Group Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately.
Title: The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00099
 Material Information
Title: The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: K.L. Wilson
Place of Publication: Falls Church Va
 Subjects
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 94/95 called also no. 94/95.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020235
Volume ID: VID00099
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05843071
lccn - sn 80008626
issn - 0035-8363

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POCCHKA
OPFAH'b PYCCKRFO OBIECTBA I)MnH TElMCTOB'b
B'b wOFOCInBIM


flOAb :
PYOBOBELACRKVR,
pyOBOc TBO'b| Kr. Petra 40,
E. M. p xaH- JUGOSLAVIA,
1 1. JUGOSLAVIA.
renbCRaro


Cepe6OpAna meaeanb na MewAynapoAnHOA BblCTaBKK B-b KenHrc6eprt
,Ostropa 1935".
BponsBosaB MeAanb Ha BtHCKOrI Mew(yapoAnofi BblCTaBKt ,WIPA 1933."

Wi 213 7 or 0I
BTopoi IHoHb 1936 roAa. o3aaHi
BTopoA ToMs H 3AH


MapKH, Bbiny~leHHblf Bs KpbIMy.
(OKOHa8Hie).

HaaneqaTblB9JIHCb MapKH JICTaMH no 100 LUTyK'b, KpOMtB
HeaHasHTejibHaro KojInqecTBa MapoKx 35 Kon. AOCTOHHCTBa,
HaneqaTaHHblX'b TaK)Ke rlOnYjniCTaMH no 50 IUTyK'b (10X5).
STH noyJIlTHTbl nOJInyIHJIHCb OTb pa3pt3anis nonoaaM'b AnHH-
HbIX'b JIHCTOB'b, 4OpMaTOM'b 20X5 UlTyK'b.
Ha6opb He 6biunb cAl naHa TULaTeAbHo. BpocaeTca B-b
rFasa npHcyTcTlie 6yKBI' pa3HIX'b IlmpHlTOB'b, KaK-b HanpH-
Mp'b KOpOTKaro ,,p" (44 H 89 MapK MeM)ay HHMH MO)KHO 3aMTTHTb H3BBCTHylO pa3HHsU; Ha pnc. 2
H3o6paKeHa 44 MapKa). Boo6wne B'b oqepTaHiH MHorHMX' 6yKB H LtHpp'b MOM(HO 3aMTTHTb Hs3BtCTHbIHa pasnflin; An npnpHMpa
npeanararo cpaBHHTb 6yKBbI ,6" Ha 48 H 100 MapIaxb, TaKoKe
yjJIHeHHoe ,,y" ia 77, KBaapaTHan TOqu~a a 38, 3HaKH IpaT-
KOCTH Ha "i" pas3Ho BbICOTbI H T. A. 3aT'M' Ha OqeHb MHO-
rux'b 6yKBaxb H uH(ppax'b 3aMtTHbi paan be y3 bSHbI, BD60OHH
Hna npepPbaIomiiaca JnHHi H, KaK'b Hanp., cnoMaHHoe .1-" Ha 40,
HnH pa36HToe ,A Ha 74 H 80 MapKb. Paa wifi Bb o4epTaHiH




6yKB'b H H3'UbHOB'b-TaK-b MHOFO, ITO BC' 100 MapOKb B'b B HCTt
npeACTaBaJlsT'b co6olo paaHMe THnH. OnHC]BaTb HX'b a He
6yay, H60 o6biHOMy KOAjeKuioHepy sTO He HHTepecHO, a cne-
imiaHncTb onm eHnb npio6p-CTH WlhbIab nuCT'b H nonylHT'b pIA-
Koe yAoBonIbCTBie OTa ero H3ayeHia.
KpOMh ynOMHHyTbIX'b pa3HOBHAHOCTefi, noBTOPRIOlIHXCa Ha
BCtXTb JHcTaXb 9TOro BbinycKa, HMteTrca emie HtcKOAbKO pa3-
HOBHAHOCTei, BCTp;tqalorMHXCs TOJbKO Ha H'KOTOpblXb AHCTaX'b.
Ha3b HHXb 6eacnopHo caMbIMb HHTepecHbIM'b sBgmeTCf Bapianrb
cb oqeHb mIHpOKHMb pascTOHHieMb Meaay nepBbIMH AByMfl
6yKBaMH CJOBa ,n 1 T b" (1i/4 mm., BMICTO 1/2). BapiaHT'b TOTrb
BCTpt'qiaeTcs Ha 21 MapKt HtKOTopUX'b mUHCTOB'b HO TOAbKO Ha
5 Kon. Cb 3y6uaMH H 6e3s sy6luoB. 3Ta onexaTKa 6bma sa-
MtqeHa BCKOpt nocan Haqaaa neqaTaHii H HcnpaBAeHa. Ha-
Ate, Ha 18 MapKid HHorAa OTCyTCTByeT-b 6yxBa ,T". HnaHoe
es OTcyTcTBie o6HapyeneHo MHOIK TOibKO Ha 5 Kon. 6e3b, 3y6-
uOB-b, a qacTHIHOe Ha 35 Kon. Ha 29 MapKt HHorxa He
BRnoAH SICHO BHAHa 6yKBa ,fi" (Ha HtKOTOpbIX'b JHCTaX'b BCtBX'
AOCTOHHCTB'b, KpOMu 20 KOn.).
no Mpt- neqaTaHii, mpH4T-b Bce 6oate H 6oji;e 3Haa-
uwHBajIC H 6yKBbl HaAneqaTOK'b CTaHOBHTCH 6onae umpOKHMH
H )KHpHbHMl. Oco6eHHO 3TO 3aM'THO Ha 20 KOn KaK'b Ha AO-
CTOHHCTBt, HaaneqaTaHHOMub no3~e apyrxHb.
OTTt HKaMH 6oraTa TOAbKO MapKa M 1, ief KopHqHeBO-
4)ionaeTOBbiri rlaT'b KonCe6eTca OTab 6atBHaro AO oqeHb TeM-
Haro, npoxoara epea3b ixtylo raMMy npoMemyToqIHbIx oTrrTH-
xOBb. KpaifHie OTTtHHKH 6e3ycJIOBHO pt)KH. OcTaabnHbw MapKH
9TOrO BbrInyCKa He HMtIOT'S 3aMITHblX.' pa3HOBHAHOCTefi OT-
T'HKOB7b.
KInei y MapKH X 4 TOAbKO aKejATbU1, paa3IHHOff mea-
TH3Hbl. HH 6tnaro, HH KopHaHeBaro (CToaJpHaro) a He BCTpt-
qan'b. CpaBHHTeAbHO pARKO BCTp'eqaeTCH oco6bifi BapiaH'b cb
KeJITbIM'b KneeM'b, OT'b KOTOparo BCS jHnteBaa cTOpOHa 6yMarH
no)meAnITa (9Ta paaHOBHAHOCTb KJIef npHcylua BCetM', Kon'teq-
HbIMb AOCTOHHCTBaM-b MapOKb ,EAHHOi1 PocciH".
3TH HaAneqaTKH MHt HS3BtCTHbI Ha JHCTaX'b CO catAyiO-
mIMM HoMepaMH KmIue, B-b npaBOM1b HH)KHeM'b yry jaHCToalb:
5 Kon. C' 3y61xaMH Na2N 2 H 3, 20 Kon. J.N2 4 H 5, a
5 Kon. 6e3'b 3y6uoB'b N2 1.
Bct 3TH MapKH Bi raUmeHOM'b BHAt 3HaIHTenJbHO pt)Ke
HerameHbixs, a na u-btauxb KOHBepTaxb HnH OTKpbiTKaXb, pe-
ryrapHO npoumenmuix'b nOaTy,.- 6e3cnopHo MoryTb cqHTaTbCS
pIAKOCTEMH.
HaAneqaTK HHTepeCHbI CABHrH, y KOTOpbIX'b 'asal CTpOqKa HaAneqaTKH
nepecKoqHnaa Ha COC'AHIIO MapKy, Ka'b HanpM'hp'b: 1) ,5 nrTb"
- 6e3-b cnoBa ,py6nei"; 2) ,py6aefi 5 naTb" cnoBO ,py6-
nefi" HaBepxy; 3) ,ngTb py6nefi 5" iuHnpa BHH3y H 4),nHTb




py6aeri" 6e3'b nHIpbi. H3'b HHX'b nepabie Asa BapiaHTa no-
nynwnJCb npH CABHrt HaAneqaTKH BHH3'b TaKHM'b 06pa30M'b,
qTO cnoBO ,py6aei" nepecKosqro Ha HHaweiewamyC o Mapry;
nocjanHie Wce ABa BapiaHTa np c2iBHrt BBepxb Tawb, WTO
tjH4pa ,5" nepemna Ha COCIAH3roK BepxmHolo MapKy. 9TH qe-
Tblpe BapiaHTa MHt H3BtCTHbI Ha BCtX'b aOCTOHHCTBaxI, KpOMt
nocaJaHHro. KpoMt Toro, BCTp'qaIoTcas CABHrH H Bb 60KO-
BOM'b HanpaBieHiH, Ho He 6oate, q~M'b Hal/s uIHpHHbI MapKH.
ToAbKO Ha 5 Kon. 6e3a' 3y6LOB'b MHt H3B'LCTeH- CABHrb Ha
noAnoHHy isHpHHbl MapKH Tax-b, rITO LuHpa ,,5* ne)aHTb KaKb
pas BIa npOMeemyTKh Me)ay ABYMA MapKaMH.
OricuIBaeMbia MapKH BcTptiqaOTCs co cAIayiomtrIMH one-
qaTKaMH: 1) nepeBepHyTas HalneqaTKa: 5 Kon. cb 3y6faMH
(1 MHCTb) H 20 KOn. (3-4 n.cTa); 2) ABOi~HaH HaAneqaTKa: 5
KOn. C'b y6IaMH (3 nHCTa), 20 xon. (5-6 nHCTOB-b) H 35 KOn.
(1 AHCTb). KpOMt Toro, HtKOTOpble KaTaaorr, Bs TOMI' qHCJI
H CPA, yKa3blBaoOT'b Ha cyinecTBOBaHie ABOfHOf HaAneqaTKH
Ha 5 Kon. 6e3a 3y6l0oa'b, HO H HHKOrTA eH He BHaJI'b. 3)ABOf-
naH HaAneqaTKa, npHiqeMb o6l HaAneqaTKH nepeBepHyTbt: 20
Kon. (1 JIHCTa).

HHoraa AHa H3'b ABOfHbX'b HaAneqaTOKi 6NbBaeT 60-
ate HJI MeHNe CABHHyTa, ITO qBAReTCH npHUIHHOI o6paa30aHir
HbKOTOpbIX'b AanbH-bumHX'b pa3HOBHAHOCTefi, H3b KOTOpbIX'b
caMas HHTepecHaa 6eacnopHo catayiomas: napa 20 Kon., 3'b
KOTOpbIX'b npaaasa apma HOpManabHa ci' OAHOf HaAneraTKoiA,
a a$Bas cb HnaineqaTKOfi ABOAHOH (OKOno 10 napb, Bct c7 oA-
HOrO AHCTa).

KpoIM- Toro, MHt H3B-BCTHb euie catAyomiain OUma6KH:
1) 20 KOn. C'b MJIOBOfi CtTKOIH C'b AByxb CTOpOH' (1 JIMCT),
2) 20 Kon. C'b OTneqaTKOf BOCbMHyroAbHOf paMKH Ha 060opOT-
HOR CTOpOHi (OAHH, HHWHif pHUA' OAHOrO JHCTa); 3) 5 KOn.
co CABHrOM'b 3y6uOBKH Ha 31/2 MM. TaKb, rTO Ha OAHOf MapiK
BHAHbI qaCTH pHCyHKOB' qeTbIpex- CMe)mHbIX MapOKb (1 AJICTb,
HO Ha HeM- He 60osme 20 MapoKb C'b HTepeCHUMb CABH-
roM') H, HaKOHeuL, 4) 20 Kon. Bb 6aoKI, B-I KOTopOM, Ha OA-
HOA MapKi' H'hT'b ULn(pp 5, TaK'b KaKb noc'tAHtR i 6buia HaA-
neiaTaHa Ha noCTopoHHeM'b KyCoqK' 6yMarH, npHJHnLiHM'b AO
neqaTaHiN Kb anHieBORi CTOpOHI MapKH.

