• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Dedication
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Part I: The engravings of Jacques...
 Part II: The narrative of...
 Part III: The letters
 Part IV: The revenge of Captain...
 Appendixes
 Annotated index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Settlement of Florida
Publisher: University Press of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
External Link: http://www.upf.com
 Material Information
Title: Settlement of Florida
Physical Description: xvi, 253 p. : illus. (part col.), map. ; 19 x 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bennett, Charles E., 1910- ( comp )
Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques, d. 1588
Publisher: University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Manufacturer: Brevard Graphics, Inc.
The Miller Press
Dobbs Brothers Library Binding Company, Inc.
Publication Date: 1968
Copyright Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Sources -- Florida -- To 1821   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Issued in a case.
General Note: 200 copies. No. 8. Signed by the compiler.
Statement of Responsibility: Compiled by Charles E. Bennett.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020425
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University Press of Florida
Rights Management: Copyright 1968 by the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions of Florida. This work is licensed under a modified Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/. You are free to electronically copy, distribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship. However, all printing rights are reserved by the University Press of Florida (http://www.upf.com). Please contact UPF for information about how to obtain copies of the work for print distribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the University Press of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB2617
notis - AEA4757
alephbibnum - 000810058
oclc - 00441458
lccn - 68020412

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Frontispiece
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Part I: The engravings of Jacques Le Moyne
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Part II: The narrative of Le Moyne
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
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        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Part III: The letters
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
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        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Part IV: The revenge of Captain Gourgues
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
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        Page 194
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        Page 204
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        Page 206
        Page 207
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        Page 210
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        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Appendixes
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Annotated index
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Back Matter
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Back Cover
        Page 257
        Page 258
    Spine
        Page 259
Full Text



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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


COLLEGE LIBRARY


















Dedicated
to my beloved children
Bruce, Charles, James and Lucinda












Pedro Men6ndez de Aviles


PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES, founder of St.
Augustine, is shown here in the first publication in color
of this family portrait, by permission of his descendant,
the Conde de Revilla Gigedo of Avilhs, Spain. The artist
and the date of the painting are not known, but the
family know it to be very old. An engraving which close-
ly resembles the old painting was first published in
Retratos de los Espazoles Ilustres con un Epitome de
sus Vidas (Madrid, Imprenta Real, 1791). It is re-
corded that Titian once painted a picture of Men6ndez
and that Philip II had a portrait of him, but it is not
known whether these were the same.
The 1791 engraving was done by Franco de Paula
Marte from a drawing by Josef Camar6n. It has fre-
quently been reproduced, notably in Ruidiaz La Florida,
in which book it is said that there was once a portrait
by Titian in the possession of the first Duke of Almod6-
var del Rio. Ruidiaz also cites Pezuelo to the effect that
a good engraving was made by Coello after an ancient
painting owned by Dofia Ana Antonia SuArez de G6n-
gora, wife of the ninth adelantado of Florida. The pres-
ent owners of the oil painting do not believe it to be by
Titian and if Philip II owned the Titian portrait, it al-
most surely was consumed by fire in El Pardo palace in
1604.









Settlement of Florida
Compiled by
Charles E. Bennett






1968


University of Florida Press

















Copyright 1968 by the
x Board of Commissioners
of
*State Institutions
of
Florida


Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 68-20412







Designed by
Stanley D. Harris

MANUFACTURED FOR THE PUBLISHER BY
BREVARD GRAPHICS, INCORPORATED, MELBOURNE, FLORIDA
THE MILLER PRESS, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
DOBBS BROTHERS LIBRARY BINDING COMPANY, INCORPORATED
HIALEAH, FLORIDA









Acknowledgments


THE INSPIRATION for me to begin this field of
study came from Carita Doggett Corse and the
late T. Frederick Davis, both historians of note.
Everyone interested in Florida history owes a great
debt to the late Jeannette Thurber Connor, and the
text of her work on Dominique de Gourgues, which
is first published in this book, is another milestone
in her illustrious path as a Florida historian with-
out superior.
Members of the staff of the Library of Congress
were of great help to me, such as David C. Mearns,
chief of the Manuscripts Division; Frederick Goff,
chief of the Rare Books Division; and Andrew
Modelski, of the Maps Division. Albert Manucy,
a historian of the National Park Service, gave me


assistance in obtaining rare materials, as did
Salome Mandel of Paris, France.
My deepest debt for aid in the preparation of
this material is owed to the late Dr. Rembert W.
Patrick, then Graduate Research Professor of Flor-
ida History at the University of Florida. He went
over every word of the manuscript and added great-
ly to its readability and flavor.
Finally, the University of Florida Press and I
gratefully acknowledge that the aid of Mr. James E.
Davis and the Elsworth Davis Family Foundation
made this book possible. They generously under-
wrote the publication of the book and financed the
color reproductions.
Charles E. Bennett


































































































































































































































i











Contents


Introduction -.. .. ..... ... ..........------------------------------. xi

Part 1
The Engravings of Le Moyne ----------.----------------.. 1-87


Part 2
The Narrative of Le Moyne ..............................

Part 3
The Letters .........................-.... ..............
Philip II to Don Luis Velasco --------.........
Charles IX to M. de Jarnac ...-....-...........--- ......
Letters from the Spanish Embassy --....-..--.......
May 1, 1563 ........-----..........................
June 19, 1563 -..-......-..--......-...............
June 26, 1563 ......-............--................
October 1, 1565 ...---........ --............. .......
October 8, 1565 ..---..........-.................... -- --
October 22, 1565 .......................................-


89


123
127
129
130
131
132
134
136
137
138


November 5, 1565 ..................-......-...........
April 6, 1566 ..........-......................
May 18, 1566 -..........-----------------
Letters from Menendez .............-..-..-............
To Philip II ............................................
To a Jesuit Friend ........ .. ...............
To Philip II ........................--.
Letter from Catherine de Medici ...-............

Part 4
The Revenge of Captain Gourgues -------.......
The Connor Biography ----....... ---..................
The Recapture of Florida ...........--................

The Appendixes .-........................-.............
The Menendez Will ..............- .............
The Governors of Florida ....-................-........


Index ................------------..-- .......--.....- 247


140
142
144
146
148
156
161
178


183
186
202

229
231
241












Introduction


THE APPEARANCE OF MAN on the continent of
North America was a comparatively recent event.
The Proconsul man lived on our planet twenty-
five million years ago. He was followed by Zin-
janthropus, who lived twenty-three million years
later but could not speak because his narrow
jaws allowed no free movement of his tongue.
Also living two million years ago was the luckier
Homo habilis, who could speak and develop useful
habits. Homo habilis is believed to be the earliest
known direct ancestor of modern man (Homo
sapiens).1 Twenty-five thousand or more years be-
fore Christ, Asiatic tribesmen probably crossed a
land bridge from the Orient to Alaska. Descend-
ants of these people spread throughout North
America and were called Indians by the Spanish
discoverers of the New World.
Authentic discovery and meaningful settlement


of North America by Europeans came late in the
fifteenth century. There are legends of individuals
making their way from Europe to America, notably
St. Brendan, an Irish monk, in the sixth century,
and Madoc, a Welsh prince, in the twelfth; but re-
gardless of the authenticity of these legends, neither
visible evidence nor documentary proof of their
visits exists. At the beginning of the eleventh cen-
tury, the Vikings sailed to the northeastern shores
of North America. Their temporary colonies dis-
appeared centuries before Christopher Columbus
discovered America in 1492. Columbus and his
contemporaries founded colonies in the Caribbean
Islands, South America, Central America, and
Mexico; but north and east of the Rio Grande ex-
ploratory expeditions greatly outnumbered at-
tempts to settle in the first half of the sixteenth
century.







