MAI MASI May HOSIBPb HOSI. November
IIOHb IIOH. June JIEKABPb JEK. December


TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM
Although the Prigara reference book was published in 1941, the printing
was in the old orthography. A 35-character alphabet was used in Russia until
after the revolution. When a "Decree on the introduction of the New
Orthography" was promulgated on 10 October 1918 (basically a repetition of
the resolution by the Academy of Science on 11 May 1917) three of the letters
were dropped completely, and the use of the hard sign drastically curtailed. A
number of other changes in spelling were also made. In this translation, the
hard sign at the end of masculine words has been omitted.
The upper and lower case for both print and script are provided below,
with their transliterations.



A AA oa -a jlT -1 MM x ch
B 6 Sc& b M A -4t m III L sh
SB)f3 v H HI UH. n I uSJ 4 shch
Sr K z g 0 o 9 -o ba ,
A;, f y> 9^ d iH p y
EeI -e P p 3/ r b 6 ,-
IKm cs X zh C C., s > )t ye
333^ -z TT/'kA- t 8 33 eh
MI n U i y '/ u 10 10 .*A yu
li z;7tz -j e Q C -f % H.^ ya
I i27c i j x X kh e e w f (th)
HK K{ k I # Z' ts






iii







TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1.
THE IMPERIAL RUSSIAN POST
Page:
I). The State Post:
Part 1: The history of the Post in Russia .............. 1
Part 2: Postage stamps and entire ................... 9
Part 3: Postmarks ................... .......... 58
II). The City Post:
Part 1: The history of the City Post ................... 93
Part 2: Postage stamps and entire ................... 95
Part 3: Postmarks ................................ 107
III). The Railway Post:
Part 1: The history of the Railway Post ................ 115
Part 2: Postmarks ................................ 117
IV). The Ship Post:
Part 1: The history of the Ship Post ................... 123
Part 2: Postmarks ........... ................ 126
V). The Field Post:
Part 1: The history of the Field Post .................. 130
Part 2: Postmarks ................................ 131

SECTION 2.
THE RUSSIAN POST IN TURKEY
I). The Overland Post:
Part 1: Postal history ............... .......... 134
Part 2: Postmarks ........... ................ 145
II). The Ship Post:
Part 1: Postal history ............................ .134
Part 2: Postage stamps and entire .................... 136
Part 3: Postmarks ................................ 146


SECTION 3.
THE RUSSIAN POST IN CHINA
Part 1: Postal history ............................ .149
Part 2: Postage stamps and entire ................... 151
Part 3: Postmarks ............ ..... ............. 155

SECTION 4.
THE POST IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND
Part 1: Postal history ............................ .159
Part 2: Postage stamps and entire ................... 162
Part 3: Postmarks ................... ........... ..166
Index to illustration references and Appendices .................. 174

iv







CONTENTS AND CHRONOLOGY
SECTION 1
I) THE STATE POST
Part 1: Postal History-4 Periods
Page:
1st Period: From Mongol rule to Peter the Great ............. 1
2nd Period: From Peter the Great to the Postal Reforms of
Catherine II ................................ 2
3rd Period: From the Postal Reforms of Catherine II in 1782
to the amalgamation of the Postal Department and the
Telegraph in 1884 ............................ 2
4th Period: From the amalgamation to 1917 ................ 6


Part 2: Postage Stamps and Entires
"Prepayment of Postage Issues"
A) Postage stamps-2 periods
1st Period: 11 issues-1857, 1858, 1858, 1864, 1865, 1866,
1875, 1879, 1883, 1884, 1888 (stamps without
thunderbolts) and local issues ................... 8
2nd Period: 22 issues-1889, 1889, 1892, 1902, 1904, 1905,
1905, 1906, 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915,
1915, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917 and 1917 22


B) Entires
1) Stamped envelopes-3 periods:
1st Period: 7 issues-1848, 1848, 1849, 1855, 1861,
1862 and 1863 ......................... 43
2nd Period: 6 issues-1868, 1868, 1872, 1875, 1879,
and 1880/81 .......... ... .............. 47
3rd Period: 7 issues-1883, 1889/90, 1907, 1911, 1913,
1915 and 1916 ............. ......... 49
2) Postcards: 15 issues-1872, 1872, 1875, 1876, 1879,
1884, 1886, 1889, 1889, 1890, 1906, 1909,
1913, 1917 and 1917 .................... 51
3) Lettercards: 6 issues-1890, 1909, 1913, 1914/15, 1916
and 1916 .............................. 56
4) Money orders: 3 issues-1896, 1898/99 and 1901-03 ....... 57
5) Wrappers: 3 issues-1890, 1891 and 1913 ............. 57
6) Lettercards with advertisements: 2 issues-1898 and 1898/99. 58


Part 3: Postmarks
A) Early handstruck stamps
1) Straight-line ..... in 1, 2 and 3 lines .......... (1782-1890) 59
2) Rectangular ..... in 1, 2 and 3 lines .......... (1828-1860) 61

V






Page:
3) Oval .......... in 2 or 3 lines ............. (1851-1860) 62
4) Circular ........ in 2 or 3 lines ............. (1826-1860) 62
5) Diamond-shaped (See the Steamship Post) .....(1856-1866) 127


B) Cancellations

1) Pen cancels on stamped envelopes and stamps ..... (1848-1858) 64
2) Early handstruck stamps used as temporary cancels (1858-1858) 64
3) Special numeral dot cancels .................. (1858-1863) 65
a) Circular, #'s 1-60 for Provincial Capital PO's ............. 65
b) Rectangular, #'s 1-612 for District PO's ................. 65
c) Oval, #'s 1-9 for Border PO's ........................ 71
d) Hexagonal, #'s 1-17 for RR stations and mailcars ......... 71
e) Hexagonal, #'s 1-103 for Branch Offices in small towns and
villages .......................................... 71
f) Triangular, #'s 1-1700 for Postal Stations, Postal Sections at
RR stations and Offices in the "Levant" .................. 73


C) New Circular Datestamps and Cancellations

1) Type 1 .........3-line date ................ (from 1860) 84
2) Type 2 ......... month in Roman numerals .... (from 1890) 86
3) Type 3, 1st issue one-line date and numerals ..... (from 1892) 87
4) Type 3, 2nd issue one-line date and letters ....... (from 1907) 87
5) "Punched" ...... type 3, 2nd issue ............ (from 1907) 88
6) "Temporary" .... types 1, 2 and 3 ............ (from 1860) 88
7) Telegraph ....... types 1, 2 and 3 ............ (from 1887) 88


D) Camouflaged Cancellations

"Mute" cancellations of the Great War, 1914-1917 .............. 90


(Translator's note: The Russian terms "shtempel' klejmeniya" and "shtempel'
gasheniya" do not always lend themselves to easy translations, more so for the
first than the second. "Klejmeniya" has been "divided" into two translations;
"handstruck stamps" usually, but not always, referring to a pre-adhesive era
handstamp mark denoting that postage had been paid and usually showing a
placename with or without a date, and "datestamp", a mark showing both the
placename and date, providing a record of the item's postal handling. It may be
used as a cancellation. "Gashenie" is much more straightforward-any marking,
stamped or otherwise, which renders a postage stamp or indicium useless for fur-
ther postage duty. "Postmark" I have used as a catch-all encompassing cancella-
tions, datestamps, handstruck stamps, etc.; thus, any marking applied by the
post.)

vi










THE IMPERIAL POST IN RUSSIA

Postal History

The history of the Postal Administration in Russia can be divided into
four periods.
During the time of the first period, the only means of postal communi-
cation, both internal and external, was in the form of the so-called "yam",
or relay station system, which continued until the time of Peter the Great.
The beginnings of the Post in Russia stretch back to the time of
Mongol rule, when the Tatars established relay stations with couriers along
the routes of their conquests, whose duty it was to relay the orders of the
Khans.
At that time in Russia, the appanage princes communicated with one
another by means of correspondence by courier, and also with the boyars
to inform them of orders and instructions on governmental matters.
The relay stations were not, however, a postal institution in the modern
sense of the word. They served as stopping places where travelers could
obtain fresh horses, food and lodging for the night, and also the necessary
people for continuation of the trip. The costs of maintaining these relay
stations fell upon the local populace, but horses and lodging at the stations
were only made available to the bearers of "podorozhnye" (orders for post-
horses), which were issued by the authorities. The oldest extant "order for
post-horses" dates from the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505); it was issued
in 1470 to a courier of a great prince. Since obtaining these orders entailed
great difficulties, and because they severely hindered freedom of movement
of those traveling along the post routes, these documents, in use for more
than 400 years, were abolished in 1874.
The first hints at an attempt to organize a regular postal system came
during the reign of Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584), but at the end of the
16th century there existed only irregular postal communications between
several of the most important cities, and that was used exclusively by the
State, which sent officials with orders, instructions and diplomatic corre-
spondence when necessary. As for the general populace, the need for a postal
service was not yet recognized, and up to the middle of the 17th century
letters from the private sector were not accepted by the Post.
The question of organizing a regular postal service was raised before
the Government by foreigners who at that time were in considerable num-
bers in Russia, and who desired communication with their homelands. It was
only in the reign of Aleksej Mikhajlovich (1645-1676), at the initiative
of one of the most remarkable men of that time-the Boyarin A.L. Ordyn-
Nashchokin-that a regular letter post was begun in Russia in 1666, for
communication between Moscow and Courland and, because of the Russo-
Polish treaty, also between Russia and Poland. The mail was carried by
horse along the relay stations by chosen postriders, but the entire business
of the postal administration was concentrated in the hands of foreigners, as
they were more experienced in such matters, and who enjoyed all the advan-
tages of and profits from it. However, this system could not be considered
a post in the generally-accepted meaning of the word.

1






The Second Period-from Peter the Great to the postal reforms of
Empress Catherine II, when Postal Establishments in the modern sense began
to arise gradually and concurrently with the relay system. They slowly
merged with the "yam" system and finally absorbed it completely.
A true, regular postal system was organized during the time of Peter
the Great (1689-1725), when State Postal Establishments began to be
formed. Postal Administrations and Post Offices were set up first in the
capitals of St. Petersburg (in 1716) and Moscow, and then gradually in the
cities of Riga, Vyborg, Revel, Narva, Arkhangel'sk and Vologda. At each
of these Postal Establishments there were a Postmaster and the necessary
number of postillions. All postal officials were German, and the official lan-
guage of postal administration was likewise German, from which all postal
terminology was borrowed and preserved to this day. That change in the
procedures marked the transition from the old postal system to the postal
institutions of the modern sense, although without established staffs and
without a definite (overall) system. The right to make use of the relay
horses was first granted to the private sector by governmental decrees in
1713 and 1714. The entire post in Russia at that time was divided into
two parts-one for "foreigners" or merchants for private correspondence,
and the other, the relays, for government correspondence and transportation
of officials and nobility. The two parts were merged by the Ukase of 1721.
For a long time the lettermail post in Russia, established and run by
foreigners, was set up along the lines of foreign posts, wherein the tariff for
sending letters, as it was almost everywhere abroad in that period, was as-
sessed according to distance. The "zolotnik" was fixed as the unit of weight,
equivalent to approximately V "lot". Calculation in "lots" was later intro-
duced in 1767 by the Ukase of Empress Catherine II. Payment for sending
a letter abroad from Moscow (only as far as the border) was set at 8 ko-
pecks per zolotnik, but because a letter weighed not less than 3 zolotniks,
thanks to the thickness and heaviness of paper at that time, and also taking
into account the value of money then, when rye was sold at 50 kopecks a
quarter instead of 7-8 rubles a quarter today, sending such a letter would
cost about 4 rubles by today's valuation.
The third period began with the postal reforms of Empress Catherine
II and continued up to the amalgamation of the Postal Administration and
the Telegraph Department in 1884.
In the year after her accession to the throne, 1763, Empress Catherine
II (1762-1796) charged Counts Chernyshev and Ovtsyn "to establish and
improve the posts throughout the State." Municipal postal institutions had
no permanent staffs as yet-officials and employees were appointed as the
need arose. The receipt and dispatch of correspondence in many cities were
managed by Mayors, Magistrates, Town Halls, Viceregal and Provincial
Governments, persons entrusted by local authorities, and Relay-Stationmas-
ters. The staffs of the Post Offices (St. Petersburg, Moscow and Riga) were
insignificant, and all responsibilities were held exclusively by Germans.
During the reform of the Municipal Postal Institutions, Postmasters
began to be appointed in various cities where there were postal establish-
ments, and at the head of several Postmasters were placed Senior Postmasters
(Ober pochtmeister), of whom each had his residence in a major city. The

2






Postal Departments of St. Petersburg and Moscow became the highest bodies
of the Municipal Postal Administration. Then in 1782 the Malorossijsk and
the Pogranichnyj Ol'viopol' were added (the latter was established in 1781).
These Postal Departments comprised the second level of the Postal Adminis-
tration, and to them were subordinated the Provincial Postal Departments
and Post Offices of the nearest provinces. From 1790 on Post Offices in
several cities were replaced with Postal Dispatch Offices. The lowest level
of the Municipal Postal Administration was that of the Postal Stations, cre-
ated in 1781 by Catherine II to replace the former relay stations.
At the same time, postal communications were instituted between all
the most important points of the country, and Russia was divided into postal
zones by which the standard rates for letters and travellers throughout the
State were determined (Imperial Ukase of 14 November 1783). To send
a letter weighing one "lot" less than 100 versts cost one kopeck, and two
kopecks for each 100 versts. Rates for transportation of travellers were also
standardized.
At the end of the 18th century, the post had several subdivisions: the
"heavy" or "yam" post, the "light" post, and the relays. The number of
Postal Establishments, however, did not exceed 20. The "heavy" post han-
dled official packages and parcels weighing more than 5 lbs. Lightweight
parcels, official packages of ordinary size and private letters made up the
"light" post. The relays were a special aspect of the post. To the already-
existing two types of postal dispatch (letters and parcels) was added the
third in 1781-the transfer of money by post, at first by "currency bills",
and then also gold and silver coinage.
During the reign of Paul I (1796-1801), still another form of the post
appeared which afterwards was employed on a considerable scale. An Ukase
of 1799 stipulated that all letters and packages with Moscow and outbound
international mail were to be sent directly to St. Petersburg without stopping
at the way stations. This was to be carried by express couriers under the
title of "extra-mail".
In that same year (1799), the first tables of organization (shtaty) for
the Imperial Postal Establishments were formed and consolidated. (These had
been reformed in the previous reign). According to these tables, the Chief
Municipal Postal Administration belonged to six Main Post Offices (poch-
tamty): 1) St. Petersburg, 2) Moscow, 3) Malorossijsk, 4) Lithuanian,
established in 1797 in Vil'no, 5) Tambov, and 6) Kazan'. A seventh poch-
tamt, the Siberian, was added in 1800.
The Post Offices (Pochtovyya Kontory), Dispatch Offices and Field
Posts were subordinated to the pochtamts.
The "kontory" were divided into five classes: 1) 1st class-the Dubos-
sary Border PO, 2) 2nd class-the Provincial Border and Port Offices, 3)
3rd class-other Provincial Post Offices, 4) 4th class-Border and Port
PO's, and 5) 5th class-City Post Offices.
The Dispatch Offices (ehkspeditsii) were divided into City and District
PDO's.
Postal Stations were under the supervision of District PO's and PDO's,
as were the Postillions who accompanied the mail.
At the beginning of the 19th century during the reign of Alexander

3






I (1801-1825), there were 458 Postal Establishments in existence in Russia,
employing about 5000 officials.
Soon after the formation of the various Ministries in 1802, the Chief
Administrative Board for Postal Affairs, at the head of which stood the Chief
Director of the Posts, was transferred (in 1806) to the jurisdiction of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1819 it was withdrawn from the MIA and
placed under the Ministry of Spiritual Affairs and Public Education, but
soon it was again withdrawn and given independent status as the Postal
Department, with a Postmaster-General at its head.
A daily exchange of mail was established in 1824 on the St. Petersburg-
Moscow highway, and on several other routes the post began to operate twice
a week, as opposed to the former schedule of once a week. In 1825 the
mail was dispatched daily throughout the country-13 heavy post routes,
635 light, and 21 extra-mail.
During the reign of Nicholas I (1825-1855), two mail exchanges per
week in the provinces was considered a normal schedule. At that time there
were already 751 Postal Establishments in Russia, with 5,947 employees.
The Emperor's Ukase to the Senate followed on 22 October 1830,
concerning the new organization of the Post in the Empire. On the basis of
this Ukase, 1) the Provincial Main Post Offices of Malorossijsk, Tambov,
Kazan' and the Siberian were abolished, with Provincial Post Offices (Gu-
bernskiya Pochtovyya Kontory) established in those towns where the Main
PO's had been (the Lithuanian Main PO was closed somewhat later, in
1832); 2) the Capital Main PO's (Stolichnye Pochtamty) of St. Petersburg
and Moscow became independent postal establishments directly subordinated
to the Postal Department; 3) all other Postal Establishments were divided
into 11 Postal Districts; 4) all Provincial, Territorial, Border PO's and Of-
fices abroad came under the direct control of the Postal Department; 5)
the Provincial and Territorial PO's were given control over all those places
in the districts of their area where postal business was conducted. These
places were re-named "District Post Offices (Uezdnyya Pochtovyya Kontory),
with no distinctions between them (in name).
Provincial and Territorial PO's were divided into three classes, Border
PO's into two, and District PO's into four. Some insignificant localities in
Siberia remained as Postal Branch Offices.
According to the organizational table of 1830, the St. Petersburg Main
PO consisted of eight dispatch offices: 1) receipt of ordinary correspondence
and dispatch of light mail within the country, 2) receipt of money (all kinds
of mail), 3) sorting of all arriving mail and distribution of ordinary mail,
4) sorting and distribution of money, 5) outbound foreign and Odessa extra-
mail, 6) mail arriving from abroad and registered letters, 7) heavy mail and
relays, and 8) accounting.
The Moscow Main PO also consisted of eight Dispatch Offices, of which
the activities of the first six corresponded with those of the eight Offices of
the St. Petersburg Main PO. The 7th managed the Economics Branch, and
the 8th, the Executive Branch.
As a result of the shift in 1833 of all State collections (duties, tariffs)
to silver, the mailing charges for letters were reduced to five rates: 5, 10,
15, 20 and 25 kopecks for one lot depending upon the distance. To mail a

4







letter weighing one lot, 5 silver kopecks were assessed for each 1800 versts.
The organization of the Municipal Postal Administration, created by
the Emperor's Ukase of 22 October 1830, retained its general form until
the formation of the Post-and-Telegraph Districts. Reforms during the later
years affected only the higher elements of the Municipal Postal Administra-
tion; in 1835 a permanent City Post Sub-office was established at the St.
Petersburg Main PO, and in 1840 the Dispatch Office which handled the
sorting and distribution of money was divided into three offices (by postal
routes).
Also in 1840, the 12th Postal District for the Transcaucasian Territory
was formed. The 13th Postal District for the Kingdom of Poland followed
in 1851. Then in 1853, the Postal Districts were largely abolished, leaving
only three of the original 13. Only the Districts of Siberia, the Kingdom of
Poland, and Caucasia and Transcaucasia remained.
The reign of Alexander II (1855-1881) saw a new era in postal affairs
begin throughout the Empire with the development of steamship and railroad
services. The speed and intensity of mail transportation reached previously
unthinkable proportions. The great bulk and uniformity of correspondence
dispatched simultaneously made possible the establishment of uniform postal
rates which disregarded distance. The example had been set in England in
1840, where a rate of one penny for an ordinary letter up to a certain weight
had been introduced. The other powers, including Russia, followed England's
lead. This radical reform of the postal rate, together with prepayment of
postage with stamps at a uniform rate of 10 kopecks for an ordinary letter
up to one lot (internal mail), and the installation of mailboxes, promoted
the tremendous growth of correspondence. The introduction of postcards in
1872 had a similar effect, reducing the cost of sending commercial samples,
magazines, and other printed matter, as well as money orders.
Of great benefit to postal affairs was the establishment in 1874 of the
General Postal Union, renamed the Universal Postal Union in 1878. All
of the civilized countries of Europe, Asia and America joined it, followed
by Australia at the Vienna Postal Congress in 1891. Thanks to the Union,
the rules for correspondence and postal rates became identical over prac-
tically the entire globe-25 gold centimes for an ordinary private letter of
up to 15 grams.
The rapidity of postal development in Russia can be seen from the
following data: 11,045,000 stamps were sold in 1860, 27,020,000 in 1870,
81,149,000 in 1880, 121,792,000 in 1887, 505,567,502 in 1905, and
530,174,784 in 1906.
The number of Postal Establishments in Russia also increased-1,868
in 1867, with 9,059 postal employees, 3,186 with 16,303 employees in
1884, 4,410 with 37,525 employees in 1900, and 5,494 with 51,744 em-
ployees in 1906.
In 1860 the Siberian Postal District was divided into the Western
Siberian and Eastern Siberian (Priamur Territory) Districts.
In 1861 the division of the post into light, heavy and extra-mail was
abolished, the categories being replaced by the expedited dispatch of all forms
of correspondence.
The Eastern Siberian and the Western Siberian Postal Districts were

5







discontinued in 1867 and 1870, respectively.
With the direct subordination of the postal department in the Kingdom
of Poland to the Ministry of the Post and Telegraph, all of the post offices
there were temporarily formed into a "Western Postal District" in 1867. In
1870 this was terminated, and its post offices were transferred to the juris-
dictions of the newly-appointed Managers of the Postal Department (Up-
ravlyayushchie Pochtovoj Chast'yu).
The Caucasian Postal District preserved its existence longer than the
others, closing in 1884 with the implementation of the Emperor's Order to
amalgamate the Postal Department with the Telegraph.
The Fourth Period-Beginning with the Amalgamation of the Post
and Telegraph Departments in 1884.
Before the unification of the two Departments, the Post, which had
existed in Russia for over 200 years, and the Telegraph, which had arisen
only in the latter half of the 19th century, served one and the same purpose
-facilitating communication among the population, but they developed
completely independently of and were distinct from each other in everything.
The postal grades, with no regard to the difficulty of work, received greatly
limited salaries which had been established in the 1830's and which had
undergone practically no change since that time. The usual salary of a Junior
Sorter consisted of 200 rubles per year; that of a Stationmaster enjoying
the rights of the 14th Class was 160 rubles; the salary of the highest official
in the Municipal Administration, the Director of the Provincial Postal Unit,
equaled 1200 rubles per year.
The financial results of the Post left much to be desired, as the Treasury
expenditures on maintenance of postal communications exceeded income by
1 2-2 million rubles annually. Thanks to this, even after the reforms com-
memorated during the reign of Alexander II the Postal Department was a
singular anachronism among the already-existing or newly-formed adminis-
trations of other Departments, which rapidly progressed.
A somewhat different picture was presented at the same time by the
Telegraph Department. Organized along the lines of a military system in
1855, service in the Department was performed according to regulations
put on the same footing as the special branches of arms. Reliable men from
the branches of the Russian army, along with experienced foreign specialists,
were enlisted into the "ranks" of the Department.
The reform of 1874, which turned the Telegraph Department into a
civilian organization and reduced the general caliber of its employees, intro-
duced among the "telegraph-officials" former Signalmen and Inspectors who
had been among the lower military ranks. Nevertheless, the solid foundations
set down for the telegraph service during its organization still preserved its
strength. The telegraph system, which gave the Treasury around 2 million
rubles per year net profit, was readily allocated new credits, and thanks to
this the telegraph system in Russia was placed on an equal level with those
of Western Europe.
The original idea on the amalgamation of the Post and Telegraph De-
partments arose long before the Russian reform, in Germany. In 1865 the
assent of Emperor Alexander II was obtained for the sanction of a Provi-
sional Statute on establishing Telegraph Stations at Post Offices. However,

6






the measure did not meet with approval from the ranks of either of the two
Departments, and nothing came of it.
Nevertheless, the question of merging the Post with the Telegraph was
raised anew in 1882, but this new attempt was also unsuccessful. Only on
28 May 1885 was an Imperial Command given to reorganize the Municipal
Postal and Telegraph Establishments, which move had been approved by
the State Council. The reorganization was to apply both to the Municipal
Administrations (with the exceptions of the Finnish Telegraph District and
the Telegraph Administrations of the capitals) and to the Municipal Estab-
lishments (excluding the Moscow and St. Petersburg Main PO's).
The District system was assumed as a basis of organization for the
Municipal Administrations, in which in place of 64 Provincial Postal Ad-
ministrations, 18 Telegraph Districts and the Palace Telegraph System, 35
Post-and-Telegraph Districts of 2-3 provinces each were formed. The Dis-
trict Administrations were divided into two classes, each class consisting of
a District Chief, 2 Assistant District Chiefs, and Office Personnel, plus a
staff of 6 employees for 1st class Districts and a staff of 5 for 2nd class
Districts.
The organization of the first 3 Districts, St. Petersburg, Tver' and
Kazan', was completed by 1 October 1885. On 1 January 1886, 5 more
Districts were opened, followed by 24 more in that same year. The last 3
were opened on 1 January 1887.
The actual merger of several Postal Establishments with Telegraph
Stations was begun immediately after the formation of the Main Post-and-
Telegraph Administration from the two Departments in 1884, when several
of the Municipal Chiefs submitted petitions even before the 28 May 1885
Statute was issued.
During the reform of the Municipal Establishments (which was the
third time the Post-and-Telegraph Administration was reorganized), all
Post-and-Telegraph Establishments were divided into 7 classes, instead of the
former division of Post Offices into Provincial and District categories. Those
Establishments of the first six classes were given the title of "Post-and-Tele-
graph Offices" (Pochtovo-Telegrafnaya Kontora), while the lowest, or 7th-
ranked class, were called "Post-and-Telegraph Branch Offices", "Postal
Branch Offices", or "Telegraph Branch Offices", depending upon their type
of activity. The amount of profit earned by the Establishments served as the
basis for their division into classes. Three thousand rubles or more were
needed to raise a Branch Office to 4th-class Post-and-Telegraph Office status,
and up to 100,000 rubles to elevate an Office to 1st class.
At the head of each Post-and-Telegraph District was placed a District
Chief, in whom the duties of Postal Unit Supervisor in the provinces and
District Telegraph Chief were combined. With the reform of 1884, all former
appellations were abolished; those persons who had managed establishments
were called "Establishment Chiefs" rather than "Postmasters", and "Assist-
ant Postmasters" became "Assistant Establishment Chiefs". All the other
employees in the Municipal Establishments came under the general title of
"Post-and-Telegraph Officials", which was divided into six categories.
The pay scale for the Post-and-Telegraph Grades were set up as fol-
lows: for Establishment Chiefs and their Assistants, pay depended upon the

7
























/























II,,i, ii I _u. J hAdop.
i *lJ 'J { it _
u v 4 40




ll.! 'KA llUITi 11A TrolI.
"n~'u I 1i







class of the Office, and for the other Officials it depended upon their current
grade. The highest salaries were: 1800 rubles for Ist-class Office Chiefs,
1500 for their Assistants, and 1200 rubles for Post-and-Telegraph Officials
of the 1st grade and Senior Technicians. The lowest salaries were for Chiefs
of Post-and-Telegraph Branch Offices (360 rubles) and Officials of the 6th
grade (the lowest rate-300 rubles per year).
At the beginning of the 20th century in separate parts of the Empire,
Postal Establishments were distributed as follows:
1) In European Russia, 3,806 Establishments, with the greatest number,
112, in Kherson province.
2) In Siberia, 274 Establishments, with the greatest number, 45, in Irkutsk
province, and the least, 3, on the island of Sakhalin.
3) In the Caucasus, 264 Establishments, with the greatest number, 49, in
the Kuban' Oblast', and the least, 8, in Chernomore province.
4) In the Turkestan Territory, 46 Establishments, with the greatest number,
18, in Semirechensk Oblast', and the least, 7, in Samarkand Oblast'.
5) In the Zakaspijskaya (Transcaspian) Oblast', 20 Establishments.


TYPES OF PREPAYMENT ISSUES USED
BY THE IMPERIAL POST
Issues for prepayment of postage fall under two headings: 1) postage
stamps, and 2) entire, i.e. stamped envelopes, postcards (otkrytki), letter-
cards (sekretki), and other, similar printed items intended for postal use
with handstruck stamps or indicia imprinted on them, which serve as pre-
payment for correspondence and money orders.
The idea of the postage stamp was conceived in England in 1840
and the first stamps, devised by a bookseller named James Chalmers, of
Dundee, were issued on May 6, 1840. Thereafter other places adopted the
system of prepayment by postage stamps-Brazil in 1843, Geneva in 1844,
the U.S. in 1846, France, Belgium, Spain and Bavaria in 1849, and Austria,
Prussia and Saxony in 1850. (See the Post-and-Telegraph Journal of 1888).
In Russia, on the other hand, only 5-kopeck stamped envelopes for
the City Posts of St. Petersburg and Moscow had been issued by 1845, with
envelopes for use throughout the Empire following on 1 December 1848.
(Opinion of the State Council, approved by the Emperor on 26 January
1848, and the Ukase to the Ruling Senate of 27 September 1848.)
The introduction of postage stamps came much later-it was only on
12 November 1856 that the Opinion of the State Council was approved by
Emperor Alexander II. In accordance with this Opinion, 10-, 20- and 30-
kopeck postage stamps were established for prepayment on private corres-
pondence weighing 1, 2 or 3 lots, respectively. The decision as to the means
of preparing these stamps, as well as the date of their issue, was left up to
the Postmaster-General (Glavnonachal'stvuyushchij) of the Postal Depart-
ment, with the assent of the Minister of Finance. (The method of preparation
and the proofs are described in #11 of "Rossica".)
Postal Circular #3 was disseminated by the Department on 10 Decem-
ber 1857; in it, it was announced that postage stamps for general use would

8







be issued for prepayment of private correspondence. The Circular ordered
the Postal Establishments to begin sale of the stamps immediately upon
receipt of the Circular, but the usage of the stamps was permitted to begin
in European Russia no earlier than January 1st, and in Siberia, the Caucasus
and Transcaucasus, no earlier than March 1st, 1858. (From the information
printed in #15 of "Rossica", it can be seen that 10,510 of the first Russian
stamps were sold in December, 1857, and that at several places they were
used immediately on mail, i.e. in that same month (see #'s 11 and 12 of
"Rossica").)
Attached to the Circular were special Instructions concerning the sale,
use, and care of the stamps. The Instructions also stipulated that, 1) the
stamps were intended solely for franking ordinary internal mail, for which
their use was mandatory ( 29), 2) payment for mailing all other letters
(registered, to foreign addresses, etc.) would continue as before, in cash
( 33), 3) the stamps were to be affixed to the address side of the envelope,
although placing them on the flap side would not necessarily cause difficul-
ties in dispatching such letters ( 25), 4) stamps on letters were to be
cancelled by pen with an "x" in black ink, until such time as special can-
cellers could be distributed ( 31). (See Appendix I.)