KacKb CKa33HO Bblie, Bab Haqan OKTa6ps 1920 roxa noA-
HHMaeTC nBonpocb o noaBbimeHiH no9TOBbIXb TapHr)OB'b H o ne-
peoIltHK- ocTaBuWHXC5 sanacoB- MapoKb Ha 6oaBe Bbicoina no-
CTOHHCTBa. npH 3TOM-b 6bIno0 CA'IJnaHO HtcKOJlbKO npo6Hbi'b
OTI'MCKOB'b HOBOf HaAneraTKH B'b qeTblpe CTpoKH ,,IOrb POCCIH
10 py6aefi" (CM. pHC. 3) Ha pa3HbIX'b MapKaxb, npHueMub THX'
nocatanHHx' 6blno He MeHbme 18 paaHbIX'b. ynoM5Hy TOnbKO
Trp caJlayIotuii: 1) Ha 1 KOn. c- 3y6uaMH, 2) Ha 3 Kon. 6e3b
3y6oB'b H 3) Ha 10 xon. ,,EAriHO PocciH". flepBaq H3'b HHXI
nonana Bs KaTiaormb HBepa, HO onucaHa conepumenHo Henpa-
BHJIbHO B'b KaqeCTB'e OUHm6H.




B'b O)KHAaHiH BbinycKa HOBlIXa HaAlneqaTOl'b, 60Ioae BlI-
COKHX- AOCTOHHCTB'b, fl, IIOTH emKeAHeBHO, noc'uiaai' Bs TO
BpeMS CeBacTononibcKyIo nolTy. flocn J'Hii pa3sb H TaMI 6~ab'
11 noa6pI 1920 roAa, HO noqTa eme He nony'Hna O)KHN aeMbExib
MapOK'b, a aseepoM-' Toro mxe A.H Haaniacb yme 9BaKya.ia.
ByAyIH ywe sarpaHMnefi, a y3HaJnb o BbrnycK< AByX'b HOBbX7,
MapoK'b IOra PocciH B-b 100 py6aefi Ha 1 KOn. Clb 3y6uaMH H
6e3'b 3y6uoB'b (CM, puc. 4 1 5). 3To o6cTOs'renJbCTBo AaeTrb
MH' ocHOBaHie yTBepKaaaTb, qTO aTH MapKH HHKorTa Bib 06-
pauenHiH He 6blIH H qTO HX'b HaAo pa3cMaTpnBaTb Ba KaIecTBt
,He BbIlnyileHHbI'b" (nicht zur Ausgabe gelangt). ECJIH OHt n
6bmrH faKe clanHb Ha noqTy nocjOt o6b~aBeHiSl BaKyaIniH, TO
OT'b aTOro cyIteCTBO Ajina He MIHleTCI.
Ha sTHXb MapKax'b HaAneqaTKH cA~JaHbl qepHoi Kpacrofi
6e3-b 6necKa, THnorpaI)CKHMb, cnoco6oMl, Ha6opOMri. Bb Ha-
qepTaHiIx'b 6yKWs H Lumipo'b MOWKHO 3aMiTrHTb 6oraToe pa3HO-
o6pasie H Aa)Ce ycTaHOBHTb pa3Hbie mpIH4TbI. JIHn npHMnpa
onHimy TonIKO H3o6pax .KH Ba, nHCTI-). Ha Avbfoo MapK-b I-rpa ,1" CTOHTo Haa'b
6yKBofi ,y, Ha npaBnof me Hal'b ,,6". Ha aIsBOi MapKt,
noclan'BAHaRR I pa AocTOHHCTBa 6oanbme Apyrixa'. Ha npaaofi
- uHnpa ,1" 3HawlHTeAbHO MeHbne, H. T. A. OJHHMa CJno-
BOM'b, H B-b CTOMb HsAaniH BCA 100 MapOK'b JIHCTa npeacTaB-
JlIOT'b Co60oo pa3Hbie THnbI.
Tupa'bi aTHX' MapoK-b MH'b TOqHO He H3BtCTeHb. 10
H'KOTOpbIME AaHHbIM'b, 3y6LkOBbIX'b MapOK, H13AaHO 20.000 1UT.
a 6e33y6uoBbix'b 10.000.
06-h MapKH cymecrByiorT c'b nepenepnyTofi HaAneqaTKoi,
3y6UOBbi TaKwe Cab ABOiIHOfi. CyluecTByeTb, rIOBHAHMOMy,
TOHbKO no OAHOMy AHCTy KaH>mOH OneqaTKH.
He 6e3ab HHTepeca 6yAeTb cpaBHeHie KaTaJIorH3aUiH
BC-bX'b OnICaHHbIX'b HaMH Maport' Ba pa3HbIX'b KaTaJ rax'b.
TaKoe cpaBieHie TOIbKO JUIIHIHf pa3a y6tAHTTb HaC-b Ba TOMb,
KaK'b cJIa6o pa36ipaIoTc H3sAaTeelH KaTaRorOB'b Bb 6e3qHHcneH-
HbIX'b BbinycKax-b Poccin.
C. MaHmenefi.

$_,'JIbHbll BeiHt, H3AaHHbfl 3eMCIKHMH
ynpaBaMH PocciH.
(HpoaonoKeHie)
JIymcKaro yst3a, C. neTep6yprcKol ry6.
1883. 1. iion:. KAneiMO(pHc. 10)Bab BepxHemw
: BOM', yr.ny nlHesaoi CToponHb. (Pop-
MaT-b: 150X 111 MM. K.IanaHb np1MOAi,
o BHH3y 3axpyrneHHbriH, 6yMara rnaA-
aa, KeJXTOBaTO-6Bilaro U.B'tTa.
1. 3 Kon. weJITOBaTO-KpacHOe, CBITJHoe H
I. ..TeMHoe . ... 2.-
,-,..pAB --BapiaHTm: nepeBepHyroe KnefiMo Bb
npanaoMb HHXHeM'b yray.




1889, Towe, B~b HM HeHHbLX'b qLBBTaX'b.
2. 3 Kon. KpacHoe, TeopacHoe . . 3.-
3. 3 KOn. KapMHHO-KpacHoe, cBtTao-KapMHHO-K(paCHoe 3.-
1890. To>Ke, Bb H3MhHeHHOM-b IBtTt-, na pa3JlHIHoij 6yart:
Ha 6tnofi raaAKofi, caerKa OKpameHHoft
4. 3 Kon. KapMHuw -po3OBOC . . .. 6.-
Ha 6taoil 6yMart cb IUHpOKHMH KOCbIMH nonocKaMH
5. 3 Kon. KapMHHo-pO3oBoe . .. 5.-
Ha 6tmoi$ r.aiiAKOi 6yMart cb CtpoaaTblM'b OTT'THKOMb
CS y3KHMH KOCIMH IIO.IOCKaMH
6. 3 Kon. KapMHHo-po30ooe . . ... 8.-
Ha 6'inofi TOHKOf 6yMarb C'b KOCbIMH noJOCKaMH
7. 3 KOn, KapMHHO-po3oBoe . . 1.50
Ha cIpoBaTo-6t.noil 6yMar't cb UtHpoKHMH KOCb UM no-
JOCKaMH IH nonepeqHbIMH nojoCKaMH qepesb, Ka)Able
7/2--8 MM.
8. 3 Kon. KapM1HO-po3Boe . . 3.-
OxaHcKaro yt3Aa, IepMcKof ry6.

S 1894. KaeHMo (pHC. 11) Bb npaBOMsb yray
nI1IeBofi CTOpolbi, Brb IIBOMb yrny
qepHbiMH 6yKBaMH HannHcb .3a-
Ka3Hoe", a BHH3y ,,OT> npeact-
AaTenH OxaHcKoA 3aeiMCoil ynpa-
Bb". KnanaHb nlpMOH, BHH3y
OCTpbil, Ha 6tinoiO 6yMart cb
~. w' .KOCbIMH rOJIOCKaMH. 0ppMaT'b:
S142X116 MM.
1. 5 KOn. KapMHHOBOe . 12.-
OcTepcKaro yt3sa, qepHHroBCKOfi ry6.
1889. IIoHb. Knlefrlo (noxome Ha pHc. 7) B'b JfhBOM'b Bepx-
HeMb yrny nHt4eBOf CTOpOHbI, Knanasa C'b H3rn6oM'b,
BHH3y 3aKpyrmeHHbiH, 6yMara 6bjnaH c'b KOCblMH rnojo-
CKaMH. PopMaTrb: 141X76 MM.
HanpaBaeinie nonocowb c' atnaro BepxHasro yrna BHH3'b.
1. 3 Kon. KpacHoBaTO KopHMHeBOe, TeMHoe H CB'Tnoe 1.50
HanpaBaeHie nojocoKxb c'b aiBaro HIKHHro yr.a BBepx-b.
2. 3 Kon. xpacHOBaTO-KopHllHeBOe, TeMlIoe H CB'liToe 1.EO
Tome, 4(opMaTr: 1431/'2X114 MM.
3. 3 Kon. ipacHoBaTO-KopHRHeBoe, TeMHOe H CBATJIOe 2.-
ncKoBcKaro yt3,na, ncKOBCKof ry6.
OTKpblTblT nHCbMa.
(EAHHCTBeHHblfi y'b3A'b, Ba KOTOpOM'b 3eMCTBO HX H3naaBajao)
1892. IIOHb. KnefiMO (pHc. TOT'b-)ie, KaK'b H Ha MapKaxb TOIO-
mKe roAa) B'b AIBOM-b aepxHneM yrly; ab npaBOMb yray




paMKa H Ha nHcb: ,3 Kon-beqHaR rocyaapcTBenaft
noqTOBaH MapKa Ann nepecbncKH no BceA HMnepiH", a
no AiaroHajH: ,,MtCTO AJIR HaKneiKHR". B'b cepeAHHa
OTKPITKH HaAnHHCb, yKpauenHHaa opHaMeHTaM: ,3eMCKas
nosTa / OTKpbiToe nHCbMO / FICKOBCKaro yt2aa". Pop-
MaTb: 145X95 MM.
1. 1 '/2 Kon. TeMHO-CHHee Ha cBBTno-CHHeMmb KaproHn 1.-
B> 1895 ro.y npaBHTenbCTBO sanpeTHno xoxAenie
THX'b OTKpbITOK'b BHI y'h3a, noqeMy ynpaBa npHHny-
AeHa 6ina cAtiIaTb HaneqaTrH Ha HecoOTBtTCTBylO-
urHX, 6oAle HaAnHc!xb:
1895. qepHaa HanneqaTr a Ha sepxy: ,nio npaBHTenbCTBeHHoA
noqT'T nepecbiaeMbi 6bITb He MOryTb", a npaBaa paM-
Ha cb HannHCblO cnnomlb lnoKpbTa qepHoii xpacKotk.
2. 1 '/2 KOn. Cb qepHOfi HalneqaTKoA . .. -.50
3. 1 1/2 Kon. C'b KpacHOi HaneqaTKoft . 3.-
PweacKaro yt3saa, TBepcKofl ry6.

1888. KaefiMo (pic. 12)Ba BepxHeMub anIBOM- yr-
jiy jiHueBoig cTopoHb. (BbinymeHo 1000
UIT., H3lb KOTOpbIX'b H3pacxo2OBaHO
875).
Knanan-b nplMOfi, BHH3y 3aKpyrneH-
HbI Ha weATOiR 6yMart. 'PopMafT:
148-151X115-121 MM.

1. 3 Kon. Jn/noBoe, TeMHoe H cBatnoe ... 150.-
2. 3 KOn. CHHee, TeMHoe m CBTJaoe . 25.-
Towe, Ha 6tnofi 6yMart c-b KOCMH CCM n KaMH B'b
o6onxb HanpaBneHiaxb. DtopMaT'b: 148-151X116-125 MM.
3. 3 Kon. cMaee, TeMHoe H CB-bTJOe ..... 25.-
ToKe, HO 4)opMarb: 140X107 MM.
4. 3 Kon. AMHOBoe, TeMHoe H CB'BTnoe . .. 250.-
5. 3 Kon. CHHee, TeMHoe H CBtTaoe . .. .35.-
KaanaHi- c'b H3ar6oM-, BHH3y 3axpyr.ncrneH, )opMaT':
140-148X80-85 MM.
6. 3 Kon. cHHee, TeMHoe H cmBTaoe .. .. 50.-
Toxe, Ha ctpOBaTO CHHei BOJIOKHHCTOi 6yMart.
7. 3 Kon. CHHee, TeMHoe H CBITJIOe . .. 75.-

A^ 1891. Kine~Mo (pHc. 13) Bb nJIBOM-b nepxHeM'b
yray inulesof CTOpOHbI. KAanaH-b cb H3-
r 60oM'b, BHHsy 3aKpyrjaeHHbli, Ha )eJITOri
6yMart. IopMarb: 153X124 MM.
8. 3 Kon. 3OnTOe . .. 2.-
ToMwe, HO 4opMaTb' 151X116 MM.
9. 3 KOH. sonOToe . . . 3.-
(npo.AoAmeHie CJireyeTb).
K. K. UIIMHATb.