The precise number of European efforts to settle
areas now within the territorial limits of the United
States prior to the settlement of St. Augustine is
difficult to determine. Even use of the best sources
available will leave the serious student with ques-
tions as to the primary purpose of many Spanish
expeditions. There were expeditions whose pur-
poses were exploration, finding precious metals, or
converting the Indians. Among the least known of
the latter was the missionary effort led by Father
Luis Cancer and his martyrdom near Tampa Bay
in 1549. The Negro slave, Estavanico, headed a
scouting expedition into present-day New Mexico
in 1539 and was killed on the outskirts of Cibola,
the fabled city of gold. Better known than these
two were the expeditions of Pinfilo de Narvaez
(1528), Hernando de Soto (1539-1542), and
Francisco Coronado (1540). If settlers are defined
as individuals motivated by a primary desire to
establish new homes, none of these men would
qualify as colonists, for their main purposes were
exploration and discovery of gold.
From 1520 to 1564 there were four real efforts


to settle areas now lying within the United States.
These attempts were significant and worthy intro-
ductions to La Caroline in 1564 and St. Augustine
in 1565, the beginnings of our country's perma-
nent settlement by Europeans.
The first of these was led by Juan Ponce de Le6n
who had discovered Florida in 1513. In 1521 he
loaded his ships with seed and with agricultural
equipment to give his colonists the means of pro-
duction. In addition to founding a colony, Ponce
planned on determining whether Florida was an
island or part of a continent.2 At San Carlos Bay
on the lower Gulf Coast of Florida, perhaps today's
Charlotte Harbor, he fought a savage battle with
the Calusa Indians. Severely wounded in the thigh,
Ponce de Le6n sailed back to Cuba where he died.
He and his colonists had spent almost four months
in searching for a suitable site for settlement.
In 1526 Lucas Vasquez de Ayll6n, a justice of
Santo Domingo, assembled 500 people including
a number of Negro slaves. His colonizing expedi-
tion sailed north along the Atlantic Coast. Perhaps
he landed near the Cape Fear River or the Chesa-






peake Bay to build homes for his settlers. The
hostility of and rebellion by the slaves terminated
the colony within two months.3 The disillusioned
settlers constructed a boat and sailed for home,
bearing the corpse of their leader. Their ship was
lost at sea and only 150 survivors returned to Santo
Domingo.4
The third settlement during this period lasted
two years and earned for Pensacola, Florida, credit
for being the first substantial colonization attempt
within the present territorial limits of the United
States. In 1559 Tristan de Luna y Arellano led a
large colonization party backed by the king of
Spain, the viceroy of New Spain, the governor of
Cuba, and officials of the Catholic Church. The
hopes of the 1,500 colonists and soldiers who
sailed into Pensacola Bay were frustrated on their
arrival by a hurricane. Although most of their sup-
plies were destroyed, the settlers endured the hard-
ships of living for two years in a wilderness
inhabited by unfriendly Indians. Dissension among
the colonial leaders resulted in the replacement of
Tristan and the abandonment of the settlement.


After many exploratory expeditions and three
attempts to colonize the area, Spain seems to have
decided, at least tentatively, that the region north
and east of the Rio Grande, then known as Florida,
was unsuited for settlement. Philip II ordered the
viceroy of New Spain to report on the wisdom of
abandoning attempts to settle the country. The
king's order is included here. If a royal decree
positively prohibiting settlement was ever issued,
it has not been found; but a council meeting which
was held in Mexico pursuant to Philip's order of
1561 agreed, and so reported in March, 1562, that
the order was in fact based on accurate informa-
tion.
Perhaps this Spanish indecision set the stage
for the entry of France into the field of colonization
and territorial expansion. The French were anx-
ious to enlarge their territorial holdings, increase
their commerce, find precious metals, and have
ready access for attack on Spanish treasury ships
en route homeward from the New World. Hope-
fully, a colony mainly for French Huguenots might
lessen religious and political strife within France.


xiii





Catherine de Medici, a Catholic and the mother
of young Charles IX of France, followed the ad-
vice of her Protestant secretary of the navy Admiral
Gaspard de Coligny. In 1562 a French expedition
sailed from Havre-de-Grace bound for Florida un-
der command of Jean Ribault, assisted by Rene de
Laudonniere. These distinguished Huguenot naval
officers discovered the St. Johns River on May 1,
1562, and christened it the River of May. On its
south bank they erected a stone column, located at
what is now the United States Naval Station, May-
port, Florida. Then the Frenchmen sailed north to
present-day Parris Island, South Carolina. On the
island they placed another column to designate
French ownership, established Charlesfort, and
left thirty men to hold it as a base for a larger colony
in the future. The unsupported settlement was
soon abandoned, and the men who started out for
France in a primitive craft without adequate food
supplies suffered through one of history's most
terrible voyages. Frenchmen were reduced to can-
nibalism. Laudonniere described these events in
considerable detail in his Notable History of Flor-
ida.


When the civil war in France prevented Ri-
bault from returning to his Charlesfort colony, he
sought help from Elizabeth I of England. After
cooler consideration of the indirect aid promised
by courtiers close to the Protestant English queen,
Ribault attempted to escape from England. He was
captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
His incarceration saved him; for Thomas Stukeley,
his English partner, had arranged with Spanish
agents to kill Ribault by sinking the ships supplied
to him by the British.
Meanwhile a temporary peace in France en-
abled Catherine and Coligny to send Laudonniere
on another expedition. In 1564 he established La
Caroline on the south bank of the St. Johns River.
This French colony presaged the founding of the
first permanent settlement in what is now the
United States. Seeing his country's commerce
threatened by the existence of the French at Fort
Caroline, Philip II sent Pedro Menendez de Aviles
to attack Laudonniere and found a Spanish colony.
The Spaniard captured Fort Caroline and estab-
lished St. Augustine, the oldest city in the United
States.






Ribault arrived to take command of La Caroline
before Menendez' successful attack. The French
admiral, however, ran into a hurricane and was
marooned south of St. Augustine. Along with most
of his men, he was captured and killed by Menen-
dez. Laudonniere, Le Moyne, and others escaped
from La Caroline and returned to Europe.
The first part of this book contains the narrative
and artistic record of one of the most distinguished
of the French colonists, Jacques le Moyne, the
official mapmaker of Fort Caroline. One copy of
his work Brevis Narratio (published by de Bry at
Frankfort in 1591) was colored by an unidentified
artist for presentation in 1595 to Prince Maurice of
Orange-Nassau. Maurice was the son of William
the Silent and fought like his father against the
Spanish domination in the Netherlands. This old
volume is now in the possession of the Bibliotheque
de Service Hydrographique de la Marine, Paris. Its
colored pictures were reproduced in a limited edi-
tion by Charles de la Ronciere, La Floride fran-
gaise (Paris, Editions Nationales, 1928), a copy of
which is in the rare-book collection of the Library


of Congress. Salome Mandel, a French journalist
and historian, went to see the Prince Maurice copy
in Paris to insure that the colors used here and
taken from the La Ronciere book accurately reflect
the original colors. She affirms that the coloring is
accurate.
Although France was predominately Catholic,
national pride demanded revenge for the destruc-
tion of La Caroline and the massacre of Ribault's
men at Matanzas. Catherine of France favored a
Catholic to avenge French honor because the reli-
gion of the avenger might quiet any protest from
Philip II of Spain, her son-in-law. Some historians
believe that Dominique de Gourgues was not active
in the church, but he was a nominal Catholic. The
narrative of his successful attack on San Mateo and
the welcome on his return to France was translated
by the late Jeannette Thurber Connor and is here
published in English for the first time.
This collection of documents entitled Settle-
ment of Florida, could have borne other titles. It
might have been called "The Beginning of the
Permanent Settlement of What is Now the United