POSTAGE STAMPS
1st Issue: 10/22 December 1857
Design: (Table I, Illus. 1)-A vertical rectangle, 16/2 x 2212mm.,
with a colored oval in the center containing the emblem of the Postal De-
partment (the Imperial eagle with two intersecting posthorns beneath it)
embossed in white, and with a surrounding colored frame with "Pochtovaya
Marka" inscribed (in Cyrillic letters) above and "10 kop. za lot" below.
The oval is enveloped by a coronation purple, gathered above under the
Imperial crown; under the oval there is another designation of value in letters
and numbers along the line of the oval. The design is framed by two colored
parallel lines, extending together in the corners into small colored fields with
the denomination in white Arabic numerals. These fields end in the stamp
with a three-pointed heraldic Bourbon lily. The entire space of the stamp,
bordered by the line and the purple, is completely filled with a cross-hatched
colored background, consisting of horizontal rows of alternating vertical lines
(dashes) and dots. Two-color printing, embossed. The paper is white, of
varying thickness, and covered by a very thin layer of chalk. Watermark-
(opaque) large numeral "1". Imperforate.
1. 10kop. -a) dark brown, with light blue oval ........
-b) pen-cancelled, more common ..........
According to the Circular of December 10, 1857, #3, the stamps of
all three denominations, 10-, 20- and 30-kopecks, were to be issued on
January 1, 1858, perforate. However, this plan was hampered by the late
arrival in St. Petersburg of the perforation machine, which had been ordered
in Vienna, and upon its arrival it was found not to be in working order.
Thus, in order to meet the deadline, the Postal Department issued only
3,000,000 of the 10kop. value, imperforate. The perforation machine was

9







quickly repaired, and the issue of all three denominations, perforate, fol-
lowed soon thereafter, within the first 10 days of January.
Imperforate stamps, as in the stamps of the following issues, were
printed typographically in sheets of 100 stamps, arranged in (4) panes of
25 (5x5). These panes were separated by a white gutter. The stamps are
found in a variety of shades, both in the oval and ip the frame. A stamp of
irreproachable quality must have all four margins present, each no less than
1mm. wide.
Uncancelled examples of the imperforate stamp are great rarities. There-
fore very often "uncancelled" stamps are encountered, which had been can-
celled by pen but had subsequently had the ink removed artificially. Upon
immersion of such a stamp in benzite, traces of the ink strokes are apparent,
and the original gum on such a stamp is either missing entirely, or a very
insignificant amount remains. There may also be new gum on the stamp,
which differs from the original gum.
Counterfeits: Early-origin counterfeits of the imperforate stamps are
known, printed by a crude lithographic process. Their background consists
only of poorly executed vertical lines, lacking any of the original stamps'
alternation between lines and dots, as well as lacking any watermark.
Cancellations: On imperforate #1, besides pen cancellations, one usu-
ally encounters the following: 1) numerical dot cancels, of all 6 types-
circular, rectangular, oval, hexagons with blunt and pointed sides, and tri-
angular (truncated); 2) straight-line markings, with letters of various dimen-
sions; 3) rectangular; 4) oval; 5) circular, with and without date, of various
dimensions up to 35mm in diameter, and with inscriptions in Russian or in
two languages; 6) circular Polish cancels-4 concentric circles with numbers
and letters; 7) circular, with no date, and town-names "Dinaburg", "Kovno",
and "Kiev"; 8) "Berdichev" with the inscription in one line, no frame or
date, and 9) "franco"-unframed, in a rectangular frame, or in an oval.


2nd Issue: 10/22 January, 1858
Design: (Table I, Illus. 1) The same design as on the first stamp of
the first issue; differences are only in the denomination (20kop. or 30kop.).
Printing: two-color, embossed. Paper: the same as that of the first issue,
specially-prepared with a thickened area of the paper for each separate stamp;
these thickened parts form the numerals "1", "2" or "3", corresponding to
the denomination of the stamp. The watermarks are about 15mm. high.
Perforation: 142 x 15. Due to the unserviceability of the aforementioned
paper (owing to its rigidity, which caused a tendency to separate easily from
the envelope) subsequent issues until 1866 were printed on soft, unwater-
marked paper, which was ordered abroad. The paper also lacked the thick-
ening (of the opaque watermark). Watermarks on the stamps of the first two
issues are better seen against a black background with the reverse side in
reflective, nonpenetrative light.
2. 10kop. -a) dark brown, with light blue oval ........
-b) brown, with light blue oval ............
-c) on thin paper, less frequently encountered .

10







3. 20kop. -a) dark blue, with orange oval ............
-b) on thick paper, less frequently encountered
-c) inverted watermark ..................
-d) proof: green with violet oval, on paper
with or without watermark............
4. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose, with green oval ..........
-b) on very thin paper, Very Rare ..........
-c) on very thick paper, Rare .............
Uncancelled examples of #'s 3 and 4 are VERY RARE. For that
reason, counterfeiters remove the pen cancellations from the stamps and sell
them as uncancelled.
COUNTERFEITS: Stamps of the second issue, as in #1, have also
been counterfeited on unwatermarked paper using the lithographic process.
One of these of #4 is known-it has a bright carmine color, the corner
ornaments blend with the background, and the posthorns have neither bell-
mouth nor interlacement. This particular counterfeit is also encountered im-
perforate.
CHALKY LAYER: The stamps of the first two issues show no traces
of fading from immersion in water over many hours, which fact leads to the
assumption that these have no chalky layer. On the other hand, the stamps
of the 4th (1864) issue, 5th (1865) issue and 6th (1866) issue display a
sensitivity to water so pronounced that a single touch on the stamp by a
moist object is sufficient to spoil the corresponding parts of the design. There-
fore, it is recommended that removal of these stamps from envelopes be
accomplished by placing them on the surface of the water, by no means
plunging them into it. In this respect, the other issues are less sensitive-
their designs fade only after more prolonged contact with water.
CANCELLATIONS: On #'s 2-4, numerical dot cancels are consid-
ered the most common. Rectangular cancellations are encountered less fre-
quently than the others, and straight-line and Polish "4-circle"-with-numbers
cancels are rare. Cancels with dates on #2 are seldom found.

3rd Issue: 28 October/9 November 1858
Design: (Table I, illus. 1-2) Same as on the stamps of the 1st and 2nd
issues. Printing: Typographic, two-color, embossed. Paper: of foreign origin,
thinly or very thinly covered with a chalky layer. Watermark: none. Per-
forated 122.
5. 10kop. -a) brown, with light blue oval ............
-b) dark brown, with light blue oval ........
-c) red brown, with light blue oval .........
-d) pale brown, with light blue oval ........
-e) on thick paper, Rare .................
6. 20kop. -a) blue, with orange oval ................
-b) dark blue, with orange oval ............
7. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose, with green oval ..........
According to the 1928 S.P.A. catalog, #'s 5 and 6 are found bisected,
either across or diagonally, and were used to pay postage at one-half their

11







value, i.e. 5 or 10 kopecks. Occurrences of bisect usage of the various
stamps were a consequence of the temporary shortage of the appropriate
denominations in various localities, and are far from rare. Such stamps have
value only on cover or on a cut square with the proper dates.
In the General Circular of 28 November 1858, the Postal Department
informed the Postal Establishments of the Empire that stamps of the pre-
ceding two issues were not entirely satisfactory, due to the rigidity and thick-
ness of the paper which caused the stamps to separate easily from the enve-
lopes. This compelled the Department to prepare new stamps of the same
denominations on thinner unwatermarked paper, which was ordered from
abroad especially for that purpose.
COUNTERFEITS: Like #1, the stamps of the 3rd issue are encoun-
tered in "uncancelled" condition, with the ink cancel removed. Lithographic
counterfeits of these stamps are also known, but their perforation does not
correspond to that of the genuine stamps.
CHALKY LAYER: It was mentioned previously that stamps of the
first two issues are completely insensitive to water. That same property dis-
tinguishes the majority of 3rd-issue stamps, but others fade easily in water.
Upon analysis, this characteristic is observed in stamps of issues beginning
in 1862, which gives us cause to conclude that a change in the chalky layer
was made that year, either in its thickening or in its composition from dif-
ferent substances.
CANCELLATIONS: #'s 5-7 are usually found with numerical dot
cancellations or circular, dated cancellations. More rare are the Polish octa-
gons (of 4 concentric lines) with numerals, 4 concentric circles with numer-
als, and also the letters "D.P.". Colored and rectangular cancels are rarities.


LOCAL ISSUES
The following stamps belong to the category of "local issues": 1) the
"Tiflis" stamps of the local city post, evidently issued in November, 1857,
and sold in the Tiflis Provincial Post Office for 6 kopecks each. This stamp
was apparently issued on the instructions of the Viceregent of the Caucasus
to pay for letters sent by city post. The stamp is square (211/2 x 211/2mm.),
imperforate, and on thick, smooth, yellowish paper with white gum.
Design: (Table I, illus. 24) The coat-of-arms of the city of Tiflis is
depicted within a circle, with ornaments at the corners (of the inner frame).
All four sides in the frame have inscriptions: at the left, "TIFLIS", at the
top, "GORODS." (city, abbreviated), at the right, "POChTA", and at the
bottom, "6 KOP." The stamp is white, and the design is apparently stamped.
Today it is a great rarity, and only a few examples are known, 3 of which
were in the former collection of A.K. Faberge. The first description of this
stamp appeared in the "Soviet Collector", and later in "Rossica" #3, in
which it was stated, by the way, that an official 1858 Calendar printed by
the office of the Viceregent of the Caucasus provided postal regulations on
the issue and use of the stamp for the city post. The article also said that
such a letter was sent to the summer residence of the Staff of the Tiflis
Military District in Kodzhory, situated high up in the mountains. The post-

12







age was 18 kopecks, or three of these stamps. 2) The "10 kop. za lot" stamp
for the Kingdom of Poland, issued in Warsaw on 1 January 1860. It is
described in Section IV, "The Post in the Kingdom of Poland". 3) The
5kop. stamp of the St. Petersburg and Moscow City Posts, issued on 15
July 1863. It is described in the Section on the "City Post".


4th Issue: 10/22 July 1864*
Design: (Table I, illus. 3-5) A new type of design, with the Postal
Department's coat-of-arms unembossed on a horizontally-lined oval framed
by a black line and surrounded by a wide black frame with the inscription
"Pochtovaya Marka" above and the denomination in Roman numerals be-
low. There are small ornaments on both sides, all in white on a black back-
ground. The Imperial crown is situated on the frame with the inscriptions,
and beneath the frame is an indication of the value in black letters on a
colored background. On the engraved background are small numerals of the
appropriate denomination and in various frames-Roman numerals on the
lkop. and 5kop. values, and Arabic numerals on the 3kop. In the corners
of the rectangular frame are small circles containing the denomination in
Arabic numerals in black on a white background. Two-color printing. The
paper is white with a considerable chalky layer; therefore, the stamps must
not be immersed in water. No watermark is present. Perforated 122.
8. Ikop. -a) black and yellow ....................
-b) black and yellow-orange ..............
9. 3kop. -a) black and light green .................
10. 5kop. -a) black and light lilac ..................
After the Imperial Command of 13 April 1863, which allowed the
use of stamps on letters mailed to foreign countries and also added the
1-, 3- and 5kop. stamps to the already-existing 10-, 20- and 30kop. values,
the Postal Establishments were informed by the Department of the issue of
these stamps in the Circular of June, 1864. In addition, the Circular also
provided instructions on the pre-payment of non-registered letters with these
stamps, and also of wrapper mail and commercial samples. At the same
time, the collection of payment in cash for mailing registered letters and
money orders was confirmed.
FORGERIES: #8 was crudely forged by lithographic means during its
period of currency to defraud the post. (See "The Stamp Collector's Maga-
zine", May, 1868.)
CANCELLATIONS: Red cancels are rare.


5th Issue: June, 1865
Design: (Table I, illus. 1-5) This is a repetition of the preceding 3rd
and 4th issues. Printing: two-color, flat for the 1-, 3- and 5kop., and em-
bossed for the 10-, 20- and 30kop. stamps. Paper: white, of various thick-

* According to the 1924 S.P.A. and Michel catalogs, the date of the 4th issue is
10 July 1864.

13







nesses, heavily covered by a chalky layer (which easily dissolves in water).
Watermark: none. Perforated 141/2 x 15.
11. Ikop. -a) black and yellow-orange ..............
-b) black and reddish orange .............
12. 3kop. -a) black and green ....................
13. 5kop. -a) black and lilac ................. ....
14. 10kop. -a) dark brown with light blue oval .........
-b) reddish brown with light blue oval.......
-c) very thick paper ....................
15. 20kop. -a) blue with orange oval ................
-b) very thick paper, Rare ................
16. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose with green oval ...........
Because of the Postal Department's habit of issuing special Circulars
on new stamps only in those instances when the new stamps differed from
those preceding in design or color, there is no way to establish an exact date
for this issue. This is also true of the issue immediately following the 5th,
as they differ from the preceding issues only in perforation and watermark.
PAPER THICKNESS: In all of the issues examined thus far, there
are considerable fluctuations in the thicknesses of the paper. In the stamps
of the 5th issue, however, the variations are especially sharp. On the one
hand, very thin paper is encountered, and on the other, as an extreme oppo-
site, very thick, hard paper almost like parchment is seen. The 1st and 2nd
issues are next in the degree of variation.

6th Issue: September 1866*
Design: (Table I, illus. 1-5) A repetition of the preceding 5th issue.
Printing: two-color, unembossed for the 1-, 3- and 5kop. stamps and em-
bossed for the 10-, 20- and 30kop. values. Paper: new, prepared at the
State Printing Office in St. Petersburg, with light "striping" and watermarks
(wavy lines and the letters "Eh.Z.G.B."-Ehkspeditsiya Zagotovleniya Go-
sudarstvennykh Bumag) over the entire sheet. One hundred stamps per sheet
in 4 panes of 25 were printed. The wavy lines are visible on the reverse side
of the stamp when immersed in benzine or carbonna, whereas the letters are
rarely seen in their entirety-usually the letters did not "fall" exactly on the
area encompassed by one stamp. Thus, only parts of the letters are normally
evident. Usually the sheet would go into the printing machine with the "strip-
ing" (continuous lines) situated horizontally, resulting in stamps horizon-
tally-laid. Sometimes, however, the sheet would go into the machine acci-
dentally turned about-this produced stamps vertically-laid. Originally these
stamps were printed on white paper, horizontally-laid and covered by a thick
chalky layer which easily dispersed in water. For the following issues, how-
ever, during the course of more than 17 years they used paper on which
the chalky layer gradually became thinner and more insignificant, until finally
the last issues of these stamps had practically no such layer. Perforated 141/
x 15.

"* According to the Michel catalog, 20 August 1866.

14







17. Ikop. -a) black and light orange ................
-b) black and orange .......... .. ...........
-c) black and dark orange ................
-d) black and yellow ....................
-e) thick paper, Rare ...................
-f) as "a", vertically laid* ................
-g) as "d", vertically laid .................
-h) as "a", imperforate, Rare** ...........
-i) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare .
-j) with pronounced vertical ribbing ........
18. 3kop. -a) black and light green ................
-b) black and green ....................
-c) black and blue-green .................
-d) black and yellow-green ...............
-e) as "a", vertically laid*................
-f) as "a", imperforate, Rare**...........
-g) as "a", but with 5kop. bkgd. (V)*** ....
19. 5kop. -a) black and light lilac**** .............
-b) black and dark lilac ..................
-c) black and violet ...................
-d) black and light blue-gray, Rare .........
-e) as "a", vertically laid*................
-f) as "a", imperforate, Rare** ...........
20. 10kop. -a) reddish brown, with light blue oval ......
-b) thick paper, Rare ..................
-c) vertically laid* .....................
-d) imperforate, Rare** ................
-e) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare.......
-f) "broken 10" in upper left corner ........
21. 20kop. -a) blue, with orange oval ...............
-b) vertically laid* ......................
(in mint state, Very Rare) ...........
22. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose, with green oval ..........
-b) vertically laid* ......................


7th Issue: June 19/July 1, 1875
In the Circular of 20 January 1875, #1269, the Postal Department
informed the Postal Establishments of the Empire that as of June 19 the
postage rate within the country for an unregistered private letter would be
lowered to 8 kopecks per lot, and a postcard to 4 kopecks. Because of this,

" According to the Michel catalog, 1868-1871.
"**Issued in 1875.
"** Issued in 1870. In mint it is very rare. According to Professor G. E. Grum-
Grzhimailo, the majority of these sheets were sent to Warsaw, and in used condi-
tion these stamps are more often found with Polish cancellations.
"**** The 1924 S.P.A. and Michel catalogs note proofs of the 5kop. in 5 colors:
orange, green, red, violet and light blue.

15







new denominations in 2- and 8-kopecks were issued, as well as the 10- and
20kop. with some changes in the design. The 1-, 3- and 5kop. values re-
mained unchanged, while the 30kop. was discontinued.
Design: (Table I, illus. 6-9) The 2kop. is of the same type as the
3kop., #18, with a background of alternating Arabic and Roman numeral
"2's". For the other values, a new type of design similar to that of the 2nd
issue, but with several differences as follows: the designation of value in
the frame of the central oval is of one Roman numeral, and below the oval is
another statement of value consisting of letters in a straight line. The back-
ground is reproduced "negatively", and varies according to the denomina-
tion. Printing: two-color, typographic, 2kop. unembossed, embossed for the
8-, 10- and 20kop. values. Paper: white, horizontally laid, and covered by
a thin chalky layer. Watermark: wavy lines and the letters "Eh.Z.G.B.".
Perforated 142 x 15.
23. 2kop. -a) black and red ......................
-b) black and dark red ..................
-c) black and rose .................. ...
-d) as "a", vertically laid ..................
-e) as "a", ordinary paper ................
-f) as "a", imperforate, Rare .............
-g) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare...
24. 8kop. -a) gray, with carmine-rose oval ...........
-b) gray-black, with carmine-red oval .......
-c) as "a", vertically laid ................
-d) as "a", ordinary paper. .. . . ....
-e) as "a", imperforate, Rare .............
-f) with errors "COCEMb", "BOOEMb"
(instead of "BOCEMb") .............
25. O1kop. -a) reddish brown, with light blue oval ......
-b) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-c) with a dot over the "T" in the word
"Desyat' ............ ........
26. 20kop. -a) blue, with orange oval ................
-b) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare ......
-c) with a dot over the "T" in the word
"Dvadtsat' . .. .. .. . .
Error in the letter "T": On many examples of the 20kop., (#26), on
the horizontal line of the letter "T" in the word "Dvadtsat' there is a small
mark which continues up from the vertical part of the "T" in an unbroken
line, inclining slightly to the left, which gives the letter the appearance of a
cross. This is encountered so frequently that the presence of some foreign
substance in the die during the preparation of the cliche can be assumed, the
substance leaving its mark on several cliches. Less well-known is the same
error on the 10kop., (#25), in the word "Desyat' ". Here the cross-shaped
"T" is even more distinct.
According to Prof. G. E. Grum-Grzhimailo, there may be no more
than one such stamp on a full sheet of the 20kop. This, however, is refuted
by the labors of the well-known English philatelist John Wilson, who ex-

16







hibited at the Philatelic Exhibition "Iposta" in Berlin, 1930, and later in
the 3rd International Philatelic Exhibition in New York, 1936, two recon-
structed plates of this stamp. On one of the plates that we examined, only
one stamp of this variety was found (in the 2nd pane of the sheet, 4th row,
3rd stamp). But on the other plate it was certainly not a rare occurrence,
appearing 18 times in the following positions: 1st pane-1st row, 2nd and
3rd stamps from the left; 2nd row, 3rd stamp; 4th row, 4th and 5th stamps;
5th row, 3rd stamp. 2nd pane-1st row, 2nd and 5th stamps; 4th row, 3rd
and 5th stamps; 5th row, 4th and 5th stamps. 3rd pane-lst row, 4th
stamp; 3rd row, 2nd stamp; 4th row, 1st stamp; 5th row, 1st stamp. 4th
pane-3rd row, 2nd and 5th stamps.
The first plate consisted of 100 unused stamps, 25 stamps per pane
(5 x 5), as opposed to the stamps of the 2nd plate, which consisted of 100
used stamps. Also, the center (oval) of the stamps of the 1st plate is darker,
and the emblem (eagle) is more prominent than on the stamps of the 2nd
plate.
Poor engraving-Among Russian postage stamps, which are generally
distinguished by their technical perfection of execution, the 7th issue is a
notable exception. Its engraving is considerably worse than the others and,
as stated earlier, the stamps are characterized by errors of design which are
not found either in the earlier or later issues.
Fakes-Concerning #'s 25 and 26 (10- and 20kop.), one must be-
ware of stamps that have had their centers cut out and inverted.

8th Issue: 19/31 March 1879
In the Circular of 14 February 1879, #3973, the Postal Department's
4th Section notified all the Imperial Postal Establishments of a new decrease
in postage on unregistered private letters to 7 kopecks per lot and on post-
cards to 3 kopecks, to take effect on 20 March 1879. It also stated that as
a consequence of this change, a new issue would be forthcoming-a 7kop.
stamp of the same design and color as the 8kop.
Design: (Table I, illus. 10) Same type as the 8kop. (#24), with a
change in the denomination and with the background the same, only printed
vertically. Printing: typographic, two-color, embossed. Paper: white, hori-
zontally laid, covered by a thin chalky layer. Watermark: wavy lines and
letters. Perforated 142 x 15.
27. 7kop. -a) gray, with carmine-rose oval* ..........
-b) black, with carmine-rose oval** ........
-c) as "b", vertically laid .................
-d) as "b", ordinary paper ...........
-e) as "b", imperforate, Rare .............
-f) with elongated-hexagonal watermark,
EXCEPTIONALLY RARE..........

"* The 1924 S.P.A. and Michel catalogs list proofs of the 7kop. (#24) in: 1) light
blue with red oval, 2) lilac with green oval, and 3) brown with orange oval.
"**The 1928 S.P.A. and Gibbons catalogs note the issue of a black stamp in
1881, evidently a mourning stamp issued on the occasion of Alexander II's death
on 1 March 1881.

17







Paper error-At the end of the 1890's, the 7kop. (#27) value printed
on paper intended solely for making Russian revenue stamps (in 5-, 10-,
15-, 40- and 60kop. denominations) was accidentally discovered. The water-
mark is in the form of contiguous elongated hexagons. This stamp was posted
in Perm'.

9th Issue: 14/26 December 1883
In the Circular of 14 December 1883, #21,660, the Postal Depart-
ment's 4th Section informed the Provincial Post Offices of the issue of new
stamps in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14- 35- and 70kop. denominations, and pro-
vided a description of them. These new stamps were to be distributed to the
Offices as soon as possible, but their sale was to begin only when stamp
stocks of previous issues had been exhausted. In addition, only the Ikop.
through 14kop. values were intended for sale by all the Postal Establish-
ments. The 35- and 70kop. stamps were for sale only by the St. Petersburg
and Moscow Main PO's, the Provincial Post Offices, the Post Offices of
Odessa and Rostov, and the District Post Offices. The Circular also stated
that stamps of all previous issues would be good only until 31 December
1884.
Design: For the Ikop. to 7kop. stamps, the design is the same as for
those of the 4th issue (1864), with a new background of a "dot-network"
identical for all denominations. Printing: typographic, one color, in two
tones. Paper: white, horizontally laid and covered by a thin chalky layer.
Watermark: wavy lines and letters. Perforated 14/2 x 15.
The design of the 14-, 35- and 70kop. stamps (Table I, illus. 12) is
the same type as the 2nd issue (1858), with these changes: the denomina-
tion in the oval's frame is set in white numerals and letters on a colored
background, and beneath the oval, in white letters on a colored bar. White
arabic numerals are set in the corners in colored circles. Printing: typo-
graphic, two-color, embossed. Paper: white, horizontally laid (light lines),
with a thin chalky layer. Watermark: wavy lines and letters. Perforated
142 x 15.
28. Ikop. -a) orange ...........................
-b) light orange ........................
-c) imperforate, Rare ...................
-d) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare*..
29. 2kop. -a) dark blue-green .....................
-b) blue-green ........................
-c) blue-green with a metallic cast ..........
-d) as "a", imperforate, Rare .............
-e) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare*..
-f) bright yellow-green (1888)** ...... .
-g) dull yellow-green ..................
-h) as "f", imperforate, Rare ............
30. 3kop. -a) carmine .......................
-b) carmine-rose .......................
-c) imperforate, Rare . . . . .
-d) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare*..

18







31. 5kop. -a) dark lilac ..........................
-b) reddish lilac .......................
-c) gray-lilac .........................
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare*..
32. 7kop. -a) indigo blue ........................
-b) dark indigo blue ....................
-c) light indigo blue ....................
-d) as "a", with metallic cast to the color ....
-e) as "b", imperforate, Rare .............
-f) as "a", inverted background, Exceedingly
R are* ............................
33. 14kop. -a) light blue, with carmine oval ...........
-b) light blue, with carmine-rose oval .......
-c) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-d) center shifted ......................
-e) imperforate, Rare ...................
-f) bisect (half), with red surcharge "7"*** ..
34. 35kop. -a) violet, with green oval ................
-b) center shifted .....................
35. 70kop. -a) brown, with orange oval ..............
-b) center shifted .....................
Counterfeits-The 1928 S.P.A. catalog lists counterfeits of the 70kop.
(#35) perforated 1312.
All stamps of this issue are known in different shades. The 1-7 kopeck
stamps (#'s 28-32), although of one color, were printed in two stages-
first, the background, and then the design. Therefore, one may encounter
stamps with shifted backgrounds, lighter or darker than the design. The 2kop.
(#29) is known with the "2" in the left corner missing. The Ikop. and
7kop. (#'s 28 and 32) can also be found with only the impression of the
background present, lacking a design.
Essays and Specimens-In the outstanding A. K. Faberge collection,
the following essays (in design) and proofs (in color) are listed in the
20/21 November 1939 auction catalog of Harmer's in London:
1) Proofs of the 3kop. (1), 7kop. (7), 10kop. (1), 14kop. (2) and

"* The inverted background is easily discerned, as the white space reserved for the
crown appears as a crown-shaped white blank at the bottom of the oval.
** The issue of this stamp on 16 March 1888 was a result of the similarity under
artificial light between the blue-green 2kop. and the 7kop. It was difficult to tell
the difference at first glance, and the two were often confused.
*** This so-called "provisional" stamp was "issued" in the Caucasus in 1884.
The 14kop. was cut diagonally in two, and each half was surcharged with a red
"7". This was done at the initiative of a certain former St. Petersburg stamp
collector who was in the Caucasus at that time, and although such bisects with a
red "7" surcharge were known on two pieces of envelopes with the cancellations
"Kutais, 28 Aug. 1884" and "Tiflis, 31 Aug. 1884" in the A. K. Faberge collec-
tion, nevertheless this "provisional" cannot be considered a serious issue. (See the
1928 S.P.A. catalog, p. 20.) In spite of this, all the stamp catalogs, with the
exception of the S.P.A., consider this "provisional" to be a great rarity.

19







20kop. (2), imperforate, on ordinary (unlaid) paper with very wide mar-
gins, in various colors and some in two colors. The designs of the 10- and
20kop. stamps were not approved.
2) More proofs, of the Ikop. (3), 2kop. (2), 3kop. (3), Skop. (3), 7kop.
(3), 35kop. (1) and 70kop. (1), imperforate, on horizontally-laid paper
with gum; several of them have very large margins, and are in different
shades similar to the issued stamps.
3) Ditto, rejected versions-2kop. black, with experimental perforation on
thick, ordinary paper; 3kop. rose, imperforate, on vertically-laid paper;
14kop. with black frame, and a blue 14kop.
4) 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14- 35- and 70kop. essays in the accepted colors but
rejected designs (similar to the issued stamps). Perforated on vertically-laid
and gummed paper.
5) A 14kop. brown with orange oval, a 35kop. blue with carmine oval,
and a 70kop. violet with green oval.
6) 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 7kop. in the accepted colors and design, imperforate,
on horizontally-laid paper, the majority gummed.
7) 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 35- and 70kop. in the accepted colors and designs,
imperforate, on the horizontally-laid paper, the majority gummed.
8) 5kop. proofs in orange, rose, blue, green and the accepted violet.
9) 7kop. in blue and carmine (the colors of the accepted 14kop. version),
violet and green (like the 35kop.), and brown and orange (as on the
70kop.). Perforated on horizontally-laid and gummed paper.


