• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 The vine upon the wall
 The cedars on Mount Lebanon
 The reem, or unicorn
 The psaltery
 Ancient armour
 Goliath of Gath
 The panoply
 Alexander upon Bucephalus
 Bowing with the face to the...
 Oriental dresses - A young woman...
 Oriental dresses - A young woman...
 Baal and Moloch
 Ashtaroth
 Dagon
 The star of your god Remphan
 Nebuchadnezzar's golden image
 Diana of the Ephesians
 The high priest, in his white robes,...
 The high priest's pectoral, or...
 A levite blowing the ram's...
 The table of shew-bread
 The golden table for the shew-bread...
 The golden candlestick
 The ground plan of Solomon's...
 Sleeping upon the house-top
 Elevation and bird's-eye view of...
 Jewish mode of treating the...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Scripture illustrations : explanatory of numerous texts, and of various customs mentioned in the Bible, with twenty-eight cuts
Title: Scripture illustrations
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020310/00001
 Material Information
Title: Scripture illustrations explanatory of numerous texts, and of various customs mentioned in the Bible, with twenty-eight cuts
Physical Description: 125 p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Sunday-School Union ( Publisher )
Publisher: American Sunday School Union (no. 146 Chesnut Street)
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date:
 Subjects
Subject: Bldn -- 1831
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 Notes
General Note: Date of publication: American Sunday-School Union of Philadelphia Headquarter was at 146 Chesnut Street from 1827 to 1835.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020310
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237226
oclc - 45783914
notis - ALH7710

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    The vine upon the wall
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The cedars on Mount Lebanon
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The reem, or unicorn
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The psaltery
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Ancient armour
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Goliath of Gath
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The panoply
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Alexander upon Bucephalus
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Bowing with the face to the earth
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Oriental dresses - A young woman of Arabia
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Oriental dresses - A young woman of Arabia going to the well for water
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Baal and Moloch
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Ashtaroth
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Dagon
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The star of your god Remphan
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Nebuchadnezzar's golden image
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Diana of the Ephesians
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    The high priest, in his white robes, on the day of expiation
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    The high priest's pectoral, or breast-plate
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    A levite blowing the ram's horn
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The table of shew-bread
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    The golden table for the shew-bread belonging to the second temple
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    The golden candlestick
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    The ground plan of Solomon's temple
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Sleeping upon the house-top
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Elevation and bird's-eye view of Solomon's temple
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Jewish mode of treating the dead
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text













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ILLUSTRATIONS:

EXPLANATORY OF

Ntumerouts S'rto,

AND OF

FAIZOUS CUSTOMS MENTIONED IN THE BIBLfL

WITH

TWENTY-EIGHT CUT&


SECOND SERIES.







AMERICAN SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION.

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oProITrory, 146 CHESNUT aEr TY.














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Fine upon the W(dl.








SORATURaI ,LLaSTRATiONS.


THE VINE UPON THE WALL.
THE Persian vine dressers do all in their
power to make the vine run up the wall and
curl over on the other side, which they do
by tying stones to the extremity of the ten-
dril, as here represented. May not this il-
lustrate that beautiful image, used Genesis
xlix. 22: "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even
a fruitful bough by a well, whose branches
run over the wall." The vine, particularly
in Turkey and Greece, is also frequently
made to entwine on trellises around a well,
where, in the heat of the day, whole families
collect themselves, and sit under the shade.
This also illustrates the delighifultprophecy:
6" They shall sit every man under his vine
and under his fig tree, and none shall make
them afraid." Micah iv. 4.
A2

























Cedars of Lebanon.





CEDARS OF LEBANON.


THE CEDARS ON MOUNT LEBANON.

The remaining trees of this celebrated fo-
rest, so often referred to by the inspired
writers, stand upon uneven ground, and form
a small wood. Of the oldest and best looking,
Mr: Burkhardt, in 1810, counted eleven or
twelve; twenty-five very large, about fifty
of a middling size, and more than three hun-
dred of the smaller and young trees. The
oldest are distinguished by having the foliage
and small branches at the top only, and by
four, five, or even seven trunks springing
from one base, as our cut exhibits, but there
were none whose leaves touched the ground,
like those in Kew Gardens. The trunks of
the old trees are covered with the names of
travellers, as far back as the seventeenth
century. In former times these trees were
in great abundance. They are very thick
and tall, shooting out their branches about
ten or twelve feet from the ground, and bear-
ing a small cone like that of the pine tree.
The leaves are like rosemary and always r-





OEDARS OF LZBANOr .


tain their verdure. They distil a kind of
gum much used in medicine. Cedar wood
is incorruptible, beautiful, solid, and inclin.
ing to a red brown colour. Mount Lebanon
separates Syria from Palestine. It is formed
like a horse-shoe, composed of four moun-
tainous enclosures, which rise above each
other. The first abounds in grain and fruits,
the second is barren, the third, though higher,
enjoys a perpetual spring; the trees being al-
ways green, and the orchards filled with
fruit, are so agreeable and fertile, that it is
called the terrestrial Paradise; while the
fourth region is so high, that it is almost al-
ways covered with snow, and by reason of
the intense cold cannot be inhabited.
The cedars are often alluded to in Scrip-
ture: David said, 1"I dwell in an house of
cedar," and he was unwilling that the ark
of God should dwell "within curtains." 2
Sam. vii. 2. The Psalmist says, "The
righteous shall grow like a cedar in Leba-
non," Psalm xcii. 12. The goodly cedars"
were, no doubt, in the Psalmist's time, far
superior to the present trees of Lebanon:





OEDARS OF LEBANON. 9

there appears to have been a literal, as well
as a metaphorical fulfilment of the divine
denunciation: "The day of the Lord of
Hosts shall be upon every one that is proud
and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted
up, and he shall be brought low; and upon
all the cedars of Lebanon that are high arl
liaed up." Isaiah ii. 11, 12. How im-
portant is it that we should seek from God
that true humility which his Spirit alone can
impart. Let us remember, that as the lowly
shrub escapes many a storm that assails the
lofty tree on its mountain elevation, so the
humble are the most secure. He that
exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that
humbleth himself shall be exalted."




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THE REEM, OR UNICORN.

