• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 The romance of Florida
 Tour of Florida
 Location and agriculture
 Mineral resources of Florida
 Industries
 Finance
 Transportation
 Recreation and the tourist...
 Ethnological
 History
 Schools
 Individual counties
 Outline of Florida state gover...














Title: Know your State
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020429/00001
 Material Information
Title: Know your State
Physical Description: 232 p. : illus., maps (part col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: <Tallahassee>
Publication Date: 1944
 Subjects
Subject: Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T. J. Brooks.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020429
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000677028
oclc - 06974064
notis - ADL7817
lccn - 46027259

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    The romance of Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Tour of Florida
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Location and agriculture
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
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        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Mineral resources of Florida
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Industries
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Finance
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Transportation
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Recreation and the tourist industry
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Ethnological
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    History
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Schools
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Individual counties
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
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        Page 150
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        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Outline of Florida state government
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
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Full Text





now O

Your


State



'By
c'. J. Brooks
A assistant Commissioner
of Agriculture


September, 1944


STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner




















State Capitol building, Tallahassce

wl o1wp"


Governor's Mansion, Tallahassee









PR-E F A C E


Lack of information concerning one's own state is quite
noticeable in all walks of life. This should not be the case
when the opportunities of obtaining information are so

plentiful.

No one volume has been published that covers all phases
of Florida in a comprehensive and yet concise method of
treatment. He who becomes familiar with the contents
of this text will be able to converse intelligently on the
various resources and affairs of the state.

There is no more useful and cultural knowledge to be
obtained than concerning the country in which one lives
and its relation with the rest of the world.

The location of Florida on the map shows that its future
will develop opportunities not hitherto possible because
of vast changes in the trade routes after World War II,
and the increased use of those things grown on her farms
and produced in her factories. The diversity of her crops
and the seasons when marketed make these things possible.

A good practice would be to ask as many questions
about the state as possible and see how many can be an-
S swered by a study of this volume.

192190









CONTENTS
Chapter
1. The Romance of Florida 5
2. Tour of Florida .. ..... 15
3. Location and Agriculture .. 29
(a) Climate 30
(b) Soil . ... 34
(c) Physical Features .. ... 39
(d) Crops . .. 47
4. Mineral Resources . . 69
5. Industries. . .. 81
(a) Yellow Pine Industry 88
(b) Pulp and Paper Industry 89
(c) Wood Container Industry 91
(d) Liquid Gold from Florida Pines 92
(e) Fishing Industry .. .... 93
6. Finance . 97
7. Transportation . .. 101
8. Recreation and the Tourist Industry 108
(a) State Parks . .. 113
9. Ethnological . .. 116
(a) Trend of Population 117
(b) Country of Origin of White Stock,
of Nativity of Florida 118
(c) Seminoles . .. 120
10. H history . 123
11. Schools . 139
(a) Universities and Colleges 143
12. Individual Counties . .. 144
13. Outline of State Government .. .209













CHAPTER 1


THE ROMANCE OF FLORIDA

The Romance of Florida is indeed colorful. The orig-
inal inhabitants were wild men of the jungles and forests.
They looked upon the white man as an intruder. The
haughty manner of approach of the first explorers gave
the Indian this impression, which made him an impla-
cable enemy of the white man.
The pioneers who settled the territory now occupied
by the State of Florida endured all the hardships and
deprivations incidental to the settling of a new country
inhabited by hostile tribes.
The fortunes of war between European countries caused
Florida to be claimed by three different governments in
the old world, and the war between the states shifted the
state to the confederacy and back to the Federal Union.
The countries of the old world were:
Spain
France
England

Those of the new world were:
The United States
The Confederate States












---N


Relief Map of
Florida


6


0 r 0 ,A




























Old Spanish Fort San Marcos at St. Augustine


Perhaps it is impossible to find such a variety of history
in any other State of our Union. It has had four periods
of history under Spain, one under France, one under Eng-
land, one under the Confederate States and three under
the Stars and Stripes. The dates run as follows for what
we know as Florida:

Spain had it from 1559 to 1718. '
France had it from 1718 to 1723.
Spain again had it from 1723 to 1763.
Great Britain had it from 1763 to 1781.
Spain again had it from 1781 to 1818.
United States had it from 1818 to 1819.
Spain had it again from 1819 to 1821.
7


j








United States had it from 1821 to 1861. > '
Southern Confederacy had it from 1861 to 1865.
United States again had it from 1865 to 1944.

Each of these changes meant that a war was waged to
bring it about.

The marks of different stages of civilization are vari-
ous in parts of the state. Such as the old forts that the
Spanish built in St. Augustine and Pensacola, the shifting
of population to certain parts of the state, like Jackson-
ville, Tampa, Pensacola and Miami, and the rural popu-
lation gathered in the fruit and trucking sections.

After the civil war men of vision and capital launched
projects that meant the rapid development of the state.
William Plant projected a railroad from Jacksonville-to
Tampa and Henry M. Flagler built a railroad from Jack-
sonville down the East Coast to Key West.

Wm. Dudley Chipley was a leading developer of the
extreme western part of the state.

Rapid transportation made it possible for the resources
of the state to be exploited and the products sold to the
northern markets. Timber was the first and greatest re-
source. Wood-using industries multiplied. Naval stores
came in for additional profits from the forests, reaching
into the millions; fisheries also in millions, especially when
canning of oysters came into vogue.

The largest agricultural increase came when citrus
fruits and truck farms assumed leading roles. The fact


i



























Old Spanish Mission near New Smyrna Beach


that these crops are marketed mainly from November to
March gives the growers of these crops an advantage over
other sections of the country.

Later on the abolition of the cattle tick encouraged the
establishing of ranches and introduction of purebred cat-
tle which vastly increased the value of the cattle industry.
The mineral resources proved to be of prime impor-
tance. The use of phosphate as an ingredient of fertilizer
gave Florida a lead in the production of that mineral.
Clays that yield tile, brick and ceramics were found in
abundance.
The population of the state from 1930 to 1940 showed
the greatest increase of the 48 states. This was no acci-








dent. The inducements which the state offered attracted
citizens from all over the country. The census of 1940
showed 2,800,000. The area of Florida is 35,000,000
acres. Only 2,500,000 are in actual cultivation.

The advantageous location of Florida on trade routes
between the eastern parts of the United States and the
Latin American countries insure a tremendous growth of
commercial interests in Florida ports. The future com-
merce with Latin America will gradually assume the rela-
tive importance of the Eastern ports in trade with Europe.

New enterprises are continually being developed from
crops and by-products that mean much to the future suc-
cess of the state.

If you could live where you please, would you choose

"Greenland's icy mountains"
or
"India's torrid strand"?

Do zero blizzards or simoons appeal to you?

Florida has neither snow-capped peaks nor equatorial
heat; but she has what is better-

She has the same isothermal zone as did ancient Thebes
and Luxor when they flourished in the valley of the mystic
Nile; the same as that of Babylon, the magnificent, with
her hanging gardens on the banks of the Euphrates, when
she ruled a continent; the same as that of Jerusalem, the
holy city of Palestine, with its fabulous wealth and tem-
10



























Royal palms line many Florida avenues


pled shrines when Solomon reigned in all his glory; the
same as that of Athens when she was the intellectual capital
of the world and crowned with architectural splendor the
hills of classic Greece; the same as that of Carthage when
she disputed the sovereignty of the world with imperial
Rome; the same as that of Naples, nestling between Mount
Vesuvius, topped with Delphic flames, and her beautiful
bay of which the poet said:

"With dreamful eyes my spirit lies
Beneath the walls of paradise".

Florida, the birthplace of the nation, where America's
oldest city attests by landmarks the presence of pioneers
11







of the Spanish Main, and other cities which sprung full
panoplied into being without knowing the period of swad-
dling clothes.

Florida, where millions of fruit trees are bowed with
golden globes and ruddy moons and grape vines stagger
with their own purple clusters; where gardens furnish the
dining tables of a nation with bounties of fresh food when
frost locks northern soils in ice.

Florida, where palm trees bend to the ocean breeze and
inland jungles show the same "primeval forests with
flowing beards as druids of old", as they did when DeLeon
and DeSoto penetrated them in the vain pursuit of gold
and of the fabled fountain of youth.

Florida, where the song birds make of the forests melo-
dious choirs-

"Whose household words are songs in many keys
Sweeter than instrument of man e'er caught".

Where the mocking bird weaves the melodies of all other
song birds into the sweetest medleys and pours them forth
in ecstacy in front of your window as the dawn of day
calls you from your slumbers, and again at evening when
night's sable curtain calls you back to dreamland.

Florida, where eight thousand miles of hard-surfaced
roads tempt you over hills, by thousands of clear lakes that
mirror pine, palm and live oaks draped in flowing gray-
green moss; the lakes are alive with the finny tribe whose
endless dive and swirl make the waters the anglers' haven
of rest.


12








As one speeds along in early spring he sees orange trees
abloom with the state flower, the air is redolent with the
perfume of Eden, and brides want no gaudier crown than
a wreath of orange blossoms.

As summer follows spring, the modest oleander bedecks
with petaled blooms and the stately magnolia waves its
snow-white plumes. When frost should fall, the splendid
poinsettia buds with tinseled leaf and flower, the hibiscus
begins its flood of brilliance, and the gorgeous flame vine
glows in regal splendor. As winter bites in states to the
north, the japonica, both white and red, dispute with the
rose, followed by the azalea, yellow jasmine, the dogwood,
the crab apple, and the Cherokee Rose, all speaking the
language of beauty.

Florida, where splendid highways stretch invitingly
along hundreds of miles of as fine beaches as can be found
in the world; laved by limpid waves of enchanting seas
beckoning you to come and play with them on the bossom
of the vasty deep.

Above you is the turquoise sky, around you the ocean
breezes and the salubrious climate of the semi-tropical
zone. Along the shore, stretch miles of golden sands, hard-
packed by Neptune's restless feet, where speed-machines
set the world's record; modern nymphs frolic in exuber-
ant glee and youth and age get a zest for life in nature's
healthorium.

Florida, "the sun-parlor of a continent," "the play-
ground of the world," "the empire of the sun," "the tour-
13








ists' bivouac," "the sportsman's paradise," "the birthplace
of the nation," "the citizen's choice of all lands,"

Where art and nature join their crafts
In a kingdom by southern seas.

Her hopes are high beneath the sky
Where progress speeds on elfin wings;
Here tourists roam, though far from home
And feel the pulse that friendship bring gs.







LAND OF OPPORTUNITY

Florida has no state bonded debt.
No state income tax.
No general sales tax.
No tax on homesteads up to the value of $5,000.
No state tax on lands.
No poll tax.
New industries are exempt from taxes for fifteen years.
Florida has more sunshine in winter and less in summer than
any other state.
The mean annual temperature ranges from 68.8 to 72.3.
The average rainfall is 52.4 inches.
The health giving properties of Florida's vitamin rich sunshine
is world famous and is one of the richest natural resources to be
found anywhere.
14













CHAPTER 2


A TOUR OF FLORIDA

If we could start at the extreme northeastern corner of
Florida, where it borders on Georgia and on the Atlantic
Ocean, we could make an extremely interesting and prac-
tically complete tour of the state without crossing our own
path many times.