Mapxa J I AHi inHpoBCuaro yi3Aa.

Bb napHaKcKoi< raseTt ,FlOCAIAHiH HOBOCTH" H'BTO B. M.
BaOBb Bo36ymKlaeTb AaBHO plfmeHHbliA H BCtM-b CTapUbMb C0o6H-
paTeaIM'-b 3eMCKHX'b MapoKab H3BICTHbIA Bonpochb o 3eMCKOg
MapK-b N2 1 )lHtnpOBCKaro yta3a, TaBpHqecKOf ry6, KOTOpal
6yaTo 6b HMaja un Ba H3saaHiI. Bib atiCTBHTejibHOCTH aTa Map-
Ka HM-a JIa Hmb TOJIbKO OAHO H3AaHie, a T, K'b HasbBaeMoe
,BTOpoe" HHqTO nHoe KaK~b no7, AnIKa, nO5HBHBwailc Bb 80-x'b
roAax- npomnaro CTOJI-Tif.
BocbMHAeCTbIe rOAbI- 3TO BpeMvS OTKpblTisI MHOrX'b pIA-
KHX'b 3eMCKHX'b MapOKb, BpeMs, KorAa qmenHb C. lIeTep6ypr-
cKaro 6e MOCKOBcKaro 06ec co6paene apOK-b CTanH
ycHneHHO HHTepecoBaTbCa 3eMCKHMH MapKaMH. RBHAIHCb nu.Ha,
o6b'3maBtuie Bb nOHCKax'b 3eMCKHXb MapoKb BCet AepeBHH Ht-
KOTOpblX'b yt3AOBb. TaKb Hanp. Bb HOanIHCKOM'b yts3A, 3eM-
cKis ynpaabi 3a6pacb]BanJHCb 3anpocaMH H saBt ayiouie noqTO-
BbM'b A Bo OM'b B ynpanaxb H BOnOCTHbIX'b npaBjeHiax'b cranlH
pbITbCR Bb cTapblXb apxHBaxib. Koe.rat H H axoAHun cTapbla
seMcKia MapKH, XOTSI iacTO TOJIbKO Bb eAHHHqHbix'b sKaeMnanpaxb
H BcerAa TOJIbKO Bb OqeHb OrpaTHHeHHOM'b KOI XOAKH Toro BpeMeHH npeACTaBjisaOTb nOqTH aech sanacb HMt-
IOUlHXCH B-b HacToanLee BpeMR 3eMCKHX'b ptAKOCTel.
FIocTeneaHoe OTKpbITie HOBblX'b H3AsaHii H Manoe 3HaKOM-
CTBO co6HpaTeAele Toro BpeMeHH CS 3eMCKHMH MapKaMH Boo6ume,
no6yaHno HtKOTOpbUXb anHWb Co03aTb (4aHTaCTRlecKiH 3eMCKif
MapKH, HJIH Bs BiHAB HOBbIXb, HMH CO3AaHHbIX'b, MapOKl, HAH B'b
BHAs HaAneqaTOKb yMe H3B-tCTHhXix. TaKia 4iaHTaCTHIlecKil
ptAKOCTH npoaBanaHCb no BbICOKHM'b IHBaM'b 3a rpaHHuy, a noKy-
naTeneM-b Hx-b 6blm'b B'b 6o0bIIIHHCTBt cJIYlaeBb, KiaKb OKa3ajOCb
anocatacTBiH, M. PeppapH B'b lapHaus.
KaKia B-b TO BpeMa naaTHjaH stHbl 3a 3eMCKif phAKOCTH
MO)KHO yCMOTp'Tb H3'b CJa$IAyIroaro. OAHHb H3'b BH)nHbIXb
co6HpaTeaeA, COCTOHnuifi KOppecnoHAeHTOMb 6eJabricKOA raaeTbi
,Le Timbre-Poste", Bomuen'b Bb cornameiHie C' Mb HaTeneM'b
raaeTbi H ToproBgeM'b J. B. Moens, npeaocTaBnHBMu eMy
npaao npio6ptcTH Kaaaylo, noCJnaHHyIO HM'b A I ony6nHKosBaHi'
3eMCKyio HaH Apyrylo, nOKa eite HeHaB'bCTHyIO, MapKy 3a 1500
4)paHKOB-l. BnOCJtLACTBiH sTa cyMMa 6blna nosbmeHa no 2500
4paHKOB'b. TaKHMb nyTeM'b 6ontuoue Kon iecTBO p'bAKOCTefi
yxoAHno 3a rpaHHUy, ptAKocTefi, KOTOpblI llOTOMb B'b PocciH
HHKor)a 6o0/abme He InoRBAHJAMCb. KaK'l npuMtppb Ha3biBaiO
TO.bKO HbKOTOpbU: BoropoACK'b Ni 1, Btno3epcKb No2 10, Bt-
me aw NX 2, KoTejabHHis 'b N 2, P 13, BepxHeAHtnpoBCwKb Nf 2 H 3 H MHoriS apyrin. (HoMepa
nocTaBjaeHb no KaTarory 3eMcKHx'b MapoK'b BepanHHCKaro lno-
ToBaro Myses).
B'b AOKa3aTeaibCTBO n1OAJHHHOCTH, aBTOp-, napHIBCKOi 3a-
MTTKH CChbiaeTCq Ha H306pameHia STOH MapnK Ba KaTaaoraxb
J. B. Moens, Wm. Herrick H L'Ami des Timbres (Roussin). LITO




KacaeTrc H3o6paceHifi BJ KaTanoraxb Moens H Roussin, TO
TpyAHO CKa3aTb, CKOHHpoBaHoanH KfaHme c'b opHrHHara HAH c'b
noAAtJKH. HoApo6HOcTH pHcyHKa He coBnaaaoT-b HH C'b OA-
HOf, HH C-b Apyrofi MapKofi. CpaBHMBaH 60KOBbie OpHaMeHTb
MO)KHO npeA2nonlOOHTb, 4TO opmI'HHajnoM'b caymiHna HaCTORinaH
MapKa. 3a TO B'b KaTanOrft Herrick'a H3o6paeeHa noAIAnKa,
KOTOpyro OHb, bona fide, cuiHTanlb 3a HaCTosluyro MapKy, KaKb
H 60oabmHHCTBO co6paTeAne Toro BpeMeHH. K'L IHX'b MHCAy
npHHaAAJ)eaaH H QpaHuy3CKie sKCnepTbl, noMtcTHBmie Bb Ka-
Taaort 14-ro ayKuioHa KonjeKuiH M. DeppapH Ha TaJI6aHn
6-oA noA.ut-Ky paoUM'b ci HnacToSmeI l H Ha Ta6AnHut 7-ofi eme
pas3b nolaAtary. HpocMOTptBb BCIO KOajeKuiK) nepeab ayK-
tiiOHOM,' B1 HOR6p'h 1925 roAa, a anmio o6pasHnab BHMMaHie
sKcnepTOB'b Ha STH InoAAtnKH H Ha HtKOTOpUb Apyria, HaxoAHB-
miisCH Bb KoJIneKnliH. OAHoBpeMeHHO 5 MOfrb y6tAHTbC1 Bab
TOMS', qTO MHOrif H3'b noaflA OK'b, KOTOpbIlRa BHAIfJI B1' K0n-
AeKLiH Bb' 1907 roay H Ha KXOTOpbIU TorAa ypKe yKasa3anBab,
6biAH H3'b KoAneKUiH yAaneHbi.
M. 4eppapH, no6poAyunHbui H AOBep4nBbifi co6npaTeab,
CTaHOBHrICSI HeoAHOKpaTHO )KepTBOi TaKoro poAa O6MaHa, TaK'b
KaKs qacTo cneiiaAbHo A A Hero co3aaBaaHcb p~aSnqHHH ()aH-
TacTHiecKiS PtAKOCTH, noJyqBHLuia BanocaJtaCTBiH BCbM'b 43-
BUcTHoe Ha3BaHie Ferrarittien (aBMCTO Rarittiten).
K'b qk .cny TaKHx'b p'$IAKOCTei npHHaAJieKaA'b H itrJIbfi
PRAS' 3eMCKInx' MapOK'. B'b MOeM'b TpyAb ,Die Postwertzei-
chen der Russischen I andschaftsamter", s ywe B'i 1909 roAy
OTKa3ancg perHCTpHpoBaTb 3Ty MapKy H CqHTaaJ ee secLMa no-
o03pHTeabHOii no npHHHaMb TaMb H3asloeHbIM'b. Clb T'X'b
nop'b xapaKTepb 3TOi MapKH BbMICHHaCa COBepmeHHO onpexnh-
neHHo. PacnpocTpaHHTenaeM' e aH nonb30aH3BJeKaTejeMb oKa-
saacS npenoaaBaTeJb peaabHaro yqnJI.ta i3b OAecc'b (HMs ero
ToKe Ha3BtCTHO) nepioAa 80-xI roAOBws. YCTaHOBHTb ne'aTa-
aOCb nH 9To ,BTopoe H3AaHie" no 4aKTHneCKOMy 3aKasy Ha-
3B HHaro almua, HaH-we eMy yIanocb HcnoJnb3oBaTb yae 3aro-
TOBnJeHHbli 3anac'b, He BXOACHTb B'b 3aAaHie HacTORIrlei8 3aM'T-
KH, HO 3TOT'b npenolaBaTeJlb npeanonaraeTCn 4)aanbcH4)HKaTO-
poMb H CaMOif MapKH nOTOMy, -TO OWHb BSIeHeTCI C03XaaTeieM'b
Q)aabCHb aJaabCH4JHKajiH U'fjibixb riHCeMb C'b HaKneeHHOiH norl ia-
KOR 6b IH BbinoIHeHbl BeCbMa HaHBHO; 6paiH coBpeMeHHIue
KOHBepTbl, Ha KOTOpubX'b nOuA$nJIKH 6bIan nor'ameHbi, no nmo-
6e3HocTH noqTOBaro nHHOBHHna, IuTeMneIneMb rocyAapcTBeHnoAi
noqTbi c- o6o3naqenieMb BpeMeHH noqra 20 ajitTb cnyCTfl noca
H3AaHif MapKH. MH.MJfi3i noJlyITenjl nHCbMa, T. e. caMoro
4canbCH4)HKaTopa, Bceraa nepeA-nbIBanaacb ApyrHMH qepiHMjaMH,
qacTO Ao Hey3HaBaeMOCTH nepBOHaianbHnoi d4aMHHaim. 'epe3'b no-
cpeaHHKa (anIo Tome H3BtCTHoe CTapbiMa co6npaTenJIMlb), noA-
aitAn nepBoe BpeM5 npoAaBaJancb TOJIbKO 3a rpaaHuy. Lle-
pe3'b HtcKOAbKO jIT'b HX'b CTajA npoaaBaTb nocTeneHHo 1 no
OAHHOlKti H pyCCKHM'b CO6HpaTenSMib, qTo6bI coxpaHHTb HM'b
cnaBy 60oJbmuoi ptAKOCTH H He nopTHTb I'fHbi.