THE scull and horns of the head here re-
presented, are now in the Museum of the
London Missionary Society. The animal to
which they belonged was killed at Mashow,
in South Africa, during the missionary tra-
vels of the Rev. John Campbell. When shot,
it was supposed to be the ordinary rhino-
ceros; until the head was compared. It
differed so much from all the others that had
been killed, and was so weighty, that it be-
came necessary to cut off the under jaw and
leave it behind. The principal horn rises
from about ten inches above the end of the
nose. It is three feet long, and in size and
position very much resembles that of the fan-
ciful unicorn in the Arms of Great Britain.
Immediately behind this principal horn, a
smaller one rises to the height of eight inches:
it is rather curved, or like a cock's spur, is
indeed is that of the ordinary or single-horn-
ed rhinoceros. The entire head was about
the size of a nine gallon cask; measuring


11






REEM, OR UNICORN.


three feet from the mouth to the ear! This
shows the body to have been very large; and
from its weight, and the strength and posi-
tion of its horn, probably strong enough to
subdue any animal yet discovered. Mr.
Campbell was informed that it feeds on grass
and bushes, and was in size equal to three
oxen or four horses; yet, he observes, the
native African, hardly took the smallest
notice of its enormous head, which they
looked upon as a thing quite familiar; nor
can that surprise us,when we are also told
that another of the same species, which es-
caped after being wounded, was reported to
be much larger.
Dr. Sparrman long ago stated, that the
figure of the unicorn as described by the an.
clients, had been found delineated by the
Hottentots on the plain surface of a rock in
Caffraria, whence he conjectured, as the re-
searches of Mr. Campbell go to prove, that
some such an animal had been, or was com-
mon in the interior of Africa. The double-
horned rhinoceros is no novelty; one was shot
in the island of Sumatra in the year 1793;


12





REEM, OR UNICORN.


and it seems very probable that the above
head belongs to one of this species, which
may still be the reem of the Hebrew Bible,
though translated unicorn, or single-horn, in
the English version. Wherever mentioned
in Scripture, it certainly means one of the
largest, strongest, and most untractable ani-
mals, being always instanced as the symbol
of great power, independence, and etltation.
In Deut. xxxiii. 17, Moses in blessing Jo-
seph's descendants, declares, that "his horns
are like the horns of the unicorns." Here
to avoid the contradiction in referring to the
horns of an animal, the English name of
which signifies but one horn, our excellent
translators have rendered the singular reem,
by the plural unicorns, which is one of their
extremely rare errors in judgment. The He-
brew name signifies might and strength; and
the Ethiopic, according to Mr. Bruce, "stand
ing erect, or straightness;" the last of which,
at least, could not fairly apply to the curved
horn of the common rhinoceros. In Geez it
is called /rwe Harich; and in the Amharic,
another of the Abyssinian dialects, luraris;
VOL. II. B


1i





14IRMI OR lt JiO' iLM


both signifying "the large beast with the
wild horn." But the Nubian name is the most
characteristic, Girnamgir, or "horn upon
horn," exactly coinciding with Mr. Camp-
bell's specimen, and with the already quoted
metaphor of Moses. It is true, the Psalmist,
and others of the inspired penmen, speak
only of the horn of the unicorn (reem;) but
when wV consider that the larger horn is so
much more prominent, that may at once ac-
count for the apparent omission, and for the
modern mistake relating to the imaginary
unicorn. The learned are not agreed whe-
ther the Hebrew name reem should be trans-
lated Unicorn and (Monoceros, that is, single-
horned, or by Rhinoceros, which means horn-
ed upon the nose. If, however, we can cal-
culate the bulk of the entire beast by the
head here described, it will at least appear
to be just such a formidable creature as is
frequently alluded to for a striking emblem
of worldly might and dominion in the word
of God.


14





1t


The Psalery.





THE PIALTERY.


THE PSALTERY.
THE Nabal, Nebel, or Psalterion, as used
in the temple at Jerusalem, was an instru-
ment made of wood of Almug, i. Kings, 10,
19, of the shape of a Delta, a, or triangle;
the hollow part was uppermost, as shewn in
the drawing, and it was played upon below,
either with the finger, or a sort of bow, or
fret. It was used in the pompous and solemn
ceremonies of the Mosaic dispensation, and
i. often mentioned in the Psalms. The Phoe-
nicians were supposed to be the first inven-
tors ; but this instrument differs so little from
the harp, that we may as safely refer it to
Juial. Genesis iv. 21. Josephus says. there
were some made of a very precious sort of
metal called electrum, and that like this
sketch, they had twelve strings. The Greek
employed a still greater number, and Juba,
the son of the Numidian king of that name,
asserts, in his history of Rome. that it was
Alexander, of Cytherus, who completely filled
the psaltery with strings, and placed it as a
master-piece of his industry in the temple at
1phesus.




M,


weg~


AnciJnt Armour.





AjMIOrs AaMOVU


ANCIENT ARMOUR.

WE find in the holy scriptures not only
histories wherein armour and some of its
parts are described, but also, allusions to
complete suits of armour, and to the pieces
of which they were composed. The delinea-
tion here given shews the parts of a suit of
armour separately, and is copied from an an-
cient gem. First, the leg pieces, which have
no joint, although they also cover a consi.
derable portion of the thigh; these have been
in later ages divided into two; and those in-
tended to cover the thighs are called cuisses,
while those for the legs have received the
name of greaves. These, however, are com-
paratively modern improvements, those in one
piece, covering only the front part of the leg,
as represented in the sketch, being the most
ancient. The handle of the spear is stuck in
the ground. The sword is in its sheath;
which terminates in a flat strong metal orna-
ment, on which it stood erect without being
supported; it is of a very different form from





ANCIZW1,ARMOUL;


that treated of hereafter. The cuirass or
body armour is thought by some to have been
made of leather, or some such flexible mate-
rial capable of taking the form of the parts;
though there appears no insuperable objec-
tion to its being formed of separate pieces
of metal accurately joined together when
put on, like Goliath's brazen coat of mail, 1
Samuel, xvii. 5. The shield is not fully ex-
posed to view, the helmet hanging u\p on it
concealing the upper part, which may be
judged of from the lower part of its orbit,
the ancient shield being either of a circular
or oval form. The helmet, with its flowing
crest of horse hair, was manifestly of one
piece, and intended to cover the whole head:
it therefore differed from those generally
used in Europe before and since the inven-
tion of gun powder; the former had a vizor
or sight-piece, with a barred grate in the
front, which could be raised up and let down
again at pleasure; the latter, that is the hel-
met, now worn by horse soldiers, hardly
consists of any thing beyond a high and pon-
derous covering for the top of the head. The





ANosIy ARMOUR. X1

alterations however, are pnncipally owing
to the invention of gun powder which has
greatly superseded the use of the sword and
spear in battle, and rendered defensive ar-
mour of little or no avail. To such perfec-
tion mankind have at length brought the
horrible art of destroying one another.












A\


a04A f GA..


WN.
Q941cb





GOLIATH OF QATI.


GOLIATH OF GATH.

THIS Cut is the figure usually offered to
illustrate the armour of' this famous champion;
whose enormous stature and size are strik-
ingly shown by comparison with his armour-
bearer of the common height, bearing the
shield and spear of the giant. He was about
twelve feet and a half high, and defended by
armour proportioned to his stature. An au-
thor who has endeavoured to ascertain the
weight of his armour, thinks, that allowing
a proportionable weight to each part, it must
have been about two hundred and seventy-
two pounds. This calculation, however, as
well as our delineation, are only advanced
as probabilities; though as the drawing is
founded upon the scriptural description, ac
cording to the acknowledged signification
of the words used for each part, it must in
some degree resemble the original. With
the description and history of the heathen
warrior, (1 Sam. xvii.) and of David's killing
him by slinging a stone with such force that it






M4 GOLIATH OF OATH.

sunk into his forehead, it would be uncharita-
ble to suppose any of our readers to be un-
acquainted. It is therefore only necessary
to remark, that David is by some believed
to have composed the hundred and forty-
fourth psalm, beginning with Blessed be
the Lord my strength, who teacheth my
hands to war and my fingers to fight," after
he had slain this haughty Philistine; and
that his sword is supposed to be here repre-
sented too long for David ever to have used,
as by 1 Sam. xxi, 9, we find he did; and
indeed much longer, in proportion, than an-
cient swords have been generally repre-
sented.
