10th Issue: January 1884
The same circular (of 14 December 1883, #21,660) advised of the
issue of new stamps in 3-ruble-50-kopeck and 7-ruble denominations, which
were intended for sale in the St. Petersburg and Moscow Main Post Offices
only. These are large stamps, measuring 25 x 29mm.
Design: (Table I, illus. 17) The Postal Department's emblem is em-
bossed in white on a colored oval, which is surrounded by a black (oval)
frame with colored ornaments. The oval is situated in a wide black rectan-
gular frame in which the inscription "Pochtovaya Marka" is placed on both
sides in white, and the denomination above and below. Complex ornaments
are located both in the corners and between the oval and the outer frame.
Printing: typographic, two-color. Paper: white, vertically laid and covered
with a thin chalky layer. Watermark: wavy lines and letters. Perforated
132.
36. 3R50kop. -a) light gray and black ...............
-b) imperforate, Rare .................
-c) horizontally laid, Exceedingly Rare ..
-d) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare ....
37. 7Rub. -a) lemon-yellow and black ............
-b) imperforate, Rare .................
Counterfeits-Well-executed counterfeits of #'s 36-37 on original
paper were prepared abroad and in Riga, in both cancelled and unused

20






condition. Those in "used" condition had spurious cancels of "Moskva"
and "Riga". For the production of these counterfeit stamps, wide margins
of sheets of Russian stamps issued between 1889 and 1904 were used.
(These issues lacked a chalky layer.) The counterfeits are smaller than the
originals by 12- mm., and their perforation deviates somewhat from that
of the authentic stamps, 14 instead of 1312.
Fraudulent cancels-Spurious handstamps carved out of wood were
also prepared by Fournier in Geneva to be applied on the counterfeit stamps
of #'s 36-37. They were of the following types:
1) A double circle, 26mm. and 17mm. in diameter, with these inscriptions
between the circles: "S. Peterburg" with no period, a Roman "III" at the
sides, and "chasa" at the bottom. Within the inner circle is a 3-line date,
"21 Maj 1888".
2) A double circle of the same diameters with the inscription "S. Peterburg"
with a period between the circles, a Roman "III" at the sides and "chasa"
below. "12 Iyun. 1889" is in three lines in the center.
3) A single circle 261/ mm. in diameter, with the inscription "Novoradomsk"
around the inside top, an arabic "1" on either side, posthorns at the bottom,
and "12 Noya. 1886" in three lines in the center.
4) A single circle 27mm. in diameter, with the inscription "Kovno" at the
top, a vignette at the bottom, and "8 Iyun. 1886" in three lines in the center.
5) A single circle 26mm. in diameter, with "Lubny" above, a vignette below,
and "7 Noya. 1887" in three lines in the middle.
6) A single circle 25mm. in diameter, with "Moskva" above, vignettes at
the sides, "Nikol. Zh.D." below, and "14 Dek. 1888" in three lines in the
middle.
7) A single circle 25 2mm. in diameter, with the inscriptions "Riga" above,
a vignette at the bottom, and "1 Iyun. 1888" in three lines in the middle.
(See "Serrane", "Vademecum du specialist-Expert en timbres Poste
d'Europe", Nice, 1927, p. 402, and "Album des Facsimiles de Fournier",
Geneva, 1929.)
Essays and Proofs-The following color proofs and design essays are
listed in Harmer's catalog of the outstanding A. K. Faberge collection:
1) Essays of the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. stamps, in two designs: a) an oblong
stamp similar to a revenue stamp, 7Rub, in two combinations of colors-
slate gray and silver, and also rose and gold-perforated on lightly chalked,
gummed paper, and b) two rectangular 3R50kop. stamps in blue and black,
two 7Rub. values, one in chestnut and orange, the other in black and yellow,
both imperforate on horizontally-laid paper.
2) A 3R50kop. in blue and black, and two 7Rub.'s, one rose and black,
the other black and unembossed. Both are imperforate on ordinary, very
thick paper.
3) Essay in black ink on ordinary paper with no designation of value, as
an essay for the 1Rub. denomination of the new issue.
4) Essays of the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. values, large squares on thick white
paper, perforated, with an embossed white eagle. Three different colors of
the 3R50kop. and six different of the 7Rub.

21







5) Essays in altered colors: 3R50kop. black, silver and blue, and 7Rub.
silver, gold and rose. They are of the same dimensions and have a frame
design similar to that of the actual issue, and are both perforate and im-
perforate on lightly ribbed paper.
6) A 3R50kop. and a 7Rub. in only black frames on thick white paper.
7) Final proofs of the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. stamps in the accepted colors,
imperforate with small margins all around on gummed, horizontally-laid
paper.


STAMPS WITH THE EMBLEM OF
THE POST-AND-TELEGRAPH ADMINISTRATION
11th Issue: 2/14 May 1889
In accordance with the Opinion of the State Council, approved by the
Emperor on 24 January 1889, the Postal Department issued Circular #16
dated 17 March 1889. The Circular instructed all Imperial Postal Estab-
lishments to implement the increased rates for all correspondence mailed to
foreign addresses starting 1/13 April 1889. For the ordinary letters a fee
of 10 kopecks per 15 grams was charged; for ordinary postcards, 4 kopecks;
to register an item cost an additional 10 kopecks, so that a registered letter
cost 20 kopecks, and a registered postcard, 14 kopecks. The Circular also
stated that for the convenience of postal patrons new denominations corre-
sponding to the changed rates would be issued on 2/14 May 1889. (See
"Illustr. Briefmarken Journal", p. 198, 1889.) Those stamps issued before
that time could, of course, be used on par with the new ones for both
domestic and international correspondence.
Design: (Table I, illus. 13-14, 18) A new pattern consisting of an
elongated rectangular frame with arcs cut into the corners, with the small
ovals placed higher on the stamps. The background is comprised of thin,
colored horizontal lines. These stamps are the first to bear the emblem of
the Post-and-Telegraph Administration-crossed posthorns and thunderbolts
(the latter denoting the Telegraph)-to symbolize their merger. Over the
oval is a horseshoe-shaped frame containing the inscription "Pochtovaya
Marka", and below it is the denomination in arabic numerals and letters on
a background of colored lines. In the upper half of the frame are colored or-
naments on a light background. White ornaments on a dark background oc-
cupy the lower half. The overall design on these stamps is smaller than the
designs of previous issues, so that around the design frame is a background
consisting of a fine network similar to that of the preceding issues. The
1Rub. stamps have a surrounding background composed of numerous inter-
woven colored loops. There is also a small oval containing a "1" on a white
background at either side of the design. Dimensions of the 4-, 10-, 20-
and 50kop. stamps, not counting the surrounding background, are 151/2 x
21/2mm., and for the 1Rub., 21V2 x 26mm. (design only). Printing: typo-
graphic. The 4- and 10kop. stamps are unembossed, in one color with two
tones. The 20-, 50kop. and 1Rub. are embossed, bi-colored, with the design
in two tones. Paper: white, horizontally laid, and with an insignificant chalky
layer. Watermark: wavy lines and letters. Perforated 141 x 15 (13 for

22






the 1Rub.). The stamps were printed in sheets of 100 as before. (The
1Rub. in sheets of 25.)
38. 4kop. -a) carmine ..........................
-b) carmine-rose ......................
-c) background doubled, Rare ............
39. 10kop. -a) indigo blue .......................
-b) blue ............................
40. 20kop. -a) light blue, with carmine oval ...........
-b) inverted center, Rare ................
-c) shifted background .................
41. 50kop. -a) lilac, with green oval .................
42. 1Rub. -a) brown, with orange oval ..............
-b) red-brown, with orange oval ...........
-c) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-d) center omitted, Rare ................
-e) shifted center ......................
-f) horizontal pair, imperforate between .....
On #'s 40-42, the inscriptions stand out in relief. #'s 38-39 were
printed in two stages, while #'s 40-42 were printed in three. Thus, because
of this process background and center shifts are encountered.
Counterfeits-Dr. Bochmann mentions in his book the existence of
counterfeits of #42 (1Rub.), but does not describe them.
Proofs and essays-The following color proofs and design essays are
listed in Harmer's catalog of the A. K. Faberge collection:
1) An original hand-painted design of the 1Rub. stamp in brown and orange
by Arnold Baldinger.
2) Roughly printed designs of the 10- and 20kop. and 1Rub. stamps in
smaller dimensions, with supplemental hand-painting.
3) Proofs of the 4-, 10- and 20kop. stamps in the existing colors but im-
perforate on mesh paper.
4) Four color-trial proofs of the 10kop., perforated, on thick ribbed paper,
gummed.
5) 1Rub. essays in two or three colors, with an embossed white eagle. Four
of the essays display the denomination and four do not.
6) A final proof of the IRub. in the accepted design, brown and orange
on ordinary paper.

12th Issue: 14/26 December 1889
This is a repetition of the 9th and 10th issues, with the addition of
crossed telegraph bolts to the posthorns. The same designs and colors remain,
as well as the same horizontally-laid paper and watermark consisting of wavy
lines and letters. The perforation is also the same-141/2 x 15 and 13V2
(ruble values).
43. Ikop. -a) orange ...........................
-b) light orange........................
-c) yellow, Scarce ......................
-d) imperforate, Rare ..................

23






44. 2kop. -a) green .............................
-b) yellow-green .......................
-c) imperforate, Rare ..................
-d) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare ..
45. 3kop. -a) carmine..........................
-b) carmine-rose .......................
-c) red .............................
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) doubled background, Rare ............
46. 5kop. -a) lilac (1891) ......................
-b) dark lilac .........................
-c) light lilac .........................
-d) no background, Rare ................
47. 7kop. -a) indigo blue ........................
-b) dark indigo blue ..................
-c) light indigo blue ....................
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) no background, Exceedingly Rare .......
-f) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare ..
-g) shifted background, Rare .............
-h) printed on reverse (gummed) side ......
48. 14kop. -a) blue, with carmine-rose oval ...........
-b) light blue, with rose oval ..............
-c) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
49. 35kop. -a) violet, with green oval (1892) .........
50. 3R50k. -a) black and light gray .................
-b) black and greenish gray ..............
-c) black and brownish gray ..............
51. 7Rub. -a) black and light yellow ................
-b) black and orange-yellow ..............
-c) as "a", with thunderbolts colored in during
printing ...........................
-d) with black print doubled ..............
Essays and Proofs-The following color proofs and design essays are
described in the Harmer's catalog of the great A. K. Faberge collection:
1) 2kop. color proofs in slate gray and violet on thick paper.
2) A 2kop. in red with an inverted "P" (Cyrillic "R") overprint.


13th Issue: 1902
Vertically-laid Paper
A repetition of the preceding 12th issue, with the addition of the
70kop. in the same color and design as that of the 9th issue, but on vertically-
laid paper. The designs, colors, watermark of wavy lines and letters, and
perforation (14V2 x 15 and 13 2) remain the same. These stamps were also
printed 100 to a sheet, while the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. were printed 25 to
a sheet.

24






52. Ikop. -a) orange ............................
-b) light orange .......................
-c) brownish orange ....................
-d) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare ..
-e) background omitted, Rare ............
53. 2kop. -a) yellow-green .......................
-b) light yellow-green ..................
-c) dark yellow-green, Scarce ...........
-d) imperforate, Rare ..................
-e) background omitted, Rare .............
-f) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare ..
54. 3kop. -a) carmine ......................
-b) carmine-rose .......................
-c) red-rose ..........................
-d) background omitted, Rare.............
-e) background doubled, Rare ............
55. 5kop. -a) lilac .............................
-b) dark lilac .........................
-c) dull light lilac Scarce ................
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare ..
56. 7kop. -a) indigo-blue ........................
-b) dark indigo-blue ...................
-c) dark indigo-blue with bronze cast .......
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) background omitted, Exceedingly Rare ...
-f) shifted background, Rare .............
-g) inverted background, Exceedingly Rare...
-h) printing on reverse side ...............
57. 14kop. -a) blue, with carmine-rose oval ...........
-b) light blue, with rose oval ..............
-c) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-d) center omitted, Rare .................
58. 35kop. -a) violet, with green oval ................
-b) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
59. 70kop. -a) brown, with orange oval ..............
60. 3R50k. -a) black and light gray. .................
-b) black and greenish gray ...............
-c) black and brownish gray ..............
-d) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare ......
61. 7Rub. -a) black and light yellow ................
-b) black and orange-yellow ..............
-c) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-d) imperforate, Exceedingly Rare .........
-e) horizontal pair, imperforate between .....
-f) perforated 11V2 at the top and 13V on the
other three sides ....................

25






All the printings of this issue exist in diverse shades, with background
and center shifts of varying degrees. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 14kop. and
3R50kop. stamps can be found with colored impressions on the gummed
side (offset), and the 2- and 7kop. values are known with perforations
through the design.
Forgeries-The 1924 and 1928 S.P.A. catalogs list certain counterfeits
of the 3-, 7- and 70kop. stamps, and also of the 3R50kop. They are of
good quality on unwatermarked paper, and were produced to defraud the
Post. Some of the 70kop. and 3R.50kop. forgeries have a "Lodz" can-
cellation.
An inverted background on any of the 1-, 2-, 5- and 7kop. values of
this issue, plus the stamps of preceding issues, can be clearly seen at the
middle bottom of the stamps, where there is a white space in the shape of
a crown turned upside-down.
Bisects-Due to a shortage of Ikop. stamps in Revel between 3 April
and 5 April 1909, it was authorized to use 2kop. stamps cut in half for
franking purposes. No surcharge was applied to them.
New background cliches-All stamps from the Ikop. to 7kop. were
printed in two stages, beginning in 1864 and ending in 1908. The ground-
work, a very thinly printed pattern of colored angles forming the outer frame
of the background, was printed first. Then the design was added, also with
colored angles which did not always coincide with those of the first stage,
causing the background shifts which are encountered on these stamps. The
shifts can be clearly seen in the white circles at the corners of the stamps
where the denominations are situated. Printing during the Russo-Japanese
War of 1904-1905 was especially careless. To avoid these unwanted defects
which distorted the stamps' design, the State Printing Office began to print
stamps with new background cliches (type 2), apparently in 1905. In these,
the colored angles were eliminated and the groundwork design was altered
so that it ended in dotted oval curvatures in the corners of the stamps. Thus,
even a severe groundwork shift would be almost completely unnoticeable.
It is not difficult on cancelled stamps to distinguish the new type 2 cliche
from the old type 1, because of the postmark dates. It is, however, more
difficult on mint stamps. Success in distinction usually depends upon the
presence of a background shift, even if it is weak. This in spite of the fact
that both types, in the majority of instances, can be differentiated by their
general appearance. The type 2 groundwork is less noticeable and seems
paler, with the dots less well-defined.
Uncancelled stamps with the 1st type of background are very seldom
encountered, and must therefore be much more highly priced. (See "Rossica"
S12, pp. 197-200.)
Proofs and essays-The Harmer catalog of the A. K. Faberge collection
lists the following color proofs and design essays:
1) Essays of various stamp designs in the 2-, 3- and 7kop. values, similar
to the indicia designs of the stamped envelopes, imperforate; a 2kop. black,
another imperforate, and a 3kop. on ordinary paper; a 2kop. green, imper-
forate, on ordinary gummed paper; also a 2kop. and a 3kop. imperforate
on horizontally-laid paper.

26






2) Proofs in various colors of the 2kop. (6) and 3kop. (5), perforated
on thick chalky paper.
3) 5kop. perforated essays of a rejected design on thick chalky paper, in
10 different color combinations.
4) 5kop. imperforate essays of three different designs on thick gummed
paper, in various colors.
5) 7kop. imperforate proofs, seven stamps on thick chalky paper and three
on thin paper with light lines, all the stamps in various shades of blue.
6) 7kop. perforate proofs in five different colors.
7) Color proofs of the 2kop. (6), 3kop. (2), 5kop. (6), 7kop. (5) and
14kop. (4), on various kinds of paper and of different colors and shades
(some are for stamped envelopes and postcards); also a 3kop. design essay,
similar to the approved design.



14th Issue: 1904
Vertically-laid Paper
A repetition of the 11th issue, but on vertically-laid paper. Same de-
signs, colors, watermarked paper and perforation-14/2 x 15 and 13V2
(1Rub.).
62. 4kop. -a) carmine ..........................
-b) carmine-rose .......................
-c) double impression .. ................
-d) inverted background, Rare ............
63. O1 kop. -a) indigo-blue ........................
-b) light indigo-blue, Scarce ..............
-c) inverted background, Rare ............
-d) background omitted, Exceedingly Rare ,. .
64. 20kop. -a) light blue, with carmine oval ...........
65. 50kop. -a) lilac, with green oval .................
-b) brownish lilac, with green oval .........
66. 1Rub. -a) brown, with orange oval ..............
-b) red-brown, with orange oval ...........
-c) as "b", perforated 11V2, Rare ..........
-d) perforated 132 x112 or 11V2 x 13V2,
R are .............................
-e) vertical pair, imperforate between .......
-f) imperforate, Rare ...................
-g) shifted center, Rare ..................
On 10 March 1907, a sheet of 40 IRub. stamps (5x8) was found at
the Moscow Main Post Office with the centers of the stamps from the upper
left corner to the lower right so greatly shifted that the first stamp in the
last horizontal row and the last stamp in the first horizontal row were without
centers. The last stamp in the sheet (the bottom right corner) had its center
oval at the very edge. This sheet contained 38 stamps with shifted centers
and two with no centers. (See the 1924 S.P.A. catalog, p. 27.)

27







The 1Rub. stamps of this issue were printed in sheets of 25 (5x5) and
40 (5x8), while all the others were printed 100 to a sheet.


15th Issue: 1905
Vertically-laid Paper
To facilitate prepayment on postal money orders issued in 1896, two
new denominations (15- and 25kop.) were printed on vertically-laid paper.
The design is the same as that of the 70kop. of 1902, but with a colon after
"kop" rather than a period. The watermark, two-color printing and perfora-
tion (141/2 x 15) are the same.
67. 15kop. -a) brownish lilac, with light blue oval ......
-b) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare ......
-c) center omitted, Rare .................
68. 25kop. -a) dark green, with dark lilac oval ........
-b) inverted center, Exceedingly Rare .......
-c) center omitted, Rare .................
-d) inverted background, Rare ............


16th Issue: 1905
(1st Charity Issue)
This was a private issue of charity stamps by the Imperial Women's
Patriotic Society for soldiers serving in the Field Forces during the Russo-
Japanese War of 1904-1905. The stamps were sold at 3 kopecks over face
value, the additional charge being donated to charity.
Design: A vertical rectangle containing a representation of an historical
monument in the center, with ornaments around it. On the 3kop., the Ad-
miral Kornilov Monument in Sevastopol' is portrayed; on the 5kop., the
Minin and Pozharskij Monument in Moscow; on the 7kop., the statue of
Peter the Great in St. Petersburg; on the 10kop., the Alexander II Monu-
ment and Kremlin in Moscow. Paper: ordinary, unwatermarked. Printing:
typographic, 3-color. Perforated 12 x 121/2.
69. 3kop. -a) black-brown, red and light green........
-b) perforated 11 x 11/2, Scarce ..........
-c) perforated 13 x 13/2, Very Scarce ......
-d) perforated 11 2 x 13V2 or 131/2 x 112,
Rare .............................
70. 5kop. -a) violet, black-lilac, yellow .............
71. 7kop. -a) blue, light blue, rose .................
-b) perforated 13 x 1312, Rare ...........
71V2. 10kop. -a) blue, light blue, yellow .............
-b) perforated 13 x 1312, Scarce .....
Prices for both mint and used are the same. Any of the four values
may be found with an overprint of one letter from the word "OBRAZETs" "
(specimen). There are two types of letters.

28







17th Issue: 1906
Vertically-laid Paper
A new type of design and new values. (Table I, illus. 20-21). Large
format-24 x 29mm. The emblem of the Post-and-Telegraph Administra-
tion is embossed in white within an oval at the center, the oval surrounded
by a laurel wreath. The colored inscription "Pochtovaya Marka" is at the top
on a curved white ribbon. The denomination is situated at the bottom in
white letters on a colored background. On the 5Rub. stamps, the wreath is
decorated with volutes, and the ribbon ends at the top are curved in scroll-
like fashion. On the 10Rub. stamps, the wreath is interwoven with the
ribbon, the ends of which are unenscrolled. The stamps were printed typo-
graphically in sheets of 25 on white, vertically-laid and watermarked (wavy
lines and letters) paper, in three colors. Perforated 13/2.
72. 5Rub. -a) blue and green, with light blue oval .....
-b) perforated 112, Rare ..............
-c) vertical pair imperforate between ......
73. 10Rub. -a) bright red and yellow, with gray oval ...




18th Issue: 1909
Ordinary Paper with Lozenges of Varnish
New designs (Table I, illus. 22-23) for the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 7- and
10kop. stamps (designer-R. Zarins), and the same designs as the preceding
issues for the 14-, 15-, 20-, 25-, 35-, 50- and 70kop. stamps, and the
IRub. Dimensions: 15V2 x 21mm. for the Ikop. through 70kop. values,
and 21V2 x 26mm. for the 1Rub. (The dimensions for the 1Rub. are of
the design only-the surrounding background is not included.) Design of
the 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 7kop.: an oval containing the Imperial Arms and
posthorns with thunderbolts below the Arms, in the center of the design.
The oval is surrounded by ornaments. The colored inscription "Pochtovaya
Marka" is placed on a curved white ribbon at the top, and the denomination
in white letters is situated on a colored background at the bottom. In the
middle space below the oval containing the Arms is another oval with a
white numeral on a colored background. The design for the 4- and 10kop.
stamps consists of an oval with a large emblem, laurel-leaf ornaments and
similarly-situated inscriptions, with the exception of two circles to the lower
left and right of the oval which contain numerals, rather than one oval be-
neath. Paper: ordinary, white, unwatermarked, and covered with vertical
lozenges of varnish on the surface of the stamp to prevent re-use. The water-
mark is present only at the outer edges of the sheet. These stamps were
issued with the varnish network solely as a result of the discovery in 1908
of a large stamp-cleaning ring operating in Warsaw. The members of this
ring were engaged in removing cancellations from stamps, regumming them,
and selling them on a tremendous scale. Printing: one-color, including the
Arms in the center oval, on the 1-10kop. values. Perforated 141 x 142,
or 13V2 for the IRub.

29







74. Ikop. -a) light yellow-orange (1909) ............
-b) yellow-orange (1909-1923) ...........
-c) dark yellow-orange (1912-1923) ......
-d) double print .......................
-e) no lozenges of varnish ................
-f) printed on gummed side ..............
75. 2kop. -a) yellow-green (1909) ... .......... ..
-b) dark green (1909-1917) ....... ...
-c) green (1912-1917) ..................
-d) gray-green (1917-1923) ..............
-e) double print ......................
-f) no lozenges of varnish ................
-g) printed on gummed side .... .........
76. 3kop. -a) rose-red (1909) ....................
-b) dark rose-red (1909-1917) ...........
-c) red (1912-1917) ...................
-d) brick red (1912-1917) ..............
-e) bright red (1917-1922) . . . .
-f) no lozenges of varnish ................
-g) printed on gummed side ..............
77. 4kop. -a) light rose-carmine (1909).............
-b) rose-carmine (1909-1922) ...........
-c) red (1912-1923) ...................
-d) raspberry red (1922-1923) ...........
-e) no lozenges of varnish ...............
-f) printed on gummed side ..............
78. 5kop. -a) lilac (1912) .......................
-b) brownish lilac (1912-1923) ...........
-c) light brownish lilac (1917-1923).......
-d) dark brownish lilac (1917-1923) .......
-e) reddish lilac (1922-1923) ............
-f) no lozenges of varnish ..............
-g) double print ........................
-h) printed on gummed side ..............
79. 7kop. -a) light blue (1909-1917) ..... . .. .
-b) blue (1912-1917)...................
-c) no lozenges of varnish ................
-d) imperforate, Rare ...................
-e) 3 pearls and colon after "kop" (essay) ...
80. 10kop. -a) light blue (1909) ....................
-b) blue (1909-1917) ...... ...........
-c) dark blue (1912-1923) .................
-d) indigo-blue (1912-1923) . ........
-e) no lozenges of varnish. ... . .
-f) printed on gummed side ..............
-g) shifted perforation ................ .
81. 14kop. -a) light blue and rose-carmine (1909) ......
-b) blue and rose-carmine (1909-1912) ....

30







-c) dark blue and rose-carmine (1912-1917).
-d) dark blue and dark rose-carmine
(1912-1917) ......................
-e) no lozenges of varnish ..... ..........
82. 15kop. -a) pale brown-lilac and light blue (1909) ...
-b) brown-lilac and light blue (1912-1917) ..
-c) reddish brown-lilac and blue (1912-1917)
-d) brown-lilac and blue (1912-1922) ......
-e) dark brown-lilac and blue (1912-1922) ..
-f) no lozenges of varnish ................
-g) center omitted ......................
-h) center doubled .....................
-i) center shifted .......................
83. 20kop. -a) blue and rose-carmine (1910) .........
-b) blue and red (1912-1922) ............
-c) blue and bright red (1912-1922) .......
-d) no lozenges of varnish ................
-e) background omitted .................
-f) background inverted .................
-g) center doubled ....................
-h) center and frame printed on reverse .....
84. 25kop. -a) light green and light gray-violet (1909) ..
-b) gray-green and light gray-violet
(1909-1912) ......................
-c) green and violet (1912-1917) .........
-d) dark green and violet (1912-1922) .....
-e) dark green and dark violet (1912-1922) .
-f) bright green and dark violet (1912-1922).
-g) dark green and brown-violet (1917-1922)
-h) no lozenges of varnish ................
-i) doubled print ......................
85. 35kop. -a) dark lilac and green (1909) ...........
-b) pale violet and green (1909-1912) ......
-c) pale lilac and bright green (1912-1917) ..
-d) red-brown and bright green (1912-1922) .
-e) red-brown and green (1917-1922) ......
-f) brown-violet and dark green (1912-1917)
-g) chestnut and green (1917-1922) .......
-h) no lozenges of varnish ................
-i) center doubled......................
-j) misprint: light blue oval in center ......
86. 50kop. -a) pale violet and green (1909) ..........
-b) pale violet and dark green (1909-1912) ..
-c) violet and bright green (1912-1917) ....
-d) bright violet and bright green (1912-1917)
-e) lilac and bright green (1912-1917) .....
-f) red-brown and bright green (1912-1917) .
-g) chestnut and green (1912-1922) .......

31







-h) violet-lilac and green (1912-1922) ......
-i) copper-red and green (1912-1922) .....
-j) no lozenges of varnish ................
-k) background omitted .................
-1) background doubled .................
-m) center doubled ......................
-n) center or background shifted ...........
87. 70kop. -a) light brown and orange (1909) ........
-b) lilac-brown and orange (1909-1912) ....
-c) light brown and yellow-brown
(1912-1917) ......................
-d) light brown and red-orange (1912-1917) .
-e) red-brown and red-orange (1912-1917)..
-f) chocolate-brown and red-orange
(1912-1922) .....................
-g) no lozenges of varnish ...............
-h) center doubled ......................
-i) center omitted ......................
-j) doubled print ......................
88. 1Rub. -a) chocolate-brown and light orange (1910) .
-b) dark brown and orange (1910-1917) ....
-c) as "a", perforated 12/2, Scarce........
-d) dark brown and red-orange (1918-1923)
-e) black-brown and red-orange (1918-1923)
-f) vertical pair, imperforate between .......
-g) center doubled ......................
-h) center inverted .....................
-i) center omitted ......................
-j) shifted center .......................
-k) background inverted .................
-1) gray-green background ...............
-m) with impression of either background or
center on reverse side ................
-n) as "d", perforated 12V2 (Perm', 1919),
Scarce ............................


WITH HORIZONTAL LOZENGES OF VARNISH
-o) dark brown and red-orange (1918-1923) .
-p) dark brown and dark red-orange
(1918-1923) ......................
-q) brown and red-orange (1918-1923) .....
-r) shifted center.......................
All the stamps of this issue (except the 7- and 14kop.) were in use
for a long time (up to 1922-1923), and are found in a multitude of shades
defying exact description, especially those printings after 1915, when during
the war it became difficult to procure inks of certain colors. As a result of
this lack of aniline inks, the stamps printed in 1917 came out in altered

32






colors. For instance, stamps normally of a dark violet color were printed
in red-violet; violet-brown stamps-brown; red stamps-rose; and the
others-lighter or darker tones. Those stamps printed after the 1917 revolu-
tion are poorly perforated (torn teeth) and have various defects.
Prior to 1914, the stamps were of better quality. Although defective
ones did reach the public, they were comparatively few, as the stamps were
subjected to the strictest inspection before being released. Any found to be
defective were destroyed.
Beginning in 1915 and especially from 1917 on, the stamps were issued
practically without controls, with only the most obviously defective ones
being destroyed, and even those not always. This explains the enormous
amount of faulty stamps which were sold for high prices on the market as
"varieties". Among such faulty copies are found those with printing on the
gummed side, shifted backgrounds and centers, double impressions, lozenges
of varnish on the gummed side, doubled lozenges of varnish, shifted per-
forations, vertically or horizontally imperforate, and so on.
All of these stamps may be found without lozenges of varnish or with
yellow lozenges, which are seldom encountered and command higher prices.
A positive determination on the lack of varnish can be made only by apply-
ing benzine to mint stamps.
The 7kop. (79e) with the slight difference in design is very scarce,
being an essay stamp, three cliches of which were accidently included among
the others. Because of this each of the early sheets of the 7kop. have three
such stamps, which can be recognized by the following feature: below the
central design in the outer portions of the ornamentation to the upper left
and right of the oval containing the "7", there are three pearls instead of
four. The same stamp imperforate (79d), with no chalky layer and no gum,
is an impression proof and is valued considerably less.
The 1Rub. (88) has different types of the numeral "1" under the oval,
with variations in thickness and height. A variety of background colors, from
light to dark, are also present. These stamps, measuring 26V2 x 31mm.
including the surrounding background, were printed in three stages-first
the background, then the design, and finally the colored oval and the nu-
meral below. The first printing in 1910 had 40 stamps per sheet, arranged
5 x 8, with bars the color of the oval running vertically and situated one
on either side of the sheet. Later, they were printed in sheets of 40 (5 x 8)
with the same bars running vertically, but this time in the color of the stamps'
design, with three bars on either side. In 1917 the cliches were regrouped,
with 50 stamps per sheet. Accompanying these 50 were six patterns in the
form of two intersecting "V" 's the same color as the design and background,
situated between three stamps at the top and three at the bottom (7 x 8,
i.e. 50 stamps and 6 patterns). Finally, in 1918 the stamps were printed
horizontally on the sheets in groups of 50 (10 x 5), but without the accom-
panying patterns, as a means of saving paper. The space between each stamp
was narrowed (from mm. to 2mm.) as were the margins of the sheets.
This printing had lozenges of varnish.
Stamps perforated 12V2 in 1910 and those perforated 12V2 locally in
Perm' in 1919 are scarce. A 1Rub. stamp perforated 11V2 is also listed in
the 1937 Michel catalog, in black-brown and red-orange (1918), but, in

33







view of the fact that no other catalogs mention it, it cannot for the present
time be considered official.
A detailed analysis and description of the stamps of this and succeeding
issues were made by M. Vibert and printed in the London "Stanley Gibbons
Monthly Journal" of 1 August 1927. The stamp colors for #'s 74-88 listed
previously were taken from the table attached to that article.