PIAKOCTb HaCTOHIMef MapKH, HSBICTHOA B'b TO BpenM
TOfIbKO B'b 2-3-xt aKsseMnapaxb, anHmaaa co6HpaTeJnef B03-
MOKHOCTH AtiaTb cpaaHeHiR. Bo BpeMa Moero npe6bisaHig
B'b MOCKB- B'b 1890-91 r., inenH MocKoacKaro o6umiecrTa Bo-
o6wue He 3HaIHu o cymecTBoBaHiH ApyroAi MapKH, KpoM- arTOf
noAA.tIKH. H3o6pameHie nonaA.BKH B-b KaTaaort Wm. Herrick'a
OTKpb no eft mHpoKif nyTb BO Bac KOJIneiKuiH. Tenepb KaKeTCR
HtT'b KOJUIeKuLiH, rA' 6bH STa noAAtJKa He (4nrypnposaaa.
nIoca CMMepTH c4anbCI4)HKaTopa noUAA KH noHaBHaICb yme
Ut aMbI AlHCTaMH Bb BoceMb mTyKb (2X4) H noTepanJ BCcKyro
IU'Hy. I5 CaM'b TorAa npio6p$t'b TaKOfi nHCTHK'b 3a ABa py6aa,
BTOPOi jnHCTHKb a ywe nonyqwnJ AapoMb.
qTO xacaeTca ynoMFHyTOfi B-b napHwcCoAo raseTt noaLtJKH
,BTOporo0 nHs3AHia, TO aTa noAAtjia He qTO HHoe, KaKb
OTTHCK'b C'b KJIHIe, c y)KHBnaaro AjnI HJuniocTpaQiH KaTanora
J. B. Moens H NcypHana ,,Le Timbre-Poste1. flocAt aHIIBHaa-
Lin H TOi 4qbpMbu npoAaBaJIHCb H BCt HMtIOIUliecf y Q4HpMbI
KnaHue. HoIAHViH na6opb Kjnmie 3eMCKHX' MapOKb, Mex{y npo-
TqHMb, npio6ptno H C. fleTep6yprcKoe o6miecTBo co6HpaTenefi
M pOK'b, npeAnonaraR HX'b HCnonb3soBaTb Ajin cBoero KaTanora,
OTb qero BIIOCJ.tACTBiH OTKa3aaOCb no npaiHHHIb HX'b tpe3Bbi-
qaRHOiH BenquHHbi. TaKoro poAa OTTHCKH Ha paan3JIHOi 6y-
Mart, AaxKe UBLTHOi, H MA npcblnajin HeoaHOKpaTHO AASi
3KcnepTH3bx, nonaraa, ITO ca$baHo HOBoe OTKpblTie HnH pt-A.
Kaa HaxoAKa. Kb co)anJItHio, npn nOMOuH STHXI Knnme co3Aa-
IOTCs pa3aJIHHbn noflA axO K MapOK'b H ApyrHX'b 3eMCTBb, KOTOpbIf
B' HacTOsuiee BpeMH rya5IOT'b no PocciH.


.. i





opHrHHanib noAAtKa

He CTray saTpyAHATb qHTaTenj onucaHieM- pa3HMIbI MeK-
Ay oprIHHanoM-b H nojUm-tofi. Hab npHno)KenHbix' pHcyH-
KOBn p 3HHua oqeBnHna (opnHrHHan norawmeHb, noAC hKa He-
norameHa). OpnrHHanjb npHHaAnemaTb Kb qIncny 6onbmuwx'
3eMCKHX'b ptAKOCTefi, TaK'b KaK'b AO CHXb nop'b MHH HI3BtCTHO
Bcero AeBgTb 3aM3eMnaRpoBb, 2ABa qHCTblXb H ceMb raumeHbixb
qepHHjaMH.
3TO BCe, qTO MHt H3BsCTHO 06- 3TOM'b ..BTOpOMb"' H3Aa-
HiH. HaAtiocb, ITO H CBOHMb coo61ieHieMb HcnIOJHHiMb )KeAa-
Hie napHmcKaro KOppecnoHneHTa: ,nponHaTb CBT'b Ha 9TOT'b
BaXKHblf i Un pyccKoA (PHJaTeliH BOnpoc'b".

K. K. UIAMHATb,




Hosoe o CTapOM'b B'b O6JIaCTH 3eMCKNX'b
MapoKb.

(O MapKaX'b YCTbChICObbCKOfi 3eMCKOk FosTbI.)

BHHMaTenbHoe HsyqeHie 3eMCKHx-b MapOK' Bce eine npo-
xoajnaeTb HaBOAHTb H3CnJ.AaOBaTen i Ha IpafiAe HHTepecHbiH
OTKpblTi1 no TtM'b BonpocaM'b, KOTOpbze 'aCTO, 3a CKYAHOCTbIO
MaTepiana no HtKOTOpbIM'b 60onAe p'AnKHM'b BunycKaMb, eeme
He BbiscHenu.
He3aMHMHHMbIM'b pyKOBOICTBOMb H HHaee)HbIMi nIOMOLHH-
KOMb npp TaKHx'b pa6oTax'b eflBjeTcs Heaa2BHO H3AaHHaa H
eAHHcTBeHHaH Ba- 3TOa o6jaCTH MOHOrpaiiae 3eMCKHXHb MapOKb
K. K. UIIMHTa. loApo6HbIM'b onHcaHieMb OTAtsbHbIX'b H3Aa-
Hifi H 03H-lKOMAeHieM1, qHTaTeJIH-~HaaTeJIHCTa CO BCtMH HM'iO-
IuHMHCH CB' e'Hi.MH no MeH-e H3yqeHHbIM'b BbinyCKaM'b,
K. K. IIMHAT'b KaKb 6b1 HanpanBsieT'b BHHMaHie HS3CatAOBa-
Tear Ha TaKi ATeTaAH, KOTOpbI5l AefKO MOryT'b npOHTH He3a-
MiqeHHbIMH, eCJIH pyKOBOACTBOBaTbCH TOAbKO O6blKHOBeHHbIMb
KaTajOXKHblM-b nepeqHeM-b.
TaK'b, aBTopy HacToRmeri 3aMtTKH nocqacTnHBHJIocb He-
AaBHO HaaTH 6AOKb H3ab qeTblpexl MapOK-b YCTbCbCO1bCKOIr
3eMCKOg nOqTbI, perHCTpHpOBaHHbIXb y K. K. UIMHATa nOAb
N2 5, no KaTanory we CQA noAb N2 6.
K. K. lIMHAT, Ha cTp. 298-oil II-ro ToMa ynoMuHyTaro
BbIme TpyAa yKa3blBaeT'b, HTO MaJIoe KOAnIecTBO AOHbIH'k H3-
B'bCTHbIX'b 3K3eMnHAlpOB'b 9TOA pt2AKOA MapKH H oTCyTCTBie
6AoKOB'b H nap-b He aalOT'b BO3MO)KHOCTH yCTaHOBHTb nops-
AOK'b B3aHMHarO pacnono)MeHia OT-'babHbIX' THInoBb aTOro BbI-
nycKa, a noTOMy npHBoAHMbie HMa 6 THnIOB (B'b HI4IJocTpauiH
Ha TOi-mKe CTp. 298-oi) pa3MatueeHbI HMb Bb npOHnBOIbHOM'b
nopHAK-.






V f 0 1th-0 I


V. lb-.N .lbr I F .~1 bbl 00 bi [.
Sx.. .: ..,Iu 1 .- :f 3- ,



.| : .*
3 '3
i, / .V/ -" 1 .h" v 1




I g i h 0 Ou 8J O Ih ou .





HaiaeHHbli 6nJOK'b, CHHMOKIb Cb KTroparo 3AeCb Bocnpb-
H3BOAHTCI, BnepBb1e ycTaHaBaHBaeT' nopsAoKcb pacnonoi>eHim
qeTblpeX'b THnOB'b, OTJIHqHTeJIbHbe npH3HaaKH KOTOpbIXb Int-
aylormte:
THn' 1-biii. KpynHaa TpofiKd B'b JIBOM'b HH)KHe'b yray.
THun 2-ofi. KpynHaH TpoiKa B'b BepxHeM-b J'BOMb yrny.
THIn 3-if. Bc' qeTbmpe TpOHKH OANHaKOBaro Manaro
pa3Mspa.
THunb 4-uii. KpynHaa TpoiKaa Bb atBOM'b HHH HeM' yrJiy.
THunb 1-bIiH H 4-bIn, o6a cb KpynHoi TpoiiKOi~ B'b JIBOM'b
HH)nHeM'b yrjy, oTJIHqaIOTCI Azpyr' OTb apyra no TOMy we
npH3HaKy, no KOTopoMy 4-bli Tln'b paSHHTCc OT'b BCtX'b OCTaab-
HbIXb, a HMeHHO, no nepeBepHyTOfi J'ABOi qaCTH ueHTpanbHaro
opHaMeHTa.

OqeBHAHO 3TOT' BbInlyCKb, nOAO6Ho npenbUaymuHMb, COCTO-
HTb JIHIUb H3'b 4-Xb THHOB'b, C'b HapyKHOfi paMKOi 113'b TOH-
KHX'b JIHHiHl. THnbI 2-oil H 4-bi HJIJnOCTpaTiH K. K. I-[MHIn Ta
B'b TO0HOCTH CXOARTCfH C'b TaKOBbMH >Ke TIIaMH 6jnoKa, MeKAy
TtM'b KaKb THIIbl -l-bl H 3-ifl 3TOrO 6nOKa RBJIHIOTCH HOBbIMH,
eme He onHCaHHbIMH.
MomHO Aanjie 3aKJIIOqHTb:
a) qTO MapKH, HMtrOifiH paMKy H3'b TOJICTbIX'b JUIHiI,
npeacTaBnJHOT-b co6oio oaBepimeHHO OTA'hTbnbli BbI-
nycK'b B'b 4 THHa, H3b KOHX'b nOKa H3BtCTHbl TOJIbKO
3 THna, BKJIIOeHHbie K. K. LIIMHATOM'b B'b Ha3BaHHyro
HnJIocTpaUilO H
6) tTO 6-aa no cqeTy MapKa aBb HJIIocTpauiH K. K. UIIMMATa
AaeTT OCHOBaHie JAOnyCTHTb BO3MON LaalbH'fiueM'b eme OAHOro, fOHbIHl He H3yqeHHarO,
BbInycKa, TaKb KaKb aTa MapKa cymiecTBeHHO OTJIHta-
eTCH OT'b BCtX'b qeTblpex-b THnOB'b HaAieHHaro
6.IoKa, a HMeHHO:
1) ULHpa .3" Bo BCtx'b qeTbipext yrnax' pa3HHTC5
OTb TpOeK'b HaiAeHHaro 6noKa, KaKb paaM-lpoM-b
TaK'b H otIepTaHieM'b H cxoKa C'b rHlj(pofi npeAbiAy-
Mtaro BbnycKa, rFl cpeAHn1 qacTb TPOiKH HM-beTh'
nerKiH narH6bm Kb HH3y.
2) BOKOBbie npqMoyroJbHbie npoMemi paMH cnpaBa H catBa 3HaqnTeJbHO Bbime.
3) Hoc.a cJnoBa ,,MAPKA" HMteTrca ToqKa.
4) ToqKa nocnt cJnosa ,,naKeTb' -- KpynniEe.
HaxoHaenie nap-b HJH 6noKoIb TaKHx' MaPpo<'b Cb TOJI-
CTOl napymuHOi paMKoiH HlH c'b TO0KOI nocaCit cJioBa ,,MAPKA'
ptUli/I 6bl H 3TH HeBblHCHeHbhie BonpOCbI.

(Q. B. JIaBpoB-b.


223





Ajib6oMb KaiMet.

JAoe npoxo)Hx'b b ab6tabX 6BypHycax'b uHn no Aoporh
H MHpHO 6eclosBanH. KaK'b Bpyrb ycablJuan nosaAH ce6f
myMb. OranyHnHCb.
CaaAH, BO BCKIO LnpHHy Aopor, Ha HHX'b HaBHraeTCH Ut-
naa muepeHra BeJHKO JIlHbIX'b apa6cKHx'b KOHel.
JIomaaH BOIHnyIOTC5, xpanTs T' HnecyTCH BO BeCb Ayx'b,
cTapaacb neperHaTb oAHa-Apyryio.
ToIbKO inbiab CT0n60M-b CTOHT'b 3a HHMH.
BCaAHHKH npirHynAHC KI Ct.naM'b, KaK'b 6hi noMoraR
JIOUwa IM'b.
HpOXO)MIM'b npHuImOCb OTOiTH Kxb KpaIo AoporH, qT06bI
nponyCTHTb MHMO ce6a 9Ty, Bor' 3HaeT' noqeMy, B03HHKnUmyI
cKasKy.
TaKoi anS o3'b sapHcoBaH'b Ha OAHOH H3b abpHKaHCKHXb'
MapoKcb.
Ha KaxKoi ?

