Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The journal
 Index of chapters
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Chapter XXIV
 Chapter XXV
 Chapter XXVI
 Chapter XXVII
 Chapter XXVIII
 Chapter XXIX
 Chapter XXX
 Chapter XXXI
 Chapter XXXII
 Chapter XXXIII
 Chapter XXXIV
 Chapter XXXV
 Chapter XXXVI
 Editor's notes


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0002042300001datestamp 2008-11-05setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Journey into wildernessdc:creator Motte, Jacob Rhett, 1811-1868dc:subject Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842 ( lcsh )Creek War, 1836 ( lcsh )dc:description b Bibliography Bibliography: p. 313-320.Statement of Responsibility Edited by James F. Sunderman.dc:publisher University of Florida Pressdc:date 1953dc:type Bookdc:format xxxv, 326 p. illus., port., maps. 24 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00020423&v=00001AAB2615 (LTQF)01209402 (OCLC) 53006655 (LCCN)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English

Journey into wilderness
University Press of Florida ( Publisher )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020423/00001
 Material Information
Title: Journey into wilderness an army surgeon's account of life in camp and field during the Creek and Seminole Wars, 1836-1838
Physical Description: xxxv, 326 p. illus., port., maps. 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Motte, Jacob Rhett, 1811-1868
Publisher: University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 1953
Copyright Date: 1953
Subjects / Keywords: Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842   ( lcsh )
Creek War, 1836   ( lcsh )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 313-320.
Statement of Responsibility: Edited by James F. Sunderman.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University Press of Florida
Rights Management: Copyright 1953 by the University of Florida. This work is licensed under a modified Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/. You are free to electronically copy, distribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship. However, all printing rights are reserved by the University Press of Florida (http://www.upf.com). Please contact UPF for information about how to obtain copies of the work for print distribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the University Press of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB2615
oclc - 01209402
lccn - 53006655
System ID: UF00020423:00001

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    The journal
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Index of chapters
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chapter II
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Chapter III
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter IV
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Chapter V
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Chapter VI
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter VII
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Chapter VIII
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Chapter IX
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Chapter X
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Chapter XI
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Chapter XII
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter XIII
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Chapter XIV
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Chapter XV
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Chapter XVI
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Chapter XVII
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Chapter XIX
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chapter XX
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Chapter XXI
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 154a
    Chapter XXII
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Chapter XXIV
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Chapter XXV
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Chapter XXVI
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Chapter XXVII
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Chapter XXVIII
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Chapter XXIX
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Chapter XXX
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Chapter XXXI
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Chapter XXXII
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Chapter XXXIII
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Chapter XXXIV
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Chapter XXXV
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
    Chapter XXXVI
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Editor's notes
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
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        Page 310
        Page 311
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        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
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        Page 318
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        Page 320
        Page 321
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        Page 325
        Page 326
Full Text

%ertney into /llern

o5e ee_4 o-,-
/ /

Title pagr f7 RetMte s S Jour n

^^^^ ~c^^(^^>^^u<

^y^ ^ ^ ^ ^" ,-

kaouney inti 7Jlaene

Army Surgeon's Account
Life in Camp and Field
during the
Creek and Seminole Wars
Jacob Rhett Motte


". .. you have men, and so have we, you have powder and lead,
and so have we, your men will fight, and so will ours, till the last
drop of blood has moistened the dust. ."
(Osceola, Seminole Indian Chief, to Brigadier General Duncan
L. Clinch, February 2, 1836.)


a W/niv &Ye i/ da 4de44 z4 ok

Copyright, 1953
by the

University of Florida

All rights reserved

Library of Congress

Catalog Card Number

Printed by
The H. & W. B. Drew Company
Jacksonville, Florida

APPRECIATION IS EXPRESSED to those who have generously
assisted in the editing of the Motte Journal by providing access to
manuscripts, published works, records, and other reference material,
or by aiding in the research and preparation of the manuscript.
Especially I should like to thank Dr. Rembert W. Patrick, head,
Department of History, University of Florida, for arranging with
the Florida Historical Society to make the original Motte manu-
script available for publication, and for his helpful supervision and
guidance during the course of my editing.
Special recognition and appreciation are due also to: Dr.
W. E. Baringer and Dr. D. E. Worcester, Department of History,
University of Florida, for their professional advice and assistance;
Dr. John M. Goggin, Department of Sociology and Anthropology,
University of Florida, for the numerous sources and facts he made
available on the Creek and Seminole Indians and on the geography
and archeology of the Southeast, and in particular of Florida; and
Mr. Julien C. Yonge, director of the Library of Florida History, for
his untiring and meticulous aid in searching for sources and in
reviewing materials for authenticity and accuracy.
Gratitude is also extended to the Florida Historical Society and
Mrs. Alberta Johnson, its former librarian, for making the original
manuscript available; to the St. Augustine Historical Society and
Mrs. Marion R. Moulds, acting librarian, for permitting the pub-
lication of excerpts from the revised manuscript; to Dr. Kenneth W.
Porter, Houston, Texas, for his reference suggestions; to Dr. Mark
F. Boyd, Tallahassee, Florida, for granting permission to reproduce
the four pencil sketches found in this volume; to Mr. Allen S. Deas,
collector of manuscripts, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, for his
information on the life of Dr. Motte; to Dr. Kenneth F. Gantz and
Dr. Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Air University, Montgomery, Ala-

Journey into Wilderness
bama, for their helpful editorial suggestions; to Ruth and Bill
Takes, Montgomery, Alabama, for their assistance in collating the
final narrative with Motte's original; and to Mr. William Q. Den-
son, Jr., Montgomery, Alabama, for drafting the maps.
To my wife, Thelma Ailene, I owe, perhaps, the greatest debt
of thanks for her faithful devotion to typing, proofing, and the
many other uninteresting and tedious tasks which are required in
preparing a manuscript for publication.

February 25, 1953 JAMES F. SUNDERMAN



ea"le o/ / entent4

Editor's Introduction xi


Preface xxv

Index of Chapters xxix

The Narrative 1

Editor's Notes 247
Bibliography 313

Index 321

!9J ol/ J YI/&oalonj


Fort Mellon facing page 98
Osceola facing page 138
Indian Mound near Fort Taylor facing page 154
Light House at Key Biscayne facing page 226


Section of Alabama: Locale of the Second Creek
War, 1836 5
The State of Georgia 33
Georgia-Florida Frontier, 1836-1837 75
Northeast Florida: Newnansville-St. Augustine-
Fort Mellon Area 97
Operations along the Florida East Coast: St.
Augustine to Indian River Inlet 109
East Florida, 1840 147
Mosquito Inlet to Indian River Inlet and the Lower
St. Johns 171
Lake Okeechobee and the East Coast 179
Lower East Coast: Okeechobee to Key Largo 221
Jacob Rhett Motte's Journey into Wilderness endpapers



OUR SOUTHERN FRONTIER, boisterous and lawless, was the
scene of more bloody strife between the red man and the white
man than any other section east of the Mississippi River. From
the days of the American Revolution the Creek Indians, a strong,
feared, and highly civilized confederation in Georgia and Alabama,
and the Seminoles, a Creek offshoot in Florida, had seen their
lands constantly encroached upon by the steady advance of white
men who coveted the rich undeveloped soil of the deep South.
Little by little, as the red man was forced to sign treaties and land
cessions, he saw his tribal domains and hunting grounds disappear.
The bloody Creek War of 1813-1814 and the Seminole uprising in
1817 were only more violent eruptions in the constant strife and
bush fighting that went on for decades.
Early in the 1830's came the decree from Washington that all
Indians east of the Mississippi would be removed to lands in the
West. In spite of formal treaties signed with the Creeks and Semi-
noles guaranteeing this removal, large segments of both tribes were
adamant in their refusal to leave their ancestral homes. They re-
fused to listen to talk of leaving and vowed to resist any attempt
at removal by force.
By the middle of the 1830's ill feeling between the keyed-up
Creeks and Seminoles and the frontier settlers had reached the pitch
of open hostilities. The United States government, determined to
carry out its policy of Indian removal, ordered large numbers of
regular and volunteer troops to move against the Creek and Semi-
nole Nations. The elusive, musket-armed Indians, skilled in the
art of guerilla warfare, proved no easy target for unwieldly columns
of marching troops. Though the red man fought for survival,
whatever moral and tactical advantages he possessed were
eventually overcome by the sheer weight of numbers and the

Journey into Wilderness
superior equipment of his foe. The wars for him were wars of
attrition. Regardless, however, of the odds he faced and the
quick submission he made in Georgia and Alabama, he fought
for seven long years in Florida.
This clash of arms on one of America's wildest and least known
frontiers provides the setting for the tales of primitive frontier life-
"how fields were fought and won,"* "hair-breadth scapes by flood
and field," and the "deadly breach and the cannons mouth"-
which the author of this Journal vividly narrates.


Jacob Rhett Mottea versatilearmy surgeon with a literary
flair, was a proud, Chesterfieldian Harvard-eiduicated, self-styled
Southern gentlemanwho one day suddenly found .himself trans-
ported from thegay, aristocratic social circles of Charleston into
ai-ild frontier. This unknown world proved a rare experience
for a man of distinguished bearing who was descended from two
colorful South Carolinian families of Huguenot origin.t
Motte was proud of his lineage. On his father's side, as far as
available sources reveal, it went back to the Comte de la Motte of
seventeenth-century France. His great-grandfather, the second
generation of his family in this country, served thirty years as public
treasurer of the colony of South Carolina. His grandfather, Isaac
Motte, rose to the rank of colonel in the Continental Army and
became known as a Revolutionary War hero through his seizure of
Fort Johnson and his gallant defense of Fort Moultrie. An equally
enviable lineage is found on his mother's side. Abraham Motte,
Quotations used in this introduction and not otherwise annotated are
taken from the original Motte manuscript.
t Sources used in sketching the author's life and background include The
Christian Register, July 24, 1869; South Carolina Historical and Genealogical
Magazine, IV, 1903; materials in the War Records Division, National Archives;
and Arthur H. Cole (ed.), Charleston Goes to Harvard, Diary of a Harvard
Student of 1831 (Cambridge, 1940). The information embodied in the first
three mentioned was furnished through correspondence with Clifford K. Shipton,
custodian of the Harvard University Archives; E. G. Campbell, director, War
Records Division, National Archives, Washington, D. C.; and Margaret D.
Mosimann, reference librarian, Charleston Free Library, Charleston, South

J. Rhett fath ied Sarah Wash.ington._Quince, the. daughter
of Colonel!_illianRhettan outstanding _ui _earLyAistory
ofLSouth Carolina. The pride young Motte felt in his family
heritage often prompted him to drop his first name and use the
initial only. He registered at Harvard as Rhett J. Motte.
Motte was born in Charleston, September 2 1811, and lived
there during his forvf years.. 'After attending Charleston Col-
lege the seve 11t:aenteredH-arvardn olloJegein 1828
following a pre eentet-by-his older and only brother, Mellish
Irving, who had been graduated from Harvard in 1821.
SPerhaps the p hil -frequent intellectual ap-
proach in his writings are traceable to his Harvard background! -The..
courses he studied th-erec:d-vered- awide-range:. In-the program of
his junior year alone, the humanities were represented by Latin,
Greek, German, and "universal grammar," while his courses in
architecture and the sciences included natural philosophy, chemistry,
and electricity. Several of his required themes were on abstract
topics. One he entitled "Whether genius be an innate and irre-
sistible propensity to some particular pursuit, or merely general
superiority owing to accidental circumstances?" Another bore an
even more unusual title: "Crime, conscience, self-deception, worldli-
ness, God's judgement of us and the world's judgement, etc., as
exhibited in the King's soliloquy in Hamlet-'O my offence is
rank,' etc."
His Harvard years held enjoyments as well as hard work. He
was an average student-neither exceptionally enthusiastic about
Shis courses nor prone to complain.* His friends were few, a cir-
cumstance which he himself deplored. He led a plain, moral
existence, marked by abstention from dances, parties with fellow
students, and other festivities. The only sports he enjoyed were
riding his velocipede, swimming, and walking, the last being his

During the latter part of his junior year at Harvard, Motte kept a diary
in which he recorded his student activities, thoughts, and emotions. This diary,
edited by Arthur H. Cole, librarian, Harvard Graduate School of Business Ad-
ministration, affords many valuable glimpses into the early life of the author.


Journey into Wilderness
In reading his Journal one cannot doubt that his Harvard
background shaped a mind which flourished on wide reading, for
he exhibits a familiarity with the classics, and with the music, art,
and literature of his day. In passages of reflective musing, which
appear frequently throughout his writings, he quotes from writers
whom we today consider among the greatest in our literary heritage.
One of his recurring laments is the total absence of reading material
on the frontier, the lack of which he believes produces a group of
people whom he characterizes as the "dumbest in the world."
Never in history, he laconically observes, has there existed a class
of,individuals who stood in more earnest need of schoolmasters.
I !,.-Aigusof--32--Mo ntt(e.as~y.graduatedfroml--_arvard-wNith
the degree of Bachelor-of--Ar-4 He may have remained in New
England from his matriculation until graduation, for his brother
was then serving as Unitarian minister of the South Congregational
Church in Boston /His only sister, Anna Maria, was living at the
time in New London, Connecticut, where her husband, Colonel
William Lindsay of the United States Army, was stationed.,
The ties between Jacob and Anna Maria were very close. He
speaks of her affectionately in his Journal, in which he does not
even mention his brother In 1836 Anna Maria was living at the
United States Arsenal in Augusta, Georgia, conveniently located
for Motte to visit on his journey to the theater of war in Alabama.
His parents were undoubtedly dead, for he often laments the fact
that he has no permanent home. In his writing can be detected
"the maturity which only permanent bereavement can produce in a
young mind. Reflecting upon the joyful anticipation exhibited by
his homeward-bound army friends, he writes: "Home no longer
exists for me; it is only to be found in the memory of past times
and joyous youth, when hopes were bright, and the very air I
breathed seemed impregnated with delight. There is no hearth-
stone to which I may turn meeting those loved faces which
render home so dear."
S Upon rhis graduatio.nfrom-Harvard,..Motte-jailedto.eceive.a
Z desired appotment._tohe_ United States Military Academy and
returned to Charleston. There he studied at the medical college

and served his apprenticeshipua-- ndeDr,-J..--F- brook. Apart
from mentioning service as a citizen medical doctor at the Augusta,
Georgia, Arsenal in 1835, he tells little of his life and activities
before his entry into the United States Army.
Leanings toward a military career had been evident during his
college days. The failure of his attempt to win an appointment to
West Point only postponed his desire for a "try" at the army.
Hence, in March of 1836 he journeyed to Baltimore, where he was
examined by the Army Medical Board. His application for ad-
mission to the medical staff was approved on March 21, and about
the first of June he received orders placing him on active duty with
the rank of assistant surgeon.*]
His enlistment doubtless was prompted by a youthful admiration
Sfor the service. Army life in that day was not attractive, least of
all in salary.! One disgruntled army surgeon characterized the fi-
nancial remuneration as follows: "Although I had, at my own
expense, obtained through a course of eight years study and at-
tendance on medical lectures, the degrees of A.M. and M.D., and
added five or six years' experience in private practice, I found, that
after expending some $300 in prerequisites, and joining the army,
I would receive only $30 per month pay, and $24 for subsistence.
Respectable board, lodging and washing cannot be obtained
at any southern station, which are the only ones with which I am
acquainted, for less than $28 or $30 per month: leaving $24 for
clothing, incidental expenses, and the laying up for a wet day."t
The Journal picks up the record of Motte's life, travels, and
observations early on the morning of June 3, 1836, as he rode down
the deserted streets of Charleston on his way to the railroad depot.
He was inspired by the fact that he "was now enrolled among the
elite few, the brave and honorable spirits of our small but unsur-
passed Army." A year later the blunt reality of army life on a wild
Army and Navy Chronicle, May 5, 1836. An assistant surgeon in the
Army Medical Corps at this time had the rank of either first lieutenant or
captain; a surgeon, that of major. By an act of Congress, April 23, 1908,
titles of assistant surgeon and surgeon were abolished, and medical officers
were ranked by purely military titles, such as lieutenant, captain, major, and
t Ibid., January 21, 1836.


Journey into Wilderness
frontier had dampened the thrill and enchantment which his army
career had originally promised. It was then he issued a warning to
those of his profession who were "strongly tempted by the allure-
ments of a military life," stating, "if you possess an impatient
temper, or a character honorably proud and finely sensitive, as you
value your peace of mind, do not think of taking such a step."
The quaint little Charleston-Hamburg express carried the
proud new army surgeon to Augusta in a little over twelve hours.
From Augusta he proceeded by stagecoach across the state to
Columbus, where he reported for duty with the army opposed to
the Creek Nation.
The first eleven of the thirty-six chapters of the Journal deal
with the Creek Indian hostilities in Georgia and Alabama. In the
winter of 1836-1837 Motte was ordered to Florida and accompanied
a detachment of tro rorr-Im-owndes County; Georgia, to the
Mineral Springs onthe.SuwanneRiverTc irFlorida. The remaining
twenty-five chapters relate his experiences, observations, and itiner-
ary in Florida during the first years of the Seminole Indian hostili-
ties. His travels with the troops in Florida took him throughout the
peninsula from the Georgia border to the Everglades and as far
south as Key Largo, and enabled him to tuck into the pages of his
Journal a wide range of material on territorial Florida. In April
S of 1838, while stationed at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, he received
orders transferring him back to Charleston, where the narrative of
his Journal ends.
From Charleston he was ordered to Major General Winfield
Scott's headquarters at Athens, Tennessee, and took part in the
campaign which forcibly removed the Cherokee Indians to their
new homes west of the Mississippi. After a period of service in
the Cherokee country, Motte was transferred to the Michigan terri-
tory and, later, in 1840 to Huntsville, Alabama. In 1843 he was
stationed at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri, where he drew
up several interesting reports for the Surgeon General on conditions
in the Missouri Valley.*
Allen S. Deas, collector of manuscripts, to James F. Sunderman, August
26, 1950, MS in P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida.