States," because the permanent settlement of our
country began at La Caroline in 1564 and St. Au-
gustine in 1565. The field of inquiry was limited
to the first permanent settlement within the terri-
torial limits of the United States-therefore, the
unsuccessful efforts by France in Canada and those
of England on the Carolina coast in the sixteenth
century are ignored. Furthermore, by choice, the
materials selected and used dwell on La Caroline
to emphasize the role of the French Protestant
colony in bringing about the settlement of St. Au-
gustine. Some of the writings used in this book are
dated later than the period 1564-1565, the account
of Dominique de Gourgues for example, but all of
the material relates to the early and short period.
Modern Americans may find it difficult to
understand the sacrifices and hardships of their
sixteenth-century forebears. But hardship and
sacrifice formed the fountainhead of our rich


heritage. For this reason, they are worthy of study
and contemplation. No man who gives his life to
support a worthwhile principle should be ignored
by history. A reading of the conflicts and endeavors
of sixteenth-century pioneers should cause the
modern American to rededicate his life to just
principles.



NOTES
1. L. S. B. Leakey, "Man's Beginnings," The World Book
Year Book, 1965, pp. 108-22; and Melvin M. Payne, "The
Leakeys of Africa, Family in Search of Prehistoric Man," Na-
tional Geographic (February, 1965), Vol. 127, No. 2, pp.
194-231.
2. Henry Harrisse, Discovery of North America (Amster-
dam, 1961), pp. 158-62.
3. Harold Lamb, New Found World (New York, 1955),
pp. 105-6.
4. Ibid., p. 106; Harrisse, p. 213.








The Engravings of
Jacques le Moyne











THE MAP OF FLORIDA


Jacques le Moyne was the official cartographer of
the French expedition, and this is his map of the area
the French called Florida. The artist of course visited
only the area of the lower St. Johns River, and in that


area the map is accurate. The rest of the map he based
on reports and hearsay, and it shows his conception of
the North American continent to the area of the Great
Lakes.




























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THE PROMONTORY OF FLORIDA, AT WHICH
THE FRENCH TOUCHED; NAMED BY THEM THE
FRENCH PROMONTORY


The French, on their first voyage to Florida, touched
at a headland, not very high, as the coast in that vicinity
is level, but heavily wooded with very lofty trees. This
their commander named French Cape [Promontorium
Gallicum] in honor of France. It is about thirty degrees
from the equator. Coasting thence to the northward,
they discovered a broad and beautiful river, at whose
mouth they cast anchor in order to examine it more in
detail next day. Laudonniere, in his second voyage,
called this stream the River of Dolphins, because, when


he touched there, a great many dolphins were seen in it.
On landing on the shore of this river, our men saw many
Indians, who came on purpose to give them a most kind
and friendly reception, as their actions proved; for some
of them gave their own skin-garments to the commander,
and promised to point out to him their chief, who did
not rise up, but remained sitting on boughs of laurel and
palm which had been spread for him. He gave our com-
mander a large skin, decorated all over with pictures of
various kinds of wild animals drawn after the life.
























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THE FRENCH SAIL TO THE RIVER OF MAY


Re-embarking, they sailed to another place; and,
before landing again, were received with salutations by
another crowd of Indians, some of whom waded into
the water up to their shoulders, offering the visitors little
baskets full of maize and of white and red mulberries,
while others offered to help them in going on shore. Hav-
ing landed, they saw the chief, who was accompanied
by two sons, and a company of Indians armed with bows


and quivers full of arrows. After an exchange of salu-
tations, our men went on into the woods, in hopes to
discover many wonderful things. They found nothing,
however, except trees bearing white and red mulberries,
on the boughs of which were numerous silkworms. They
named this river the River of May, because they sighted
it on the first day of that month.




















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LEAVING THE RIVER OF MAY, THE FRENCH
DISCOVER TWO OTHER RIVERS


A little afterwards they went on board again, hoisted
anchors, and sailed farther on along the coast, until
they entered a beautiful river, which the commander
himself chose to explore in company with the chief of
that vicinity and some of the natives, and which he
named the Seine because it was very like the River Seine
in France. It is about fourteen leagues from the River of


May. Returning to the ships, they sailed still farther
north; but, before going far, they discovered another
fine river, and sent two boats to explore it. In it they
discovered an island, whose chief was no less friendly
than the others. This river they named the Aine. It is
six miles from the Seine.









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SIX OTHER RIVERS DISCOVERED BY THE FRENCH


Sailing hence, about six miles farther on they dis-
covered another river, which was called the Loire; and
subsequently five others, named the Charente, Garonne,
Gironde, Beautiful [Bellus], and Great, respectively.
Having carefully explored all these, and having discov-


ered along these nine rivers, within the space of less than
sixty miles, many singular things, but still not being
contented, they proceeded still farther north, until they
arrived at the River Jordan, which is almost the most
beautiful river of the whole of this northern region.














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THE FRENCH REACH PORT ROYAL


Resuming their voyage as before, they discovered a
river which they called Bellevue [Conspectu bellum,
"beautiful to see"?]; and, after sailing three or four miles
farther, they were informed that not far off was another
river, surpassing all the rest in size and beauty. When
they had reached this, they found it so magnificent and
great a stream that they named it Port Royal. Here they
took in sail, and came to anchor in ten fathoms. The
commander, on landing with some soldiers, found the
country very beautiful, as it was well wooded with oak,
cedar, and other trees. As they went on through the
woods, they saw Indian peacocks, or turkeys, flying past,
and deer going by. The mouth of this river is three
French leagues, or miles, wide, and is divided into two
arms, one turning to the west, the other to the north.


This latter is thought by some to connect with the Jor-
dan; the other returns to the sea, as residents there have
ascertained. These two branches are two full miles wide,
and midway between them is an island whose point looks
toward the mouth of the river. Shortly after, embarking
again, they entered the arm making to the northward,
in order to examine its advantages; and, after proceed-
ing about twelve miles, they saw a company of Indians,
who, on perceiving the boats, immediately took to flight,
leaving a lynx's whelp which they were roasting; from
which circumstance the place was called Lynx Point.
On going still farther, they came to another branch of
the river, coming in from the east, up which the com-
mander determined to go, leaving the main channel.




































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THE FRENCH COMMANDER ERECTS A COLUMN
WITH THE ARMS OF THE KING OF FRANCE


The commander having, however, returned to his
ships, and having remained on board one night, ordered
into one of the boats a landmark carved in the form of
a column, and having cut upon it the arms of the king
of France, which was directed to be set up in some par-
ticularly pleasant spot. Such they found at a point about
three miles to the west, where they discovered a small
creek, which they entered, and, after following it for a
time, found that it came out into the main stream again,
thus forming a small island. The commander directed
the column to be erected on a small open mound in this
place. After this they saw two deer of great size in com-


prison with any they had seen before, and which they
could easily have killed with their arquebuses, had not
the commander, admiring their large size, forbidden it.
Before returning to the boat, they named this small island
Libourne. Embarking again, they explored another
island not far from the former; but finding upon it
nothing except some very lofty cedars, larger than any
they had yet seen in the country, they called it Cedar
Island, and then returned to the ships. The small island
on which the column was erected is marked F in the
plate.


