19th Issue: 1913
The "Romanov" Jubilee Issue
This Jubilee issue was printed to commemorate the 300th anniversary
of the Romanov Dynasty (21 February 1613 to 21 February 1913). The
stamps are of various sizes and were designed by I. Bilibin, R. Zarins and
Lancerey. A special, unwatermarked chalky paper was used, the 1- through
70kop. values printed typographically in sheets of 100 and the 1-, 2-, 3- and
5Rub. engraved on steel by Lundin, Ksidiass and Prof. Schirnbock in sheets
of 50, arranged 10x5 for the 1- and 5Rub., and 5x10 for the 2- and 3Rub.
Perforated 132.
89. Ikop. -a) brownish orange (Peter I) ............
90. 2kop. -a) bright green (Alexander II) ...........
91. 3kop. -a) rose-carmine (Alexander III)..........
92. 4kop. -a) carmine-red (Peter I as a youth) .......
93. 7kop. -a) dark brown (Nicholas II) .............
-b) imperforate, Rare ...................
94. 10kop. -a) blue (Nicholas II) ...................
-b) Imperforate, Rare ...................
95. 14kop. -a) bluish green (Catherine II) ............
96. 15kop. -a) red-brown (Nicholas I) ...............
97. 20kop. -a) olive-green (Alexander I) .............
98. 25kop. -a) dark lilac (Tsar' Alexei Mikhailovich) ..
99. 35kop. -a) dark blue-violet and green (Paul I) .....
100. 50kop. -a) dark brown and gray (Elizabeth) .......
101. 70kop. -a) bright green and brown (Tsar' Mikhail
Fedorovich) .......................
102. 1Rub. -a) dark green (the Moscow Kremlin) ......
103. 2Rub. -a) red-brown (the Winter Palace in
St. Petersburg) .....................
104. 3Rub. -a) dark lilac (House of Romanov in Moscow)
105. 5Rub. -a) black-brown (Emperor Nicholas II) .....
-b) on pinkish paper . . ..... ....
Color shades are known only on the 1Rub. (#102), and they are in-
significant. The 2- and 10kop. stamps are known with color impressions on
the reverse side, and the 3kop. with a doubled impression.
There are a number of copies of the lower-denomination stamps and
also the 2- and 3Rub. which are printed on a yellowish, chalky paper, but
nothing definite about their issue is known.

34







During the first days of the 1917 revolution (27 February-12 March),
a group of St. Petersburg merchants applied red and black overprints to some
of these stamps for speculative purposes. These are:
1) A Phrygian Cap over crossed swords, and the inscription "Bratstvo,
Ravenstvo, Svoboda" (Fraternity, Equality, Freedom) in a half-circle. This
is found on blocks of four on the 1-, 2-, 4-, 7-, 10-, 15-, 35- and 50kop.
values, on stamps serving as money in the 3-, 10-, 15- and 20kop. values,
and on the surcharged stamps of 1916 (10/7kop. and 20/14kop.).
2) The title page of the newspaper "Izvyestiya Petrogradskago Sovyeta
rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov" (News of the Petrograd Soviet of Work-
ers' and Soldiers' Deputies) with the text of the Tsar's abdication over-
printed in black on blocks of 8 on the 1-, 4-, 7-, 35- and 50kop. values,
also on the 10-, 15- and 20kop. "money-stamps", and on the 1916 sur-
charged issue.
3) The title page of the Petrograd newspaper "Pravda" with the "Renuncia-
tion by Grand Duke Mikhail Aleksandrovich" on blocks of 12 on the 1-,
4-, 7-, 35- and 50kop. values, also on the 10-, 15-, and 20kop. money-
stamps, and on the 1916 surcharged issue.
These must be classed as phantasies, having never been officially over-
printed or issued; they have no philatelic value whatsoever. The same is true
for those on cover, which passed through the mails at the time when the
post accepted unstamped letters for dispatch.


20th Issue: 26 November 1914
2nd Charity Issue
This is a private issue of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society in
St. Petersburg of charity stamps "for the benefit of soldiers and their fami-
lies" who were victims during World War I, 1914-1918. The stamps were
sold at one kopeck over face value, with the added charge donated to the
charity fund.
The artist R. Zarins, who was employed by the State Printing Office,
designed these stamps-large vertical rectangles with beautifully-ornamented
frames and various inscriptions surrounding the following depictions on a
plain background: the Old Russian folk hero Il'ya Muromets on the Ikop.,
a Don Cossack on horseback holding the hand of a Russian girl on the
3kop., a symbolic figure in the form of a woman in an Old Russian costume
representing Russia on the 7kop., and Georgij Pobedonosets on horseback
spearing a dragon on the 10kop. Above the designs on the stamps is the
inscription "Pochta", with the denominations at the corners under "Pochta".
Under the central design is the inscription "for the benefit of soldiers and
their families", and beneath that is the sale price of the stamps with the
inscription "kop. prodazhnaya tsyena kop.".
The stamps measure 29 x 39mm. The paper is chalky and colored,
with no watermark. The Ikop. is pale yellow, the 3kop. rose, the 7kop.
straw-colored, and the 10kop. pale blue. They were printed in sheets of 50
and 100 stamps, with all values perforated 11, 12V2 or 131/2 in sharp
or blunt perforations.

35







106. ikop. reddish brown and light green
-a) perf. 112 .........................
-b) perf. 12V2, Scarce ...................
-c) perf. 13 2 ........................
107. 3kop. dark red and black-olive
-a) perf. 11 2 .........................
-b) perf. 12 2, Scarce ...................
-c) perf. 13 2, Rare ....................
108. 7kop. dark brown and dark green
-a) perf. 111/2 .........................
-b) perf. 12V2, Scarce ...................
-c) perf. 13 2 ........................
109. 10kop. dark blue and brown
-a) perf. 11 2 .........................
-b) perf. 12 2 ........................
-c) perf. 131/2, Scarce ..................
Imperforate stamps were not officially issued. They appeared in 1917
after the Russian revolution at the initiative of speculators, because of a
weakening of controls.
Stamps with blue or black overprint "OBRAZETs" (specimen) are
of no particular value, as they were issued in large quantities for publicity
purposes.
The entire issue of these stamps displays slight color shades, which are
especially noticeable only in #'s 106c, 107a, 108b and 109a. 109a, b and
c exist with the lance intersected by a colored line, giving the impression
of a broken lance (4 stamps per sheet).
In 1919, # 107b appeared on the market in an orange color and per-
forated 12V2-it was never in use. This stamp is known perforated 131/2
and overprinted "OBRAZETs" ". The S.P.A. catalogs of 1924 and 1928
make no mention of the existence of this stamp, and it may be believed that
it is of foreign origin, produced by counterfeiters for speculative purposes.



21st Issue: 1915
The same charity issue on white paper
This is a repetition of the preceding issue of stamps in the Ikop., 3kop.
and 10kop. values, but on white chalky paper, unwatermarked. The 7kop.
was produced perf. 12V2 but, because of the postal rate hike in 1916 from
7 to 10 kopecks and from 14 to 20 kopecks, further printing was halted
and it never saw use. The war made it difficult to obtain inks from Germany,
and as a result the stamps were printed on white paper, in slightly changed
colors, perf. 11V2, 12V2 and 13V2. Sharp and blunt perforations are also
known.
110. Ikop. orange-brown and gray
-a) perf. 11V2 .........................
-b) perf. 12V2 .........................
-c) perf. 13V2 .........................

36







111. 3kop. dark red and brown-black
dark red and gray-black
-a) perf. 11 2 .........................
-b) perf. 121/2 ........................
-c) perf. 13 /2, Scarce (in gray-black) ......
112. 7kop. brown and green
-a) perf. 12 2, Rare ....................
113. 10kop. brown and dark blue
-a) perf. 11 2 .........................
-b) perf. 12 2 .........................
-c) perf. 13 2 .........................
Imperforate stamps were not officially issued. (See preceding issue.)
#112 with the overprint "OBRAZETs" is known only on stamps per-
forated 11 V2. All the others are known with this overprint on all three per-
forations. #113a, b and c exist with the lance intersected by a colored line,
giving the impression of a broken lance. (Four stamps per sheet.)



22nd Issue: 1915
This is a repetition of the 17th issue (1906), but on ordinary white
paper, unwatermarked, with vertical lozenges of varnish (chalk) on the
surface. They were printed in sheets of 25 (5x5), with designs in the shape
of (intersecting) angles on the outside of the sheets' fields, 5 per side. The
angles are the same color as the background (on the 5Rub., green, and on
the 10Rub., yellow.)
Typographic printing in three colors. Perforated 132.
114. 5Rub. -a) blue and green, with light blue oval (1915)
-b) perf. 11 2, Rare ...................
-c) dark blue and green, with light blue oval
(1918-1923) ......................
-d) dark blue and green, oval lighter blue
(1918-1923) .......................
-e) indigo blue and green, with light blue oval
(1918-1923) .......................
-f) center doubled .....................
-g) shifted center .......................
-h) horizontal pair imperforate between .....
-i) as "c", "e", perf. 12V2 (in Perm', 1919),
R are ............................
-j) as "e", pin perf. 131/2 ................
115. 10Rub. -a) red and yellow, with gray oval (1915) ...
-b) error: oval light blue, Exceedingly Rare ..
-c) shifted center ..........
-d) bright red and yellow, with light gray oval
(1918-1923) .......................
-e) bright red and yellow, with gray oval
(1918-1923) .......................

37







-f) bright red and yellow, with dark gray oval
(1918-1923) .......................
-g) carmine and yellow, with dark gray oval
(1918-1923) .......................
-h) dark crimson and yellow, with dark gray
oval (1918-1923) ....................
-i) doubled center .....................
-j) shifted background ..................
-k) inverted background ................
-1) horizontal pair imperforate between .....
-m) no lozenges of varnish (1920) .........
-n) as "g", "h", pin perf. 13V2 ............
-o) as "g", perf. 121/2 (Perm' 1919), Scarce..
The oval color error (#115b) is known on only one sheet with accom-
panying intersecting angles. It was described in detail in "Rossica" #28.
The 5Rub. and 10Rub. stamps were also printed in three stages-first
the background, then the design, and finally the colored oval. They measure
24/2 x 29mm.
The 5Rub. has a green background consisting of a fine network and
dots, while the 10Rub.'s background is a solid yellow. The perforation of
the 1st-issue stamps is constant and clean-cut, but from 1918 on it gradually
becomes less exact ("shaggy"), and finally one encounters defective stamps
with punctures all around, or only on some of the sides. The Arms in the
center of the oval, embossed on the first printings (1915), also become
flat and indistinct on later printings.
In 1917 the cliches were re-grouped in the sheet, because in the first
printings when the stamps were set 25 to a sheet (5x5), large amounts of
paper were left unused. The first to be re-grouped were the imperforates,
with the stamps printed 50 to a sheet plus six intersecting-angle patterns in
the same colors as the background and design, situated between the stamps
(3 on the top row and 3 on the bottom). The next re-grouping of the 5Rub.
and O1Rub., for 50 stamps set horizontally on a sheet and lacking the pat-
terns, was not produced, and the stamps were not issued with the horizontal
lozenges of varnish.
The information on coloration of the stamps by period is taken from
the table by M. E. Vibert, which was attached to his write-up on these in
the "Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal", #11, 1 August 1927.

23rd Issue: 10 September 1916
As a result of the postal rate increase from 7 to 10 kopecks for private
letters, and from 14 to 20 kopecks for registered letters, the 7kop. and
14kop. values in both the 1909 and 1913 (Romanov) issues were typo-
graphically overprinted in black with "kop. 10 kop." and "k. 20 k." on
the 1909 issues, and "10" & "10" or "20" & "20" on the 1913 issues.
116. 10kop. -a) on 7kop. blue (#79) ................
-b) inverted overprint ... ..............
-c) double overprint ....................
-d) on 7kop. imperf., Rare ...............

38







-e) shifted overprint ....................
-f) pair, one stamp lacking overprint .......
117. 20kop. -a) on 14kop., blue and rose-carmine (#81) .
-b) inverted overprint ...................
118. 10kop. -a) on 7kop., dark brown (#93) ..........
-b) inverted overprint ...................
-c) double overprint ....................
-d) shifted overprint ....................
119. 20kop. -a) on 14kop., bluish green (#95) .........
-b) shifted overprint .................. ..



END OF THE EMPIRE: 2/15 March 1917
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT:
ENDING 25 OCTOBER/7 NOVEMBER 1917
This is a repetition of the 18th (1909) and 22nd (1915) issues, on
ordinary, unwatermarked white paper with vertical lozenges of varnish, but
imperforate. After the revolution the perforation machines in the State Print-
ing Office where the stamps were produced were found to be damaged.
120. Ikop. -a) yellow-orange (1917-1923) ...........
-b) dark yellow-orange (1917-1923) ......
-c) printed on the gummed side ...........
121. 2kop. -a) yellow-green (1917) ................
-b) dark green (1917-1923) .............
-c) green (1917-1923) .................
-d) gray-green (1917-1923) ..............
122. 3kop. -a) dark rose-red (1917) ................
-b) red (1917-1923) ...................
-c) bright red (1917-1923) ..............
-d) printed on gummed side ..............
123. 4kop. -a) rose-carmine (1917) ................
-b) red (1917-1922) ....... ............
-c) pale red (1917-1922) ...............
-d) raspberry red (1917-1923) ...........
124. 5kop. -a) brownish lilac (1917-1923) ...........
-b) pale brownish lilac (1917-1922) .......
-c) dark brownish lilac (1917-1923).......
125. 10kop. -a) dark blue (1917-1922) ..............
-b) indigo blue (1917) ..................
126. 15kop. -a) brownish lilac and light blue (1917-1922)
-b) dark brownish lilac and light blue
(1917-1922) ......................
-c) shifted center ................... ...
-d) inverted center ................... ..
127. 20kop. -a) blue and red (1917) ............. ...
-b) blue and bright red (1917) ............

39







-c) shifted background ..................
-d) background omitted .................
-e) printed on gummed side ..............
128. 25kop. -a) dark green and violet (1917) ..........
-b) light green and light violet (1917) ......
-c) printed on gummed side ..............
-d) shifted center ......................
129. 35kop. -a) red-brown and bright green (1917) .....
-b) red-lilac and dark green (1917) ........
-c) double center ......................
-d) shifted center ......................
-e) printed on gummed side ..............
130. 50kop. -a) violet and bright green (1917) .........
-b) red-violet and dark green (1917) .......
-c) red-brown and dark green (1917) ......
-d) shifted background ..................
-e) background omitted .................
131. 70kop. -a) rose-brown and brown-orange (1917) ...
-b) chocolate-brown and red-orange (1917)
-c) center printed on gummed side .........
132. 1Rub. -a) dark brown and orange (1917) ........
-b) dark brown and red-orange (1917) .....
-c) black-brown and red-orange (1917) ....
-d) center omitted ......................
-e) inverted center .....................
-f) shifted center ......................
-g) double center ......................
-h) inverted background .................
-i) shifted background ..................
-j) printed on gummed side ..............
-k) dark brown and light red-orange
(1918-1923) .....................
-1) black-brown and light red-orange
(1918-1923) ......................

HORIZONTAL LOZENGES OF VARNISH
-m) dark brown and light red-orange
(1918-1923) ......................
-n) inverted center ....................
-o) shifted center ......................
-p) inverted background .................
-q) proof: orange, black and green .........
133. 5Rub. -a) dark blue and light green, with light blue
oval (1917) ........................
-b) indigo-blue and light green, with light blue
oval (1917)........................
-c) shifted center ......................
-d) shifted background ..................

40







-e) yellow background (instead of green) ....
134. 10Rub. -a) bright red and yellow, with gray oval
(1917) .. .. .. ................
-b) raspberry-red, yellow, with gray oval
(1917) .........................
-c) shifted background ................
Beginning in 1918, the majority of stamps was issued with weak im-
pressions and poor embossing of the Imperial Arms in the center oval.
Counterfeits of the 10kop. (#125) are known. They were printed
abroad on gray, rough paper with thick, yellow, cracked gum and no loz-
enges of varnish in a faded blue color.
The 15kop. (#126) is found with a narrow space between the indi-
vidual cliches.
The colors of these stamps were taken from M. E. Vibert's table (at-
tached to his article), published in the "Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal",
#11, 1 August 1927.

25th Issue: 1917
Imperforate
A repetition of #'s 60-61 of the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. values, (1902),
but with a change in colors, on ordinary unwatermarked paper with vertical
lozenges of varnish, imperforate. This was due to the damage to the perfora-
tion machines. They were repaired that same year, 1917, and thereafter the
stamps were again issued perforated.
The 7Rub. stamps of 1917 were printed with a cliche having only one
frame surrounding the design (Type I), but in 1918, under Soviet rule, the
cliche was altered by adding a second frame (Type II). All imperforate
7Rub. values are of Type I.
135. 3R50kop. -a) copper-red and light green (1917) ....
-b) dark brown-red and green (1917) ....
136. 7Rub. -a) blue-green and rose (1917) Type I ....
-b) dark green and rose (1917) Type I ...
-c) shifted center ............... .. .
-d) shifted background ................
-e) printed on gummed side ............

Same Issue, 1917, Perf. 13V2
137. 3R50kop. -a) copper-red and light green (1917) ....
-b) dark brown-red and green (1917) ....
-c) shifted center ....................
-d) shifted background ................
-e) dark brown-red and light green
(1918-1923) ................. .
-f) dark brown-red and green (1918-1923)
-g) chestnut and green (1918-1923) .....
-h) as "g", perf. 12V2 in Perm' (1919),
Scarce . . . . . . .

41







HORIZONTAL LOZENGES OF VARNISH
-i) dark brown-red and light green
(1918-1923) ................
-j) dark brown-red and green (1918-1923)
-k) no lozenges of varnish ..............
138. 7Rub. -a) dark blue-green and rose (1917),
Type I ..........................
-b) "shaggy" perforation, Type I........
-c) doubly perforated horizontally, Type I
-d) perf. 121/2, Type I, Rare ...........
-e) dark green and rose (1918-1923),
Type II .........................
-f) dark green and light rose, (18-23), T. II
-g) as "e", perf. 122 in Perm' (1919),
Type II, Scarce ..................

HORIZONTAL LOZENGES OF VARNISH
-h) dark green and dark rose (1918-1923),
Type II .........................
-i) dark green and light rose (1918-1923),
Type II ......................
-j) center omitted ..................
-k) background omitted ...............
-1) inverted background ...............
Dimensions: 3R50kop.-252 x 30mm., 7Rub. (Type I)-24 x
29mm., 7Rub. (Type II)-252 x 30mm. The addition of the second frame
surrounding the design of the stamps was, apparently, for the purpose of
having the same dimensions for both denominations. Thus, the Type I 7Rub.
is a scarcer stamp, as it was in use for a short period (1917-1918), and it
must be priced higher than the Type II.
The stamps of this issue were printed typographically in two colors
and three stages. First, the background and design of one color was laid
down, followed by the surrounding frame and the center oval of a different
color, and finally, in the white space of the oval, the Imperial Arms with
posthorns and telegraph bolts were added.
Beginning in 1918, the subsequent printings underwent a degeneration
in quality due to the wear of the cliches. In addition, the embossing of the
Arms gradually grew so indistinct that it became invisible in the last printing,
while the Arms themselves became barely visible because of an "inking-in"
around the edges.
The lozenges of varnish on stamps of the first printing (1917) are
less evident than on the 1-, 5- or 10Rub. stamps, and subsequent printings
have imperceptible lozenges. On the 3R50kop. stamps of the last printing,
they are totally lacking.
This issue was also printed 50 stamps to a sheet (7x8), with six ac-
companying patterns of two intersecting angles, as were the 1-, 5- and
lORub. values which were printed at the same time. The patterns were
arranged between the stamps of the top and bottom rows, three patterns per

42







row. They are in the same colors as the background and design of the
stamps. Due to a paper shortage in 1918 under the Soviet government, the
cliches of the 3R50kop. and 7Rub. stamps were re-grouped in the same
manner as the 1Rub. (#88), i.e. 50 per sheet (10x5) printed horizontally
with horizontal lozenges of varnish on the stamps' surface, no patterns,
narrow vertical spaces between stamps (3 mm. instead of 32mm.) and
narrower sheet margins.
The perforations on the first prints of this issue were evenly and cleanly
executed, but gradually the perforations of successive issues became uneven
or "shaggy", sometimes amounting to no more than mere punctures. An
accidental but official perforation of 12/2 (1917) is very rare, while a simi-
lar one applied in Perm' (1919) is less so. The latter was a private, local
perforation and it is usually found to be uneven and shaggy. It was applied
apparently to imperforate sheets to facilitate removal of the stamps. A per-
foration applied privately in Tiflis is also known, measuring "8" pin-perf.
on the 2-, 5kop. and 1Rub. values (the last dark brown and red-orange),
(#'s 121, 124 and 132b). It is listed in the Gibbons catalog.


ENTIRE OF THE IMPERIAL POST
Entires (stamped envelopes, postcards, letter cards, money order forms,
wrappers, and letter cards with advertisements of 1898/99) of both the
Imperial Russian Post and the City Posts are described in detail and cata-
loged by Di. Ascher of Berlin in his two-part work entitled "Grosser-
Ganzsachen-Katalog", of 1360 pages in German. Part I was published in
1925, Part II in 1928. Listings and prices in German currency are given
for postal stationery of the entire world, including that of Imperial Russia
and the first Soviet issues up to 1927. (Dr. Siegfried Ascher, architect, was
the second chairman of the Berlin Society of Postal Stationery Collectors,
founded in 1901 and boasting about 400 members.)
Dr. Ascher's monumental work evidently supplied the Soviet Philatelic
Association (S.P.A.) with the information to list and describe the postal
stationery issues of both Imperial and Soviet Russia to 1927 in its 1928
catalog, "Postage Stamps and Stationery of Russia Proper", with illustrations
and prices in Russian currency.
Currently both catalogs are rare, and the material they contain is the
sole source for the study and description of postal stationery. This informa-
tion has been used, with some re-working, along with the prices from the
S.P.A. catalog (supplemented by prices from Ascher's work and given by
me in Russian currency) for the determination of the comparative scarcity
of this stationery, which has not since been cataloged.


STAMPED EMBOSSED ENVELOPES
1st Period (1848-1868), 7 issues
Paper: "Ropsha paper", from the State papermill in Ropsha, near St.
Petersburg. It may be brown-white, yellowish, grayish or bluish white, rough,
thick or very thick, thin or thinner, and also smooth and stiff. From 1863
on, the paper came from the State Printing Office (Eh.Z.G.B.); it may be

43







white, grayish, bluish or greenish white, smooth and stiff. Watermarks: A
two-headed eagle with posthorns in a rectangular frame over the entire front
of the envelope. The flaps, which comprise the back of the envelope, are cov-
ered with "wafer" (small square) watermarks. Three varieties of watermarks
are known: A) a large two-headed eagle within a rectangle (1848-1855
and 1862), B) a medium-sized two-headed eagle within an oval, the oval
situated within a rectangle, and C) the same eagle in an oval, but more
finely executed. Variety "B", issued in 1861-1862, has blunt side flaps, while
"C", issued in 1863, has sharpened side flaps. (Table II, illus. 6-8.) Indicia:
Circular, 27 2 -28mm. in diameter, with the coat-of-arms and posthorns em-
bossed and the appropriate inscriptions in the double circle: "10 kop: za
lot" ", "20 kop: za 2 lota", or "30 kop: za 3 lota" around the top. "1
kop: za konv." (1 kopeck for the envelope) is at the bottom. There are
three types of these indicia: 1) a two-headed eagle with a broad tail which
is connected with the claws, 2) the same eagle, but with a narrow tail
separate from the claws, and 3) the same, but with the design more finely
executed. (Tables II & III, illus. 3-5 and 2-5.) The cliches of the indicia
were engraved by Kirchner, and they were always printed on the upper flap
of the envelope, on its reverse side. Form of the envelopes: three different,
the side flaps 1) with truncated apexes, 2) with blunt apexes, or 3) shaped
like a pistol bullet, with truncated apexes. (Table II, illus. 9-11.) The flap
is ungummed. Manufacture of the envelopes and embossing of the indicia
were conducted at the Postal Department Printing Office until 1863, and
afterwards at the State Printing Office. During the preparation of the enve-
lopes, the upper flaps were sometimes inadvertently gummed, rather than
the lower ones. Such envelopes would fall into the typographic press back-
wards, causing the watermarks to appear in a normal and inverted fashion.
Besides this, the envelopes were printed on the obverse and reverse sides
of the paper, which caused the position of the eagle to vary, i.e. the scepter
would appear in either its left or right claw. Envelope dimensions: 8 differ-
ent according to the S.P.A. catalog: a) 136-38 x 106-07, b) 139-40 x
108-12, c) 141-44 x 114-16, d) 143-45 x 84-86, e) 134-36 x 84-86,
f) 120-22 x 79-80, g) 118-23 x 74-76, h) 113-16 x 70-73. (Five) dif-
ferent according to the Ascher catalog: a) 137 x 107, b) 142 x 115, c)
143 x 85, d) 135 x 85, and e) 118-21 x 70-80.

1st Issue: 1 December 1848
(Table II, illus. 6, 3, 9
Paper: "Ropsha", brown-white, yellowish-grayish white, rough, and
thick or very thick. Watermark: A) large two-headed eagle. Indicium: Type
I, eagle with wide tail. Envelope form: I.
1. 10kop. -a) black indicium, a) 136-38 x 106-07 .../250.-/ 12.-/
-b) gray-black ind., a) ................ /250.-/ 12.-/
-c) inverted watermark, a) ............./ -.-/ -.-/
2. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, b) 139-40 x 108-12 ... / 50.-/ 50.-/
-b) dark blue ind., b) ............... ./ 50.-/ 50.-/
-c) blackish blue ind., b) ............../ 50.-/ 50.-/
-d) dark greenish blue ind., b) ........../ 50.-/ 50.-/

44






3. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose ind., c) 141-44 x 114-16 / 10.-/ 20.-/
-b) carmine-red ind., c) ............... / 10.-/ 20.-/
-c) brownish lilac-red, c) ............../ 40.-/ -.-/
-d) inverted watermark, c) ............./ -.-/ -.-/
-e) inverted and doubled indicium, c) .. / -.-/ -.-/

2nd Issue: End of 1848
(Table II, illus. 6, 4, 9)
The paper, watermark and envelope form are the same as before. The
indicium is Type II, an eagle with a narrow tail separate from the claws.
4. 10kop. -a) black indicium, a) 136-38 x 106-07 ./ -.-/250.-/
-b) gray-black ind., a) ................ / -.-/250.-/
5. 20kop. -a) bright blue ind., b) 139-40 x 108-12 .. / 15.-/ 50.-/
-b) dark greenish blue ind., b) ........../ 40.-/ 50.-/
-c) dark blue ind., b) ................./ 40.- / 50.- /
-d) blackish blue ind., b) ........... .. / 40.-/ 50.-/
-e) inverted watermark, b) ............. /100.-/125.-/
6. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose ind., c) 141-44 x 114-16 / 10.-/150.-/

3rd Issue: Beginning of 1849
(Table H, illus. 6, 5, 9)
Paper, watermark and envelope form as before. Type III indicium,
eagle with narrow tail, design more finely executed.
7. 10kop. -a) black indicium, a) 136-38 x 106-07 ../ 12.-/ 50.-/
-b) grayish black ind., a) ............. ./ 12.-/ 50.-/
-c) inverted indicium, a) .............. / -.-/500.-/
-d) inverted watermark, a) ............/ -.-/ 40.-/
-e) watermark across, a) ............../ -.-/100.-/

4th Issue: December 1855
(Table II, illus. 6, 4, 5, 9)
Watermark: A) large eagle. Envelope form: I. Paper: "Ropsha", light
bluish or grayish white, thin or thinner. Indicia: 10kop.-Type III; 20kop.
-Type II. (In both cases the eagle has a narrow tail.)
8. 10kop. -a) black indicium, b) 139-40 x 108-12 ./ 5.-/ 25.-/
-b) grayish black ind., b) .............. / 5.-/ 25.-/
9. 20kop. -a) light blue ind., c) 141-44 x 114-16 ... / 75.-/ 75.-/
-b) light greenish blue ind., c) ........../ 75.-/ 75.-/
-c) inverted watermark, c) ............. /750.-/ -.-/
"-d) error: Type I indicium instead of
Type II, c) ..................... / 20.- / .- /

5th Issue: 1861
(Table II, illus. 7, 4, 5, 9)
Watermark: B) eagle in oval. Envelope form: I. Paper: "Ropsha",
yellowish white or grayish white, smooth, stiff. Indicia: 10kop.-Type III;
20- and 30kop.-Type II.