He resign.ecL.his..commission. in .1845, returned .to .Charleston,
and biegan.private practice.. In.Decemberof the same year he mar-
ried Mary Mahan gHaig,..the hterof a Charleston doctor, and
purchased a plantation at Exeter, South Carolina, apparently living
there throughout the Civil W a~r.-- --- -
-Civilian life again brought him the comforts of civilization. He
established a home of his own, ministered to by "the soft, tender
touch" of a woman's hand-a dream often expressed and long
desired. And in spite of his campaign observations of mild disgust
at the numerous progeny of the frontier family and the frontiersman
who excelled in no "duties" except those involved in begetting
"ugly little white-headed responsibilities," the Mottes had nine
children-six boys and three girls. Five children survived their
father's death at Exeter in 1868.
Little is known of the character and appearance of Dr. Motte
)except as they are revealed in his writings. A lanky, pipe-smoking
army officer, he undoubtedly followed the fashion among the gentry
of that day and sported a mustache. He does not conceal his love
for good port wine nor his admiration for the "lovely ladies of St.
Augustine." Although his heart fluttered when.dancing in the
arms of some exotic Minorcan lass, his determination while cam-
paigning in the field carried him until he dropped from physical
. exhaustion. He complains about thedrinkig water,which at
imies was _"t e coor and consistency of ink"; the nauseaproduced
by walking for days in torrential downpours of a midwinter rain;
the discomfort of sleeping in a saddle or in the alternative-four
inches- f -Water, tEelh-abor of wadifig in slimy muck, waist-deep,
his clothes cut to pieces by sharp saw-grass and his shoes chewed
up by the coral rocks. But his complaints, quite frequently, are
couched in the humor which undoubtedly was the spirit in which-
they were originally voiced.
His graphic and ironic observations frequently recall the prose
of the literary masters of his day. After a hot and dusty day's
march, the crystal waters of Itchetucknee Springs appear to him as
"an oasis in this desert which broke upon our vision like the fairy-
land sometimes seen in dreams." The smooth-flowing St. Johns


Journey into Wilderness
River appears to wind through "an avenue of o'er hanging trees
their pendant branches casting mysterious shadows as
they hang over its placid bosom in every variety of form and
beauty." Yet he describes other parts of Florida as "neither land,
water, nor air the poorest country that ever two people quar-
relled for a perfect paradise for Indians, alligators, serpents,
frogs, and every other kind of loathsome reptile" where "the
demon of desolation stalked with unchecked sway."


, t The Motte Journal was not written in the field. It was com-
piled from a volume of field notes which he kept during the cam-
paign and which, unfortunately, has never been found. It is not
-known- what prevented Motte from publishing his Journal after
revising it for that purpose in 1845. This revised copy, partly in
hiown--hiandwriting and partly in the handwriting of another per-
son, is in the possession of the St. Augustine Historical Society.
With the exception of the first four chapters, which show a small
amount of revision, it bears remarkable identity with the original
manuscript. In contrast to the original it is less irritating to the
reader because errors in sentence structure and punctuation, as well
as interpolations, additions, and deletions-the inevitable con-
sequences of a rapidly written original draft-have been corrected.
The original version, written by Motte from his field notes not
for publication but for the benefit of his own family and friends,
is the one transcribed following this introduction. It is presumed
to be the more accurate. However, in order to give the reader the
benefit of both the original and the revised manuscripts, all informa-
tive and pertinent material not included in the original but found in
the revised version is placed in brackets in its proper place and
Both manuscripts were purchased in 1930 by William Todd, a
New England rare-book collector, from a Charleston source-un-
doubtedly the Motte heirs. The revised copy was sold to the St.
Augustine Historical Society and the original to Dr. James A.


Robertson of Stetson University.* After the death of Dr. Robert-
son the original manuscript was presented to the Florida Historical
Society by Mrs. Robertson. Through the aid of Dr. Rembert W.
Patrick, the manuscript was lent to the P. K. Yonge Library of
Florida History to be edited.
The original manuscript has been preserved in fair state. The
majority of its pages measure 8 x 13 inches in folio. It is legible,
although in places it is difficult to follow because of fading and
water stains and the numerous corrections and interpolations made
upon it. The mechanical style of Motte's script is indicative of the
period. Capita e are granioseandthe second letter of a
double "s .extenuds.below the line. Many verbs ending n "e.. re-
Stam~ the "e" in their participial form.
S- The Journailis highly informative and well written. The au-
thor'smetaphori-aguage sS-eis r super, alth -ugh ientenc st-ructure,
spelling, and punctuation occasionally indicate careless composition.
Indeed, many of Motte's vivid descriptions would do credit to the
authors of the classics he studied at Harvard. His characterization
of Captain Giles Porter, whose mustache "always exhibited by an
ingenious spiral a strong partiality for the corner of each eye," and
/his account of sprightly social life in St. Augustine graced by raven-
Shaired Spanish and lustrous-eyed Minorcan girls, whose figures
were "of the most lovely proportions" .. and who glided
"through the labyrinthian mazes of the graceful Spanish dance,"
are typical examples of his literary ability.
: Equally conspicuous throughout the Journal is the subtle humor
woven into the descriptive narrative, which contributes one of the
most entertaining aspects of the work. Motte's account of a "log-
rolling, quilting, and dancing frolic" in frontier Georgia is as
humorously exciting to the reader as the original performance ap-
peared to the author. The striking comparison of a group of sage-
like pelicans to the sober-faced gentry in a court of justice; the inci-
dent of an excited farmer who mistook a company of-troops for a

William Todd to James A. Robertson, December 3, 1931; James A.
Robertson to William Todd, December 8, 1931. This correspondence is with
the original copy of the manuscript.

Journey into Wilderness
band of hostile Indian warriors; and the story of Andrew Jackson's
quarrel with the ladies of old Newnansville-all indicate the humor-
istic lens through which Motte viewed the world.
The Journal is valuable not only to the student of history but
\ also to those who enjoy entertaining and informative reading. It
is a story and a travelogueJ A multitude of anecdotes, incidents,
and tales of life on the little-known Georgia-Alabama-Florida fron-
tier are intricately dovetailed into the central theme-the Creek
and Seminole Indian Wars. But its primary value lies in its con-
tribution to the knowledge of the military and social history of this
period. 7he excellent descriptions of military activities, which make
the Journal a source book that has been too long ignored, include
an eye-witness account of the capture of Osceola, King Philip,
Coacoochee (Wild Cat), and Uchee Billy; the Battle of Jupiter
Inlet; expeditions down the east coast of Florida and into the Ever-
glades; operations in northern Florida, southern Georgia, and
eastern Alabama, as well as military actions in other sections of
the hostile territories. Besides sketching excellent literary portraits
of various personalities, white and Indian, who played a conspicuous
role in the war (the best perhaps being that of Osceola), Motte
reports his impressions of pioneer settlements, military fortifications,
towns, roads, frontier life and society, the geographical aspects of
the country, and many other fascinating sidelights. He also pro-
jects into his Journal brief glimpses of the economic, political, and
religious trends of the time.
The primary purpose of the Journal is to record what the author
Refers to as "occular observations." In discussing the Creek and
Seminole Indian wars, he deals mainly with those events in which
he took a part. He mentions, however, and at times descriptively
outlines, other phases of military action, both contemporary and
past, in which he did not participate. For information concerning
these events he relies upon either contemporary newspaper stories
or firsthand accounts of actual participants.
The transcription which follows is based upon three comparative
readings, and duplicates the original manuscript insofar as possible.
In the interest of clarity and readability, disconcerting errors in


spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure have been corrected.
In a number of instances punctuation has been added. No attempt
has been made to impose strict consistency or modernization on
Motte's text. (The old-fashioned spellings and quaint literary style
have been generally retained, and grammatical peculiarities and,
irregularities have been left in the narrative when they do not ob-
scure the author's meaning. Throughout his manuscript Motte
quotes a number of verse the sources for most of which are un-
known; some may be of his own composition.
I have annotated the transcription to explain various events,
supplement the narrative, fill in chronological gaps, and identify
the persons, places, and things mentioned by the author. This pro-
cedure, like the editing of the text itself, was motivated by a desire
for an articulated presentation which would be pleasant and easy
to read and to recall. If that aim has now been achieved, Motte's
literary labors, despite the lapse of one hundred fifteen years, will
not have been in vain.


7,ae Joadna/

during a period of nearly nine years, passed amid
the fatigues of almost incessant locomotion and the restlessness of
continual excitement-for such I may characterize my military
career, kept constantly on duty with troops in the field and on
the remotest frontiers of the Union while in the Army-debarred
from access to books in a great measure, in consequence of my
erratic life and inaccessible positions, I resorted to keeping a jour-
nal; first begun merely to wile away moments not occupied by
professional duties, it was afterwards continued under the im-
pression that in after years it would afford some satisfaction to be
able to remember old scenes and to recall them as they actually
While witnessing the dreadful scenes of Indian warfare, I was
also impressed with the conviction that descriptions of horrible
massacres, imminent and hair-breadth escapes, bloody battles, and
dreadful murders have always been subjects of interest to the hu-
man mind, and would be more particularly so to my friends know-
ing my participation in them. And I might expect nothing less
than to be called upon by them as soon as I should have once
again assumed the appearance of a gentleman by a joyous return
to the luxury of a refined suit of clothes, and look as if I had
never been scratched by thorns and brambles in my life, for a
full detail of "how fields were fought and won," "hair-breadth
scapes by flood and field," the "deadly breach and the cannons
mouth," and all that sort of thing. I therefore thought it best to
write down my impressions of "scenes and incidents" while fresh
in my mind and with the first glass untarnished by lapse of time;
for well I knew that should I wait until I had resumed my ac-
quaintance with a soft feather-bed,-it was a most affectionate
meeting by the bye,-I should never be able to do justice in my

I _

Journey into Wilderness
descriptions to the merits of primitive couches in soft hummocks
and morasses; not after having again produced a taste of civilized
food, would I feel much disposed to recount how I had revelled
upon the delightsome and wholesome excellencies of gopher soup,
alligator steaks, and other like delicacies.
My journal being in due time submitted to those friends who
called upon me for an account of myself during my protracted
absence from the pale of civilization, they have generally been
pleased to compliment me by repeatedly advising its publication.
I had determined several years ago, in consequence of this advice,
to give to the public that portion of my journal which comprised
my first two years of Army experience, obtained while campaign-
ing against the Creek and Seminole Indians; but have heretofore
been frustrated in carrying out this determination by being always
kept on duty in the remotest parts of our frontier, far removed
from all the appliances of civilizations.
Having recently escaped the influence which subjected me to
this long continued banishment from the world by resigning my
commission in the Medical Staff; and thus become enabled to
resume my former and long desired position by returning to a
refined and polished community, instead of being barbarized by
constant contact with savages-among whom I feel I have already
been too long kept for I am occasionally seized with an irresistible
inclination to dress myself fantastically with leggins and wampum
and utter a war-whoop-I have been again advised by some
friends who perused my journal to publish it.
More in deference to their judgement than from any good
opinion I entertain of my own humble abilities I now comply by
making public this first two years of my "Life in Camp and Field."
I will only add that should any exception be felt to a tone of
egotism that may occasionally appear in the course of these writ-
ings, the reader must bear in mind that such is inseparable from
a private journal of impressions, thoughts, and feelings; but such,
I repeat, it was intended to be when written; and only for my own
reference in after years, or the perusal of those friends who should
express any interest in my movements. These impressions of

The Journal
scenes, incidents, and adventures being noted down on the spot,
and at the times of occurrence, I leave unaltered as the truest and
readyest mode of imparting what would probably have been the
impressions made on others in like circumstances.

Charleston, S. C. Jacob Rhett Motte


Jn alez z / /6aler

Departure from Charleston-journey to Columbus, Ga.-Georgia
volunteers-visit to an Indian camp-reflections produced thereby-
Capt. Munroe's command-Camp Balaam-amusements thereof-Fort
Mitchell-troops take up the line of March for Roanoke-a night
alarm-an incident on the road-Paddy Carr and friendly Creeks.
Disappointment of a fight-appearance presented by an Army on the
march-Indian devastations-Roanoke destroyed by the Indians-
miraculous escapes from the Savages-arrival of Gen. Sandford and
Georgia militia-first impressions of life in camp and field-camp
fare and Indian activity-sufferings from inexperience in camp life-
the Army cross the Chattahooche in a drenching rain-Indian signs
and a capture-Camp Sandford-Gen. Scott and Army leave for the
Cowaggee swamps-precarious condition of Camp Sandford-an alarm
-ordered to Fort McCreary-Steamer "American"-lose my dinner.
Leave Fort McCreary-4th of July in the woods-return to Fort
Mitchell-Indians emigrating-Neah-Mathla-paternal affection in an
Indian-ordered to Tuskeegee, Ala.-leave Fort Mitchell-signs of
Indian devastations-Lt. Moniac-Tuskeegee.
Ordered to Camp McClenden-my first surgical operation in camp-
a case of remarkable recovery-Echo-Hadjo's camp-Indians taking
the black drink-Indian fondness for phlebotomy-the Creek language.
The Artillery at Camp McClenden relieved by the Marines-return
to Fort Mitchell-Creek volunteers for Florida-India-rubber bridge-
Indian love of fighting-Capt. Lane-ordered to Lowndes County,
Ga.-solitary ride to Irwinton, Ala.-a night on a keel-boat-night
reflections on Chattahooche river-continuation of my solitary ride.

Journey into Wilderness
Irwinton, Ala.-anecdote of Alabama volunteers-Major Dearborn
and 2nd Infantry take up the line of march for Lowndes County,
Ga.-laughable incident on the road-am taken sick-left in a log-
house-unpleasant reflections produced by sickness-recovery--ride
through the woods in Autumn-Franklinville, Lowndes County.
Camp Townsend-life in camp-members of my camp family-
country practice-observations on the medical profession-the true
secret of happiness-uncommon fertility of country people.
Indications in camp of winter-camp fires-a wild-goose chase-
specimen of the sublime-effects of Indian education-a fire-hunt-
piney-wood crackers-visit from a lady-repetition of the visit-an
Move our camp-Camp Clyatt-pleasures of a wilderness-wonder-
ful performances of my family-a quilting and log-rolling frolic-camp
amusements-a professional visit-two oddities-incident shewing mili-
tia discipline and militia usefulness-a hurricane track.
Leave Camp Clyatt-Camp Swilley-a hunt and the results-re-
flections in a swamp-adventure in said swamp-Indian murders and
our consequent movement-difficulties of marching through a wilder-
ness-Troublesome ford-accident there-Tustenuggee John and party
We encamp near the Okefinokee Swamp-solitary ride to Franklin-
ville-Christmas contemplations in the woods-we proceed on a scout-
a candidate for the Temperance Society-visit to the Suwannee Min-
eral Spring-a bivouac-New Year's day reflections-move our camp
into Florida-Capt. Abram and his ferry-Allapahaw river.
Indian massacre and a hurried march-narrow escape of Mr. Sykes
and family from the Indians-adventures on a scout after Indians-
uselessness of some volunteers-move our camp to Warner's ferry-San
Pedro-night alarm and Indian stratagem-march to Alligator-Fort

The Journal
Alligator-prospects of peace-reverse of feelings-Indian massacre
of Mr. Clement's wife and children.
Ordered to Newnansville, E. Florida-difficulties of the march to
Livingston's ferry-scarcity of water in Florida-Itchetucknee Spring
a terrestrial paradise-natural bridge of the Santa Fee river-approach
to Newnansville-Capt. Tomkins' battle with the Indians-effects of
music's charm-Newnansville-characteristics of the inhabitants-cause
of the war being protracted-public dinner to Col. Mills-pluck of the
Alachua dames-arrival of the U. S. 2nd Dragoons at Newnansville.
Ordered to Fort Mellon-a break-down-arrival at Black Creek-
Garey's Ferry-embark on Steamer Essayons for Fort Mellon-descrip-
tion of Black Creek-feelings produced at first sight of the St. Johns
river-Picolata-scenery of the St. Johns river-Lake George-Volu-
sia-Major Gates-high-handed act of President Jackson-others oc-
casionally do like him-Fort Mellon-battle of Fort Mellon-an
adventure and miraculous escape of two officers-Capt. Mellon's
grave-sickness at Fort Mellon-Coa-coo-che or Wild-cat.
Fort Mellon abandoned-Jacksonville-feelings produced by the
sight of the ocean-arrival at St. Augustine-prospects blasted-Army
Surgeons-am taken sick-Fort Harllee-4th of July at Newnansville
-an incident in camp-visit to St. Augustine-description of the place
-festal banquets-St. Augustine ladies-Spanish dance-return to
Fort Harllee-ordered to Fort Peyton-storm on the St. Johns river-
Fort Peyton-gallant act of Capt. Dimick of the U. S. Army.
Negroes escape from the Indians and give information of their
whereabouts-expedition ordered against the Indians by Gen. Hernan-
dez-proceed south on expedition-appearance of the country-Bulow-
ville-a bivouac-an important guide unexpectedly found-difficulties
of the march-description of country-Indians discovered near Dun-
lawton-a night expedition against an Indian camp-capture of King
Philip and other Indians-another night expedition and capture of
Uchee Billy and Uchee warriors-Lieut. McNeil shot.
Peculiarities and difficulties of campaigning in Florida-our Indian
captives-return march-Tomoka river crossed-death of Lt. McNeil

Journey into Wilderness
-reflections produced thereby-a night march and sleeping on horse-
back-important results expected from the success of our expedition-
our entree into St. Augustine-reflections on a brave man's death-
obituary notice and burial of Lt. McNeil.
A second expedition to Bulowville-disagreeable weather-appear-
ance of our bivouac-an escape from the Indians-arrival of Wild-cat
and Blue-Snake-leave Bulowville-a disagreeable night march-an
escape from drowning-Indian pride of appearance-Wild-Cat alias
Coa-coo-che-Gen. Jesup's order No. 187.
Return to Fort Peyton-Indians coming in-a ball at St. Augus-
tine-ride to Oceola's camp-another festal banquet-an Indian
"straight-talk"-arrival at Fort Peyton of Oceola and his warriors-
Gen. Jesup's foresight and prudence-capture of Oceola and Coa-
hadjo with eighty warriors-anecdote of the Indian John Hicks-the
bone and sinew of the enemy in captivity-Oceola-Gen. Jesup justi-
fied in the capture of Oceola.
The winter campaign opening-Sam Jones-observations upon the
difficulties of campaigning in Florida-injustice done our Army-dif-
ference between fighting Indians and fighting a civilized foe-Gen.
Jesup's plan of operations.
Preparations for the winter campaign-relieved from duty at Fort
Peyton-Cherokee delegation arrive at St. Augustine--st Artillery
embark for New Smyrna-we proceed to sea-a mineral fountain at
sea-arrival at Mosquito bar-reflections produced by the beauty of
the scene-New Smyrna-scene of our encampment-negroes dis-
covered-new arrivals at Smyrna.
Lt. McLaughlin of the Navy and boat service-voyage to Mosquito
Lagoon-description of scenery-an Indian mound-odd appearance
of our fleet-a night on Mosquito Lagoon-description of scenery on
Mosquito Lagoon-an incident-we discover the haulover-landing
with effect-description of the haulover-wild ducks.
Return to New Smyrna-Pelicans-return to the haulover-evening