By going south we would reach Jacksonville, often called
the gateway to Florida, and its largest city. It is located
on the St. Johns river, 20 miles from the Atlantic Coast
and is a great commercial center. In its port may be seen
craft from all over the world. It offers visitors the ad-
vantage of many beautiful parks and opportunities for
recreation.

Near Jacksonville is the scene of many important events
in Florida's early history. At St. Augustine, to the south,
we find old buildings constructed by the early Spanish
settlers and narrow streets overhung by balconies of old
houses. Old Fort San Marco, the Slave Market, the
ancient cathedral, the oldest house in America and other
interesting sights may be seen here. A large new bridge
connects the city with Anastasia Island, where material
for building was first found by the European colonists.
15








Going south from St. Augustine we may take the in-
land road, through Bunnell, county seat of Flagler County,
or we may follow the beach highway across Matanzas
Inlet bridge. This passes through Summer Haven, Flagler
Beach and Ormond, former home of John D. Rocke-
feller. Five miles below this point is Daytona Beach,
which is located partly on the mainland and partly on an
island. Four bridges connect these sections. Daytona
Beach has been known as a tourist center for many years,
and scores of prominent people have spent their winters
here for long periods of time. One of the best known
features of this east coast city is its famous automobile
speedway on the beach, where records for automobile
racing have been made for a long time.


Part of business district and docks in Jacksonville
16


I






























Bandstand at Daytona Beach


Inland from Daytona Beach lies DeLand, county seat
of Volusia County, a progressive city which offers many
attractions to tourists and lies in the center of a productive
agricultural and fruit growing section.


Still farther south is New Smyrna where a very early
Spanish settlement was made. Ruins of the old fort and
Mission are still standing.


Titusville, Cocoa, Rockledge and Eau Gallie are towns
with many advantages, and through them we pass on south
to Melbourne and Vero Beach. We are now in the heart
of the famous Indian River fruit growing country which
is known the world over for its citrus fruit. Fort Pierce,
250 miles south of Jacksonville, is another important coast-
17


~jp ~ : s .t

-~
,

xrlS
c ~~ad~R.























































Part of patio of Ringling Art Museum, Sarasota



18



























Biscayne Park and downtown Miami


al town which was a fort and trading center in Florida's
early days. Stuart, in Martin County, is opposite the St.
Lucie River Inlet.

Three hundred miles below Jacksonville we reach Palm
Beach and West Palm Beach, world-renowned pleasure
resorts for wealthy winter visitors. These beautiful cities
are separated by Lake Worth and bridges offer convenient
transportation from one to the other.

Still farther south we have the town of Lake Worth,
after which we reach Ft. Lauderdale, county seat of
Broward county. It is located on the New River and has
a deep-sea port in Port Everglades. Seminole Indians
live near here and are often seen in Ft. Lauderdale and
19








her neighboring city, Hollywood. Below these we come
to Miami, built on the site of old Fort Dallas, which is the
leading city of the lower East Coast and is one of Florida's
most important resort centers.

Below Miami are Homestead, in the agricultural and
fruit growing section, Royal Palm State Park, where royal
palms and other tropical vegetation grow wild, and the
Florida Keys, a long chain of islands extending out into
the ocean below the tip of the Florida peninsula. The
trip across the Keys may be taken on the highway. At the
end is the city of Key West, southernmost city of the
United States, where frost is never known and the houses
are built without chimneys. This is a shipping point, a
cigar manufacturing center and a fishing and trading port
of importance.

We may return to Miami and cross the Tamiami Trail
to the West Coast. This well-known highway was blasted
out of solid rock for many miles and took several years to
build. It crosses the Everglades and gives a good oppor-
tunity to inspect this remarkable area. On reaching the
nearest point on the highway we may turn off of the main
road a few miles to the town of Everglades, the county
seat of Collier county, or we may continue up the high-
way to Ft. Myers, passing through Naples, near Sanibel
Island and through Estero. Ft. Myers was once an army
post and is famous as the winter home of the late Thomas
A. Edison. It has many attractions for tourists and is an
agricultural and shipping center. It is on the Caloosa-
hatchee River and is near the Gulf of Mexico. Continu-


20



























Tampa, with part of Davis Islands in foreground


ing up the West Coast we reach Punta Gorda, county seat
of Charlotte County, on the south shore of Peace River,
near Charlotte Harbor.

Passing through Venice, another tourist center, we reach
Sarasota, known as the winter home of Ringling Brothers
circus. It is a resort town with many attractions and the
first golf course in America was laid out here. The next
town of importance is Bradenton, county seat of Manatee
County, which is on the Manatee River and has both
recreational attraction and agricultural importance.

The next city is Tampa, leading metropolis of the West
Coast, situated on Tampa Bay. Ybor City is its picturesque
Spanish quarter. Tampa has a long and interesting history
21








and is a twentieth century city of commercial, industrial
and agricultural importance. It is the principal shipping
center of the peninsular part of the west coast and is sur-
rounded by a productive fruit growing and vegetable grow-
ing region. St. Petersburg, a short distance from Tampa,
is connected with it by the famous Gandy Bridge, one of
the longest bridges in the world. Clearwater, north of
St. Petersburg and west of Tampa, is the county seat of
Pinellas County and is a well known tourist center. A
long causeway connects it with Clearwater Beach, a splen-
did bathing beach. Tarpon Springs is known for its sponge
fishing industry, which is very important, and Dade City,
Brooksville and Inverness are inland towns in the west
coast agricultural section. Cedar Keys, Yankeetown,


Municipal Pier, St. Petersburg
22




























Part of Orlando, with one of its many lakes


Crystal River and Homosassa are hunting and fishing
centers. Plant City, east of Tampa, is in the heart of the
strawberry growing section.

If we had returned up the East Coast from Miami, instead
of crossing the Tamiami Trail to the West Coast, we might
have turned from the highway at West Palm Beach and
crossed to the shores of Lake Okeechobee and the town
of Okeechobee. Passing on across the Everglades on a
splendid modern highway we reach Lake Anne, at the
foot of the Ridge or hill section, where we turn north
through Lake Placid to Sebring. Side roads would have led
us to Arcadia and Wauchula, agricultural towns of im-
portance. Sebring is a citrus center with a great many
23


I












1


Singing Tower at Mountain Lake


24



























One of Lakeland's beautiful lakes


winter visitors. Continuing north we pass through Avon
Park, another citrus growing center, and on various roads
of this section we pass through Frostproof, Babson Park,
Dundee, Lake Hamilton, Haines City and Davenport,
all important towns of the Ridge section. At Lake Wales
we find the famous Bok Tower or Carillon, given by
Edward Bok to the people of America.

In this beautiful structure are a series of carillon bells
on which an expert bell-ringer performs.

Bartow, county seat of Polk County, is one of the oldest
towns of this section and is important for its citrus, vege-
tables and phosphate production.
25







Auburndale, Polk City, Winter Haven, Lakeland, Mul-
berry, and Fort Meade are all important in this section.
Kissimmee is the county seat of Osceola County. Orlando,
county seat of Orange County is one of the leading cities
of Central Florida. It has 31 lakes within the town, and
is an important center for winter recreation and for fruit
and vegetable growing. Winter Park, seat of Rollins Col-
lege is near Orlando. Sanford, county seat of Seminole
county is the leading celery producing section. Eustis,
Tavares and Mount Dora are in the beautiful lake section
of Lake County, where many advantages of enjoyment
and farming are found. Ocala is the county seat of Marion
County, and near it is the famous Silver Springs. Ocala
is a progressive city in the agricultural and commercial
life of Central Florida. At Gainesville is situated the Uni-
versity of Florida. It is an excellent farming section.
Palatka, Green Cove Springs, Penney Farms, Starke and
Lake Butler lie in the general section between Gainesville
and Jacksonville, and to the north of Gainesville are High
Springs, Lake City and White Springs, near Georgia line.

Still another interesting trip can be made through Flor-
ida by starting at Jacksonville and going west through
Baldwin, Lake City, Live Oak, Madison, and Monticello
to Tallahassee, Florida's capital city. The Florida State
College for Women, also the Florida A & M college for
negroes are located here. Southeast of Tallahassee is Perry,
county seat of Taylor. Near Perry is Hampton Springs,
noted for its medicinal qualities. South of Tallahassee is
the old port of St. Marks. Newport, located on the St.
Marks River is the seat of new industries. The battlefield
of Natural Bridge is near here and there are many nearby
26



























The song-famed Suwannee River


points of historical interest. Carrabelle and Apalachicola
are fishing towns on the gulf. Wakulla Springs, near
Tallahassee, is a large limestone spring which is the head
waters of the navigable Wakulla River. West of Apa-
lachicola are Port St. Joe and Panama City, both fishing,
industrial and shipping centers. Blountstown and
Wewahitchka are near the famous Dead Lakes, where
deep water stands in a forest of dead cypress trees and fish
are abundant. Camp Walton and Valparaiso are two gulf
towns which are predominantly fishing and recreational
centers. On the Old Spanish Trail west of Tallahassee are
Quincy, center of the tobacco industry, River Junction,
where the meridian indicates a change from Eastern Stand-
ard time, and Marianna, located in one of the best farm-
27








ing counties of the state. Bonifay, Chipley and Milton
and DeFuniak are other county seat towns of this section.
Pensacola, located on Pensacola Bay and on the Old Span-
ish Trail is one of the leading industrial and shipping
centers in the state. This is one of the oldest points in the
state and has much historical interest.










FLORIDA PHYSICAL FACTS

Total area of State, square miles ............... 58,666
Total land area, square miles .................. 54,861
Total water area, square miles ................. 3,805
Land area of state in acres ............. ..... 35,111,040
All land in farms in acres ................... 5,940,229
Number of farms ........................... 60,000
Acres of land assessed for taxation .............. 33,909,483
Mileage of highways (hard-surfaced) .......... 8,000
Mileage of railroads (trunk lines) .............. 6,468
Number of counties ....................... 67
Number of public schools ..................... 2,002
Maximum elevation of state above sea level, ft..... 324.3
Average rainfall per annum ................... 52.4
Annual normal temperature ................... 70.8


28













CHAPTER 3


LOCATION AND AGRICULTURE

Florida is the most southern of the forty-eight states.
A large part of the state is a peninsula, and the waters of
the warm Gulf Stream flow near the western, southern
and much of the eastern shores. This means that the cli-
mate is more nearly tropical than any of the other states.

Florida has plenty of rainfall and the warm climate
makes it possible to grow fruits and vegetables that ripen
in the fall, winter, and spring months, when the states to
the north can grow nothing-unless it is done on a small
scale in a hot-house.

The mean annual temperature is from 68.8 degrees to
72.3 degrees. It has more sunshine in winter and less in
the summer than the northern states. This, in part, ex-
plains why Florida winters are mild and the summers do
not produce sunstroke. The longer summer nights, as
compared with those of northern states, give the earth
time to cool, and the shorter nights in winter, as compared
with those of northern states, do not allow the cold to
reach low degrees.