Bib 25 KHnoMeTpaxib, Ks iory OTb BarAaAa, Tarp-b Atnaemb
6oabmyIo ayry, rA, Ha noJyKpyraoMoh BOCTqHOM'b BbICTynt.-
ropon b.
CTOJInMa Hapq4aHcKaro IapcTBa KTe3H4)OOH. FoponA
6onbwmoi a ToprOBbifl, SHMHai pea3HeniH IAapef. 3A-Cb, BcTy-
nHBWmiu Ha npecToa~' B'b 531 roAy Ao P. X., iapb CaccaHHx-
CKOil AHHaCTiH, X03poit BeJIHKiii nOCTpOHJnb nbImuHbIi Stnblfi
ABopeUnb B1 450 4)YTOB'b AJIHbI, 180 P4. impHnHbI, 150 QB. Bw-
COTbI H nOpTHK' Kb HeMy Ba 12 MpaMOpHbIX'b KOJOHH'b.
LeHTpaJnbHbiR npieMHbii sani B'b 115 <4. iIanu H 85 Q.
BbICOTbl.
Ha CHHeMib CBOAqaTOM'b IIOTOJIKI, 30SOTblI 3Bt3Abi yKa-
3bIBaaH ABHSeHie naiaHeTr cpew coa3B't3is 3SoiaKa.
3)acb uapb, CHAH Ha 3s0nOTOMb TPpoHn, BbICJYymUBanab Ab-
na H npoa3BOinA'b cyA'b.
Fpomuno MHoro, MHoro JIBT'. IlapCTBO Hqe3JIO. -epe3a
ropoA'b npomUno MHoro 3aBoeBaTeJefi. OH'b OKa3anA pa3rpa6-
neHHbiMb H pa3pyIeHHbIMb.
H HbIHb, B'b Ha3HsaHie nIOTOMCTBY, OT'b STOi, KorAa TO
6oraToii no HCTopiH, CTpaHbi, ocTaJacb Jumb, aK'b peqiHKBiH
6aecKa H 6oraTCTBa, oaaa apKa npieMHaro aaaa.

CanaAHHb.
CyaTaH-b CHpiH n ErHnTa. 3HaMeHHTbifi BoeHaqanIbHHKb
BCtx'b BpeMeH'b.
KypAb noo poncxom)aeHilo. POAJICH B'b Kp. TaKpH A' BSb
1137 roAy. 30 nBT'b OTb pojy -- OH'b HaMhCTHHKb ErnnTa, a
eme qepes3 saa roAa BenJHKif BH3Hpb. A nycICTf enme Asa
roAa OH'b CBaJIHn'b Kaj HaT'b H CTaa~b cyaTaHOMb ErunTa.
OcHOBaTenb AHHacTiH 3iiho60Bb.
B'b 1174 roAy CanananHH pacwupHpeTrb LapCTBO, o6'beaH-
HnaH apa6oB-b, aaBoeBaHieM- CHpi n H IaMacKa, a Bb 1183 roAy
- H MecconoTaMiH.




B1b 1187 roa OH'b pa361fn-b y TiIBepiaabi KpecTOHOocueBb,
6blBuiHXb nORAb Haqa.IbCTBOMIb KOpo.'- lepyca.l NICKaro, a 3a-
TtM'b aaxB.,TIJIb Ba nJlH'b BC'ti'a rpoccMericTepoB- pbitap-
CKHXb OpaleHOBb.
TO.lbKO aHnr.liihcKomy Kopo.uoK PH,'apA~Y-.niRHHoe Cepaue
plarIoCb pa361HTr Caa.1aiHa y Apiv4'a lacTb Ceperoil nOJOCbl
OT'b Rbi.i 1io TupIa Obi'a ifjO3ERb.Lpa Ha lepycat lMCKOMy hnpo-
.neBCTBy, HO lepyca.,'lM'b ocTncsn iBb pyK:axb Ca.ia.'lHa.
'Mep-b OH'b 3 Mapra I193 roaa Ha 56 ro.ay I13HH. Ocra-
BH.Tb naMflTb xpa6paro ii cnpaBea.ilBaro L eJlOBbtKa.
TL. JlevcL.


flepene4aTra BocnpeuaeTcR.

HtMbie TlMTeMneJIi.
(InpoioJn feHit)


1. Bapwiasa.
2. JlouM a.
3. .JIo 6.lHH-b.
4 Cta.neuhb
5. Jloa3b.


6. HoeoreoprieBchb.
7. Fly.nrych-.
8. ,nyth b, B,.).-inCn. r.
9. OBpy 'b
10. POBHO,


11. Et.ban ULepKOBb,
K'ieiBC. ry6.
12. bepaxluet',KieB.r.
13. Kles-b, KieBcK. r.
14. florpe6Hme, ,




H-la rlpHiaraeMom'b pHCYHK+- H306pa)KeHbl H-liMbie WUTeMne)T
rOpO2OB'b flOAbWuH H fOro-3anaja PocciH.

BBH.Ay Toro, WTo MaTepiafa Moii CK copo moHaeTCs, o6pa-
njamocb erme paa3 Kb r. r. 4)HJuaTeJIHCTaMb C'b npocb6og npH-
CnaTb MH'b HM-131OLUICH Y HHX'b 4)HPMOBble KOHBepTbI C'b ut-
MbIMH UTeMnejiAMH AimJ CHqTiH C-b HIMXb KOnifi.

Ajpec'b: Tallinn, Estonie, Sakala 49-a E. B3ruhl.

3. A. BpyAEb.



Pa3Hoe.


Haw-b nO~eTHbIA 4Inem- npeAct~aTenb FOrocnasrnc~aro 4hwnaT. Co-
ioaa, E. M. AepoKo, as BbIalouic11 HayIHbie TPYAbi no tmHnaTeJ1H yAOCToemb
BbKcOKHMb OTnw4lem-b flHMn6eprosoAl MeiaflbiO.
Cep~evuo nO3ApaBJ1~eMb Mmoroyeaaaemaro Esre,-1h lanamoawia H wunefb
mawum MHCpet1i1i nomenantis eu.e Aonrle rOAbI Clb 4eCTIH Bo3rnaBPRlTb IOrocna-
sficuy)o (OmnaTen1Io.


Bb BtHt 1 AeKa6pn 1935 roga COCTORCnCS tm4InaTenIHCTM4eCKiR4 Aelb',
no HaKOeOMy cny4atO TaHlHe (5rna opraHm3aoama Bb]CTaBKFa Mapow-, HMtBwas
MtcTbIib xapaKrepb, KOTOpYpo noctyino 10.000 4eroiBtKb H 3000 wKonb1Hvosb.


nOAAUbJ1KM (3-b pa3Hb]X-b MHYPHaloSb).
flopHmw(b aaiOgtewb nOAAbnxamH Fpe4IfH-OJHMnIAcuifl Hrpbi 1896 r. -
Herawu., rawetibin H Ha KYCKaxb KoHaepTo8b, a TaKme H na tAtnblxb nMCTax8b
nHc4eA 6ymarH.
nOJlbW1M mapHH 80O3AYjuloA no4TbI 1925 r. M2 1-9. PaaMtpb OAH-
maKowb, pacustTma te noAxoArnga8, 3y6Lkoska ll/1 (y fOAngIHHbIX-b 121/2).
OTnelaTaMo oToTfnieri, noxome Ha nOgfHHHbIA, OnoKaMm no 4eTbipe. IaAnncw
,Pozcta Polska" H ,GR' 6onte TOHRII, 4tMb 8b nogIIHHH6x-b, Rpacia Bb Ht-
KOTOpbIXb MtCTaX-b CnwHUJOM-b *HHta Rnm Nao6oporb BeCbMa S306Htibla.
LH.AmpbI AOCTOHICTBb He CXOARTCH Cb nOAIHtiHblm4. FaweHiR-6oIbuaqi neqaTb
B5b Aa Hpyra: Warszawa 1-12-11-34-6; Lwow 8-4-3.33; Poznan 2-3-7-33.
nAPnrBAO MaPHH BO3AYWHOW nO4TbI 1931 r. Me 39-43. 3y6d~oaea
1llja (y nognwm-bIx-b 121/,2): Orne-aTamo tjloToTmnieA OInoKaMH no 4eTbipe.
raweriIr-6tonbwaR neuaTb Bb Asa kpyra: Correo Aereo 15 Dec 1930 Paraguay;
Asuncion 4-6-31-17 Paraguay. 3aMtTbTe raweuje 15 AeKa6ps 1930 r., a
ceps BbIlwna Ba o6pau.ettie s- anptnt 1931 roga.


FaseTa *WaHxaAcKas 3apfi saBena .Cpamm~y cdinaienJHcTa' noA'b
pegaHLkIeP 4,neHa .POCCHmH A. H. BaHrOBHBa. MbI lnpOCMoTptflH HtCKOnbRO
HOMepOB-b H AOJ*Hbl OTMBTHTb eiBcoxoe Ha~eCTBO ne4aTaembix-b mHHopmauiM.
CntgyeT-I npflptTcTseBaTb nepioA1eecmypo nelaTb, npeAocraanmomyio CBOH
CTpammtLlW He TonbF(o onicamilo rpa6emeA, MowetiHHqeCTBl, H y6ikTS-b, HO H
oTSOAgILiyIO MeCTO Ansr BonpOcOB-b 4mnaTenim. nomHmo opramHaosaaHubJx-b 4na-re-
IIHCTOOb, '4HTaOLI4Ixb cneLiaIbllbie cIHnaTenVCTHrecHt e w~ nHLJ-b, HHTepecyivulHxcA sonpocaMH qmnaTeniH, a TamHme-m AtTeA WI{onbmarO
Bo3paCTa. M TanHMmb mmetlo nmuam-b 6onbWyo ycnyry O~a3blaaerb nepioAH-
4ecKas ne4aTb, RaioLLtafs catetflR o 0lHflaTenIH.




C-b yAoBneTBopeHieMib oTMBmaemb, rTO ycni'bxb nenOB- .PoccHHH* na
nocntAnel BbICTaaBK aBa 3arpe6- He Obn-b o6ofIAeMnb McnIanieMb H neploAH
4ecKO l neiaTb)o.

WHypnanb ,Stamps" coo6iaeTib, 4TO TeKyLuie BbinyCKH MapOKb KHTaR
MOwHO npio6ptCTH 4epea3 IlanxaAKylo norTOBylo KOMITOpy no HapHLaTenbnOfI
CTOHMOCTH, 3aKa3-b hanpaannTb no anpecy -- Shanghai, Post-Office, District
Accountant, China, npHnaraF AeHbrH c'b AoOasneHiemb 20 LUenT, Ha nepeCbmlKy

Bblwuna H3"b neqaTH KHHra-npaKTH ecKoe HMnnOCTpHpOBantiOe pyxOBOA-
CTBO Anfn la4HmnaaouL4xb rewnaTenHCTOBI ,Mladi filatelista" na cepoo-xopeaT-
CKOMb Af3bit B. Tp6apHwa, 41 cTpaHMHLa Te.CTa, LunHa 10 MHHapb. PeKOMen-
AyeTCR Hia4HHaloLUHMMb 3HaOLuAHM-b fs3bl'b.



XpOHHKa

H 0 B b Xb bnyCKOB b.

FEPMAHIR BbmnyqeHa MapKa Bo3AyiunoI no4Tbi 40 n(p. hnsRR Be
naMRTb AecRTHn1LTiF cyLLkeCTBOBaHiR BO3AyLiunio KoMnaHiH .Liufthansa.
BuuJna ,3HMHna OnHMniaAa": 6-4 n4. seneMaaI (IbIHHMHK), 12-6 n(. Rap-
MHHOBaR (KOiHon Ho46 ) H 25-1-15 nf. ynbTpaMapHMHosa (caHKH).
AAMHLMt-b. BbliUna cepii .aHMHeii nOMOi"H H3"b 3 AOCTOHCTB-b -
5-}-5 n. opanaeaaR, 10-5 n(. 3eneHaR H 15--10 n4. HpacHaq.
JlATBIR. Bbiuna KoMMeMopaTHBnaa nopTpeTHas cepir H3b 4 pOCTO-
HHCTB- 3 c. KpacHo opawnaesa, 10 c. aeneMan, 20 c. KapMHno- poaoBas H
35 c. CHMRR.
nOJlbUA. BbiLuna OCTanbHblR AOCTOHMiciBa mHOBO cepiH BHAeOBOA -
45 rp. nmnosaa (saMoK-b noAropue), 50 rp. ctpo-,epnaf (CyHeHHHI H B-b Kpa-
KosB), 55 rp. rony6as (6H6nioTeKa PaHmHCKMHXb Bsb roasaHM), 1 an. Kopm4ne-
BO.-epHas (RocTenb Bs BEnbHO).
3CTOhlFI. 1 (espani sbiuna 6naroTsopHTenbHan cepin ,Uhisabi" a3b
4 AocTOHHCTBT- 10+10 c. aeneHaR H MioneTOsaR; 15415 c. KapmHnoBan H
CHniR, 25+25 c. CHnR H KpacHan, 50+50 c, enRTas H iepnaR.
iOFOCnrBIR. 24 AexKaop 1935 r. Bbluina 6naroTBOpHTenbHMa cepiF
,3HmneA nOMOUCH" HMb AByX-b AOCTOHMCTBb 1.50+1.- AHH. 3.504-1.50 AHin, ronydaR, oTne4aTaHtina cnocoOowM ,.OceTb" ia TOncTOt aa-
uHLM4eHHnn 6yMart c- 3y6LtaMH 12/2: 11l'2 (nepBaf c-b 3y6LOBKOi 111 '). MapKH
neHaTanHib Be- Aea npiema panma H 4Prypbi B-b Oon~e TeMnOMi, 4B-T-, a
ton-b Bsi 60one CBETnOM-b. THpawb< 200.000 cepir.