The Journal
in camp-camp characters and their attire-anecdote of one-de-
parture of cavalry from the haulover-my friend Blue-Snake-un-
welcome occupants of our camp-gophers--Cherokee delegation-Sam
Jones' sensitive feelings insulted-news by express-camp occupations
-prairie on fire.
Lt. Powell of the Navy and party arrive at the haulover-their ap-
pearance on parade-Christmas in camp-a false alarm-Cherokee
mediation a failure-active hostilities renewed--st Artillery ordered
down Indian river-camp on fire-Fort Ann-voyage down Indian
river-arrival at Indian river Inlet-feelings produced at sight of the
ocean-a bath in the Atlantic on New Year's morning-reflections
produced by a walk on the Florida sea-shore.
Fort Pierce established-remains of an ancient fortification-the
fish of Indian river-arrival of Gen. Hernandez and cavalry-1st Artil-
lery ordered on boating service-arrival of Gen. Jesup and 2nd Dra-
goons-Col. Taylor's battle of the Kissimmee.
Lt. Powell's return to Fort Pierce-his battle with the Indians at
Jupiter river-Dr. Leitner killed in battle-gallant behaviour of Mr.
J. E. Johnston-remarks relative to Dr. Leitner-his probable fate.
Mounted force ordered to the scene of Lt. Powell's fight-ordered
on duty with the 2nd Dragoons-water service again-appearance of
the Al-pa-ti-o-kee-dificulties of our march-arrival at Camp Lloyd-
dificulties encountered by Gen. Eustis' army-the order of our march
-Delaware Indians join us-description of country-saw-palmetto-
an army halting on a mrarch-night appearance of an army encamped
-agility of a deer-description of country-scenery of the everglades.
The O-kee-cho-bee-continue our march-difficulties and discom-
forts encountered-Indians discovered in force-Dragoons and mounted
volunteers ordered forward to the attack-a general engagement with
the enemy and battle of the Locha-Hatchee-volunteers of not much
use-Gen. Jesup wounded-remarks on the inefficiency of volunteers-
we encamp on the field of battle-appearance of the killed and
wounded-reflections after a battle-capture of Indian cattle and

Journey into Wilderness
Remarks descriptive of Florida-a country fit only for Indians-
Indian superiority in bush-fighting over whites-move our camp to
Jupiter river-Fort Jupiter built-Lt. Powell's dead found-retreat
of the Indians discovered-scalp taken by a Delaware Indian-a
company invited to dinner.
The army take up the line of march against the enemy-sufferings
from sickness on the march-the enemy brought to bay-overtures of
peace-submission of the Indians-proposition from the Seminoles
proper-the Micasukies-return to Fort Jupiter-privations and suf-
ferings of those in the field of Florida-consequent disgust for the
country-Tuskeegee's party of Indians encamp near us-their ap-
pearance-their love of Florida.
A grand pow-wow-Indian negroes-Abram-an incident indicating
Indian good-will-camp amusements-Jupiter river Inlet closed up
in one night-peculiarity of the Florida Inlets.
An Indian camp-we receive an invitation to a dance-description
of an Indian ball-Indian love of whiskey-the Indian dance-Squaws
dancing-The Cat-fish dance-characteristics of a pleasant party.
500 Indians captured at night-an Indian ball-play-Colt's rifle-
ordered on an expedition to the south with Col. Harney of the Dra-
goons-incidents on the way-arrival at Fort Lauderdale-the coonte
region-Indian massacres on New River.
Col. Harney crosses New River and proceeds south-the Rio
Ratones-the mounted men ordered back-description of New River-
proceed in Steamer Isis to Key Bescayno-lighthouse at Cape Florida
burnt by the Indians-miraculous escape of the keeper-Col. Harney's
camp at Lewis' settlement.
Col. Harney proceeds on a night expedition-description of the
southern coast of Florida-fresh Indian tracks discovered, and a walk
among the mangroves-a remarkable spring below high-water mark-

The Journal
expedition to the interior-Indian trails discovered-description of
the country-a pandemonium-Sam Jones' camp attacked-a fight
and a capture-our captive-return to our boats-a break-down-
another boat expedition-return to our camp.
The 1st Artillery ordered to the Cherokee Nation in North Carolina,
via Charleston-Col. Harney's perseverance-hope and despondency-
1st Artillery embark for St. Augustine-Col. Harney returns to Fort
Lauderdale-reaction of feeling at the anticipation of soon seeing
Charleston again-the Steamer Isis at sea-arrival at St. Augustine-
hospitalities of the people there-we embark at Picolata for Charles-
ton-the inland passage-Savannah-a man overboard-reflections
on returning to Charleston-arrival at Charleston.



i 't was on the morning of the 3rd June 1836, at the
early hour of half past five o'clock, that a solitary chaise was
driven rapidly through the streets of Charleston, in the direction
of the Rail-Road depository.' That chaise contained my honored
self, and my honored self's trunk, with the addition of a negro
boy, who acted in the capacity of driver; the latter a very neces-
sary appendage, for my trunk and myself were soon to be trans-
ferred to our respective cars in the long train about to start for
the incipient great city of Hamburg.2 I was on my way to join
the Army in the Creek-nation,' having just received an appoint-
ment in the Medical Staff. I had taken leave of all my friends
the day previous with one exception; and that one, dearer than
the rest, postponed bidding adieu until the last moment. It was
a sad parting; for about to enter as I was into scenes of strife with
a savage and unsparing foe, the chances were unequally balanced
whether I should ever again look upon his countenance or hear
the friendly tones of his voice. It was not a moment for regret,
however;-my long cherished hopes were at last fulfilled;-the
dearest wish of my heart was attained; and I was now enrolled
among the elite few, the brave and honorable spirits of our small
but unsurpassed Army. As a Military Surgeon I was soon to ex-
perience the arduous duties of active service, the best school for
a tyro in the medical profession.
We reached Hamburg that evening4-that is my trunk, self,
and Co.-without any accident; and through the medium of an
omnibus, soon found ourselves at the Planter's Hotel in Augusta.
Here were collected Gen. Fenwick5 and many other Army officers,
destined for the scene of war in Alabama.6 I remained the next
day, for the purpose of visiting my sister at the Arsenal, about four
miles from Augusta; and on the following morning at 9 o'clock

Journey into Wilderness
took my seat in the stage, with the intention of overtaking Major
Lomax's detachment of troops,7 with whom I was ordered to pro-
ceed to Columbus, Georgia, after relieving Dr. [Assistant Surgeon
Joel] Martin, (who pleaded a discomboberation of his circulation,
to escape being sent to the field). We came up with the command
about ten miles east of Sparta, and passing their encampment at
11 o'clock at night, proceeded on to Sparta,8 there to await their
approach. On reporting myself the next morning to Major Lomax,
I ascertained that Dr. [Assistant Surgeon Eugene Hilarian] Abadie
who was despatched from Columbus by Gen. Scott' for the pur-
pose, had joined the day previous, and that it would be unnecessary
for me to remain with them, when my services may be more needed
with other troops. This was fortunate for me; for had I joined
this command, I should have had to trudge two hundred miles
on foot through sun and sand; sleeping at night on the bare
ground without a tent;-not having yet procured a horse or any
other outfit for the campaign. I therefore proceeded in the stage
in company with Lt. Waite;o1 other passengers having dropt off
as we approached the Indian country.1 The only inconveniences
we experienced were breaking our heads against the sides and top
of the vehicle at every jolt over the bad roads;-getting out to
walk down steep and rugged hills in the middle of the night;-
sinking in several mudholes, stalled, and standing ancle deep in
mire, while making desperate exertions to extricate the lumbering
coach;-and finally, having to stop at a house at 2 o'clock in the
morning, where the inhabitants were too well secured by Mor-
pheus to attend to our thumps, bumps, and knocks that only had
the effect of waking anything but sweet music in the throats of
all the curs of the establishment. [Persevering in our gymnastic
exercises, we at last were rewarded with a sight of the inmates;
and after an uncomfortable short nap, and an equally uncomfort-
able breakfast, our journey was continued.]'2
At 10 o'clock in the morning of the 7th June we reached the
thriving town of Columbus, situated on the Eastern bank of the
Chatahooche [Chattahoochee River]. The McIntosh Hotel kept
by Mangham was selected as the place of depository for myself

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etc., it being the principal rendezvous for the military. I here
found Major [John] Erving, my rail-road travelling companion,
who in the course of the morning introduced me to Major Kirby,13
Chief of Gen. Scott's Staff; and to whom I reported myself for
duty, the General being sick in bed.
The streets of Columbus presented a bustling appearance; not
with business, but the constant arrivals of the mighty, valiant,
and invincible citizen soldiers, in whose bosoms the flame of pa-
triotism had furiously blazed forth. They presented a glorious ar-
ray of dirks, pistols, and bowie-knives, with no scarcity of dirt. It
seemed as if every ragamuffin of Georgia, deeming himself an
invincible warrior, had enlisted under the standard of Mars, which
many from their conduct must have mistaken for the standard of
Bacchus, as they observed the articles of the latter god with much
greater reverence.14
I seized an opportunity to visit the camp of some friendly
Indians on the Alabama side of the Chatahooche."5 After crossing
the bridge which connects the two states, and walking a mile,
I soon discovered their wigwams. They are built of the bark of
the pine-tree stretched over four poles driven perpendicularly into
the ground. The sides were open, and afforded an entire view
of the internal domestic arrangement. This was simple enough;
merely a blanket or two spread upon the ground, upon which were
sitting the squaws engaged in making moccasins, or chilli-pika as
they are called in the Creek language; and around them were play-
ing the little naked papooses. Upon a log outside sat the dignified
heads of families, engaged either in smoking their pipes, or in the
enjoyment of luxurious indolence. In the chief I found a vener-
able looking old gentleman, who glorified in the title of Col.
Blue;16 he had served under Jackson in the last war with the rank
of Col. which title he had retained in preference to his Indian
cognomen of Blue-Warrior. He sat in silent grandeur at the en-
trance of his wigwam, a white flag waving over his head in indi-
cation of his amity. When informed that I was a hillis-haia or
physician, he was anxious that I should give him something to
cure his rheumatism, which he said prevented his hunting. He

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appeared to be about eighty years of age. It was easy to defy
the fascinations of the young squaws, their divine forms of redun-
dant proportions not answering to my standard of beauty; corsets
and all the other miseries of a refined figure not finding favour in
their estimation. There were some half-breeds, however, whose
brilliant black eyes and beautifully chiselled features would rival
many of our celebrated city belles.
This visit afforded a melancholy theme for contemplation
during my walk back. Here was a people, once mighty and
magnanimous, who owned no equal; a race intrepid and unslaved,
who roved happy and contented o'er the boundless wild, about
to be swept from their ancient inheritance by the withering proxim-
ity of the white man; from that fair soil on which their fore-
fathers lived and died. The spirit of time and the spirit of whiskey
are indeed working dreadful changes among these once noble
savages,-nature's chiefs.17
On the 13th June an order was put into my hands to report
myself to Capt. Munroe"8 of the 4th Artillery, who would arrive
with his command next morning and immediately proceed to
Woolfolk's plantation,"9 situated ten miles below Columbus, on
the Chattahooche river and directly opposite to Fort Mitchell.20
Some Indians had lately attacked an adjoining plantation and shot
several negroes; to prevent a similar outrage, Woolfolk had re-
quested of Gen. Scott some troops to be stationed there. At sun-
rise the next morning Capt. Munroe's company marched through
the town. I joined them, and proceeded on foot to the designated
place. With proper precautions against an attack, we selected a
place of encampment in an old Indian field, near the ferry which
crosses the Chatahooche towards Fort Mitchell. We were ex-
cessively annoyed by the mosquitoes, but more so by a jackass,
whose solitude had been so seldom interrupted, that on the appear-
ance of so much goodly company, he gave tone to the exuberance
of his joy in the most discordant notes. No sleep could be got
for his incessant braying during the nights. As peculiarly ap-
propriate we designated this place Camp Balaam. One of the
sentinels became quite excited in the night, swearing that he heard






C 0 U NT Y

Z wwin ton











- .1

Journey into Wilderness
the Indians whooping to one another quite close to him. We
heard the same sounds, but our more experienced ears immediately
recognized the peculiar cry of the owl, which bears a strong re-
semblance to the whoop of the human voice. The only officers
beside Capt. Munroe & myself, were Lt. Bainbridge21 and Lt.
[William Helmsley] Emery [Emory]. Our amusements were rather
limited,, consisting in walking to the spring and drinking water,
then walking back to our tents. We were sometimes amused, how-
ever, by witnessing the squaws of the friendly Indians swimming in
the river; they would strip and dive in with perfect nonchalance,
and when in [the water], defying any one to catch them. [Which
would indeed have been a difficult matter for the rivers appeared
to be their natural element, with such ease & familiarity they frol-
icked upon and beneath its surface, disappearing in one spot to
rise at a remote and unexpected distance.]22 Their general de-
meanour was always very modest, never permitting any one to
take liberties with them. The day after our march, the Capt. and
myself crossed over the Chattahooche to Fort Mitchell. The fort
was a square formed by pickets [12 feet high] with a block house
at two diagonal corners. I here found my old acquaintance
Lt. Peyton,23 from whom I got an article I stood very much in
need of, a blanket; having left Columbus in a hurry without one.
We dined at the public mess, being waited upon by Indians. We
returned before dark, as there were many hostile Indians hovering
about the vicinity and the fort was a mile from the river. A few
days after, we received an acquisition to our numbers by the
arrival of Lt. [Robert Harris] Archer and company.24 On the
19th June we were ordered to Fort Mitchell, and encamped in a
grove of trees without the pickets. We were not permitted long
to remain quiet, for on the evening of the 20th June, we again
crossed the Chatahooche on our march down to Roanoke,25 a
village on the Georgia side of the Chattahooche in possession of
the enemy. I had fortunately received intimation of this in the
morning, and immediately despatched a messenger to Columbus,
to purchase me a horse, and all the necessary paraphernalia. They
arrived as we were marching out of camp about dark. [Intending

The Journal
to cross the river that night, and camp on the east side, for an
early start next morning.]26 The next morning Major Pierce27 and
his battalion joined us; and soon after we were joined by Major
Lomax with his battalion; our whole force now amounted to 500
men [under the command of Major Pierce].28 We marched that
day fifteen miles, and encamped near a log house, in which we
found a fire burning and some pans of very fine clabber, upon
which we luxuriated, the occupants having apparently but just
left it. This excited our suspicions that Indians were about us;
and soon our hopes were verified, for while spreading our camp
blankets for the night, the alarm was given that Indians were seen
near us; immediately the long-roll was heard calling every man to
his post, and after standing under arms one or two hours while a
scouting party examined the neighboring bushes without success,
we retired to our tents. An amusing incident occurred during
the alarm, but which might have proved serious. The Sergeant '
of the Guard, who was a Polander, while visiting the different
sentinels, came to one who knew as little about the Polish language
as the Sergeant did of English. The Sentinel hailed,-the Ser-
geant answered in his unintelligible tongue, which sounding very
much like Creek to the Sentinel, he concluded the safest and surest\ `
way would be to make the approaching person a target at which i
he might try his skill in shooting; he did so, and fortunately for
the Sergeant discovered he was no great shot. That Indians were
about us was evident, for they were distinctly heard yelling in the
woods all night. I was startled from a sound nap just before
daylight, by the report of a musket close to my ear, quickly fol-
lowed by another, and another, until a dozen reports were heard,
among which I could distinguish the sharp ring of the rifle. Now
we certainly will have some sport, thought I, as I felt for my
pistols in the dark. In less than one minute from the first report,
every man was wide awake, and anxiously awaiting the foe. But
none had the temerity to show themselves. Five or six had crept
up close to our line of sentinels, and were indulging their curiosity
by investigating our strength, when their desire of increasing their
information was suddenly checked by the whistling of balls about

Journey into Wilderness
their ears. Not relishing such music, they had retired in disgust;
but not before they were heard to say that we were too strong for
them. The next morning it was ascertained by the trail they
made that 100 Indians had crossed the road near us, going in the
direction of Florida.29
By sunrise we were again on the march, and continued it un-
interrupted until noon, when a negro was seen running after us
with the speed of the wind, terror depicted in every feature. "The
Indians! the Indians!" cried he; well, what of them? "Dem
coming up de road arter you fass." What do they look like?
"Like de berry debble; dem heap, and all naked." Naked Indians;
that could not be Paddy Carr's band, whom we expected to fol-
low us; and the hostile Indians are known to fight naked. "Sem-
per paratus" is the safest principle of action; so our men were
drawn up in battle array across the road. We had not remained
in this state of suspense many minutes, when this formidable band
of savages made their appearance. They) _proved tobePaddy)
Carr3' and-his band.ofL100 friendly warriors.
Paddy Carr is a half-breed Indian of dark complexion, about
forty years of age, five feet eight or nine inches, handsomely pro-
portioned, and muscular in his person, very intelligent in conver-
sation, and has no doubt received a good education. He speaks
our language with fluency, is correct in his deportment, and rather
polished in his manners. Our men received them with a loud
cheer, as they defiled past in Indian file. Instead of being naked,
as the terror of the negro caused them to appear in his eyes, they
were each decked out in a scarlet turban with a strip of white
cloth around the centre,31 in indication of their friendly disposition
and a scarlet scarf was thrown over one shoulder, beside their
usual dress of calico hunting shirt, and buckskin leggings. Some
of them also wore a small looking-glass suspended round the neck,
for the purposes of the toilet and in the hand unoccupied by the
rifle was held a fan [made of the feathers from the tail of a wild
turkey],32 which as they marched was kept in constant motion.
Indeed, this latter article was by no means a superfluous appendage,
under a sun darting his rays with torrid fervour. Paddy gave an