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THE FRENCH LEFT IN FORT CHARLES SUFFER
FROM SCARCITY OF PROVISIONS


Not long after the departure of Ribaud from Flor-
ida, the men whom he left in Fort Charles (the work
erected by him on an island on a stream entering the
greater channel of Port Royal from the north) began to
find their provisions fail them. After consulting upon
the best way of meeting the difficulty, they concluded
that the wisest plan was to apply to the chief Ouad6 and
to his brother Couexis. Those who were sent on this
business went in Indian canoes by the inland waters, and
at a distance of some ten miles discovered a large and
beautiful river of fresh water, in which they saw numer-
ous crocodiles, much larger than those of the Nile. The
banks of this stream were wooded with lofty cypresses.
After a short delay here, they went on to the chief
Ouade; and, being received by him in the most friendly


manner, they laid before him the object of their journey,
and prayed him not to desert them in such a strait. Upon
hearing this, the chief sent messengers to his brother
Couexis after maize and beans. The latter responded
promptly; for next morning very early the messengers
came back with the provisions, which the chief ordered
on board the canoe. The French, very happy at this liber-
ality of the chief's, would have taken leave of him; but
this he would not permit, keeping them with him, and
entertaining them hospitably for that day. Next morning
he showed them his fields of millet, or maize, and inti-
mated that they should not want for food as long as that
millet existed. Being now dismissed by the king, they
returned by the way they had come.








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THE NATIVES OF FLORIDA WORSHIP THE COLUMN
ERECTED BY THE COMMANDER ON HIS FIRST VOYAGE


When the French landed in Florida on their second
voyage under Laudonniere, that leader went on shore
with five and twenty arquebusiers, after obtaining a safe-
conduct from the Indians, who had gathered in crowds
to see them. The chief Athore, who lived four or five
miles from the seashore, also came; and after an ex-
change of presents had been made, accompanied by
demonstrations of all manner of kind feeling, the chief
gave them to understand that he wished to show them
something remarkable, and that he desired they would
go with him for that purpose. To this consent was given;
although, as the chief had with him a great number of
his people, caution and circumspection were used. He
then conducted them directly to the island where Ribaud
had set up on a mound a stone column ornamented with
the arms of the king of France. On approaching, they
found that these Indians were worshipping this stone as
an idol; and the chief himself, having saluted it with
signs of reverence such as his subjects were in the habit


of showing to himself, kissed it. His men followed his
example, and we were invited to do the same. Before
the monument there lay various offerings of the fruits,
and edible or medicinal roots, growing thereabouts; ves-
sels of perfumed oils; a bow, and arrows; and it was
wreathed around from top to bottom with flowers of all
sorts, and boughs of the trees esteemed choicest. After
witnessing these ceremonies of these poor savages, our
men returned to their companions, and set about choos-
ing a place for erecting a fort. This chief, Athore, is
very handsome, prudent, honorable, strong, and of very
great stature, being more than half a foot taller than the
tallest of our men; and his bearing was marked by a
modest gravity, which had a strikingly majestic effect.
He had married his mother, and had by her a number
of sons and daughters, whom he showed to us, striking
his thigh as he did so. After this marriage, his father
Saturioua lived with her no longer.









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THE FRENCH SELECT A PLACE FOR BUILDING A FORT


After exploring many of the rivers in that country, it
was finally decided that the River of May was the best
one for an establishment, because millet and breadstuffs
were most abundant there, besides the gold and silver
that had been discovered there on the first voyage. They
therefore sailed for that river; and, after ascending it to
the neighborhood of a certain mountain, they selected
a place more fit for the site of their fort than any previ-
ously observed. Next day, as soon as it was light, after


offering prayers to God, and giving thanks for their
prosperous coming into the province, they all went brisk-
ly to work; and, after a triangular outline had been
measured out, they all began,-some to dig in the earth,
some to make fascines of brushwood, some to put up the
wall. Every man was briskly engaged with spade, saw,
axe, or some other tool; and so diligent were they that
the work went rapidly forward.









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PICTURE OF FORT CAROLINA


Thus was erected a triangular work, afterwards
named Carolina. The base of the triangle, looking west-
ward, was defended only by a small ditch, and a wall of
sods nine feet high. The side next the river was built
up with planks and fascines. On the southern side was
a building after the fashion of a citadel, which was for
a granary to hold their provisions. The whole was of
fascines and earth, except the upper part of the wall for
two or three feet, which was of sods. In the middle of
the fort was a roomy open space eighteen yards long, and
as many wide. Midway on the southern side of this
space were the soldiers' quarters; and on the north side
was a building which was higher than it should have


been, and was in consequence blown over by the wind a
little afterwards. Experience thus taught us that in this
country, where the winds are so furious, houses must be
built low. There was also another open space, pretty
large, one side of which was closed in by the granary
above mentioned, while on another side stood the resi-
dence of Laudonnikre, looking out upon the river, and
with a piazza all round it. The principal door of this
opened upon the larger open space; and the rear door,
upon the river. At a safe distance from the works, an
oven was erected; for, as the houses were roofed with
palm-branches, they would very easily have caught fire.






















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CEREMONIES PERFORMED BY SATURIOUA BEFORE
GOING ON AN EXPEDITION AGAINST THE ENEMY


It is mentioned in the account of the second voyages
that the French made a treaty of friendship with a
powerful chief of the vicinity, named Saturioua, with
agreement that they were to erect a fort in his territory,
and were to be friends to his friends, and enemies to his
enemies; and, further, that on occasion they should
furnish him some arquebusiers. About three months
afterwards, .he sent messengers to Laudonniere to ask
for the arquebusiers according to the treaty, as he was
about to make war upon his enemies. Laudonniere,
however, sent to him Capt. La Caille with some men, to
inform him courteously that he could not just then sup-
ply any soldiers, for the reason that he hoped to be able
to make peace between the parties. But the chief was
indignant at this reply, as he could not now put off his
expedition, having got his provisions ready, and sum-
moned the neighboring chiefs to his aid; and he there-
fore prepared to set out at once. He assembled his men,
decorated, after the Indian manner, with feathers and
other things, in a level place, the soldiers of Laudonniere


being present; and the force sat down in a circle, the
chief being in the middle. A fire was then lighted on his
left, and two great vessels full of water were set on his
right. Then the chief, after rolling his eyes as if excited
by anger, uttering some sounds deep down in his throat,
and making various gestures, all at once raised a horrid
yell; and all his soldiers repeated this yell, striking their
hips, and rattling their weapons. Then the chief, taking
a wooden platter of water, turned toward the sun, and
worshipped it; praying to it for a victory over the enemy,
and that, as he should now scatter the water that he had
dipped up in the wooden platter, so might their blood
be poured out. Then he flung the water with a great
cast up into the air; and, as it fell down upon his men,
he added, "As I have done with this water, so I pray that
you may do with the blood of your enemies." Then he
poured the water in the other vase upon the fire, and said,
"So may you be able to extinguish your enemies, and
bring back their scalps." Then they all arose, and set off
by land up the river, upon their expedition.


























414







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251.