BHHMAHIE BbiFOAIHO flJi BAC'b I
lAaHo :
I mT. JIaTBig Yv. N 91 ram. (50 p6.-rep6'b) HJan
20 mT. 87 ram. (9 p6.-rep6').
3a
20 IIT. JIaTBin Yv. N2 305 ram. (3" caHT. 15. V) nmn
12 uT. FepMaHiil 534 ,, (25 nr4. Handel) nan
12 mT. .. 541 (25 nQ.-100a).m.A..)HniH
10 rT. ,, 508 (25 nq). Tpaypu.) anI
10 mT. ,,, 527 (25nb).Saarheimkehr) uni
10 mT. ,, ,, Air N 54 (40 n4. Lufthansa) HAH
12 mT. ,, HOBHHKH (Gemeindekongress).
npocb6a qHJnaTenHMCTMHefKM paHKhpoBaTb.
K. Vitkovskis, Ernestines iela 22, RTga Latvija.





AeHeKHHbie SHaKH YKpamHbl.

KaTanorb 60Hbo CG4A Ha 1927 r. HaCTOJbKO ycTap-tb, ITO
He AaeTb B'pHaro npeacTaBjeHni o MHorx'b 6oHax'b, Bb TOM'b
Hucat H yKpaHHCKHX'b, noqeMy B-b HacToaImeM, KpaTKOM'b ovep-
Kt npeAnaraeTC5r cxeMa CHCTeMaTH3aUiH rocyAapCTBeHHbIX'b Ae-
HeC)HbIX'b 3HaKOBb YKpaHHbI, Ha OCHOBaHiM C06paHHUX'b Ma-
Tepbsmaoab sa nocaJI'Aie 10 nT'b.

1. LeHTpaJlbHaa Paaa.
O6pasoBasmifick Bs' MapTb 1917 r. Bb r. KieBt, YKpanH-
CKii HanaioHaabHbIfi COBtTh, noab Ha3BaHieMb,,YKpaiHcbKa LeH-
TpanbHa PaAa", npn npeaclaaTea-b BBHHHqeHKO, 6b n' nps-
3HaH'b BpeMeHHbIMb PoCCifiKHMS FI-paBHTeJbCTBOMa. YKpaHHa
Bannaacb aBTOHOMHoAi qaCTbHIO PocciH, H noab3OBaiacb o61e-
poccifiCKHMH AeHbraMH. IHnUb noc lh 60obmeBHCTCKOii peBOmoinH,
YKpaHHa AeKAapHpyeT- ,YKpaiHCbKy HapoHny pecny6aiKy", HO
qbeAepaTHBHyIO c' PocciePi. Kb 9TOMy BpeMeHH HeAOCTaTOK-b
Ba AeHbrax-b, aacTarBHnl Paiy npHCTynHTb K' neqaTaHilo CBO-
Hx' AeHerb. ripaBo 3MMHCCiH npeaoCTaBJAflOCb XlepMiaBHOmy
6aaKy. lepBsii 3HaK'b nflOBHJlc5 24 ,aeea6ps 1917 r.
N 1.. aepKaBHHi i KpeAHTO iHi 6H e T'b 1917p.
100 Kap6oBaHuiB. 171X105. 6e3a BOA. 3H. H3rOTOBJnIHac
B'b 6bIBi. THnorpa4)iH Kynb)KeHKo, nepeHMeHOBaHHOfi B'b 9,KC-
neAmLio 3aroToBKH Aepa 1. Hap6yra. 06opOTHasi CTOpoHa 6njieTOBnb B nepeBepHyroMb
BHA H TOJIbKO B'b BHJWAI HCKiAjiqeHiH BCTptqalOTCfl Cb Henepe-
BepHyToH cToponHOi. TeKCTbI Ha 6HneTb no yKpaHHCKH, a HO-
MHHan'b eiie HOBTOpIaeTC5 no pyCCKH, nOJbCKH H eBpetcKH. BH-
feTbI HMtaH ycnixs y naceAeHiR, H nonytinRn HapoAHblH npoa-
aHIHa: ,KynibyeHKH, rOpnHnHK, amInfl HJIH flUHmlHa".
22 HHBapH 1918 r. PaAa of6aBHna YKpaHHy caMocTiiHOi,
BCTynIIHB Bb 6opb6y c'b ,,COBtTaMH". B'b HaqaA-t esapanl co-
BtTCKie BoficKa BOmlnH Bb KieBb, H PaAa nana.

II. ieploiob COBtTCKOf BJaCTH.
BoAJbeBHKH He npoAepaaanHCb H Mtcnsa Bb KieBt, T. K.
no BpeCT-'-JIHTOBCKOMy MHpy, saa moqeHHoMy 9 4)eBpana 1918 r.
,COB'TbI" o6a3aHbi 6bIJInH OHCTHTb YKpaHHy, KOTOpyIO 3aHanH
H'bMubi, 3a BpeMi 6oAbbmeBHncTcaro nepioAa HmKaKHX'b rocy-
AapCTBeHHblX'b AeHe>KHbIX-b 3HaKOB'b He 6blnO BbinyumeHo.

III. BTOpof nepion b UeHTpaJIbofi Paabl.
Co BCTynneHieM-b H-MIIeBb B'b KieB'b, Tyaa BoLuejib H
fIeTJmopa co CBOHMH rafiaaMaxKaH H PaAofi. roinoBOi UeH-
TpanbHOfi PaAbi CTaHOBHTCa rpyweBCKiii. HeMeAneHHo 6b aH
nocnaHbI Bb repMaHiio cnegiaaHCTbI, qTo6bi TaMS' saKa3aTb HO-
BbIe AeHeeKHbIe 3HaKH. Bb cH y-He ocTpofi Hy)KAbI nopyqeno
6bluo ,3KcneAHuiH 3arOTOBKH AepaBHHIX rnanepiB" cnrlu'H


228




npHroTOBHTb BpeMeHHbie AeHbrn, Tak-b nIORBHnJHC -
3HSna aepmaBHoi cKap6HnHi. 6e3b roaa (1918).
Bct 6e3' Bon. 3H.


N 2 25 kap60BaHuia.


132X75. B-b TeKCT- ,KpeAiTOBHM 6i-
neToM". BbUaI n 4)anJIbHBbie, rpy6oil
pa6oTbI H C-b TeKCTOM'b: ,,KpeAHTOBHMH
6ineTaMn".


NM 3 50 Kap6oBaHfiB. 132X75. Be3s, JHTepsb Hn N. B-b TeKCTr:
,KpeAHTOBHM 6nIeTOM" H .KapaeTS"
MF 3a ,, TO)e, HO ,KpeMHTOBHMH 6iaeTaM" -
KapaeTbcl"
JN 36 AKI*) w J
KapaeTbcr"
N2 3a ,, AKI**) H fo ,,
KapaeTbCr
XN 3r ,, AKII*) HN ,
KapaeTbCHs
N2 3A ,, AKII**) H N'
KapaeTbmc
Bo BpeMn 3saH81TiRs ora YKpaHHbI reH. ]feHHKHIHblMb, B'b r.
OAecct neqaTaAncb ,,6HAeTbI" npeA'bHAnyiaro o6pasaa, HO C'b
H3M'HeHHbIMH JMTepaMH H XN-aMH OTh 210 H BbIsHe.
N2 4. 25 Kap6oBaHuiB. 132X75. AO H NT. Bi TeKCTaX'b Tome,
qTO y Nq 3a.
JN 5. 50 Kap60BaHniB. 132X75 AO iH M? Bb TeKcrTaXb TOKe,
4TO y NS 3a.
06a nocJtAHie 3Haia, XOT5 H npn3HaHbi YKpaHHCKHM'b
npaBHTeAbCTBOM, 4anaibuniBbIMH, nOM-imeHbi 3satCb KaKI' Blny-
iueHHbie H HMtBLIie mLpoKoe pacnpocTpaueHie na TeppHTOpiH
yKpauHbI. Bcl 6iHneTbI Ba 25 H 50 Kap6oBaHUiiB HarOTOBaeHb
no pnc. xyA. A. KpacoBcKaro. HapoAnoe npo3BHime nonyqans:
,,InnaTKH" H ,6epe3KH". BbIao MHorO Q4aAblIHBbIX'b, jierKO OT-
JaHqHMbixb no rpy6ofi pa6oTt.


17 Ma5 1918 r. IIOSBenJIHCb B
Bas r. KieBt, pasMtBHHbIH MapKH B'b
CTaMH no 100 UJT. c-b nep4topauiefi


o6pameHiH, neqaTaBUiacsic
,,marax". BbxoUAHJn nH-
Ans pa3AtneHis.


Beab roAa (1918). Be 3 HaaaBaHia. B e 3
BOA. 3HaKOBlb.


-N. b. u1 mIariB. 26X30 KmeJTble
N2 7. 20 ,, ,, KopsHeBbie
f 8. 30 ,, yAbTpaMapHHOBie
J N 8a. 30 ,, ,, ion4eTOBO-cpbIe
N 9. 40 ,, seeHble
N. 10. 50 ,, pacHbie

*) BbnnHHa aHTeps 3 mm., a pHMCKHX- UHItp'b 2 mm.
**) 4 mm., 3 mm.




rieqaTanacb no pHCyHnaM'b, HaroToaBJeHHbMUNb AAR nbOttb-
Bbs'b MapoKb, Bs 10 H 20 mar. xyA. A. Cepenu H BI 30, 40
H 50 mar. xyA. r. Hap6yTa. HapoAHoe npo3Bume nonyqana:
,rpomH", ,,MapKH" H ,MSTeaHKu (6a60aKH). BbIno MHoro 4panb-
IHBsbIXb, oco6eHHo 40 H 50 mar.

IV. reTMaHCTBO.
repMaHcKag HHTepBeHURi He Aana ycnoKoeHiR Kpaio, H
Anz ero o6beAHHeniH B'b KieB 6bIJrb Co0BaH'b C'b,3A'b XAJ60-
po6oBa, na KOTOpOM' 6 Man 1918 r. 6biab npoBoarniameHb reT-
MaHOM'b Bces YKpaHHbi reHepan'b flaBso CKoponacKifi. H3'b
yKpaHHcKHnxt eHerb B TO BpeMH xowJIH Bct, pasme Bbiny-
ueHHblfl, paBHO KaK'b H ,,apCKiH" H BpeMenHaro npaBHTeAbcTBa.
Ki oceHH 1918 r. nojnyqHCHcb HaKOHeJ'b H ,rpHBHbl", 3aKa3aH-
Hua elme PaaoiA B' repMaHiH. BbinycKb HXb Haiqarjt 17 OK-
Ta6pS 1918 r.
lepmcaBHi KpeanTOBi 6ineTH. 1918 p. BOA. 3H,:
KpeCTHKH H Kpy)RKH.
M 11. 2 rpHBHi 107X70. PHC. xyA. B. KpUieBCKaro,
NM 12. 10 rpHBeHb 140X90. r Hap6yTa
Ng 13. 100 175X115.
M 14. 500 185X 120. ,,
JN 15. 1000 196X125. 1 Ho pHcyHKy, cocTaaneHHOMy
N? 16. 2000 203X134. Bb cn'tIHOM' nopsHAK Ba
BepamHH B'b R. D.
focaIbjHie AB 3Ha aaK 6bI3H aaKasaH yme npH reTMaHb,
noqeMy Ha HHX'b CTOHTob ,YKpaHHCbKa Jepmaaa". CTromia na
Apyrax- 3HaKaxb 6yKBa ,R. D." (Reichs-Druckerei) osaaqamOT%
M'CTO HXb H3rOTOBAeHji. Ha3baanHcb Bb HapOAt npocCTO
,rpHBHH". QaabmuHBbIX'b cpeAH HHX'b He BCTptqaeTCS.
31 Maa 1918 r. 6buio ony6AHKOBaHo OTS HMeHH COBATa
MHHHCTpoa'b o BbinycKs, 3,6% 6HneroTB rocynapCTBeHHaro Ka-
3HalefiCTBa. IoasBHJiCb OHH TOAbKO OCeHblO, OTqacTH AOCTaB-
aeHHbIe cnitLHO Ha aaponjiaHaxb H3'b BepniHa, r, OHH neqa-
TaAHcb. CpoqHbie KynOHbi o6pamatacb TaKme Bb, KanecTB'
AeHeXKHbI'b cypporaTos'b, HapaBnH cb ApyrHMH 3HaiaMH.
BianeTnH aepx)aaHoi CKap6HHui 1918 p. BOA.
3H.: 8-MH KOHeqH. 3Bt3AbI.
NS 17. 50 rpHBeHb. 294X150
N2 18. 100
N. 19. 200
M 20. 1000
Kyno H 6inbeTa I ep a BHO i CKap6HH gi. BoA.
3H. T-t me.
NM 21. 90 mariB. 75X37.
N- 22. 1 rpuHBH i 80 mariB.
Mf 23. 3 rpHBHi i 60 maria.
N 24. 18 rpHBeHb.