The Journal
amusing account of the negro's terror on first discovering them;
how he tumbled from the cart he was driving, and made tracks
in an opposite direction to his original course, leaving horse, cart,
and everything else to their mercy. Also of a white man, who
was on horse-back with a bag of meal under him, and who on
discovering them made desperate exertions to slip the bag from
under him, that his horse may travel the lighter and enable him
to escape. Soon after being joined by these warriors, we stopt for
the night, having come 15 miles since morning. [Our heavily
laden baggage-wagons frequently detaining us by getting stalled
in the numerous mud-holes and other bad places.]33



oon after reveille next morning, while we were scald-
ing our mouths and throats in hurried attempts to drink hot coffee
from tin cups, the only ware used in camp, the reports of dis-
tant firearms in rapid succession fell upon our ears; the sound
appeared to emanate from Fort Henderson' eight miles off, and
it was the opinion of Major Paddy Carr,-for we had dubbed
him with this title,-that the Indians had attacked that place,
and they were now "fighting like the very devil," as he expressed
himself. A council of war was immediately held, and the resolu-
tion adopted of proceeding to their assistance with part of our
force, leaving a sufficient guard for the baggage. Dr [Assistant
_SurgeonAlfred-W-]--Elwes -and myself, the only surgeons present,
were instructed to furnish our pockets with tourniquets and what-
ever instruments might be necessary for the wounded, and to pro-
ceed with the rescueing party. Our eagerness for a brush with
the yellow dogs made us use quick despatch; and in five minutes
all was ready for a start, when the idea occurred that the firing
arose from the garrison dischargeing their loaded arms, which
had become wet from a heavy rain in the night. Disappointment
was painted upon every countenance, and particularly among the
band of Indian warriors, who at the first prospect of a fight, ex-
hibited their savage joy by a shrill yell [or war-whoop].2
We continued our march towards Roanoke, and at noon ar-
rived at Fort McCreary [McCrary],3 garrisoned by militia. We
stopt a couple of hours near the margin of a bubbling fount, whose
very sparkle seemed to infuse new vigour into the men after their
fatigueing march under the heat of a summer's sun in a southern
latitude. After resting, and refreshing ourselves with the contents
of our haversacks, we resumed the line of march, the Indians in
the van.4 It was a beautiful sight as we proceeded through the


The Journal
forest path, catching occasional glimpses of sky, and stream, and
glade. My elevated position on horseback as I sometimes followed
in the rear, enabled me to overlook the extended line of troops as
they wound their course through the serpentine path of the open
pine-woods. Their white cross-belts upon a ground of sky-blue,-
the colour of their fatigue uniform,-and black leather caps
glittering in the sun, as they proceeded in double-file, gave them,
in their route-step, fluctuating motion, the appearance of a huge
snake "winding its slow length along," the body of leading Indians
on horse-back in their picturesque dresses representing the head.
This resemblance was heightened when overlooking them from the
summit of an elevated hill, which I frequently had an opportunity
of doing, on account of the undulating surface over which we
marched. Far ahead of all rode Major Paddy, on a cream
coloured horse, his saddle covered with a scarlet blanket; and at
his side hung an Indian bullet pouch or sukchahoo-che, highly
ornamented with party-coloured beads; his turban distinguished
from the rest by the graceful floating of an eagle's feather.
Passing Fort McCreary, we immediately entered upon the
scene of Indian devastations. For eight miles before we reached
Roanoke, the road presented nothing but a continued series of
black heaps of ashes, all that remained to mark the once happy
homes of many now houseless families. Few escaped without
some of their members falling victims to the devilish craft and
subtilty of this insidious foe. Showing themselves in moments of
unsuspicious security, invests their system of indiscriminate hos-
tility with tenfold horrors and calamities. Sad indeed is the day
which calls forth an Indian's vengeance; and still more sad, when
rising in his might he swears to be avenged for all his wrongs.
The sun had just set, and a few bright streaks still brightened
the west, the evening star appearing in serene beauty, when we
entered what a few weeks back was the beautiful village of Roa-
noke.5 Dark was the scene that spread before us. Nothing
marked the place where once it stood but heaps of ashes and a
few charred logs. Of many proud mansions which lately reared
their fronts to the admiration of the beholder, not one was left.


Journey into Wilderness
The firebrand of the savage had but too well done its work. My
tent was pitched upon the very spot where stood the house of
Col. Gibson, from the smouldering remnants of which were picked
up the bones of two unfortunate persons, who unable to escape,
had been burnt to death. The Col. was in his house when the
attack was made, and the first intimation he received of it was
the whistling of rifle bullets through every window. It wasjust
before daylight, the favorite time for an Indian attack, yet he
could distinctly see that every egress was well guarded by the
tawney devils. His determination was soon formed; so seizing a
loaded double barrel gun, he threw open a back door, and dis-
charging both barrels into a crowd of Indians who stood there
thirsting for his blood, he immediately made a rush, and succeeded
in escapeing their vigilance by concealing himself in a neighboring
stream with only his nose out. / In another house which these
devils had set on fire, was a woman concealed under a box with
her infant; on their retiring she extinguished the fire. The In-
dians thinking they had not done their work effectually, returned
and again set fire to it, and while in the house sat upon the very
box which concealed the woman and the child. This was re-
peated several times, until the woman succeeded in escaping un-
observed to a stream, where she hid as the Col. did. ) Many
similar incidents of hair-breadth escapes are told by those who
saved their scalps, but which I shall omit in these desultory notes
of a campaign, intended merely for my own reference in after years,
or the perusal of those friends who take an interest in my move-
On the evening of the 24th June we heard the distant sound of
drums and fifes, heralding the approach of Gen. Sandford [San-
ford]6 with his army of 2000 Georgia Milifia [They appeared
in all the panoply of glorious war, with the thrilling notes of mar-
tial music sounding in their ears, and banners of gaudy hues
waving before their eyes, rallying points on the destined fields of
victory for these brave defenders of their country's rights.]7 They
encamped near us. Gen. Scott and Staff also made their appear-
ance soon after. The scene now presented upon the site of the

The Journal
late desolated Roanoke,-the animation, stir, and bustle of so large
a camp,-was in striking contrast to the dark and smothering ruins
around./It produced sensations of a novel kind in my breast.
Although I had entered the Army with all the military ardor and
feelings as it were of an old campaigner, yet the sudden transition
from the ease and indulgences which a city life afforded, to the
privations and exposures incidental to a camp in the vicinity of
an enemy, rendered the task of identifying myself in this situation
at imes difficult
i At first the camp fare of bacon and hard bread washed down
morning and evening with coffee without milk, and from a tin
cup, was not disagreeable on account of its novelty; but a con-
tinued repetition of the same routine of diet awakened feelings of
an unpleasant kind whenever the stated hours of replenishing
exhausted nature approached.) To vary our fare, we set the
Indians at catching some stray pigs that were seen about the place,
which they did much to our amusement as well as satisfaction.
The cunning and swiftness of foot displayed by them in en-
trapping the swiney tribe were subjects of general admiration
throughout the camp. The result proved that I was not alone
in desireing a variety upon the mess table. .
The night of the 25th exposed the equanimity of my temper
to its severest trial. The thunder rolled, the lightening flashed,
and the rain came down in torrents. I had been able to procure
only one of the common tents, which covered a space six feet
square, and whose sides rose obliquely from the ground to a sharp
ridge, not permitting the privilege of standing erect. In this
diminutive affair did Dr. [Assistant Surgeon Madison] Mills,9 who
had just joined us, and to whom I had-offered the shelter of my
tent until his own deficiency could be removed, and myself attempt
to be comfortable; we spread our blankets upon the ground, and
sought in sleep to drown the noise of the rageing elements. But
little repose were we to get that night. The tent was pitched upon
a gentle decline, and it seemed as if all the water that fell from
heaven had selected a channel through the spot we occupied. My
tent was not water-proof in such a storm and we were soon fa-


Journey into Wilderness
vored with a sprinkling from above in addition to the foot of water
under us. [To avoid lying in the water I perched myself upon a
small box I had in the tent, between one and two feet square, and
there sat all night meditating, and vowing I would quit that sort
of life as soon as a return of daylight would enable me to write
my resignation; for never had I thought amid the luxurious and
refined life of a city, that I should ever be reduced to this.]10 The
morning at last appeared, but with it a continuation of the storm.
[. notwithstanding the storm as violent as ever, I had deter-
mined to postpone my resignation; for it occurred to me, the vicin-
ity of an enemy was not the proper place for carrying out such a
Preparations had been made for crossing the Chatahooche,
and orders being issued for a move, on the 26th by eight o'clock
A.M. the "general"'2 was sounded throughout the camps, and at
the third roll every tent fell simultaneously, leaving no protection
against the drenching rain which still came down in torrents. The
whole day was consumed in transporting the baggage wagons and
men, the only means of transportation being upon a flat"3 built for
the occasion. A rope was carried across and tied to a tree on the
opposite bank, under the protection of a six-pounder, as we ex-
pected to meet with resistance; but none was made, and the only
obstacles we met with were the swift current and the high, pre-
cipitate bank up which the wagons unloaded were obliged to be
pulled by the men.
Fresh trails of Indians were observed on the Alabama side of
the Chatahooche, in the vicinity of our crossing place, apparently
as of persons who watched us. Major Paddy with some of his
mounted warriors were immediately put across and set upon the
signs, and soon succeeded in capturing an Indian negro4 and
pony [sent by the Indians to spy on us].'5 We encamped upon
an old Indian field near the river, and designated the place as
Camp Sandford. The rain had poured the whole day, and right
glad were we to gain once more the feeble protection of our can-
vass houses.
The next day increased the number of medical officers in our

The Journal
camp by the arrival of Dr. Lawson,16 Medical Director of the
Army in the field, accompanied by Dr. [Assistant Surgeon Burton]
As there seemed but little prospect of the Indians coming to
us, Gen. Scott determined upon going to seek them, and on the
25th June issued his orders to that effect.7 The country we were
in being Indian territory, was almost "terra incognita" to any but
an Indian; and it was very well known that these children of the
forests never have larger roads than foot-paths or trails. It was
therefore necessary to leave all the wagons behind, and carry only
what might be required for four-days rations'8 on pack-mules.
There were many sick also, who would be unable to endure the
fatigue of scouring the Cawaggee swamps,"9 and these were left
behind with the baggage and wagons; also one company of militia
as guard. The duty was assigned to me of remaining behind to
attend the sick; no sinecure, as the sick list reported between 60
and 70, and most of them cases of dysentery and diarrhea, from
drinking the rotten lime-stone water of the country [. and
exposure to the vicissitudes of camp life].20
We felt rather insecure with our small and inefficient guard
of militia, while the capture of so much baggage,-there being
upwards of eighty wagons,-held out so strong an inducement for
an attack from the Indians.21 To strengthen our position as much
as possible, we had all the wagons drawn up in close array around
us in the manner of a stockade, leaving an open space on one side,
through which a six-pounder threatened destruction to all who
should attempt the approach.
Those of the invalids who were least indisposed were made to
mount guard; [knowing the laxity of discipline among our militia
soldiers, we were not altogether disposed to trust our safety entirely
to militia vigilance],22 and on Dr. Elwes' recovery, we took our
turns in being officer of the day. Never were the duties more
strictly performed by any one than by us on these occasions; for
not feeling much confidence in our militia sentinels, we scrupu-
lously kept awake, and went the grand rounds several times in the
night, by which we incurred more risk of a shot from them than


Journey into Wilderness
from the savages. Our precaution was not thrown away; for
notwithstanding the imminent danger threatening them, the eye-
lids of these votaries of Morpheus had so great a desire of associat-
ing together, as to exclude all remembrance of their being on post)
and frequently were these valiant defenders found indulging ir
dreams of their comfortable homes, while the duties of the tented
field demanded their utmost vigilance. [One of these militia senti-
nels whom I found asleep on post, pleaded for excuse, that he had
so violent a tooth-ache he could not possibly keep awake. Happy
fellow! To have such a remedy!]23
On the second night an incident occurred which enabled us
to ascertain the energies of our men. About midnight the alarm
was given by one of the sentinels: immediately-
"Fixed at his post was each bold patriot formed,
In well-rang'd squadron strongly circled round;
So close their order, or disposed their fight.
As Pallas's self might view with fix'd delight;
Or had the God of War inclined his eyes,
The God of War had own'd a just surprise.
A chosen Phalanx, firm, resolved as Fate,
Descending Indians and their battle wait."
But no descending Indians made their appearance; only an
Indian dog; and the alarmed sentinel had fired, under the sup-
position, that an Indian and his dog were inseparable.
After four days absence Gen. Sandford and his army returned
to our camp; Gen. Scott having proceeded on to Fort Mitchell
with all the regulars except Major Lomax's battalion, which re-
turned with the militia. Gen. Sandford now in command, took
advantage of that circumstance to order me to Fort McCreary,
where Gen. Lowe and his regiment of [Georgia] militia were
stationed, and who being dissatisfied with their own Surgeon, had
made a request that a surgeon of the regular army might be sent
to them. It was with great reluctance that I obeyed this order)
but there was no alternative, so on the 1st July I obtained a pas-
sage in the Steam-boat American, as far as the landing within a


The Journal
mile of Fort McCreary. This boat had been fitted up with bar-
ricades, and was occupied by seamen and officers of the Navy, for
the purpose of plying up and down the Chatahooche to intercept
any Indians who might attempt to cross;24 and was on her way
up to Columbus when I thus became an [honorary] passenger in
her. [Lt. Johnston of the Navy was in command.] These fellows
lived like fighting cocks aboard, having an abundance of every
luxury; and it really did my heart good to see their dinner-table
arrayed in all the appliances of civilization; and my mouth watered
in anticipation of the dinner hour with its attendant comforts, for
latterly I had been smitten with a scarcity of provisions. But alas!
that hour was never to arrive for me on that day, either aboard
the steam-boat or any where else. We reached the place of my
destination just before the dinner-hour, which had been delayed
for the purpose of preparing something extra in honor of their
guests,-for there were other officers aboard a passengers besides
myself At the landing I found a portion of the garrison who were
discharging the duties of guard to some stores that had been left
there. Leaving my baggage under their charge until I could walk
to the fort and send for it, my horse which I had sent round by
land with my attendant not having yet arrived, I started off at a
rapid pace in hopes of getting there before their dinner-hour past.
The walk proved longer than I desired, and here I was too late.
Among my baggage left at the landing was a champaign basket,
which I used as a mess chest, and which I recollected to be well
stored with ready-cooked edibles. My only chance of a dinner
was to send for that, and in the interim act the part of "patience
on a monument," smiling at an empty stomach. I was destined
to more noble suffering, for on the arrival of the aforesaid cham-
paign basket, my prospect for a dinner was very much darkened;
I found myself now reduced to great extremity and small means,
for with a superfluity of appetite I found a plentiful deficiency of
the wherewithal to satisfy the same; the basket was empty, its
contents having been appropriated by the hungry sentinels at the



remained at Fort McCreary until the morning of
the 4th uly, when Gen. Lowe having received an order to pro-
ceed to Columbus, I departed with him; but hearing that a
party of hostile Indians who had been captured were to be sent
immediately west of the Mississippi to their new home, I took
the road to Fort Mitchell, hoping that my services as Surgeon to
Emigrating Indians,-on which special duty I had been detailed,-
might be called into requisition,
I passed on the road several companies of Gen. Sandford's
army, on their way to Columbus, to be paid off; their time of
volunteering had expired, and fighting Indians not being what it
was cracked up to be in their opinion, all their valorous and
patriotic feeling had evaporated and the desire of glory having
yielded to the desire for domestic rest, they were hurrying home.'
The sky was sketched in broad yellow radiance in the west,
and the lengthened shadows had disappeared when I reached the
foot of the eminence upon whose summit the stockade called Fort
Mitchell is situated. I had passed this day of feasting and cel-
ebration throughout the Union in travelling through dreary woods,
beguileing my tedious and fatiguing progress by conjuring up in
every whispering leaf a patriotic orator, and dwelling in fancy
upon the fine odours emanating from innumerable viands that
were then undergoing the fiery ordeal, preparatory to the task of
blunting the keen edge of patriotic appetites. Such cogitations had
the inevitable effect of exciting a congenial feeling of patriotism
in my own stomach; and it was with a due degree of anxiety about
the normal dinner-hour I looked out for a chance of obtaining
the necessary accompaniments of mortality. I did not long de-
spair; for soon-


The Journal
"I knew by the smoke that so gracefully curl'd
Through the dark pine-trees, that a log-hut was near,
And I said, 'if there's corn-bread to be found in the world
A stomach that was hungry might hope for it here.' "
On arriving at Fort Mitchell I put up at Johnson's; a log-
house which assumed the dignified appellation of Hotel. I found
that after lodging in the open air I could not sleep with comfort
in a house, and the two or three first nights after my arrival were
sleepless ones.
I was too late for the emigrating party of hostile Indians, Dr.
Abadie, who was on the spot, having been assigned to accompany
them before my arrival. )
SIt was a melancholy spectacle as these proud monarchs of the
s l1were marched off from their native land to a distant country,
which to their anticipations presented all the horrors of the in-
fernal regions. There were several who committed suicide rather
than endure the sorrow of leaving the spot where rested the bones
of their ancestors. One old fellow was found hanging by the neck
the night before he was to leave Fort Mitchell for the far West;
preferring the glorious uncertainty of another world, to the in-
glorious misery of being forced to a country of which he knew
nothing, but dreaded every thing bad.2 This indifference to life
was displayed by the Indians on many occasions; for though ap-
parently great in open battle, yet death by their own hands pre-
sented no terrors to them.
On one occasion when a party of them were overtaken and
Attacked in Georgia while trying to get to Florida, one of them
Being wounded in the leg could not escape, and seeing a white
man approach him as he lay upon the ground, rather than be.
taken prisoner, drew out his knife and deliberately cut his own
thr L-- ...
SThere is a more noble instance of self-sacrifice told of an
/ Indian Princess, who being seized with the small-pox, immediately
led herself to prevent the infection from spreading among her/
\ tribe.


