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 Cover
 Officers and representatives of...
 An open letter to the members of...
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Russian activities in the Arctic,...
 The first Polish-Soviet postal...
 The unrecognized Pridniester Moldovan...
 Zemstvo look-alike, by George G....
 Troubles in leaving Russia with...
 Weights, rates, and routes, by...
 The 1942-43 censormarks of the...
 The opening of commercial air traffic...
 Use of the second definitive issue...
 Stamps of the Poltava Zemstvo and...
 Minutes of the officers' meeting...
 Membership status
 Members on the Internet and member-to-member...
 Expertization
 Reviews of philatelic publicat...
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00070
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1996
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00070

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 1
    An open letter to the members of Rossica
        Page 2a
        Page 2b
        Page 2c
        Page 2d
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Editorial
        Page 4
    Russian activities in the Arctic, by George Hall
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The first Polish-Soviet postal convention of 1923, by Jerzy Tokar (translated by Edward D. Wolski)
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The unrecognized Pridniester Moldovan Republic (PMR), by Vladimir Babici
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Zemstvo look-alike, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 43
    Troubles in leaving Russia with your stamps, by Michael Tereshko
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Weights, rates, and routes, by A. Epstein
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    The 1942-43 censormarks of the Red Army's military postal sorting offices, by Dave Skipton
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The opening of commercial air traffic between the U.S.S.R and Mongolia, by G. Adolph Ackerman
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Use of the second definitive issue of the RSFSR, by Raymond J. Pietruszka
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Stamps of the Poltava Zemstvo and their perculiarities, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Minutes of the officers' meeting at NAPEX, 1 June, 1996
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Membership status
        Page 88
    Members on the Internet and member-to-member adlets
        Page 89
    Expertization
        Page 90
    Reviews of philatelic publications
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Advertising
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text



ROSSICA


No. 127 October 1996











THE JOURNAL
of the
ROSSICA SOCIETY
of
RUSSIAN PHILATELY





OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President: David M. Skipton, 50-D Ridge Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770, USA
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign, IL 61821, USA
Secretary: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, NY 13850, USA
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108, USA
Librarian-Pro Ter: Howard Weinert, 7104 Oxford Road, Baltimore, MD, USA
Auditor: Webster Stickney, 7590 Windlawn, Parker, CO 80134, USA
Board of Directors:

George Shaw-Pro Tem, 7596-J Lakeside Village Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA
Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington, OH 43085, USA
John Barefoot, P.O. Box 8, York Y03 7GL, United Kingdom

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY
USA:
Washington-Baltimore Chapter
Steve Alushin, 13103 Wellford Drive, Beltsville MD 20705, USA
Midwest Chapter
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, IL 60304, USA
Northern California Chapter
Mike Renfro, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, CA 95055, USA
Europe:
Ivo J. Steyn, Postbus 16636, 1001 RC Amsterdam, The Netherlands

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically, other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Editor or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $15 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108
USA

Copyright 1996
The Rossica Society
ISSN 0035-8363








AN OPEN LETTER TO THE MEMBERS OF ROSSICA

At the June NAPEX 96 annual general meeting, a question was asked
from the floor: would Rossica encourage its members to attend MOSKVA
97, or enter exhibits there? I answered "no." Concerns about
physical safety, security for the exhibits at the show, and Customs
hassles were behind the unequivocal response. I also made the point
that Rossica has no power to say yea or nay if someone wanted to go.
It's a free country, and if a Rossica member decided to attend MOSKVA
97 or exhibit there, why, good luck and Godspeed. I expressed my
opinion as Rossica's President; I did not express the opinion of the
Rossica Society. Rossica will have no official presence at MOSKVA 97,
(we're meeting at PACIFIC 97) and the official Society position is
members are neither encouraged or discouraged to go. (For the record,
Rossica didn't recommend that its members go to FINLANDIA 95, CAPEX
96, or any other "EX," for that matter. Unless Rossica has a meeting
scheduled for an international or national show, we don't normally
come out for or against any exhibition.)

Since that time, I've received letters from the German
commissioner for MOSKVA 97 (Mr. Harry von Hofmann) and a couple of
other gentlemen, urging Rossica to reconsider its stance and support
MOSKVA 97. The perception seems to be that Rossica is "boycotting"
the event. Not true. There's no "boycott," and no endorsement,
either. Mr. von Hofmann has made many important contributions to
Russian philately over the years, and I have the greatest respect for
his erudition. Since Mr. von Hofmann also sent this letter to most of
the other officers, I will take the liberty of quoting parts of it for
the membership.

"...We therefore have good reason to help our friends in the
realization of this aim, and I know that philatelists from all over
the world will be involved in the preparation of this international
exhibition. I was, therefore, all the more dismayed to learn that the
Rossica Society had decided, at the general meeting in June, not to
support this exhibition, due to misgivings in regard to the security
of visitors and exhibits. I have often been in Russia, both privately
and on business, and to me this is simply incomprehensible.

"I have the impression that interested anti-Russian parties
continue to work against the people of Russia, and that we are the
victims of this propaganda. When, for example, I read the article
"Troubles in Leaving Russia with Your Stamps" in the LINN'S STAMP
NEWS of 30 September 1996, as a journalist I could not understand how
the editor of such a distinguished journal could publish such an
article without comment. One is here, as we say in Germany, comparing
apples with pears. When a Russian citizen emigrates and wants to take
his assets with him, he must pay taxes according to the laws of the
land, or leaving behind appropriate sureties. ...But what has this to
do with collections that are being temporarily taken into a country,
and taken out again after the exhibition?









"The special regulations for the exhibition MOCKBA 97 specify the
customs-free handling of the exhibits. Where is the problem? If I
purchase stamps in the U.S.A. and take them to Germany, I must declare
them at the customs on arrival in Germany and pay the appropriate
customs duty. This is quite normal. In many countries the export of
valuables requires permission and also attracts customs duty, as in
Russia. This is quite a normal procedure. We deplore the fact that
Mafia have plundered Russian archives and museums, and then when
measures are taken to prevent the sale of these stolen goods abroad,
this arouses adverse comment and a warning not to visit the country.
This can surely not be right.

"Much attention has been given to the question of security in
Moscow. The state militia is responsible for this, and they will,
together with the exhibitions organizers, undertake on arrival of the
commissioners with the collections of their countries at Moscow
airport the transport of exhibits in special armored vehicles to the
Manezh Hall. In the hall itself there will be strict security
organized by the militia, as we have found at many other exhibitions.

"In the press many true reports have been published about the
increased crime in Russia as well as many false reports. The growth
in crime is not a Russian problem we must deplore the fact that this
evil exists in practically every part of the world. To travel in the
subway at night in Hamburg can be more dangerous than in Moscow.
Should everyone therefore be warned against visiting Hamburg?

"...I request earnestly that you reconsider the decision made in
June, and support the exhibition MOCKBA 97. The date for submission
of applications has been put back to 31 December 1996, so it is still
not too late. ...Moscow awaits us don't let our friends wait for us
in vainl"

With all due respect to Mr. von Hofmann, my answer as Rossica
President remains the same: "No." Here's why.

First off, Rossica has received no formal invitation to the
event. (In all fairness, it would make no difference see the
comment above about not encouraging or discouraging members to attend
or exhibit there would be a polite "thank you," and that would be
it.) The point here is that there hasn't been any offer at all from
"our friends." We're on very good terms with a few collectors in
Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, and the Baltic Countries, but there has been
little in the way of "friendly contacts" between our society and the
Union of Philatelists.) Given that

1) Rossica was ignored and Western philately slandered in the









Soviet press for decades,
2) many of the individuals doing the slandering are still in
positions of authority in the Soyuz filatelistov,
3) no sincere apologies have been directed our way,
4) our Journal was proscribed in the USSR and Soviet philatelists
were forbidden by the authorities to join our society,

I personally have difficulty generating any feelings of hail-fellow-
well-met.

Second, and by far the most important consideration, my concerns
about the physical safety of our members remain. The political
situation there could deteriorate dramatically at any time, (Boris is
waiting for surgery on his ticker, the Armed Forces don't get paid
regularly, and coup attempts have been known to happen), terrorism
could easily resurface if Chechnya heats up again, and there are all
sorts of unresolved territorial, cultural, economic, and political
problems that could touch off nastiness. Then there's crime.

True, crime is not confined to Russia. Yes, you can get mugged
on the Hamburg subway. Same for the New York subway. Pick a subway.
And no, we wouldn't advise members not to go to a show in those places
just because they might get mugged on the subway. The point is that
Hamburg's mafia isn't as obstreperous and unrestrained as Moscow's.
And having seen German police at first hand, I know I'd feel much
safer in Hamburg with them around than I would with low-paid (if
they're paid at all), demoralized Russian militsiya in Moscow. The
pittance they are paid makes them extremely vulnerable to Russian
mafia blandishments to look the other way, or leave a door unlocked.
And these are the guys who are going to be guarding the Manezh Hall...
You may very well be perfectly safe and protected at the Manezh, too.
But sooner or later, you'll have to leave it.

Third, if you're exhibiting, your exhibit will be in that hall
all night long, guarded by that very same low-paid militia. You are
guaranteed customs-free handling of the exhibits, we're told. Where
is the problem? Well, pardon me, but a lot of things have been
guaranteed in that neck of the woods. I'd like to see an established
track record of honesty before trusting in words. And if "special
armored vehicles" are required to get your exhibit and the
commissioner carrying it to the Manezh in one piece, the question is
begged: what kind of situation would require "special armored
vehicles," anyway? If something on the order of an armored personnel
carrier is needed to "get that exhibit through," perhaps you should
consider not sending it in the first place.









Fourth, Customs. Your exhibit may get in and out without a
scratch, but what happens if you want to buy something at the show?
Let me draw your attention to one statement in Mr. von Hofmann's
letter: "We deplore the fact that Mafia have plundered Russian
archives and museums..." Plunder is a good, descriptive word. Will
you know for certain that what you buy there didn't escape from an
archive? Your exhibit may be customs-free, but you aren't. This
isn't a case of not wanting to pay customs for things you buy there,
(although that might get awfully expensive) this is a case of seeing
your purchase confiscated, and you with a lot of explaining to do.
And don't expect a refund. Also, are you absolutely certain that
nothing in your exhibit walked out of an archive? Wouldn't it be nice
to have part or all of your exhibit seized because you inadvertently
displayed "stolen goods?" The West is awash in Russian material right
now, and some of it has indeed come from archives. The question is
how. Some was stolen, some was saved from the dumpster, and some was
sold off by the archive or museum. Some of it never saw an archive,
but looks like other stuff that did. Since much of it is unmarked,
how do you distinguish between the good and the bad? Moscow won't be
a nice place to find out.

The Tereshko article from Linn's is reproduced with permission in
the Rossica Journal this letter accompanies. Read it for yourself,
and draw your own conclusions as to its validity. But keep one thing
in mind: the folks who work in Russian Customs aren't highly paid,
either. Same for the Russian Postal Administration. Things disappear
all the time. This isn't the only instance I've heard of or read
about. Mr. von Hofmann's experiences in Russia have been much happier
than those of others I've spoken to or corresponded with.

Fifth, Rossica would not have had an official presence at the
show in any event, because we're meeting at PACIFIC 97, and it will
be expensive enough for the East Coast and Midwest officers to attend
just that show.

You should know that not all of the Rossica officers agree with
my stand on this matter. It's an issue on which reasonable people
can disagree. However, I believe the first duty of the Rossica
President is to the membership, not to unproven "friends" overseas who
are hosting an exhibition. If I ever forget that, I'll resign. I
can't in good conscience recommend that you do something I wouldn't.
If you agree with Mr. von Hofmann and disagree with me, that's fine.
If you want to go to Moscow, that's your call. If you go, I sincerely
hope that my concerns aren't borne out, and that you have a wonderful
time there.