45







10. 10kop. -a) black indicium, b) 139-40 x 108-12 ./ 1.-/ 25.-/
-b) grayish black ind., b) ............../ 1.- / 25.- /
c) inverted watermark, b) ............. / 40.-/ 40.-/
-d) watermark across, b) .............. / 75.-/ 75.-/
-e) error: Type I indicium instead of
Type III, b) ...................../ .- / .- /
-f) ribbed-across paper .............../ -.-/ -.-/
11. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, c) 141-44 x 114-16 .. ./250.-/100.-/
-b) light blue ind., c) ................. /250.- /100.- /
-c) ultramarine ind., c) .............../ 75.- /125.- /
-d) inverted watermark, c) ............. /750.-/ -.-/
-e) error: Type I ind. instead of Type II,
c) ............................/ -.-/ ---/
12. 30kop. -a) brick red ind., c) 141-44 x 114-16 ... ./ -.-/ -.-/
-b) brownish red ind., c) ............../ 3.-/ -.-/
-c) inverted watermark, c) ............./ 75.-/ -.-/

6th Issue: December 1862
(Table II, illus. 6, 5, 11)
Paper: "Ropsha", yellowish white or grayish white, thin (made from
remainders of this paper). Indicium: Type III. Form of envelopes: III.
Watermark: A) large eagle.
13. 10kop. -a) black indicium, d) 143-45 x 84-86 / 60.-/ 30.-/
-b) grayish black ind., d) ............../ 60.- / 30.- /
Watermark: B) eagle in oval (Table II, illus. 7 & 5, 10, 11).
14. 10kop. -a) env. form-II, b) 139-40 x 108-12 ... / 5- 1.50/
-b) same, inverted watermark, b) ......./ 75.-/ 60.-/
-c) env. form-III, b) ................/ .-/ -.75/
-d) same, inverted watermark, b) ......../ 50.-/ 50.-/
-e) env. form-III, d) 143-45 x 84-86 ... / 2.-/ 1.-/
-f) same, inverted watermark, d) ......../ 60.-/ 60.-/

7th Issue: 1863
(Table II, illus. 8, 4 & 5, 9 & 11)
Paper: State Printing Office, white, grayish white, bluish white or green-
ish white, smooth, stiff. Watermark: C) finely-executed eagle in oval. In-
dicia: 10kop.-Type III; 20kop.-Type II (both with a narrow-tailed
eagle). Envelope form: 10kop.-Types I & III, 20kop.-Type I.
15. 10kop. -a) black indicium, I, b) 139-40 x 108-12 / 12.50/ 2.50/
-b) grayish black ind., I, b) ............/ 12.50/ 2.50/
-c) env. form III, e) 134-36 x 84-86 ...../ 15.-/ 5.-/
-d) same, f) 120-22 x 79-80 .........../ 12.50/ 2.50/
-e) same, h) 113-16 x 70-73 .......... ./ 10.-/ 2.50/
-f) same, g) 118-23 x 74-76 .........../ 4.-/ 1.25/
-g) same, inverted indicium, g) ........./ -.-/ -.-/
-h) same, with inverted watermark, g) ../ 50.-/ 50.-/
-i) same, diagonal watermark, g) ......../ 75.-/ 75.-/

46






16. 20kop. -a) bright blue indicium, I, c) .......... /100.-/ -.-/
-b) light blue ind., I, c) .............../100.-/ -.-/
-c) error: Type I ind., instead of Type
II, c) .......................... /200.- / -- /



2ND PERIOD (1868-1881), 6 ISSUES
Paper: State Printing Office (Eh.Z.G.B.), ordinary, smooth, yellowish
white. Watermark: none. Indicia: oval, on the front of the envelope in the
upper left or right corner. The cliches were engraved by Franz Kepler. Enve-
lope forms: 2 different-flaps either sharp or rounded. Envelope flap:
gummed. Envelope manufacture and printing of the indicia at the Eh.Z.G.B.
Dimensions: 4 different-I) according to the S.P.A. catalog: a) 140 x 60,
b) 115 x 75, c) 145 x 80, and d) 140 x 110. II) According to the Ascher
catalog: a) 140 x 58, b) 113 x 73, c) 145 x 81, and d) 139 x 113.


8th Issue: 1 December 1868
(Table III, illus. 6)
Paper: yellowish white, smooth, satin-like. Indicium: oval in the upper
left corner. Envelope form: pointed lower and side flaps.
17. 10kop. -a) brown indicium d) 140 x 110
(139 x 113) ..................../ 75.- / 12.50/
18. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, d) ................. / 12.50/ 75.-/
19. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose indicium, d) ..... ...../ 12.50/ 75.-/
Note: One may encounter envelopes with indicia similar to these, but with
somewhat larger numbers and slightly different in the relief design in the frame-
these are essays. The 10- and 20kop. envelopes are especially scarce. The 30kop.
envelopes were acquired from the Postal Administration by a St. Petersburg phi-
latelist and "put into circulation", i.e. addressed to various persons in the 1880's.


9th Issue: 1868
(Table II, illus. 6)
The same envelopes, with all flaps rounded.
20. 10kop. -a) brown indicium, d) 140 x 110 (139 x 113) /-.80/ -.20/
-b) ............ c) 145 x 80 (145 x 81) /2.-/ -.30/
-c) ............ a) 140 x 60 (140x 58) /4.-/ 5.-/
-d) ............ b) 115 x75 (113 x73) /4.-/ 5.-/
21. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, d) 140 x 110 (139 x 113) /4.-/30.-/
-b) ........... c) 145 x 80 (145 x 81) /8.-/40.-/
22. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose ind., d) ................ /2.15/35.-/
-b) .............. c) ................ /4.- /50.- /
Note: The smaller-size "a" and "b" envelopes for the 20- and 30kop. values
were never officially issued, because they were useless. (It wasn't possible to put
paper weighing 2 or 3 lots into such envelopes.) They fell into the hands of
collectors and dealers illegally.

47







10th Issue: 1872
(Table III, illus. 10)
The same envelopes with all flaps rounded, but with the oval indicium
in the upper right corner.
23. 10kop. -a) brown indicium, d) 140 x 110 (139 x 113) /1.25/ -.25/
-b) ............ c) 145 x 80 (145 x 81) /4.-/ -.40/
-c) ............ a) 140 x 60 (140 x 58) /2.25/ 3.-/
-d) ............ b) 115 x 75 (113 x73) /2.25/ 3.-/
24. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, d) ................... /1.25/20.- /
-b) ........... c) ................... /2.- /25.- /
25. 30kop. -a) carmine-rose ind., d) ................ /2.50/25.-/
-b) .............. c) ................ /1.75/30.- /

11th Issue: 1875
(Table III, illus. 10, 11)
The same envelopes with all flaps rounded, but with the oval indicium
in the upper right corner, slightly changed. Because of the postal rate reduc-
tion for domestic correspondence from 10 kopecks to 8 kopecks, 8kop.
envelopes were issued.
26. 8kop. -a) gray indicium, d) 140 x 110 (139 x 113) /-.45/ -.20/
-b) ........... c) 145 x 80 (145 x 81) /1.-/ -.20/
-c) ........... a) 140 x 60 (140 x 58) /1.75/12.50/
-d) ........... b) 115 x 75 (113 x 73) /1.75/12.55/
27. 10kop. -a) brown indicium, d) ................ /-.50/ 2.50/
-b) ............ c) ................ /2.50/ 4.- /
28. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, d) ................... /1.50/10.- /
-b) ........... c) ................... /2.- /12.50/
Note: Those prices for cancelled 20- and 30kop. envelopes of the preceding
four issues (8-11) apply only to those used in the period of their circulation,
1868-1875. In the 1880's, the Postal Branch Offices were allowed to sell off their
remainders from previous issues, and therefore prices for envelopes with 1880's
cancellations are considerably less.

12th Issue: 1879
(Table III, illus. 12)
Due to the further lowering of the postal rate for domestic correspond-
ence from 8 kopecks to 7 kopecks, envelopes of the latter value were issued,
with a gray indicium. After the assassination of Emperor Alexander II in
1881, they were issued with a mourning-black indicium. The envelopes are
the same as those of the preceding issue, with an oval indicium in the upper
right corner.
29. 7kop. -a) gray or black ind., d) 140 x 110 (139 x 113) /-.45/-.10/
-b) ............. c) 145 x 80 (145 x 81) /-.45/-.10/
-c) ............. a) 140 x 60 (140 x58) /-.45/-.50/
-d) ............. b) 115x75 (113x73) /-. /-.50/
-e) with two indicia ..................... /-.- /-.- /
-f) on diagonally-ribbed paper ............. /-.-/-.-/

48






13th Issue: 1880/81
(Table III, illus. 16-18)
Provisionals-In connection with the lowering of the postal rate, the
remaining envelopes of the 1872 and 1875 issues were surcharged in red
with the inscription "tsena 7 kop" (price, 7 kopecks) in a frame. The top
of the surcharge obscures the former denomination.
30. 7/10kop. -a) brown indicium ('72), d) 140x 110 (139x 113)
/15.-/100.-/
31. 7/ 8kop. -a) gray indicium ('75), d) ..................
/ -.10/ 1.25/
-b) .................. c) 145x80 (145 x 81)
/ -.40/ 1.-/
-c) .................. a) 140x60 (140 x 58)
/ 6.-/ 25.-/
-d) .................. b) 115x75 (113 x73)
/ 6.-/ 25.-/
32. 7/lOkop. -a) brown indicium ('75), d) ..................
/ -.40/ 1.50/
-b ) . . . . c ) . . . . .
/ -.15/ 1.-/
Note I: One may encounter 20kop. envelopes with the 7kop. surcharge
('75)-these were never officially issued. A St. Petersburg collector purchased
100 of these at 20.5 kopecks each and then put them into circulation. This also
happened with the 30kop. essays of 1868. The remaining envelopes came into the
hands of a well-known Berlin stamp firm in 1912.
Note II: There are some counterfeit surcharges on the 10kop. envelopes
('72) and on others as well. The surcharges on these were never officially
produced.


THIRD PERIOD (1883-1917), 7 Issues
Paper: Eh.Z.G.B., yellowish suede color, or gray-blue. Watermark:
light paired zig-zag lines extending over the entire envelope. Indicium: a
vertical rectangle (in some cases with corners "cut out") with the Imperial
Arms or portraits of rulers, always in the upper right corner. Envelope
forms: 2 different-1) flaps pointed, or 2) rounded. Flap: gummed. Manu-
facture of the envelopes and embossing of the indicia-at the Eh.Z.G.B.
Envelope dimensions: 8 different.
I) S.P.A. catalog: a) 140 x 57 b) 113 x 73 c) 143 x 81 d) 139 x 111
e) 145 x 60 f) 114 x 83 g) 144 x 120 h) 95 x 70.
II) Ascher catalog: a) 140 x 58 b) 113 x 73 c) 145 x 81 d) 139 x 113
e) 146 x 60 f) 115 x 80 g) 145 x 120.

14th Issue: 1883
(Table III, type of illus. 22 & 15)
Paper: yellowish (7kop.), or light gray-blue (14kop.). Flaps are of
two types. The indicia have posthoms without thunderbolts.

49






33. 7kop. -a) blue indicium, g) 144 x 120 (145 x 120) /-.15/-.10/
-b) ........... d) 139 x 111 (139 x 113) /-.15/-.10/
-c) ........... c) 143 x81 (145x 81) /-.15/-.10/
-d) ........... b) 113 x73 (113 x73) /-.15/-.20/
-e) ........... e) 145 x60 (146 x 60) /4.-/2.50/
-f) ........... a) 140x57 (140 x 58) /-.15/-.25/
-g) ........... f) 114 x 83 (115 x 80) /-.50/-.65/
34. 14kop. -a) blue indicium, d) .................. /-.40/-.15/
-b) ........... c) .................. /-.40/-.15/

15th Issue: 1889/90
(Table III, illus. 22-23, 20)
Paper: yellowish (7- and 10kop.), or gray-blue (20kop.). Flaps are
of two types. The indicia have both posthorns and telegraph bolts.
35. 7kop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................. /-.10/-.20/
-b) ........... c) .................... /-.10/-.20/
-c) ........... e) .................... /-.15/-.30/
-d) .......... f) ......... ......... /-.15/-.30/
-e) ........... h) (95 x70) ............ /3.- /-.- /
36. lOkop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................... /-.10/-.20/
-b) ........... c) ......... ........ /-.10/-.20/
37. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................... /-.15/-.30/
-b) ........... c) .................... /-.15/-.30/

16th Issue: 1907
(Table III, illus. 22-23, 15, 20)
Paper: yellowish (7- and 10kop.), or gray-blue (14- and 20kop.). A
new, wide flap.
38. 7kop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................. / 1.- / 1.50/
-b) ........... c) .................. / 1.- / 1.50/
39. lOkop. -a) blue indicium, g) ............... .. / 1.-/ 1.50/
-b) ........... c) .................. / 1.- / 1.50/
40. 14kop. -a) blue indicium, g) . ..... . /25.- /25.- /
-b) ........... c) .................. /25.- /25.- /
41. 20kop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................. / 2.50/ 3.- /
-b) ........... c) .................. / 2.50/ 3.- /

17th Issue: 1911
(Table III, illus. 23)
Issued for the purpose of utilizing the remainders of the 1889/1890
issue-a black "7kop." diagonal surcharge on the 10kop. envelope. (#36)
42. 7/10kop. -a) blue indicium, c) 143 x 81 (145 x 81) /-.15/-.10/

18th Issue: 1913
The "Romanov Jubilee" issue, marking the 300th anniversary of the
Romanov Dynasty, with portraits of Emperors (and an Empress): 3kop.-
Alexander III, 7- and 10kop.-Nicholas II, 14kop.-Catherine II, 20kop.
-Alexander I. The 3kop. was for the City Post.

50






43. 7kop. -a) brown indicium, g) 144 x 120 (145 x 120) /-.40/-.25/
-b) ............ c) 143x81 (145x81) /-.10/-.25/
44. lOkop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................... /-.50/-.50/
-b) ........... c) .................... /-.50/-.50/
45. 14kop. -a) bluish green indicium, g) .............. /-.15/-.25/
-b) ................. c) .............. /-.15/-.25/
46. 20kop. -a) olive-green indicium, g) .............. /-.20/-.75/
-b) ................. c) .............. /-.25/-.75/

19th Issue: 1915
(Table III, illus. 22-23)
A repetition of the 1907 issue, but the 7- and 10kop. are on gray-blue
paper.
47. 7kop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................... /-.15/-.25/
-b) ........... c) .................... /-.25/-.40/
48. lOkop. -a) blue indicium, g) .................... /-.30/-.25/
-b) ........... c) .................... /-.20/-.30/

20th Issue: 1916
(Table III, illus. 22 & 15)
An increase in postal rates due to the war (1914-1918) prompted the
surcharging of the 7- and lOkop. values with "10 k. 10" and "20 k. 20"
respectively, in black.
49. 10/ 7kop. -a) blue ind. (1915), g) ............ /-.10/-.50/
-b) ............. c) ............... /-.25/-.50/
50. 20/14kop. -a) blue ind. (1907), g) ............... /-.10/-.50/
-b) .............. c) ............... /-.25/-.50/
51. 10/ 7kop. -a) brown ind. (1913), g) ............ /-.10/-.50/
-b) ................. c) ............ /-.10/-.50/
52. 20/14kop. -a) blue-green ind. (1913), g) ......... /-.20/-.50/
-b) ................... c) ......... /-.20/-.50/


POSTCARDS (OTKRYTKI)
Postcards were used for local, domestic and international correspon-
dence, and were either ordinary (single) or reply-card (double). The dimen-
sions according to Ascher's catalog are: a) 128 x 92, b) 123 x 88, and
c) 140 x 90. The S.P.A. catalog lists them only as 125-28 x 90-95mm.

1st Issue: 1 January 1872
(Table IV, type of illus. 2)
Paper: gray-white, thick (thin cardboard quality). Design: a wide
frame comprised of a network of curved, intersecting colored lines (gil'-
oshirovannaya) on the front, the Imperial Arms with posthorns in the upper
left corner, and a dotted rectangle for the placement of a stamp in the upper
right. Inscriptions: "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" in one line at the top, and
rules and instructions at the bottom, on one side, and on the back of the

51







card. The text is all in black. Card dimensions: 125-28 x 90-95 (S.P.A.),
or 128 x 92 (Ascher).
1. -a) no indicium, black text, a) 128 x 92 ........./-.-/-.-/
Note: In each of the following issues, postcards without indicia were also
printed.
2nd Issue: 1 May 1872
(Table IV, illus. 2)
Paper: same. Design: same, but with an indicium in the upper right
corner. The indicium is an egg-shaped oval, containing the Imperial Arms
and posthorns in the center, the statement of value "pyat' kopejk za pis'mo"
(5 kopecks per card) in the space surrounding the Arms, and a "5" within
a "medallion". Inscriptions: "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" and "INOGOROD-
NOE" in two lines at the top, plus the rules and instructions at the bottom,
to one side, and on the reverse. The text is entirely in green, of varying
shades. Dimensions: 128 x 92mm.
2. 5kop. -a) green indicium and text, a) 128 x 92 ...... /-.15/-.20/
-b) no period after the instructions at left, a) .../1.50/1.50/

3rd Issue: 1 April 1875
(Table IV, illus. 3)
A repetition of the preceding issue, but in a lower denomination.
3. 4kop. -a) light blue-green indicium and text, a) ......./-.15/-.15/
-b) no period after the instructions at left, a) ./-./-.-

4th Issue: 1876
(Table IV, illus. 3)
A repetition of the 3rd issue, but with the addition of "i za granitsu"
(and abroad) to the first instruction at the bottom.
4. 4kop. -a) light blue-green indicium and text, a) 128 x 92 /-.25/-.15/
-b) no period after instructions at left, a) ..... /2.50/2.-/
-c) 2nd instruction on reverse lacking the 2nd
letter, a) ............................ /4.-/3.-/
-d) text on reverse inverted, a) ............. /-.-/-.-/

5th Issue: 1 April 1879
(Table IV, illus. 4)
Paper: yellowish gray suede color, thin cardboard. New design: a
narrow, double frame with ornamented corners, the Imperial Arms with
posthorns in the upper left corner, and the 3kop. indicium without thunder-
bolts in the upper right corner. Inscriptions: "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" in one
line at the top, and the instructions in two lines at the bottom. There are no
instructions on the left side. Text is all in black. New dimensions: b) 123 x
88mm.
5. 3kop. -a) black indicium and text, b) 123 x 88 ..... /-.10/-.05/
Note: The postcards of this issue and all succeeding ones were used for
both local and domestic correspondence.

52






"6th Issue: April 1884
(Table IV, illus. 7)
Paper: yellowish gray suede color. New design: no frame, the Imperial
Arms without posthorns in the upper left corner, and the 3kop. indicium
without thunderbolts in the upper right corner. Inscriptions: "OTKRYTOE
PIS'MO" in one line at the top, and two lines of instructions at the bottom.
The indicium design is carmine, while the Imperial Arms and text are in
black. Dimensions: 128 x 92mm.
6. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, a) 128 x 92 .. /-.10/-.03/

7th Issue: June 1886
(Table IV, illus. 6)
The first postcards to be issued both I) single, and II) double, for
reply-paid. Paper and design are the same as those of the 6 preceding issues,
with the exception that the 3kop. indicium has thunderbolts. The inscriptions
are in Russian and French-I) in three lines, with "VSEMIRNYJ POCh-
TOVYJ SOYuZ. ROSSIYa" (Universal Postal Union. Russia) and the
equivalent in French, followed by "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" in Russian and
(Carte Postale) in French, or II) in four lines, with "s oplachennym ot-
vetom" (reply-paid) in Russian and (avec response payee) in French. One
line of instructions in two languages is at the bottom. The indicium design
is carmine, and the Imperial Arms and text are black. The dimensions are
enlarged-c) 140 x 90mm.
7. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, I) c) 140 x 90 /-.05/-.03/
8. 3-3kop. -a) carmine ind., black text, II) c) ......... /-.10/-.25/
-b) without accent sign over the first "e" in
"payee" .............. ........ /-.-/-.-/

8th Issue: July 1889
(Table IV, illus. 5)
Postcard is of the 1884 type. Inscriptions in Russian: I) "OTKRY-
TOE PIS'MO" in one line, or II) "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" and "s op-
lachennym otvetom" in two lines. The instructions are in one line at the
bottom. The indicium design is carmine, and the Arms and text are black.
Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
9. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, I) c) 140 x 90 /-.05/-.03/
10. 3-3kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, II) c) ..... /-.10/-.25/

9th Issue: July 1889
(Table IV, illus. 8)
Due to an increase in postal rates for international mail on 1/13 April
1889, (see postage stamps, 11th issue), postcards of the 1886 type were
issued, with the same inscriptions and designs, but with a 4kop. indicium
for cards mailed to foreign destinations. The indicium is carmine, and the
Arms and text are black. Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
11. 4kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, I) c) 140 x 90 /-.10/-.03/
12. 4-4kop. -a) carmine indicium, black text, II) c) ..... /-.10/-.25/

53






10th Issue: March 1890
(Table IV, illus. 5 & 8)
Postcards: A) for local or domestic mail, or B) for international mail.
Type of 1889, i.e. the same paper, inscriptions and design, but with the text
entirely in red. Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
13. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium, red text, c) 140 x 90 .... /-.03/-.03/
14. 3-3kop. -a) top line-56mm., c) ................ /-.10/-.15/
-b) top line-54mm., (1900) c) .......... /-.30/-.60/
15. 4kop. -a) carmine indicium, red text, c) ............ /-.05/-.03/
16. 4-4kop. -a) top line-43mm., c) ................ /-.10/-.20/
-b) top line-42mm., (1900) c) .......... /-.50/1.-/
Note: #'s 13-14 have the following varieties: from 94 to 97mm. between
the Arms and the indicium, and from 60 to 61mm. in the length of the
instructions.

11th Issue: 1906
New postcard type. Paper: yellowish buff color. New design: in the
upper left corner, the Arms are framed by laurel leaves, and in the upper
right corner the indicium with coat-of-Arms is on a white background.
Inscriptions: A) for local and domestic cards, the text is entirely in Russian
in one or two lines-"OTKRYTOE PIS'MO" and "s oplachennym otve-
tom". For one-line cards (I), the instructions are 66mm. long. For two-line
cards (II, reply-paid), they are 642mm. long (1907). The cards intended
for international mail are in Russian and French, of 4 or 5 lines. They are
like the 1886 type. The inscriptions are 192mm. high for (I), and 19mm.
for (II) (1907). The design and text are both carmine. Dimensions: c)
140 x 90mm.
17. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium and text, I) 66mm., c) /-.05/-.03/
-b) ................... II) 64/2mm., c) /-.15/-.15/
18. 3-3kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, II) .. (1907), c) .. /-.15/-.45/
19. 4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, I) 192mm., c) .... /-.15/-.20/
-b) ................. II) 19mm., (1907), c) /-.10/-.03/
20. 4-4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, II) ... (1907), c) /-.20/-.50/
Note: Both issues I (1906) and II (1907) of #17 also differ in the height
of the letters in the inscription. #17 is also known on thin cardboard.

12th Issue: 1909
A repetition of the preceding issue, with the same paper, color, design
and inscriptions, but with "POChTOVAYa KARTOChKA" substituted
for "OTKRYTOE PIS'MO". These postcards are known in several print-
ings, which differ in the dotted lines-1) wide, 2cm., 23 dots 2) narrow,
2cm., 31 dots, and 3) mixed. In addition, the 4kop. cards (#23) differ
in the length of the inscription on the 3rd line-a) 3512mm., and b) 41mm.
The design and text are both carmine. Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
21. 3kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, I) wide, 23 dots, c) .. /-.10/-.15/
-b) ................. II) narrow, 31 d., c) /-.05/-.01/
-c) ................. III) mixed,c) ...... /-.- /-.

54






22. 3-3kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, I) ....... c) .... /-.25/-.75/
-b) ................. II) ...... c) .... /-.10/-.30/
-c) ................. III) ..... c) .... /-.15/-.45/
23. 4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, I) a) 3512mm., c) ... /-.20/-.15/
-b) ................ I ) 41mm.,c) ... /- /-.-
-c) ................ II) a) 35/2mm.,c) .. /-.10/-.03/
-d) ................ II) b) 41mm.,c) .. /-.20/-.10/
-e) ................ III) a) ....... c) .. /-.15/-.05/
-f) ................ III) b) ....... c) .. /-.- /-.- /
24. 4-4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, I) ......... c) /-.30/-.90/
-b) ................. II) ........ c) .. /-.20/-.60/
-c) ................. III) ....... c) .. /-.- /-.- /
Note: Still other varieties exist in the distance between the indicium and
the Arms (95/2-9612mm.), and also in the size of the print in #'s 23-24 (19-
19/2mm.). The first printings of this issue were produced on rough cardboard,
then on smooth, and later again on rough. These postcards were printed again
after the "Romanov" issue of 1913.


13th Issue: 1913
The "Romanov" jubilee issue, with portraits of Emperors: Alexander
III on the 3kop., and Peter I on the 4kop. The paper, inscriptions and Arms
are unchanged from the preceding issue. Both the design and text are car-
mine. Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
25. 3kop. -a) carmine indicium and text, c) 140 x 90 .... /-.05/-.03/
26. 3-3kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, c) .............. /-.10/-.25/
27. 4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, c) ............... /-.05/-.01/
28. 4-4kop. -a) carmine ind. and text, c) .............. /-.15/-.45/


Unissued Printing: 1917
The "Soldier Postcards" with the inscription "Dejstvuyushchaya Ar-
miya" (Army in the Field). Paper: yellowish suede color. Dimensions: 140
x 90mm.
28 2. 2kop. -a) green indicium, c) 140 x 90 ............ /-.-/-.-/


14th Issue: 1917
The postcards of the "Provisional Government", issued after the Revo-
lution. New design: the coats-of-arms on the indicium and in the upper left
corner are without crowns, scepters and orbs. The arms in the upper left
also lack the frame of laurel leaves. Paper: light or dark buff, or brown.
The inscription "Pochtovaya Kartochka" and the designs are violet-brown.
Dimensions: c) 140 x 90mm.
29. 5kop. -a) violet-brown ind. and text, c) 140 x 90 ... /-.05/-.05/
30. 5-5kop. -a) violet-brown ind. and text, c) .......... /-.15/-.60/
Note: Variety of #29-in the word "Kartochka" the letter "ch" has a
broken base.

55






LETTER CARDS (SEKRETKI)
These are cards folded in half with perforations on three sides. The
perforations are of two types: A) with rounded corners, or B) with squared
corners. The denominations correspond to those of the stamped envelopes.
Dimensions for all issues: 140 x 83mm.

1st Issue: 1890
(Table IV, illus. 10 & 11)
Paper: yellowish for the 7kop. and gray for the 10kop. Inscription:
"ZAKRYTOE PIS'MO". The Arms are in the upper left corner and the
indicium is in the upper right. Perforation lines: a) 14 x 14, b) 12 x 12,
or c) 14 x 12, mixed.
1. 7kop. -a) blue indicium and text, A) b) 12 x 12 .... /1.50/1.50/
-b) ................. B) b) .......... /-.20/-.40/
2. 10kop. -a) blue indicium and text, A) a) 14 x 14 .... /-.50/-.75/
-b) ............... .. A) b) .......... /-.50/-.75/
-c) ................. A) c) 14x12 .... /1.50/2.- /
-d) Russian & French text, A) b) .......... /-.10/-.10/
-e) ................. B) b) .......... /-.30/-.50/

2nd Issue: 1909
Paper: yellowish. Inscription: "PIS'MO". The Imperial Arms are situ-
ated in a rectangular frame of leaves. The background of dots in the indicium
is absent. Perforation: B) with squared corners.
3. 7kop. -a) blue indicium and text, B) b) 12 x 12 .... /-.15/-.25/

3rd Issue: 1913
The "Romanov" jubilee issue. Paper: light bluish gray. Inscription:
"PIS'MO". The laurel-leaf-framed Arms, the inscription and the indicium
with Emperor Nicholas II portrayed are all one color.
4. 7kop. -a) lilac indicium and text, B) b) 12 x 12 .... /-.25/-.10/
5. 10kop. -a) blue indicium and text, B) b) .......... /-.50/-.15/

4th Issue: 1914/1915
Type of 1909 issue, but with light bluish gray paper.
6. 7kop. -a) blue indicium and text, B) b) 12 x 12 .. /-.20/-.20/
7. 10kop. -a) blue indicium and text, B) b) ......... /-.50/-.40/

5th Issue: 1916
Due to the rate increase for domestic correspondence, the 7kop. was
horizontally surcharged in black with "k. 10 k." at the bottom.
8. 10/7kop. -a) blue indicium and text, B) b) 12 x 12 /-.20/-.20-

6th Issue: 1916
A reply-paid (double) letter card. Dimensions: 174 x 106mm. Paper:
light bluish gray. This issue was never in use.
9. 10-10kop. -a) blue indicium and text, b) 174 x 106 ... /-.-/-.-/

56







MONEY ORDERS (DENEZhNYE PEREVODY)
Money order forms printed on thin cardboard. Inscriptions: "Perevod"
and others. The Imperial Arms are situated in the upper left corner, while
the indicium is in the upper right. Dimensions: a) 180 x 130, and b) 205
x 140mm.