Journey into Wilderness
One of this very party of emigrating Indians on his arrival at
Montgomery [Alabama] attempted his escape; but when caught
and secured in a waggon, by some accident got possession of a
very dull knife; with this he made several ineffectual efforts to cut
his throat, but it not proving sharp enough, he with both hands
forced it into his chest over the breast-bone, and by successive
violent thrusts succeeded dividig the main artery, when he
_bled to death. Similar instances of suicide were very common,
and served forcibly to exhibit how strong the amorr patriae"
burned in their breasts. With them their country was life, and
without the former the latter was valueless. -Toith-erhow appli-
cable-t-e-wo-rdo 6f- Horaced--"dulce et decorum est pro patria
mori." ) ...
A party of five hundred who had been taken captive, and
brought to Fort Mitchell, were necessarily sent off in chains. The
men were handcuffed two together, and a long chain passing be-
tween the double file connected them all together. The stoical
disposition of these forest philosophers was strongly displayed, for
neither their physical nor mental sufferings could elicit from them
the least indication of distress, except occasionally the utterance
of an emphatic "ta" whenever two of them pulling in opposite
directions would jerk one another by the wrists. The women
followed drowned in tears, and giving utterance to most distressing
cries; the children joined in from sympathy, for they were yet too
young to participate in the unenviable feelings of their parents.
The smaller ones were comfortably disposed off [of] in the waggons,
which followed in the rear.4
I here had an opportunity of seeing the celebrated hostile chief,
_Neak-Mat-la_[Eneak-MaJla4],z who has on every occasion during
his life manifested the most inimical feelings towards the whites.
It was he who headed the Seminoles in the last war against Genl.
Jackson, and who even now, tho' he is a prisoner in irons, glories
in being the avenger of his people's wrongs. He does not attempt
to disguise his hostile feelings, but justifies himself on account of
the extensive frauds committed by the white men upon his tribe.
He is now eighty four years of age; has a remarkably fine fore-

The Journal
head, and still possesses an eagle eye, and his countenance gives
the impression of his being a brave and remarkable man. He has
a son in captivity with him for whom he displays great affection;
he is quite "unconcerned as regards his own fate," he says, "but
spare his son." At the time they were captured, a manifestation
was made to kill his son, when the old man broke loose from his
guards and posting himself in front of his son, bared his breast
and entreated his captors not to touch his boy, but to kill him
SI remained at Fort Mitchell until the 8th July, when an order
was sent me to proceed without delay to Tuskegee, Ala: and there
report myself to Gen. Jessup [Jesup]G for services with Major
[Sylvester] Churchill's battalion of Artillery.
As the country was still infested with hundreds of hostile In-
dians, and Tuskegee was fifty miles off, it would be running the
risk of almost certain death to attempt the journey alone; so I de-
layed a few days untiLMajorSlaughteroLthe.Alabama volunteers,
_-who-expected to-leave..in-a-day or tw.oshould be ready)to go with
.his escort.
On the 11th July we left Fort Mitchell and proceeded in a
westwardly direction on the old Federal road,' directly through the
heart of the hostile nation. All along the road was presented a
repetition of the devastated scenes which met the eye at Roanoke.
Bridges destroyed; houses burnt; and new made graves, where the
murdered travellers had been hastily buried beside the road; half-
burnt remains of stages and waggons that had been pillaged by the
Indians blocked up the way; and in one spot the road was filled
with empty coffins, scattered in all directions by the Indians, who
had taken them from a waggon, sent out for the purpose of bring-
ing in the dead for burial.
We reached before dark the only house left by the Indians on
the road; there we found Col. Brooks8 of the artillery with his
command encamped; and there we concluded to stop for the night.
This house was occupied by a man named Stone, and by a sign-
board which swung from a tree in front, I inferred that it had
been a tavern in times of peace under the title of "Creek Stand."

Journey into Wilderness
The next morning we resumed our journey at an early hour,
and being now in that part of the Creek nation which remained
friendly, passed through several Indian towns that were still in-
habited. At one of them we were introduced by the Lieutenant
of our escort to his father, a venerable old Indian.
Until that moment I was not aware that Lt. Monroe [Moniac]9
was other than-a white-man; but on enquiry I ascertained he was._
a half-breed; had been educated at West Point Academy, and on
the completion of his studies received a commission in the Army.
He soon after resigned; a visit to his family having revived in his
breast in all its former force the roving disposition of his people.
Since then he has ranged with native freedom over the woods and
plains, until the recent outbreak of the Indians afforded him an
opportunity of showing his gratitude to the government which had
fostered him in his youth.
After exchanging courtesies with these sons of the forest, we
continued our course, and entered Tuskegee about midday. I
reported myself to Capt. Lane,10 Gen. Jesup's adjutant, he being
absent, and immediately retired to bed at Wm. Dent's hotel, being
seized with a most confounded head-ache and fever. By proper
care I was up and moving the next day, and began to look around
at the place I had got into.
Tuskegee is a specimen of American cities in their infancy,
when only a few hours old. A selected spot in the primeval forest
had been laid out in town lots, and a few buildings had arisen from
among stumps and burnt trees. Although but a year has elapsed
since the birth of this place, it now boasted a jail, several stores,
and rival hotels. It also as a matter of course had its law-offices,
but what was remarkable no physician. I should have marked
this latter circumstance as an unaccountable phenomenon, but was
informed that the physician had been killed by his horse running
away and throwing him against a tree a few days back. Poor fel-
low! I knew him well; he was a townsman of mine, and had but
recently graduated. We attended the same course of lectures to-
gether for two years in Charleston, I proceeding him by one year
only in becoming an M.D.



The Journal
Tuskegee is situated midway from Columbus, Ga: and Mont-
gomery, Ala: on the principal mail-route between New Orleans
and Charleston, and was before this war, the medium of much
travelling. I found it filled with Alabama mounted volunteers.
A thousand or more were mustered out of service the day after
my arrival, and-happy fellows!-took up the line of march for
home. 'Major Churchill, who had gone with his command to
Montgomery as a gtiuard for the emigrating party of Indians until
they should be safely deposited on board steamboats, returned on
the 14th July, when I reported myself to him for duty, having re-
ceived an order to that effect. In consequence of there being
no physician at Tuskegee, but myself, while I remained there my
services were in constant requisition among all classes, ages, and





t continued dispensing medicine and health in Tus-
kegee until the 1st August, when I received an order to repair
immediately to Camp McClenden, fifteen miles from Tuskegee
on the road to Columbus, and to remain there as long as Dr.
Elwes the Surgeon at the station should continue sick.) In the
afternoon I started in company with Col. Brooks and Lt. Emery,
and when we had got half-way, a soldier was seen riding towards
us full speed. On meeting us he put a letter into Col. Brooks'
hand. After the perusal of it, the latter turned to me with an
order to put spurs to my horse and proceed on as rapidly as possi-
ble, for my services were needed immediately in camp. Military
orders must be obeyed without questions, so away I went, won-
dering what under the sun could be the matter. The Indians
certainly could not have attacked the camp; and Dr. Elwes surely
cannot be dying. It was near dark when I reached the encamp-
ment, and soon ascertained that a different job awaited me than
what I had anticipated when I started. One of the men in a fit
of derangement had attempted to shoot his orderly sergeant, when
Sergeant [William] Rea, who was Sergeant of the guard, inter-
fered and received the contents of the maniac's musket in his right
arm. On examining the arm I found that a ball and two buck-shot
had passed obliquely through the right elbow joint, fracturing the
extremities of the bones forming the joint in so dreadful a manner
that I deemed immediate amputation necessary. Lights were
procured, and with the assistance of one of the soldiers who acted
as hospital steward I performed the operation. No doubt to
the great admiration of all the officers and men who were wit-
nesses of my skill. The Sergeant displayed great firmness under
the knife; while I was taking up the arteries, he observing one of
the candles which were of tallow burning rather dimly, with the

The Journal
fingers of his remaining hand very coolly pinched off the long
wick, at the same time chiding the holder for his negligence. I
felt much interested for the success of this case, it being my first
operation of any magnitude, and performed under such disad-
Dr. Elwes in a few days recovered sufficiently to leave his bed,
when he obtained a furlough, and departed for the "Merryweather
Mineral Springs" in Georgia.' The first week of my stay at this
station, there were two companies of Artillery present, one com-
manded by Major Erving, the other by Capt. Harvey Brown;2
the latter at the end of that time was ordered with his company
to the "Big Warrior Stand."3
Most of my time while at this station was occupied with the
sick, of which there were many, and some severe cases of dysen-
tery and congestine or typhoid fever, for these diseases prevailed
extensively among the men; there were several Tennessean Volun-
teers also who had been left under my care affected with the
latter disease. I, however, had cause to congratulate both myself
and my patients on the success of my treatment. In three weeks
after the operation I had the gratification of discharging Sergt.
Rea from the Hospital perfectly well [. after giving him a
certificate for pension, as being disabled in the discharge of his
duties while Sergeant of the guard].4 Such unremitting attention
was too much for me; I soon had to take my own medicine, and
for a week was confined to a sick bed.
While in this neighbourhood I met with a remarkable case of
recovery from a wound which would in general be considered
fatal. A negro woman belonging to Col. Watson, whose plantation
is situated near the Chattahooche river, was shot through the body
by some Indians during an attack upon the plantation. She was
in an advanced state of pregnancy at the time, and soon after
the accident was brought to bed, when it was ascertained that
the ball had passed through the head of the child while in the
womb. The woman soon recovered without any difficulty.
Occasionally I found time to ride todEcho Hadjos-camp5 of
friendly Indians, five miles off. On one of my visits I found their

Journey into Wilderness
head men in full assembly and going through the ceremony of
taking the black-drink.6 This is only done on very important
occasions, such as the declaration of war, etc., of which this was
one, for they were met in council to deliberate upon the expediency
of going to Florida to fight against the Seminoles. The place of
assembly was a large square area, bounded on the four sides by
long open sheds, under which, upon a platform of canes raised
three feet from the ground were reclining the dignitaries in various
attitudes; some sitting cross-legged like a taylor [tailor], others
resting upon their elbows, while not a few were stretched off at
full length upon their backs, and all decked out in their savage
finery. In the center of the square was a fire, over which was
suspended from a cross-stick a large earthen pot, containing the
ingredients of the black-drink. Two men who superintended the
process of preparation, were engaged with long ladles in skimming
off the froth which rose to the surface of the liquid in considerable
quantity. After a due time had elapsed in this way, the ladles
were supplanted in the hands of the two masters of ceremony by
gourds with long handles and an aperture on one side an inch
in diamitre [diameter]. Having filled these with the precious
liquid, they proceeded to opposite sides of the area and commenced
handing it round. As soon as the hole in the gourd and the mouth
of the drinker came in contact, an apparent rivalship commenced
between the two waiters, in a singular song of but one note, con-
sisting of the sound ah-ah-a-a prolonged with a shrill key without
drawing breath until the drinker finished his task. This they
seemed in a great hurry to do, for the drink is said to be remark-
ably bitter and nauseous. I was told that the reputation of the
drinker for eloquence was always measured by the number of
mouthfuls he took; he who stood at the top of the ladder of or-
atory always drank the longest, while the occupant of the lower
round could not take more than one swallow. The drink had the
reputation of clearing their minds and making bright ideas flow,
preparatory to making a speech. From its effect upon the stomach
I do not doubt its capability of purifying the brain; for after
swallowing a dose, the poor orators seemed much distressed as if


The Journal
laboring under the operation of an emetic, with this difference
only, that instead of discharging the nauseous stuff at once, they
would sit for an hour after swallowing it, belching up the contents
of their bread-baskets every five minutes into their mouths, and
from there, discharge it with a squirt towards the centre of the
square.' The sight was extremely ludicrous after the drink had
made the entire circuit, to see so many grave and dignified figures
sitting around in perfect silence, engaged in squirting from all
directions towards one spot. [Can this, however, be considered
as presenting any more disgusting sight than the practice in all
our own legislative assemblies of squirting filthy tobacco juice over
the floor? The savages_ indeed-have-the_better claim to wisdom,
for theirs is a purifying process; and by clearing the stomach, bring
their minds to a proper condition for business; whereas tobacco
chewing can produce no other effect than endangering the health,
and weakening the intellectual faculties. Of the two practices let
us rather adopt that of the Indians as far more civilized, and
refined, and characteristic of wise people.]8 Observing a singular
appearance of stripes upon the legs of all the men, I was induced
to inquire the cause, was told that it was a universal custom with
them to scratch their legs with needles fixed into a piece of wood,
until the blood flowed. They asserted that when fatigued this
operation afforded them immediate relief and considerable pleas-
ure.9 They are also remarkably fond of being bled, particularly
the women; the sight of a lancet in the hand of any one is sure
always to elicit from them a request to have it used upon them,
whether sick or well. They frequently bleed themselves with a
piece of glass, preferring that to a lancet which they cannot use
themselves. I became quite proficient in the Creek language, by
mingling with our Indian neighbours, and will give a specimen of
the Creek tongue in some of their words and phrases. I shall first
give the words used by them in counting, which according to their
arrangement may designate any amount.

1-Humpkin. 3-Tutchenin.
2-Hocolin. 4-Ostin.


Journey into
1 1-Palin-humpkiligen.



I have spelt the words so that in pronunciation the vowels
should be sounded according to the French rule of pronunciation.
I shall now give a few of their words. [The entire language
being very limited as regards words, the same is frequently used
to express different things; the meaning communicated by the
ephasis and tone of voice, which in the Indian is capable of the
sweetest modulation. Tis music itself to hear the Indians con-
versing in hours of social intercourse.]10
Arm-Chehsak pah. Creek-Hatcheh.
Apple-Satatlakoo. Corn-Ahcheh.
All gone-Suks-cheh. Day-Nittah.
Are you sick?-Chech no kah? Dog-Ehfah.
Bed-Topah. Day before yesterday-Pox-ung-keh-
Blanket-A-chit-tah. ah-si-ung-keh.
Breech-cloth-E-goph-ka. [Dollar Gone-Dollar-humpkin.]12
Bad-Holy-waugus cheh. Eye-Sattatlohah.
[Boot-E-fa teh-ka.]11 Father-Chilth-keh.
Belt--Shee-wan-a-le-ta. Fire-Tootkah.
Book-Nako cheh. Fence-Tohopekee.
Bread-Tutlekeh. or Ta-ka-li-ka. Fingers-Chankeh wasah kah.
Boy-Whaunan cheh. Foot-Chatteh.
Big--Lak-kits. Green-Lan-nits.
Beads-Ho-nai-wah. Give me-Ah mis cheh.
Black man-Ista lustch. Good-Hincus.
Cup-Alowah. Very good-Hindus ta ma which.
Cat-Cateh. Very good indeed-Hincla mas cheh.
Cow-Waukah. Horse-Cholocko.
Child-Ista cheh. Hunting shirt-Yo kofe kittah.
Camp-Cheh ah pah. House-Sookoo.


The Journal
Head-Sakkah. Stone-Satow.
Hair-Sakkah sischeh. Stars-Koto chumpah.
Half-A-pul-hump-kin. Strong, or bitter-Homis-cheh.
Indian-Ista chatteh. Very sick-E-ah-kal-e-mas-cheh.
Leggins-Ah fah teh kah. I don't know-Kith-lucks.
Little-Chope-kut-zin. Very handsome-Helittah ma which.
Little girl-Hocteh cheh. Tobacco-Hit-chey.
Log-Cheh hatch kah wah. [Tobacco pipe-Hit-cheh-pak-ah-
Lie down-Waugus cheh. wah.]16
Moccasin-Chilleh pika. Tomorrow-Poxeh.
Mine-Cha-na-kits-chey. Today-Mo-cha-mit-tah.
Much-Mas. What's the matter ?-Estomah ?
More-Hat-tum. Too much-Ti-tai-mas-chey.
Milk-Waukah pisseh. What's your name-Nakin chief ka
Money-Chatta kanah wah. teh?
Man-Whanan. [or Ista.]13 Woman, or girl-Hocteh.
My hands-Chonkeh. White man-Ista hadkeh.
Your hands-Chinkeh. My wife-Cheh ah wah.
Mouth-Sattat ko hah. Water-Owewah.
Moon-Nekleh hossee. Yesterday-Pox-ung-keh.
Make haste-Lakow. Yes-Kah [or Inca.]
Me, or I-Ena. You-Chee-me.
[Merchant-Is-nees-ca.]14 Yours-Hat-ta-mais-chey.
No-Cush. I am your friend-An hisseh elittah
Night-Neth-lee. mas cheh.
Nothing the matter-Stonekus. I love you--Cheh mokah is cheh.
Pouch-Sugcha hoo cheh. I love that woman a great deal-
Pouch strap-Sugcha hoo cheh fugkah. Hocteh ahcheh attanokah tamas
Physician-Illis haiah. cheh.
Physic-Illis-wah. That is a pretty girl-Hocteh elittah
Peach-Pacaneah. mas cheh.
Rice-Aloso. You are a pretty girl-Hocteh cheh
River-Withlakoo. elittah fon.
Little River-Withlakoocheh. Where do you live ?-Istah ma ehootah
Run-Li kus cheh. cheh?
Stop-Hattits cheh. That's my house-Sacheh sookoo.
Listen-Cheh wun weh. How old are you?-Cheh ma solehta
Say again-Nakin. estoma cheh?
Son-Chat-pots-zen. Do you want it?-Cheh-ah-che-teh.
[Sister-Cheh-mun-wah.]15 [I drink your health-Is-ea-la-mus-
Spurs-Eschief kittah. cheh.]17
Sit down-Lagus cheh. I want it-Chi-ah-chis-cheh.
Saddle-Opatakah. Buy it-Nis-us-cheh.
Sun-Netah Hossee. How much?-Nah-cho-mah?
Sugar-Asokolah. Come let us go-A-la-kus-cheh.
Segar-Hit-chy-ah-pal-kah. Very well, it is so-Mo-mus-cheh.


Journey into Wilderness

I speak to you-Cheh-no-kahis-cheh.
I give you-Che-mai-lanits-cheh.
I am going-I-ee-pus-cheh.
My daughter-Chits-hotes-teh.

Eight of a dollar-Ka-lai-zu-cheh.
Quarter of a dollar-Kan-zat-kah.
Sixteen of a dollar-Pick-eh-u-chee.