Sincerely,







THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY

Journal No. 127 for October 1996

Editor: Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: George Shaw, David M. Skipton, Howard Weinert

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic Page

ARTICLES

Editorial 3
Russian Activities in the Arctic-George Hall 4
The First Polish-Soviet Postal Convention of 1923-Jerzy Tokar 18
(translated by Edward D. Wolski)
The Unrecognized Pridniester Moldovan Republic (PMR) 27
"-Vladimir Babici
Zemstvo Look-Alike-George G. Werbizky 43
Troubles in leaving Russia with your stamps-Michael Tereshko 45
Weights, Rates, and Routes-A. Epstein 46
The 1942-43 Censormarks of the Red Army's Military Postal 61
Sorting Offices-Dave Skipton
The Opening of Commercial Air Traffic Between the U.S.S.R. 65
and Mongolia-G. Adolph Ackerman
Use of the Second Definitive Issue of the RSFSR-Raymond J. Pietruszka 74
Stamps of the Poltava Zemstvo and their Perculiarities-George G. Werbizky 80




OF INTEREST TO MEMBERS

Minutes of the Officers' Meeting at NAPEX, 1 June 1996 86
Membership Status 88
Members on the Internet 89
Member-to-Member Adlets 89
Expertization 90
Reviews of Philatelic Publications 91
Dealer Ads 97









Editorial-WANTED Journal Editor


Been there, done that, got a t-shirt and cap! will attest to the support provided by my wife
This basically reflects my feelings about editing Lorraine. I am not sure I would have tolerated as
a philatelic periodical. It can be exciting. It can be much as she has. During the final preparation
frustrating. Overall, the positive items far out- stages, she rarely sees me at all. Weekends be-
weigh the negative, came non-existent.
In 1997, Rossica and the British Society of The Editor position requires an individual
Russian Philately will issue a joint journal. This who is willing to spend a significant amount of
is a first for the major societies and promises to be time ensuring accuracy of information and cor-
exciting. The joint issue will be the only journal rectness of language principles. A strong under-
published in 1997. Do not despair since it looks standing of publishing guidelines and computer-
like the joint issue will be over 300 pages! How- based software packages is mandatory. The posi-
ever, this will be my last issue as Editor. tionof Editor of theRossicajournal is one steeped
Having watched the journal get better and in tradition and lavishly rewarded with prestige.
win the highest possible awards nationally and Since it is an appointed position, it is generally
internationally for a periodical in its class, I do free of any societal politics. However, it is the
not leave this position easily. It has been chal- voice of the Society and the President has ulti-
lenging, fun, and full of good times. I do not mate control of its contents. Disagreements be-
vacate the position due to duress from any source, tween myself and past presidents have been vir-
The dictates of my professional life and a strong tually nil. Disagreements with members over
desire to return to my own collection and spend content and layout are the subjects of on-going
more time with my family mandate my depar- discussions. However, you will rarely get anyone
ture. Originally, I wanted to end with the October to volunteer to fix what they perceive as a prob-
1996 issue. Dave Skipton requested I stay on lem. In other words, it is your baby and matures
board through the 1997 joint. Already owing as you see fit.
Dave more that I can ever repay, I reluctantly Enough said. Rossica is looking for a new
agreed. Editor. All interested parties should send a letter
Over the years I have received tremendous to the current Editor with a copy to our President
support from many people. Among the people I outlining why you should be the Editor. Samples
owe a special thanks to include George Werbizky, of previous work would be appreciated. If there
Dave Skipton, Steve Alushin, Leonard Tann, Ivo are no acceptable candidates, the 1997 joint issue
Steyn, Adolph Ackerman, Andy Cronin, and will be Rossica's last journal published.
Gordon Torrey. The fact that I am still married














4 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Russian Activities in the Arctic


by George Hall
My exhibit called "Russian Studies in the They were taken off only when the ice conditions
Arctic" was received well at both Milcopex and, deteriorated. The Russians were excited by this
most recently, at the Anchorage exhibition. It has success and actually intended to remove the party
been difficult to get judges to give a modem by adirigible until an accident destroyed the ship.
cover exhibit serious consideration and they must Their success led to new efforts and, in the
be "spiced up" with something unexpected. So middle of the 1930s, the Soviets sent a number of
this was my challenge. highly successful long-distance flights from
The thrust of the exhibit was to show the Moscow over the polar regions to the United
broad study programs that have been conducted States. Finally, the program closed on a sad note
to establish a northern seaway, commonly called when a plane piloted by Levanevsky disappeared
the Northeast Passage, support the development and, despite a year-long search, no trace was
of new communities along that route, and report found.
more current ice dynamics studies. The earliest Although stamps have been issued to com-
studies cautiously reported the possibilities of memorate another exceptional event, historical
developing such routes, and the growth of aerial covers of any kind have not been found that
observation skills gave the greatest impetus to might mark the 1934 sinking of the Chelyuskin,
developing this program. In relatively flimsy a newly-built cargo ship with ice breaking capa-
aircraft the pilots showed incredible skill and ability. The vessel went down in an "ice-nip,"
bravery each time they were called to help re- giving only enough time for the 105 passengers
solve some problem. It was Boris Chukhnovskii and crew members to disembark onto the ice.
who flew in support of the search for the Italian Radiograms recently obtained show that in the
dirigible of the Noble party, and actually sighted months before the accident, the Northern Sea
the ice party that left the main camp in search of Route Administration positioned aircraft in the
a rescue contact. In that case, the Russian pilot areaforpossible assistance.The ice party stamped
was unable to relocate his ship in the fog and flew out a runway every day so that despite the chang-
on to another landing point, where he was picked ing ice conditions, the entire ice party was res-
up a week later in relaxed comfort. cued by aircraft in a series of landings without a
The search for actual mail is futile since mishap.
Siberian communications were most commonly Following World War II, a major drive to
sent by radiograms. An example of communica- study the Arctic ice began with the development
tions by radiogram orders is illustrated later. In of a "North Pole 2" station in 1950. Mail from this
1930, a supply convoy was unexpectedly trapped and later stations was released in specially pre-
by ice. Chukhnovskii and three other pilots flew pared envelopes, where the mail was marked
to Zhigansk, where a mechanic was called to "postage due" in Moscow and forwarded to des-
repair engine troubles. After flying over the area, tinations. Alternatively, more rapid messages
Chukhnovskii advised a route for an ice breaker were sent by the station telegrapher and delivered
that alarmed the captain until the pilot landed his in a standard radiogram fashion. The impasse of
plane at the ice breaker and took the captain over the Cold War made some censorship appear for
an area of thin ice he could identify. The convoy number of years. Official communications were
was led out of the ice very quickly. sent on standard radiogram forms as shown in the
In 1937, the famous North Pole Station of message from the station commander to polar
Ivan Papanin became a sensation to the scientific pilot Cherevichni in 1959.
world as an observation station for nine months.
Rossica Journal Number 127 5
October 1996








The popularity of the stations and the ice bits and give a fair appraisal of the stories and
heroes led to a great interest in covers that were material.
provided by the philatelic bureau in Leningrad. This study of the activities in the Arctic by
However, these covers were also mailed directly Russia places emphasis on the current period,
from the ice to my home, as evidenced by the although there is a long record of discoveries by
postal handling markings, the early explorers. The part of Russia known as
The interest in the polar ice field is giving European Russia is populated and developed
way to an interest in testing the skills needed to strongly, while the Siberian region has had a
ski to, or by some other means reach, the North checkered development pattern. This region in-
Pole. Event covers have been printed for these cludes the Arctic Sea basin, consisting of thou-
trips and mark unusual activities. Small numbers sands of miles of ice with a limited number of
of them would likely have been carried due to islands set in the field of ice floes. It has been an
weight restrictions, but they are not generally area of extensive studies since the 1920s, with the
considered mail. collection of information at first classified due to
Through the outstanding help of Andrei theColdWarparanoia, butcurrentlybeingshared
Masanov of the AARI organization, covers have through cooperative work and scientific inter-
been sent to me with remarkable regularity, while changes.
his personal stories of activities sound like Cap- Scientific parties have lived in remote and
tain Horatio Horblower. virtually inaccessible stations in this ice basin
The Russians have been very sensitive about almost continuously since the Papanin party
marking events with philatelic mementos. In proved it was possible in 1938. The information
1988, when the Russian ice ships Admiral gained from the studies has been of great impor-
Makarov and Vladimir Arsen'ev assisted Bar- tance to Arctic navigation, and particularly to the
row, Alaska residents in releasing two California oil development in the Alaska North Slope area.
gray whales from an ice entrapment, they issued For the Russians, the identification of a northeast
only a cover from the Arseniev. The world pub- passage made settlement possible along a very
licity was remarkable and the Russians were in desolate coast.
the center of the effort. Russian icebreakers have plied the ice zone
Tourist cruises to the North Pole and other for many years and recorded many heroic events.
unique polar spots have been marked by covers Russian aircraft have flown in support of the ice
each year since 1990 and tell a number of warm studies since the 1920s.
stories. The most interesting is the 1993 entrap- Mail service is provided for the personnel at
ment of the ice breaker Khlebnikov during an the stations, and the correspondence commonly
effort to circumnavigate Greenland. The ice- travels in special covers, with few personal enve-
breaker Yamal was at the North Pole with a ship lopes today. The means to contact the outside
full of tourists when it was called to assist theice- world was initially provided by a telegraphic
locked ship. To avoid panic, letters from the service and was subject to strict censorship of the
Yamal, in the days leading to the release of the messages, incoming and outgoing. Some station
Khlebnikov, maintained a normalcy including: communications are still sentby telegraph. Phila-
telic mail became a product of the system, and
"when we contact the Khlebnikov, we will look at provides us with a trail of the series of events that
possibilities of transferring across to visit them. We are still ongoing in the north.
havebeeninvitedfor a dinnerBBQ.Andwhat a party Now we will take a look at some of the
that should be!!!" philatelic material exhibited and the stories they
tell. The study has not exhausted all possibilities
Modern Russian covers are beginning to ex- and the field is fertile.
and the field is fertile.
ert an influence in the marking of events and
activities. Judges are willing to look at the exhi-
6 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








The Northern Sea-Route Surveys of 1930

| A ..... |
26 8 8 100

~'I-2 ^- ...OO---- ^.



S.a ftp M .. ----- ^, ,I. a U_- _... -., .. ; H, I I.. .,

1 BPOJIET Al- \ 1 PCY










exchanged by telegraph from Siberian outposts.

(to:/
Moscow, RevolutionaryA Miitary Soviet, attn: Kamenev KaM
e R e-f.IY-n OJauBr 19-A3hC ------- --S s -uvy C -----m-ni o -we ---re c
The airplane of the Northern Sea-Route command left at 0710 hours on 26 JanuAPry. The crew is:
jKimA 4^i~XHUBME-fAi~AE;KCEB CTPAYBE^'EaDTKW '" -- rE* W











Chukhnovskii, Aged by telekseevgraph from Straube, Georgiadi.













[signed] Shalagin"
The telephonically sent form illustrated above contains the following message:

"From Krasnoyarsk, flash

to:
Moscow, Revolutionary Military Soviet, attn: Kamenev
Moscow, Air Force Directorate, attn: Mezheninov
Moscow, DOBROLET, attn: Anders
28.01.30

The airplane of the Northern Sea-Route command left at 0710 hours on 26 January. The crew is:
Chukhnovskii, Alekseev, Straube, Georgiadi.

[signed] Shalagin"

Other appropriate marks indicate the telephone number called, who sent it, and who received it.
Rossica Journal Number 127 7
October 1996








The Northern Sea-Route Surveys of 1930



..P. K .._ ...a ... op. ..... .. .. ............r. .... .np .. ... .
S,. M .. .. .. .. .... ........... ...... ........ ....

HPHYTCHA V V
n p I{YTO A .__.-. Ax peo: .pef :e ...... .......................
.CP403013__HARMOCKBA e:AO.Bp ...POA.ET
S......... ...4 3..... .............o. 5... _.. ... P OI. .OP I ... ,
S^,- C_ P CKlHE IAP HPACHOARPE CKAR

1 a I gn A V17



"BAiiHM PACIIOPHHEHHEM HKR OCK MEXAHHKA OTIIPABTf IRA3APqU BAllEf
1922 EMrAHCHK




.* .., .. .. .....- ...
: "' "- .. .. ................... ... .... .... . ....... ....... r ......... .......... ..... ..






The development of the technique of Aerial Ice Reconnaissance is credited to Boris Chukhnovskii.
In the early years, the pilots had to repair as well as fly the planes. When the task was too great, help
was sent to them.
The telegram illustrated here is a request for assistance and contains the following message:

"From Irkutsk, Urgent

to:
Moscow, DOBROLET, Petrovsky Park,
Krasnoyarskaya Street, No. 17.

Request you send airplane [number] 1922 from Yakutsk with a mechanic from Kazach'e
to Zhigansk."





8 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









A Russian Ice Station on the Pole








ON,


S.0
f r. t .






.,^ ,



































Rossica Journal Number 127 9
OctobeA Russian party led by Ivan Papanin was placed on the North Pole by aircraft on 19 May 19371996
to study polar drift. The party had to be removed by ice breakers on 19 February 1938 at 70 degrees
54 minutes North. Mail was not handled during the drift, but commemorative covers were issued
upon their return (above figure). Illustrated below is a picture of Ivan Papanin with his dog Veselyi.









A Russian Polar Flight Disappeared








AFTER FIVE DAYS RETURN TO )i^^| Rj~j ~ tt^^ ^^^'y' ^








4/ ,.











A long-range flight piloted by Sigmund Levanevskii disappeared over the North Pole in 1937.
When standard search efforts failed, the Russian government contacted Sir Hubert Wilkens to
continue searching on the American side of his route.
The search team consisting of Hollick Kenyon, Allan Dyne, and S.C. Cheesman continued
through two seasons without success.
A small number of covers were canceled at various points during the period of 16 November 1937
to 18 March 1938.















10 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Wireless Communications From the Ice Stations In 1956



,5 MHHHCTepCTBO CB3H CCCP


T. 1 TE E r PAMMA
n o U P 4l A e. "P1W


S4. lpMnHaji: nepea: .

= ,- .