1st Issue: 1896
A narrow detachable notification-of-receipt coupon. Dimensions: a.
1. 15kop. -a) blue indicium and dotted line, a) 180 x 130 /-.40/1.25/

2nd Issue: 1898/99
A wide detachable coupon. Dimensions: b.
2. 15kop. -a) blue indicium and dotted line, b) 205 x 140 /-.50/-.75/
3. 25kop. -a) carmine ind. and dotted line, b) ........ /-.75/1.25/

3rd Issue: 1901
A repetition of the preceding issue, but with instructions at the lower
right in eight words. Dotted line types: I) wide, 25 dots in 2cm., and II)
narrow, 31 dots in 2cm.
4. 15kop. -a) blue indicium, red dotted line, b) I) 25 dots /-.-/-.-/
-b) ....................... b) II) 31 dots /-.- /-.- /
-c) blue indicium and dotted line, b) I) ...... /-.25/-.65/
-d) ....................... b) II) ..... /-.30/-.75/
5. 25kop. -a) carmine indicium and dotted line, b) I) /-.35/1.-/
-b) .......................... b) II) .. /-.45/1.15/
Note: Prices listed above are according to the Ascher catalog. Is #1 in the
S.P.A. catalog with a red dotted line?


WRAPPERS (BANDEROLI)
Wrapper forms (wrapping paper) for mailing printed matter, such as
newspapers, magazines, etc. lkop. indicium for local mail and 2kop. for
domestic mail. Dimensions: a) 314 x 80, b) 375 x 135, c) 440 x 177,
d) 408 x 134, and e) 444 x 177. According to Ascher: a) 376 x 88,
b) 376 x 134, and c) 444 x 177.

1st Issue: 1890
Paper: yellowish gray of varying tones, matte and shiny.
1. Ikop. -a) orange indicium (City Post), a) 376 x 88 .. /-.05/-.10/
2. 2kop. -a) green indicium (domestic mail), b) 376x134 /-.10/-.10/
-b) ......................... c) 444x177 /-.10/-.20/

2nd Issue: 1891
The same paper and dimensions as those of the preceding issue, but
with instructions in three lines over the indicium.
3. Ikop. -a) orange indicium and text, a) ............ /-.03/-.01/
4. 2kop. -a) green indicium and text, b) ............. /-.10/-.05/
-b) .................. c) ............. /-.05/-.01/

57







3rd Issue: 1913
The "Romanov" jubilee issue, with portraits of Emperors.
5. Ikop. -a) orange indicium (Peter I), a) ........... /-.05/-.05/
6. 2kop. -a) green indicium (Alexander II), b) ....... /-.25/-.25/
-b) ......................... c) ....... /-.10/-.10/
Note: Dimensions and prices in Russian currency are according to the
Ascher catalog.

LETTER CARDS WITH ADVERTISEMENTS
The Head Office in charge of charity cards for the benefit of orphanages
under the Administration for the Institutes of Empress Marie, in St. Peters-
burg, issued letter card forms with the advertisements of various commercial
firms. The forms were printed in series of 3,000 with indicia of 5kop. for
local and 7kop. for domestic letters. They sold for 4 and 5 kopecks, respec-
tively, the difference being covered by the firms. Dimensions: 150 x 115mm.

1st Issue: 1898
(Table V, illus. 1)
Five series of 3,000 cards each were put out, with St. Petersburg adver-
tisements. The indicium design is that of the 1889 stamped envelopes.
1. 7kop. -a) blue indicium and text, St. Petersburg ....... /5.-/3.75/

2nd Issue: 1898/99
Ten series were printed for local mail with St. Petersburg and Moscow
advertisements, and 130 series for domestic mail with St. Petersburg, Mos-
cow, Warsaw, Tiflis, Kazan' and Kiev advertisements. The indicium design
is the same as on the 1907 stamped envelopes.
2. 5kop. -a) lilac indicium, St. Petersburg and Moscow .. /1.-/1.50/
3. 7kop. -a) blue indicium, St. Petersburg and Moscow /-.50/-.75/
-b) ........... Warsaw and Tiflis ......... /-.75/1.-/
-c) ........... Kazan' and Kiev .......... /5.-/8.-/
Note: These cards were withdrawn in 1901. For a detailed description of
the cards, see K. K. Schmidt's article in "Rossica" #37.

POSTMARKS
The purpose of postmarks, as is known, is two-fold. First, by means of
the postmark a postage stamp, having already served as prepayment of
postage, must be cancelled, i.e. rendered unserviceable for further use.
This is termed a cancellation mark.
Second, postmarks placed on a letter must, as documentation, confirm
its dispatch or "postal handling" by showing the time and place of its mail-
ing, as proof should the need later arise. These are postal handling marks
(datestamps), which are in turn divided further into dispatch marks, (or
markings applied when the letter is accepted at its point of dispatch), and
arrival markings, (applied at its destination.)
At first, when the volume of correspondence was small, dispatch and
arrival markings were ordinarily applied to the letters, but the additional

58







inscriptions "otpravleno" and "polucheno" were contained within the mark-
ings together with the date and placename. Later both of these inscriptions
disappeared from within the postmarks, and finally the use of the arrival
stamp was halted altogether, with the objective of easing and simplifying
postal service. Only the dispatch mark remained, and it has been preserved
to the present day.
Many varieties of forms and types of postmarks were in existence, and
they are distinguished by:
I) form-1) straight-line, unframed inscriptions, 2) rectangular, 3) oval,
4) circular, 5) diamond-shaped, and 6) octagonal.
II) dimensions-three sizes A) large, B) medium, and C) small.
III) inscriptions in various languages-1) Russian, 2) German, 3)
French, 4) Polish, 5) Russian and German, and 6) Russian and Polish,
with designation of a) place and date of dispatch, or b) only the place of
dispatch, with no date.
IV) color of ink-1) black, 2) red, 3) blue, 4) green, and 5) violet.
V) their intended use-1) cancellation, or 2) postal handling.
VI) period-1) early postmarks (handstruck stamps) of the first, or pre-
adhesive era, and 2) postmarks (datestamps) of the second, or adhesive era.

Postmark dimensions:
Rectangular Oval Circular
A) Large Over 45mm. long Over 40mm. wide Over 30mm. diameter
B) Medium 30-45mm. long 25-40mm. wide 25-30mm. diameter
C) Small Less than 30mm. Less than 25mm. Less than 25mm.
The sizes of the straight-line, unframed postmarks are determined by
the script, depending upon the height of the characters. A) large, over 5mm.
high, B) medium, 3-5mm., and C) small, under 3mm.
Diamond-shaped postmarks are known in two sizes-1) 38 x 24mm.
(St. Petersburg, 1856-1858), and 2) 37 x 27mm. (Odessa, 1859-1866).
These are evidently Port postmarks, and were in use for a short time. They
are encountered on letters addressed to overseas destinations, and that is
why the names of the cities are in French.

Early Postmarks
"Straight-line"
The first Russian postmarks were straight-line, and they are encoun-
tered (on covers) from the end of the 18th century with only the name of
the city and no date. They were, evidently, introduced during the Postal
Reforms in the reign of Catherine II, in 1782. A postmark with the inscrip-
tion "St. Petersbourg" in French (without frame) on a letter dated 4 Feb-
ruary 1788 and addressed from St. Petersburg to Bordeaux is known (from
the collection of Dr. L. S. Snegirev).
These postmarks are found: 1) with the inscription (placename and
date) in 1, 2 or 3 lines, 2) with the additional inscriptions "otpravleno"
and "polucheno" ("sent" and "received"), 3) in Russian, French, German,
and also Polish (see Kingdom of Poland), 4) in black, red, blue, and
green, 5) used as handstruck stamps on letters, and also for cancelling
postage stamps from 1858 to 1890 (such a cancel, in two lines, is known

59







on a stamp with posthorns and thunderbolts, 1889), 6) in various dimen-
sions of print, distinguished by the height of the letters, which may be
divided into three categories-A) large, with letters in excess of 5mm., B)
medium, 3-5mm., and C) small, with small print less than 3mm. high.

Examples of straight-line postmarks of 1 line:

No. Letters Placename Date of letter Inscription Table VI

1. 4 MM. St. Petersbourg 1788, 1820 rr. no (cpaHy3cKH. .....
2. 3 "" MocKBa. 1801 r .. .....
3. 5 "" Reval. 1805 r..... no HMeLKH. .....
4. 6" Riga 1807 r..... HO HnMeKH. ...
5. 3 "" St. Petersbourg 1809, 1814 rr. no PapaHuy3CKM. p. 2....
6. 6 "" Moscou. 1821, 1826 rr. no C)paHy3c. .....
7. 8 "" Narva. ..... no HtMeICKH. p. 1....
8. 5 "" HegApyc-. 1854 r ..... ..... p. 3 ....
9. 6% Moisekill. 1858 r..... no HtMeiqKH. p. 5.....
10. 5 "" MIuTaa. ". .... ..... p. 8. .
11. 4 "" BepAuseBs "(. ...
12. 3 "" CapaHCKi. .....


Note: No. 9 has an inscription in ink below, "18. 9/10. 58". No. 11 has the
inscription "Berdichev" in manuscript.

Examples of straight-line postmarks of two lines:

No. Letters Top line Lower line Table VI

1. 2 MM. C. fIeTep6yprs. 8 HoM6. 1831.
2. 2" Mapiynoji. 29 IOHI 1839. .....
3. 3%6"" Moscou. 1839 Novembre 9. ....
4. 2" Mapiynojsi. 6 OeBpaau 1850. p. 13....
5. 3" KieB1,. 19 Anptin 1852. p. 14....
6. 6 6"" MocKBa. 1852 Main 1. p. 6.....
7. 4 "" Pnra. 23 Map. 1850. p. 4.....
8. 4 Rujen Post. .. Maerz 58. p. 10....
9. 3% JHHa6yprb. 25 Man 1858. p. 11....
10. 4 "" HapBa oTnpaB: 17 Ihonj 1859. p. 7.....
11. 2 "" Ho IoOHHoe BoJi. ry6. 21 )eKa6pA 1858 r. p. 15....
12. 3MM. JIn6aBa. 8 CeHTM6pA 1860 ....
13. 3 "" JAHHa6yprb. 8 CeHTA6pM 1860. p. 16....
14. 2 "" CT. EnmIaBeTHHO OT. Iioja 4 aHa 1866. ....
15. 2 "" CT. JIceHKH Tyji. ry6. Anptji 24 A. 1871. T. XII, p. 19
16. 2 "" EMeqKar CT. Apx. ry6. 19 OeBpama 1872 r.....
17. 2 "" CT. KeceMcKaa TBep. 11 OKTs6p. 1876 r. p. 17....
18. 6 "".. Bop>coM,. 6 IOHA 79.


Note: No. 3, French inscription, No. 8, German inscription. No.'s 10 and 14
have additional inscription "otpravleno". No. 18 is a blue postmark (rare, from
the collection of A. I. Godlev).

60







Examples of straight-line postmarks of three lines:

No. Letters Top line Middle line Bottom line Table VI

1. 5 MM. JIH6aBa. 22 MapTa 1858
2. 5 MM. JIn6aBa. 15 OeBpaJi 1860 p. 9....
3. 5 MM. MaTaBa. 21 IOHRu 18.. ...

Rectangular
The earliest known of these postmarks is dated 1828, but it is possible
that these were in use even earlier. They are the same straight-line post-
marks, but are contained within a rectangular frame. They exist with: 1) a
narrow, double frame, 2) an ordinary (single) frame, 3) an ordinary frame,
but with the top line doubled, 4) the inscription in 1, 2 or 3 lines, 5) the
additional inscriptions "otpravleno" and "polucheno", 6) Russian and
German inscriptions (French is not found), 7) black, red, and blue inscrip-
tions, and 8) various frame sizes, which may be divided into 3 categories:
A) large, with the frame longer than 45mm., B) medium, from 30 to
45mm., and C) small, less than 30mm.
Those postmarks with one-line inscriptions are rarely seen; one with
a single frame with "Libau" in German, (another from) Nikopol', and
others are known. Usually these postmarks had the inscription in two lines.
Examples of rectangular postmarks of two lines:

No. Frame Dimensions Top line Lower line Table VI

1. Ordinary 31 x 9 TH(lDJIHmc. oTn. 12 reHB. 1828 ..
2. Ord. dbl. 32 x 14 C. IIeTep6ypra 22 Iioui 1839 .....
3. Ordinary 42 x 14 Ogecca. 31 Iioim 1842 .....
4. 53 x 16 St. Petersburg den. 2. Iun. 1847
5. Ord. dbl. 35 x 14 C. IIeTep6ypra 23 Aary. 1847
6. Ordinary 38 x 15 Ogecca 13 CeH. 1850
7. 50 x 26 PeBeJii 29 Anp: 1852 p. 18..
8. 40 x 14 )epnTb nojiyeeHol5 Main 1852 .....
9. Double 41 x 14 Pira 15 (DeB: 1853 p. 22..
10. 47 x 20 HIIoyYeHo 28 eeKa6: 1853 ..
11. Ord. dbl. 34 x 15 C. IIeTep6yprb 27 Oicr. 1853 .....
12. Ordinary 38 x 15 Ogecca 25 MapT. 1857 p. 20..
13. 33 x 14 Pmra 2 Asr. 1858 .....
14. 34 x 14 C. I. Byprb 10 CeH. 1858
15. 37 x 17 MocKBa 6 (Despajr. 1859 p. 21..
16. Ord. dbl. 37 x 16 IIojIyqeHo 27 MapTa 1858
17. 36 x 15 TayporeHm Iioji 1859 p. 19..
18. 36 x 16 BepgAneBb 16 hojib 1859 .....
19. Ordinary 32 x 15 BHibHO 17 IhoK. 1859 p. 23..
20. 45 x 18 Onecca 4 ABryc. 1862
21. 27 x 12 Sennen 13 Aug. 1874


Note: No. 1 has the additional inscription "otpravleno". No.'s 4 and 21 are in
German. "Ord. dbl." denotes an ordinary (single) frame with a doubled top line.
St. Petersburg ordinary doubled postmarks are all red, others are black.

61







Example of a rectangular postmark of three lines:

No. Dimensions Upper line Middle line Lower line Table VI

1. 53 x 21 BoJbMaplb OTnpaaneHO 11 MaiA 1858 p. 24..


Note: this example is taken from Dr. Bochmann's book. Other examples have
not been found.

Oval Postmarks
The oval postmarks are seldom encountered and of the earliest hand-
stamps, these are the most rare, not counting individual postmarks. (Table
VI, illus. 12). The earliest known example of this type is dated 1851,
"Moscou" in French. Oval postmarks exist: 1) double, that is, two wide
(concentric) ovals containing the inscription between the lines, with the
name of the city above, and other inscriptions below and at the sides, 2)
ordinary, i.e. with a single oval, 3) with the date in the middle in 1, 2 or
3 lines, 4) with a blank center where the date is written in with ink, 5)
with the additional inscription "otpravleno", 6) in Russian, French, and
German, 7) in black, red, blue or green, 8) in various dimensions, which
may be divided into 3 categories: A) large, with the oval's length greater
than 40mm., B) medium, from 25 to 40mm., and C) small, less than
25mm.
Examples of oval postmarks:

No. Length At top Center At bottom Table VII

1. 28 Moscou Mars 9 1851 .....
2. 36 Tyjna 1852, Maia 31 (opHaMeHTL)
3. 44 IH43 TInDjrnca 1854, 2 Ho. oTnpaaneHO p. 1...
4. 29 Bajnib JIn). (25-5) 1858 p. 3...
5. 29 TBepb 10 HoA6. 1859 (opHaMeHTb) p. 2...
6. 32 BeHAeHb (.5/4.) omnpaaneHo p. 4...
7. 34 Post Segewold ..... 18.. p. 5...

Note: No. 1's inscription is in French, No. 7's in German. No.'s 4 and 6 have
manuscript dates in the center. (The "(OPHAMEHTb)" entries in the "at
bottom" column above mean "ornament" or "device".)

Circular Postmarks
The early circular handstamps comprise an enormous number of vari-
eties, both in the content of their inscriptions and their placement and dimen-
sions, due to the fact that in former times the handstamps were prepared at
the discretion of the postal employees where the handstamps were used.
The earliest of these postmarks which has been found has the inscription
"Moskva", dated 1826. These postmarks exist: 1) double (with two large
circles, between which are placed the inscriptions, with the name of the city
at the top and the rest at the sides and bottom), 2) ordinary, that is, a
single circle, 3) with the date in the middle in 2 or 3 lines, 4) with a blank

62







space in the middle where the date was to be handwritten, 5) with the
additional inscription "otpravleno", 6) in Russian, French, German, or in
two languages, Russian and German, 7) in black, red, blue, and green (violet
appeared in the 1880's), 8) in various diameters, which may be divided
into 3 categories: A) large, with the diameter exceeding 30mm., B) me-
dium. from 25-30mm., and C) small, less than 25mm.

Examples of circular postmarks:

No. Diameter At top Center At bottom Table VII

1. 35 MM MocKBa 1826 FeHBa. 25 .....
2. 31 MM St. Petersbourg 1829 Sept. 11 *
3. 32 MM IeHsa 1839 ABr: 24
4. 34 MM C.H. Bypra 1841 H : 18 ..... .....
5. 29 MM IHepHOB- 1844 ABryc. 10 Pemau
6. 33 MM PHra 1854. 9 Dec. Riga p. 8...
7. 30 MM )eprrrn 18.. Anp. 26 Dorpat. p. 7...
8. 30 MM ApeHc6yprL ..... Arensburg p. 11...
9. 31 MM BHHaBaa IIOH. 17. 185. Windau .....
10. 31 MM FoJI1aHHTeHTE 21 Hoa. 1858 Goldingen
11. 28 MM Wladimir Wol. 30. 10 1855 p. 6...
12. 30 MM Kokenhusen 18.. (16/7.) p. 12...
13. 31 MM KieB. ...... (opHaM.) p. 10...
14. 31 MM C. HeTep6ypr- 1856 CeH. 18 p. 9...
15. 31 MM Ka3aHb 1858 Map. 28
16. 28 MM IIIaoBo 1858 ReKa6.7 *
17. 26 MM Oxecca 19 Anp. 1857 .....
18. 26 MM KieBb ..... OnpaB: p. 15...
19. 23 MM Pira. 16 Map. 1858 .. p. 16...
20. 32 MM .. C. Pyiay. (7/1.) p. 13...
21. 28 MM C. n. Byprb. 1859 ABryc. 28 ..... p. 14...

Of the postmarks listed above, no.'s 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15 and 16
have double circles and the date in three lines. No.'s 6 and 11 are double
circles with the date in two lines. No.'s 3, 4, 5, 17 and 21 are ordinary
(single) circles with the date in three lines, and no. 19 is an ordinary circle
with the date in two lines.
Note: the inscription on no. 2 is in French, on no. 12, in German, and
on no. 11, in Polish. On no.'s 5-10, the inscription is in two languages-Russian
and German. No.'s 4 and 21 have the inscription "S. P. Burg" in a straight line,
rather than in a semi-circle. No.'s 8, 13 and 18 have their middle section blank,
to provide a space for the date to be written in ink. No.'s 12 and 20 have the date
in manuscript, and 20 has the inscription "P. S. Rutsau", that is, Postal Station
Rutsau, Courland Province (from the collection of G. M. Shenits). This is a rare
postmark, as the Postal Stations normally used straight-line postmarks, with small
script in two lines.
CANCELLATIONS
The history of cancelling stamps may be divided into four periods,
namely: 1) pen cancels, 2) early handstruck stamps used as provisional
cancels, 3) special numerical dot obliterators, and 4) the new circular post-
mark cancels.

63







PEN CANCELLATIONS
Pen cancellations are known from 1845, when the first stamped enve-
lopes of the St. Petersburg City Post were issued. The indicia were cancelled
by an "x" in ink-this method was practiced on all the following issues of
stamped envelopes of the St. Petersburg and Moscow City Posts, and from
1848 on the Imperial Post issues as well.
In the Postal Department Circular of 10 December 1857, #3, by
which, as is known, the first postage stamps of Russia were introduced, it
was ordered that all letters franked with postage stamps were to have the
stamps cancelled by means of an "x" in ink. This was in accordance with
the method of marking envelopes with letters upon receipt (clause 6), and
stamps which were not so cancelled at the time they were presented at the
Post were to be cancelled upon delivery. (Clause 7).-(See Appendix 1.)
Attached to the Circular mentioned above were Instructions concerning
the use of postage stamps, in which it was ordered that the stamps were to
be marked in black ink with a "cross-on-cross". (Clause 31 of the Instruc-
tions.)
A pen cancellation on the first Russian imperforate stamp reduces its
catalog value in comparison to a postmarked stamp by more than half, which
may also be said of a stamp cancelled with both pen-marks and a postmark.


HANDSTRUCK STAMPS USED AS
PROVISIONAL CANCELLATIONS
From the Postal Department's Order #138 of 26 February 1858, it is
apparent that, due to various inconveniences connected with the cancellation
of stamps with ink, the Postal Department, by order of the Postmaster-
General, instructed all Postal Establishments to obliterate postage stamps
with handstruck stamps showing date and place of dispatch until such time
as special cancellers could be distributed. In the same Order, the St. Peters-
burg and Moscow Post Offices were allowed to use special circular hand-
stamps with numbers "1" and "2" for cancellation purposes, from which it
can be seen that in the two capital Post Offices the period of special numeri-
cal cancels directly followed the pen cancel period.
As concerned all the remaining Postal Establishments, they were to use
the early handstruck stamps to obliterate postage stamps. These postmarks
are encountered on stamps of the first two issues, up to 31 May and 17
August of 1858, when the special numerical cancellers were introduced.
Several Postal Establishments used their own individual handstamps for
cancellation purposes-these were undated, with only the place-name pres-
ent. These may also be found on stamps of the first two issues. The follow-
ing cancels are known: 1) the circular inscription "Dinaburg" in an ordinary,
small circle, with the center comprised of small, compact, round dots.
(Table VI, illus. 12), 2) a narrow, double circle of small size (the inner
circle is a dotted line) the circular inscription "Kiev" and a "p" (for Post)
in the middle, 3) a narrow, small double circle (the outer circle comprised
of dashes) with the circular inscription "Kovno" and a "p" (Post) in the
middle, 4) a straight-line cancel "Berdichev" in manuscript.

64







These cancels, because they were in use for no more than a few months,
are very rare.



SPECIAL NUMERICAL DOT CANCELLATIONS
These cancellations were introduced by two Orders of the Main Postal
Administration: 1) 31 May 1858, #1847-for provincial, regional, mili-
tary district, border and district Post Offices, and also Postal Sections of
the Nikolaevskaya railroad, and 2) 17 August 1858, #157-for other
Postal Branches and Postal Stations. Contained in both Orders, after the
information concerning the preparation of these cancellers (already in prog-
ress) and their subsequent distribution to those establishments in question,
were instructions on their immediate implementation upon receipt, along
with a list of Postal Establishments and the number assigned to each, as
well as illustrations of each type of obliterator. In all, there were six illus-
trations of these, of which all were dotted, unframed, with numbers in the
middle of the field. These designated the location of the Postal Establish-
ment, and were as follows: circular, with three concentric circles of dots and
a number from 1 to 60 in the center, for the two Main Post Offices and
58 Post Offices in provincial, regional, and military district cities. (Table
VII, illus. 17).



CITIES BY NUMBER
1. St. Petersburg 21. Kursk 41. Saratov
2. Moscow 22. Kishinev 42. Simbirsk
3. Arkhangel'sk 23. Krasnoyarsk 43. Semipalatinsk
4. Astrakhan' 24. Mitava 44. Smolensk
5. Vil'no 25. Minsk 45. Simferopol'
6. Vitebsk 26. Mogilev 46. Stavropol'
7. Vladimir 27. Nizhnij Novgorod 47. Tambov
8. Vologda 28. Novgorod 48. Tver'
9. Voronezh 29. Orenburg 49. Tiflis
10. Vyatka 30. Orel 50. Tobol'sk
11. Grodno 31. Petrozavodsk 51. Tomsk
12. Ekaterinoslav 32. Penza 52. Tula
13. Ekaterinodar 33. Perm' 53. Ufa
14. Zhitomir 34. Podol'sk 54. Khar'kov
15. Irkutsk 35. Poltava 55. Kherson
16. Kazan' 36. Pskov 56. Chernigov
17. Kaluga 37. Revel' 57. Cherkassk
18. Kiev 38. Riga 58. Chita
19. Kovno 39. Ryazan' 59. Shemakha
20. Kostroma 40. Samara 60. Yaroslavl'

RECTANGULAR dotted cancels, with numbers from 1 to 612 in the
center-for Post Offices in district (uezd) cities (Table VII, illus. 18).

65







CITIES BY NUMBER
Petersburg province: 40. Sventsyany Voronezh province:
1. Gatchina 41. Troki 79. Biryuch
2. Gdov 80. Bobrov
3. Kronstadt Vitebsk province: 81. Boguchar
4. Luga 42. Velizh 82. Buturlinovka
5. Novaya Ladoga 43. Gorodok 83. Valujki
6. Narva 44. Dinaburg (Dvinsk) 84. Zadonsk
7. Oranienbaum 45. Drissa 85. Zemlyansk
8. Peterhof 46. Kreslavl' 86. Korotoyak
9. Pavlovsk 47. Lepel' 87. Nizhnedyevitsk
10. Tsarskoe Selo 48. Lyutsin 88. Novokhopersk
11. Shlissel'burg 49. Nevel' 89. Ostrogozhsk
12. Yamburg 50. Polotsk 90. Pavlovsk
51. Ryechitsa
Moscow province: 52. Sebezh Vyatka province:
13. Bogorodsk 53. Surazh 91. Vodkinsk
14. Bronnitsy 92. Glazov
15. Vereya Vladimir province: 93. Elabuga
16. Volokolamsk 54. Aleksandrov 94. Izhevsk
17. Dmitrov 55. Vyazniki 95. Kotel'nich
18. Zvenigorod 56. Gorokhovets 96. Malmyzh
19. Klin 57. Gavrilov 97. Nolinsk
20. Kolomna 58. Ivanovka (after 5 98. Orlov
21. Mozhajsk November 1860, 99. Sarapul'
22. Podol'sk Voznesenskij 100. Slobodskoj
23. Ruza Posad) 101. Urzhum
24. Sergiev Posad 59. Kovrov 102. Tsarevosanshursk
25. Serpukhov 60. Melenki 103. Yaransk
61. Murom
Arkhangel'sk province: 62. Ozyablykovo Grodno province:
26. Kem' 63. Pereslavl'-Zalyesskij 104. Byelostok
27. Kola 64. Pokrov 105. Byel'sk
28. Mezen' 65. Sudogda 106. Volkovysk
29. Onyega 66. Suzdal' 107. Kobrin
30. Pinega 67. Shuya 108. Pruzhany
31. Kholmogory 68. Yur'ev 109. Slonim
32. Shenkursk 110. Sokolka
Vologda province:
Astrakhan' province: 69. Velikij Ustyug Ekaterinoslav province:
33. Enotaevsk 70. Vel'sk 111. Aleksandrovsk
34. Tsarev 71. Verkhovaya 112. Bakhmut
35. Chernyj Yar 72. Gryazovets 113. Verkhnednyeprovsk
73. Kadnikov 114. Lugansk
Vil'no province: 74. Nikol'sk 115. Mariupol'
36. Vilejka 75. Sol'vychegodsk 116. Nikopol'
37. Disna 76. Tot'ma 117. Novomoskovsk
38. Lida 77. Ust'sysol'sk 118. Pavlograd
39. Oshmyany 78. Yarensk 119. Rostov

66






120. Slavyanoserbsk 159. Mosal'sk Kursk province:
121. Taganrog 160. Peremyshl' 202. Byelgorod
161. Shushinitsy 203. Grajvoron
Ekaterinodar province: 162. Tarussa 204. Dmitriev
122. Anapa 205. Korocha
123. Ejsk Kiev province: 206. L'gov
124. Novorossijsk 163. Berdichev 207. Miropol'e
164. Boguslav 208. Novooskol
Zhitomir province: 165. Byelaya Tserkov' 209. Oboyan'
125. Volochisk 166. Vasil'kov 210. Putivl'
126. Dubno 167. Zvenigorodka 211. Ryl'sk
127. Zaslavl' 168. Kanev 212. Starooskol
128. Kremenets 169. Lipovets 213. Sudzha
129. Kovel' 170. Makhnovka 214. Tim
130. Lutsk 171. Radomysl' 215. Fatezh
131. Novgorod-Volyn- 172. Skvira 216 Chigry
skij 173. Smyela
132. Ostrog 174. Tarashcha Bessarabia province:
Bessarabia province:
133. Ovruch 175. Tal'noe 217. Akkerman
134. Rovno 176. Uman' 218. Bendery
135. Starokonstantinov 177. Cherkassy 219. Byel'tsy

rkutsk province: 178. Chigirin 220. Kamrat
136. Ayansk Kovno province: 221. Karpinsk (after
137. Kirensk 179. Vil'komir 11 December 1861,
138. Nizhneudinsk 180. Novoaleksandrovsk Bechemaki)
139. Olekminsk 181. Ponevyezh 222. Kuvej
140. Yakutsk 182. Rossiyany 223. Novoselitsa
183. Telshi 224. Orgyeev
Kazan' province: 184. Shavli 225. Soroki
141. Koz'modem'yansk 185. Yurburg 226. Tatarbunar
142. Laishev 227. Khotin
143. Mamadyzh Kostroma province:
144. Sviyazhsk 186. Buj Krasnoyarsk province:
145. Spassk 187. Varnavin 228. Achinsk
146. Tetyushi 188. Vetluga 229. Enisejsk
147. Tsarevokokshajsk 189. Galich 230. Kansk
148. Tsivinsk 190. Kineshma 231. Karchinsk
149. Cheboksary 191. Kologriv 232. Minusinsk
150. Chistopol' 192. Luch 233. Uchur (after 13
151. Yadrin 193. Makar'ev March 1859,
194. Nerekhta Karelino)
Kaluga province: 195. Parfent'ev
152. Borovsk 196. Ples Courland province:
153. Zhizdra 197. Puchesh 234. Pauske
154. Kozel'sk 198. Soligalich 235. Vindava (Windau)
155. Likhvin 199. Sudislavl' 236. Goldingen
156. Meshchovsk 200. Chukhloma 237. Gazenpot
157. Medyn' 201. Yur'evets- (Hasenpot)
158. Maloyaroslavets Povol'skij 238. Illukst