Ligiton-Infinitive mode [mood]-To lay down, or ride.
Indicative Mode

Present tense-Ligico-I ride.
Ligitska-you ride.
Ligue-he rides.

Okagen-we ride.

Okaga-they ride.

Imperfect tense-Ligungis-rode.
Future tense-Ligathlonis-will ride.
Ligofen-when I ride.
Imperative-Ligue-cheh-ride thou.

Aieton-to go.
Aiepus-I go.
Aiungis-I went.
Aiepotlonis-I will go.
Aiefen-When I go.
Aiepus cheh-go.
Hateton-to stop.
Hattits cheh-stop.
Haieton-to make.
Nisseton-to sell.
Ateton-to come.

Watiis-I come.
Atloniis-I will come.
Atits cheh-come.
Ista na' atitska?-Where do you come
Tuskegee n'atiis cheh-I come from
Ista n'aiatlonitska?-Where are you
Hatchee tabaia-Across the creek.

[The Creek and Seminole Indians speak the same language, hav-
ing been originally the same people.; there is some slight difference
in unimportant idioms but [they are] easily understood by both



) rn the 7th Sept Major Erving received an order to
repair with his command to Fort Mitchell, as soon as relieved
by a company of marines.1 I, of course, expected to go with him,
and was in high spirits at the idea of escaping from the dull woods
and once more mingling with the inhabitants of the civilized
world. But my evil genius still haunted me. Dr. Elwes, who had
long before recovered, and remained at Columbus, loathe to return
to this his proper post, when he heard of this anticipated move-
ment, he immediately posted down to report himself, and pro-
ceeding instantly to head-quarters at Tuskegee, requested that my
situation might be given to him, and I left behind with the marines.
He succeeded in obtaining his request; and on the arrival of Capt.
Harris2 and marines, with a sad heart, I saw those depart for
Fort Mitchell whom by right I ought to have accompanied.
I remained with the marines at McClenden until the 14th
Sept when Major [William L.] McClintock of the Artillery with
the last of the Regulars who had been in the interior, passed by
our encampment on their way to Fort Mitchell, at which point
all the Army were collecting, preparatory to entering Florida, the
Creek war being considered at an end, as only a few hundred In-
dians remained in the swamps without surrendering. My heart
leaped with joy, and a host of splenetic imps was put to the route
when the Major handed me an order from Gen. Jesup to join
_.these troops.
We marched into Fort Mitchell about 1 o'clock the next day.
In this vicinity was the camp of seven hundred Indian Volunteers,
who had entered the service of the United States for the purposes
of proceeding to Florida, a fightingagainst the Seminoles. They
were only induced to this step by their reluctance to emigrate to
the West, their families being allowed to remain in Alabama until

Journey into Wilderness
they should return from the Florida expedition. They presented
a formidable array against Osceola and his band of hostiles.3
I was witness to their amazement at the sight of-the India-
rubber or Ponton [pontoon] bridge invented by Capt. [John F.]
Lane of the Army; and which was then undergoing an examina-
tion on the Chatahooche before the Committee appointed for that
purpose. It consisted of large bags of pontons, something like
cotton bags in shape made of India-rubber cloth, which being
filled with air and attached sideways together formed a bridge
of fourteen feet width, and any length, according to the number
of bags used; upon these were laid light timber to support boards
placed laterally, which forming a smooth, level, surface, admitted
the passage of wagons, horses, etc. A detachment of six hundred
men with all their arms and accoutrements, including the officers
mounted upon horses, marched on it at once, and after remaining
a quarter of an hour going through the evolutions to test its
strength, they countermarched with as much facility as if on
terra firma. Field pieces with their complement of matrosses,4
and their caissons filled with ammunition, and loaded wagons
were also driven over it with the same ease. It was said that a
troop of horses arriving at night at a river where this bridge was
stretching across the river, and seeing it, crossed upon it, under
the impression that it was a common bridge. The great advantage
of this bridge is its portableness, all the pontons and cordge
cordagee] for a bridge of three hundred and fifty feet being capable
of transportation in a single wagon; whereas the former ponton
equipages consisted of cumbrous and bulky pontons of wood,
sheet iron, and copper.
A few days after my arrival I witnessed the departure of this
tawney regiment in steamboats for Florida, under the command
of Capt. Lane, of the Regular Army, who held the ex-officio rank
of Colonel. They went off apparently delighted at the prospect
of having some body to fight, no consequence to them with whom.
In the last Seminole war, when one of their chiefs was asked
why he made war upon the whites, who had always been their
friends, and were ever willing to be at peace with them; he replied,

E N N. r( U A U L I A



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Journey into Wilderness
that he knew the whites had never injured them, but that making
war was such a manly exercise he liked to practice his young men
at it.
Col. Lane went off in high spirits; and well he may, for the
command of such a regiment would be an honor to any man and
particularly under existing circumstances with the prospect, as
every one supposed, of their immediately terminating the Seminole
war. Just before his departure the Col. rode up to a group of
us, who were standing conversing together, and shook hands with
all, evidently very happy. As he went off, some one observed,
"there goes Lane on the road to glory."' [Alas! none anticipated
what was soon to be his fate.]6
SOn reaching Fort Mitchell this time I had hoped for a little
respite from the severe privations and trials I had been so long
subjected to but my expectations were not to be realized;-they
were only to be enjoyed in perspective. In consequence of the
great alarm excited in the southern counties of Georgia by murders
and depredations committed by the Creek Indians who were en-
deavouring to escape into Florida from Alabama, Governor Schley7
had petitioned Gen. Jesup to station some troops in Ware or
Lowndes County, that being the least populous and most de-
fenceless portion of the country through which the Indians were
passing. It was also liable to invasions from the Seminoles, as it
bordered upon Florida In compliance with this request, Major
[Greenleaf] Dearborn with two companies of Infantry was ordered
to proceed immediately to the above counties in Georgia, and
there establish himself. These counties being so far south and in
a low swampy part of the country had the worst possible reputation
for health, and going there at this season of the year was almost
considered certain death to a white man and stranger unacclimated.
It was necessary then to send some surgeon with the troops, that
it may not be said they died without proper medical attendance;
and also that they might have a chance of a surgeon in the other
world to physic them. Dr. Lawson, the Medical Director, was
therefore instructed by Gen. Jesup to select some one of the sur-
geons for this duty; and the Doctor with his usual friendlydis--

The Journal
-._crimination, whenever there was -any .particularly disagreeable
duty to -befdofe, picked upon me. So away I was ordered, to die
of, fever as I thought amidst the swamps _of Lowndes County.
Major Dearborn to whom I was ordered to report myself was at
-Irwinton, sixty miles below Fort Mitchell, on the Alabama side
of the Chatahooche. It was therefore necessary for me to proceed
there forthwith alone.
The country I had to traverse in going to Irwinton was still
infested by the straggling parties of hostile Indians who had not yet
submitted. I should also have to spend a night in the woods, as
not one of the few houses in the intermediate country had escaped
the wrath of these devils. A travelling companion would therefore
have been very desirable; but none such could be found, except
my good steed, who had already on several occasions been sole
companion of my wanderings. Although not capable of affording
much counsel and conversation, yet his presence was by no means
superfluous under a sun which darted its torrid rays like lightning
upon my devoted head.
On the 25th Sept I mounted my horse, and with a good pair
of well loaded pistols in my holsters commenced my solitary
journey. My path at first lay through frowning woods, whose
gigantic columns upheld tops of dark green hue, which seemed
to ascend into the clouds. All was wild, dismal, and unknown,
and the melancholy sighing of the breeze which seemed to mourn
the desolation of the scene, was the only sound which broke upon
the ear, except the occasional plaintive whistle of the partridge,
who suffered themselves to be approached without any apprehen-
sion [of danger].8 As I proceeded through these wild glens, sel-
dom trod by any but the Indian or wolf, a few long hillocks
enclosed by logs would sometimes direct my eye to the final resting
place of a savage. After proceeding fifteen miles, the fresh print
of a moccasin upon the ground made me cast a more scrutinizing
look into every bush and behind every tree which lay in my path
before I made its proximity. But no Indian would afford me an
opportunity of exercising upon him my skill as a marksman.
The sun was throwing its rays through the trees in golden

Journey into Wilderness
lustre, and the shadows had begun to lengthen when I came in
sight of the Chatahooche river, at a spot where a river [flat]9
boat was tied. A fortunate circumstance for me, as I thus escaped
the disagreeable alternative of lodging that night in the woods upon
the bare ground, with a chance of waking up next morning and
finding myself minus a scalp. I immediately introduced myself to
the Captain, who informed me in return that he claimed the
indefinite cognomen of Capt. Smith; that his boat was engaged
in the service of the United States, and that my company for the
night would by no means be disagreeable to him. I soon made
myself at home, and in a few minutes was hale-fellow-well-met
with all the crew, who, though most of them were black, seemed
upon a perfect equality with the captain. After my hot ride a
swim in the river was a luxury not to be neglected; so, according
to the Canadian boatman's song-
"Je trouvais l'eau si belle,
Que je m'y suis baigne."'0
I was afterwards indulged in a supper of Chowder made of
fish and bacon served up in a tub, and coffee in a tin [that] was
[a] hand basin. Although a day's fasting and a bath are good
promoters of an appetite, yet I cannot say that I did much credit
to the beatific excellence of Capt. Smith's fare. He and his black
crew, however, soon made a clear deck. They were a hardy
looking set of fellows, and though the life they lead is very labo-
rious, [they] seemed the most cheerful and light-hearted people in
the world. They were constantly stretching their mouths beyond
every rule of Chesterfield, and "rending heaven's conclave with
their merriment." The boat was nothing but a square flat, adapted
to the navigation of these rivers when the water is too low to
admit the passage of steam-boats. Going down stream they are
allowed to drift with the current, only needing a particular atten-
tion and watchfulness where the rivers contracting their waters are
precipitated with increased current over a shallow and rocky
bed. The toil and trials are encountered in poleing up stream
against a rapid current.

The Journal
I sat up until a late hour admiring the beautiful and sparkling
splendor of the stars, which beamed in rich clusters from a moon-
less sky, and were seen through the avenue of primeval forest
which lined both shores of the river.
It is in such an hour of stillness and loveliness, when no sound
is heard but the rustling of foliage stirred by zephyrs freighted
with native fragrance, and the soft purling of gliding waters, that
we love to revel in recollections of early scenes and attachments-
that we hear the sweet tones of far distant friends from whom the
fluctuating contingencies of the world have severed us-that we
recall the scenes of happiness which those friends were wont to
share with us. The soothing effects of this universal silence sued
so sweetly to my senses, that they were fast settling into a congenial
tranquillity, when several exceedingly loud and discordant ex-
plosions of laughter, reiterated by the echo of the circumjacent
forests, burst upon my auricular organs, and putting to flight
fancy with all her visionary train, recalled me to a consciousness
of my true situation. A soul possessing the least claim to sensibility
could not resist suffering at this interruption. I found that the
unpleasant strains issued from some of the crew, who having just
awoke from their early slumbers, had commenced exercising their
waking faculties, of which laughing in the unChesterfieldian man-
ner was the principal. I smothered the expression of my wrath
with the consolatary and phylosophic reflection that, "it is the
destiny of man to be forever subjected to his little pittance of en-
joyment, and poison those moments of sunshine, which might
otherwise be consecrated to happiness." After this, I retired for
the night under the Captain's mosquito bar, which he had gener-
ously surrendered to my use, and slept until sun-rise next morning.
I bid farewell to my kind entertainers, who, while expressing
their regret at my departure, were grinning from ear to ear, and
in a few moments was again enveloped in solitude, and pursuing
my way to Irwinton, where I arrived about 3 o'clock in the after-
noon, without the occurrence of any further moving incidents by
either flood or field.



*jhe village of Irwinton is beautifully located upon
a bluff more than a hundred feet high at a bend of the Chata-
hooche, and afforded one of the finest views on the river, which
from here extended in a straight course for several miles above.
It contained many handsome frame houses that were finished, and
several other were seen rapidly rising from amidst stumps and
fallen trees. Among the latter I observed one with something like
a steeple, which induced me to believe the salvation of the soul
was duly attended to; but on inquiry I was undeceived, its destina-
tion being a public eating house, the wants of the body being held
paramount to those of the soul as is usual in most new settlement.
I heard an amusing anecdote of some Alabama Volunteers who
were stationed here for the protection of the place. Under the
impression that Uncle Sam would pay for all their wants, they
luxuriated extensively on sugar-plums, champaign, Spanish segars,
and other such delightsome delicacies, and the shop-keepers were
told to present their bills to the United States for payment. After
the departure of the valiant soldiers for their respective homes, all
the sugar-plums being consumed and therefore deeming their serv-
ices no longer needed, the bills were in due form presented to
Gen. Jesup; his usual gravity was quite overcome by such an
anomalous circumstance, and after giving vent to his unrestrainable
laughter, dismissed the poor shop-keepers with a flea in their ear
and nothing in their pockets, their accounts not acknowledged by
Uncle Sam.
I found Major Dearborn encamped two miles from Irwinton,
and after reporting myself to him rode over to visit Major Lomax,
who was also stationed in the neighbourhood with his battalion of
On the 29th Sept we took up the line of march for Lowndes

The Journal
County, Georgia, and after crossing the Chattahooche advanced
fifteen miles the first day over the most wretched roads that ever
disfigured the face of the earth. We proceeded by easy marches,
generally resting in the middle of the day when we took our food,
which was prepared before we started in the early mor and
again when we encamped for the night. The second night I slept
in a church by the roadside.
A laughable occurrence took place while the men were resting
in the middle of the day. We were in the midst of an open pine-
woods, and the men were sitting together upon the ground under
the trees in some very high grass, which left only the upper part
of their bodies visible; about this time two travellers on foot hap-
pened to come along, and observing from a distance such a large
body of men together in so remote and dreary a place, and having
received no previous intimation of regular troops passing through,
immediately took to their heels, and had retrograded a mile at
double quick when they met our baggage wagons; they commu-
nicated to the teamsters the alarming information that a large army
of Indians were just behind them in full chase, and advised them
to leave their wagons and flee for their lives. On describing the
said Indians, they were told whom they had honored with their
suspicions. Indeed, our appearance might have deceived the
veritable simon-pures themselves; we had become bronzed by an
exposure to the sun in Alabama the whole summer; our black
leather caps may easily be metamorphosed by an excited imagina-
tion into the glossy hair of the Indian at a distance, and colour
of the men's jackets were the same as most of the Indian hunting
shirts, their white cross-belts representing the Indian pouch strap,
and their knapsacks the latter's pack; moreover, we were on the
very track of the Indians who were endeavouring to escape to
Florida. The two fellows looked very sheepish when they passed us.
The third night we slept in the midst of a pine-barren. The
fourth, near the banks of the Kichafoona river, upon the site of
an old Indian town, which was the scene of one of Jackson's
slaughters in the last Seminole war.1 The fifth night I tried to
sleep, but could not, for I was tossing upon a sick bed. The next


Journey into Wilderness
morning I made out to mount my horse, and endeavoured to keep
along with the troops.
We crossed Flint river, and had got beyond Pinderton' in Baker
county, when the exertion proved too great for me, for fever with
its dreadful hold had seized on my very life-springs; and finding
myself unable to keep my saddle, I was forced to dismount and
lie down upon the road until one of the baggage wagons came up,
when I was helped into it. The torture I endured for four days
during which I was conveyed in this vehicle of torment cannot
be expressed in language. My anxiety, however, to continue with
the troops, enabled me to support the greatest agony for some
time. The thin covering to the wagon afforded my burning brain
no protection against the heat of a vertical sun in this latitude,
and the constant jolting over the rugged roads and roots of trees
was fast driving me into a dreadful tempest of delirium. Human
nature could endure such suffering no longer, and with reluctance
I was compelled to be left in a log-house which stood beside the
road in Thomas county ten miles from Florida. The occupant,
whose name was Adams, seemed a kind-hearted man, and he
promised to bestow [upon me] all the care in his power. For-
tunately I retained my reasoning faculties, and I was enabled to
prescribe for myself the proper medicines. Yet it was with a mor-
bid dread I found myself affected with typhus fever, a phasis of
disease which is always associated in my mind with an accumula-
tion of terrors,-its slow and silent progress, and the entire pros-
tration of strength with which it is accompanied. I had full leisure
to meditate upon my unenviable situation, for seldom was the
solitude of my sick chamber ever disturbed. Afar removed from
kindred and those I loved, with body weakened and mind bereft
of its energy-no watchful cares and hallowed tendernesses to
alleviate the pangs of sickness-no tender woman to linger like an
angel with hush'd step and serene smile of love around my pillow
of suffering and gently hold my aching head; for in sickness man
always turns to the bosom of woman, for that soothing sympathy
and everduring kindness which alone can bear with the querulous
repinings so natural to his situation-

The Journal
"No eye to mingle sorrow's tear,
No tongue to call me kind and dear.-
'Twas gloomy and I wish'd for death!"

At night, when all else was hushed in silence and in sleep, I'd
lay wakeful upon my pallet, and listen to the rushing wind as it
swept around the humble edifice; and through the wide apertures
between the logs would gaze upon the stars and pale moon which
shone brightly pure in heaven except when some vapoury clouds
tinged by her light would cross her path like messengers of heaven;
with what sincerity did I exclaim with Schiller-

"Eilende Wolken! Segler der Liifte!
Wer mit euch wanderte, mit euch schiffte!
Griisset mir freundlich mein Jugendland!"'