The Russian ice stations used wireless radio to communicate during the long assignments. At
most stations, like North Pole 5, the radio exchanges broke the monotony of the long Arctic nights.00


radio operators. The "Cold War" political impasse caused some limitation in communications since
Se e ere e re Te a e eage ee caBEuy t d on tegrm forms fo
u-o------- KPrI1K O niM~lBH lg-------a --








delivery to the addressee.


The Russian ice stations used wireless radio to communicate during the long assignments. At
most stations, like North Pole 5, the radio exchanges broke the monotony of the long Arctic nights.
Personal messages to the families of personnel assigned to the station received priority handling by
"radio operators. The "Cold War" political impasse caused some limitation in communications since
all messages were censored. The approved messages were carefully typed on telegram forms for
delivery to the addressee.
North Pole 5 was established on 21 April 1955, and the first crew was relieved on 20 April 1956.
The geographic position of the station ranged from 80 degrees to 85 degrees North during the first
year.
The telegram illustrated above contains the following message:

"To Leningrad, Rakova Street 16, Apt. 12, Gudkovich
From the North Pole on the 23rd at 1900 hours.

Began working at North Pole 5. Regards to all. Big, big kiss. Write. Zalman."







Rossica Journal Number 127 11
October 1996








Postal Service From the Russian Ice Stations in 1955




rJIABCEBMOPnYTb MMCD CCCP :': S

1peUv-0yo an HayqHo-uccjnedoeamel bCHaR bint-H4URH

,,CEBEPHblM nlOJ-OC-5"





._? A

V 9








North Pole 5 was established in April 1955 and received infrequent visits by aircraft during the
first year. Planes carried mail to and from the station when the weather permitted and surface
conditions were acceptable for landing. Mail was delivered to Moscow, where it apparently was
screened before being released to the addressee.
Special envelopes were provided without postage and all mail was delivered with postage due
of one ruble. The cover illustrated above was sent to the wife of Zalman Gudkovich in Leningrad in
November 1955.













12 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









Soviet-Canadian Transpolar Ski Expedition of 1988


:;V. IC NA, A TIlWA ., AH J 1: AID, 1ON t C C' P

S Polar Bridge -4S 1 "i
-i o n R O M


) -~ .< ,- n. -
S1. i os19^ os


I .V.L88









Six Russians and six Canadians comprised a joint team that walked over 1000 miles across the
ice to the North Pole as a gesture of friendship. The trip started on 7 March from Anadyr, Siberia and
ended at Cape Columbia, Canada, three and a half months later. The cover illustrated above is a
commemorative of that event.

First Arctic Cruise to the North Pole









I4; eo A N1j j LLI



Mypmacoe i opcoem napcxOACTsO, ATM.WiA AeAOIOt ,PocCa ___ _ __N_

-TH- E FIRST ARCTIC' CRSE--

"wiC IK BREAKER--
ROSSIJA AUGUST 1990
MM. t


The atomic ice breaker Rossiya sailed to the geographic North Pole in August 1990 as an experiment
in the use of the vessels for tourist cruises.
Rossica Journal Number 127 13
October 1996









AANII Expedition, 1978-1979




---bo om".


eHay,.HaR CTaIHtII '. '~C.f1Ei ,.0



L CECEPHbWi48 10
Snomoc



4 'A" I' GEORGE HALL
154 10' -- 13124 STEPHENSON ST.
S"1 ANCHORAGE. AK 99515

::k UBEPHbMIn n.}
nonoc-'r c1-31

S" BIl I01'A ,1 01 I I.,. utwpora 2 / .
'.i ceaepHaLR nooc AT a / -7 /


High latitude studies of the Arctic Ocean were conducted from the drifting ice islands. Support
in gathering data was provided by Antonov II aircraft, which always flew in pairs.



:. 1:4 ... : --.
















Ice samples were studied in the tents erected during the short stays.

14 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








DeLong Archipelago

I 1 .. /........... .. t










S, E OR .E -- L



1 ,,,,P-, --,,, -,,,-'TE P ,O,-,, i-" .OE




.4 L-1 ...... ,,... .. ... c pA








arctic navigation. Ice station Priroda on Chokurdah Island in the DeLong Archipelago directs the
OKEAHfPIi4PQ A





An automated Ice Information System Arktika (ALISA) includes an artificial satellite system
named OKEAN. The buoys report data on ice drift and make sea ice forecasts. The information is
sent by radio to aircraft, satellites, and ships for triangulation mapping in developing assistance to
arctic navigation. Ice station Priroda on Chokurdah Island in the DeLong Archipelago directs the
program. The illustration is a cover from the Priroda station. Illustrated below is one of the buoys used
in the effort.

















Rossica Journal Number 127 15
October 1996









A Tale of Two Whales






VOL. XLIll. NO. 302 9o PAGES ANCHORAGE. ALASKA. FRIDAY. OCTOBER 28. 1988 PRICE 25 CENTS

Whales free, swim toward open sea
Soviets with icebreakers, Eskimos with chainsaws finish the rescue mission


Two whales trapped by closing ice leads near Barrow, Alaska became an international incident
in 1988. The whales were believed to be a yearling and a 2-3 year old California Gray whale. Their
plight attracted hundreds of workers from Barrow as well as two Russian ice ships-Admiral
Makarov and Vladimir Arsen'ev.
Thirteen days of combined effort cleared a path and the whales left, only to return again for two
more days. On 28 October, the whales finally left for good.
Illustrated above are the headlines from the local newspaper. Below is a cover from the Arsen'ev.








';. : S ,\ t ',>. "





S, ""
2; r,.






~








I1MWNTe i KC I llpAtC n ptinpRT C3a93 MCCT h 3H t4e"x



16 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996











The Rescue of the Khlebnikov on 3 September 1993











;3 /f c ;r 64ML i
S.a - .C
-P i t+ 0 a r



4/W.-d 4 3

"/ 0, 0 *. d






ApkTH4ecKiC plC t .ICAOKOa -Ka mlTa XacGu o 0
lio Ccetepo-3aiiaainOMy IpooI:ly H liOpyr rpclllaluI; B* 9


Commemorative cover showing the route of the Khlebnikov plying the Northwest Passage and
around Greenland.







SATURDAY. SEPTEMBER 4. lS BI ABOARD THE I8 YAMAIL
OFF THE GREENLANIND COAST
RESCUE OF KAPITAN KLEBNIKOV -

"There is nothingi-absolutcly notling-hilf so mud, worth doing as simply -
messing about in boals." F z
-Kenelli, Grahame,. 7h Wind in the Willows SLAA D D
rtesirday we ploidlr ah einy d~ffemr hinds oflce a ust te o saw-, Kiia ep amo LA oi si- iptei
Greenland cat, it asnes Lo e wonder haow oany people ia history eawe seen this Woe
lter loneqpp oched rl/f the Arti(k Ast 0600 today. w wmser 36 nials roam ura- Ctit
Kupisen Kleballkorl very Aweay Ice, and w wre about lO adile nofrthkt, of the ou
Gnentlhd u Colasile. IWkecosad hav ingined that when w ltef PRNoWtdoeniy, we qe e I
would sad u ip hrm asrfloes of inlulr he ke sriounsd us nthil ll n ply u bu th ri j'I, 4
crl'fno through uheM iM /h a nnyowr U fui c taio oiea nldel.lk Our sh i riuiply 0 /Ue ;j o

We do nroplasb haomeaforuaipamn d We shohulold he athe Pcinity of4
KItixh klebalhavlr l&e mnmga. It will be afoinaattimg process to watch at both Ice
breakmes esibliuh tamieasfnr/nlde g ATlliill luckily enough Ither ml lowind /
slfa, so wgshld aid beh aslo w r the pirSino alfr TLue aeir senr ur GREE- LANV D
3s t-3 Cr^r. 0y

wiien e esIblish cantata IU lihiiv. ve WHilt ik p l f nfamn /ll
whatpary t'A.should bell 0V
0t60.l700 EARLY MORNING COFFEE IS AVAILABLE AT THECOFFEE STATION.
730gj-0 I DIEAKPAST IS SERVED IN THE DUINIG ROOM.
This morning, wa will spend dsin esioling the Greenland coastline and observing the
appr of our ship o the Kpiron Klediiont.
IZ30-1330 LUNCH IS SERVED IN THE DINING ROOM
14W VIDEO; *POLE TO POLE PART 4.
The aiWniai willI perliyps b spent asnerin tI Kletu bllnd /flying nmand the
eeur.. w*,ll er es..cswfn.d r Map prepared by Andrei Masanov, Yamal ice
16W->1710 AFTERNOON TEA IS AVAILABLE IN THE DINING ROOK
1930-ISH 8Q DINNER IS SERVED AT THE KLEINIKOV. t
21W LATE NIGiVIDEO: CRIMESOFTHE HEART. pilot.
"PLrEASE NOTE THAT TIIERE I NOW AN S IOUR TIME DIPERENCE IBTWIN YAMAL
AND K BUT WE WILL NOT BE ALTERING OUR TIME FRAML
DOCTORl CABIN 40. EXT 11. EMERGENCY CALL 74.
ADIOROOM: OPN AT ALL HOURS OTIE DAY AND NIGHT. EXT 876.

Daily Passenger Program from the Yamal.

Rossica Journal Number 127 17
October 1996









The First Polish-Soviet Postal Convention of 1923


by Jerzy Tokar
(translated by Edward D. Wolski)

The Polish-Bolshevik war of 1919-1920 country (without the possibility of outside non-
ended in a truce on 12 October 1920 and with a postal contacts). The protocol specified the fol-
resolution to cease fire at midnight on 18 Octo- lowing offices for the exchange of mails:
ber. A peace treaty was concluded on 18 March
1921 at Riga and ratified at Minsk, Belarus, in Letters-
April 1921. in Poland: Warsaw, Vil'na, L'vov, Brest-on-
It took a longer time to regulate the postal and Bug;-
telecommunications operations. Apost-and-tele- in the USSR.: Moscow, Petrograd, Khar'kov,
graph convention was signed in Moscow be- Kiev, Odessa, Minsk, Baku.
tween Poland, the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian Money Letters-
SSR, and the Belorussian SSR. (The resolution in Poland: Warsaw and Brest-on-Bug;
of the Soviet Republics for the formation of the in the USSR.: Moscow, Kiev, and Minsk.
USSR. was to become valid only in July 1923.). Parcel Post-
The convention introduced a direct exchange in Poland: Warsaw and Brest-on-Bug;
of ordinary and registered letter mail (postcards, in the USSR.: Minsk and Kiev.
letters, commercial samples), money letters, par-
cels, and telegrams. Money orders, mail paid by Railroad sectors Stolptsy-Negoreloe and
addressee, special delivery (urgent and express), Zdolbunovo-Shepetovka were designated as
subscriptions to periodicals, international reply mail-transfer points(i.e., bags or bundles of mail
coupons, and telephone services were all ex- or of individual items).
cluded from postal operations. There was no limit set for the duration of the
The very lengthy text of the convention (a convention, but it required three-months notice
total of 49 articles) included, among others, pro- from the resigning side. It was to become valid 15
hibition of coded messages and symbols, and days after ratification in the case of letters and
specified the right to suspend postal services for telegrams, and 2 months for money letters and
certain categories of mail. (Such decisions, char- parcels. Due to political reasons, the convention
acteristic of totalitarian regimes, were no doubt of 24 May 1923 was delayed.
introduced by the Soviet side.) The Polish side ratified the convention on 17
On the same day (24 May 1923) the conven- December 1924 with validity as of 11 January
tion was signed, a "supplementary protocol" was 1925 (Daily Records 1925, #1, pos. 7). This fact
signed which made resolutions to the convention was made public with the announcement of the
binding within the Transcaucasian Socialist Re- Polish President printed in the Daily Records of
publics, with which the Russian SFSR. con- 12 March 1925, No. 26, pos. 114. This meant that
cluded a treaty on 24 May 1922 to merge the post, the 1923 convention became valid:
telephone, telegraph, and radio-telephone of-
fices under a joint People's Commissariat for -for letters and telegrams on 26 January 1925
Posts and Telegraph in Moscow. -for money letters and parcels on 11 March
The "Supplementary Protocol" with 18 ar- 1925.
tides included detailed regulations for the ex-
change of mails and conditions for the presence
of postal personnel on the territory of a foreign

18 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Thus, postal and telegraph communications All letters that circulated between the USSR
between Poland and the U.S.S.R. were legally and Poland during the interim period (1921-
established four years after the conclusion of the 1924), when postal services were not regulated,
Riga Peace Treaty. However, letters from the are extremely rare. Letters from such republics as
USSR reached Poland during the interim period Azerbaidjan are considered unique without con-
(1921-1924). It is not known what means were sidering the stamps, which are also regarded as
used to convey correspondence, but the fact is rare.
documented with letters illustrated in this article. Please note that according to the Michel
Figures 6-8 show covers mailed during the time catalog, overprinted Azerbaidjan stamps Nos.
of separate mail services in Azerbaidjan. Some 48-59a (Scott Nos. 38-55, 65-72) were issued in
have a sender's note "Zakaznoe" (Registered), 1923. But the last cover illustrated (fig. 8), with
which would indicate that registered letters to stamps No. 51 + IV + 55a (Scott Nos. 43, 55, 66),
Poland were not processed as such, prior to the mailed from Baku on 7 December 1922, estab-
validity date of the postal convention. Postmarks lishes that these stamps were in circulation early
present on the letters indicate that most of the in December 1922.
letters to Poland went via Moscow, one via
Petrograd, and one via Kovno.













|------- ----i


4Ii7.