67







239. Libava (Libau) 281. Semenov 319. Gorodishche
240. Polangen 282. Sergach 320. Insar
241. Tukkum (Tuckum) 321. Kerensk
242. Frauenburg Novgorod province: 322. Krasnoslobodsk
243. Friedrichstadt 283. Borovichi 323. Mokshany
244. Shrunden 284. Byelozersk 324. Narovchat
245. Jacobstadt 285. Valdaj 325. Nizhnelomov
286. Dem'yansk 326. Saransk
Minsk province: 287. Krechi 327. Chembar
246. Bobrujsk 288. Kirillov
247. Borisov 289. Medvyed' Perm' province:
248. Igumen 290. Somino 328. Bogoslovsk
249. Mozyr' 291. Staraya Russa 329. Bilimbaevskij
250. Nesvizh 292. Tikhvin Zavod
251. Novogrudok 293. Ustyuzhna 330. Verkhotur'e
252. Pinsk 294. Cherepovets 331. Ekaterinburg
253. Ryechitsa 295. Chudovo 332. Irbit
254. Slutsk 333. Kamyshlov
Orenburg province: 334. Krasnoufimsk
Mogilev province: 296. Verkhneural'sk 335. Kungur
255. Babinovichi 297. Gur'ev 336. Kushvinsk
256. Gomel' 298. Nizhneural'sk 337. Nev'yansk
257. Goryugoretsk 299. Orsk 338. Nizhnetagil'sk
258. Kopys' 300. Troitskoe 339. Osa
259. Klimovichi 301. Chelyabinsk 340. Okhansk
260. Mstislavl' 341. Solikamsk
261. Orsha Orel province: 342. Cherdyn'
262. Propojsk 302. Volkhov 343. Shadrinsk
263. Rogachev 303. Bryansk
264. Staryj Bykhov 304. Dmitrovsk Podol'sk province:
265. Syenno 305. Elets 344. Balta
266. Chechersk 306. Kromy 345. Bratslav
267. Chausy 307. Karachev 346. Bar
268. Chirikov 308. Livny 347. Vinnitsa
269. Shklov 309. Maloarkhangel'sk 348. Gajsin
310. Mtsensk 349. Letichev
Nizhnij Novgorod 311. Syevsk 350. Litin
province: 312. Trubchevsk 351. Mogilev
270. Arzamas 352. Novaya Ushitsa
271. Ardatov Olonets province: 353. Nemirov
272. Balakhna (Petrozavodsk province) 354. Ol'gopol'
273. Vasil'sursk 313. Vytegra 355. Proskurov
274. Gorbatov 314. Kargopol' 356. Tul'chin
275. Knyaginin 315. Lodejnoe-Pole 357. Khmyel'nik
276. Lukoyanov 316. Olonets 358. Yampol'
277. Lyskovo 317. Povyenets 359. Yarmolintsy
278. Makar'ev 318. Pudozh
279. Pochinki Poltava province:
280. Pavlovo Penza province: 360. Gadyach

68






361. Gradizhsk 400. Mikhajlov 439. Poryech'e
362. Zen'kov 401. Pronsk 440. Roslavl'
363. Zolotonosha 40'2. Ranenburg 441. Sychevka
364. Konstantinograd 403. Ryazhsk 442. Yukhnov
365. Kobelyaki 404. Sapozhok
366. Kremenchug 405. Skopin Simferopol' province:
367. Lokhvitsa 406. Spassk 443. Berdyansk
368. Lubny 444. Bakhchisaraj
369. Mirgorod Samara province: 445. Genichesk
370. Piryatin 407. Buguruslan 446. Gol'bstadt
371. Pereyaslavl' 408. Bugul'ma 447. Dnyeprovsk
372. Priluki 409. Buzuluk 448. Evpatoriya
373. Romny 410. Nikolaevsk 449. Karasubazar
374. Khorol 411. Novyj Uzen' 450. Kerch'-Enikale
412. Stavropol' 451. Melitopol'
Pskov province: 452. Oryekhov
375: Velikie Luki Saratov province: 453. Perekop
376. Novorzhev 413. Atkarsk 454. Sevastopol'
377. Opochka 414. Balashov 455. Sudak
378. Ostrov 415. Vol'sk 456. Feodosiya
379. Porkhov 416. Dubovka 457. Yalta
380. Sol'tsy 417. Kamyshin
381. Toropets 418. Kuznetsk Stavropol' province:
382. Kholm 419. Petrovsk 458. Vladikavkaz
420. Serdobsk 459. Georgievsk
Estland (Estonia) 421. Khvalynsk 460. Ekaterinograd
province: 422. Tsaritsyn 461. Kizlyar
383. Wesenberg 462. Mozdok
384. Weissenstein Simbirsk province: 463. Nal'chik
385. Hapsal 423. Ardatov 464. Nikolaevsk (after
386. Jewe 424. Alatyr' 29 May 1859,
425. Buinsk Groznenskaya)
Livland province: 426. Karsun 465. Prochnooskop'e
387. Arensburg 427. Kurmysh (after 2 June 1862,
388. Bolderaa 428. Promzino Labinskaya)
Dunamunde 429. Sengilej 466. Pyatigorsk
389. Walk 430. Syzran' 467. Khasav-Yurt
390. Wenden
391. Werro Semipalatinsk region: Tambov province:
392. Wolmar 431. Ust'-Kamenogorsk 468. Borisoglyebsk
393. Derpt (Yur'ev) 469. Elat'ma
394. Pernau Smolensk province: 470. Kadom
395. Fellin 432. Byelyj 471. Kozlov
433. Vyaz'ma 472. Kirsanov
Ryazan' province: 434. Gzhatsk 473. Lebedyan'
396. Danrov 435. Dorogobuzh 474. Lipetsk
397. Egor'evsk 436. Dukhovshchina 475. Morshansk
398. Zarajsk 437. El'nya 476. Spassk
399. Kasimov 438. Krasnyj 477. Temnikov

69







478. Usman' 519. Bogoroditsk 561. Tiraspol'
479. Shatsk 520. Byelev
521. Venev Chernigov province:
Tver' province: 522. Epifan' 562. Baturin
480. Byezhetsk 523. Efremov 563. Borozna
48. Vyshnij Volochek 'egonsk 524. Kashira 564. Glukhov
482. ysh oo 525. Krapivna 565. Gorodnya
483. Zubtsov 526. Novosel'e 566. Klimov
484. Kashin
485. Kalysin 527. Odoev 567. Konotop
485. Kalyazin 528. Chern' 568. Krolevets
486. Korcheva 569. Kozelets
487. Krasnyj Kholm Ufa province: 570. Mglin
48. Novotorzhok 529. Belebej 571. Novozybkov
489. Ostashkov 530. Birsk 572. Novgorod-
490. Rzhev 531. Zlatoust Syeverskij
491. S532. Menzelinsk 573. Nyezhin
Tiflis province: 533. Sterlitamak 574. Oster
492. Akhaltsvkh 575. Pochep
493. Aleksandropol' Khar'kov province: 576. Pogar
494. Gory 534. Akhtyrka 577. Sosnitsa
495. Elizavetpol' 535. Bogodukhov 578. Surazh
496. Kutais 536. Volchansk 579. Starodub
497. Nakhichevan' 537. Valki
498. Redut-Kale 538. Zmiev Cherkasskprovince:
499. Telav 539. Izyum 580. Aleksikovo
500. Tsarskie-Kolodtsy 540. Kupyansk 581. Aksaj
501. Ehrivan' 541. Lebedin 582. Vedernkovo
542. Novoekaterino- 583. Kazanskaya
Tobol'sk province: slavl' 584. Kamenskaya
502. Berezov 543. Starobyel'sk 585. Kagal'nik
503. Uzhim 544. Sumy 586. Nizhnechirskaya
504. Kurgan 545. Slavyansk 587. Novopavlovsk
505. Omsk 546. Chuguev (after 21 March
506. Petropavlovsk 1860, Novoniko-
507. Tara Kherson province: laevka)
508. Turinsk 547. Aleksandriya 588. Uryupinsk
509. Tyumen' 548. Anan'ev 589. Ust'medvyeditskaya
510. Yalutorovsk 549. Berislav Chita province:
Tomsk province: 550. Bobrinets 590. Verkhneudinsk
511. Barnaul 551. Voznesensk 591. Nerchinsk
512. Bijsk 552. Dubossary 592. Nerchinskij Zavod
513. Zmyeinogorsk 553. Elisavetgrad
514. Kainsk 554. Nikolaev Shemakha province:
515. Kolyvan' 555. Novotichgorod 593. Baku
516. Kuznetsk 556. Novogeorgievsk 594. Derbent
517. Mariinsk 557. Novaya Praga 595. Kuba
558. Ol'viopol' 596. Lenkoran'
Tula province: 559. Ovidiopol' 597. Nukha
518. Alekhin 560. Ochakov 598. Temir-Khan-Shura

70







599. Shusha land province) on 4. Kyakhta (Zabajkal
Yar p : 5 November 1859. region)
arlal rovce: 612. Korets (Zhitomir 5. Nikolaevsk na
600. Danilov
601. L m province) on 24 Amurye
602. Moyulm January 1861. 6. Odessa (Kherson
603. Myshkin Prior to that date, province)
604. Poshekhon'e it was Postal Sta- 7. Radzivilov (Volynia
60. Romanov-Boriso- tion # 121. province)
605. Romanov-Boriso-
glebsk 8. Skulyany (Bessarabia
606. Rostov OVAL dotted cancels, province)
607. Rybinsk with a number from 1-9 9. Taurogen (Kovno
608. Uglich in the center for bor. province)
der Post Offices (Table
Numbers announced VII, illus. 20). FLAT-SIDED HEXA-
later: GONS of dots, with a
609. Azov (Cherkassk number from 1-17 in the
province) on 24 center, for railroad Post
October 1859. CITIES BY NUMBER Offices and Sections of
610. Blagovyeshchensk 1. Brest (Grodno Mailcars on the Niko-
(Amur region) on province) laevskaya and Warsaw
29 April 1859. 2. Vladimir-Volynskij railroads. (Table VII,
611. Kvelenshtejn 3. Gusyatin (Podol'sk illus. 21 and Table XVII,
(Quellenstein-Liv- province) illus. 14.)




RAILROAD STATIONS AND Note: The Nikolaevskaya railroad
MAILCARS BY NUMBER was opened for mailcars in 1851,
1. Petersburg railroad station, while the St. Petersburg-Warsaw
Nikolaevskaya railroad line was opened in sections part
2. Moscow railroad station, of the line became active on 1 Feb-
Nikolaevskaya railroad ruary 1861, and the entire line on 15
3. Mailcar, Nikolaevskaya RR December 1862 (see Appendix 5).
4. 55,,
5. 5 5,,
6. DOTTED HEXAGONS WITH
7. POINTED SIDES, with a number
8. from 1-103 in the center, for postal
9. branch offices in small towns and
10. villages (Table VII, illus. 19).
11. Petersburg railroad station,
Warsaw railroad
12. Mailcar, Warsaw railroad SMALL TOWNS AND
13. VILLAGES BY NUMBER
14. 1. Aleksandrovskaya, Petersburg
15. province
16. 2. Voskresenskaya, Moscow
17. province

71







3. Molodechno, Vil'no province 34. Voznesensk. Olonets province
4. Rushany, Grodno province 35. Veret'ya, Perm' province
5. Druskeniki, Grodno province 36. Kamenskaya, Perm' province
6. Selvy, Grodno province 37. Krivoe-Ozero, Podol'sk
7. Ivanovskoe, Ekaterinoslav province
province 38. Ryeshetilovka, Poltava
8. Nejenburg, Ekaterinoslav province
province 39. Lemzal', Livland province
9. Nakhichevan', Ekaterinoslav 40. Balakovo, Samara province
province 41. Kichuevskaya, Samara
10. Poltavskoe, Ekaterinodar province
province 42. Sergievskie mineral'nye vody,
11. Taman', Ekaterinodar Samara province
province 43. Ayaguzskaya (after 11 July
12. Umanskaya, Ekaterinodar 1860, Sergiopol'), Semipala-
province tinsk province
13. Ust'labinskaya (after 2 June 44. Bukhtorma, Semipalatinsk
1862, Prochnookopskoe), province
Stavropol' province 45. Kopal, Semipalatinsk province
14. Shcherbinovskaya, Ekaterino- 46. Alushta, Simferopol' province
dar province 47. Armyansk, Simferopol'
15. Vitimsk, Irkutsk province province
16. Nakhtujsk, Irkutsk province 48. Kakhovka, Simferopol'
17. Petropavlovsk, Irkutsk province
province 49. Kislovodsk, Stavropol'
18. Aleksandrovskij Khutor, province
Kaluga province 50. Ordynskaya, Stavropol'
19. Polotnyanyj Zavod, Kaluga province
province 51. Kargashino, Tambov province
20. Serpejsk, Kaluga province 52. Ostashkovskaya, Tver'
21. Tsarinskoe, Kovno province province
22. Turushansk, Krasnoyarsk 53. Delizhan, Tiflis province
province 54. Dukhet, Tiflis province
23. Baltishport, Courland province 55. Sakatuly, Tiflis province
24. Grobin, Courland province 56. Novyj Bayazet, Tiflis province
25. Doblen, Courland province 57. Ozurgety, Tiflis province
26. Tal'sen, Courland province 58. Ordubat, Tiflis province
27. Loev, Minsk province 59. Opinskaya, Tiflis province
28. Lyubovitskaya, Mogilev 60. Passanaur, Tiflis province
province 61. Signakh, Tiflis province
29. Abramovskaya, Nizhnij 62. Sukhum-Kale, Tiflis province
Novgorod province 63. Shelezinskaya, Tobol'sk
30. Nizhnij Novgorod-Yarmarka province
(yearly fair), Nizh.-Novgorod 64. Karkaraly, Tobol'sk province
province 65. Kokchetov, Tobol'sk province
31. Valdaj, Novgorod province 66. Kor'yakovskaya, Tobol'sk
32. Spasskaya-Polis, Novgorod province
province 67. Pryesnogorkovskaya, Tobol'sk
33. Iletsk, Orenburg province province

72







68. Samarskaya, Tobol'sk province 92. Yagotino (Poltava prov.) on 5
69. Surgut, Tobol'sk province July 1859. Prior to that time
70. Tyukalinsk, Tobol'sk province it was Postal Station #351.
71. Narym, Tomsk province 93. Dubbel'n (Livland prov.) on
72. Tungutarova, Ufa province 27 April 1860
73. Novovorontsovka, Kherson 94. Novopavlovskaya (Cherkassk
province prov.) on 21 March 1860
74. Dobryanka, Chernigov 95. Novchirkutino (Tambov prov.)
province on 27 April 1860
75. Klintsy, Chernigov province 96. Vyernoe (Semipalatinsk prov.)
76. Petrozavodsk, Chita province on 22 September 1860
77. Semeninskaya, Chita province 97. Akmolinsk (Semipalatinsk
78. Akhtinskaya, Shemakha prov.) on 22 September 1860
province 98. Krichev (Mogilev prov.) on 24
79. Doshlagar, Shemakha January 1861. Prior to that
province time it was Postal Station
80. Petrovsk, Shemakha province #243.
81. Sal'yany, Shemakha province 99. Ol'khovyj Rog (Cherkassk
82. Chir-Yurt, Shemakha province prov.) on 18 May 1861. Prior
Numbers announced later: to that time it was Postal Sta-
83. Usvyat (Vitebsk prov.) on 24 tion #602.
October 1858 100. Nazarovskaya (Cherkassk
84. Aleksandrovskij Fort (She- prov.) on 18 May 1861. Prior
makha prov.) on 24 October to that time it was Postal Sta-
1858 tion #601.
85. Koel'skaya (Orenburg prov.) 101. Sysertskoe (Perm' prov.) on 4
on 25 April 1859 April 1862
86. Sofijsk (Eastern Siberia) on 29 102. Shpola (Kiev prov.) on 14
April 1859 June 1862. Prior to that time
87. Katerino-Nikol'skoe (Eastern it was Postal Station #176.
Siberia) on 29 April 1859. 103. Kamenka (Saratov prov.) on
After 27 April 1860, the num- 14 June 1862. Prior to that
ber was assigned to Mikhajlo- time it was Postal Station
Semenovskaya. #454.
88. Khabarovka (Eastern Siberia)
on 29 April 1859
89. Nikolaevskaya (Stavropol' TRUNCATED TRIANGLES of
prov.) on 29 May 1859 dots, with a number from 1-1700
90. Izhevskaya (Ryazan' prov.) on in the center, for Postal Stations,
7 July 1859. Prior to that time Postal Sections at railroad stations,
it was Postal Station #416. and Russian offices at steamship
91. Goritsk (Pskov prov.) on 25 agencies in the Levant (Table VII,
July 1859 illus. 22).


Arkhangel'sk province: 3. Kovda (after 5 No- 4. Kucheretskaya
1. Avdinskaya vember 1860, Uren- 5. Morshegorskaya
2. Bol'shenisogor- skaya in Kostroma 6. Nenokotskij Posad
skaya province.) 7. Slobodsko-

73







Ignat'evskaya 42. Kurmiva 81. Tagajskaya
8. S'yaskaya 43. Kurilovskaya 82. Khlyevnoe
9. Solovetskij 44. Livengof
Monastyr' 45. Lipetsk Vyatka province:
10. Sumskaya 46. Pestery (after 23 83. Arporekskaya
11. Ustvazhskaya December 1861, 84. Bol'shekil'mes-
12. Shagovarskaya Prudnikovskaya) skaya
47. Pridrujsk 85. Bel'skaya
Astrakhan' province: 48. Rudnya 86. Vyatsko-Polyan-
13. Agabuzhskaya 49. Rushony (after 23 skaya
14. Batkalinskaya December 1861, 87. Debessy
15. Vit'yaninskaya Plakshanskaya) 88. Kokhil'skaya
16. Gujdukskaya 50. Churilovo 89. Kukuevskaya
17. Dzhurukovskaya 90. Minikaksinskaya
18. Simsimenskaya Vladimir province: 91. Pavlovskij Zavod
19. Kurochkinskaya 51. Baraki 92. Usinskaya
20. Popovitskaya 52. Boldino 93. Ustlekomskaya
21. Syeroglazinskaya 53. Bulatnikovo
54. Vorsha Grodno province:
Brest province: 55. Drozdovka 94. Bereza
22. Vysokolitovsk 56. Dubna 95. Vasil'kov
57. Lezhneva 96. Dromchit
Vil'no province: 58. Novaya Derevnya 97. Zapol'e
23. Voronov 59. Novoe 98. Zenzidl'
24. Dominov 60. Novsk 99. Klecheli
25. Dokshinskaya 61. Okshevo 100. Kuznitsa (after
26. Zabor'e 62. Pavlovskoe September 1863,
27. Radozhkevichi 63. Pyetushki Antopal)
28. Soleshniki 64. Sevastlejki 101. Milovidy
29. Smorgon' 65. Sima 102. Chemely
30. Chuchin 66. Simantsova 103. Yanov
67. Slobodishchi
Vitebsk province: 68. Ushinskaya Ekaterinoslav province:
31. Balatovo 69. Khokhlova 104. Blagodatnoe
32. Borovlyany 70. Rogosnyanskaya 105. Ejsk
33. Beshenkovichi 71. Ustilug 106. Kantseropol'
34. Vasil'eva 107. Pereshchepina
35. Gorikolpa (after 23 Vologda province: 108. Cherchukha
December 1861, 72. Vodvazdinskaya
Staroe Selo) 73. Grigor'evskaya Ekaterinodar province:
36. Dolpy 74. Masseevskaya 109. Kirpil'skaya
37. Dubovika 75. Nesterovskaya 110. Kopyl'skaya
38. Dymakovo 76. Petrozovskaya 111. Myshatovskaya
39. Zaryech'e 77. Ploskovo 112. Redutskaya
40. Ivanovka (after 9 78. Semenzovskaya 113. Temryuk
February 1862, 79. Fominskaya 114. Chelbasskaya
Churinovskaya in
Petrozavodsk prov.) Voronezh province: Zhitomir province:
41. Krejtsburg 80. Orlovskaya 115. Gul'chi (after 19

74






December 1858, 1860, Bir'yusin- became Postal
Lysyanka in Kiev skaya) Branch # 102.)
province.) 142. Mukhtujskaya
116. Datino (after 21 143. Ponomarevskaya Kovno province:
March 1860, 144. Ustkutskaya 177. Lukninskaya (after
Butsynskaya) 145. Cherekhomskaya 3 November 1862,
117. Dyedovichi 146. Cheragul'skaya Vornenskaya)
118. Zapadnitsy 178. Mezhkutsy
119. Kievan Kazan' province: 179. Smilgi
120. Kolki 147. Aleksyeevskoe 180. Sredniki
121. Korets (after 24 148. Arsk (after 20 181. Uz'yany
January 1861, Yu- August 1862, 182. Shadov
rovskaya, Kiev p.) Sibirchinskaya) 183. Shensil'skaya
122. Krasinova 149. Akozino 184. Shejslivy (after
123. Klitovskaya 150. Vilovatyj Vrag 24 August 1862,
124. Kupel' 151. Vorob'evka Bashnurashin in
125. Mogil'no 152. Koroduvan Tiflis province.)
126. Mlynovskaya 153. Meteski-Malaya 185. Yanishki
127. Nesukhonski (after 154. Pichurino 186. Yanovo
21 March 1860,
Samshanskaya) Kaluga province: Kyakhta district:
128. Polonnoe 155. Barsuki 187. Narymskaya
129. Ratno (after 21 156. Zubovo 188. Ust'-Kyakhtinskaya
March 1860, Gor- 157. Il'inskaya
ninskaya) 158. Kalugovo Kostroma province:
130. Rejskoe 159. Kanonovskaya 189. Baki
131. Ragozino (after 19 160. Krapivna 190. Voron'e
December 1858, 161. Kryukovskaya 191. Dyukovo
Musovskaya, 162. Lyudkova 192. Kaduj
Vil'no province) 163. Kuzemok 193. Malugorskaya
132. Rosiche 164. Rodborki 194. Pistsovo
133. Rudny 165. Sudorovskaya 195. Unzha
134. Torchin 166. Rogovichi
135. Url'ya Kishinev province:
136. Ustilug (after 19 Kiev province: 196. Ataki
December 1858, 167. Buzovskaya 197. Bajramchinskaya
Slavinskaya, Ekate- 168. Korostyshev 198. Gura-Golbinskaya
rinoslav province) 169. Legezino (after 22 August
137. Chernyakhovskaya 170. Shornitskaya 1860, Chinishmya)
171. Fadovskaya 199. Kaushanskaya
Irkutsk province: 172. Rajgorodetskaya 200. Kupchinskaya
138. Biliktujskaya 173. Rushin (after 4 201. Kajnarvekskaya
139. Boyarskaya (after April 1861, Kir- 202. Lipkany
30 November 1860, zhach, Vladimir 203. Teleneshty (after
Kimiltejskaya) province) 5 December 1859,
140. Kachugskaya 174. Samgorodok Banechskaya)
Pristan' 175. Khudolyeevka Krasnoyarsk province:
141. Listvyanskaya 176. Shpol'skaya (after 204. Kazachinskaya
(after 30 November 14 June 1862, it 205. Karelina (after

75





















., n, *CII lrr I.r ,r~~I
0




Ct



r ' -- -"+




. .' .. '* -." . .... .. ... ... "




00
,",. -,,, O *.
~ ~~~~~~; "' ...... -.- ---: i7. ... .
!r r
7I ~~~s i


.. I, .A4.4


Booncc h31%$A CWWUL~. I ,,'i -K J~







13 March 1859, May 1861, Gura- 277. Kukuj
Abakanskoe) Galbinskaya, Ki- 278. Lyubtsy
206. Kustunskaya (after shinev province) 279. Makarovskaya (af-
12 December 1859,244. Kristopol'e ter 23 April 1862,
Glushevskaya, Smo- 245. Krupka Yashel'bitsy)
lensk province) 246. Lokuty 280. Mshaga
207. Rubinskaya 247. Lyady 281. Obrinskaya
248. Merkulovichi 282. Oksyukovo (after
Courland province: 249. Pribor 17 Sept. 1862,
208. Bakhgof 250. Ryechitsa Isbojchskaya)
209. Dobleen 251. Sidorovichi 283. Petrovskoe
210. Rutsau 252. Sveskopol'skaya 284. Polonskaya
253. Sokolovskaya 285. Pomeran'e
Minsk province: 254. Tolochin 286. Podberez'e
211. Agatino 255. Unovskaya 287. Khotilovo
212. Gorodishche 256. Khutovichskaya
213. Domonovichi 257. Shepotovichi Ufa province:
214. Dudishche 258. Shumovka 288. Askin
215. lel'sk 259. Dubenki 289. Busav'yasy (after
216. Shodik 4 June 1862, Tol-
217. Kandanovo Moscow province: basy)
218. Koreni 260. Kupavna 290. Vyernye-Klyuchi
219. Lozhnitskaya 261. Gorenki 291. Zirgan
220. Lushinskaya 262. Solnechnogorskaya 292. Kishkalashi
221. L'yub'yady 263. Kamenka 293. Layashly
222. Mir 264. Kuznetskaya 294. Myaskij Zavod
223. Mikhalka 265. Solnushevskij 295. Monastyrskie
224. Klettsk Vyselok Duvanei
225. Svershenskaya 296. Naberezhnye
226. Svisloch Nizhnij Novgorod prov.: Chelny
227. Sinyavka 266. Bogoyavlenie 297. Satkinskij Zavod
228. Skorodnoe 267. Kremenki 298. Tastuba
229. Smilovichi 268. Lyetnevo
230. Smolevichi 269. Myednikovo Orenburg province:
231. Tokamya 270. Nagaevka (after 299. Verkhneozemaya
232. Chervichi 8 July 1863, 300. Zvyerinogolovskaya
233. Cherepakhi Itmanovskaya) 301. Karakul'skaya
234. Yakimovichskaya 271. Polyanka 302. Kizil'skaya
272. Teplovo (after 8 303. Kundravinskaya
Mogilev province: August 1863, Ut- 304. Nizhneozerskaya
235. Byelitskaya kino) 305. Ustyuzhskaya
236. Gadilovichi
237. Dvorets Novgorod province: Orel province:
238. Dovsk 273. Barsanikhi (after 306. Berezovskaya
239. Dubrovka 19 May 1862, Ere- 307. Drazkovo
240. Zhlobin mino) 308. Izvaly
241. Svyenchatka 274. Bronnitsy 309. Polevo-Petrovskaya
242. Kakhonovo 275. Buregi 310. Tolstodubovka
243. Krichev (after 4 276. Zajtsevo 311. Chushevskaya

76






312. Ukrorajskaya 346. Karlovka 385. Friedrichshof
313. Chernava 347. Omel'nik 386. Chudelin
348. Opochnya 1
Odessa province: 348. Opochnya Livland province:
Odessa province: 349. Fedorovka 387. Gallik
387. Gallik
314. Kodintsovo 350. Chernukhi 38.
315. Podgorinovskaya 351. Yagotino (after 389. Zuene
316. Severinovskaya 5 July 1859, it 30 u
317. Tiligul'skaya became Postal 390. Igafer
391. Kirchholm
Branch #92.) 392. Kokenhusen
Petrozavodsk (Olonets) 3. Kokenhusen
province: Pskov province: 393. Kujkats
318. Arkhangel'skaya 352. Borovichi 39. Kurkund
319. Aleksandro- 353. Byezhanitsa 395. Lenzendorf
Svirskaya 354. Vyshgorod (after 396. Lips
320. Bordovskaya 12 September 397. Mentsen
321. Gomorovichi 1861, Mikheevo in 398. Mosekull
322. Keskoozero Kaluga province.) 399 Neuhausen
323. Krechetovskaya 355. Dulovka 400 ennal
324. Febovskaya 356. Zvoni 401. Oger
402. Rantsen
357. Kateshnoe 40 R e
403. Remersdorf
Penza province: 358. Kresty 404. Reudenneus
325. Ershovo 359. Kryukovo 405 Re
326. Issa 360. Mikhajlov-Pogost 405. Roop
327. Kamenka 361. Mokhovaya 407. Sen
328. Pichilejka 362. Gorki 40 tae
329. Troitsk 363. Novgorodka 40. Tejlts
T409. Torma
364. Pechory 410. erm
Perm' province: 365. Rubilovo41 er
330. Achitskaya 366. Svyatyya Gory 411. Engelgardshof
331. Bogorodskaya 367. Issa 412. Jungernhof
332. Byeloyarskaya 368. Sorokino Ryazan' province:
333. Dolmatovo 369. Stremushka 413. Gavrilovskaya
334. Zlatoustovskaya 414. Erakhturskaya
335. Kirgishanskaya Estland province: 415. Zlobino
336. Sugadskaya 370. Vajvara 416. Izhevskoe (from
337. Sosnovskaya 371. Vardel' 25 July 1859 to
372. Werder 8 July 1863,
Podol'sk province: 373. Khokhenchejts Karmanovskaya in
338. Dzhurino 374. ledefer Smolensk province.
339. Medzhibozh 375. Eshekht After 8 July 1863,
340. Novokonstantinov- 376. Kegel Kosinskaya, in
skaya 377. Leal Kiev province.)
341. Ulanov 378. Liva 417. Okulov
379. Loop 418. Sasykino
Poltava province: 380. Risty 419. Sujskaya
342. Borispol' 381. Runafer 420. Yakimetskaya
343. Bun'yakovskaya 382. Peddrus
344. Byelotserkovka 383. Setkud Samara province:
345. Zhuki 384. Turinel 421. Dergachi