7le P~b~j.


\\,I






THW PAIOPLY.


THE PANOPLY.

THE Apostle Paul exhorts believers (Ephes
vi. 11 and 13) to take unto themselves the
whole armour of God, called the Panoply,
from qavowrXa, or complete armour. "'Stand,
having your loins girt about with truth."
The figure sketched is girded round the
waist with cinctures, which were probably
of metal, and in that case would form a com-
plete defence to his body, such as truth is to
the mind; and from this the allusion of the
Apostle is explained. He continues, ( Hav-
ing on the breast-plate of righteousness:"
the breast in this figure is defended by ar-
mour similar to that which protects the body,
covering each shoulder, and united to the
former; this, though perhaps not the exact
kind of breast-plate which the sacred writer
had in view, is sufficient to enable us to un-
derstand the comparison--" And your feet
shod with the preparation of the gospel of
peace." It appears probable that the pre-
paration of the feet here intended is shoes or


i





THI PANOPLT.


sandals having spikes on the sole to prevent
the soldier from slipping in the day of battle.
"Thy shoes shall be iron and brass," Deut.
xxxiii. 25. appears to be best explained by
the above supposition, which it likewise
countenances--" Above all, taking the shield
of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench
all the fiery darts of the wicked." The shield
in ancient warfare was principally used to
defend the warrior from arrows and darts,
and from the spear and sword of the enemy
in closer combat: it seems not unlikely that
poisoned darts and arrows, or those filled
with combustible matter, are here referred
to, as both were employed in the wars of an-
tiquity-" And take the helmet of salva-
tion." See also 1 Thessalonians v. 8. On the
top of the ancient helmet there was gene-
rally some emblematical ornament, such as
Hope, intimating that the person who wore
it conceived that he should be safe, and al-
ways victorious. To this the phrase 6" Hel-
met of salvation" appears to refer-" The
sword of the Spirit, which is the word of
God." The allusion here is obvious to the





THE PAIOPLY.


meanest capacity. It is remarkable that the
apostle does not mention armour for the legs,
thighs, or arms, neither has the ancient statue,
from which our drawing is taken, any thing
more than mere clothi ~ bout these parts.
Nor was any gom-ing Opided for the back.
as victory must be sought by valour, not by
cowardice. From this apparent deficiency
the next words of the apostle appear to re-
ceive a fine illustration, "Praying always
with all prayer and supplication in the
spirit; watching thereunto with all persever-
ance." The combatant is not equipped for
a state of inactive security, but must be con-
tinually on the alert to protect those vulner-
able parts which unavoidably remain exposed
to the weapons of his adversary.


@e


99




p


4


lexwnder upon Bucqphlus.





AL~IANDER UPON BUZOEPALUS. 8


ALEXANDER UPON BUCEPHALUS.
WE conclude our series of Cuts illustrative
of ancient armour, with this striking sketch
from one of the most curious statues of anti-
quity now remaining, Alexander the Great,
fighting upon his famous horse Bucephalus.
It is very remarkable, that the Greek and
Roman sculptors have always represented
great generals, and commaniyng officers,
without shields or helmets, the latter of
which, as in the present instance, was pro-
bably omitted, in order to favour posterity
with a full view of the conqueror's counte-
nance. The girdle round Alexander's waist
is of a singular kind; and close to it hangs
the sheath of his sword, so high up, that it is
easy to imagine that the sword might readily
fall out of it on his stooping down, whether
upon horseback, or on foot, as that of Joab
fell out of its scabbard, 2 Sam. xx.S. when
that cruel hypocrite assassinated Amasa. The
loins of this celebrated warrior are girt about
with a uniform single piece of armour, buck-





I2 ALEXANDER UPON BUCEPHALUS. ~

led on at the sides, and coming up so high
as to answer all the purposes of a breast-
plate. His arms, thighs, and legs are unde-
fended, but the feet are shod with sandals,
the lacings of which extend half way up the
legs by way of ornament. His sword is
evidently two-edged, and like those used
among the Greeks and Romans, is remark-
able for its breadth and shortness, and owing
to its peculiar position in this drawing, from
the original statue, will appear shorter and
broader than it would be found in reality.





.4


Bowing wto he Face to the Earth.





SOWING WITH THE FACE TO THE EARTH. .5


BOWING WITH THE FACE TO THE EARTH.

SOMETIME after this, says Mr. Morier, the
Ambassador had his public audience, when
we saw the King of Persia, in great splendour;
he was decked in all his jewels, with his
crown on his head, his bayubends, or armlets
on his arms, seated on his throne. We ap-
proached him bowing after our own manner,
but the Persians bowed as David did to Saul,
who stooped with his face to the earth, and
bowed himself."-(1 Samuel xxiv. 8.) That
is, not touching the earth with the face, but
bowing with the body, at right angles, the
hands placed on the knees and the legs some-
what asunder. It is only on remarkable
occasions, such as that above-mentioned of
Mirza Abel Hassan Khan, ttf the prostra-
tion of the Rouee Zemee', the face to the
earth, is made, which must be the falling
upon the face to the earth and worship-
ping, as Joshua did.-(Joshua v. 14.) Stated
distances were fixed for taking off our
shoe., some of the Ambassador's suite being





86 BOWING WITH THE FACE TO THE EARTH.

obliged to take off theirs at a considerable
distance from the king, whilst others,
whose rank gave them more privilege,
kept theirs on until near the stairs which
led into the room. As the Persians al-
low to their monarch a great character of
sanctity, calling him the Zil Allah, the
shadow of the Almighty, they pay him
almost divine honours. Besides making the
Ziaret, as before stated, the taking off their
shoes implies that the ground which suir-
rounds him is sacred; and this circumstance
will illustrate what the Captain of the Lord's
Host said unto Joshua, "Loose thy shoe
from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou
standest is holy." -(Joshua v. 15.)





s8


Oriental Dreuse.-J Yomng Wonem f
A jL A





ORLIETAL DRKSSZ5i S


ORIENTAL DRESSES.

.4 Young Woman of drabia.
THE allusion to different articles of dress
abound in the Scriptures, especially in the
Old Testament. This sketch delineates a
young woman of Tema, Job. vi. 19, &c. or
Tehama, translated the flat country of Ara-
bia. It exhibits the nature and O4tinent of
the Arabian striped veils, their large ear-
rings, the customary marks on the forehead,
cheeks and chin; the cap worn on the head
with the band across the forehead; the rows
of pearl necklace, the open and worked bosom
of her linen, with its enormous sleeves; and
the drawers which even the females wear un
der it, reaching up to the waist. The large
-bracelets on the arms, which are fully seei
only when they are raised, as in the right arm
of this figure. These bracelets consist of little
more than plain rings. Probably they are
such bracelets as Isaac's servant gave to Re-
becca, Gen. xxiv. 22. ten shekels weight


0





* ORIENTAL DrUIES.

of gold," which would allow of their being
of such a considerable size. The ear-rings
or ornaments consist of one preposterous cir-
cle, such as some females wear in Christian
countries, with a gold drop, flat at bottom
like a seal: and if this flat drop were engraved
with any name or symbol, it might enable us
to apprehend how easily the ignorant and
wicked could pervert them to the purposes
of idolatry and superstition, as were those
from which Jacob purged his family, see Gen.
xxxv. 4. This Oriental fine lady, with all
her vanity, goes bare-footed upon tbi arid
sands of Arabia. Our next subject wii ena-
ble us more conveniently to offer furtl r ex
planations.





