Figure 1. A cover mailed on 3 May 1921 at Vinnitsa, Ukraine to Lodz', Poland, arriving 17 June 1921. On the reverse
is a Moscow 5th Dispatch Office mark of 18 May 1921. On the front (top) is a Moscow routing mark of the "three-
triangles" style, dated 19 May 1921. The cover is handmade from a sheet of paper of Polish origin. This is the earliest
known letter mailed to Poland after the conclusion of the Riga Peace Treaty.
Rossica Journal Number 127 19
October 1996















,oo 63ka. /-








































(different Vitebsk postmark on reverse, at bottom) to Vil'no. A Kovno postmark was applied to the reverse (date is
illegible) with only the year 23 visible.



20 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996













illegible) with only the year 23 visible.



October 1996































^7 ^.-A2. (~ 'r l ',,, "" \-
-. ...--, .- --



































Figure 3. A letter mailed at the Volochisk Railway Post Office on 1 February 1923. Volochisk is in Ukraine on the
Zbruch River, which in those days formed the Polish-Soviet border. On the opposite side of the river was Podvolochisk,
Poland. The letter went via Moscow on 5 February 1923 and reached Warsaw on 10 February 1923.





Rossica Journal Number 127 21
October 1996
October 1996





















"4-' 4.








<* .


























Figure 4. A cover from Uvda, Minsk Province to Warsaw on 3 February 1923 via Petrograd, where it was stamped
on the front of the cover, and at the 1st Dispatch Office on the reverse. Both dates are 8 February 1923.



22 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996











o L.' ^ E- /. -'^ ^ ^
bi--


/I, I./l' w^





(*2 I -
























Figure 5. A cover to Lodz'from Odessa on 20 December 1924. The letter went via Warsaw, where it was stamped on
27 December 1924 and arrived in Lodz' on 28 December 1924.




Rossica Journal Number 127 23
October 1996



































? .......
C-"
























Figure 6. An envelope from Baku, mailed on 11 September 1922 to Lokhov, Sedlets Province. The letter is franked with
nine Azerbaidjan stamps (Michel No. 46, Scott No. 35). The letter went via Moscow, where it was stamped on 16
September 1922.








24 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996













z/ t /


~ -%.




v-.





"ji. 2 I 2 7. IX.Ma I ---














Figure 7. A cover mailed in Baku on 19 September 1922 and stamped by the Baku dispatch office on 21 September 1922.
It arrived in Moscow on 27 September 1922, whence it was forwarded to Warsaw, arriving on 3 October 1922. It is
franked with Azerbaidjan stamps (Michel Nos. 24, 45, 47/ Scott Nos. 16, 34, 36).


Rossica Journal Number 127 25
October 1996









































Figure 8. An envelope to Warsaw, mailed in Baku on 7 December 1922. It went through Moscow on 12 December 1922
and arrived in Warsaw on 19 December 1922. Franked with Azerbaidjan stamps (Michel Nos. 51, IV, 55a/Scott Nos.
43, 55, 66).


26 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996
l~;jy~ L\.;n^ )^fZ~ ZZ-r;P2le
---f-2 < ^ -c. ----------

c~~,U2pw J 8 k ~Td




I-~ ,a






$ rt4 ^ &^ e '
^ ^
^a^^^ *















October 1996









The Unrecognized Pridniester Moldovan Republic (PMR)

by Vladimir Babici
The territory of the Republic of Moldova is "Suvorov." On 22 August 1994, the PMR intro-
located on the left bank of the Dniester River. The duced its own currency, called the ruble. The
republic is comprised of five administrative re- exchange rate was 1 lei = 1,000 rubles. On 1
gions with centers at Grigoriopol' November 1995,the exchange rate was 1:30,000.
(FPHIOPHOFHOJIb), Dubossary (aYBOCCAPbI), The post is administered through the Minis-
Kamenka (KAMEHKA), Rybnitsa (PbIBHHILA), ter of Communications and issued its first stamps
and Slobodzeya (CJIOBOA3E5I). on 31 December 1993. The high level of inflation
On the right bank of the Dniester River prohibited the use of Moldovan stamps and
(aHECTP) lies the Pridniester Moldovan Repub- prompted the PMR to use locally-produced
lic with centers at Tiraspol'(THPACHOJIb) and stamps. On 1 January 1995, Moldova began
Bendery (BEHAEPbl). The capital is Tiraspol'. overprinting stamps with "MOJn2IOBA HnOTA."
The PMR declared The PMR over-
its independence IXu' -iiM Came2 a printed stamps with
from the Republic -' ecla HOMTA HMP" and
of Moldova on 2 ari 7 prepared stamps with
September 1990. MeNe \ TA s small distinctive fea-
They established BTaepnHOIK oaa 3 turesforeveryregion
the infrastructure ITManuM 2 fl R3a3 and the cities of
necessary to run a 3 Tiraspol' and Ben-
government, in- PE3 t Y dery. All the postal
cluding aPresident, PacnonenH 27 AHAHbE establishments inthe
parliament, and po- 52 ep e PMR were free to sell
litical and social or- K y e and use Moldovan
ganizations. One stamps for corre-
encounters three Ou nnICHO spondence to Mol-
languages in the 1Cyce 22 2 dova and beyond.
PMR: Moldovan 'pa14 EEB 26 D Ho 3atWb, However, for inter-
using the Cyrillic al- '- f nal PMR mail, they
phabet, Russian, ones CCAPbI used the locally-pro-
and Ukrainian. The Y duced stamps.
official language of 7 pmro i"b an H By the beginning
the Moldova is 1 I B-yn \,^ of 1995,thePMRhad
Moldovan using the M H E Ben issued 28 stamps, 5
Latin alphabet. 36 souvenir sheets, 3
On 29 Novem- i s" cacheted envelopes
ber 1993, Moldova HOTO Ho ANe with indicia of origi-
introduced its na- EHIEP nal stamps, 4 post-
tional currency, the Ano cards with original-
lei.In thePMR, they 7 A design indicia, and
used Soviet cur- IV 12(miniature) sheets
rency overprinted ,32 s 14 with original design.
n-r
Map showing the Republic of Moldova on the left and the PMR on the right. Arrows point to the PMR.
Rossica Journal Number 127 27
October 1996















Dates Type of Correspondence Public Rate Commercial Rate

Up to 31 January 1994 ordinary postcard 8.00 16.00
(Suvorov ruble) registered postcard 24.00 48.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 12.00 24.00
registered letter 24.00 48.00

1 February-21 August 1994 ordinary postcard 20.00 60.00
(Suvorov ruble) registered postcard 40.00 100.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 30.00 100.00
registered letter 60.00 200.00

22 August-31 October 1994 ordinary postcard 1.00 3.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 2.00 10.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 2.00 5.00
registered letter 3.00 10.00

Single rate for public and commercial mail
1 November-31 December 1994 ordinary postcard 14.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 59.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 15.00
registered letter 60.00

1 January-31 March 1995 ordinary postcard 56.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 236.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 60.00
registered letter 240.00

1 April-31 July 1995 ordinary postcard 112.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 472.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 120.00
registered letter 480.00

1 August-31 October 1995 ordinary postcard 440.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 1,880.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 480.00
registered letter 1,920.00

From 1 November 1995 ordinary postcard 2,750.00
(PMR ruble) registered postcard 11,750.00
ordinary letter to 20 grams 3,000.00
registered letter 12,000.00

PMR postal rates since the introduction of the Moldovan currency unit, the lei.















28 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996










Rates up to 31 January 1994













Kyoa





f. : k lt'''V

















--- -.'- _V -/ ...
CI TT NAC A IIAIpT -- -







,,,slnr. "1""' ,,"*'" ,,,,, ,( .. II' '1'



Examples of ordinary letters less than 20 grams posted at 12 rubles.











Rossica Journal Number 127 29
October 1996









Rates up to 31 January 1994





i^ t;. y 7i i.,' /*..., -

c Ln> 2p B.'.

"-o m4-iui h MOa


,. .... J










I.--'
]. ltkl pL,':llpl Ii t i lt,! t








Arc nrAp)aHprof Cfn 4 ,c QI.ptTAM
e9 -
-- 7 /i ~ ii1 i _I_ I _I
] :2I1 ="
















October 1996
7c ro


















lO-rub. stamp of Moldova, and two Soviet ]-rub. stamps.
30 Rossica Journal Number 127




October 1996
Octobr 19






















____ __ __ ....________ __
S00

Si0





cr . .'" .. I "----,.-----, 3


I I



,.,- .. -.
** :'":: I Ii




Y_ -' .... .- __ -, I_._





WW- / (s ~ le L




I, I IA.t *1I,,. ... : ... j .. b4... b4. 1,g "









^ Examples of letters less than 20 grams. The two examples on the left are franked at the public rate of 30 Suvorov rubles. The two examples
on the right are franekd at the commercial rate of 199 Suvorov rubles.








Rates from 1 February to 21 August 1994



SPER, __3 HHCTPRH
C



... "K ./}. 3, ,, 05.


'. I ..12AnPEA-
AEHb Aom g Y __
KOCMOHABTHKH



I( L r 1 ~











'19 19o c









The cover at top is an example of a registered item weighing less than 20 grams and franked at the public rate of 60
Suvorov rubles. The registered postcard at the bottom is franked at the public rate of 40 Suvorov rubles.
32 Rossica Journal Number 127











October 1996
32 Rossica Journial Number 127
October 1996









Rates from 22 August to 31 October 1994











Kyou .001W






., t'J l-'
: 7r -7 -"


























!L ._: --.. .. .....
C F1PA.3 14Z e :7W1 KQA








*/ t.(L/7 ^- )A-










At the top are examples of ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams andfranked at the commercial rate
of 5 PMR rubles. At the bottom is a registered letter weighing less than 20 grams franked at the commercial rate of 10
PMR rubles.
Rossica Journal Number 127 33
October 1996

















0) 1*5 rflhil *




Kydao
Kyaa


oc o
-a~~ ~-


4)


O :er M ;iie


"" o- mi
10III
Ordnar ce n weihin ls ta 2 grm frul
r PE CEd


Ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams franked at 15 PMR rubles.









Rates from 1 November to 31 December 1994








D .. sDt














Dl e
W* ww 6f i' /".; i













S M t Mt V 2- "I_ doll t$,"I
4, r







C_ py^ e^L^/ctr 6________





































A registered letter weighing less than 20 grams franked at the rate of 60 PMR rubles.
Rossica Journal Number 127 35
October 1996
--Or Iu Iw 'e6i ____
---ririr~i;3 7- ^A e~a/^















nri uc npurrmi coi ows (--- --- us '""--





"October 1996













~ Cc ~
.1' / r ( fl-iTA 0
in~~ &.. =O
Ix 0








0)
r (,Or" ea









Kya
wtl





NO \3
^~~' rr^ .. ^. -*i^ i ^^ -^ ^ 1


I F^^B^B ^y^^-^^^


(o ..- '' ,_ *L~~l ii^^ f~~ t^^



IV v














Ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams franked at the rate of 60 PMR rubles.
E;; 2ii^!~si~~ S^rnil;a 6ZM k^^^'lvr** ^^
C c i ------ ^ tl ^ v___.
?7^ -------- ~jrl 5- M \^ W I; ^ ^ ^
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ i r
Oriaycrepnec egigls hn2 rm frake atth raeof6 PM ruble .F
4 r
,oi L r~m









Rates from 1 January to 31 March 1995





nOLiTAlnMP










Kowanaup 49 r.PAeaiOsOM W O"conozaoj coapeM"H pU
An 0B. O.MAPrEJiOB (1908-199 V.' 50

"Ky da ITP
-' / /,v ,--'"








Capela family i Donici. .
1848

v\j .r I 'r.iuu,*r.; a :


I



... .. W-*Co.w iM d* d"_ e?'-








Examples of registered letters weighing less than 20 grams and franked at the rate of 240 PMR rubles.
Rossica Journal Number 127 37
October 1996miliei Do.


Examples of registered letters weighing less than 20 grams and franked at the rate of 240 PMR rubles.





Rossica Journal Number 127 37
October 1996








Rates from 1 April to 31 July 1995







;b 21tAI ~-?*






















a p k .. .. .