"77






422. Zezenikovo 461. Sokurskoe-Ulesh- 497. Sredne-Egorlyuk
423. Zorin-Khutor skaya 498. Shelkozavodskaya
424. Melekess 462. Talovka
425. Novogeorgievskaya 463. Chunaki Tambov province:
426. Fedorovskaya 464. Shirokij Buerak I 499. Borshchovka
427. Cherdaklinskaya 465. Shirokij Buerak II 500. Vyesovnaya
501. Okry
St. Petersburg province: Simbirsk province: 502. Perkino
428. Byeloostrov 466. Anastasovskaya 503. Rasskazovo
429. Buyanetskaya 467. Krasnososenskaya 504. Sampur
430. Vyra 468. Pyloval'nye 505. Ust'e
431. Gorodets Zavody 506. Chelnavskie
432. Domozhirivo 469. Tasaj Dvoriki
433. Dranishnikovo 470. Talyusino 507. Cheremushka
434. Izhora 471. Terengul'skaya
435. Kaskovo 472. Yurlovskaya Tver' province:
436. Kipen 508. Vydropusk
437. Krasnoe Selo Semipalatinsk province: 509. Dyetkovo
438. Loshkinskaya 473. Sen'yarskaya 510. Sherdino
439. Manikhinskaya 474. Yatushevskaya 511. Kaledinskoe
440. Novosel'e 475. Breshskaya 512. Myednoe
441. Plyussa 513. Novochudinskaya
442. Podgornoe Pulkovo Smolensk province: 514. Pekunovo
443. Pol'ya 476. Astapovka 515. Priyutovskaya
444. Stryel'na 477. Vonlyarovo 516. Sukovo (after
445. Syaskie Ryadki 478. Gridnevo 21 June 1862,
446. Tosna 479. Znamenskaya Romanovskaya)
447. Chirkovitsa 480. Koski
448. Shaldikha 481. Korsakovskaya Tiflis province:
449. Yashchera (after 11482. Akhnovskie Pos- 517. Borzhom
November 1861, toyalye Dvory 518. Davalu (after 25
Krasnogorskaya in 483. Polyanovo June 1860, Muku-
Smolensk prov.) 484. Solov'evo sanskaya
485. Sofijskaya 519. Elenovskaya
Saratov province: 486. Shatalovo 520. Kivrazhskaya
450. Baluklejskaya 521. Kamarlinskaya
451. Berezovka Simferopol' province: 522. Suramskaya
452. Elushanka 487. Katenskaya 523. El'yarskaya
453. Kalenskaya 488. Anbarskaya
454. Kamenka (on 14 489. Biyuk-Lambat Tobol'sk province:
June 1862 it 490. Bol'shie Kopny 524. Abatskoe
became Postal 491. Saki 525. Baleklejskaya
Branch #103.) 526. Borovlyanskij
455. Kamishker Stavropol' province: Zavod
456. Klyuchi 492. Aleksandrovskaya 527. Gotopunovo
457. Kondal 493. Kavkazskaya 528. Elanskaya
458. Kuvyuka 494. Kolpychenskaya 529. Nikolaevskaya
459. Mokroe 495. Medvyezh'e 530. Pestushanskaya
460. Sinodskaya 496. Naurskaya 531. Presnovskaya

78






532. Rybinskaya 569. Malovyskovskaya 592. Churovichi
533. Turinskaya (after 15 February 593. Shostenskaya
1859, Gryady in 594. Esmanskaya
Tomsk province: Pskov province)
534. Berskaya 570. Myelovaya (after Cherkassk province:
535. Birikul'skaya 13 March 1859, 595. Arshadinskaya
536. Bogotol'skaya Kotomki in Orel 596. Gryaznukhinskaya
537. Voznesenskaya province) (after 5 June
538. Ilkulskaya 571. Pavlishi (from 13 1859, Tomskij
539. Ishimskaya March 1859 to 5 Zhelyeznyj Zavod)
540. Kashino July 1859, Bogo- 597. Kagalnitskaya
541. Ovchinnikovo tol'skoe in Tomsk 598. Kumyshenskaya
542. Pokrovskoe province. After 5 599. Mikhajlovskaya
543. Ubinskaya July 1859, Mukh- 600. Mar'inskaya
ranovskaya in Or- 601. Nazarovskaya
Tula province: enburg province) (on 18 May 1861
544. Bol'shie Ploty 572. Peschanyj Brod it became Postal
545. Doltsy 573. Sositskaya Branch #100.)
546. Dorobino 574. Tyaginskaya (from 602. Ol'khovyj Rog (on
547. Kadnoe 23 March 1859 to 18 May 1861 it
548. Kondyrevskaya 7 July 1859, Chev- became Postal
549. Lapotkovo skaya in Ryazan' Branch #99.)
550. Maloe-Malakhovo province. After 7 603. Panitskaya
551. Mar'ino July 1859, Pocha-604. Prishibinskaya
552. Mar'ino evskaya Lavra in 605. Pyatibyanskaya
553. Nikolaevka Zhitomir province) 606. Russkaya
575. Shiryaevskaya 607. Tykhovskaya
Khar'kov province:
554. Byelopol'e Chernigov province: Chita province:
555. Volovokhoyar- 576. Avdyeevka 608. Kabanskoe
skaya 577. Altynovka 609. Kajdanovskaya
556. Golaya Dolina 578. Berezna 610. Shelopukhinskaya
557. Kolomak 579. Brovary
558 Liptsy (after 12 580. Voronezh
December 1859, 581. Dremalovka Shemakha province:
Senkovskaya) 582. Dubrovnoe 611. Borguzinskaya
559. Novaya Vodolaga 583. Elionskoe 612. Geok-Tona
560. Rogan 584. Kolyt'yanskij 613. Karamaryanskaya
561. Dvurukskoe Khutor 614. Turyanchajskaya
585. Nesmyennaya
Kherson province: 586. Novomglinskaya Yaroslavl' province:
562. Vamskaya (after 23 April 615. Goryelovo
563. Vejlandova 1862, Ponurov- 616. Kindyash
564. Grigoriopol' skaya) 617. Makarovo
565. Dudranskaya 587. Nosovskaya 618. Petrovsk
566. Znachko- 588. Olyshevskaya 619. Prechistoe
Yavorskaya 589. Razdol'naya 620. Suminskaya
567. Slynka 590. Ryepki 621. Tunoshka
568. Maksimovskaya 591. Tuligolovo 622. Tufanovskaya

79






NUMBERS Podol'sk province, November 1858.
ANNOUNCED on 24 October 629. Petropavlovskaya -
LATER: 1858. Orenburg province,
623. Boromlya 626. Sergyeevskoe Tula on 24 November
Khar'kov province, province, on 24 No- 1858.
on 24 October vember 1858. 630. Prechistaya Smo-
1858. 627. Vojnovskie Vyselki lensk province, on
624. Gorbakovskaya Tula province, on 19 December 1858.
Zhitomir province, 24 November 631. Slobodskaya -
on 24 October 1858. Smolensk province,
1858. 628. Ashevo Pskov on 19 December
625. Voronovichi province, on 24 1858.

632. Marychinskaya ........ Smolensk province .... on 19 December 1858
633. Kisilevskaya ......... .Smolensk province .... on 19 December 1858
634. Pikhtovskaya ......... Vyatka province ...... on 19 December 1858
635. Ustlamenskaya ........Tobol'sk province ........ on 9 January 1859
636. Kandinskaya ..........Tobol'sk province ........ on 9 January 1859
637. Dem'yanovskaya ...... Tobol'sk province ........ on 9 January 1859
638. Yakimovichskaya ...... Minsk province .......... on 23 March 1859
639. Majdanskaya ......... Nizhnij Novgorod province on 23 March 1859
640. Kalinovka ............ Podol'sk province ......... on 25 April 1859
641. Peskovskaya .......... Voronezh province ........ on 25 April 1859
642. Krestovskaya ......... Irkutsk province .......... on 29 June 1859
643. Karaklis ............. Tiflis province .......... on 15 June 1859
644. Ukyrskaya ........... Chita province ....... on 17 September 1859
645. Klyazytsy ............ Vitebsk province ...... on 17 September 1859
and Starovyerovka ..... Poltava province ...... on 11 November 1861
646. Izborsk .............. Pskov province ....... on 25 September 1859
647. Patokovichskaya ...... Pskov province ....... on 25 September 1859
648. Ust'-Chenis-Chalskaya Tiflis province ........ on 5 November 1859
649. Nyeginskaya ......... Podol'sk province ...... on 5 December 1859
650. Razrytoe ............. Smolensk province .... on 15 December 1859
651. Ivanovskaya .......... Orel province .......... on 13 January 1860
652. Saltykovskaya ......... Orel province .......... on 13 January 1860
653. Yachinskaya .......... Orel province .......... on 13 January 1860
654. Konstantinovskaya ..... Cherkassk province ...... on 21 March 1860
655. Bazarovo ............. Ufa province ............ on 21 March 1860
656. Vygonichskaya ...... Orel province ............ on 27 April 1860
657. Bratovshchinskaya ..... Moscow province ......... on 27 April 1860
658. Zaolshanskaya ........ Moscow province ........ on 27 April 1860
659. ....... ...... UN KN OW N ..............
660. Launekaly .. ......... Livland province .......... on 11 July 1860
661. Romeskaly ......... Livland province ......... on 11 July 1860
662. Novonikolaevskaya ... Poltava province ......... on 22 August 1860
663. Tyupkildy ............ Orenburg province ....... on 4 October 1860
664. Yaprykovskaya ........ Orenburg province ....... on 4 October 1860
665. Tulupovskoe .......... Irkutsk province ...... on 30 November 1860
666. Topil'naya ............ Ekaterinoslav province on 30 November 1860
667. ............ .... UNKNOWN
668. Poltavskaya ......... .Orenburg province .... on 10 January 1861
669. Malinovskaya ......... Khar'kov province .... on 13 March 1861

80






670. ..................... UNKNOWN ..............
671. Krasnoyarsk ................................. on 13 March 1861
672. Olykskaya ............ Zhitomir province ........................
and Pokachevskaya ... .Zhitomir province........................
673. .................... UNKNOWN...........................
674. Yaryshevskaya ........ Podol'sk province ....... on 24 August 1861
675. Arro ................ Estland province .........................
676. M islanem ............ Estland province .........................
677. Zabyegaevskaya .......Smolensk province ...... on 10 January 1861
678. Pelistfer ............. Estland province ...... on 11 December 1861
and Ul'yaninskaya ..... Moscow province ..... on 11 December 1861
679. Berezovskaya ........ .Podol'sk province ..... on 11 December 1861
680. Kolkunovskaya ....... Tver' province........ on 11 December 1861
681. Ural'skaya ........... Orenburg province ........ on 19 April 1862
682. Sharlakskaya ..........Orenburg province ........ on 19 April 1862
683. Tatishchevskaya .......Orenburg province ........ on 19 April 1862
684. Urtazyumskaya ....... Orenburg province ........ on 19 April 1862
685. Stepnaya ............. Orenburg province ........ on 19 April 1862
686. Vasil'evskaya ......... Vologda province ..... on 11 December 1861
687. Fedorov ............. Tver' province ......... on 15 January 1862
688. Sarepta .............. Saratov province ........ on 15 January 1862
689. ..................... UNKNOWN...........................
690. Bozhukovskaya ...... .Smolensk province ...... on 9 February 1862
and Zarubezhskaya ..... Smolensk province ......... on 6 May 1863
691. Stockmanhof ......... Livland province ........ on 9 February 1862
692. Pokrovskaya .......... Amur region ............ on 19 April 1862
693. Valuevskaya .......... Tambov province ......... on 19 April 1862
694. Kuliki ............... Moscow province ......... on 19 April 1862
695. Kajdany ............. Kovno province .......... on 19 April 1862
696. Larskaya ............. Tiflis province ........... on 4 April 1862
697. Kiyasyttsy ... ......... Vitebsk province ........... on 4 April 1862
698. Nelyukshtany .........Kovno province ........... on 19 May 1862
699. Studenogutskaya ......Mogilev province .......... on 14 June 1862
700. Riga RR terminal ... Livland province .......... on 14 June 1862
701. Nagnibyedinskaya .....Ekaterinoslav province ...... on 13 July 1862
702. Marchenskaya ........ Ekaterinoslav province ...... on 13 July 1862
703. Romanovskaya ........ Ekaterinoslav province ...... on 13 July 1862
704. Palenskaya ...........Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
705. Tyaginskaya ..........Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
706. Sositskaya ............Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
707. Chemerleevskaya ......Kherson province .. ...... on 13 July 1862
708. El'zasskaya ...........Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
709. Znachkoyavorskaya .... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
710. Vejlandovskaya ....... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
711. Konstantinovskaya ..... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
712. Adzhamskaya ......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
713. Bajtal'skaya .......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
714. Gavrilovskaya ......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
715. Ingul ................ Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
716. Kompaneevskaya ......Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
717. Kondobenskaya ....... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
718. Krasnotraktirskaya .Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
719. Larievskaya .......... Kherson province ......... on 13 July 1862
720. Lorerovskaya ......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862

81






721. Lysogorskaya ......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
722. Linetskaya ........... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
723. Pavlyzhskaya ......... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
724. Petrovyerovskaya ...... Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
725. Byelozerskaya ........ Kherson province .......... on 13 July 1862
726. Elizavetino ........... St. Petersburg province ..... on 13 July 1862
727. Opol'e ............... St. Petersburg province .. on 13 July 1862
728. Lembovskaya ......... St. Petersburg province ..... on 13 July 1862
729. Bychkovskaya ........ .Voronezh province ......... on 25 July 1862
730. Fassovskaya ..........Zhitomir province .......... on 25 July 1862
731. Mezhuevo ............ Pskov province ......... on 20 August 1862
732. Teplyanka ........... Khar'kov province ......... on 25 July 1862
733. Krylasovo ............Perm' province.......... on 20 August 1862
734. Kuyazhskaya ......... Perm' province.......... on 20 August 1862
735. Loginovskaya ......... Perm' province.......... on 20 August 1862
736. Marii-Magdaliny ...... Estland province .......... on 25 July 1862
737. Zyumsimoshginskaya ... Vyatka province ........ on 28 August 1862
738. Lazovskaya ...........Vitebsk province ..... on 13 September 1862
739. Gamzelevskaya ....... .Vitebsk province ..... on 13 September 1862
740. Krasnokutskaya ....... Ekaterinoslav province on 13 September 1862
741. Baskakovskaya ........ Tver' province ......... on 30 October 1862
742. Eskinskaya ........... Tver' province ......... on 30 October 1862
743. Drozdovskaya .........Kaluga province ........ on 30 October 1862
744. Andreevskaya ......... Kaluga province ........ on 30 October 1862
745. Yarynskaya .......... Kaluga province ........ on 30 October 1862
746. Sherelovskaya ......... Kaluga province ........ on 30 October 1862
747. Kryukovo ............ Moscow province ..... on 17 September 1862
748. Kokryukinskaya ....... Kaluga province ........ on 30 October 1862
749. Zabyegalovskaya ...... Vyatka province ........ on 30 October 1862
750. Proninskaya .......... Vyatka province ........ on 30 October 1862
751. Kundyzhskaya ........Vyatka province ........ on 30 October 1862
752. Pyshnurovskaya ....... Vyatka province ........ on 30 October 1862
753. Rozhdestvenskaya ..... Perm' province ....... on 27 November 1862
754. Sorochskaya .......... Arkhangel'sk province on 27 November 1862
755. Chishagskaya ......... Minsk province ........ on 30 October 1862
756. Sukhodol'skaya ....... Tver' province ......... on 30 October 1862
757. Strekachevskaya ....... Tver' province ......... on 30 October 1862
758. D'yakonovskaya ....... Kursk province ......... on 30 October 1862
759. Medvyenka .......... Kursk province ......... on 30 October 1862
760. Kochetovskaya ........ Kursk province ......... on 30 October 1862
761. Boldyrevskaya ........ Kursk province ......... on 30 October 1862
762. Ivanovskaya .......... Kursk province ......... on 30 October 1862
763. Nesterovskaya ........ Vitebsk province ...... on 11 February 1863
764. Vasino .............. Smolensk province ...... on 30 October 1862
765. Mikhajlovskaya ...... .Smolensk province ...... on 30 October 1862
766. Merkulovskaya ........ Cherkassk province .... on 12 December 1862
767. Zakharovskaya ........ Cherkassk province .... on 12 December 1862
768. Bokovskaya .......... Cherkassk province .... on 12 December 1862
769. Bolushevskaya ........ Cherkassk province.... on 12 December 1862
770. Pogrebenki ........... Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862
771. Obidovichi .......... Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862
772. Zastyenki ............ Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862
773. Kazany ............ Mogilev province .... on 12 December 1862
774. Kolonijskaya .......... Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862

82






775. Seletskaya ........... Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862
776. Chechevichi .......... Mogilev province ..... on 12 December 1862
777, (Batum) ......... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY ..........
778. (Trebizond) .......... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
779. (Mytilene) ........... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
780. (Smyrna) ............ RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
781. (Mersina) ............ RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
782. (Alexandretta) ....... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
783. (Beirut) ............. RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
784. (Jaffa) .............. RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
785. (Alexandria) ......... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
786. ( ? ? ) ............. RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
787. (Salonica) ........... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY ..........
(Translator's note: the town-names for #'s 777-787 were taken from Tchilin-
ghirian and Stephen's "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad", Part 2.
The cancellers were delivered to the R.O.P.i T. on 12/24 December 1862.)
788. Posol'skaya ........... Chita province ....... on 12 December 1862
789. Kola ................ Arkhangel'sk province on 12 December 1862
790. Vostrovskaya ......... Vologda province ..... on 31 December 1862
791. Fominskaya .......... Vologda province ..... on 31 December 1862
792. Yavgildino ........... Ufa province ......... on 31 December 1862
793. Seruchskaya .......... Vitebsk province ........ on 21 January 1863
794. Vazalutskaya ......... Ekaterinoslav province ... on 21 January 1863
795. Stalinechty ........... Kishinev province ....... on 21 January 1863
796. Ust'-Izhora ...........St. Petersburg province .. on 21 January 1863
797. Ovchinninskaya ....... Vladimir province ...... on 11 February 1863
798. Ryazantsevskaya ...... .Vladimir province ...... on 11 February 1863
799. Borisovskaya ......... Vladimir province ..... on 11 February 1863
800. Bol'she-Malakhovskaya Tula province .......... on 29 January 1863
801. Bogoslavskaya ........ Tula province .......... on 29 January 1863
802. Yasenki ............. Tula province .......... on 29 January 1863
803. Dzhurmen ........... Simferopol' province .... on 11 February 1863
804. Chernaya Dolina ...... Simferopol' province .... on 11 February 1863
805. Monastyrchenskaya .... Vologda province ...... on 11 February 1863
806. Plyeshkovskaya ....... Tver' province ........ on 11 February 1863
807. Raspopovskaya ........Orel province ......... on 11 February 1863
808. Poznyakovskaya ...... .Orel province ........ on 11 February 1863
809. Koshelevskaya ........ Orel province ......... on 11 February 1863
810. Anisovskaya .......... Orel province ......... on 11 February 1863
811. Lednevskaya .......... Orel province ......... on 11 February 1863
812. ................... .. RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........
813. Megletsy ............. Novgorod province ...... on 28 January 1863
814. Evdokimovo .......... Kostroma province ...... on 28 January 1863
815. Kuznechikha ......... Kostroma province ...... on 28 January 1863
816. Kolshevo ............. Kostroma province ...... on 28 January 1863
817. Russko-Kondratskaya Simbirsk province ...... on 28 January 1863
818. Urensko-Karlinskaya ... Simbirsk province ...... on 28 January 1863
819. Shumovskaya ........ .Simbirsk province ...... on 28 January 1863
820. S'yady ............... Kovno province .......... on 15 April 1863
821. Usinskaya ............Vyatka province .......... on 15 April 1863
822. Akhalkalaki ..........Tiflis province ............ on 8 July 1863
823. ......... . . ... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY ..........
824. ..................... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY .........

83






825. .................... RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY ..........
827. .....................RUSSIAN OFFICES IN TURKEY ..........
828. Alzamajskaya ......... Irkutsk province ............ on 6 May 1863
829. Amchinskaya ......... Irkutsk province ............ on 6 May 1863
830. Kutulikskaya ........ Irkutsk province ............ on 6 May 1863
831. Myena .............. Chernigov province ... on .September 1863
832. Kabanskaya .......... Chita province ....... on .September 1863
833. Kavykuchigazimirskaya .Chita province ....... on .September 1863
834. Kulskaya ............ Chita province ....... on .September 1863
835. Gorodishchenskaya .... Chita province ....... on .September 1863
836. Mukhoshibirskaya ..... Chita province ....... on .September 1863
837. Tinskaya ............. Krasnoyarsk province .. on .September 1863
838. Bartojskaya ........... Krasnoyarsk province .. on .September 1863
839. Saledeevskaya ......... Krasnoyarsk province .. on .September 1863
840. Taskinskaya .......... Krasnoyarsk province .. on September 1863
841. Didrikyul' ............ Livland province ..... on September 1863
842. Ramotskij ............ Livland province . on September 1863
843. Segewold ............ Livland province ..... on September 1863
844. Zelisharov ............ Tver' province ....... on September 1863
845. Verkhovka ........... Podol'sk province ..... on September 1863
846. Shkudy .............. Kovno province ...... on September 1863
847. Kletskaya ............ Cherkassk province ... on September 1863
The provincial capitals' Post Offices were not notified of #'s 848-1700,
so it is not possible to list them.


WITHDRAWAL OF NUMERICAL POSTMARKS
As the introduction of numerical postmarks proceeded in stages, so too
did their withdrawal. These postmarks, which had been assigned to the first
five categories of postal establishments (Table VII, illus. 17-21), were with-
drawn by the Main Postal Administration's Circular of 11 February 1863,
#123. All General Post Offices, provincial, district and military district Post
Offices, and also all Postal Branch Offices, were instructed in the Circular
to return their numerical cancellers to the Postal Department. Thenceforth
they were to use the new handstamps, applying the same postmark to each
letter twice-once as a town datestamp, and the second as a cancellation
of the stamp(s).
Postal Stations, branch offices (Sections) at railroad stations, and
steamship agencies of the Russian Post in Turkey were, according to the
Circular mentioned above, to continue cancelling stamps with the numerical
handstamps. Their use was finally halted by the Circular of 20 October
1877, which replaced them with the new handstamps for datestamp and
cancellation purposes.

NEW CIRCULAR POSTMARKS AS DATESTAMPS
AND CANCELLERS
In the Main Postal Administration's Circular of 12 April 1860, #53,
all Postal Establishments were advised that, in view of the proliferation
of different handstamps used for townmarks and dispatch markings, the
Postmaster General was ordering the use of new handstamps of a common

84







design. These had been manufactured in Berlin, were made of steel, had
adjustable dates, and were to be utilized immediately upon receipt. By
way of explanation, it was added that these handstamps were to be used
both for dispatch and arrival markings; thus, the earlier-dated postmark on
a letter would show the time of dispatch, and the later-dated one would
show the arrival time. In addition, the Establishments were admonished to
use the best printer's ink for the handstamps, and especially to pay attention
to the clarity of the impression. The best quality black printer's ink was to
be used for the cancelling of stamps, but nevertheless, in spite of these
instructions, red and blue inks were not infrequently used. This prompted
the Postal Department to issue repeated statements in circulars forbidding
the use of these colors, and ordering that only black be used. (Circulars of
21 May 1860, #18, 10 January 1861, #22, and others.) However, despite
these measures red and blue inks continued to be employed in numerous
instances. Several cities, in fact, apparently used one or the other of these
prohibited colors exclusively. Later, besides the red and blue cancels, green
ones and, in the 1880's, violet ones began to appear (on the 1883-issue
stamps and those following). Red cancellations on those issues disappeared.
Cancellation colors other than black are much less frequently encountered,
and must accordingly be valued more.


CIRCULAR POSTMARKS -TYPE I
The newly established postmarks were completely uniform in appear-
ance. For the capital Pochtamts, they consisted of two concentric circles,
while for all other Post Offices and Branches, single-circle postmarks 26mm.
in diameter were assigned. Within and along the line of the circle at a dis-
tance of 1mm. were situated the place-name (at the top, with the letters
3mm. high), small, star-shaped ornaments (arabesques) at the bottom, and
a date comprised of three lines in the center. This was the first type of the
new circular postmarks. (Table VIII, illus. 1-13, 21-23)
A few years later, however, various deviations from the norm began to
appear, increasing gradually in number and variety until eventually varia-
tions in all details of the postmarks could be found-their dimensions, let-
ters, numbers, ornamentations, and all features of the inscriptions. Thus once
again the postmarks displayed a great variety in appearance and in their
methods of manufacture.

Examples of Type I postmarks

No. Diameter At top Center At bottom Table VIII

1. 26 MM. C. IeTep6ypr 29 Iro. 1860 I 3 C n ....
2. 26 MM. Moc K Ba 31Maii 1862 I 3 Kc n .
3. 26 MM. C. leTep6yprL 21 Anp. 1869 VII3 K c n. p. 1.
4. 26 MM. JI H 6 a B a 24 (DeB. 1862 (apa6ecici) p. 2.
5. 26 MM. HiKeropoA. 1865 Asr. 13 (apa6ecic)? p. 3.
6. 5IpMapKa.
7. 26 MM. 0 n e c c a 14 IIOK)H. 1867 (apa6ecic). p. 4.
8. 26 MM. B H Jn b H a 30 Anp. 1875 (apa6ecici). p. 5.

85







9. 26 MM. Moc KBa 24 (DeB. 1875 V3 K c n. T. XI, p. 1.
10. 26 MM. M o c K Ba 9 OKT. 1873 lacT. ncia......
27 MM. BapmaBa. 14 OKT. 1876 3KcnI. om. npocT. p. 22.
Kop. H nOCbluJOK-b
11. 25 MM. C. IIeTep6ypra 4 CeH. 1879 3Kcn. np. npocT. p. 6.
BHyTp. KOp.
12. 25 MM. C. IeTep6yprb 11 HoA. 1880 3Kcnee. np. p. 7.
HHOCTp. KOpp.
13. 24 MM. MocKBa 17 Maa 1884 HHOCTp. 3KCn. p. 9.
14. 26 MM. Bapinmaa. 8 HoA. 1871 3K. np.npocT. Kop. p. 21.
15. 26 MM. BapiuaBa. 16 CeH. 1881 3Kcn. np. H Bb1s. p. 23.
HHOCTp. KOpp.
16. 26 MM. IIIeHKypCKb. 28 OKT. 1882 (apa6ecic) p. 8.
17. 25 MM. O g e c c a 27 Anp. 1885 (norroB. poNacG) p. 10.
18. 26 MM. H e r a 25 DeB. 1886 (apa6ecKa) p. 11.
19. 24 MM. MocKBa 27 Iio. 1888 IV 3K C I. p. 12.
20. 22 MM. HapBa, CHIBypr. 31 ABr. 1892 IIorr. Ten. KOHT. p. 13.

Note: No. 5 is a rare temporary postmark, as the Nizhnij-Novgorod An-
nual Fair lasted only 6 weeks each year, from the middle of July to the end of
August. No. 17 (illus. 10) with posthorns is seldom encountered. Cities using
posthorns on their postmarks were: Odessa, Derpt, Wesenberg, Kutais, Alek-
sandrov-Pogranichnyj, and also the Moscow City Post (Table IX, illus. 21 & 23).
No. 8 is a red cancel on cover, the cover having a diamond-shaped postmark
with a double frame, also red, 35 x 28mm., with a date but no town-name.
(Table XI, illus. 7) At the present time, the purpose of these postmarks is un-
known. They are found on covers from the 1870's addressed to places abroad,
and only with Moscow postmarks.


CIRCULAR POSTMARKS-TYPE II
New handstamps intended for postmarking purposes were introduced
in a Circular of the Main Post and Telegraph Administration Chief dated
5 March 1890, #13. In these, the month was designated by a Roman nu-
meral (Type 2). These postmarks came into use gradually, replacing the
previous ones when those wore out (see Appendix 2). All are single-circle
postmarks. (Rarely, two (concentric) circles.)

Examples of Type II postmarks

No. Diameter At top Center At bottom Table VIII

1. 27 MM. C. IeTep6yprb 1. 18-92. III 5 3 K C .....
2. 25 MM. Moc KBa 2. 18-92. IX I 3KcneHr1iA
3. 26 MM. P eBe ji 16. 18-92. X ]Horr. Ten. KoHT..
4. 25 MM. MOC KBa 3. 18-94. IV I 3KcCneIHuia
5. 26 MM. BapumaBa 19. 18-99. IV H. K. V. 3. p. 24.
6. 23 MM. KmHmHeB1,, Bec. 12. 19-07. IX Ioorr. Ten. KOHT .
7. 27 MM. C. IeTep6ypra 12. 19-13. VI 5. 3 K C n p. 16.


Note: For other examples of Type II postmarks, see: Table IX, illus. 24;
Table X, illus. 1 & 2; Table XI, illus. 27; Table XII, illus. 10, 24 & 25.

86





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