By aid of a good constitution I was at last enabled to master
th disease, and after ten days confinement to bed, again stood
upon my legs. From this moment I convalesced rapidly, and was
much indebtdp to my kind host for a speedy recovery of strength.
He would spend a whole day in the neighboring streams catching
the delicious trout to indulge my appetite; and a hint was not
needed to induce him to hunt the wild turkey for me. I would
frequently visit his fields of sugar-cane, and seated upon a log
would spend hours in sucking the delicious juice.
/ On the 21st Oct I had regained sufficient strength to ride my
(horse; so on that day I bid farewell to my kind and hospitable
host,-whom I shall always bear in my heart with grateful re-
membrance,-and following upon the trail of the troops, proceeded
to rejoin them.
Autumn with its refreshing sunshine had now superceded the
heat of summer, and its hollow winds, with mournful sound an-
nouncing the approach of dreary winter, were driving the leaves
about in eddying course; their rustling alone broke the stillness
of the scene as I journeyed slowly on through the wide forests,
which were now throwing off their garb of sturdy vigour and
assuming the ostentatious and gaudy livery of the season. The


Journey into Wilderness
beauty of woodland scenery is always heightened just before the
chilly winter throws its icy influence over their bloom, and en-
velopes them in a robe of dusky brown. Then it is that the gor-
geous and fantastic blending of green, yellow, crimson, purple, and
scarlet, which tinge the distant prospect, defies the art of the
painter, who endeavours in vain to imitate successfully the varied
hues of nature.\
On the evening of the 22nd Oct I arrived at Franklinville)4
whi h is the only town in the whole of Lowndes county, and con-
tains only three log-houses; one of which is a court-house, and
another the Post-office; the third is a store. (This great place is
situated on the upper Withlacooche, and herd I found the troops
encamped. They were preparing to move farther south, and
nearer to Florida; and the day after I joined, the tents were struck,
the Withlacooche crossed, and after marching ten miles in a south-
erly direction, a new place of encampment was selected near the
plantation of a Mr. Townsend.5!



he situation at Camp Townsend1 was not celebrated
for many beauties and excellencies to make it an object of peculiar
attraction. It was in one of the most extensive and most barren
of all the pine-barrens in Georgia, where nothing is to [be] seen
but pine-trees and saw-palmetto. To the North it was sheltered
by lofty pine-trees; to the East it looked upon an extensive forest
of over-grown pine-trees, most charmingly variegated by pine-trees
of a smaller growth. A fine grove of majestic and venerable
pine-trees protected the camp from the sun (whose heat was now
acceptable) towards the South; and to the West, the eye was
carried along over a glittering and smiling quagmire, abounding
in toads, and tadpoles, and the view [was] terminated by the
towering and thickly growing trunks of pine-trees, whose numbers
were doubly increased by reflection in the puddles which beauti-
fully diversified the aforesaid quagmire. A tender air of repose
pervaded the whole scene. The croaking of the thousand varieties
of toads and tadpoles with which the quagmire abounded formed
a concert of simple melody; the lowing of the cattle, which rove
in native freedom through these woods; the grunting of the hogs
who enjoy the same rural felicity; and the strokes of our men's
axes, partook of the softness of the scene, and fell tunefully upon
the ear. Amidst such elysian happiness my mind could not fail
being disposed to gentle pleasures and tranquil enjoyments. The
other senses also had their full share of delight; for I revelled in
the good things of the land, which abounded with all manner of
fish and flesh, and such like delightsome and wholesome excel-
lencies. I slept on Buffaloe skin-sat on Bear skin-and fed on
venison and wild-turkies, with an occasional sprinkling of squirrel.
I here acquired the qualifications for presiding over any Epicurean
association in the world, by being able to discuss most learnedly

Journey into Wilderness
on the merits of not only a haunch of venison, but all the other
delicacies enumerated above. I used often to add to my stock of
happiness by riding out into the pine-woods, where I could enjoy
in perfection the varied and romantic scenery of burned and de-
caying trees, pig-pens, pine-flats, and log-huts; could watch and
admire the little tadpoles and polywogs as they frisked and
frolicked in the muddy pools, and listen to the inspiring melody
of the more sedate frogs that croaked upon the margins with dig-
nified solemnity.
Our enjoyments were not confined to daylight only, for soon
as the last rays of the sun had beamed their farewell radiance on
the high pine-tops, our attentive neighbours the screech-owls and
whooping cranes would commence entertaining us in the most
delicate manner, at the expense of their melodious voices. These
flattering attentions, however, were not properly appreciated by
us; owing no doubt to our not possessing a correct taste for music.
Nor must I omit to mention-for it would be the height of ingrati-
tude if I did-the nightly visits of our equally attentive neighbours
-the hogs. In their comings they displayed the wisdom of
Solomon. Not a snout was visible before tatoo [tattoo];2 but soon
as that signal for an exit into retiracy was completed, on they came,
grunting, snorting, and squeaking,-old boars, little pigs, and all;
forming a concert of sweet sounds that would have astounded and
put to the blush any Pierian sodality. Their serenades were met
on our part with base ingratitude; by the shade of Mozart! instead
of listening to their dulcet tones with marked applause, and invit-
ing them to partake of refreshments after such exertions, as is
usual among a refined and serenaded people, we impolitely and
ungratefully gave the sentinels peremptory orders to expel them at
the point of the bayonet, whenever seen near our canvassed
domiciles. To do credit to their wisdom, I must state that they
always made it a rule to return to whatever spot from which the
sentinel may have so unceremoniously expelled them, and submit
it to a close examination so soon as his back was turned upon
them. Such conduct gave rise in camp to a suspicion that their
serenades were mere cloaks under which they might conceal their

The Journal
foraging designs; and these wise animals doubtless reasoned logi-
cally, that, as no one ever takes any trouble without a cause, ergo,
there must exist some cause for the trouble of driving them from
any particular spot; being of a phylosophic turn of mind and
desirous of gathering information on every subject, these sages
therefore persisted in returning to investigate the matter thoroughly.
What staggered my belief in their wisdom a little was, that
instead of approaching silently in the dark, as all sensible thieves
do, they always announced their proximity to forbidden ground
with loud and continuous grunting. To remove this inconsistency
in their character, I have arrived at the conclusion that this grunt-
ing had the same effect upon them that martial music has upon
the soldier in the battle-field,--it spirited them up to deeds of
daring. It had become necessary for them after a while to have
some such stimulus to keep their courage up; for on finding that
this family of snouts and boars, like many other bores in the world,
were unacquainted with the polished science of taking a hint ad-
ministered in a gentle way, we resorted to a more effectual mode
of bringing their music to a finale. We flattered ourselves that
we hit upon the only method of insulting them; attended with
another advantage,-that of perfecting ourselves in the art of
pistol-shooting. I would not myself have adopted this fashionable
mode to settling our quarrels with the pigs, if the brutes had not
annoyed my family-consisting of an old black hen and a red
chicken rooster-disturbing their dreams at night, and causing
them to look very drooping, doubtless from loss of sleep at night,
which they could not indulge [in] by day in consequence of their
being constantly engaged in desperate exertions to get loose from
one of my tent pins, to which my great attachment for them had
caused me to have them tied by one leg.
I had frequent opportunities of increasing my family by the
offers of ducks, etc., but fearing the cares of a large family would
be too burdensome upon me, I was compelled to decline any ex-
tension of my affections.
The two members mentioned above, were presents from some
of my country patients in the neighbourhood of our camp. I had

Journey into Wilderness
not been on the grounds many minutes, when swarms of applicants
for medical advice, hearing of the arrival of a physician in the
country [which was too poor to entice one of the faculty to select
as his stamping ground],3 came thick upon me. Indeed, the arrival
of the President of the United States could not have created a
greater sensation. My presence was solicited in forty different
directions at once by man, woman, and child. I was waited upon
by messengers express from thirty miles distance. These applica-
tions were redoubled as soon as it was known that I would take
no fee. Some, who were sorry to lose so capital an opportunity
of taking medicine, which may never occur to them again as long
as they might live, began to rake their memories for some old
complaint, the ghost of which had disappeared forty years before.
There was one man who took me six miles to see one of his
children, whom I found having ate a larger dinner than usual,
the repository thereof-like that of a little puppy after a full meal
-had increased proportionally, and this frightened the good man.
His generous heart prompted him to bring me a pair of chickens.
Another man who had salinated himself severely by imprudent use
of calomel, a common thing in this part of the world [where it
cannot be said that ignorance is bliss],4 sent for me in the night
three miles off; he magnanimously rewarded my exertions in his
behalf with a hen;-the identical black hen which I adopted into
my family circle. Another opened his heart, and out came a
peck of groundnuts [peanuts].5 Some gave venison; others deer
skins, dressed and in the raw state. One poor fellow, who had
nothing to give which he thought would be acceptable, offered to
lend me his rifle for as long a time as I remained in the vicinity.
I have made two valuable discoveries in the course of my
Country practice; the one is(that the approbation of my own heart,
S the consciousness of well-doing more amply rewarded me for my
kindness-and attention to the sick than any money could have ever
done All the money in the world could not cause the exquisite
happiness which is felt by the benevolent physician, who in his
visits to the afflicted knows that his coming is hailed as the glad
tidings of consolation, that his presence will spread a calm over

The Journal
hearts torn by agitation, and will soothe the disquietude of griev-
ing friends;-~hat hbbringscomfort to the_mind afflicted as well
---asto the body-is the comforter of sensibility-the controller of the
"feeling's agony,"--the highest attribute of mortals. It is this
reward which inspires in the finely sensitive physician's breast
that indifference to danger, to which he is so necessarily exposed
while pleading with patient and persevering humanity for the
lives of his patients-that prompts him to inhale the poisonous
atmosphere of malignant disease-which makes him become famil-
iar with scenes of the most loathsome and disgustful, while en-
deavouring to alleviate suffering humanity. "Those who think
that the discharge of the pecuniary debt cancels all obligation to
their physician are vastly mistaken; money given, even without a
grudging hand, but with a thankless heart, can never requite such
services as the physician renders."
The other discovery which resulted from my experience among
these people is also of a happy tendency; it will serve to reconcile
me to whatever situation the fortuitous circumstances of life may-..
condemn me,__.By it I am convinced that in the general distribu-
tion of misery, no one is exempt; that privations, to be endured,
are found in every situation of life; that "rural fields and banks
of crystal streams, that murmur and meander through verdant
vales and whispering forests," are not always the abodes of a race
of beings exempt from the common calamities and miseries of
human nature. But by pursuing our course usefully, whether in
town or country, in crowded streets, or in solitary roads, is the
surest method of attaining happiness; and by alleviating the miseries
and sufferings of others is the surest way to forget our own. We
should, indeed, as some author has expressed it, constantly bear in
mind that "in proportion as we minister to the happiness of others
we take the most effectual means to augment our own." Or as
the poet White6 says-
"To be happy here is man's chief end,
And to be happy, he must needs be good."

I have somehow slipt into a digression, which are always


Journey into Wilderness
troublesome things; just like the Indian paths in the Pine-woods;
if a man gets into one there is no telling when he will come to
a stopping place; and the farther on he goes, the more distant
seems the termination.
There is a universal feature in most country families, which
was particularly conspicuous here, the innumerable children; Oh!
Goddess Lucina, why do you inflict such a calamity upon these
poor people, for such I considered the numerous and hopeful off-
spring, who eat them out of doors.7 Some persons would call this
the "smiling of heaven upon their union"; if so, heaven must smile
by doublets; or as Salmagundi8 says, the women must certainly
"throw doublets" every time.



Y oon as frowning winter had gained the supremacy
with his withering grasp, our camp assumed the form and ar-
rangements best adapted to that inclement season. The constant
felling of pine-trees for fuel was a source of much annoyance to
me. From morning to night the strokes of the axe were constantly
heard at my ears; and the soldiers who performed the duty of
woodsmen seemed to be very ambitious of showing how near to
my tent their skill could fell a pine-tree without knocking out my
brains. Frequently while sitting in my tent engaged in a fit of
abstraction or something equally important, I would be aroused
by hearing a great whizzing overhead, as if all the comets of the
universe were taking a race, when starting from my tent and look-
ing up, I would see rushing towards me with the velocity of a
rail-road locomotive a pine-tree ninety or a hundred feet high; I
had but to dodge back into my tent again, until a repetition of the
whizzing could be heard. I was not the only dodger, for when a
tree is about to fall, the axeman usually cried "look out," and in
all directions over camp men may be seen bobbing their noodles
to escape the shower of branches and pine-burrs that are scattered
far and wide. We were, however, well repaid for our bobbing
by the fires these trees made. It took six pine-trees of the largest
size to make one campfire every night. It was made in this way;
the largest trees in the neighborhood were selected, generally from
two to three feet in diamitor [diameter]; these were cut into
lengths of twelve feet, and then rolled up to the front of the tent,
distant from it about ten or twelve feet; two smaller pieces are
laid upon the ground perpendicular to these, and parallel to one
another to serve as andirons, lying towards the tents; upon these
other large logs are piled to a height of five or six feet. We each
of us had a brobdignag comforter of this description in front of

Journey into Wilderness
our tents, and as soon as the sun set they commenced blazing with
the fierceness of so many volcanies [volcanoes]. As our camp
consisted of twenty tents, each of which had a fire in front, the
scene presented at night was awfully grand and magnificently
comfortable. We burn'd such a large quantity of wood, that we
cleared and used as fuel an acre per week of pine woods; and
had it only been good soil, no squatter could have seen our clear-
ings without immediately settling, building a log-hut, and fencing
in his fields, after which nothing would have been necessary but
to put seed into the ground.
One night we witnessed the dazzling effect of our fires upon
a flock of wild geese who were emigrating to the South, as usual
on the approach of winter. In passing over us, they were so
bewildered by the uncommon glare presented to their eyes amidst
the surrounding darkness, that for two hours they kept up a wild-
goose chase in a circle over our heads, not being able to leave the
magic spot. I was told the country people frequently employed
this method of decoying them from their nocturnal flight to within
shooting distance. The above incident was commemorated by
some of the occupants of camp, in the following beautiful effusion
and specimen of the sublime; doubtless an effort at consolement
for not being able to get a goose for supper. The caption is par-
ticularly fine; but it was the usual style of language among the
country people of that remote portion of our country.

A flock of wild geese flusterated, and dis-
comboberated, but not dumbfungled.-
Our fires burn'd bright;-
Some geese in their flight,
Were dazzled by the noonday lustre;
They stopt on their course-
They mustered their force,-
For they were in a terrible flustre.

We threw on more wood-
As much as we could,-
To make our fires burn brighter;

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We then could count seven,
Between us and Heaven,-
For it now had become much lighter.

We got our guns out-
The geese-they flew round about,
All the while making much clatter;
They moved somewhat slower,-
They came somewhat lower,-
For they wished to know what was the matter.

We wanted them nigher,
Before we would fire,-
For in shooting we like to be sure;
But we waited in vain,
Full two hours in the rain,-
When they cleared out, and came back no more.

While we were encamped near Townsend's, I enjoyed the un-
common felicity of a fire-hunt, a sport of which I had often heard,
but never participated in; and hope never again. Major [Thomas]
Staniford and myself had been long contemplating a ride to
Franklinville, for the purpose of a deer-hunt by day and a fire-hunt
by night with the nimrods of that place; and we one day put
our design in execution. We started in the afternoon,-he on
Neahmathla,-a villainous Indian pony, of which more anon,
and I on my blooded steed Columbus; each armed with a musket
and all the customary paraphernalia of a hunter. To a stranger
accidentally meeting us, we might possibly have raised a suspicion
that Quixotism was not quite defunct. Not that either of us had
a visage approximating in the slightest degree to ruefulness; or
that my companion's pony was a jackass, but in other respects-
I could not refrain from laughing myself at the conceit. In the
first place, I was mounted on a horse whose graceful proportions
only made more apparent by strong contrast with the entire want
of symmetry in the other animal; and am myself rather inclined
to be of the lean kind. On the other hand, the Major with figure
of fair rotundity was jogging along with his saddle-bags on a little,

Journey into Wilderness
round, scrubby devil, not knee high to a mosquito. In short, the
tout ensemble was remarkably unique and sufficiently striking to
knock one down-with laughing.
But Neahmathla must subject his character as well as physical
appearance, like all immortalized individuals, from Gen. Jackson
down to Tom-Thumb,-to examination. He was born and edu-
cated among the Indians, and must have been a docile youth to
his instructors, for never was there a better exemplification of the
proverb, as "the twig is bent, the tree is inclined." I know not
whether to call his chief endowment phlegmatic patience, or the
stubborn insensibility of a stoic philosophy. Doubtless a touch of
both. He was never known to express astonishment at anything,
but on two occasions,-once, the Major being in a hurry intimated
in the customary manner to the Indian the necessity of trotting;
I was present at the time, and immediately observed the muscles
of his physiognomy relax from their usual expression of Indian
indifference, whilst a look of perfect astonishment usurped its
place;-he was astonished that any one should attempt to get him
out of a walk. It was a failure on the Major's part. The only
other occasion was when the Major first led him up to a stump
for the purpose of mounting him, the circumstance of his [the
Major's] having just ate breakfast and more than usual rendering
such a procedure necessary; Neahmathla's stoicism was quite over-
come!-the idea of a stump being necessary to assist any one to
the back of such a diminutive devil as he knew himself to be, was
too much for his philosophy; never did I see astonishment more
expressively depicted on any phiz. The Major wanted to insinuate
that it was only an expression of fear at the sight of the stump.
But that could not have been the case; an Indian pony has been
in contact with too many stumps not to know one when he sees
it. Since that moment he always carried his head a half an inch
Revenons a nos moutons [Let's come back to our business], or
rather to our venison, we reached Franklinville in due season,-
that is, in time for supper. Next morning we started on the pro-
jected deer-hunt, intending to try for deer by daylight first. Such

The Journal
sports being very common in all parts of the world, I shall not
notice it farther than to state that we got but one deer. This did
not satisfy us; so it was unanimously determined to try that night
what could be done in the way of hunting by fire,-a mode of
procuring venison very common in thinly settled frontier regions
but made illegal in thick settlements. Should I be asked for a
description of this sport, and were to attempt to give it from that
night's experience, my definition of fire-hunting would be, that
it consisted in two individuals stumping at night through brushes
and briers, swamps, and quagmires, treating themselves to an
occasional stumble over the prostrate trunks of trees, and diving
headforemost into a concealed gopher hole on the other side; one
of them bearing over his shoulder a blazing pine-tree, while the
other followed in his wake, Indian fashion, carrying upon one
shoulder a gun and upon the other an axe; the latter for cutting
down more pine-trees, as fast as one burnt out, in order that they
might not be left in the dark, and commit the egregious blunder
of going round a quagmire instead of through it, and lose thereby
considerable felicity, particularly on a cold night as that was. The
gun was apparently carried, as far as my observation extended,
by way of giving an ostensible motive for thus perambulating the
forests at a time when all compos mentis individuals were asleep
in their beds.
I returned from this my first essay at fire-hunting fully con-
vinced that it must be an invaluable amusement to those who
are fond of wet feet on a cold night and a prodigious deal of un-
necessary fatigue instead of reposing comfortably in their beds.
But not being particularly partial to either of these exquisite de-
lights myself, I determined to avoid fire-hunting for the future.
I frequently was nightly entertained in my visits to our un-
sophisticated neighbours, by their endeavours to edify me with
precepts of political wisdom, and sublime disputations on the
science of legislation. No where have I ever met a more ignorant
people, and who stood in more earnest need of schoolmasters.
They actually knew nothing beyond the necessity of eating to
support life, and of being clothed to defend themselves from the