~ -a-- __ __________




















At top are examples of ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams franked at the rate of120 PMR
rubles. At bottom are examples of registered correspondence franked at the rate of 480 PMR rubles.
38 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996
k*pppimii m ii < f -
At top are examples co e o e e i




rubles A b m ae e-xamle ofregis d c e n l f rake1t h rt o P rub3l
38^i Rossica Journa Numbe 12
,Otoe 1996




















^^^^^,^^ __jg.>--^^^^^ ,_^_^ ^^ A??o? reeamle o rdnay orepodec wigin ls tan20gam/rnkdatth rt o 10 M
ruble.a Atbto reeape o eitre orsonec rnkda h rt f40 M ls
38~~~~~~ RosiaJoralNubr 2
;1 ~October 1996












;. 100 100

0 l 0 (k TA







-J -', *.
C? C



















iV
Kyda

































Ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams franked at the rate of 480 PMR rubles.
\00 100'4 I 1



















%LkI C- -
\Cr








Rates from 1 August to 31 October 1995



3AKA3HOE
3 _fit

20 9200










- --- -- II-










--Mawiec1p'i -- --U-- 3q MCC 1 _




Examples of registered correspondence weighing less than 20 grams and franked at the rate of 1920 PMR rubles.








40 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









Rates from 1 November 1995






-I~(


TAMP.. ETnMP
t.'- __,-c- "nJ



\ 1n ,1 ,1 1i i i i

......... ........















3AKA3HOE fl MP

131 1 12000





!------






S. . o1fAM 4, -








At top are examples of ordinary correspondence weighing less than 20 grams and franked at the rate of 3000 PMR
rubles. At bottom is an example of a registered coverfranked at the rate of 12000 PMR rubles. The cover has not been
postally used.

Rossica Journal Number 127 41
October 1996









Examples of Moldovan postal frankings



4T


^ -- ^ / ^

























Kyc a
,4Z4 t-C7 .





























At top: ordinary letter weighing less than 20 grams, franked at the rate of 3 rubles.
Middle: ordinary letter weighing less than 20 grams going to former Soviet Republics, franked at the rate of 45 ban'.
At bottom: ordinary Airmail letter weighing less than 20 grams going abroad, franked at the rate of 150 ban'.




42 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996
LJI SiJ C1^ ftl 1-e /S [:
t A1.5 ^ '^' 9 1 ,^9' e- C*7 ^ /- /




At top: ordinary letter weighing less than 20 grams, franked at the rate of 3 rubles.
Middle: ordinary letter weighing less than 20 grams going toformer Soviet Republics, franked at the rate of 45 ban'.
At bottom: ordinary Airmail letter weighing less than 20 grams going abroad, franked at the rate of 150 ban'.




42 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









Zemstvo Look-Alike


by George G. Werbizky

The Alatyr'-AJIATbIPb- zemstvo in Simbirsk design.3 One can reasonably conclude that both
Province issued only two stamps, both in 1867, the stamp and the seal have the same origin and
which are considered rare-No. 1 is rated "RRR" were made by the same printer. The official seal
(3 known) and No. 2 is rated "R" (25 known).1 is that of the Simbirsk Office for Peasants' Af-
Dangerous counterfeits exist, especially with the fairs-CHMBHPCKOE FYBEPHCKOE IIPHCYT-
advent of modem copier technology. The sim- CTBHE HO KPECTbSHCKHM 2EJIAM. The letter
plicity of the design adds to the problem. Most was postmarked in Simbirsk on 22 September
catalogs show either inaccurate examples or forg- 1874 and arrived in Korsun' the next day, where
series of these stamps.2 it was re-addressed and dispatched on 24 Sep-
Recently, I acquired a free frank letter which tember 1874 (fig. 1).
was closed with an official seal of a similar




^-/a^i^--/ i~y'^i^ -l^ /7/:<*^--< ?^-<<- ytfe













igti















Figure 1. Free-frank letter (reduced) bearing a seal of the Simbirsk Province Office of Peasants' Affairs. Front at top,
reverse at bottom.
Rossica Journal Number 127 43
October 1996
*>.^* i-


',; /^ *'"^ s



;'1/"L ..1







October 1996








The Alatyr' No. 2 and the seal are shown References:
enlarged in fig. 2. The seal is slightly larger than 1. Schmidt, C. "Sammlung Russischer
the stamp, but the ornament, star in double circle, Landschaftsmarken im Reichspostmuseum,"
is the same. Using the ornament as a unit of Berlin, 1934.
measure, the seal is 11 x 10 ornaments, while the 2. Werbizky, George G. "Zemstvo Forgeries,
stamp is 10 x 8 ornaments. Errors Perpetuated by Catalogs, and Com-
What is the rarity of the seal? Can any reader ments," Rossica No. 119, October 1992.
help? 3. Werbizky, George G. "Free-Frank Mail in
Imperial Russia," Rossica No. 122, April
1994.





I '"zama i B


E UAIATOB. W






Figure 2. Simbirsk seal on the left, Alatyr' No. 2 on the right.





Troubles in leaving Russia with your stamps


By Michael Tereshko

In a Readers' Opinions letter in the March 27, moval of personal, private possessions from the
1995, Linn's collector Alan Valente recalled Russian Federation have become much more
some of the problems he encountered when he stringent than they were in the Soviet Union.
attempted to get philatelic material through Rus- Collectors should be aware that, according to
sian customs. I would like to share my personal Russian Federation law, all philatelic material
experiences regarding the removal of my stamp that is acquired in Russia must be expertized
collection from Russia. prior to being taken out of the country.
With the Moscow international philatelic This law applies to new issues, as well as
exhibition coming up in October 1997, this is a older stamps, and includes both Russian and
timely topic. Any stamp collector who plans to foreign philatelic material.
attend this exhibition (or be in Russia for any The stated purpose of this mandatory
reason) should read the following carefully. expertizing is twofold.
In general, the regulations governing the re- First, the government expertizer determines

44 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









the value of the stamps so that customs duties can plus with no faulty stamps, the evaluation at full
be levied on them. Michel is absurd. The market value of this mate-
Secondly, he disallows the removal of "for- rial is nowhere near $14,000. Half that figure is
bidden stamps," i.e., stamps that are not allowed probably closer to reality.
to be taken out of the country. Collectors who are taking stamps into Russia
Paradoxically, the list of forbidden stamps should also beware. Russian law requires that,
has grown considerably since the beginning of upon entry into the country, the collectors submit
alleged democratic and free market reforms in to customs a list that includes a description of
1992. each stamp with its corresponding Michel cata-
Except for a few non-Scott listed variations, log number.
all Soviet and Russian Federation stamps issued Before exiting Russia, the stamps must be
between 1970 and 1996 are allowed to be taken expertized to make sure that only the material
out of the country. However, about half the many that was brought in is being taken out.
Soviet miniature sheets issued during this period The same expertizing fees I've described are
are on the forbidden list. paid by the collector in order to leave the country
The list of forbidden stamps is not extensive with his personal private possessions that he
for Soviet material issued from 1950 to 1969. brought into Russia.
But, many of the key series and souvenir sheets I think it is obvious that all of this amounts to
of that period are not allowed to be taken out of nothing more than another one of the myriad
the country, governmental and private rackets that proliferate
Collectors can forget about any stamps that in the "new" Russia.
were issued by the Soviet Union from 1918 to The restriction of the individual's right to
1949. I would estimate that about one-half to dispose of or remove his personal, private pos-
two-thirds of these issues are on the forbidden sessions is totally inconsistent with even the
list. minimal norms of a civilized democratic society
Even if this early material could be legally and the market economy that the Yeltsin regime
taken out of the country, the customs' duty on supposedly espouses.
these items would be quite expensive. The argument that the government is protect-
All philatelic material is taxed at 2 percent of ing national historic and cultural relics is laugh-
its full value according to the German Michel able. Russian speculators have been freely re-
catalog, regardless of condition, moving all sorts of philatelic material out of the
The expertizing fee is 20 percent of the cus- country through their own channels for the past
toms' duty that has been determined by the gov- five years.
ernment expertizer. Russian regulations only serve to punish the
An additional 30,000 rubles ($6) is charged innocent collector who is trying to preserve his
for the expertizing certificate that must be pre- collection and abide by the law.
sented to customs' agents when paying the duty The inconvenience and psychological effect
at the airport upon exiting the country, of the procedural aspects of the mandatory
For example, my mint collection of Soviet expertization cannot be understated.
stamps issued from 1950 to 1991 was valued at I had to make my appointment with the gov-
20,500 German deutschemarks (about $14,000). ernment expertizer almost a week in advance.
This does not include the rarer issues that were On the appointed day, I hauled 14 KA-BE
disallowed. The customs' duty was about $280, albums by taxi to the offices of the Committee for
expertizing fee was $56, and the expertizing Culture of the City of Moscow, which is located
certificate cost $6. at No. 8 Nyehglinnaya Ulitsa near the Bolshoi
Despite the fact that my collection for this Theater.
period is complete and the condition is very fine- (continued on page 60.)

Rossica Journal Number 127 45
October 1996










Weights, Rates, and Routes

by A. Epstein

Leonard Tann (Rossica No. 125), having would like to expand this review into the whole
turned the reader's attention to the "humble imperial and even a bit of the post-imperial
stamp" in connection with its intended purpose, period, specifying additionally the beginning and
demonstrated once more his knack of finding end of each rate. The tables below presents the
interesting features in virtually common matters, rate for correspondence by dates. Illustrations
So I willingly take his challenge to show more of presented in this article for each rate are listed
the appropriate material. Leonard seems to limit under the rate in parenthesis.
himself to the time after the turn of the century. I


Rate From/To: Intended Purpose

1 kopeck 15 Apr. 1866 to 31 Dec. 1869 domestic printed matter up to 3 1/4 lots (41.6 grams)
1 Jan. 1870 to 31 Mar. 1889 local printed matter on a single sheet of paper of
(figs. 1-6) standard size
1 Apr. 1889 to 14 Aug. 1917 local printed matter less than 1 lot (12.4 grams)
beg. 1900s to 30 Nov. 1915 local greeting postcards (no more than 5 words)
and visiting-cards in open envelopes

2 kopecks 1865 to 18 Jun. 1875 foreign printed matter
1 Jan. 1870 to 31 Dec. 1871 domestic printed matter up to 3 1/4 lots (41.6 grams)
(figs. 7-12) 1 Jan. 1872 to 18 Jun. 1875 domestic printed matter up to 3 lots (37.2 grams)
19 Jun. 1875 to 31 Aug. 1917 foreign printed matter up to 50 grams
1 Apr. 1879 to 14 Aug. 1917 domestic printer matter from 1 to 8 lots (12.4 to 99.2 grams)
beg. 1900s to 30 Nov. 1915 domestic greeting postcards (no more than 5 words) and
visiting cards in open envelopes
1 Feb. 1917 to 26(?) Mar. 1917 ordinary postcards to officers and men on active military duty
15 Aug. 1917 to 27 Feb. 1918 domestic printed matter up to 2 lots (24.8 grams)
local printed matter up to 4 lots (49.6 grams)

3 kopecks 1 Jan. 1872 to 19 Mar. 1879 ordinary local postcards
1 Jan. 1872 to 14 Mar. 1909 ordinary local letters, except St. Petersburg and Moscow
(figs. 13-17) 20 Mar. 1879 to 31 Mar. 1889 ordinary foreign postcards
20 Mar. 1879 to 14 Aug. 1917 ordinary local and domestic postcards
15 Mar. 1909 to 20 Sep. 1914 ordinary local letters up to 4 lots (49.6 grams) for all towns

4 kopecks 19 Jun. 1875 to 19 Mar. 1879 ordinary domestic postcards
1 Apr. 1889 to 31 Aug. 1917 ordinary foreign postcards
(figs. 18-20) 15 Mar. 1909 to 20 Sep. 1914 ordinary local letters 4 to 8 lots (49.6 to 99.2 grams)
for all towns

5 kopecks 1865 to 31 Dec. 1871 ordinary local letters for town post
1 Jan. 1872 to 18 Jun. 1875 ordinary domestic postcards
(figs. 21-26) 20 Mar. 1879 to 14 Mar. 1909 ordinary local letters in St. Petersburg and Moscow
21 Sep. 1914 to 14 Aug. 1917 ordinary local letters for all towns
1 Feb. 1917 to 26(?) Mar. 1917 ordinary letters to officers and men on active military duty
15 Aug. 1917 to 27 Feb. 1918 ordinary domestic postcards






46 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996
































Figure 1. Early, local printed matter from Moscow, dated 24 February 1880 and franked with
a 1-kop. stamp of the 1866-issue on horizontally-laid paper.





























"Figure 2. Local printed matter from St. Petersburg, franked with a 1-kop. stamp of the 1909 issue
(vertically-laid paper) and canceled with a geometric numerla cancel "4" of the Town Post on 7
March 1904.







Rossica Journal Number 127 47
October 1996





































- - -










C:.'n.te -U'.













il







Figure 3. Local sending with a visiting card announcing a betrothal. The card was
posted in St. Petersburg on 3 November 1904, franked with a 1-kop. stamp from the 1902
issue. The front of the cover is illustrated at the top. The reverse of the cover and the
announcement are illustrated at the bottom.








48 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996












*t. 4- .
^ OTKPbhTOE LIIP..D J



















card from 1911 franked with a 1-kop. stamp of the 1909 issue and canceled by a cachet of the
.05 ....B .. .*Tel. .l .W..3v.T..