Orimtal Dre...-A Young Woman of.Ara
bis Going to the Well fo Water.





ORIENTAL DRESSBS


ORIENTAL DRESSES.
A Young Woman of Arabia going to the
Well for Water.
THIS represents a young woman of Ara-
bia going to fetch water; and presents so
strong an idea of Rebecca going to the well,
that we at once see how appropriate and des-
criptive is the expression, She let down
her pitcher upon her hand, and gave him to
drink." Gen. xxiv. 18. This figure has no
veil, but has large ear-rings with smaller rings
upon them, and wears a cap with a very broad
border in front, hanging down behind her
head like lappets. She has rows of pearls
round her neck and bosom; bracelets on her
arms; her linen striped in check-work, with
drawers of the same, having a broad stripe
of ornament at the bottom; and a square
stripe of apparently the same sort of decora-
tion in front. The wrapper round her waist
is probably intended for a girdle, and her
feet are quite naked. Needle-work and em-
broidery are often mentioned in Scripture, as


43





44 ORIEWNTr DRESSES

highly ornamental: hence we observe various
parts of these oriental dresses, are wrought
with needle-work devices; especially about
the neck, which may, perhaps, illustrate the
expression of Sisera's mother, Divers co-
oured needle-work on both sides, meet for
the necks of those who take the spoil."
Judges v. 30. It seems strange to us that
young women should go with all these deco-
rations about their persons to draw water
from the well; such, however, is still the cus-
tom of the East, and no doubt Rebecca had
bracelets on when she went to the well; but
as this figure has only two, we conclude that
Rebecca might easily find room for those
which were presented to her by Abraham's
servant. Gen. xxiv. 22.





46


Baal and Moloch.






BAAL AND MOLOCH.


BAAL AND MOLOCH.
Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood
Of human sacrifice, and parents' tears,
Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud,
Their children's cries unheard, that past through fire
To his grim idol. Milteos.
BOTH of these idols are allowed to have
been personifications of the sun, as Ashtaroth
and other pagan deities were of the moon.
Baal, whose name signifies master, lord, or
husband, is the most .ancient of the Canaani-
tish, and probably of all false gods, and is
supposed to have been the same with the Sa-
turn vif Greece and Rome, as there was a
great similarity in their rites and sacrifces.
Some authors, also think, that Baal was the
Tyrian Hercules, nor is this at all inconsist-
ent with the acknowledged fact, that he al-
ways represents the sun, the very first object
of idolatrous worship. It is, indeed, impos-
sible to reduce, to any tolerable degree of
order, that immense chaos, the heathen my-
thology. Not only were the sun, moon, and
planets, the elements, men, and animals,


47





iBAL AND MOLOCH.


and even stocks and stones deified by differ-
ent nations, but by each nation, under a va-
riety of imaginary attributes, until, at length,
the Pagan priests themselves could not al-
ways define the exact limits of their conflict-
ing influences; it is, therefore, no wonder
that the learned differ widely upon such ob-
scure and intricate subjects, and can only
ascertain, by the most obvious allusions in
the external form or ornaments of each idol,
the originals from which they appear to have
been derived.
The na, e Moloch signifies a king. Mo-
ses derseed death to the Israelites, who de-
dicated their children to this idol, by making
them pass through the fire.--(Lev. xviii. 21,
xx. 2, 3, 4, 5.) Solomon built a temple to
Moloch, on the mount of Olives, (1 Kings,
xi. 7.) and Manasseh also, made his sons to
pass through the fire, (2 Kings, xxi. S, 6.) al-
though God had threatened to pour out his
wrath upon such criminals. It was chiefly
in the Valley of Tophet and of Hinnom, east
of Jerusalem, that this idolatry was practised
--(Jer. xix. 5, 6.) It is not supposed that


48






BAAL AND MOLOCOL


they always burned their children in the fire,
but compelled them, sometimes, only to leap
over the flames, or pass swiftly between two
fires; but, in general, there can be no doubt
that they actually immolated their offspring
in honour of this idol.
Baal and Moloch are here represented as
standing in the portico of a temple, in the
centre of which is a pine tree. Their hands
are joined. Under the original is a Greek
inscription, stating that Titus Aurelius He-
liodorus Hadrian, a Palmyreian, son of An-
tiochus, had offered and consecrated this,
at his own expense, to Aglibolus and to Ma-
lachbolus, the gods of his country, with a
symbol of silver, f self, of his wife, and of his children. It is
(datcd in the year 547, of the era of the Se-
leucides, which would be about 324 of the
Christian era. Aglibolus, whom some think
to mean Baal, the revolving lord, or the sun,
wears a kind of cap, and holds, what ap-
pears to have been a staff, in his left hand.
His habit is pacific, and his ancles surround-
ed by broad gold rings, which are common
VOL. II. K


49






BAAL AND MOLOCH.


ornaments in the east. Malachbolus, which
in Hebrew, signifies the king, baal or lord,
has on his head a radiated crown; on his
shoulders a crescent; in his girdle a dagger,
and a staff in his left hand. The crescent
shows that this is a male personification of
the moon, which, among the ancients, was
very common. It is, also, striking to observe
this idol in a warlike habit, as contrasted
with the other; for idolatrous nations often
attributed to the moon a character quite the
reverse of that introduced into the fictions
of modern poets.
The Jewish rabbies assure us that the figure
of Moloch, was of brass, sitting on a throne
of the same metal, wearing a royal crown upon
the head of a calf, and with his arms extended,
as in the act of embracing. When any children
were to be offered the statue was heated by
a great fire within, and, as soon as it was
burning hot, the parents put each miserable
victim within the arms of the idol, by the in-
tense heat of which it was soon consumed,
while a loud noise was kept up with drums and
trumpets, to drown the cries of the sufferers.


50






SAAL AND MOLOCH. 51

Others say, that the arms of the idol were
extended inclining to the ground, so that a
child put upon them rolled off into the great
fire at the foot of the statue! Others again,
represent the hollow.idol as divided into se-
ven partitions: the first for meal or flour,
the second fpr turtles, the third for ewes,
the fourth for a ram, the fifth for a calf, the
sixth for an ox, and the seventh for a child,
all of which were burned together, by heating
the statue as already described.










U:


AdtareeA.






AsrrARr~t.


ASHTAROTH.