Journey into Wilderness
weather;-mere vegetables. Their huts, with but few exceptions,
you could hardly have induced a sensible dog to occupy, without
his shedding tears of dissatisfaction, and making strong opposition.
And yet, so true it is, that "ignorance is bliss," these people seemed
contented; and knew not but what they possessed their amount of
earth's luxuries.
How wisely has Providence ordained that all mankind should
not be endowed with similar tastes and dispositions; otherwise
a large portion of Georgia would never have been settled,-at
least many parts that I have seen. Put a rifle into the hands of
a Piney-wood Settler, however, and as long as squirrels and deer
are not extinct he is owner of the world in his own estimation. I
have frequently gone out with these expert marksmen that I might
be astonished at their skill,-or at least seem so,-for these indirect
compliments often brought to my larder a wild turkey or a quarter
of venison.
I had just got out of my buffaloe-skin, one morning, and had
not quite finished dressing, when the front of my tent was raised,
and in walked a man "a good deal how come you so." He im-
mediately commenced embracing me in the most affectionate and
Frenchman-like manner; burst into tears, and swore he loved all
soldiers better than his life, etc. He soon soothed down and
stated that he had brought his wife a distance of seven miles to hear
the drum and see the men stand in a straight line; phenomena
she was as unacquainted with as a sucking dove. He concluded
by stating that he had left her in a log-house close by, which had
been built for a church, but was brought into requisition for that
purpose only once or twice a year, and that he would go and
bring her immediately to my tent. This honor I tried to evade,
at least until I had put on my clothes, and congratulated myself
on the fact of its raining very severely at the time. I hinted to
him very politely, the gratification a visit from his better half
would afford me, but that the fair lady had better stay where
she was for the present, as it would be highly improper to endanger
her health by exposing her delicate person to a ducking. "Oh no,"


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he replied, "she was remarkably fond of society, and would not
mind the rain, but would prefer to come and sit with me in my
tent." She came; the shower continued; so the visit was long,
they having discovered the impropriety of her getting wet. My
breakfast hour having arrived, and the repast being ready, I could
not avoid inviting them to partake. A second invitation was un-
necessary. The meal despatched, I took a segar as customary,
and offered another to "the gentleman." The fair lady intimated
how grieved she was at not being able to join us, as she only
smoked pipes, and unfortunately had left hers at home. I felt
distressed for her situation; so cutting up a segar, I filled a small
dutch pipe I had with me, and thus enabled her to luxuriate with
us in her own way. "She was mightily pleased with the pipe;
reckoned it was a nationest costly thing"; and intimated that "the
possession of it would make her powerfully proud." I could not
consistently with politeness avoid asking her acceptance of it, and
she very condescendingly complied with my request. It was a
happy thing for me; the present producing such an exhilirating
effect, that she could no longer keep quiet, but took herself off,
and her husband with her; but not before a squeezing invitation
to be sure to come see them. A day or two after, they repeated
their visit. As soon as seated to their liking in my tent, my fair
visitor most graciously unfolded her pocket handkerchief and took
therefrom a dozen tallow candles, which she as graciously tendered
for my acceptance, enhancing their value by asserting that she had
made them with her own delicate hands for my especial accom-
modation. Such a mark of attention from one of the fair sex was
quite overpowering. But her inferior half was not to be outdone
in liberality; so with unequalled magnanimity and generosity he
invited me to a conjuration he was shortly to edify the natives
with; and also stated, if we let our men come, who would each
be charged twenty-five cents for admittance, the officers should
be admitted for nothing. Such kindness and marked distinction
was unlocked for, and though we were all impressed with a deep
sense of gratitude, we did not honor ourselves by attending the
wonderful exhibition.


Journey into Wilderness
On making some inquiries about this singular personage, I
learnt that he had such a high opinion of his talents, that the year
proceeding he actually offered himself a candidate for the State
Legislature, and got one vote; but that was put in by himself.



e had been encamped near Townsend's clearing
about three weeks, when our neighbours began to be too trouble-
some for a longer proximity. They displayed too great an affection
towards our men by supplying them with-a soldier's greatest lux-
ury-whiskey,-thereby injuring their morals and keeping them
constantly in the guard-tent. The Major commanding' saw the
evil, and concluded to get out of its way. He therefore issued his
orders on Monday night the 13th November, that we should all be
ready to march the following morning by sun-rise.
The hour arrived; our tents were struck; and pursuing a South
East course, we proceeded fifteen miles from our old encampment;
and selected a spot in a Pine-barren near the clearing of a Mr.
Clyatt,2 and within five miles of Florida. Had we fallen asleep
at Camp Townsend and awoke at Camp Clyatt, we never would
have discovered the change of locality. We were here surrounded
by the same Corinthian pines; the same Sabbath stillness pervaded
the whole scene, where nature reposed in silence; the same barren-
ness of even a blade of grass to throw a solitary bloom over its
sterility. In short, the same dull, silent, and insipid pine-barren,
where the listlessness of blank vacuity hung upon the flagging
spirits, causing the lingering moments to "drag their slow length
along" in indifference and heavy-hearted despondency;-where
even the mirror of memory only added to our misery and sadness
by reflecting the contrasted beauty of other scenes with increased
charms;-and where our brightest hopes and affections were lost
on a wide waste of cheerless existence.
[Lord] Byron has somewhere expressed the wish "that the
desert were his dwelling place"; now he certainly could not have
been serious, or his notions of a desert must have been very errone-
ous; for a desert and a Georgia pine-barren being synonymous

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terms, from my experience and knowledge of the latter, I am de-
cidedly of [the] opinion that neither are very well calculated to
"soothe the sad bosom of joyless despair," but to produce a dia-
metrically opposite result, as was the case in myself. To be sure,
there's no telling what influence "the one fair spirit for a minister"
might exercise in such a locality; and I would advise any one who
feels disposed to test the efficacy of Byron's prescription for "joy-
less despair," by resorting to a wilderness, not to forget "the one
fair spirit." Byron has also seriously expressed the opinion that
"there is a pleasure in the pathless woods, there is society" etc; all
humburg; and very well for those to assert who never felt the
stagnation of life in "the pathless woods"; my homestead has been
the pathless woods for many weary years [months] and never
could I derive any other feeling than ennui from looking at nothing
put pine-trees; nor could I make up my mind to consider "the
wood-peckers tapping the hollow pine-trees" for worms, as agree-
able society, they not evincing sufficient sociability, and, they
constituted the only society to be met with in these said "pathless
woods." I can, however, vouch for the truth of there being many
spots where, "no flowers gaily springing, nor birds sweetly singing,"
existed; for such were the characteristics of the Georgia pine-
barrens, where we vegetated for many months.
During our progress from one place of encampment to the
other, I was much diverted at witnessing the graceful and surpris-
ing evolutions of my feathered family-the aforesaid black-hen
and red-chicken-rooster. Two boards which had been nailed
together as substitute for a table, and which formed a surface
about two feet square, were placed upon the top of the baggage
in one of the wagons; to the centre of this the two objects of my
affection had been tied, for the better security of their valuable
lives, by strings attached to their legs, which allowed them merely
the liberty of this surface; either the jolting of the wagon over the
rugged road not permitting them to enjoy much satisfactory re-
pose on such a smooth surface; or being ambitious to exhibit their
agility from so favorable an elevation, they amused themselves by
dancing quadrilles during the whole journey. At every jolt of the

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wagon, away they would start in a graceful sidelong chasette a
chasette, then balance [Chassez et du Chassez then balancez]"
and after crossing over and turning partners round, would back
to their places and finish the figure with a pigeon-wing or a pirou-
ette that would have excited envy in the bosom of any Frenchman.
I was apprehensive such violent exertions might prove fatal to the
old lady; for I noticed she kept her mouth constantly open during
all her exercises, as well as her younger partner. A day's rest,
however, restored them both to their usual equanimity.
The conjurer and candidate for the legislature having given
out that on a particular day he intended to have a log-rolling,
quilting, and dancing frolic, and having sent an especial message
to Major Staniford and myself to attend; our curiosity was excited
to witness the originality of such an affair of which we had heard,
but never witnessed; so we determined to go. We had to ride
six miles and arrived there about sun-set not caring much to par-
ticipate in the log-rolling part of the entertainment; the conjurer
was busily engaged erecting a long table out of rough boards in
the open air; while his wife was as busily engaged in cooking
pork and cabbage in the kitchen, into which we were invited,
being informed that it was the reception room. We there found
the company assembled, and on entering would have removed
our hats, to show our breeding in the presence of the fairer sex;
on looking round, however, we noticed that such a procedure
would not have been in conformity with the rules or customs of
the company, and being decidedly outre4 would only have exposed
us to their ridicule; so quaker-fashion we remained; and the
fair angels whose gaze were fixed upon us, seemed by their ap-
proving smiles not to take our conduct amiss,-probably liked
us the better for appearing to disregard their presence. The pork
and cabbage were in due time despatched, and a few of the gentle-
men put to bed, in consideration of not being able to use their legs
from a too free use of our host's whiskey.
Then began preparations for the double-shuffle. There were
three fiddlers; but unfortunately for the exercise of their united
talents, only one fiddle; and that deficient in some of its strings.


Journey into Wilderness
The three votaries of Apollo therefore exercised their functions
successively upon the cracked instrument, and did not fail to pro-
duce such sounds as would have attracted the admiration of even
the mighty goddess of Discord herself. Their chief merit seemed
to consist in all producing a similar concatenation of sounds, which
they persisted in dignifying with the appellation of tune; the name
of which, however, was more than the brightest faculties could
call. The Major could not be induced to venture his carcase in
the violent exercise of double-shuffle and cross-fling; so I had to
support the credit of our camp by my own exertions; and so
successfully, that the conjurer was in raptures, and made an at-
tempt to exhibit his admiration by embracing me before the whole
company; but I could not stand such a flattering display, so bolted.
The intervals of the dance were filled up by the gentlemen
handing round in a tumbler, what I thought was whiskey and
water, but which the Major asserted, from closer inspection, was
unadulterated whiskey; the younger ladies were generally satisfied
with one or two mouthfulls from each tumbler, but as the same
ceremony was to be gone through with each gentleman in rapid
succession, the fairest of creation did not lose their proper allow-
ance. The old ladies, who were veterans in the business, never
loosened their grasp of the tumblers until their lips had drained
the last drop of the precious liquid. As a necessary consequence
it was impossible for them to sit up long, and soon all the beds
were occupied by these ancient dames; the gentlemen who after-
wards got into a similar predicament were compelled to lie wher-
ever they fell.
At one o'clock fighting commenced, when the Major and
myself, not being ambitious of distinguishing ourselves in the
pugilistic art, made a retreat; and at two in the morning we were
in our tents, after a bitter cold ride.
We soon after received an addition to our society by the ar-
rival of [First] Lt. [Silas] Casey from Florida, who had received
an order to join Major Dearborn's company. We now had some
amusement by occasionally breaking the monotony of our life,
in a game of whist without a resort to [a] dumby [dummy].5


The Journal
In the intervals of replenishing nature, Major Dearborn and
myself had been industriously employed in manufacturing chess-
men out of pine-chips; as much for immediate pastime as future
amusement. Having little to divert our attention from such useful
occupation, there being no books attainable in camp, our labours
were soon rewarded with a beautiful and original set of chess-men.
We then occasionally escaped the heavy pressure of idle hours by
indulging in this civilized and scientific game.
In accordance with the already expressed opinion,-the result
of both experience and reflection-that to make ourselves con-
tented in any spot where necessity should place us, the best way
is to make ourselves useful, by endeavouring to alleviate the miseries
of those around us; I visited all the country people who sent for
me, or whom I heard stood in need of my professional services.
I visited one day a very worthy man who lived forty miles
from our camp. He had been shot through the body in an engage-
ment with the Indians in the month of July previous, and from
the want of surgical advice had been lingering on the brink of the
grave ever since, and enduring the greatest suffering. I found
that the ball had entered at a point a little to the right of the lower
extremity of the sternum, or breast bone, and had come out at
a point of his back diametrically opposite. From the symptoms
and an examination I made, I found that the ball had struck a
rib which it splintered. He was sinking rapidly from hectic and
injudicious treatment; and it produced feelings of the happiest
kind that I might thus be enabled to save the life of this poor
fellow by timely interference. In pursuance of my adopted plan
I refused all fee, but his expressions of gratitude more than com-
pensated me. He however insisted on my accepting a very fine
bear-skin, having incidentally heard that I was anxious to procure
On my return to camp I passed by the abode of two singular
individuals with whom I left my present to be dressed. These
were two aged brothers of the name of Moodie, who had been
living in the blessed state of celibacy all their long lives, for no
other purpose evidently than that of being blest with one another's

Journey into Wilderness
society through life. It was said that one of them did marry a
woman once, in what was called the Spanish mode; that is, took
her on trial for six months before the nuptual knot should be tied;
but at the end of the third month, he discovered they were not
destined for each other, or calculated to augment one another's
happiness; so he returned to the bosom of his brother, and had
never made a second attempt to sever the ties of brotherly love.
They were living representatives of the "Scout" and "Indian
John," as described by Cooper in the "Pioneers," both in character
and mode of living. Their edifice was a miserably small pile of
logs, eclypt a house in that country. It was situated in a solitary
spot of the pine woods, remote from any other habitation. They
attended to all their household duties themselves; made all their
own clothes, and cooked their own food; not another living being
was to be found about them, except an old gaunt stag-hound,-
probably a descendant of the Scouts' "Hector." Not even that
"sine qua non" pet of an old bachelor-a cat-was to be seen.
Their ostensible occupations were making shoes and dressing
skins; and whenever speaking of one another, the one spoken of was
always designated by the other as "the shoe-maker," or "the tan-
ner," according to which one it was, for each flourished in his
respective branch exclusively. The pen of a Cooper or an Irving
would have made much of their eccentricities.
In consequence of a requisition of Major Dearborn on the
county for one company of mounted militia, for the defence of
their own frontier and homes against the Indians, who began to
threaten the neighborhood, a draft was to be held at Franklinville,
the county-town, on a certain day. In accordance with a request
from the Major that I should attend on that day and take a letter
to the Colonel of the Country, I mounted my good steed Colum-
bus, and after several hours hard riding, found myself at the scene
of action at the appointed time. About two hundred men were
assembled; and most of them in a dangerous state of effervescence,
because the Colonel had ordered them to muster without first
consulting their wishes. One of the privates was particularly
exasperated, and told his Colonel, if he would only strip off his

The Journal
coat and step out into open ground he would soon thrash him
for his impudence; but as the commanding officer declined any
such display of courage, declaring he was not a fighting man, the
other proceeded to draw the sword which hung at the Colonel's
side, and showed a disposition of returning it in a way which the
Colonel did not relish, for there were serious demonstrations of
running him through the body. It was a lucky thing that our
Major did not attend; for he would certainly have been made
acquainted with the process of slicking,6 in return for attempting
to have these valiant citizens drafted for the defense of their homes
and firesides. At one moment I was under serious apprehensions
that they intended to make me the Major's representative in being
slicked, but they had sufficient reason left them to see the im-
propriety of the attempt, and I was permitted to make my retreat
without molestation, and in a dignified manner.
Several times, and at several distant points of its track, have I
crossed in my rides one of those "storm's dark paths,"-those ter-
rific evidences of the wind's might, when suddenly roused to its
wrath in these Southern latitudes. For miles in extent, beyond
the knowledge of those inhabitants whom I have questioned about
it, did this hurricane7 pursue its undeviating course, prostrating
every thing before it, even the largest tree of the forest; leaving
in its wake a broad belt of open space a quarter of a mile wide,
over which but a moment before the lofty woodland monarchs
had reared their heads in vigorous pride; but now, their giant
stems and rugged shafts strewed the ground in wild disorder, ad-
mitting the sun's rays for the first time to places which had been
shrouded in gloom from their creation.
Such a scene was well calculated to recall vividly to memory
those lines of Barber,-8
"When winter's tempests are abroad, oh! what sublimer sight,
"Than when the broad-armed forest oaks, in unapparelled might,
"Stand, like embattled skeletons upon the storm's dark path,
"And toss and writhe their groaning limbs beneath its howling



/ again was the general sounded; again our tents
were struck; and again did we take up the line of march for a
new camping ground. On the 3rd December we left the neigh-
borhood of Clyatt and proceeded about five miles into the vicinity
of Squire Swilley.1 We again encamped amidst the towering
pine-trees, still the same in every change of scene. The prospect
was slightly improved by an oak tree presenting itself here and
there; but as their summer's leaves had become sere, these also,
who not long back wore mantles of a thousand hues, now presented
one expanse of dusky brown. Our tents were pitched upon the
brow of a fine hill; a gentle slope extending from the left of our
encampment to the margin of a limpid mill-pond, on the edge of
which was located the Squire's Mill, which sawed boards, ground
corn, and gin'ed cotton, all by the powerful propulsion of the above
pond. Casting our vision beyond the surface of this pellucid sheet
of water, the eye rested upon an extensive corn-field, once pre-
senting a glorious array of waving foliage, with a prospect of com-
fortable realities, but which at this time exhibited the "yellow
melancholy" of winter. In the centre stood a few negro log-huts.
On the verge of the forest, beyond this field, and just peeping into
view, stood the Squire's abode; a log-house; for though the Squire
possessed the proximate advantage of a saw-mill, and an abundant
supply of the requisite materials for a more comfortable dwelling,
and one more consistent with his elevated position in the world,-
for the Squire was a member of the State Legislature-yet the
force of habit, and natural indifference to the comforts of life
made him contented with this humble edifice.
The Squire was a very clever fellow, and did not lose any op-
portunity of being attentive to his new neighbours. A few days
after our arrival, we were invited by the Squire to assist him in