PHCyHKOM'b AnaJ 6HaeTOBs noiyzHaH SCKH3ba xyA. Hap-
6yTa, HO CHajbHo H3M+HeHHbie. HapoAHoe npo3BHtme nonyanwH:
,aaponjaHbI". FloAnAoK'b He BCTpt~aeTcs.
13 Hos6pa 1918 r. npa reTMaHn 6bm1- sBbnyymeHb enme
OAHH'b H nocAIAHii SHaKb.
3 a Kb e p m an Hoi CKap6 HHi. BesTb roaa (1918).
N' 25. 1000 Kap6OBaHniB. 190X120. BOA. 3H.: BOaJHHCTbI aAHHiH.
Ns 25a. AOMaHbIs JHHiH.
06Lgiri TOH' pHCyHKa Ha SHaKaX'b TeMHO-KOpHHeBbIIr.
H3srTOBARanHCb B' r. KieBt no pHc. xy). 3onjOTOa. Ha-
poaHbim np0o3BHua noiayqsaH: ,pH6i" (pa6bie), ,reTMaHKH" H
,reTMaHCbKi THCaqi". Kanme 3THXb 3HaKOB b no3AH-e 6bnIO
HCnonb3OBaHO HeTJmopoHi B' KaMeHeW1b-loAObCKcKI H Bb Bap-
malB. rloUtIOK'b, noBHAHMOMy, He 6biao.
K' AeHe)KHbIMb 3HaKaMs YKpanHbI cAtayeTb TaKmme OT-
HeCTH pocciACKie 5 K p a T K OC p H b e o 6 3 a T e b-
CTBa rocyappcTBeHHaro KaaHaqeAfcTBa,
c'b peracTpariOHHbIMH UmTeMneJiSMH YKpaHHCKHXb 6aH-
KOBsb. PerHcTpaiia Haqaaacb B'b KOHw- npaBaeHia reT-
MaHa a-b pa3Hbxb MtcTaxsb yKpaHHbI KieBt, XapbKost,
KHTOMHppt, EKaTepHHOCJaBt, BHHHAH-, H BtpOHTHO Bb
Ap. M'CTa'b. PerHcTparIioHHbui mTeMneab c'b TeKCTOM'b:
,3aRsaeHo B (TaKOM--To) BiAAiny (Hun ,KoHTOpi") Jep-
aaBHoro BaHKy YKpaiHH. PoKy 1918, Mic. .1918 .. AHR N .,
KoHTpoAip (HaH ,,AHpeKTop"), Kacip ". JB noAnHCHH
Kpyraas neqaTb OTA. 6aHKa.
NM 26. 1000 py6aeri. 330X125
NM 27. 5000
MN 28. 10000 ,
N. 29. 25000 ,
MN 30. 50000 ,, ,
Boate BbCOKie HOMHHa.ib aBTOpy ne H3BBtCTHH, HO Bnon-
Ht BO3MO)KHbI.
npeanonaarBmaaca npHn eTMaHt yHHN()KaRia BcerH Ae-
He)KHOf CHCTeMbI, He 6bja ocyLmeCTBaeHa B'b cHny nocjItyAo-
IAHx'b C06bITif. AJIFn CTOpiH JAHmb COXpaHH IHCb npo6Hbie 3Ha-
KH yTBepmAeHHaro o6pa3sa.
14 HOa6ps, B'b BtaoI ULepKBH, FieTjIopa noHrnab B03CTa-
Hic npOTHB'b reTMaHa, R' pe3ynJbTaTh Koero 14 AeKa6pR 1918 r.
reTMaHb 6blbfib BblHy)AeH' oTpeqbcI OTb BanaCTH. Ha MtCTt,
noKHHYBuaro YKpaHHy reTMana, Bb Kieat nosaBJAeTCl IeTrmopa.
V. uHpeKTopifl.
C'b nOMOUJbIO nOJIHKOB'b reTJIopa 3aHiajb r. KieBw. Ha
YKpaHH- o6~fisanBeTcHi AHpeKTopil non.'b rnaBeHCTBOMb nleT-
JIlOpbI, HO yenoKOeHni He HacTynHoIo. IOrb 6bIa-b 3aHHIT'b Ro-
6poBonbsecKOfi ApMiefi, a no Bceen YKpaHHI pa6oTana 6oasbe-
BHKIH H fOBCTaHubI. Hesaaonro nepeAs naaeHieM'b neT~mIopb,
B' KieaB 6bmia co3BaHa TpyAoBofl KOHrpeC'b, BbiCKa3aBWuific
aa eAHHeHie cb COBUTCKOR Pocciefl. I )eBpana 1919 r. KieBi




6blunI B3nRTb COBcTCKHMH BOfiCKaMH. fieTJIopa 6h>ajnb a B BHH-
HHuy, a no3AsnHe Bb KaMeHeLb-flOAoaJbCKib. TaM-b owb npoAep
mancia cBume roaa, 1 ycnIjrb BbTnycTHTpb pgn'b .AeneeHbIx-b
3HaKOB'b. J)IJI neqaTaHil Aenerb fleTJJropa ncnonbb3oBaJib KJIH-
me. saroTOBJaeHHbe euie npn reTMant B'b 100 H 250 xap6o-
BaHqiB, H KjI iue yme neqaTaBmiHxc] reTMaHOMb 1000 Kap6o-
BaHIliB. OpHI'HHanbHblMH BbinyCKaMH IleTAIlOpbI IBHJIHCb TOJlbKO
3HaKH B'b 10 H 25 Kap6OBaHauiB H Bb 5 rpHIBeib.
3HaKH A.ep)KaBHoi CKap6HHui. (1919 r.)
NM 31. 10 Kap6oaaHUiB. 6/r. 140X84, KpacHOBaTO-rIopHlqeBbliA.
BoA. 3H.: ,,rpH6bj". PHC. xyA. 3SojoToBa. fIpo3BHme:
,,AecRTKa".
NM 32. 25 Kap6oBaHnui. 1919 r. 140X84, 4ionCeTOBO-KOpHqHe-
BaTbii, BOA. 3H.: ,,TOHKiH CB'TJI. 3B33AbI". PHC. no O)l-
HHM-b AaHHbIM'b xyA. PoMaHOBCKaro, no ApyrHMb
xyA. HpHXOAbKO.
MN 33. 100 Rap60BaHuiB. 1918 r. 152X118 cb nopTp. BorAaHa
XM-JbHHQnKaro. PIH. xyA. F. Hap6yTa. ByM. 6bjias,
BOA. 3H.: ,TOHKif CBtTJI. 3Btd3AbI". HapoAHoe npo3-
BHsie: ,6oraaHOBKH".
N2 33a. 100 Kap6oBaHniB. TO)Ke, HO 6yM. cApag H BOA. 3H.:
,rpH6bI".
Ns 34. 250 Kap6oBaHniB. 1918 r. 152X100. PHc. xyA. PoMa-
HOBCKaro. BOA. 3H.: ,TOHK. CB'TJI. 3B'3Abl". HapoA-
Hble npo3BHmua:, ,nTHqKH, KaHapeiKH, qeiren,' aKaliH".
t2 35. 1000 Kap6oBaHuXiB. 6/r. KJHme reTMaHa (CM. Nb 25) MHO-
FO OTT'tHKOBb OT'b MaIlHHOBO-BiOJieTOB. AO TeMHO-
KOpHiHeB. BOA. 3H.: ,TOHKiI CB'TJIbIn 3B-3AbI".
Ni 35a. 1000Kap6OBaHuiB. ToKe, HO BOA. 3H.: BOJIHHCTbIl JInHiH.
OTneqaTaHwb He6peNKHO, O2HOBHOii TOH' pHcyHKa ca KpacHoBa-
TbIM'b OTTHKOM'b.
HOCIt)AHHM'b 3HaKOM'b, Bblnyu eHHblM'b FeTJIopori, 6bmab,
neqaTaBruifics Ba r. CTaHHCJiaBOBt.
Po 3 MinH H aHi 3H a K e p K a H i C Kap 6-
H H U i Y. H. P. Be3ba roa (1920);
NM 36. 5 rpHBeHb. 98X59. C'paa 6yMara, BOA. 3H.: ,rpH6bI".
PacyuoKi cocTaBJIeHb H3'b qacTefi npeaKHnx'b yKp.
BbnyCKOB'b.
N2 36a. 5 rHBeHb. TowKe, HO c'b oneqaTKoi ,,rHBeHb, OKa3aB-
miAics B'b OAHOM'b a3b 56 Kximue, neqaTaBsnHxc
cpa3y Ha onHOM'b nIHCTBE.
B'b IBrycTt 1919 r. fIerTtopa Ha KopoTKoe BpeM5 3axBa-
THaJI KieB -, HO 31 aBrycra KieB-b nepexoAHTb Bs pyuKH o6-
pOBO/IbqeccKo ApMiH. HIoca' ocTaBJieHi% KieBa Ao6pOBOaIbQa-
MH, ero 3aHHMaOT'b 6 Man 1920 r. nojriKH, Bbi6HTbie no3AHte
60oJbmeHKaMH. feTJiopa we HHKorAa He OCTaBHJIRbl MIMCJIH-
aepHyTbCi Ha YKpaHHy, H He cb nyCTbiMH pyKaMUH. JJ 3TOro
6bma saKaaaHbI B'b BH' -




A ep a B H i KpeA T O Bi 6 i ae TH. 1920 p.
N- 37. 50 rpHBeHb. 117X58. Cb nopTpeTOMb reTMaHa nI. Jo-
pomieHRo. BOA. 3H.: ,reorieBcKie KpecTbl".
NM 38. 1000 rpHBeHb. 155X77. C-b nopTpeToMb reTMaHa B.
XM-~JbHHItKaro. BOA. 3H.: ,,TpH3y6ubI.
3TH ABa 3HaiKa, BbICOKO-xyanomecTBeHHnof pa6oTbi, Ha3BCTHbI
AJHUb KaKb npo6Hble.