Florida is within the same isothermal zone as the Ma-
deira Islands, southern Spain, Sicily, Egypt, southern
29







Palestine, northern Arabia, northern Mexico, southern
California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico,
southern Texas, and southern Louisiana.

FLORIDA CLIMATE

The term climate is broad and somewhat indefinite as
it does not carry a uniform meaning or impression to every-
one. To the average person climate refers to weather con-
ditions at the moment and is determined by mildness or
severity alone.

Florida climate is classified as insular with the chief
factors of control given as, (a), latitude; (b), elevation
above sea level; and (c), proximity to the Gulf of Mexico
or the Atlantic Ocean. These factors plus the element of
sunshine, which is found here to a greater degree than
other parts of the country, create a solar-marine influence
that applies to animal and plant life, as well as that of
man, and offers many advantages in the pursuit of agri-
culture not found elsewhere.

Situated between latitudes 24 degrees, 32 minutes and
31 degrees north and longitudes 79 degrees, 48 minutes
and 87 degrees, 38 minutes west, the state has a geographic
range of nearly 8 degrees in latitude. A difference of 4
degrees in latitude, Jacksonville to Miami, gives about
a 6 degree change in temperature.

Because of this geographic range and solar-marine in-
fluence of ocean and gulf the state has the distinction of
having three separate climatic belts, or divisions-conti-
nental, semi-tropical and sub-tropical.
30
























TOPOGRAPHIC EXPLANATION

-- Less than 25'
2,5'-70'
70'-100'
100'-170'

170'-215'
Above 215'


RI d
V.

C"c






110,


Courtesy of
United States Department of Agriculture


For observation purposes the U. S. Weather Bureau

divides Florida into two sections-Northern Florida and

Southern Florida. All of the state situated north of lati-

tude 28 degrees, 55 minutes comprises the Northern sec-

tion and that lying south of the 28 degree, 55 minute line

is in the Southern division.


Due to the influence of the Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean,

the climate is fairly uniform over the Northern section,

there being a difference of only about 3 degrees in the

average mean temperatures. July temperatures average

31


___ ~


'*C-MA^B







about 81 degrees, October 71 degrees, January 55 degrees
and April 68 degrees. Temperature averages do not differ
much over the southern section, the average annual tem-
perature at Miami being only 3 degrees higher than that
of Orlando. Averages for the winter months show as much
as 6 degrees difference, while those of the summer season
show practically none.

The nature of the products grown in either section de-
pends more largely (from a climate standpoint) upon the
frequency and degree of cold occasionally experienced
than it does upon the average annual temperatures. There-
fore agriculture must be governed by the dates of killing
frosts, the number of days below certain temperatures.

July and August are the warmest months with an aver-
age of about 81 degrees; thereafter a steady decline to
59 degrees in December and January is noted. There is a
difference of only 3 degrees between the spring and summer
averages. The summers are warmer in the interior than
on the coast, and the winters are colder; the range between
them, however, being very slight.

The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean are the chief
sources of Florida precipitation. The average annual pre-
cipitation in Florida is 52.29 inches. The seasonal rain-
fall is distributed as follows: Winter, 3.00 inches per
month; Autumn, 4.39 inches; Summer, 6.94 inches; and
Spring, 3.12 inches. Florida is situated geographically
as to justify the expectation of generous rainfall. How-
ever, the state is not entirely immune from drought, but
never so severe as to seriously imperil crops. The state has
32
















MIXED FARMING
Fruit and Mixed
Farming
I Non-Agricultural
Truck
Tobacco and
General Farming
High Plains and
Flatwood Areas
Special Crops
SCotton Belt


1




V\


Courtesy of .
United States Department of Agriculture **


such longitudinal dimensions that it may experience a
drought over one section, while precipitation may be well
distributed and heavy over the other portions.

April and November are the driest months of the year
with the so-called "rainy season" occurring in the summer
months when it affects agriculture the least in Florida.
Cold waves in Florida are usually of short duration and
rarely last longer than three days. The most decided de-
partures from normal conditions occur during the winter
months.
33








This map is taken from the Florida State Geological
Survey Generalized Soil Map in order to show just how the
predominating soil groups of the State are distributed. In
order to produce the groups here two consolidations of
types carried on the soil survey map have been made, viz:
Flatwoods are shown as one group instead of two (clay
or hardpan sub-soil and calcareous sub-soil) and Red
Loam is shown in a single group instead of two (non-
calcareous and calcareous or phosphatic).
Florida soils are "spotty" and all of the predominating
groups shown have spots or strips of other groups in them.
The Geological Survey makes the following comment re-
garding the Generalized Soil Map-"The map should
not be used as a basis for buying or selling land without
seeing it. Nearly every area mapped as one type includes
patches of the others, some better, some worse than aver-
age On a detailed soil map at least 100 varieties of
soil could be shown."

FLORIDA SOILS

Florida soils have attracted the attention of geologists
since discovery by the Spanish, and have been widely
studied by explorers and settlers since it became a part of
the United States, because they are so different from those
in other parts of the country.
There are still many people who have the impression
that Florida is mostly swampy and low land. The Florida
State Geological Survey gives the following general esti-
mates as to the typography of the State: "Flatwoods,
muck, marl and other level areas together constitute about
33,000 miles, leaving about 22,000 square miles of rolling
34


j







or hilly uplands. (These figures include the shallow
ponds, but not the thousands of lakes.) The amount of
swamp in the uplands is very small, but the muck, marl,
and other soils perpetually saturated or subject to inun-
dation probably constitute about one-fifth of the total
land area of the state. About 80 percent of the area could
be classed roughly as sand, 3 percent as red clay, and 12
percent as muck, and the remainder is mostly marl and
limestone."

The Federal Bureau of Soil Surveys has found over
6,000 combinations of soils in the United States and
Florida is credited with a hundred of the combinations.
Therefore, any attempt to treat each county, or agricul-
tural section, in detail is an impossible task. With few
exceptions the soil groups shown on the generalized soil
map of the state are found in all sections to some degree.
Perhaps the largest centralized groups of soil in the State
are those in the muck area of South Florida lying below
Lake Okeechobee to the East and South, and the flat-
woods in the western part of the South Florida area. The
sand ridges, commonly referred to as "black-jack" land
begin in the lower central part of the State just north of
Lake Okeechobee and run through the Central Florida
area dividing into two separate branches in the Northern
part of the State, as they continue into lower Georgia. In
the extreme western part of Florida the sandy upland
types of soil are found together with red loam, hammock
land and muck spots.

In the lower Florida peninsula the muck and flatwoods
lands are devoted principally to early vegetables, some
35







citrus and tropical fruits. In this section commercial plant-
ings of sugar cane embracing considerable acreage are being
developed on the muck soils.

Through the Central portion of the State the sandy
ridges carry the bulk of the citrus culture with the flat-
woods, hammock, and muck spots given over mostly to the
production of vegetables with some staples. In the North
and Northwest areas the various types of land are-cu-lti-
vated to the usual staples of the Southern States-corn,
cotton, peanuts, sugar cane and tobacco. Some late vege-
tables are planted and some citrus is raised but these items
are of small proportion and somewhat scattered.

Agronomists have proven that there is but little infor-
mation to be derived from a soil analysis that is of benefit
to the farmer. A chemical analysis may indicate a very
fertile soil, rich in plant food, while the fact is that the
land from which the soil was taken for analysis is not pro-
ductive at all. This is instanced by the very rich muck
lands and river bottoms of the State that are fertile chem-
ically, but not productive until properly drained and
sweetened. By the same token there are some lands where
irrigation is required in extreme dry conditions before pro-
duction is at a profitable stage. Other soils with less plant
food, but on account of proper physical conditions are ex-
ceedingly productive.

In spite of the fact that the average fertility of Florida
soils is less than in most other states, the value of its crops,
per acre, is above the national average. This is of course
primarily due to the fact that through the medium of
commercial fertilizer there exists today a "man-made
36








type of agriculture that allows the Florida farmer a wide
range of crop selections as well as production for a defi-
nite market period."

Before the days of commercial fertilizers the red loam
lands extending west from Jefferson County constituted
the principal agricultural soil of the state. As early as
1880 these lands represented approximately one-third of
Florida's cultivated acreage. There has been little change
in the amount of land farmed in this section during the
past fifty years.
The hammock lands of the state are, as a whole, above
the state average in fertility. The advent of commercial
fertilizer expanded the scope of agricultural activity by
making it possible to cultivate the sandy soils of the state
which prior to that time had been looked upon as practical-
ly useless. In still more recent years additional agricultural
expansion has taken place as the result of drainage activi-
ties designed to reclaim the rich muck land of the Ever-
glades section and to improve areas of very low land in
other sections of the state.
The wide distribution of Florida's soil (some of the
counties authentically claiming as many as 16 different
types) makes it possible to grow almost any type of Florida
crop in any one of the four agricultural areas during its
growing season. This "spotty" condition also at times is
the cause of trouble through failure to recognize change
of soil type and the need for cultural diversification.

With agricultural prosperity more dependent upon the
human element than upon soil fertility it is very often
the case that the least capable farmers occupy the richest
37








land and fail, where many "good" farmers are success-
ful on extremely poor soil. This difference in Florida
agricultural background is often discounted by new comers
with the result that they find out "too late" cultural
methods and farming technique used in other sections
of the country cannot be used here. The new comer in
the Florida agricultural field will do well to see the near-
est county agricultural agent and profit by his advice and
leadership.

Wide soil distribution and commercial fertilization
make the selection of crops to be produced in Florida
one of practical economics rather than one of soil fer-
tility, i. e.:

(a) Staple crops such as corn, cotton, tobacco, etc., can
with certain restrictions be produced in South Florida,
but economics decree truck crops, because the out of
season market open to them furnishes a MONEY RE-
TURN that staple crops could never produce.

(b) In Central Florida citrus and truck growing
make the land too valuable for the production of staples,
which require long growth and do not produce any
more return when raised out of season than when
"made" at the normal time.

(c) On the other hand North and Northwest Flor-
ida stick mainly to staple crops because climate does
not allow any advantage as to marketing. Intensive
production of vegetables in these areas does not offer
the same high return, therefore the added cost of pro-
38








duction is not an economic undertaking. Hence agri-
cultural activity in these areas centers principally in gen-
eral farming.

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE STATE

Florida has 35,000,000 acres, of which 2,841,600 are
in water. It has 58,666 square miles in its area. Of these
54,861 square miles are land and 3,805 are water. Only,
twenty states exceed Florida in area. It is the largest state
east of the Mississippi River except Georgia.

It lies between 24 33' and 31 North latitude and 79
48' and 87 39' West longitude. Estimates of the length
of Florida's coast line vary, but the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey states that the state has 1,221 miles
of coast line on the Atlantic and 2,530 miles on the Gulf
of Mexico. This takes in all indentations and the shores
of all islands belonging to the state.

Florida has an annual rainfall of 52.29 inches-nearly
five feet. Its elevation ranges from tidewater to over three
hundred feet.