..::S .............. ........ ..........
.... .. ....... ...... ....
S. .. ..... .. .. ... ..... ..... .........

Figure 4. Rare example of the use of the I-kop. rate at a country location. A New Year's greeting
card 5. Unommo 1911 franked with a 1-kop. stamp of the 1909 issue and canceled by a cachet of the
Alexandrovskii Rural Court. Although there was no postal agency at this particular Rural District
Administration, apparently it was authorized to receive anddeliver local mail with greetings during













Rossic a Journal Number 127 49hol


B TBOOctober 1996TO5TC t

'o..........




Figure 5. Uncommon use of a 1-kop. War Charity stamp of the 1914 issue for franking a local
printed-matter item from Moscow on 18 November 1915.

Rossica Journal Number 127 49
October 1996



































Figure 6. Use of a 1-kop. War Charity stamp like fig. 5 on a local New Year's greeting card from
Riga on 1 January 1915.




























Figure 7. Early, inland printed matter from Revel' to Pernov, franked with a horizontally-laid
2-kop. stamp of the 1875 issue and canceled on 4 December 1880.






50 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996





























be C ul. ge' rl c ra
Derciut4.
Hiu ?r t ritlll




Figure 8. Inland printed matter from Derpt to Vendau, franked with a 2-kop. stamp of the 1888 issue (light green) and
canceled on 18 April 1890.






U;


























Rossica Journal Number 127 51
October 1996
^~ ~ (r -',^






















October 1996














S|" ,, Ot!TOBA9I KAPTO KII(A.









../ ... .... .... ........ 1 K--- -.. ^ ^-

SI -/ L








Figure 10. Postcard to the 310th Shatsk Regiment from Vezenberg, franked with a 2-kop. stamp of
the 1909 issue and canceled on 13 February 1917.








js .'"':,'! .i /< r'.




.. ..... . ...... .. .
---- /^ ^ ^ ^ ---














Figure 11. Localprinted-mattercardfrom Vezo on 20 September 1917,franked with a 2-kop stamp
of the 1909 issue.



52 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996












F-- n

S.*










..















1- /4f f


Figure 12. Domestic wrapper from Moscow to Simbirsk, franked with a pair of 1-kop.
stamps of the 1909 issue and canceled 21 December 1917.











1F hr / .6
O r -o t.











][. Oixla..rohl I1v!i1iO11 Jii OdiiihIn m biKTi. CUOJI~ia OZ1J1&IHO COO;flt.T
1T pIII IClOIIU I0Cl 1O1 l(llO 11111) lult, |I
; /cla-ily ^ L' '- ';CC 1'7r L' .

li1 oruA't irulz-lu lil 2 iMb nIptc' Ie ploanoz.nercn 2'rIW ,
j f' ll0 0 Ill.ly l --


;| ..... ....... .

.bhr litlll SArOTLilitU rO.CFAAVCltiUUltlli fMAh.


Figure 13. Local postcard from St. Petersburg, franked with a 3-kop. stamp of the 1866 issue
and canceled on 2 November 1872.


Rossica Journal Number 127 53
October 1996












SOTKPblTOE nMCbMO b

': .. -.







.. .. ., / .







Figure 14. 3-kop. postal stationery card of the 1872 issue, used in Moscow on 7 May 1876.
-,./ / I"







Figure 14. 3-kop. postal stationery card of the 1872 issue, used in Moscow on 7 May 1876.








Corp















Figure 15. Ordinary local letter from Yur'ev, franked with a 3-kop. stamp of the 1891 issue and canceled 8 January
1896.





54 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









































Figure 16. Ordinary local letterfrom Yur'ev, franked with a 2-kop. and a I-kop. stamp of the 1902
issue and canceled 22 May 1908.
I- l -











































Figure 17. Ordinary local letter (front at toplfrom St.




..*%






























Figure 16. Ordinary local letter from Yur'ev, franked with a 2-op. and a -kop. stamp ofthe 1902
issueon the reverse, at bottom left) and canceled on 26 Aprl908.



4 ,*,4 ', 4,







'(on the reverse, at bottom left)and canceled on 26April

1909, which is after the introduction of the new rate for
town letters.


Rossica Journal Number 127 55
October 1996























,- ------- ...... .."( .I
L 1143 l11'I1, 1.







iI I I
rYI.zIJ ). Kl 6
" j .I(I ..(I i '_^ l^* }iC%) j ''0j'1) l iO C5lriT CL10 llfOd l 'I.OIf I'ii0 CJ T i.- Oi T
ll ^ % f ll0{P T) l i'j)* ( *)l (1 ClMl.l^lll1O.







Figure 18. Ordinary domestic postcard from Derpt to Revel', franked with a pair of 2-
kop. stamps of the 1875 issue and canceled on 12 August 1879.







QTPbITQTOE I;Gb.MO

IorI'OPO HnoE.



.... ... ........... .. ............... ......


S.......................... ................... ... ........... ...... .....................
... ....... ... ...... -----. ./.....









1. 'IrO I IC.&LOI(.ITlihV I e'UJ l > I l i OqTO A 0 UUI M ,OTP IABAMO 11. n Ol *O1I 1
ACT.I lInepli un lu rpaiqi '-
2. Hi aTrol Coponlti pol1t aAPup ie Aoamoaxerts uutero Apyraro uncamr.




Figure 19. A 4-kop. postal stationery postcard of the 1875 issue, sent from St. Petersburg to
Revel' in September 1878.



56 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996



























I I















Figure 20. Overweight ordinary local letter from Doblen, franked with a 4-kop. stamp of the
1909 issue and canceled 4 August 1912.











?




w n.*n-/ 7 [ .. t,







CCiI1".vl I l (llollo rKlfcIc APoil l .Inco
iW.-AL I 0 11--1- (( T1






"S B,-,,LhBI -H Ar1,





Figure 21. Ordinary domestic postcard from Gapsal' to Revel', franked with a 5-kop. stamp
of the 1866 issue and canceled 21 March 1875.


Rossica Journal Number 127 57
October 1996
October 1996
















I ti noPoro po H .po we ;oio^a^ |erop







ll .~~............~.....__.^:. ......... ..











Figure 22. A 5-kop. postal stationery postcard of the 1872 issue for domestic mail sent to









i ", E" ;i ^ -" ,. ,-r ... .^f i, -- ,. ,
", 1. -Ti nwcs e Me 6uT" OBv e'o mi. n. ," xm xJ "C T
S eT. -. : .
Z//. lf* noi 'TDpoir "p"X* ""APsts X6 Ao3RoA ",MoO v "" '-


















^ "-'-O--2 ,K .


issue 22.and canceled on 2 Decembstationery postcard of the 1872 issue1868.for domestic mail sent to


58Zhitomirfrom St. Petersburg on 26 August 1875, which is two months after the rate wasNumber 127
October d to 4
I








-- .. I -






Figure 23. Early, ordinary letter from St. Petersburg, franked with a 5-kop. stamp of the 1865
issue and canceled on 2 December 1868.




58 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996
















; *I- -
.. . ,. ... ; .












r if
V : : '.. .





--




















r.K IN -e f 4c-
". : _<;,A.. : '. .


































Figure 25. Ordinary local letter o ". rom Revel"r, franked with a 5-kop. stamp .













of the 1912 issue and canceled on 21 January 1917.
Rossica Journal Number 127 59
October 1996
... ..




and icned on., 1 anr 1909.

















o2 c n l on 21 J n ay1 917.













October 1996
















21 2

N7
















Figure 26. Ordinary letter to a soldier on active duty with the Pavlovsk Regiment from Marien-Magdalinen,
franked with a 5-kop. stamp of the 1912 issue and canceled on 26 March 1917, which is the last day this rate
was in effect.




WORLD PHILATELIC EXHIBITION PACIFIC 97


.- .EK: 'I a' ,



This event promises to be as large as any international recently held. Many of the world's postal
administrations will be represented as well as a bourse of approximately 300. Three major auctions
will be conducted by international auction houses. The open competition anticipates over 3,500
frames in all areas of philately.

For further information, contact your national commissioner.

Rossica is anticipating a large turnout since we have many members in the area. Come on out and
join us for some philatelic good times. Come out and put some faces to names. Ask questions of
people who may have expertise in an area. Plan on enjoying yourself and having a grand old time.



60 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








The 1942-43 Censormarks of the Red Army's
Military Postal Sorting Offices


by Dave Skipton

In my article on the Soviet military fluid that some organization had to keep track of
censormarks of 1942 to 1943, the "type 3" mark- where all the units were, what their field post
ings with a number over the censor's number was numbers were, and which field post stations
simply noted, with no guess offered as to what served which outfits. That role was played by the
Army entity they represented. That blank spot VPSPs, and it was logical to assign military
can now be filled in. censors to them. Some VPSPs definitely stayed
These were handstamps issued to military put for most of the war (Moscow and Leningrad,
censors stationed at the military postal sorting for instance), while others may have moved as
offices (voenno-pochtovye sortirovochnye the lines advanced or sagged.
punkty-VPSP), which essentially served much Not surprisingly, the main VPSP operated at
the same function as the civilian GPOs did, but Moscow, and in the censormarks it is designated
for the military. They were the first offices to as "1." Figure 1 shows the correlation between
receive the mail heading for the front, and the last the number at the top of the "fraction" in the
military offices to see it before it entered the censormark and the "main" (glavnyi) designa-
civilian system. The military situation was so tion of the VPSP datestamp.












7.J. ",.-...
0-1





















Rossica Journal Number 127 61
October 1996
-. 7.







Figure 1. Sent from Moscow to Field Post 817, Unit 224, in March 1943.


Rossica Journal Number 127 61
October 1996









Number 2 was assigned to Leningrad, as figs. 2-3 demonstrate. After that, the degree of
confidence in matching a number with a location drops sharply.




rT.EMIPLItl IIOqTOTIiif COI 'h. hPOI(' I'. -, ;
I I' N I'ST.\.E UNIVERSE LE. IIS1E.-\ '

OThlPbITOE IIlICbMO. ARTE 'OSTAMt,
_-'. I b ',


: !K. .'7 ,1














Figure 2. Mailedfrom Field Post # 22231 to Leningrad, April 1943.
SLeningrad.




















62 Rossica Journal Nuber 127
C..;\,;. t ^.b.,,J 4


(** ,- .. -.. -7

-- -- I -I











,

,'ctobe 1996K










Figure 3. Posted from besieged Leningrad to Molotov on 9 March 1943. Although no VPSP datestamp







October 1996











l&,mf.a,,Ve' '' A..k fl


Kyja JJ.W jf -JL 'A

S. ," '' --- .

Ko.: ,W^O .,.,,. ,.S-..
e v vte / ^y^-1 e-i
C !




A %-.onp ca e y aBJM IM M i Kopnycape. O saue punts. rcaciN. nopooaEfl MCICA




Figure 4. Fieldpost #1774, unit271 toKuznetsk, Penza Oblast', via VPSP#4. Examined by military censor
#124 at that VPSP.
,- 41






Ire II6 BT PTOIHplA
ALE
^ ^^ -g ______








Figure. Fieldpost#1774, unit271 to Kuznetsk, Penza Oblast via VPSP#4. Examinedby military censor


I '11


Q Ca & .a .TO -



P r l '- "' ." i r I )...

S...'Iri[,'I! MO}'HO OTrF'AB.qRTb Iio-i t ,. TE.fiErPA4,OM u QOTOTEJiErPA4'"OM,




Figure 5. VPSP #17 mark, censormark with 17 over 79.