VI. COBtTCKaLa BJaCTb.
Co B3aTieMb KieBa aBb teBpaan 1919 r. COBtTCKHMH BOH-
CKaMH, ycTaHaBJHBaeCTC a H CO-TCKaa BnacTb, KOTOpan BeAeT'b
6opb6y c-b HeTaiopoi, fnoAbmei4 H of6poBsonb'ecKofi ApMief~,
pacnpocTpasHaf CBoe BjiaHie Ha OKpaHHbi. BpeMeHHbli 3axBaT'b
Kiena fleTJiopOi, Ao6pOBoabuaMH H HaKoHeu'b nonJIKaMH, He
OCBO6OAH0n'b YKpaHIny OTb 60onIbLeBHKOB'b. aMMHCiOHHaH Al-
%TeAbHOCTb 3a DTOTb nepioAib BbIpas3Hacb B'b neqaTaHit npem-
HHX-b yKpaHHCKHX'b KpeAMTOK-, KpOMb N2N' 1, 6-10 H 26-30.
TOjbKO OAHHb TH'-b ,,neTJlOpoBCKOji 9MMHCCiH' 6Ibl b OTneqa-
Tai 'b 6ojbIlmeBHKaMH, 3axBaqeHHblM'b Kninme, Ha Apyroro copTa
6yMarF H ApyrHM'b LBATOM'b.
3 Ha K L e p m a B H i C K a p 6 H H U i. Be3-b roAa.
(1919). BOA. 3H.: ,,COTbl".
NM 39. 10 Kap6ooaHuiB. 140X84. (THn'b M 31). ByM. TOHKaH
6t$as. 06mifi TOHNb 3HaKa KpacHbIt.
flpeAnonarasmiHic, qHCTO-COBtTCKif BbinycK'b yKpanHbt He
6bilb ocyuLecTBaJeHb, HO OTb Hero oCTaac5 CJIe3A'b B BINIA
npo6HbX'b OTTHCKOB'b Ka&KAOi CTOPOHbI OTAIJIbHO.
r p o me BH A 3 Ha Kpai H C b Koi C Lt.
p aAH H. p e c n y 6 i K i. 1919.
le H exaH bI 3 H a K K p a H CKO CO .
co BeTCK. p e c ny6 H KH.
NM 40. 50 Kap6oBaHaeB. 98X61. KaKb npo6nube, oTneqaTaHbl B-b
pa3HblX'b TOHaX'b 3eJaeHOM'b, roIy6oM'b, ()ioJeTO-
BOM'b H )ip.
C'b BHeApeHieM'b o6utecoB-TcKHx'~ AeH. 3HaKOBb, Haaanm
HCqesaTb Hasb o6parueHis yKpamHcKie, KOTOpbie COBC'M'b noTe-
pAHJI 3HatqeHie c-b naeHieM'b py6ai Bn 1920 r. JIHtIb ,,lapCKie"
HM-naI cnpocb H Heo~q)n4)HiaAbHO XOAHJIH cb 6ojnbmHM-b .a-
)KeM', oco6eHHO noaanbme OTrb LeHTpa. BBeAeHie Bsb KOHut
1922 r. .sepBOHua", He ycTpaHHJIO nepMaHeHTHaro pa3MtHHaro
ronoAa, BbI3BaBUarO fIOBC-M'tCTHO B'b HaceJIeHHblX-b nyHKTax'b
3HaqHTeJbHoe KOJHqeCTBO ,M'CTHbIX'b 3MMHCCiri". nocaJIAHie
c'bHrpaaH 3HaqHTeabHytO ponb B'b o6opoTax-b MtCTHbIX'b pacqe-
TOB'b, KaKb AeHbrH o6ULecTBeHHaro 3HaqeHiH.
H3'b rocyAapCTBeHHb x-b yqpeKAeHif TOAIbKO Bs 1923. r.
Bb Kiean YnpaBaeHie X03HiCTBeHHbIMH npeanpi5lTiIMH BceyKpa-


S233




HHCKTaO ueHTpaJibHaro HnoAHHTeaJbHaro KOMwTeTa, BblnycTH.rn
B'b ,IepBOHHOM'b" HcqHCJHeHiH.
Pac q e T H b e 6 o H bI 1923 r. B Y H K' a. Ha
c'ppohi 6yM. BOA. 3H.: ,rpH6b".

MN 41. HnTb KoneeK 87X55,
NM 42. ,ECITb KoneeK ,
NM 43. ABAAU.ATb lnITb Kon.
N2 44. IRTbJIECTb KoneeK ,
NM 45. OaHH PYBJIb
MN 46. TPH PYBJI ,O
NM 47. HnlTb PYBJIE ,
MN 48. AECqTb PYBJIEM
M 49. .HBAjRATb flTb py6.
NM 50. f1TTbAECIT py6.

OAHocTOpoHHie, THna apabUKOB'b. Ha o6op. Kpyrnaa Ma-
CTwHHaf neqaTb. NMMN neqaTHbie, HoMepaTOpoMb, HO y 10, 25,
50 Kon. 14 1 p. BCTptqaIOTCR H pyKonncHnbe. 3THMMH 6oHaMH
3aKOHniH8Cb SMMHCCiOHHa8 At. TelIbHOCTb YKparuH Bbpa3sB-
maflc nOquT B'b 5 MHnniapoaB'b py6nei (cqHTaRa H oxeccKie
BbinyCKH), OCTaBHB-b cjAjA'b CO6bITif B'b BHA. HCTOpHqeCKHX'b
AOKyMeHTOB' -- caMHx'b AeHexKHbIX'b 3HaKOB'b.
H. Poc6epb.


)KH3Hb 06mIecTBa.

BcntAcTBie 60nt3anH naBHaro PyROBOAHTenRn 3aM-CrHTenj ero, Myp-
nanab PoccHKa" 92 23 Bb'XOAHT'b C'b ono3Aal1eMb Hma qeTbipe MtcfLna,

BM'CTO OTKaasaBuarocR A, H. BaHcoBHe a flpeACrTaeHTeneM-b a KHTari,
Ha ocMOBaHin cBOero npennoWeHiR, Has3aMaercB flpaaneHie PyccKaro 06OLUe-
crea (bHnaTenMCTOB' 'b ab WUaxat c~ 1 cero e8spann.
Boso6HOBHMnH nOAnHcKy na 1936 rOAb HHXM'cnt'bAyiouie 4nenbi: NMN' -
155, 220, 134, 356, 211, 42, 477, 469. 488, 490, 491, 492, 27, 442, 113, 405,
226, 183, 465, 56, 77. 98, 322, 339, 397, 399, 400, 401, 459, 460, 461, 473,
231, 352, 453, 340, 227, 45, 91, 195, 216, 331, 395, 126, 150, 168, 324. 311.
267, 177, 184.

Ha OCHOBaMiH CaOHXb 3aABnehiil BbI6HnH Hw3- cociaea qneHOB-b: -
NM 29 Manakin c-b 1.36; 493 Biheller c- 2.36; 497 Kovaljevi6 ci-
2.36 Jugoslavija --; M 468 Sytscheff -- 5-anrapmH; NM 458 Usa-
tscheva, NM 97 Gutmann, XN 95 -- Miinninghoff, N_ 320 Kravetz, M 297
- BiSofs Latvija, HOTOpbiXbb npoCHMm- BbiPepHnyTb M3ab CnMCKO'Ob.
3a cMepTrio HcHnMOHa0rTCf M1 a cnMCKa N 494 Vuleti_ Jugoslavia;
XN 410 M-me M. A. Bemberg -- Suisse; Ne 286 Graf S. 11. Sabiello -
Latvija.
Kamb reynnaTHBwiie ineMncaro B3aoca, c q M T a 10 T C A 8 bl 6B-
u H M1 H Ha3b coCTaa ineOB-b: cb 1 Qespann c. r. Jugoslavija N2 464
Vorobioff, 472 SubkoviC, 329 -- Engelhardt, -bnrapHa 402 -
Bojimoff, 403 Selkoff, 415 Stepanoff; Lictuva 446 Krickis,
463 Gviar2dis; Pologne 457 -- Podolecki; Manchutikuo 111 -
Tvelkmeyer, 384 Gorbuleff, 449 Shoolak, 452 Ikonnikoff, 476
- Yu Tze Fan.




rfpH HacTORLL4eMb noMept npmnaraerTc AononiHT. cnHconb qlneHoaBb N 4.

npHHOocHMb HaLuy rnydonylo OnaroAapHOCTb:
1. 3a BepSoaBy HOBblXb rneHOB-b: 0. B. JlaBpoey, K. K. BHTKOCHOOMy,
A. B. CoHonoiy, A. R. 4eOoTKeBH-1y.
2. 3a noiHeprToBaHie Bb mypHanbHbIf OHA-b: B. R. PaxMaHosy (As~
TeTpaAH c-b MapamwH fIonbWuH H LUee LapiH Ma 500 ip. netto); K. Fl. Byn-
raHoay (MapKH MeRCHKH, rBaTemanbiu PocciH Ha 4600 p ); A. H. BaHco-
BH4y (maprH AB. na 100 tp.); C. A. MorynbKO (paaHblR MapKH na 25 #p.);
M. B. flocBOnbCKOMy (MapKHn pasmniH Ha 500 ip.); n. H. PyAaKoBy (mapKH
MaMiwyro Ha 67 #p.); C. K. LUneiKOBCHOMY (MapNH J1HTBbi Ha 32 4p).

3. 3a npHccbinKy CTareA: K. K. IIMHATy, (. B. flaapoBy, H. H. Poc-
Oepy, A. A. fleycy.
4. 3a npHCbinkH HOBHMOKHb: I. ). MHaHIOHy, M. B. nocBonbcKomy, C.
M. fnoaKosy.


t
1"


KparyeBauLKa9 rpynna PyccRaro o6uecTBa cPH-
naTenHCTOB'b ,,PoccHKa", 18 AeKa6pi 1935 r.
noTepqna

,APFroilnOBA BYjIET -H-2lPRrRH A,
OAHOrO H3b ny4lUMXb CBOHXb 4neHOB-b. By-
neTHr- popAncF 18 Mai 1909 roAa Bs Kpa-
ryeBL t H, no OKOHaaHiH 5 KnaccOB-b peanbHOR
rFMHa3iH, npocnyiwan-b Kypcb B-b IHnOTCKOM
wiont B-b 3eMyHt. Pa6oTan-b B" CBoeM-ia e-
ntbHO-ToproBoMb MarasMHHt, KaKnb 4neHb 6onb-
wUO 4HpMbl ,,6paTbR C. ByneTMH"b" B-b Kpa-
ryeBL-t.
Cb OCHOBaHieMb rpynnu ,,POCCHMH" HeMeA-
neHHO 3anMcaJncR Bb eq p5Abi H cTapanc 5 6blTb
Bb 4Mcnt nlyuMX-b RonneKLuiOHepOB-b, HO BHe-
3anHaa HeyMonMMa5 cMepTb OTHFna ero OTb
Hac-b. MHp- ero npaxy!









t

FPAqSb C. T. 3ABiBJIJIO.


8-ro IIOHn CMepTb Bbipasana WH3 Hameii cpeAbI
Bbuaiomularoca KoaAnneKuioHepa-AiHeHTeabMeHa rpa4a
CHrH3MyHana FeKpHxoBHqa 3a6Bfno.
FIoMHUHTC MH-1, KaK'b TO 3HMOIO 1931 r., OH-b
B' MoeM'b conpOBoxaeniH anepbie nocTHJIrb co6pa-
Hie iameii rpynnbi H Cb Tofi nIITIIHnu OCTaaIC
B'IpHtinhLUM'b ApyrOM'b PoccHKH". HeCMOTrp Ha TO
ITO ero BbICOKOItHHaf KoaJeKImia AaBanla eMy non-
Hoe npaBo cI) ycM'tiWKof B3HpaTb Ha TeTpaAOIKH
MapoqHHKOB-b cpeAHefi pyKH, rpa4b yanlaaa'b ,acKO-
BOe BHHMaHie H H OBM9KaM'b Hauero uexa, H HalieH
MOnorofl CM1HI 4)HuaaTeJHCTaMb UIKOnbHarO B03-
pacTa.
BbIsuiir KpynfHbii HyMH3MaTb, rpacqb, C. r.
3a6tbano cepbe3Ho nOCB+tTHJIb ce6H MapKaMb Ha MO-
ei naMRTH Bas PHrt OKOAn 8 iTaT TOMy Ha3aA'b.
Pacnonara:f cpeACTraMH H CBo60AiHbIM' BpeMeHe-b,
OH'b ycn'fla sa cpaBHHTeabHo KOPOTKiih cpoK- no-
paBHHTbCR C'b eBponeficKH Ha3BsCTHbMH KOJaIeKuioHe-
paMM (He roBopi ywe o pH>KCKHX'b), XOTH H H36pan'b
caMylo TpyAHyIO cnerliajibHOCTb, (ec.- arTO C.IOBO Ba
AaHHOM- cinyqat npHMinHMO). a HMeHno co6HpaHie
MapoK- Bcero Mipa. Ho HaHo60buJefi ero IIO6oBblO
noJIb3OBaaHCb MapKH PocciH. I'pac ,b mAsrnica cqacT-
jnHBHMb o6dna.aTeAeM'b npeBocxoAHbIX'b 3K3eMnRi-
pOB'b MapK' H npo6HblX'b MapoK'b HameiC POAHtHbI,
a TaK>Ke MapoKic nepioaa rpam)KiaacKoi BOfiHb H Ma-
pOK'b nOBOO6pa3OBaHHbIx-b na TeppHTopiH 6. Pocciri-
CKORi HMnepil rocyaapcTBb.
Bct 3HaBinie H mo6nimiie rpar)a CHrnlMyHna
reHPHxoBHqa nOM5IHyT'b ero CB'AT.Ayio naMHTb Ao6-
pbIM'b CJIOBOMb.

3. P.
PHra, ilOHb 1936 r.


pr I-MP- L-l.I~&




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