Florida has many miles of rivers, creeks, bays, lagoons,
canals and other waterways, and it has approximately
30,000 lakes. In one county alone-Lake County-there
are 1,400 lakes with names. There are 3,805 square miles
of inland water abounding in fish.

In several parts of Florida, particularly along the strip
which borders the East Coast, the edge of the lower West
Coast, a large part of the Everglades, and part of the Gulf
39


__








Coast in the northwest section, artesian water may be ob-
tained at depths varying from 100 to 2,000 feet.

Salt Springs, in Marion County, many miles from the
nearest sea water, teems with salt water fish.

The St. Johns River is the only large stream wholly
within the United States that flows north throughout its
entire course.

The farthest point in Florida from salt water is the
northeastern corner of Jackson County, where it meets
Alabama and Georgia. This is about 72 miles from the
Gulf of Mexico.

A large part of South Florida was once a part of the
bottom of the sea. The teeth of sharks are found in phos-
phate mines in the interior.

Jacksonville is the most westerly port on the Atlantic
Ocean, and the westernmost land touched by the Atlantic
is a point twenty miles north of the mouth of the St.
Johns River.

The Everglades and Lake Okeechobee

The Everglades area constitutes one of the most re-
markable regions within the United States. It covers near-
ly 3,000,000 acres and contains muck soils, marl lands,
sandy soils, coral and lime rock lands, each of these hav-
ing several subdivisions.
The soil in this southernmost part of Florida is made
up largely of humus. For untold ages aquatic vegetation
grew here and died, but as the land was covered by water
40


II




















WATER SUPPLY
EXPLANATION
Abundant Low
Chloride Ground
Water









Courtesy of
United States Department of Agriculture


the dead vegetation did not decay. That is why it must
be drained and aerated before the bacteria can prepare the
soil for plant food. Some of this land will grow crops the
first year after it is drained. In other sections several years
must elapse before it is ready for cultivation.

Everglades is an Indian word and is said to mean water
grass. The Seminole Indians have two reservations here,
one on the edge of the Everglades, in the southeastern por-
tion of Hendry County, and the other in Monroe County,
immediately north of White Water Bay. They live on
small islands and build rude huts on piles three or more
41



























































































Top-Sugar cane in South Florida

Center-Watermelon--Eggplant

Bottom-Field of cabbage


_ __


I








feet above the ground. There are only a few hundred
of them left, although they were once so powerful that
they defied the authority of the United States govern-
ment and brought on a war. They are peaceful and law-
abiding now and make their living by fishing, hunting
and farming. They wear curious and picturesque native
costumes and differ in some respects from all other Indians.

Some of the crops successfully grown in the Everglades
are tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, beans, egg plant, onions,
cabbage, cucumbers, strawberries, beets, lettuce, celery and
other vegetables; sugarcane, corn, rice, alfalfa, Kaffir
corn, millet, sorghum, milo maize, peanuts, dasheen, many
grasses and staple crops. Cattle raising, dairying, hog
raising and poultry raising have been successful in many
instances.

The rich peat and muck soil of the Everglades is one
of Florida's greatest natural resources. Of 4,500,000
acres in the Everglades Drainage District fully 2,000,000
are, or rather were, capable of supporting an intensive
and profitable agriculture. The term "were" is used ad-
visedly, for already areas amounting in some instances to
over two hundred square miles in a single body, have been
denuded of all peat and muck by fires and have been ren-
dered totally worthless for agriculture. The acreage of
the areas thus ruined cannot be accurately determined but
estimates have placed it as high as 20 percent to 25 percent
of the 2,000,000 acres mentioned. *

In the Everglades the water is often clear and over
the bottom is spread a deposit of decayed vegetable mat-
ter that represents an accumulation of ages. Beneath it
43









































































Top-Winter is bean picking time in Florida
Center-An Irish potato field in March
Bottom-Cucumbers-Strawberries


--4~
~f ~
i







are white sand and limestone rock. In most places the
water is covered with a growth of tall grass, called saw
grass, which lifts its straight, slender stems as much as ten
feet above the surface.

Strange objects of human manufacture, including idols
and trinkets carved from ironwood, have been dug out
of the muck of the Everglades, indicating that ancient
people who lived here before the Indians carved them
and that the muck preserved these pieces of handiwork.

Lake Okeechobee is one of the most remarkable bodies
of water in the world. It has a surface area of 700 square
miles and is nearly half as big as Lake Ontario. With one
exception, it is the largest lake wholly within the United
States. Yet its greatest depth does not exceed fifteen feet.
Its bottom is as smooth and flat as a billiard table and its
deepest point is exactly on a level with the ocean. Long
ages ago it was a part of the ocean, but was later cut off
from it by an uplift of coral rock. It receives the whole
drainage of central Florida, mostly through the Kissim-
mee River and its annual overflow during the rainy sea-
son contributes largely to the water prairie to the south-
ward that is called the Everglades. Parts of the Ever-
glades, however, are not under water, but are very similar
to the prairie land of the West. In other sections, small
islands or hammocks covered with palms and vegetation
rise from the stretches.of saw grass and water that extend
on all sides for many miles. In crossing Lake Okeechobee
one is out of sight of land. There are small towns along
the borders of the lake and freight boats ply back and
forth between them to carry produce raised on its shores.
45


- --- 1
































































Top-Easter lilies-Gladioli
Center-Sacking peanuts
Bottom-Tobacco-Corn


B~B~;ji~;~~~d~%sf~s~i~~








This includes oranges, grapefruit, bananas, avocado pears.
and winter vegetables. There is an active fishing industry
here.

Various drainage canals have been constructed through
the area, and extensive systems of lateral ditches, supple-
mented in many instances by pumping facilities, have
been provided for selected areas by various special tax dis-
tricts or improvement agencies. However, it has been de-
cided that too much drainage is detrimental as the muck
will burn when dry and over 200,000 acres have been
ruined by fires. The legislature of 1943 passed an Act
providing for a reflooding of the over-drained areas to
prevent destructive fires.

FLORIDA CROPS

Much of the agriculture of Florida, especially in the
peninsular part of the state, is highly specialized and dif-
fers from that of most other states. This is due largely to
the climatic conditions-temperature and rainfall.

Winter-grown vegetables and citrus fruits were not in
demand when the other Atlantic states were being de-
veloped, therefore the agricultural development of Florida
was not possible until a much later date, when the demand
for these crops was created by the settlement of the east-
ern and northern states. It also had to wait on the build-
ing of railroads to carry these products to the great cities
of other states.

Another reason for the late development of agriculture
in Florida is that a great deal of commercial fertilizer is
used in the growing of vegetables and fruits and the
47


_g~ __







method of making commercial fertilizer was not dis-
covered until 1840. It did not come into general use in
the United States until near the end of the nineteenth
century.

The soil, next to climate, is Florida's greatest and most
fundamental natural resource. It is hardly possible to
say too much about the importance of the soil. Life it-
self depends upon it. Civilization is limited by its fertility
and ability to produce. The true value of a soil depends
upon the kind and amount of crops it will produce under
average farming conditions, however, a crop will often
do well on a variety of soils. Some soils are naturally
adapted to the production of certain crops and valueless
for others. This difference in adaptation determines the
character of farming that is most profitable. It is indeed
fortunate for man that the crop adaptation of soils is vari-
able. The soil is the farmer's factory, and it is his primary
business to so manage the raw materials at his disposal, such
as soil, seed, fertilizer, labor, water, sprays, etc., that his
crops may be grown profitably. If this is not done his
factory is a failure.
There are about thirty described series or kinds of soil
in Florida, each of which contains several types, making
a total of 75 or more distinct soil types, besides a much
larger number of soil phases.
The soil map on page 33 will show the general way
in which these are distributed.
Florida leads the nation in winter-grown crops of to-
matoes, snap beans, eggplant, cucumbers, peppers and Irish
potatoes.
48







Florida leads the nation in the production of grape-
fruit and celery.

Unlike other southern states, Florida grows cotton on
only a limited scale, neither is it a large producer of corn,
oats and feed crops such as are grown in the grain-pro-
ducing areas of the Middle West, or rice in the Southwest,
however all of these are grown to some extent.

In northern and northwestern Florida staple farm
crops such as sweet potatoes, sorghum cane, sugar cane,
field peas, soy beans, peanuts, velvet beans, hay and feed-
stuffs are grown with especial success. This section is
too cold for citrus fruit, except satsuma oranges, but a
thriving blueberry industry has been developed, and several
other fruits are grown commercially. Vegetables do well
in this portion of the state, but they are grown in the
spring, summer and early fall months, rather than in the
winter as in South Florida. Tobacco is planted to large
acreage in a number of North Florida counties and markets
are easily found for it. Watermelons occupy an important
place in North as well as Central Florida agriculture.
Graceville, in Jackson County, is one of the world's larg-
est shippers of watermelons, and Jefferson County pro-
duces 80 percent of the supply of watermelon seed sold
commercially in the United States. Pecans are also of
much importance in this section and are grown on a large
scale. Both dairy cattle and beef cattle are raised in this
section, on account of the good supply of native grass and
feedstuffs. Poultry raising is an industry that has grown
a great deal in recent years, and the large tourist centers of
49


___ __ __















































































Top-Gathering lettuce in Orlando section
Center-Celery field-Pineapples
Bottom-Tomatoes-Lettuce in the Everglades


_ ___ I __ I_








Florida offer markets for poultry and eggs as well as dairy
products. Hog raising is also profitably carried on in
North Florida.
Central Florida shows some differences from the north-
ern section, notably planting of citrus fruits and the in-
crease in winter vegetables. Staple farm crops are grown
here, but are not stressed as in northern Florida. Dairying,
poultry raising, hog raising and the production of beef
cattle are also profitable.
South Florida lays particular stress on citrus fruit grow-
ing and winter vegetable production. Few staple farm
crops are grown, and hog raising, dairying and similar
projects are largely confined to near-city localities. Beef
cattle are raised on a large scale and poultry raising has
increased considerably. There is a tendency in this section
to develop the production of semi-tropical and tropical
fruits which cannot be grown elsewhere, and this has be-
come an important part of South Florida agriculture.
These include the papaya, avocado, mango, sapodilla,
carissa, granadila and many others.

Citrus Fruits

Florida has citrus groves covering approximately 400,-
000 acres, which contain 19,000,000 orange trees,
6,700,000 grapefruit trees, 1,700,000 tangerines, nearly
1,000,000 limes and some 750,000 trees of other kinds
of citrus, and is indeed a grove that challenges imagination.
From this huge grove which with its ramifications of
machines, equipment and packing houses totals an invest-
ment of nearly $600,000,000, Florida growers harvested
51



















































































Top-Picking grapefruit
Bottom-Citrus canning plant


_ ___ _____ __~_ __ ____








and marketed, during the 1941-42 season, 67,464 carloads
of oranges worth $51,904,503; 47,321 cars of grapefruit
worth $22,849,773 and 5,204 cars of tangerines worth
$5,818,344. To these figures must be added limes, cala-
mondins, kumquats, lemons, tangelos, etc., with a value
of more than $1,000,000 each year.