------- htaroth whom the Pheniclaus called
Astarte, queen of heav'n, with crescent horns;
To whose bright image, nightly by the moon
Sidonlan Virgins paid their vows and songs;
In Sion also not unsung; where stood
Her temple on th' offensive mowutain, built
By that uxorious king, whose heart though large,
Beguil'd by fair idolaters' fell
To idols foul. JMilbs.
The name of this idol, whom we find the
Israelites serving as early as the time of the
Judges, (see Judges, ii. 13) signifies flocks
qf sieep, goats, and sometimes the grove or
wood, because woods or groves were the fa-
vourite places selected for her lascivious wor-
ship. The Phoenicians worshipped her under
the name of Astarte: in Scripture also she is
called the Queen of Heaven, (Jerem. xliv.
17, 25,) and is generally joined with Baal,
because the sacred writers make no distinc-
tion between male and female idols. It is
quite obvious from the figure here introdu-
ced, as well as from the phrase 4Queen of
Heaven' applied to this infamous pagan deity)
E2





ASHTAROTH.


that Astarte or Ashtaroth, was merely a
symbol of the moon. Her temples generally
accompanied those of the sun; and while ani-
mals or even human beings were sacrificed
to Baal; bread, liquors, and perfumes, only
were offered to Astarte, upon tables placed
upon the flat roofs of the eastern houses, or
near gates under porches, and at cross ways.
This was done on the first day of every month,
whence the Greeks called these rites He-
cate's supper. From ancient medals it appears
that the worship of the moon by the eastern
nations was as general as the names and
forms of it were various. Sometimes she is
in a long, at others in a short habit; some-
times holding a long wand with a cross at
the top, at others wearing a crown of rays,
or surmounted with battlements, by a figure
of victory, and sometimes she has a cow's
head, the horns of which are at once em-
blems of royalty, and of the lunar rays. The
horns upon the head of this figure evidently
represent the crescent, and the moon is fur-
ther pointed out by her having only two horses,
whereas the chariot of the sun is always






ASHTAROTH. 55

drawn by four. In 1 Kings, xi. 33, she is call-
ed the goddess of the Zidonians; and a me-
dal of Sidon or Zidon yet exists, upon which
she is exhibited with a long cross in her hand,
and the calathus or sacred bushel upon her
head. She is also mentioned in 1 Samuel,
vii. S.-xii. 10, and xxxi. 10. as the object
of Israelitish and Philistine idolatry. The
learned generally allow that the Astarte or
Ashtaroth of the Assyrians, the Mitram of the
Persians and Venus of the Greeks and Ro-
mans, are the same impure Deity, under
names and forms peculiar to those famous
nations





N


DAq.






LAGOON.


IAGON.
---- a-At r ac
Who iounr.' Lq tranest, when the captive ark
laihn'd his bi % '% aage, head and hands lopt off
In his own temple -T the grunsel edge,
Where he fell flat and sham'd his worshippers ;
Dagon his name, sea-monster, upward man
And downward fish. .Milton.
THE. ancient figure of this Philistine idol
(1st Samuel, v.) had the b6dr and head of
a fish, out of which issued the head of a
man, and, from below the tail, human feet.
From this has been manifestly derived, the
present figure, which the Hindoos call one of
the appearances of Vishnu. It represents a
crowned female with four arms, each holding
symbols of the four castes, or ranks of East
Indian society, issuing from a great fish,
which in Hindoo mythology is represented
as casting her forth after' the destruction of
an evil daemon, and the calming of a tempes-
tuous ocean. In this representation we are
unavoidably reminded of the great fish which
the Lord prepared to swallow Jonah, (Jonah,
i. 17,) and which at the command of the Al
0


If








mighty, (Jonah, ii. 10,) vomited him out
upon the dry land. Some authors think it
to be an idolatrous emblem of the preserva-
tion of Noah, especially as the original idol
always exhibited the head of a man; and that
the fish represents the ark: but there appears
to be but little solid ground for that opinion,
though possibly the Philistine Dagon might
include an attempt to commemorate the de-
luge. On the other hand that very idea ren-
ders its supposed allusion to the punishment
and deliverance of the disobedient prophet
still more plain and striking. The best na-
turalists have proved that the fish which swal-
lowed Jonah could not have been any whale,
known to us; their throats are all so ex-
tremely small: some have also attempted to
show that no shark could admit the body of
a man entire into his belly; in direct contra-
diction to which there is an account, which
was published in the Christiana Gazette, and
attested by official authorities, of the entire
body of a drowned man being found un-
changed in the belly of a large shark, with
a bushel of oats besides. This fact at once


58


DAGON.






DAGON.

sets aside all the absurd reasoning, in which
infidels so much delight, in order, from Na-
tural History, to prove the miracles recorded
in Scripture to have been impossible; though
had this extraordinary contradiction never
occurred, the Divine interposition would have
appeared quite as necessary as if their asser-
tion had been true: the miracle itself consist-
ing essentially in the preservation of Jonah's
life; and, allowing that, it would surely be
a comparatively small matter to admit, that
He who could preserve his refractory servant
under such circumstances, could not less ea-
sily provide for the prophet's entrance into,
and discharge from, his aquatic prison.






60


The Star of you God Remphan.





THrE STAR, &C.


THE STAR OF YOUR GOD REMPHAN, &c.

WHEN David conquered the Ammonites,
(1 Chron. xx. 2.) he is said to have taken the
crown of their god, or king Milcom, weigh-
ing a talent of gold, to form a crown for him-
self. The enormous weight of this diadem,
however, must have been such that no one
could sustain it; hence it is suggested, that it
was not the crown but some splendid jewel
contained in an idol, the value of which was a
talent of gold, which David took from the
head of the vanquished monarch, to adorn his
own crown. Of this, the medal at the bot-
tom affords a good exemplification. It con-
tains (see the left hand side) a head of a Per-
sian or Parthian king upon whose crown in
front is exhibited a kind of idol ornament,
such as the preceding interpretation of II.
Sam. xii. 30, would suppose David to have
taken from the Ammonitish king, with the
gem of which we may suppose the royal
psalmist might innocently adorn his own
crown in triumph.
VOL. II. F


61





62 THE STAR OF YOUR


The reverse and the upper medal exhibit
figures of Baal and Moloch, standing one on
each side of an altar, which in the top at the
right resembles the lotos flower, or else the
ornamented trunk of a tree. On each side
of these figures is a palm branch, and over
the head of one a star, denoting the sun, and
the crescent over the other, the moon. The
outer circle of the last is adorned with four cre-
scents, each of which contains a star, fully
confirming that supposition. The difference
of the sexes is also visible in these figures,
by the crown and flowing hair; but in the
top figure at the right, where the star and
crescent again appear, both idols are evi-
dently males, and it is remarkable that the
star is to the left, and the crescent to the right
hand. The right hand at the bottom is the
best executed engraving. On the right hand
stands a woman with a crown on her head,
her hair flowing, a spear in her left hand,
and the end of a quiver appearing behind.
'lhis is evidently the Dea Luna, or moon god-
dess, equipped for martial exploits. On the left
a man with a very remarkable crown on his






GOD REMPHAN, &C.


head, a spear in his right hand, a sword
on his left side, and the quiver also visible.
On his crown also is the same sort of orna-
ment as we have before noticed, which seems in
this instance to be a symbol or figure of the
sun. The expression star of your God,"
in Amos v. 26, and Acts vii. 43, is aptly i!-
lustrated by the stars which accompany these
idol divinities. It may refer to the Jews se-
creting upon their persons these coins, or
small figures of stars, which were so common
among the heathen. From this, as it has been
sensibly observed, we may see to what tempta-
tion the captive Israelites must have been ex-
posed while in Babylon, because the Babylon-
ish coin was always impressed with idols;
hence we also observe the reason of the great
rejoicings among the Jews, when Simon Mac-
cabocus obtained permission to establish a
public mint, by means of which one conti-
nual enticement to the commission of a sin for
which they had been so dreadfully scourged,
wa" completely removed.


a6





64


Nebuchadnezzar' Golden lnage.