Rossica Journal Number 127 63
October 1996









VPSP/ Highest Date Range Remarks (Tereshko, continued from page 41)
Censormark # Censor #
The philatelic torture chamber is on the sec-
1 298 2/42-3/43 Moscow ond floor in Room 25B. It is run by chief govern-
2 213 3-4/43 Leningrad
4 130 11/42-4/43 ment expertizer Anatoly Mikhailovich
17 79 5/42 Churashev.
22 137 3/43 In all fairness, 64-year old Churashev is a
25 26 3/43
33 very astute and knowledgeable philatelist. Under
Recorded different circumstances, I might have become
by friends with him.
45 6 4/44 Michalove
However, after an hour into our first
Table I. VPSP number correlation expertizing session, I realized that I was dealing
with the ultimate government bureaucrat, whose
In the message on the cover in fig. 4, the sole intentions were to squeeze as much money
writer states that he just arrived at "the city, with out of me as possible and disallow as many of my
its magnificent gardens," and that he has been stamps as he could.
assigned to a submachinegun subunit. That is the For five hours, I watched as Churashev me-
only clue as to the whereabouts of VPSP #4, but chanically recorded the Michel prices of my
the field post number may one day give us a better material and methodically disallowed stamps
idea of its location. Moshe Shmuely showed a and removed them from my collection.
similar #4 as fig. 36 in his 1988 article. By the end of the session, I found myself
The correlation between censormark number despising this bureaucratic robot and the hypo-
and VPSP number continues to hold true for 17 critical system that he serves.
(see fig. 5). After an equally lengthy session on the fol-
If the censor numbers were assigned one-up, lowing day, my albums and stamps were packed
they would give some indication as to how many and officially sealed.
censors were assigned to each VPSP. But, since After a trip to the bank to pay the expertizing
we do not know how the numbers were issued, fee, I waited about an hour and a half to receive
nor have enough markings been recorded to give my certificate of expertization.
us much of a range, we can only guess. This certificate gave me the right to remove
the approved expertized stamps after paying the
Bibliography indicated customs' duties at Sheremyetevo Air-
port prior to departure.
Michalove, Peter, "Soviet Field Post of World rt rr t eart
Given the regulations and system, it is be-
War II," philatelic exhibityond me how an international philatelic exhibi-

"- "Soviet Field Post Procedures, 1941-1945," tion can be held in Moscow.
Rossica No. 110, 1987, pp. 60-66. Foreigners will be buying, selling and trading
stamps. Do Russian authorities plan on making a
Shmuely, M., "Soviet Censorship and Other killing on expertizing fees? Or will customs
Markings," Rossica No. 112, 1988, pp. 17- officials have a field day confiscating
41. unexpertized material?
Whatever the case, the collector should be-
Skipton, David M., "Soviet Censormarks-the ware!
1942-1943 Category," Rossica No. 118, pp.
45-52. Reprinted from Linn's Stamp News, 30 Sep-
tember 1996 issue with permission.
"-, "Soviet Control of the Mail 1917-1990,"
author's philatelic exhibit.
64 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









The Opening of Commercial Air Traffic
Between the U.S.S.R and Mongolia.

by G. Adolph Ackerman

Although it was one of the earliest interna- Presumably, Soviet air contact with Mongolia
tional air routes organized by the Soviet Union, was part of the Soviet initiative to secure diplo-
scant information is available regarding the early matic and trade relationships with its neighbors
development and operation of the air service to the south. Early contact of Baku with Teheran,
connecting the U.S.S.R. and Outer Mongolia. Persia was tried in 1924, but regular air service
This air route was established in the summer of did not begin until mid-1928. Tashkent and
1926 by the Soviet Dobrolet airline-3, 5-8 10,11 and Termez were linked by air with Kabul, Afghani-
joined the small central Siberian town of stan in 1928. Very few postal documents carried
Verkhneudinsk in the U.S.S.R. with Ulan Bator, on the remote Verkhneudinsk-Ulan Bator air
the capital of Mongolia. No other commercial air route prior to WW II exist today. This is also true
route existed in the entire region. From the west, for postal documents carried on the Afghanistan
commercial aviation did not extend eastward connection, and those flown from the Soviet
beyond the Urals until 1928-9. An isolated, re- Union to Persia and the Middle East.
gional air network, under the direction of Dobrolet,
also emerged nearly 2,000 miles to the southwest Regional Features
of Verkhneudinsk; it linked regional towns in
southwest-central Siberia including Tashkent, Verkhneudinsk is located at the confluence
Bukhara, Dushanbe, and Samarkand'l, 6. From of the Uda and Selenga rivers on the Trans-
Verkhneudinsk, the railroad provided communi- Siberian railway -50 miles east of Lake Baikal
cations westward to Irkutsk and Moscow, east to and -250 miles west of Chita, where the Chinese
Kharbarovsk and Vladivostok, and into China. Eastern and Trans-Siberian railroads join.
The major Siberian air route between Moscow Verkhneudinsk served as the administrative cen-
and Irkutsk did not become operational until the ter for the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. and had a
spring of 1929 following an inaugural flight in population of -28,000 in 1926, growing to
August 19281 3. 6 8. 120,000 by 19394. Industrial development during

















Figure 1. Mongolian countryside and horsemen with modern, paved road (1994).

Rossica Journal Number 127 65
October 1996









this period evolved slowly and the economy of Establishment of the
the times focused on the production of wool, Soviet-Mongolia Air Service
building materials, food processing, and loco-
motive and machinery repair'. In the spring of 1926, the Soviet and Mongo-
Largely unknown even in the early half of the lian governments agreed to establish a commer-
20th Century, Mongolia-the "Land of Genghis cial airline between Verkhneudinsk and Ulan
Khan"-was an isolated region with a harsh and Bator. Several survey flights were made by the
rugged environment, few large towns, and a Dobrolet company during the early summer.
scattered population of less than one million. Regular commercial flights began in August
Industrial development and interactions with the 19267 ". The air route (fig. 2) was -300 miles
outside world were limited prior to WWII. Trans- over rolling plains and pasture lands. There was
portation was mainly by horse, with a few motor an intermediate stop at Altanbulak, Mongolia7 11
vehicles operating outside the major city of Ulan near the Russian-Mongolian border (fig. 3). The
Bator (fig. 1). Roads were few and of poor scheduled flight took 4.5 hours. To cover the
quality. Politically, Mongolia became a People's same distance using the overland route by horse
Republic in 1921, and during the 1920s and or motor vehicle took days.
1930s it provided a buffer zone between the
U.S.S.R. and northwestern China. Sporadic
counterrevolutionary activities occurred in
Mongolia between 1927-1932. Economically,
Mongolian exports consisted primarily of leather,
wool, livestock, and non-ferrous metals4, 9. The
first rail system began in Mongolia in 1938. Rail
service was not established between
Verkhneudinsk (Ulan Ude), Ulan Bator, and Pe-
king until after WWII9.

Figure 3. Soviet Junkers airplane at the Altanbulak
airport (circa 1928).


... ............. rkutk................ ..............
....... SOUIET UNION .. Uerkh- .. ., ... .
. : . . ... : n e u d in.k .' ". .i b d o. . . . ..
S*, Chita, Kharbarousk
. . . . .. . .
... .. .. n sc h I. .


m::: : : Ht N
w urun chi ::::::::. i : .:;: r


a. .. l* :::: o t T. C..i Changchun C :
^^'*\'\'-\'--\''-*lak f^ f uladiuottok
fir Route e; peip"ngI






and rail lines of the Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railroads.

66 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Regular surface mail from Ulan Bator to (fig. 4). This surface-mail cover was sent in the
Manchuria and Eastern China (1928) traveled by second year of operation of the Soviet Mongolian
postal carrier to Verkhneudinsk, where it was air line and allows us to compare postal transit
forwarded by rail to its destination. An example times for the flown/surface services to China
of surface mail from Ulan Bator to Peking, China following identical routes.
via Harbin (transit time -3 weeks) is illustrated































.L j(













Figure 4. Non-flown cover written in Chinese from Ulan Bator (5 July 1928) to Peking, China (cancel on Chinese
postage due, 2 August 1928), via Verkhneudinsk, U.S.S.R., and Harbin, Manchuria (27July 1928 on Chinese postage).
Cover franked with 25-mung Mongolian, plus 4-cent Chinese applied at Harbin, and 12-cents Chinese postage due
added in Peking. Transit time was approximately three weeks.

Rossica Journal Number 127 67
October 1996









The inaugural flight from Verkhneudinsk to from Verkhneudinsk (postmarked 3 August 1926)
UlanBatorwithanintermediatestopatAltanbulak to Ulan Bator (arrival mark on back 3 August
took place on Tuesday, 3 August 19263, 7, 8 1926) and returned to Verkhneudinsk by surface
Apparently, this route was used primarily for the mail, where they were dispatched by train to
transport of mail and freight; few passengers Harbin (arrival mark on back 16 August 1926).
were flown on this international route prior to Just over 29 kilograms of mail were carried on
WWII. During the early years, two Junkers air- the inaugural flight (maximum established limit
craft were assigned to the Verkhneudinsk-Ulan 30 kilograms)" and the 10 Sweet/Langer covers
Bator route and were flown in both directions by were a part of this shipment. It is obvious that a
Soviet crews. Flights were scheduled for twice considerable number of postal items were flown
weekly and the route was reported to be opera- on this flight, far more than the "only 10 covers"
tional for 9 months of the year7'8. Sweet" docu- repeatedly ascribed as carried on this early Soviet
ments a flight schedule leaving Verkhne-udinsk flight. However, no other covers have come to
each Wednesday and Saturday at 6 AM, arriving light in the intervening years. It is probable that
at Altanbulak at 7:30 AM and Ulan Bator at the return routing back to the U.S.S.R and final
10:30 AM. The return flights were scheduled for destination to the philatelist in China saved these
the same departures/arrival times, but leaving covers from destruction. Two of these docu-
Ulan Bator each Thursday and Sunday. Daily mented covers are illustrated herein (figs. 5-6).
flights were reported by 19347. Of interest is the Essentially all Verkhneudinsk-Urga-Harbin
fact the Mongolian government did not allow covers were identical in appearance, differing
mail to be flown on the return flights from only in the stamps applied. They were usually
Mongolia to Verkhneudinsk until 1929, three overfranked for the reported rate in effect. The
years after the opening of this route7,". cover illustrated in Sweet's article is franked
only with the 1924 40-kopeck Lenin Tomb is-
Early Air Covers Transported on the sue. The two covers illustrated herein have a total
Verkhneudinsk-Ulan Bator Air Route of 35 kopecks and 34 kopecks applied, while a
fourth water-damaged cover (not illustrated) is
A brief notification in the Soviet press circu- properly franked at the 29-kopeck rate (viz,
lated in the Far East in May 1926 indicated that imperfs of the 6-kopeck 1924 Lenin, the 20-
regular air service from Verkhneudinsk to Urga kopeck Lenin Tomb, and 3-kopeck 20th anni-
(UlanBator) wouldbegin in early August".Sweet versary of the 1905 revolution issues).
reproduced this notice along with tariffs for cor- No other covers carried on this or subsequent
respondence, packages, and air fares for passen- flights from Verkhneudinsk to Ulan Bator and
gers. Air mail letters were to be 29 kopecks for Mongolia are known, except for a few existing
the first 20 grams, with 25 kopecks added for philatelic flight covers from Moscow to
each additional 20 grams or part thereof; the Altanbulak, Mongolia in 1928 (fig. 7). These
registration fee was 14 kopecks. covers were sent from Moscow (postmarked 10/
Sweet and his friend Langer, a stamp dealer 11 August 1928) to Altanbulak, Mongolia via
in China, collaborated to forward 10 Russian- Verkhneudinsk, 5 8. 10. There are no transit or
stamped and addressed covers to the Postmaster arrival postmarks on these covers. These covers
at Verkhneudinsk requesting the dispatch of these are generally regarded as first-flight covers. 10,
covers on the forthcoming inaugural flight to suggesting that they were flown from Moscow to
Mongolia". The covers were addressed to P. Mongolia via the Irkutsk route. However, it should
Langer, Harbin, Manchuria rather than a destina- be noted that the Moscow postmark date on these
tion in Mongolia. They were endorsed "Air Mail" covers predates the inaugural flight from Mos-
/ "Verkhneudinsk Urga" in Russian and English, cow (postmarked 18 September 1928) to Irkutsk
and were not registered. These covers were flown (arrival mark on back 22 September 1928) by

68 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996






































































time was 13 days.




Rossica Journal Number 127 69
October 1996















,or.e Taylor,)

.-- *.. s^: ..:. '*, ,. .. *... *"~~7 ~ .:






.-











(courtesy R. Taylor)









O'obe 1 ,
", ... j ..... ,





(courtesy R. Taylor)



































70 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









over one month',3 5' 10. Without transit or arrival was unexpected and the reason for the sudden
postmarks, the exact mode of transit from Mos- change in policy remains unknown". The first
cow to Altenbulak can not be established. It is recorded air mail letter flown from Ulan Bator
most probable that these covers were transported was postmarked 16 April 1929 with a Harbin
via rail to Vekhneudinsk and then flown the short arrival mark of 26 April 1929, and transported
distance to Altanbulak on the Verkhneudinsk- from Verkhneudinsk via rail. This cover illus-
Ulan Bator route. The Moscow-Altanbulak cov- tratedby Sweet is franked with 55-mung postage
ers are of the special registered, air mail-enve- plus 10-cent Chinese postage due. The few re-
lope type with 68 kopecks franking, which in- ported flown covers had violet (or black)
cludes the 1924 surcharged air mail-issue and "B03YWIHA5 II HOTA" handstamps71". Negus7
additional postage to make up the rate. The and Pritulas describe several later Mongolian air
covers bear the bilingual air mail and Moscow mail covers that have a boxed handstamp reading
registration labels and have essentially identical "ABHAHOMTA" with the Mongolian equivalent
typed addresses to Mr. Bouchoueff and the typed below. Apparently, this variety of air mail
"par avion / Recommande6" endorsements. handstamp was in use in 1931.





n1 ro' ,_,-_t i ____ __


0' .,.4T4









;' . :" ,' ..
3 Par avion


Figure 8a. Front of a flight coverfrom Ulan Bator, 14 May 1929, to Vienna, 4 June 1929, via Verkhneudinsk, Irkutsk,
Moscow (13 June 1929), and Berlin, 16 June 1929. (courtesy of R. Weinberg)

Early Air Mail Covers from Mongolia Trans- One of the earliest flown covers from Ulan
ported on the Verkhneudinsk-Ulan Bator Air Bator to Vienna (arrival postmark on back 4 June
Route. 1929) via Moscow (transit mark on back 13 June
Air mail service from Mongolia to the 1929) and Berlin (transit mark on back 16 June
U.S.S.R. began in the spring of 19297". Air mail 1929) is illustrated (fig. 8, courtesy of R.
letters from Mongolia are quite scarce. Appar- Weinberg). This registered cover is franked with
ently, the first flight to carry mail from Mongolia 80-mung postage and bears the 2-line

Rossica Journal Number 127 71
October 1996










..-- : -. ,- .... .. .. \S- :_*.