Of this total 14,339,874 boxes of grapefruit and
oranges were processed, bringing, at the canneries, $11,-
824,973. These figures, as large as they are, do not ac-
count for the marmalades, jellies, and jams, candied fruits
and candies that are made in scores of small plants and
kitchens, but which go to market through many channels.

The most important branch of Florida's agricultural
production is the citrus fruit industry. The value of the
citrus fruit crop in Florida has increased each year since
1896.

Citrus fruit was introduced into Florida by the early
settlers, and accounts of travelers written in 1773 mention
the orange groves along the St. Johns River. For many
years it was only for local use, as there was no way of trans-
porting it and no demand had been developed in the coun-
try at large. About 1870 the production of citrus fruit
reached a commercial scale and by 1884 there were about
600,000 boxes grown each year. For a long time most of
the plantings were made in the north central part of the
state, but after severe freezes in 1886, 1894, 1895 and
1899 the center of citrus production began to move south-
ward, and the fruit is not grown in the northern part of
the state at present, with the exception of satsuma oranges.
53


_____ _~_ ___ __ __ __I__ ____ __








The counties having the largest production of oranges
are Polk, Orange, Lake, Hillsborough, Volusia, Brevard,
Highlands, Marion, Pinellas, Hardee and DeSoto. The
counties having the largest production of grapefruit are
Polk, Dade, Pinellas, Lake, Highlands, Manatee and In-
dian River. Polk, Orange, Volusia and Lake counties
contain 50 percent of the tangerine trees in Florida.

California grows more oranges than Florida does, but
Florida leads all other citrus growing states in grapefruit
production.

Citrus trees grow on a wide range of soil types, but they
must be handled scientifically to obtain best results. There
are a number of varieties of oranges, including the Valen-
cia, Naval, Parson Brown, King, Hamlin, Seedlings, Pine-
apple, Enterprise Seedless, Blood, Jaffa and Lu Gim
Gong, and several kinds of grapefruit, including the Dun-
can, Florida Common, Walters, and Marsh Seedless, that
are grown successfully on a commercial scale in Florida.

The larger lakes in Florida afford some protection from
cold for citrus groves, and for this reason many groves are
situated around lakes. The higher elevations are preferred
to lower ones because the air drainage is better.

In those sections of the state where citrus groves are
subject to injury from cold, many growers use oil pots or
heaters to protect their trees in cold weather, and others
build wood fires between the rows of trees. The tem-
perature in a grove may be raised two to five degrees by
the use of fires. This often protects the trees from serious
injury by frost.


54


~1







Citrus trees are grafted on sour orange and rough lemon
stock and to some extent on grapefruit stock. This nursery
stock is grown from seed and the little trees are trans-
planted from the seed bed to the nursery when they are
about 12 inches tall. When they reach a diameter of one-
half inch or larger, they are grafted, and the grafted trees
remain in the nursery row from 1 to 3 years before they
are taken up for planting in the grove. They are usually
transplanted in December, January or February, when the
trees are nearly dormant. Citrus trees do not require much
pruning, but they must be carefully fertilized, cultivated
and sprayed in accordance with their particular require-
ments. Cover crops, such as velvet beans, cowpeas, beggar-
weed and crotalaria, are often grown between the rows
of trees to enrich the soil and feed the young growth.

It takes about five years to bring a grove up to bearing
age. The cost of doing this varies greatly in different
sections of the state, but a general average is about $335
per acre. Beginning with the sixth year the returns from
the citrus crop should more than pay operating expenses.
Both irrigation and drainage are practiced in various
parts of the state in citrus culture. The yield of citrus
fruits per acre varies as much as the yield of corn in the
great corn-growing sections of the United States. This
is influenced by the type of soil, amount of fertilizer ap-
plied per acre, moisture, variety of fruit and age of the trees.
Trees from ten to fifteen years of age should produce an
average of 200 boxes of fruit per acre. Many growers
obtain greater yields under favorable conditions. The fruit
must be picked very carefully to avoid injuring the trees
of the ripe fruit. It is usually cut off with clippers and
55


_ ___ ____~ _~







the stems must be cut quite short. The picking is done
by crews of people who climb tall ladders to gather the
fruit from the trees. Helpers pack it in field crates and
haul it to the packing houses, where, it is washed, dried,
polished, graded and separated into various sizes. Each
grade and size is wrapped and packed separately in ship-
ping crates. The fruit that commands the best market
price is bright in color, medium to large in size, of good
texture and quality and attractively packed. The packing
is done according to a definite scale, a certain number of
pieces of fruit of each size going into the crate, depending
on size. Grapefruit are packed from 28 to 96 per crate.
Oranges are packed from 96 to 324 to each crate, depend-
ing on size. Tangerines, Satsumas and small varieties of
oranges are packed in half boxes holding from 48 to 216.
The fruit must be packed so that it will be uniform in ap-
pearance and will not shake about and become bruised in
shipping.

Citrus fruit is marketed in several ways in Florida.
There are a number of independent shippers who have
built up their own markets and who control large quanti-
ties of fruit. There are packing houses at practically all
shipping points in the citrus belt. The Florida Citrus
Exchange at Tampa maintains many branch packing
houses and handles a large percent of the citrus fruit of
the state. The Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House
Association at Winter Haven has a large membership of
growers. The Florida Citrus Commission was provided
by the legislature as an agency to promote the sale of
citrus fruit. It is authorized to collect a fee on each box
of fruit which goes to a fund to be expended by the Com-
56








mission to advertise citrus in every legitimate way to the
buying public. This fund averages a million dollars an-
nually.

The marketing of citrus fruit begins early in September,
but most of the crop goes to market during November,
December, January and February. The citrus fruit of
Florida goes to market by various routes. Most of it is
shipped by rail to northern markets in carload lots, and
in many cases by trainloads. The boxes are packed in both
ventilated and refrigerated cars. Small shipments go by
express and are usually for nearby markets. Water trans-
portation is also used to some extent. Consignments of
fruit are shipped direct from Florida ports to foreign
countries.

Lemons are grown principally in South Florida. Limes
are grown largely in the rocky soil of the Florida Keys,
south of the Florida mainland. Citrons are also grown to
some extent in Florida, and Satsuma oranges, which are
suited to the colder parts of the state, are of commercial
importance in northern and western Florida.
Much progress in the canning of grapefruit and grape-
fruit juice has been made during recent years in Florida.
During the 1942-43 season 15,530,000 boxes of grape-
fruit were canned; 5,017,000 boxes of oranges were
canned; the total of oranges and grapefruit for the 1942-
43 season was 20,547,000 boxes.
The grapefruit derives its name from the fact that the
fruit often grows in clusters like grapes, and the largest
grapefruit grove in the world is located on the Caloosa-
hatchee River near Ft. Myers.
57


I~ __ ___ _I _~_____ I* _







There are a number of by-products manufactured from
oranges, and one of the uses of off-size and off-color
fruit which is being developed is that of frozen orange
juice. Several plants in Florida have experimented with
various methods of freezing citrus juices in small con-
tainers for preservation over long periods, and it is be-
lieved that a large industry may develop from this.

Other Crops and Fruits

Among the rare tropical and semi-tropical fruits that
are being grown in Florida on a commercial scale, the
papaya is of much importance. It is a peculiar fruit grown
on a tall, large-leafed tree, and is something like the canta-
loupe in taste. It is said to be very healthful because of
its pepsin content, which renders it valuable to those suf-
fering from digestive disorders. It grows in the south,
central and southern parts of the state, and is very sensi-
tive to frost. New forms of the papaya are being per-
fected and introduced, and it is coming into general use
rapidly.

In addition to staple farm crops which are grown more
extensively in North Florida than elsewhere, the following
vegetables are among those raised on a commercial scale
in various parts of the state at various seasons: Irish po-
tatoes, onions, celery, lettuce, peppers, cabbage, tomatoes,
English peas, beets, squash, eggplant, dasheens, romaine,
string beans, lima beans, cucumbers, okra, carrots, escarole
and cauliflower.

The following fruits other than citrus are grown com-
mercially in certain parts of the state: strawberries, avo-
58







cado pears, sand pears, guavas, pineapples, figs, Japanese
persimmons, blackberries, grapes, plums, cantaloupes and
sugar apples, which are small jelly fruits. The apple as
known in other sections of the country is not grown in
Florida, nor do peaches do well. Bananas and coconuts
are grown on a limited scale in extreme South Florida.

There are many nurseries for fruit and nut trees and
ornamental plants in Florida, and conditions seem particu-
larly suited to all branches of the florist's trade. There
are many ferneries in Central Florida and bulb growing
has become an important business. The largest narcissus
bulb farm in the world is located in Florida.

Beekeeping is also profitable in many sections, and a
considerable quantity of honey is produced. Of especial
interest is the tupelo honey industry in the Dead Lakes
section of West Florida, and the orange blossom honey
in the orange belt.

Rabbit raising is another comparatively new industry,
and sheep and goat raising is carried on in the pine timber
section of Northwest Florida. Thousands of sheep are
kept here in small flocks in the open pine woods and on
cutover lands.

Poultry raising has increased greatly in volume in Flor-
ida during the past few years, and the same is true of dairy-
ing. Large quantities of eggs, poultry and dairy products
were shipped into the state at one time but this is not done
on a scale of any importance now.

Pecans flourish in the northern and northwestern sec-
tions. The Mahan variety of pecan, developed in Mis-
59











































-7 ir IN& a
~ac :~d~JP ~rOl Ap~


-WAS#1"~ j

:.A WIa


Florida has many poultry farms, raising chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys







sissippi but now owned by a firm in Monticello, Florida,
is the largest pecan in the world, averaging thirty-two to
the pound.

Another crop is bidding for a place in Florida's agri-
culture. It is tung oil and it now appears that before long
this crop will be bringing in an attractive revenue to growers
in those localities of the state adapted to its growth. The
introduction of no plant in recent times has created such
widespread interest as that of tung oil. This interest is due,
naturally, to the great promise of the production in
America of a commercial oil which heretofore has been
produced only in the Orient but which is used in both
American and European industries in large and increasing
quantities.

Because of the wide consumption and varied uses of
tung oil, oversupply is impossible. New uses are being
discovered for it all the time. Methods of extracting the
oil from the nuts have been successfully worked out, and
the purity, quality and superiority of the American prod-
uct have been fully tested and demonstrated. Although
there is still a great deal to learn about the tree, the ex-
perimental stage of its culture is past. It was introduced
into the United States by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture in 1905 and was distributed in a number of south-
ern and southwestern states. The plantings in Florida have
made the most satisfactory progress of any of these.

Commercial plantings have been made in many counties
of the north central and northwestern sections. The oil
is removed from the seed of the tung tree by a modern
61


__ I ___






















































































Florida is a great beef-cattle state and raises fine hogs as well

There are many excellent dairies


_ __ __ 1 __ _








extracting plant and is used in the manufacture of paint,
varnish, linoleum, rubberized materials, electrical equip-
ment, and other important manufactured articles.

The cake which is left after the oil is extracted from the
seeds is used for fertilizer and the hulls are used in the
cultivation of the trees.

The U. S. Department of Commerce regional commerce
bulletin of June 22, 1942, says "the South's tung oil crop
will bring nearly four million dollars in new wealth into
that region this year, the estimate being that the crop
will yield ten million pounds of oil."