NE~UCHADNXZZAR'S GOLDEN IMAGXi 65


NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S GOLDEN IMAGE.
T'HESL colossal figures, the original fea-
tures of which are so much injured by time,
seem to have been formed upon the same
model and scale as Nebuchadnezzar's golden
image. They are yet standing among the
remains of ancient Thebes in Egypt; the mag-
nificent taste of which country for these stu-
pendous idols, equally infected the Babylo-
nians. The upper statue appears to be that
of a man;the*lower that of a woman; though
sitting, they are aboutfifty two-feet high from
the feet to the crown of the head. From the
sole of the feet to the knees alone, is nearly
sixteen feet! The pedestals themselves are
live feet and a half high, thirty-eight long, and
almost twenty feet broad. Not far from
these enormous images lie others of equal di-
mensions overturned, which were probably
thrown down by the Persian king Cambyses,
son of Cyrus the Great, who utterly detested
the idolatry of the Egyptians, and endea-
\ i i{l tIo root it out when he conquered their
f For lower statue see page 119.
o f





66 NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S GOLDEN IMAGE.

country. The existence of these immense
statues shows the grand taste which prevail-
ed in those early ages, and in some measure
illustrates the inspired account of the most
celebrated Babylonish idol, which appears
to have been of the same prodigious dimen-
sions. The Bible, it is true, does not inform
us whether it was formed erect or sitting:
but Herodotus, who visited the temple of
Belus, in what is supposed to have been the
original Tower of Babel at Babylon, de-
scribes a statue of Jupiter which he found
there, as sitting with a table before it, the
base of which, like the seat of his throne,
was of the purest gold, supposed to be worth
eight hundred talents, or about four millions
of pounds sterling. This strongly counte-
nances the opinion, that the golden image of
the Babylonian monarch was one of the kind
here represented: and the Greek historian
adds, that in the same temple there had for-
merly been a statue of gold twelve cubits,
or nearly twenty-two feet high: this is only
one-fifth of the size of that mentioned by
Daniel, which was sixty cubits; but it is at





NEBUCHADNEZZAR9S GOLDEN IMAGE. 67

least evident, from the account of this pagan
writer, independently of Scripture, that such
costly objects of idolatry had existed in Ba-
bylon, and his description of them strikingly
agrees with those of similar figures found by
modern travellers in Egypt, whence they
were originally derived.






I


AuSans.


ofa tk J





DIANA OF THE EPHZESPIANL


DIANA OF THE EPHESIANS.

THIS beautiful cut represents the com-
plete full-length image of this great Goddess,
from a celebrated statue at Rome. It is evi-
dently an emblematical representation of the
dependance of all creatures, on what the hea-
thens called the powers of Nature, and is an
attempt to symbolize the extensive blessings
of providence, which the idol is depicted as
bestowing upon rationals and brutes, each
in their respective stations. This kind of
figure is drawn as many-breasted, which, in
allegorical language, denotes that she pos-
sessed abundant fountains of nourishment.
The turrets, elevated upon her head, repre-
sent her peculiar guardianship over cities.
Her breast-plate is a necklace of pearl, orna-
mented with the signs of the zodiac-point-
ing out the seasons of the year, throughout
which Providence (or Nature according to
the heathen system) continually dispenses its
various bounties. In short, an attempt is






t0 DIANA OF THE EPHESIANS.

made, in this celebrated image, to represent
the whole order of natural things.
Diana was honoured at Ephesus, as one of
the twelve superior deities. She vWas also
called Hebe, Trivia, and Hecate, in pagan
mythology; the last name was applied to her
in the infernal regions only. Upon earth
she was named Diana, and was usually paint-
ed with a crescent on her head, a bow in her
hand,and attired in a hunting garment. In the
time of Isaiah and Jeremiah, this false deity
was worshipped under the name of Meni, the
goddess of months or the moon, which Diana
is known to represent in most of her natural
offices. This luminary was worshipped as
the Queen of Heaven, (Jeremiah vii. 18, and
xliv. 17, 18,) to whom cakes were offered,
even by the Israelites, upon platforms at the
corners of the streets, and at the doors, or
upon the tops of houses.
Among the numerous strifes and conten-
tions, to which the preaching of the Gospel
was exposed, one of the most remarkable
was that raised by Demetrius, the Ephesian
silversmith. He is described as making the





DIANA OF THE EPHESIANS.


silver shrines of Diana, and as complaining
to his fellow-craftsmen, whom he had assem-
bled, that Paul had declared the workman-
ship of their hands to be no god; and, that
the craft was (./cts xix. 27,) not only "in
danger to be set at nought-but also, that
the Temple of the Great Goddess, Diana,
should be despised, and her magnificence
should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the
world worshippeth." "And when they heard
these sayings, they were full of wrath and
cried out, saying, great is Diana of the Ephe-
sians," which cry they continued for the
space of two hours, upon learning that the
offending apostles were Hebrews. At length
the. Town Clerk or Recorder addressed
them thus: Ye men of Ephesus, what man
of Ephesus is there, that knoweth not how
that the city of the Ephesians is a worship-
per, (or as the Greek word rwxopor more li-
terally signifies an overseer, or guardian) of
the Jove-fallen goddess, Diana, or accord-
ing to our translators, of the Great God-
dess Diana," and of the image which fell
down from Jupiter."


71





72 DIANA OF THE EPHESIANS.


In the year 1602, an image was dug out
of the ground in Monmouthshire, which, both
by the form, dress and inscription, appeared
to be the figure of the Ephesian Goddess.
Camden thought it probable that there an-
ciently was a temple of Diana where St.
Paul's Church now stands, because of the
great number of ox sculls found upon digging
up that church yard, in the reign of the first
Edward. Oxen, stags, and boars, it is well
known, were sacrificed to this idol, and Dr.
Woodward, in his letter to Sir Christopher
Wren observes, that he had, in his collection,
tusks of boars, horns of oxen and of stags,
and also representations of deer, and even
of Diana herself, upon the sacrificial vessels
dug up near St. Paul's Church; likewise a
small image of the goddess which was found
at no great distance. We are also informed
by an ancient manuscript in the Cotton Li-
brary, that in the time of Melitus, the first
bishop of London, Ethelbert, king of Kent,
built a church to the honour of St. Paul upon
the site where formerly stood a temple of
Diana. It further states, that at this church,





DIANA OF THE EPHESIANS. 75

on the day of St. Paul's conversion, the mul-
titude used to perform certain ceremonies,
which evidently alluded to the worship of
Diana, and that manors were held by the
service of offering a doe or a buck at the high
altar of the church upon those occasions.
How should we adore that gracious God,
who has not only preserved us from tempta-
tions to idolatry, but also granted us the
means of knowing Him, whom to know is life
eternal.






VOL. II.





74


7Te ligh Priest on the day of Expiation.





THE HIGH PRIEST, &C.