OUTINA, GOING AT THE HEAD OF HIS ARMY AGAINST


THE ENEMY, CONSULTS A
Laudonniere, having received some of the men of the
chief, Holata Utina, or Outina, living about forty miles
south from the French fort, and who had been taken
in a previous expedition by his enemy Saturioua, sent
them back to their chief, upon which a solemn league
was made, and mutual friendship promised. This treaty
was made for the reason that the only road, whether by
land or by the rivers, to the Apalatcy Mountains, in
which gold, silver, and brass [aes] are found, was through
the dominions of this chief; and it was in his friendship,
now of scarcely a year's standing, that the French trusted
to obtain free access to those mountains. As this friend-
ship, however, was as yet existing, he asked Laudonniere
for some arquebusiers, as he wished to make war on an
enemy; on which twenty-five were sent him, under
D'Ottigny, Laudonniere's lieutenant. The chief received
them with great delight, as he made sure of the victory
through their assistance; for the fame of the arquebuses
had penetrated throughout all that region, and had
struck all with terror. The chief having therefore com-
pleted his preparations, the army marched. Their first
day's journey was easy; the second very difficult, being


SORCERER ON THE EVENT
through swamps thickly overgrown with thorns and
brambles. Here the Indians were obliged to carry the
French on their shoulders, which was the greater relief
by reason of the extreme heats. At length they reached
the enemy's territories, when the chief halted his force,
and summoning an aged sorcerer, more than a hundred
and twenty years old, directed him to report what was the
state of affairs with the enemy. The sorcerer according-
ly made ready a place in the middle of the army, and,
seeing the shield which D'Ottigny's page was carrying,
asked to take it. On receiving it, he laid it on the ground,
and drew around it a circle, upon which he inscribed
various characters and signs. Then he knelt down on the
shield, and sat on his heels, so that no part of him
touched the earth, and began to recite some unknown
words in a low tone, and to make various gestures, as if
engaged in a vehement discourse. This lasted for a
quarter of an hour, when he began to assume an appear-
ance so frightful that he was hardly like a human being;
for he twisted his limbs so that the bones could be heard
to snap out of place, and did many other unnatural
things.































" :d

4'i'
11









OUTINA, WITH THE HELP OF THE FRENCH,
GAINS A VICTORY OVER HIS ENEMY POTANOU


This report so terrified the chief that he began to
consider not how to come up with the enemy, but how
to get safe back again. But D'Ottigny, greatly vexed at
the idea of making such exertions only to return with-
out bringing any thing to pass, threatened to consider
him a base chief, and of no courage, if he should not
risk an action; and, by force of reproaches and some
threats too, brought him to order an attack. He, how-
ever, put the French in the advance, as they were quite
willing to have him do; and indeed, unless they had sus-


trained the whole brunt of the battle, killing very many
of the enemy, and putting to flight the army of the chief
Potanou, there is no question but Outina would have
been routed; for it became evident that the sorcerer had
made a true report of the facts, and he must certainly
have been possessed by a devil. Outina, however, quite
contented with the flight of the enemy, recalled his men,
and marched for home, to the great wrath of D'Ottigny,
who wished to follow up the victory.









































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ORDER OF MARCH OBSERVED BY OUTINA
ON A MILITARY EXPEDITION


When Saturioua went to war, his men preserved
no order, but went along one after another, just as it
happened. On the contrary, his enemy Holata Outina,
whose name, as I now remember, means "king of many
kings," and who was much more powerful than he as
regards both wealth, and number of his subjects, used
to march with regular ranks, like an organized army;
himself marching alone in the middle of the whole
force, painted red. On the wings, or horns, of his order
of march were his young men, the swiftest of whom,
also painted red, acted as advanced guards and scouts
for reconnoitring the enemy. These are able to follow
up the traces of the enemy by scent, as dogs do wild
beasts; and, when they cpme upon such traces, they im-
mediately return to the army to report. And, as we make


use of trumpets and drums in our armies to promulgate
orders, so they have heralds, who by cries of certain sorts
direct when to halt, or to advance, or to attack, or to
perform any other military duty. After sunset they halt,
and are never wont to give battle. For encamping, they
are arranged in squads of ten each, the bravest men be-
ing put in squads by themselves. When the chief has
chosen the place of encampment for the night, in open
fields or woods, and after he has eaten, and is estab-
lished by himself, the quartermasters place ten of these
squads of the bravest men in a circle around him. About
ten paces outside of this circle is placed another line of
twenty squads; at twenty yards farther, another of forty
squads; and so on, increasing the number and distance
of these lines, according to the size of the army.

















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How OUTINA'S MEN TREATED THE SLAIN OF THE ENEMY


At no time while the French were acting along with
the great chief Holata Outina in his wars against his
enemies, was there any combat which could be called
a regular battle; but all their military operations con-
sisted either in secret incursions, or in skirmishes as
light troops, fresh men being constantly sent out in place
of any who retired. Whichever side first slew an enemy,
no matter how insignificant the person, claimed the vic-
tory, even though losing a greater number of men. In
their skirmishes, any who fall are instantly dragged off
by persons detailed for the purpose; who, with slips of
reeds sharper than any steel blade, cut the skin of the
head to the bone, from front to back, all the way around,
and pull it off with the hair, more than a foot and a half
long, still adhering, done up in a knot on the crown, and
with that lower down around the forehead and back cut
short into a ring about two fingers wide, like the rim of
a hat. Then, if they have time, they dig a hole in the
ground, and make a fire, kindling it with some which


they keep burning in moss, done up in skins, and carry
round with them at their belts; and then dry these scalps
to a state as hard as parchment. They also are accus-
tomed, after a battle, to cut off with these reed knives
the arms of the dead near the shoulders, and their legs
near the hips, breaking the bones, when laid bare, with
a club, and then to lay these fresh broken, and still run-
ning with blood, over the same fires to be dried. Then
hanging them, and the scalps also, to the ends of their
spears, they carry them off home in triumph. I used to
be astonished at one habit of theirs,-for I was one
of the party whom Laudonniere sent out under M.
d'Ottigny,-which was, that they never left the field of
battle without shooting an arrow as deep as they could
into the arms of each of the corpses of the enemy, after
mutilating them as above; an operation which was some-
times sufficiently dangerous, unless those engaged in it
had an escort of soldiers.




















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TROPHIES AND CEREMONIES AFTER A VICTORY


After returning from a military expedition, they as-
semble in a place set apart for the purpose, to which
they bring the legs, arms, and scalps which they have
taken from the enemy, and with solemn formalities fix
them up on tall poles set in the ground in a row. Then
they all, men and women, sit down on the ground in
a circle before these members; while the sorcerer, hold-
ing a small image in his hand, goes through a form of
cursing the enemy, uttering in a low voice, according
to their manner, a thousand imprecations. At the side
of the circle opposite to him, there are placed three men
kneeling down, one of whom holds in both hands a club,


with which he pounds on a flat stone, marking time to
every word of the sorcerer. At each side of him, the
other two hold in each hand the fruit of a certain plant,
something like a gourd or pumpkin, which has been
dried, opened at each end, its marrow and seeds taken
out, and then mounted on a stick, and charged with
small stones or seeds of some kind. These they rattle
after the fashion of a bell, accompanying the words of
the sorcerer with a sort of song after their manner. They
have such a celebration as this every time they take any
of the enemy.