Tung oil is the fourth most important chemical which
is imported into the United States and Europe also uses
it in large quantities. Therefore, it is highly important to
produce it in this country if a high grade of oil can be
made at a reasonable price, and it has already been proven
that this can be done.

This Chinese tree is called tung-yu-shu in its native
land, and the word means heart. This is derived from
its heart-shaped leaf. The mature trees are 30 or 35 feet
high and are very ornamental in appearance. They drop
their leaves in November and bring forth new ones in
March or April. The blossoms appear before the leaves
and are a beautiful pale pink. The nuts ripen in October
and November and fall to the ground. They are then
gathered and hauled to the crusher, where the outer husk
is separated from the seeds and these are put into the presses
which extract oil. There are about 25,000 acres of these
trees in Florida.


63


_ __




















Florida State Market at Pompano



STATE FARMERS MARKETS

One of the main problems of agriculture is the market-
ing of the crops advantageously. To aid in solving this
problem farm markets have been established in the various
sections of the state to accommodate the growers of crops
and the raising of livestock, poultry and eggs. The schedule
of procedure in each market is regulated by the needs of
that community. They are the result of the constructive
efforts of the Commissioner of Agriculture, Hon. Nathan
Mayo.

These markets were built from state and federal funds.
They are under the direction of a Marketing Board com-
posed of the Governor, Secretary of Agriculture and the
State Marketing Commissioner. Their annual sales run
into many millions of dollars.


64


- ir ---_ I








CROPS OF NORTH FLORIDA


Irish Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Cassava
Cucumbers
Squash
Cabbage
Collards
Lettuce
Eggplants
Beans


Peach
Pear
Plum


Corn
Cotton
Peanuts
Sugarcane
Hay
Tobacco


VEGETABLES
Peas (English)
Carrots
Parsnips
Beets
Brussels Sprouts
Cauliflower
Onions
Okra
Radishes
Turnips
FRUITS
Persimmon
Fig
Satsuma
FIELD CROPS
Japan Clover
Carpet Grass
Velvet Beans
Rye
Rape
Sorghum
Vetch


Rutabaga
Spinach
Mustard
Tomatoes
Parsley
Kershaw
Kale
Kohl-Rabi
Leek



Watermelon
Grapes
Cantaloupes


Cowpeas
Beggarweed
Kudzu
Crotalaria
Bermuda Grass
Soy Beans


BERRIES


Blueberries
Blackberries


Pecans


Dewberries
Strawberries

NUTS
Tung Nut
65


Young Berries


_._ _~







CROPS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA


Brussels Sprouts
Beans
Beets
Cabbage
Cantaloupes
Cassava
Cauliflower
Cucumber
Collards
Cellery


Oranges
Tangerines
Grapefruit
Lemons


Cotton
Corn
Oats
Sugarcane
Hay (Native)
Shufas
Cowpeas


Tung Nut


VEGETABLES
Dasheens
Eggplants
Escarole
English Peas
Irish Potatoes
Kohl-Rabi
Kale
Leek
Lettuce
Mustard
FRUITS
Limes
Mangoes
Avocados
Watermelons
BERRIES
Strawberries
FIELD CROPS
Sorghum
Peanuts
Velvet Beans
Tobacco
Soy Beans
Rye
Rape
NUTS
Pecans


Onions
Okra
Parsley
Parsnips
Pumpkins
Peppers
Radishes
Rutabagas
Tomatoes
Turnips


Papaya
Guavas
Cantaloupes
Grapes


Vetch
Beggarweed
Kudzu
Napier Grass
Meeker Grass
Bermuda Grass


66







CROPS OF SOUTH FLORIDA


VEGETABLES


Beans (Limas)
Beans (String)
Beets (Roots)
Beets (Greens)
Broccoli
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage
Cabbage
(Chinese)
Carrots
Cassava
Cauliflower
Chayote
Collards
Corn (Sweet)
Cucumber


Dasheen
Eggplants
Endive
Escarole
Greens (Turnips)
Kale
Kohl-Rabi
Lettuce
Mustard
(Greens)
Mustard
(Chinese)
Parsley
Peas (English)
(Field)
(Pigeon)


Pepper (Sweet)
Pepper (Red)
Potatoes (White)
(Sweet) (Yam)
Okra
Onion
Rape
Radish
Rutabaga
Spinach
Squash (Chinese)
Squash
Swiss Chard
Turnips (Roots)
Tomatoes
Watercress


FRUITS


Avocado
Ambarella
Akee
Banana
Custard Apple
Canistel
Coco Plum
Citrus
Ceriman
Cereus (Pitayz)
Carob Plum


Grapes
Guava
Ilama
Jaboticaba
Jackfruit
Jujube
Ketembilla
Lichti
Loquat
Mamey
Mamoncill
67


Pitaya
Pomegranate
Prickly Pear
Rhubarb
Rose Apple
Roselle
Sapodilla
Sapote
Seagrape
Sour Sop
Star Apple


_ ___









Cashew
Carissa
Carambol
Cacao
Fig
Granadilla



Sorghum Forage
Para Grass
Natal Grass
Napier Grass


FRUITS (Continued)
Mango
Papaya
Para Guava
Peach
Persimmon
(Japanese)
Pineapple

FIELD CROPS
Bermuda Grass
Carpet Grass
St. Augustine
Grass


Sugar Apple
Surinam Cherry
Tamarind
Umkokolo
Watermelon
White Sapote



Cowpeas
Millet
Sugarcane
Pineapples


68














CHAPTER 4


MINERAL RESOURCES OF FLORIDA

"Although Florida is not generally considered a mining
state it has produced in excess of 461,000,000 dollars
worth of mineral products since 1900. The total value
from mineral output during 1941 was $21,112,277, being
an increase of $4,980,584 over that of 1940, which was
$16,131,693. This increase is due to greater domestic
demands principally from military uses. Nineteen mineral
substances were produced in Florida in 1940 and 1941,
including the various usages of the different clays, and
45 counties of 67 contributed to the State's total." Her-
man Gunter, State Geologist.

Florida is an important non-metallic mineral produc-
ing State. It stands first in the production of phosphate,
having held this position for more than forty years; sec-
ond in Fuller's earth, a variety of clay used in clarifying
mineral and vegetable oils and fats; is a center in the
production of a typical characteristic sedimentary kaolin
used in the manufacture of various white ware products;
is an important producer of limestone, lime and cement;
produces building stone from coquina, oolitic, coral and
other limestones which are not only durable and attrac-
tive for exterior construction, but also for interior decora-
69


__ ___ __ 1














































































Top-Shipping at Port Tampa
Center-Phosphate mine at Brewster
Bottom-Phosphate plant at Pierce


_ __ ___ __












-- I -. ..
s--f i "Y".


GENERALIZED MINERAL '
MAP OF FLORIDA
EXPLANATION-
Pebble
i \i Phosphate
Hard and Soft
Rock Phosphate i.
Limestone
Dolomite -6
Fuller's Earth CHL -
Kaolin .TIN
Rare Minerals in ARLOTTE
Beach Sands -
Sand and HEND LM BEA
Gravel
Diatomite --
ClayC R


2-1

Courtesy of a
United States Department of Agriculture o, s


tive purposes; has large deposits of sands suitable for vari-
ous construction and manufacturing purposes; and has
valuable deposits of clays suitable for the manufacture of
building brick and tile, as well as for pottery and orna-
mental burned wares.

The limestones of Florida are of vast importance, con-
tributing generously to its development in supplying ma-
terial so extensively used in road construction, concrete

aggregate, ballast, lime and cement manufacture and also
as a building material. Furthermore, the limestones are
the most important water-bearing formations of the State,
many large beautiful springs issue from them and the

71








thousands of deeper artesian wells draw their apparently
unfailing supplies from such formations. Their total value
to the State can therefore not be estimated.




$19,464,362
19
ANNUAL TONNAGE
17 AND
ANNUAL VALUE
OF
PHOSPHATE
IN
13- FLORIDA
VALUE cf
S.. ... --- 1900-1941

) 810,790,305
S ----$------------- --------- 10,239,17
8 $9,563,084
-J 9- E--jI- II


72


I




























Quarrying stone in Florida


With the discovery of phosphate in 1888, the mineral
industry of Florida became more definitely and perma-
nently established. Development proceeded so rapidly that
Florida soon assumed first place in the production of this
commodity and has continued in the lead. Phosphate is
the largest mineral industry in the State; two varieties
entering chiefly into commercial production, the land
pebble, mainly from Polk and Hillsborough Counties, the
hard rock from a rather narrow belt in the west central
portion of the Peninsula, centering at Dunnellon. With
these two types is associated a considerable proportion of
soft phosphate, large quantities of which are now placed
on the market. The limestone, lime and crushed stone in-
dustry, the cement production and the output of Fuller's
73


_ ___








MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA FOR 1940 AND 1941*


Mineral Product


C lay ...................

Brick and tile'...........
Cement,2 fuller's earth,
kaolin, and pottery' ......

Coquina1 ................
Dolomite (agricultural). ....
Flint rock ...............
Limestone 3 4 . . .
Diatomite, muck' and peat ..
Phosphate .. ............
Sandi and gravel ...........
Sh ellst .. .. .. ... ........
W ater1 ..................

T otals ..................


1940_


A mount


37,683,157 units


117,508 short tons
19,888 cubic yds.
68,777 short tons
80,814 short tons
3,726,218 short tons
34,622 cubic yds.
2,847,481 long tons
1,040,365 short tons
230,050 cubic yds.
1,729,942 gallons

....... .......