THE HIGH PRIEST, IN HIS WHITE ROBES,
ON THE DAY OF EXPIATION.
As there is no authentic representation of
the official habiliments and decorations of
the Jewish High Priest now extant, our draw-
ing rests wholly upon the authority of men
eminently learned in the Holy Scriptures,
whose ideas, drawn chiefly from that source,
are delineated in our sketch, in order to con-
vey a general notion of the subject. The
cap of this figure resembles the Phrygian
bonnet; and the golden plate in the left hand
is flat. The censer in the right hand is ta-
ken from medals supposed to be ancient He-
brew, though the best judges dispute their au-
thority; for only those which have Samaritan
inscriptions on them are reputed authentic,
and on such medals this censer has not yet
been found.
The great day of expiation was the tenth
of Tizri, which answers to our September.
The Hebrews call it Kippur or Chippur,
Pardon or Expiation: because the sins of the
whole year were then expiated. On that day,


75





76 THE HIGH PRIEST, &C.


the high priest, after he had washed not only
his hands and his feet as usual in common
sacrifices, but his whole body, dressed him-
self in plain linen like the other priests, wear-
ing neither his purple robe, nor the ephod,
nor the pectoral, because he was to expiate
his own, together with the people's sins. He
first offered a bullock and a ram for his own
sins, and the sins of his house; afterwards
he received from the princes of the people
two goats as a sin-offering, and a ram for
a burnt-offering, to be offered in the name of
the whole nation. It was determined by
lot which of the two goats should be sacri-
ficed, and which set at liberty; and after
this, the high priest put some of the sacred
fire of the altar of burnt-offerings into a cen-
ser, threw incense upon it, and entered with
it thus smoking into the sanctuary. When
he had perfumed that place with the incense,
he came out, took some of the blood of the
young bullock he had sacrificed, carried it
back into the sanctuary, and dipping his fin-
gers in it, sprinkled it seven times between
the ark and the veil, which separated the






THE HIGH PRIEST, &C.


holy, from the sanctuary or most holy.
Then he came out a second time, and at the
side of the altar of burnt-offerings killed the
goat, which by the lot was to be sacrificed.
Ill. blood of this goat he carried into the
most holy sanctuary, and sprinkled it seven
times between the ark and the veil, which
separated the holy place from the most holy:
from thence he returned into the court of the
tabernacle, and sprinkled both sides of it
with the blood of the goat. During all these
ceremonies, none of the other priests, nor of
the people, were admitted into the taberna-
cle, or into the court of the tabernacle. The
high priest next came to the altar of burnt-
offerings and wetted the four horns of it with
the blood of the goat and young bullock,
which he then sprinkled seven times over
the altar itself. The sanctuary, the court,
and the altar being thus purified, the high
priest directed the goat which was to be set
at liberty to be brought to him. He put his
hands on the goat's head, confessed his own
sins, and the sins of the people, and sent the
goat away by the hand of a fit man into the
G 2





78 THE HIGH PRIEST9 &C.

wilderness. (Livit. xvi. v. 21.) The reader
will do well to compare what is here ad-
vanced with the chapter already quoted, and
afterwards to read with earnest attention the
ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews,
where St. Paul fully explains and applies
the ceremonies and sacrifices performed by
the Jewish High Priest, to the person, office,
and sacrifice of our Great High Priest and
Redeemer, the Lord Jesus Christ




80


I


I


The IghO Priest'r Pectoal, or BreastPlatl


a






THE HIGH PRIEST, &C.


THE HIGH PRIEST'S PECTORAL, OR
BREAST-PLATE.

'HE breast-plate of the Jewish high-priest
consisted of a folded piece of the same rich
embroidered tissue with that of the ephod,
or fine linen surplice, Exodus xxxix. 2. Upon
this breast-plate twelve precious stones were
set in gold, on each of which was engraven
the name of one of the twelve tribes of Is-
rael. These were gems set in four rows, as
represented in our cut, and the whole was
fastened at the four corners; those at the top
to each shoulder-piece by a golden hook, or
ring, at the end of a wreathed chain, and
those below to the girdle of the ephod by two
blue strings, or ribbons; so that the whole
might be tied fast to the garment without
danger of falling off, for they were never to
be severed. The stones were divided from
each other by the golden partitions, into which
they were set, in the order here exhibited.
The Jewish writers assert, that if the high
priest did at any time negligently or wilfully


81






82 THE HIGH PRIEST, &C.

put on either the ephod of fine linen, or the
breast-plate, the one without the other, he
was to be punished; hence this elegant orna-
ment was called a memorial, to remind him
how dear the tribes whose names he wore
upon his breast ought to be in his estimation.
This is also called the breast-plate of judg-
ment, Exod. xxviii. 15-30. because it had
the Divine Oracle fastened to it, as God com-
manded Moses to join the Urim and Thum-
mim to the breast-plate, but what the Urim
and Thummim were, the most learned men
have hitherto been unable to ascertain.




84


Ii


J Leite Blowing the Ra's Horn.






A LzEYmtE &C.


A LEVITE BLOWING THE RAM'S HORN.

Recapztulation on the subject of Eastern
Dresses, and the garments of the Jewish
Priests.
THE striking resemblance between the
dress of a Levite, drawn from the best authori-
ties, and the modern oriental dresses, (see
Part II.) must be obvious to every reader.
It is admitted that the Levites wore no par-
ticular habit till the time of King Agrippa,
whose innovation in this respect is censured
by Josephus. It appears that their official
dress was a simple robe. The trumpet which
this figure is blowing, is intended, we sup-
pose, to represent the ram's horn of holy
writ, details concerning which we give else-
where. We subjoin the following interest-
ing particulars, which form a kind of general
recapitulation upon the subject of Eastern
Dresses, and the costume of the Priests.
The ancient Hebrews wore a coat, or
waist-coat, called Chetonet, and a cloak,
VOL. II. H


9S






A LBVITE BLOWING


called Mehil. The coat was their under
garment, next their skin, and the cloak co-
vered this. These two garments constituted
what the Scriptures called a change of rai-
ment-2 Kings, v. 5, 22, 23-such as those
which Naaman brought as a present to Eli-
sha. The coat was commonly of linen, and
the cloak of stuff, or woollen. As the cloaks
were only a great piece of stuff, not cut,
there were often many of them made of one
piece, of which they used to make presents.
We have no reason to believe that the He
brews ever changed the fashion of their
clothes, but they dressed after the manner
of the country wherein they dwelt. White
and purple were the colours they most es-
teemed. Solomon says, Eccles. ix. 18.-
" Let thy garments be always white;" and
Josephus observes of this prince, that be
ing the most splendid and magnificent of
kings, he was commonly clothed in bright
and white garments"--Joseph. Antiq. lib.
viii. Chap. 2. The angels generally appeared
in white; and in our Saviour's transfigura-
tion, his clothes "were white as snow."


86





THE RAMIS HORN.