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EMPLOYMENT OF THE HERMAPHRODITES


Hermaphrodites, partaking of the nature of each
sex, are quite common in these parts, and are considered
odious by the Indians themselves, who, however, employ
them, as they are strong, instead of beasts of burden.
When a chief goes out to war, the hermaphrodites carry
the provisions. When any Indian is dead of wounds or
disease, two hermaphrodites take a couple of stout poles,
fasten cross-pieces on them, and attach to these a mat
woven of reeds. On this they place the deceased, with a
skin under his head, a second bound around his body,
a third around one thigh, a fourth around one leg. Why


these are so used, I did not ascertain; but I imagine by
way of ornament, as in some cases they do not go so far,
but put the skin upon one leg only. Then they take
thongs of hide, three or four fingers broad, fasten the
ends to the ends of the poles, and put the middle over
their heads, which are remarkably hard; and in this
manner they carry the deceased to the place of burial.
Persons having contagious diseases are also carried to
places appointed for the purpose, on the shoulders of
the hermaphrodites, who supply them with food, and
take care of them, until they get quite well again.






































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THE CHIEF APPLIED TO BY WOMEN WHOSE
HUSBANDS HAVE DIED IN WAR OR BY DISEASE


The wives of such as have fallen in war, or died by
disease, are accustomed to get together on some day
which they find convenient for approaching the chief.
They come before him with great weeping and outcry,
sit down on their heels, hide their faces in their hands,
and with much clamor and lamentation require of the
chief vengeance for their dead husbands, the means of
living during their widowhood, and permission to marry


again at the end of the time appointed by law. The
chief, sympathizing with them, assents; and they go
home weeping and lamenting, so as to show the strength
of their love for the deceased. After some days spent in
this mourning, they proceed to the graves of their hus-
bands, carrying the weapons and drinking-cups of the
dead, and there they mourn for them again, and per-
form other feminine ceremonies.





























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CEREMONIES OF WOMEN MOURNING FOR
THEIR DECEASED HUSBANDS


After coming to the graves of their husbands, they
cut off their hair below the ears, and scatter it upon
the graves; and then cast upon them the weapons and
drinking-shells of the deceased, as memorials of brave
men. This done, they return home, but are not allowed
to marry again until their hair has grown long enough


to cover their shoulders. They let their nails grow long
both on fingers and toes, cutting the former away, how-
ever, at the sides, so as to leave them very sharp, the
men especially; and, when they take one of the enemy,
they sink their nails deep in his forehead, and tear down
the skin, so as to wound and blind him.













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MODE OF TREATING THE SICK


Their way of curing diseases is as follows: They put
up a bench or platform of sufficient length and breadth
for the patient, as seen in the plate, and lay the sick per-
son upon it with his face up or down, according to the
nature of his complaint; and, cutting into the skin of
the forehead with a sharp shell, they suck out blood
with their mouths, and spit it into an earthen vessel or
a gourd bottle. Women who are suckling boys, or who
are with child, come and drink this blood, particularly
if it is that of a strong young man; as it is expected to
make their milk better, and to render the children who
have the benefit of it bolder and more energetic. For
those who are laid on their faces, they prepare fumiga-
tions by throwing certain seeds on hot coals; the smoke


being made to pass through the nose and mouth into all
parts of the body, and thus to act as a vomit, or to over-
come and expel the cause of the disease. They have a
certain plant whose name has escaped me, which the
Brazilians call petum, and the Spaniards tapaco. The
leaves of this, carefully dried, they place in the wider
part of a pipe; and setting them on fire, and putting the
other end in their mouths, they inhale the smoke so
strongly, that it comes out at their mouths and noses,
and operates powerfully to expel the humors. In partic-
ular, they are extremely subject to the venereal dis-
ease, for curing which they have remedies of their own,
supplied by nature.












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MODE OF TILLING AND PLANTING


The Indians cultivate the earth diligently; and the
men know how to make a kind of hoe from fishes' bones,
which they fit to wooden handles, and with these they
prepare the land well enough, as the soil is light. When
the ground is sufficiently broken up and levelled, the
women come with beans and millet, or maize. Some go
first with a stick, and make holes, in which the others
place the beans, or grains of maize. After planting they
leave the fields alone, as the winter in that country, situ-


ated between the west and the north, is pretty cold for
about three months, being from the 24th of December
to the 15th of March; and during that time, as they go
naked, they shelter themselves in the woods. When the
winter is over, they return to their homes to wait for
their crops to ripen. After gathering in their harvest,
they store the whole of it for the year's use, not employ-
ing any part of it in trade, unless, perhaps, some barter
is made for some little household article.












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INDUSTRY OF THE FLORIDIANS IN DEPOSITING
THEIR CROPS IN THE PUBLIC GRANARY


There are in that region a great many islands, pro-
ducing abundance of various kinds of fruits, which
they gather twice a year, and carry home in canoes, and
store up in roomy low granaries built of stones and earth,
and roofed thickly with palm-branches and a kind of
soft earth fit for the purpose. These granaries are usu-
ally erected near some mountain, or on the bank of some
river, so as to be out of the sun's rays, in order that the


contents may keep better. Here they also store up any
other provisions which they may wish to preserve, and
the remainder of their stores; and they go and get them
as need may require, without any apprehensions of being
defrauded. Indeed, it is to be wished, that, among the
Christians, avarice prevailed no more than among them,
and tormented no more the minds of men.
































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BRINGING IN WILD ANIMALS, FISH, AND OTHER STORES


At a set time every year they gather in all sorts of wild
animals, fish, and even crocodiles; these are then put in
baskets, and loaded upon a sufficient number of the
curly-haired hermaphrodites above mentioned, who carry
them on their shoulders to the storehouse. This supply,
however, they do not resort to unless in case of the last


necessity. In such event, in order to preclude any dis-
sension, full notice is given to all interested; for they
live in the utmost harmony among themselves. The
chief, however, is at liberty to take whatever of this sup-
ply he may choose.












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MODE OF DRYING FISH, WILD ANIMALS,
AND OTHER PROVISIONS


In order to keep these animals longer, they are in
the habit of preparing them as follows: They set up in
the earth four stout forked stakes; and on these they lay
others, so as to form a sort of grating. On this they lay
their game, and then build a fire underneath, so as to
harden them in the smoke. In this process they use a
great deal of care to have the drying perfectly per-
formed, to prevent the meat from spoiling, as the picture


shows. I suppose this stock to be laid in for their winter's
supply in the woods, as at that time we could never ob-
tain the least provision from them. For the like reason
their granaries, as was related, are placed close under
some rock or cliff, near a river, and not far from some
deep forest, so that when necessary they can carry a
supply in canoes.








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HUNTING DEER


The Indians have a way of hunting deer which we
never saw before. They manage to put on the skins of
the largest which have before been taken, in such a man-
ner, with the heads on their own heads, so that they can
see out through the eyes as through a mask. Thus ac-
coutred, they can approach close to the deer without
frightening them. They take advantage of the time when
the animals come to drink at the river, and, having their
bow and arrows all ready, easily shoot them, as they are


very plentiful in those regions. It is usual, however, to
protect the left arm with the bark of the branch of a
tree, to keep it from being grazed by the bow-string,-
a practice which they have learned naturally enough.
They know how to prepare deer-skins, not with iron in-
struments, but with shells, in a surprisingly excellent
manner; indeed, I do not believe that any European
could do it as well.

