Value


I I


1941 __


A mount


. . . . o .
32,027,668 units


111,579 short tons
27,073 cubic yds.
86,453 short tons
48,600 short tons
5,266,148 short tons
56,156 cubic yds.
3,367,797 long tons
1,613,346 short tons
308,217 cubic yds.
1,824,498 gallons


Value


$1,666,170

430,669


1,235,501
24,264
222,904
174,709
5,093,677
98,052
7,747,395
743,928
198,821
161,773

$16,131,693


Estimate of
the Number of
Employees


419


$ 1,825,570
336,227


1,489,343
30,083
279,650
113,385
6,862,966
125,548
10,239,778
1,161,675
304,592
169,030

$21,112,277


1 Contains a few values that were estimated by the producer, where no books were kept.
2 Estimated from the number of barrels of cement.
3 Contains an estimate of the limestone used in cement, based on the number of barrels, and includes the dolomitic limestone
that was sold as concrete aggregate and building stone.
4 Tonnage includes an estimate of the tonnage of art and dimensional stone, reported in cubic feet.
State Geologist Report.


d-


I I I I I I


97
130

116
1,847
62
2,712
539
98
98

6,118








earth and kaolin have grown in recent years and have
contributed increasingly to the value of mineral output.
Other mineral industries are: sand and gravel, common
brick, building tile, drain tile, turpentine cups and pottery,
peat, diatomaceous earth and mineral waters. The valu-
ation of the output of various Florida mineral products
for the years 1940 and 1941 is shown in the preceding
table.
Florida has four metallic and thirteen non-metallic
minerals in commercial quantity and quality. The metallic
minerals are ilmenite, rutile, zirconium and monazite,
which belong to a group of inter-related minerals. They
are found in beach sands of Florida extending from Duval
County to Palm Beach County. In one or two places the
sand is black with ilmenite. The mineral content is ob-
tained by a concentrating process, amounting to about 11
percent of the material used. These minerals are washed
into the ocean from debris from the Piedmont range far-
ther north and are left in the beach sands of Florida by
the action of coastal waters. In one year the value of the
minerals thus produced was about $85,000. Ilmenite is
used in ceramic processes, and it also enters into the manu-
facture of automobile tires, imitation ivory, piano keys
and light electroes. Rutile is used in the manufacture of
artificial teeth. Zirconium is used in making porcelains,
gas mantles, spark plugs, electric fittings, paint, dye, rub-
ber, textiles and other commercial products. Monazite is
a rare earth metal similar to zirconium, and it is used in
the manufacture of gas mantles.
Of Florida's non-metallic minerals limestone and marl
are highly important. There are hard marls in this state
75


_ _




























































Top-A cement plant in Florida
Center-Loading commercial fertilizer
Bottom-A Naval Stores plant, producing turpentine and rosin






















Florida limerock is shipped to many other states


which gradually shade into broken coquina rock. These
are used for road surfacing in some sections and are
also used in building roadbed for railroads. In Levy
County a flint rock formed by dolomite deposits is
crushed and used in making concrete and building high-
ways and railroads. In Marion County large quantities
of limerock are mined, and about 90 percent of this is
used in road building in Florida. Commercial limerock
is also found at other points in the state, including Citrus,
Hernando, Broward, Dade and Palm Beach Counties and
the large deposits near Marianna, in Jackson County.
Near Blountstown, in Calhoun County, is a combination
marl-marine deposit which is similar to those of southern
Mississippi and which is extensively used for fertilizer.
It is rich in valuable mineral content and is applied di-
rectly to the land.

Limestone is not used as fertilizer, but is applied to the
soil to correct acidity, so that legumes, such as clover,
77







peas, beans, etc., will grow successfully. These in turn
restore nitrogen to the soil.
In addition to road building, construction work, steel
making, cement manufacture and agriculture, lime is used
in more than thirty different manufacturing processes of
importance.
Phosphate rock is one of the leading mineral products
of the state. When it contains at least 50 percent of what
is called "bone phosphate of lime" it is valuable for ferti-
lizer and if this ingredient passes 70 percent the price rises
rapidly. The government owns over 70,000 acres of phos-
phate rock in Florida and other large holdings are in the
possession of private chemical companies.
Phosphoric acid, derived from phosphate rock, is used
in the manufacture of sugar juices, jellies, preserves, bot-
tled soft drinks, soda fountain beverages, medicine and
rust proof metallic compounds. Baking powder, self-
rising flour, water softeners, boiler scale compounds and
dental preparations also utilize various chemicals derived
from phosphate rock.
Some kinds of Florida mineral deposits are mixed with
layers of earth and sand and they form natural polishing
materials which are used in the manufacture of silver
polish, toilet articles and a large variety of other com-
mercial products.
Fuller's earth is composed of clay mixed with mineral
matter. It is found principally in Gadsden County. There
are mines near Quincy in that county that are among the
largest in the world, there are also deposits of Fuller's
earth in Manatee, Marion and Hernando Counties. It is
used in clearing mineral, vegetable and animal oils and it
78


r






















-. 4 '


One of t mn stone quarie'i Florida".

One of the many stone quarries in Florida
dt


also is utilized in making hand soap, concrete and asphalt
preparations. Paint, wall paper and several other products
also employ this valuable material in their manufacture.

Kaolin is a high grade clay which is found in Lake,
Putnam, Pasco, Orange, Manatee and Pinellas counties.
It is shipped to Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecti-
cut, and New Jersey to be used in making high grade
porcelain.
There are also several kinds of common clay in various
parts of the state which are used to make brick.
Sand is used in building, molding and polishing, and
also to make glass and related products. There are many
kinds of commercially valuable sands in Florida.
Mineral waters of medicinal value are found in various
parts of Florida.
79


_ __ ___































































Top-Sugar mill at Clewiston
Bottom-Kraft paper mill













CHAPTER 5


INDUSTRIES

Florida has not been a manufacturing state to any large
extent because emphasis has been placed chiefly on pro-
ducing and selling raw materials of the forests and earth,
or on catering to tourists and visitors. Some large cities
have until recently depended largely on tourists. However,
manufacturing plants are spreading over the state in recent
years both to meet local needs and to supply demands from
outside of the state. Since 1927 several important industries,
including the manufacture of cement, the building of
connecting power lines, the production of sugar, the im-
provement of turpentine production and the building of
additional transportation systems have had a notable ef-
fect upon the status of manufacturing in Florida.

The state now has a net work of power lines that traverse
the commercially important sections. It has transporta-
tion facilities that permit ready distribution of manu-
factured products from their point of origin. The cli-
mate is also highly conducive to the operation of manu-
facturing plants.

Investigation is being carried on to decide whether
many industries that are not yet established in Florida
cannot be profitably carried on. Many of these new lines
81


I








of business will be introduced in the next few years. Of
those which are already in operation, the turpentine and
rosin industry, wood preserving, wooden packing box man-
ufacturing and relating trades have been important for
some years. Five large paper mills are in operation turn-
ing out millions of dollars worth of kraft paper. Millions
of pencils made of Florida cedar are shipped abroad. The
center of the state's cedar industry is Crystal River in
Citrus County.

The tobacco industry ranks very high in Florida, as it
is second only to the lumber and timber products industry
in size. Most of the tobacco manufactured in Florida is
made into cigars, and Tampa and Key West are centers


In one of Tampa's cigar factories
82


_ __ __ 1




























Canning Florida Seafood


for these factories. Jacksonville has the largest cigar man-
ufacturing plant in the entire world.

Other industries of importance are printing, chemical
and fertilizer manufacturing, stone, clay, concrete and
glass working, copper, tin and sheet iron work, foundry
and machine shop operation, canning and preserving of
fruits, vegetables and sea foods.

Fernandina is noted for its shrimp packing houses and
Apalachicola for its oysters.

Some of the new products which are receiving atten-
tion as being important to the state's manufacturing future
are phosphate products, insecticides, tung oil, additional
83


__ __ __ __ _







pine products, peanut products, starches, sugars, syrup,
paper, cellulose, fibers, rubber, radio cabinets, refrigerating
materials, dehydration and quick freezing machines.

The rate at which manufacturing in Florida has in-
creased in recent years exceeds that of the growth of in-
dustry in the United States as a whole.

Before the Civil War, St. Marks, on the Gulf Coast
below Tallahassee, was the largest exporter of cotton in
the country.

Florida has an abundance of raw material for manu-
facturing purposes, including timber, minerals, fibers, to-
baccos, fruits and vegetables for canning, fish and oysters
for canning, tung groves for tung oil, peanuts for oil and
by-products, materials for paper manufacture, sugar cane
for sugar and other valuable natural and cultivated re-
sources.

Florida has power, which is an important element in
establishing manufacturing centers. Within the past few
years $100,000,000 has been expended in Florida for new
construction for electric light and power service. Elec-
tric power is now available through a network of wires
reached at a distance of not over twenty miles from any
well developed point in the state.

Florida has transportation facilities in her ports, her
airfields, her railroads and her highways. Of the ports
she has six of major importance and fifteen of minor
importance.
In the last enumeration 7,500 industries were listed in
the state, turning out annually products valued at more
84


__ __


























,.*. ,o, ,, .


Sponge market at Tarpon Springs


than $250,000,000. Manufacturing in Florida has had
a remarkable growth in recent years, the increase having
been more than 300 percent in ten years.

The above does not take into consideration the industrial
plants set up in the state by the federal government during
World War II.

FLORIDA FOREST FACTS

Florida's forest future is a bright one.

A long growing season, abundant moisture, and a variety
of desired hardwood and softwood species give the State
an enviable position among our neighbors. Sawmill oper-
ators, pulp men, turpentine operators, and landowners are
85


- I


"II:-IM msommmmi



























































SILL 0 ..


Top--In a crate factory-Cypress more than 2,000 years old
Center-Cutting logs and pulp-mill wood
ottom---A Florida lumber mill


YY~- ~eg~p*
,P gae ~j~$$
II ~"~ .c
,a 99~7 -'P ~
Y~ 1
~~Bb~







abandoning the "cut-and-get-out" method of a few years
back and are planting and protecting the woodlands for
future use with the assistance of the Florida Forest and
Park Service aided by Federal funds.
Florida's productive forest land totals 22 million acres,
about 78 percent being pine, 15 percent hardwood, and
7 percent cypress. About 13 million acres, or 60 percent
is classed as second growth ranging in size from saplings
to small saw logs.
The present timber stand is approximately 23 billion
board feet as measured by the International rule; this
takes into account pine and cypress having a diameter of
9 inches or larger at breast height, and hardwoods measur-
ing 13 inches.
In terms of pulpwood, the volume is computed to be
116 million standard cords, trees over 5 inches in diameter
in all pulping species being considered.
The Southern Forest Survey of 1934-35 revealed that
36 million longleaf or slash pine trees were being worked
for turpentine, 56 million were resting or had been worked
and 700 million unworked trees ranging from one inch
in diameter to turpentine size (9 inches) assure a future
for the industry.
In 1934, Florida's forest resources were supporting 910
wood-using establishments and accounting for 7,230,000
man-days' employment. This figure is the equivalent of
the full time employment of 36,000 people. Since 1934,
the establishment of 4 new pulpmills has greatly increased
the employment figure as well as the value of materials
produced.
87








CYPRESS-THE WOOD ETERNAL


Not the least of the many contributions made to the
Nation by the Deep South, is Florida Tidewater Red
Cypress, the Wood Eternal. WVell preserved stumps, dis-
covered 30 or more feet underground and said to be as
much as one hundred thousand years old, bear mute evi-
dence to the antiquity of the Cypress race and the dura-
bility of the wood. Relics, made of cypress by prehistoric
Indians and in an excellent state of preservation, testify to
the early discovery of the wood's value to mankind. To-
day it ranks with the best of our commercial woods and is
particularly prized for boats, tanks, vats and the like where
constant exposure to liquids is necessary. It resists termites,
ranks high on paint tests, is considered a first rate struct-
ural timber, and is unsurpassed for natural finished, in-
side paneling for offices and dwellings.

Florida produces more cypress lumber than any South-
ern State and very near as much as the total of all other
States.

FLORIDA'S YELLOW PINE INDUSTRY

Yellow Pine in volume produced and in variety of uses
is foremost in Florida. For a great variety of forest prod-
ucts from excelsior (shredded wood) to poles and piling
(where most of the tree is used intact), pine is of prime
importance.