87


Moses appointed none but white coats for the
priest.
Mention is made in Scripture of a Cheto-
net, or coat of many colours, Gen. xxxvii. 3.
with which Joseph was clothed. Tamar, the
daughter of David, wore one also, 2 Sam.
xiii. 18. Interpreters are divided about the
signification of this word. Some translate
it by a long gown; others, by a gown striped
with several colours; and others, by a gown
with large sleeves. The Arabians wear very
great sleeves to their coats. These sleeves
have a very wide opening at the end, which
hang sometimes down to the ground but at
the shoulder they are much narrower. In
their houses, this coat, or gown, drags on the
ground, but abroad they tuck it up, that they
may walk at more liberty, or else they tie it
up with a girdle. The coats were often with-
out seams, being woven in a loom, and hav-
ing no slits, either at the breasts or on the
sides, but only at the top, to let the head
through. Such, probably, were the coats of
the priests, Exod. xxviii. 32, and that of our
Lord Jesus Christ, John xix. 23, 24, for





A LEVITE BLOWING


which the soldiers cast lots, because it coird
not be divided without being destroyed.
From the best critics, it appears that this
coat must have been wove entire in a loom,
for such garments were frequently made in
this manner, in the East.
To see garments or fi-ocks entire, without
seam, without sleeves, and quarters of the
same piece woven together in the loom, is
indeed still no rarity in the East. We are
told (voyage to China by two Arabians in the
ninth century, at Paris,1718, in octavo, page
2) that in the Maldive islands there are work-
men and weavers so ingenious that they make
entire shirts and waist-coats of the tow of the
cocoa tree, after the manner before described.
It is an ancient tradition, videe Euthym,
in Joan xx.) that the virgin Mary herself
wove her son's coat. The women formerly
made the stuff, and the cloth, not only for
their own clothes, but also for their husbands
and children. This appears from the in-
stance of the virtuous woman, whose cha-
racter is described, Prov. xxxi. 13, &c. and
also from Homer, in the case of Penelope,


.186





THE RAM S HORN.


the wife of Ulysses. Alexander the Great,
Augustus, and Charlemagne, wore clothes
made by the hands of their mothers, their
wives, dr their daughters. Another popular
tradition is that the coat of Jesus Christ,
for which the soldiers drew lots, was the
same he had received from his mother, while
he was a child, which had continually grown
with him without being worn out. But this
tradition is not derived from antiquity. It
is probably founded on the following misin-
terpretation;-Moses informs us, Deut. viii.
4, that the clothes which the Hebrews-used
in the wilderness did not wear out.--" Thy
raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did
thy foot swell this forty years." Justin
Martyr, and some interpreters following the
Rabbins, take these words literally, and think
that not only the clothes of the Isarelites did
not grow old, or wear out, but also that the
garments of the children grew with them,
and constantly fitted them at every age. St.
Jerome, Ep. 38, asserts that so much as their
hair or nails did not grow too long. But others
think, with much greater probability, that
H2


89





A LEVITE BLOWING


Moses intended no more than that God so ef-
fectually provided them with necessaries,
that they did not want clothes (or had not
been forced to wear old, or ragged' clothes)
all their journey.
To distinguish the Israelites from other
people, the Lord commanded them to A make
fringes in the borders of their garments, and
that they put upon the fringe of the borders
a ribband of blue." Num. xv. 38.-Deut
xxii. 12. It is seen by Matt. ix. 20, that
our Saviour wore these fringes at the bottom
of his cloak. For the woman who had the
issue of blood twelve years, promised herself
a cure, if she did but touch the hem, that is,
the fringe of his garment. The pharisees,
still further to distinguish themselves, wore
these borders, or fringes, broader than others,
Matt. xxiii. 5. Jerome adds, that to make a
shew of great austerity, they fastened thorns
to them, that when they struck their naked
legs they might be reminded of the law of
God. The Jews of this day assert, says Leo
of Modena, that they may comply with the
law, Levit. xix. 19.-Deut. xxii. 11. which


90





THE RAM98 aoaM 1 91


says; neither .shall a garment. mingled of
linen and woollen come upon thee;" do not
so much as sew a woollen garment with
thread, nor a linen garment with yarn. They
take care also not to wear the clothes of a
different sex according to the command-
Deut. xxii. 5.
The garments of mourning among the He-
brews were sackcloth and haircloth; their
colour was dark brown, or black. As the
prophets were penitents by profession, their
common clothing was mourning. Widows
also dressed themselves much in the same
manner. Judith fasted every day, except
on festival days, and the sabbath day, and
wore a haircloth next her skin. Judith viii.
5. The prophet Elijah, 2 Kings, i. 7, 8,
and John the Baptist, Matth. iii. 4, were
clothed in skins, or coarse stuffs, and wore
girdles of leather. The Apostle says, Heb.
xi. 37, that the prophets wandered about in
sheep-skins and goat-skins. The false pro-
phets put on habits of mourning and peni-
tence, the better to deceive the people, Zech.
xiii. 4. It is disputed whether the ancient


91





92 A LEVrrE BLOWING, &C.

Hebrews lined their clothes. Doubled or
lined garments are repeatedly mentioned in
Scripture. Micah offers his Levite ten pieces
of money a year, and a double garment,
Judges, xvii. 10. Gehazi asks Naaman for a
talent of silver, and for two changes of gar-
ments, that is doubled or lined garments, 2
Kings v. 22.
The household of the virtuous woman, in
Prov. xxxi. 21. are clothed with lined gar-
ments. But it is imagined that changes of
raiment are to be understood by these ex-
pressions: a pair of garments, two coats and
two cloaks, or simply, a coat and a cloak, a
complete suit, or, perhaps a garment so large
that it may be doubled about the wearer;
yet it must be owned that Duplex, in speak-
ing of clothes, is sometimes taken for a gar-
ment that is really doubled, or lined. So
Moses appointed the pectoral, or breast-plate
of the high priest to be made square, and lined





94


The Table of Shew Bread.






THE TABLE 0 SHEW-BREAD.


THE TABLE OF SHEW-BREAD.

It was stated in the account of the Taber-
nacle, (see Chap. VI.) that the Ark of the
Covenant, (see Chap. VIII.) was placed in
the Holiest of Holies. In the Sanctuary
stood the table of shew-bread. The table
was small, and made of shittim wood, co-
vered with plates of gold, having a little bor-
der round it, adorned with sculpture. It was
two cubits long, one cubit wide, and one and
a half in height. Upon this table every sab-
bath day, twelve loaves, with salt and in-
cense, were placed. All are not agreed as
to the manner in which the loaves of shew-
bread were ranged; indeed the form of the
table in our cut, and the arrangement of the
loaves upon it, with the golden cup which
contained the salt between them, only de-
pend upon the authority of learned men, who
have endeavoured to construct their repre-
sentations from the descriptions in the Bible.
The loaves were placed hot, on the sabbath
day, before the Lord, and those which had


95






96 THE TABLE OF SHEW-BREAD.

been exposed a whole week, and which could
not be lawfully eaten, but by the priests,
were taken away. This offering was accom
panied with frankincense and salt, the frank
incense was burnt on the golden table when
the old loaves were removed. In this, and
in every other illustration of things relating
to the Mosaic tlispensation, the reader must
continually bear in mind the reference of the
Jewish ceremonies, and the various utensils
employed in sacrifice, to the Gospel dispen-
sation, under which it is our distinguished
privilege to live.






n


he golden Table for lite Shew-brerm behim
ing to the second Temple.




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