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KILLING CROCODILES *


Their way of attacking crocodiles is as follows: They
put up, near a river, a little hut full of cracks and holes,
and in this they station a watchman, so that he can see
the crocodiles, and hear them, a good way off; for, when
driven by hunger, they come out of the rivers, and crawl
about on the islands after prey, and, if they find none,
they make such a frightful noise that it can be heard
for half a mile. Then the watchman calls the rest of the
watch, who are in readiness; and, taking a portion, ten
or twelve feet long, of the stem of a tree, they go out to
find the monster, who is crawling along with his mouth
wide open, all ready to catch one of them if he can; and


with the greatest quickness they push the pole, small
end first, as deep as possible down his throat, so that
the roughness and irregularity of the bark may hold it
from being got out again. Then they turn the crocodile
over on his back, and with clubs and arrows pound and
pierce his belly, which is softer; for his back, especially
if he is an old one, is impenetrable, being protected by
hard scales. This is their way of hunting crocodiles; by
which they are, nevertheless, so much annoyed that they
have to keep up a regular watch against them both day
and night, as we should do against the most dangerous
enemy.


* Probably alligators












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FLORIDIANS CROSSING OVER TO AN ISLAND
TO TAKE THEIR PLEASURE


That country abounds in most delightful islands, as
the first pictures of our series show. The rivers are not
deep; but the water, which comes not higher than to the
breast, is very clear and pure. When they desire to make
a little pleasure excursion with their wives and chil-
dren, to one of these islands, they cross over by swim-
ming, in which they are very skilful; or, if they have
young children, by wading. The mother can carry three
children at a time, the smallest on one shoulder, and


holding it by one arm, the other two holding on to her
under her arms; while in her other hand she holds up a
basket full of fruit or other provisions for the occasion.
When there is any fear of the enemy, the men take their
bows and arrows; and, to keep them from being wet,
they attach the quiver to the hair of the head, and hold
up in one hand a bow already strung, and an arrow,
for instant defence if necessary: as in the picture.


































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PREPARATIONS FOR A FEAST


At the time of year when they are in the habit of
feasting each other, they employ cooks, who are chosen
on purpose for the business. These, first of all, take a
great round earthen vessel (which they know how to
make and to burn so that water can be boiled in it as
well as in our kettles), and place it over a large wood-
fire, which one of them drives with a fan very effec-
tively, holding it in the hand. The head cook now puts
the things to be cooked into the great pot; others put
water for washing into a hole in the ground; another
brings water in a utensil that serves for a bucket; an-
other pounds on a stone the aromatics that are to be
used for seasoning; while the women are picking over


or preparing the viands. Although they have great fes-
tivities, after their manner, yet they are very temperate
in eating, and, in consequence, they live to a great age;
for one of their inferior chiefs affirmed to me that he
was three hundred years old, and that his father, whom
he pointed out to me, was fifty years older; indeed, this
last personage, I confess, looked like nothing but the
bones of a man covered with a skin. Such facts might
well make us Christians ashamed, who are so immod-
erate in indulgence both in eating and drinking, who
shorten our own lives thereby, and who richly deserve to
be put under the authority of these savages and of brute
beasts, to be taught sobriety.













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PROCEEDINGS OF
IN DELIBERATING ON

The chief and his nobles are accustomed during cer-
tain days of the year to meet early every morning for
this express purpose in a public place, in which a long
bench is constructed, having at the middle of it a pro-
jecting part laid with nine round trunks of trees, for
the chief's seat. On this he sits by himself, for distinc-
tion's sake; and here the rest come to salute him, one
at a time, the oldest first, by lifting both hands twice to
the height of the head, and saying, "Ha, he, ya, ha, ha."
To this the rest answer, "Ha, ha." Each, as he completes
his salutation, takes his seat on the bench. If any ques-
tion of importance is to be discussed, the chief calls
upon his laiias (that is, his priests) and upon the elders,
one at a time, to deliver their opinions. They decide
upon nothing until they have held a number of councils
over it, and they deliberate very sagely before deciding.
Meanwhile the chief orders the women to boil some
casina; which is a drink prepared from the leaves of a
certain root, and which they afterwards pass through
a strainer. The chief and his councillors being now seat-
ed in their places, one stands before him, and, spread-


THE FLORIDIANS
IMPORTANT AFFAIRS

ing forth his hands wide open, asks a blessing upon the
chief and the others who are to drink. Then the cup-
bearer brings the hot drink in a capacious shell, first to
the chief, and then, as the chief directs, to the rest in
their order, in the same shell. They esteem this drink
so highly, that no one is allowed to drink it in council
unless he has proved himself a brave warrior. Moreover,
this drink has the quality of at once throwing into a
sweat whoever drinks it. On this account those who
cannot keep it down, but whose stomachs reject it, are
not intrusted with any difficult commission, or any mili-
tary responsibility, being considered unfit, for they often
have to go three or four days without food; but one who
can drink this liquor can go for twenty-four hours after-
wards without eating or drinking. In military expedi-
tions, also, the only supplies which the hermaphrodites
carry consist of gourd bottles or wooden vessels full of
this drink. It strengthens and nourishes the body, and
yet does not fly to the head; as we have observed on oc-
casion of these feasts of theirs.













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CONSTRUCTION OF FORTIFIED TOWNS AMONG
THE FLORIDIANS


The Indians are accustomed to build their fortified
towns as follows: A position is selected near the channel
of some swift stream. They level it as even as possible,
and then dig a ditch in a circle around the site, in which
they set thick round pales, close together, to twice the
height of a man; and they carry this paling some ways
past the beginning of it, spiral-wise, to make a narrow
entrance admitting not more than two persons abreast.
The course of the stream is also diverted to this en-
trance; and at each end of it they are accustomed to
erect a small round building, each full of cracks and
holes, and built, considering their means, with much
elegance. In these they station as sentinels men who
can smell the traces of an enemy at a great distance,


and who, as soon as they perceive such traces, set off to
discover them. As soon as they find them, they set up
a cry which summons those within the town to the de-
fence, armed with bows and arrows and clubs. The
chief's dwelling stands in the middle of the town, and
is partly underground, in consequence of the sun's heat.
Around this are the houses of the principal men, all
lightly roofed with palm-branches, as they are occupied
only nine months in the year; the other three, as has been
related, being spent in the woods. When they come
back, they occupy their houses again; and, if they find
that the enemy has burnt then down, they build others
of similar materials. Thus magnificent are the palaces
of the Indians.



































63










How THEY SET ON FIRE AN ENEMY'S TOWN


For the enemy, eager for revenge, sometimes will
creep up by night in the utmost silence, and reconnoitre
to see if the watch be asleep. If they find everything
silent, they approach the rear of the town, set fire to
some dry moss from trees, which they prepare in a par-
ticular manner, and fasten to the heads of their arrows.
They then fire these into the town, so as to ignite the roofs
of the houses, which are made of palm-branches thor-
oughly dried with the summer heats. As soon as they


see that the roofs are burning, they make off as fast as
possible, before they are discovered, and they move so
swiftly that it is a hard matter to overtake them; and
meanwhile also the fire is giving the people in the town
enough to do to save themselves from it, and get it under.
Such are the stratagems used in war by the Indians for
firing the enemy's towns; but the damage done is trifling,
as it amounts only to the labor required for putting up
new houses.














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HOW SENTINELS ARE PUNISHED FOR SLEEPING ON THEIR POSTS


But, when the burning of the town has happened in
consequence of the negligence of the watch, the penalty
is as'follows: The chief takes his place alone on his
bench, those next to him in authority being seated on
another long bench curved in a half circle; and the
executioner orders the culprit to kneel down before the
chief. He then sets his left foot on the delinquent's back;


and, taking in both hands a club of ebony or some other
hard wood, worked to an edge at the sides, he strikes
him on the head with it, so severely as almost to split
the skull open. The same penalty is inflicted for some
other crime reckoned capital among them; for we saw
two persons punished in this same way.