Large and small sawmills, with their buzzing activity,
are found in nearly every county of the State. Employ-
ment in the woods and at the mill pays millions in wages
annually. From the mill to the wholesaler and then to
88


I







the retailer provide additional wages and more employ-
ment. Then, in home building and other construction,
additional thousands are gainfully employed in using yel-
low pine in most parts of the nation. Considerable volume
goes into export for structural timbers, battleship deck-
ing, and other construction requiring strong, dense, ter-
mite resisting materials. Nearly 450 sawmills, cutting
largely pine, produce about 750,000,000 board feet an-
nually. Only 10 percent of this production is used in
Florida, the majority going to other States and about one-
quarter of that shipped out of Florida going into the ex-
port trade.

The days of big sawmills are numbered, with only a
few million acres of original growth timber left. Small
and medium sized mills, using efficient methods of man-
ufacture, are coming in. Portable and semi-portable saw-
mills are gradually taking over the cutting of scattered
remnant stands. With the awakened interest in forest
fire control, tree planting, and selective cutting, the pine
sawmill industry faces a future reduction in volume but
not a timber famine in Florida.

FLORIDA'S PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

The recent movement of the pulp and paper industry
into the South has brought a new and profitable industry
to Florida. The five mills already located in the state
represent an investment of $34,000,000 and an annual
payroll of more than $2,000,000. A daily production of
2,000 tons of pulp calls for 2,125 units of pulping wood
daily or 660,000 units annually. Approximately a million
acres of land would be required full time to supply this
89













































































Top--Pine logs ready to haul to mill
Center-Standing pine forest-Pine tree gashed for turpentine gum
Bottom-Turpentine still


_ __








need. Actually, the pulpwood industry is able to use trees
that are crooked or straight stemmed, fast-growing or
slow-growing, limby or clean-boled, thrifty or stunted,
thereby utilizing a considerable portion of otherwise wast-
ed wood and meeting a portion of its requirements inci-
dental to the production of other forest crops.

In addition to the mills located at Panama City, Port St.
Joe, Jacksonville and Fernandina, there are mills located
at Mobile, Alabama, and Brunswick and Savannah, Geor-
gia, within a hauling distance of the Florida line, and of-
fering a market for Florida's wood.

FLORIDA'S WOOD CONTAINER INDUSTRY

The marketing of Florida's citrus, strawberries, vege-
tables, and other edibles is dependent on the wooden con-
tainer industry. Some shipments are made in trucks in
bulk but over 85 percent of all fruit and vegetables move
in wooden packages produced almost entirely in the State.

One hundred and forty-five million board feet of
wood are used in Florida annually for containers, of which
about 70 percent is used for packing oranges, grapefruit,
and tangerines-Florida's famous citrus. Vegetables and
fruits other than citrus use the remainder of this wood.
Loblolly, longleaf, and slash pines and black, tupelo, and
red gums are the principal species used, while magnolia,
bay, poplar, elm, and sycamore are of minor importance.
Approximately 10,000 employees at the factories and in
the woods are gainfully employed in producing containers
for over 120,000 box cars of fruit and vegetables each
season.


91


__ __ ~___







The container industry has showed great progress in
improving and in making their packages more attractive.
Wire-bound, folder packages are shipped to the citrus
packing houses, the celery fields, and the bean and to-
mato fields, stamped as to brand and number, and ready
for immediate use of the shippers. Perishable early straw-
berries are shipped in wooden cups enclosed in veneer
crates, avocados, guavas, mangoes, and even pineapples
leave the southern part of the state in hampers, lugs, and
crates and arrive on the northern and eastern markets in
prime condition to delight the palates of our neighbors
there.

LIQUID GOLD FROM FLORIDA PINES

In Colonial times, naval stores was the "pitch, tar, and
rosin" for the wooden ship industry. Now its use for boat
building is almost negligible and turpentine and rosin, still
called naval stores, go into the manufacture of soaps, pol-
ishes, paints, lacquers, inks, linoleum, roofing, plastics,
pharmaceuticals, and a large amount into paper size which
coats the paper to permit printing.

The old method of "boxing" the trees has given way
to the installing of cups and gutters with a greater volume
produced of higher quality. Other improvements in this
age-old operation are taking place, but substitutes have
taken away some of the markets. Research work is being
carried on by chemists to keep this important southern in-
dustry thriving.
In Florida, over 3,000,000 acres of pine forests are used
annually to produce 7,000,000 gallons of turpentine and
800,000 barrels of rosin. Seven and three-quarter mil-
92







lion dollars were realized from the 1938 operations in
which 15,000 wage earners were employed. After the
trees are "worked out" for turpentine, they are available
for pulpwood, sawlogs, cross ties, veneer, and poles.

The progress of the turpentine business, as well as its
many allied branches, is probably best evidenced in the
modern transportation methods now employed. From
crude ox-carts, jogging through the dense pine woods,
hauling one or two casks to a load, to large trucks and cater-
pillar tractors and trailers, delivering from forty to fifty
barrels at a time to the still, is an important part of the
industry's evolution. Shiploads of the finished products
may be seen departing from Florida sea-ports for points
in the United States and foreign ports.

Both rosin and turpentine are also produced by destruc-
tive and steam distillation of fat pine stump wood, em-
ploying more thousands of men and returning more mil-
lions of dollars to Florida.

COMMERCIAL FISHING

The fishing industry represents one of the most valu-
able resources of Florida. With an investment of about
$10,000,000 and approximately 11,000 persons em-
ployed, it produces from $6,500,000 to $20,000,000
annually, which is about 10% of the fish business of
the United States.

Eight thousand boats comprise the fishing fleet, of
which 13 are sailing vessels, 108 large motor boats, 3,915
smaller boats, and 4,234 other small boats, which bring to
93







the fishing wharves from 122,000,000 to 145,000,000
pounds of fish and seafoods each year.

There are 246 wholesale establishments handling fresh
and frozen fish products. Twenty-one establishments are
engaged in the manufacture of seafoods, their by-prod-
ucts, and other products of the fishing industry, such as
the manufacture of oil, used commercially in making
paints, lubricants, soap, etc.; fish meal valued as a feed
for livestock and poultry; fertilizers for field crops; but-
tons from the shells of crustaceans; glue and numerous
other products.

Florida has the only commercial sponge fishery in the
United States, producing approximately $1,000,000.

Menhaden used in the manufacture of oil, produced
50,531,980 pounds of fish valued at $317,512.

The twelve seafood products that lead in commercial
importance are, mullet, shrimp, red snapper, Spanish
mackerel, catfish, kingfish, grouper, trout, oysters, red-
fish, bluefish, and crappie. Each of these produced more
than a million pounds in 1929, when mullet reached a
total of 27,925,223 pounds. There are several dozen
other varieties that produce from 1 00,000 to over 900,000
pounds, and still others that are less plentiful on our
markets.

Reduced to its simplest terms, oyster culture in Florida
consists in: (1) acquiring suitable submerged bottoms un-
der lease from the State; (2) cleaning and preparing that
bottom for the growth of oysters; (3) sowing thereon
94







shells or other material ("clutch") for the attachment and
growth of young oysters, and transplanting seed oysters
from natural beds; (4) insuring the production of larval
oysters by the proximity of natural or planted beds of adult
oysters; (5) protecting the oyster beds from natural
enemies; (6) transplanting as occasion requires to prevent
overcrowding and to facilitate growth and fattening, and
(7) gathering, culling, shucking, and sorting for the
market.


95





EXPORTS (INCLUDING REEXPORTS) AND IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE
DUTIES COLLECTED 1940 (Values in thousands of dollars)


U. S. TOTAL .........
FLORIDA ............
(District Hq. Tampa)
PERCENTAGE .......

U. S. TOTAL .........
FLORIDA ............
PERCENTAGE ......

7 U. S. TOTAL ..........
FLORIDA ......... ..
PERCENTAGE ......


EXPORTS (including reexports)
1936 1937 1938
2,455,978 3,349,167 3,094,440
39,357 44,021 33,988


1.6
IMPORTS
2,423,977
19,006
0.7


1.3 1.09
FOR CONSUMPTION
3,009,852 1,949,624
22,049 19,860
0.7 1.0


1939
3,177,176
32,341


1.01


2,276,099
19,374
0.8


DUTIES COLLECTED


1936-40 AND


1940
4,021,146
31,734


0.7


2,540,656
20,100
0.7

326,268
3,688
1.13


EXPORTS OF FOREIGN MERCHANDISE
(Including Reexports)


1936-40


1936 1937 1938 1939
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)
U. S. TOTAL ......... 37,008,951. .. 50,238,408 37,270,698 53,833,860
FLORIDA ............ 48,891 65,849 51,545 103,229
PERCENTAGE ....... 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.19
Source: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States 1940.
Prepared by: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Foreign Trade Division.
No reports of this kind have been made since 1940.


1940
(Dollars)
86,965,374
121,842
0.13












CHAPTER 6


FINANCE

Federal income tax paid by Floridians has jumped
214 percent in two years to total $110,070,864 for the
government's 1943 year, (ending June 30, 1943).

Florida's income tax in the 1941 fiscal year totaled
$35,040,374. In 1942 it climbed to $65,912,021. In-
crease from 1942 to 1943 was 67 percent.

Payments by individuals reached $72,695,325 in 1943,
an increase of 55 percent over 1942 individual payments of
$46,900,953 and 183 percent over 1941 payments of $25,-
648,313. Corporation income tax payments of $18,588,-
998 in 1943 represented an increase of 22 percent over
1942 payments of $15,217,058 and 113 percent over
1941 payments of $8,738,881.

Indicative of changes in Florida's industrial life brought
on by the war is the increase in federal employment tax
payments, jumping 81 percent from 1941 to 1943 and
31 percent from 1942 to 1943. Employment taxes
amounted to $5,688,536 in 1941, to $7,847,152 in 1942
(when they were .66 percent of the national total), to
$10,268,376 in 1943, when they were .68 percent of the
national total.


97



























A chamber in Marianna Caverns


Income taxes have taken a tremendous jump since 1937,
when Florida collections amounted to $23,146,852, a five-
fold gain to 1943.

BANKING STATISTICS

Agriculture. Most astounding gains have been made
in farm cash income in 1943. Total cash income from farm
marketing for the half year is estimated at $187,621,000,
an increase of 53 % over the same period in 1942, which
was itself a record year. Indications are that the total farm
income for 1943 will be over $300,000,000, as compared
with $200,000,000 in 1942 and $132,000,000 in 1941.
The State Marketing Bureau in a preliminary estimate of
the 42-43 fruit and vegetable season (ending July 31)

98


_ ___ L_ __ __








placed the season's citrus volume at 68,000,000 boxes,
12,000,000 boxes more than had ever been produced or
utilized before. They estimate a gross value of $160,-
000,000 for citrus, $84,000,000 for vegetables, and $2,-
833,200 for non-citrus fruits, or a total of $284,833,200,
$103,000,000 more than last year.

Volume of clearings for the banks of the state for the
following years:


19 3 8 . ...
1939 .........
1940 .........
19 4 1 . .. .
1942 .........
1943 .........


$


860,394,845
977,576,661
1,106,184,174
1,447,339,766
1,690,472,370
1,115,409,150(Jan.-July)


99


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Top-Passenger plane to Latin America
Bottom-One of Florida's many streamlined trains




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