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HOW THEY DECLARE WAR


A chief who declares war against his enemy does not
send a herald to do it, but orders some arrows, having
locks of hair fastened at the notches, to be stuck up along
the public ways; as we observed when, after taking the


chief Outina prisoner, we carried him around to the
towns under his authority, to make them furnish us
provisions.


























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69










FIRST-BORN CHILDREN SACRIFICED
TO THE CHIEF WITH SOLEMN CEREMONIES


Their custom is to offer up the first-born son to the
chief. When the day for the sacrifice is notified to the
chief, he proceeds to a place set apart for the purpose,
where there is a bench for him, on which he takes his
seat. In the middle of the area before him is a wooden
stump two feet high, and as many thick, before which
the mother sits on her heels, with her face covered in
her hands, lamenting the loss of her child. The principal
one of her female relatives or friends now offers the child
to the chief in worship, after which the women who have
accompanied the mother form a circle, and dance around


with demonstrations of joy, but without joining hands.
She who holds the child goes and dances in the middle,
singing some praises of the chief. Meanwhile, six In-
dians, chosen for the purpose, take their stand apart in
a certain place in the open area; and midway among
them the sacrificing officer, who is decorated with a sort
of magnificence, and holds a club. The ceremonies being
through, the sacrifice takes the child, and slays it in
honor of the chief, before them all, upon the wooden
stump. This offering was on one occasion performed in
our presence.









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SOLEMNITIES AT CONSECRATING THE SKIN OF
A STAG TO THE SUN


The subjects of the chief Outina were accustomed
every year, a little before their spring, that is, in the end
of February, to take the skin of the largest stag they could
get, keeping the horns on it; to stuff it full of all the
choicest sorts of roots that grow among them, and to
hang long wreaths or garlands of the best fruits on the
horns, neck, and other parts of the body. Thus dec-
orated, they carried it, with music and songs, to a very
large and splendid level space, where they set it up on a


very high tree, with the head and breast toward the sun-
rise. They then offered prayers to the sun, that he would
cause to grow on their lands good things such as those
offered him. The chief, with his sorcerer, stands nearest
the tree, and offers the prayer; the common people,
placed at a distance, make responses. Then the chief
and all the rest, saluting the sun, depart, leaving the
deer's hide there until the next year. This ceremony they
repeat annually.








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THE YOUTH AT THEIR EXERCISES


Their youth are trained in running, and a prize is
offered for him who can run longest without stopping;
and they frequently practise with the bow. They also
play a game of ball, as follows: in the middle of an open
space is set up a tree some eight or nine fathoms high,


with a square frame woven of twigs on the top; this is
to be hit with the ball, and he who strikes it first gets a
prize. They are also fond of amusing themselves with
hunting and fishing.



































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THE DISPLAY WITH WHICH A QUEEN ELECT
IS BROUGHT TO THE KING


When a king chooses to take a wife, he directs the
tallest and handsomest of the daughters of the chief men
to be selected. Then a seat is made on two stout poles,
and covered with the skin of some rare sort of animal,
while it is set off with a structure of boughs, bending
over forward so as to shade the head of the sitter. The
queen elect having been placed on this, four strong men
take up the poles, and support them on their shoulders;
each carrying in one hand a forked wooden stick to sup-
port the pole at halting. Two more walk at the sides;
each carrying on a staff a round screen elegantly made,
to protect the queen from the sun's rays. Others go be-


fore, blowing upon trumpets made of bark, which are
smaller above, and larger at the farther end, and having
only the two orifices, one at each end. They are hung
with small oval balls of gold, silver, and brass, for the
sake of a finer combination of sounds. Behind follow the
most beautiful girls that can be found, elegantly dec-
orated with necklaces and armlets of pearls, each carry-
ing in her hand a basket full of choice fruits; and belted
below the navel, and down to the thighs, with the moss
of certain trees, to cover their nakedness. After them
come the body-guards.





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SOLEMNITIES AT THE RECEPTION
OF THE QUEEN BY THE KING


With this display the queen is brought to the king
in a place arranged for the purpose, where a good-sized
platform is built up of round logs, having on either side
a long bench where the chief men are seated. The king
sits on the platform on the right-hand side. The queen,
who is placed on the left, is congratulated by him on her
accession, and told why he chose her for his first wife.
She, with a certain modest majesty, and holding her fan
in her hand, answers with as good a grace as she can.
Then the young women form a circle without joining
hands, and with a costume differing from the usual one;
for their hair is tied at the back of the neck, and then
left to flow over the shoulders and back; and they wear


a broad girdle below the navel, having in front something
like a purse, which hangs down so as to cover their
nudity. To the rest of this girdle are hung ovals of gold
and silver, coming down upon the thighs, so as to tinkle
when they dance, while at the same time they chant the
praises of the king and queen. In this dance they all
raise and lower their hands together. All the men and
women have the ends of their ears pierced, and pass
through them small oblong fish-bladders, which when
inflated shine like pearls, and which, being dyed red,
look like a light-colored carbuncle. It is wonderful that
men so savage should be capable of such tasteful inven-
tions.









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THE KING AND QUEEN TAKING A WALK
FOR THEIR AMUSEMENT


Sometimes the king likes to take a walk in the eve-
ning in a neighboring wood, alone with his principal
wife, wearing a deer's hide so elegantly prepared, and
painted of various colors, so that nothing more beautiful-
ly finished can be seen anywhere. Two young men walk
at his sides, carrying fans to make a breeze for him; while
a third, ornamented with little gold and silver balls hang-
ing to his belt, goes behind, and holds up the deer's hide,
so that it shall not drag on the ground. The queen and
her handmaids are adorned with belts hung on the shoul-
ders or around the body, made of a kind of moss that
grows on some trees; with slender filaments which are
attached to each other, after the fashion of links of a
chain, of a bluish-green color, and so beautiful in texture
that it might be mistaken for filaments of silk. The trees
laden with this moss are beautiful to see; for it sometimes


hangs down from the highest boughs of a very tall tree
to the ground. While hunting once with some of my
fellow-soldiers in the woods near King Saturioua's resi-
dence, I saw him and his queen thus decorated.
The reader should be informed that all these chiefs
and their wives ornament their skin with punctures
arranged so as to make certain designs, as the following
pictures show. Doing this sometimes makes them sick
for seven or eight days. They rub the punctured places
with a certain herb, which leaves an indelible color. For
the sake of further ornament and magnificence, they
let the nails of their fingers and toes grow, scraping them
down at the sides with a certain shell, so that they are
left very sharp. They are also in the habit of painting
the skin around their mouths of a blue color.


































81










CEREMONIES AT THE DEATH OF A CHIEF OR OF PRIESTS


When a chief in that province dies, he is buried with
great solemnities; his drinking-cup is placed on the grave,
and many arrows are planted in the earth about the
mound itself. His subjects mourn for him three whole
days and nights, without taking any food. All the other
chiefs, his friends, mourn in like manner; and both men
and women, in testimony of their love for him, cut off
more than half their hair. Besides this, for six months


afterwards certain chosen women three times every day,
at dawn, noon, and twilight, mourn for the deceased
king with a great howling. And all his household stuff
is put into his house, which is set on fire, and the whole
burned up together.
In like manner, when their priests die, they are buried
in their own houses; which are then set on fire, and
burned up with all their furniture.




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