"* -s ..., *- *-- ." -o .,-' '. .. * -; "-^ 7 .... 7:~ ^ **
":.- .. '.: .,-.- --. : "X. ..'..:.- .^ :-^ .."*-* -












7." : .aJ -.. / I ... *
JJ


























cow, and a red, boxedBerlinair transithandstamp.

label, an Ulan Bator registration handstamp, and
* -a..
"is endorsed (top) "Air Mail" (Russian/German) References


Figure 8b. Back of a flight cover from Ulan Bator, 14 May 1929, to Vienna, 4 June 1929.

"BO3and "RegiHAstered.OTA" handstamp, a 3-line tion number was #21. These covers were flown
"BatorVYEHO / C BO3YneudinsHO / Iruts-Moscow-B" (re- Ulan Bator-Verkhneudinsk and dispatched by
ceived by air mail) handstamp applied in Mos- rail to Harbin, Manchuria.
cow, and a red, boxed Berlin air transit handstamp.
The cover also has a bilingual Russian air mail
label, an Ulan Bator registration h andstamp, and19 ra iain iie
is endorsed (top) "Air Mail" (Russian/German) References
"and "Registered." This cover way. s flown Ulans ves ... ee
"BatorVerkhneudinsk andIrkutsk-Moscow-Ber- 1) Ackerman, G.A.: Via the Red Skies. The
lin-Vienna. The link between Verkhneudinsk development of the Soviet air mail service--
aned rkutsk was by rail rather than by ai 5-t this 1922-1945. Amer. Phil.ock. ibr, 1994
time. (exhibit and historical perspective).
Figure 9 illustrates a registered flown cover 2) Commissariat du people des Postes et des





Chinese postage due on te reverse. The cover 4) Great Soviet Encyclopedia: M.K. Waxman
has the 2-line violet "BO3lymlIHA5I HnOrTA" (ed.) Macmillan, Inc., NY, v. 26: p. 624;
handstamp and a violet Ulan Bator registration 626.(translationfromRussianedition), 1981.
handstamp #20. Inscribed (top) "ABHAHOrTA" 5) Hoffman, R.: Flown Mail From and To the
(airmail) and "3AKA3HOE" (registered). A simi- USSR, Rossica Journal, 82:7-36, 1972.
lar cover appeared at a recent auction with iden-
tical dates, inscriptions, handwriting, and with
the Harbin destination; the Ulan Bator registra-
72 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








6) MacDonald, H.: Aeroflot. Soviet Air Trans- 9) Saunders A.J.K.: The People's Republic of
port since 1923. Putman, London, 1975. Mongolia. Oxford Press, London, p. 128-
7) Negus, J.: Aerophilately of Mongolia. Aero 133, 1968
Philat. Ann., 6:71-82, 1959. 10) Speers, F.W.: Russia's Air Mail Cachets.
8) Pritula, V.: MAJIOH3BECTHblE PEAZKOCTH Rossica Journal, 80:7-19, 1971.
EBPA3HHCKOFO MAPLIPYTA BO3,ZIYUHOH 11) Sweet J.V.: The First Flights of Mongolian
HOMTbI. Philately, 6:10-14, 1994. Airmail. Amer. Philat., 88: 935-938, 1974.














































Figure 9. A 1930 coverflown from Ulan Bator on 15 January 1930 to Verkhneudinsk, whence it was dispatched by
rail to Harbin, Manchuria, arriving 4 February 1930. Transit time of 20 days.

Rossica Journal Number 127 73
October 1996









Use of the Second Definitive Issue of the RSFSR


by Raymond J. Pietruszka

One of my goals in collecting the stamps of using three charts, through which I will show the
the RSFSR is to collect the stamps on cover used use in relation to other methods of payment and
as close to the date of issue as possible. For how the individual stamps were used.
stamps of the Second Definitive Issue, it has been On 25 August 1921, the Second Definitive
much harder than the price and quantity issued Issue was released, replacing the First Definitive
seem to justify. In order to determine which Issue (released on 1 August 1921), which had
stamps were difficult and which were easy to find been rendered obsolete by the postal rates of 15
on cover, I analyzed over 930 RSFSR covers. August and withdrawn. Like the first issue, the
This article presents the results of this analysis second issue pictured symbols of agriculture and
and identifies some very interesting patterns in science. These stamps, therefore, are referred to
the use of the Second Definitive Issue. The use of the Agriculture and Science issue, or A&S.
the Second Definitive Issue will be explained



Average Stamp Distibution
Percentage




Control 6.0X _oa 3.i


avO R 3M
1003 IC U


10 0 l0 R 2.5

Agr & Sciences 2 52.3%
Total Stamps Agr & Sciences 2




AulguL 1921- $ar l=2

Chart I. Average Stamp Distribution

On the left, Chart I shows the distribution of payment methods of mail from August 1921 to June 1922. This was the
period of primary use for the A&S issue. During this period the A&S issue made up just over half of all mail-payment
methods. The right side of the chart shows the distribution of use of the various denominations of the issue. This half
of the chart shows that use of the individual denominations was uneven, even as expressed in a cumulative total. This
was driven mainly by the changes in postal rates which rendered any stamp with a value of less that 1000 rubles useless.

74 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








The A&S issue was released in two parts. The Two 200-rub. stamps would also have paid the
first part consisted of three stamps: the 100-, foreign postcard rate of 400 rubles in effect from
250-, and 1000-rub., printed in yellow, purple, 25 August 1921 to 21 November 1921.
and red, respectively. In September 1921, the rest When first issued, the A&S stamps were one
of the issue appeared, consisting of the 200-, of several methods used to pay postage: the 1909
300-, and 500-rub. stamps in brown, green, and Imperial-Arms issue revalued at 100 x face up to
blue, respectively. Figure 1 shows these stamps. the 20K; postal savings and control stamps reval-
Additional printings were made over the next ued at 250R each regardless of face value; cash.
few months (articles by Varbitsky3 or Berngard2 Later, other Soviet stamps were issued that were
offer a complete description), used along with the A&S issue.
The first stamps issued, the 100-, 250-, and While postal rates were the main factor caus-
1000-rub., had a real use. The domestic postal ing this distribution of use, it was not the only
rates from 15 August 1921 to 1 February 1922 cause. Over time the percentage of the mail that
were 100R for a postcard, 250R for a letter, and used this issue changed. Now look at chart II.
1000R for registration. The second half of the set This situation changes in April 1922. Effec-
was issued to support the paying of insurance on tive 1 April, the 200R and 300R were revalued to
packages and the fees on postal money orders2. 10 x their face. This rate change made them


























Figure 1. Stamps of the Second Definitive Issue of the RSFSR.








Rossica Journal Number 127 75
October 1996











A&S as a Percentage of Total

1921-1922

100,0%







80.0% ----------------- --------I----.- -------.--
70.0% .. .... ... ....-..........-.........

70.0OX..... .....







10.0% .... .....-. -.-..--------.-- .....
0.0I
AUG AUGS SEP P OCTOCT NTnWDECDC BC MN FL Fl MARMARAPFR R NAT MAT JURN J


Chart II. A&S as a Percentage of Total

This chart shows the first interesting point. It took nearly three months for the postal authorities to get the issue into
general use. With philatelic covers removed, this was only for the first three stamps issued, i.e., the 100-, 250-, and
1000-rubles. This pattern of use supports Mr. Shneidman's position that the Soviets were very slow in distributing the
stamps. Use of this issue was never even.








0i













Figure 2. An American ReliefAdministration Aid Request franked with one 200-rub. and
two 300-rub. stamps revalued at 10 xface value on 15 May 1922.

76 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996










A&S Distribution
Percentage

100.0% ---- .. .
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0% I



30.OX ..-.. .
20.0%
10.0% :: -::: .
:o.o ; : :::: :: : : : :|




AUG SEP SE T OCT NOV NOVNoD D EC DJAN N B FEB MBAR MA APR APR MAY MAYJUuN UN

M 100 R 0 200Roo ED 2o R MB 300 R
U Soo R I 100oo R


Chart III. A&S Distribution

Chart III shows that the month-to-month use of the stamps varied widely. November 1921 was the first month in which
the stamps were generally available. Most of the time only the 1000R was used. An indication of the poor distribution
of the 200-, 300-, and 500-rubles stamps is that except for philatelic mail, these stamps are not seen on cover. Use
of the 250R stamp is more common than any of these other stamps combined; see the right side of Chart I.


useful for paying postage, especially for post- items, these stamps do not appear on cover,
cards (fig. 2). The 500R was most likely not nor have I seen them offered in used condi-
revalued to 5000 rub. due to the 5000-rub. stamp tion, which indicates heavy usage for parcel
and the 5000-rub. overprint on the First Defini- post. The evidence appears to support the
tive Issue, which had been released in the previ- belief that these stamps did not make it out to
ous two months, the oblasts before the rate change of February
July 1922 did not mean the end of use for this 1922. If they had, letters with multiples and
issue. The stamps continued to appear, mainly on combinations of these stamps would be avail-
philatelic mail, through August 1922 and be- able just like the multiples of the 250R as
yond. Figure 3 illustrates a cover bearing two shown in fig. 4. Two 500-rub. stamps should
complete sets of the A&S issue. So at least in have been more common than four 250-rub.
Petrograd these stamps were still available. stamps, if the 500-rub. stamp was out there.
b. Covers with single 100-, 250-, and 1000-
What conclusions can be drawn from this data? rub. stamps are available. These stamps di-
rectly match the rates until February 1922. So
a. Early use of the 200-, 300-, and 500-rub. covers can be found.
stamps is rare. Except for a few philatelic
Rossica Journal Number 127 77
October 1996










































MAIM
L. .. ..... V.
-,~-_._._ ... ,. -






















l-k 2'- '2-


Figure 3. Cover bearing two complete sets of the A&S issue, posted in Petrograd on 21 August 1922.









78 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996









c. Covers franked with multiples of the 1000R addition to Mr. Shaw's data, I have added covers
are by far the most common from the period, from auction catalogs, exhibits and dealers' stock.
During this period over 40% of all postage The largest addition was made at Finlandia 95,
payment was made with this stamp. where covers from both exhibits and dealers
d. Postcards with multiples of the 200- and from around the world were added. The charts
300-rub. stamps are fairly common. Thanks represent the collected data from over 930 indi-
to the American Relief Administration ef- vidual covers. The data is not perfect. It is biased,
fort, a large number of cards are available having been based mainly on foreign destination
after 1 April 1922 with these stamps. Non- covers. Domestic covers are still rare in the West;
ARA mail with these stamps is also common. most are still in Russia or have been destroyed.

Description of the data References:

The charts are based on a database created 1. Shneidman, J. Lee. "An Aspect of Russian
from an ongoing survey of inflation covers started Postal Administration, 1917-1923," Rossica
by Mr. George Shaw and continued by the au- No. 78, 1970.
thor. The database represents the number of
occurrences of any given stamp. An occurrence 2. Berngard, K. "1921 RSFSR Definitives,"
is any time an individual stamp denomination is Rossica Nos. 100-101, 1981. Translated by
recorded on a cover. For example, in fig. 4 the R.L. Trbovich.
four 250-rub. stamps are recorded as a single
occurrence of the 250-rub. stamps on that date. 3. Varbitsky, N. "First Soviet Issue of 1921,"
The object of the database is to document usage Russian Philatelist No. 7, December 1965.
of the stamps, not the total number of stamps. In

























Figure 4. 24 February 1922 cover franked with four 250-rub. stamps. Used 3 days after the rate period ended.

Rossica Journal Number 127 79
October 1996









Stamps of the Poltava Zemstvo and their Peculiarities


by George G. Werbizky

We know a lot about the stamps issued by the surcharged stamps were issued. When the num-
Poltava zemstvo thanks to a Poltava zemstvo ber of surcharged stamps issued was a reasonable
postmaster Pavel Petrovich Gan'ko's book one, then a few imperforate stamps would be
"Zemstvo Post of The Poltava District" with an issued as well, again in quantities of 25. In
addendum "Catalog of the Zemstvo Stamps of addition to listing fakes of scarce stamps, Gan'ko
Poltava District 1902- 1912." The book contains lists inverts, partial inverts, and stamps missing
detailed information on the history and activities surcharges. The Schmidt catalog, whose listing
of this postal establishment, is based upon Gan'ko's work, illustrates 151
The illustrated catalog lists stamps all issued stamps for the Poltava zemstvo.
by year and quantity. Additionally, the catalog Not to be outdone by anyone, Poltava also
includes varieties. The publication must have issued official stamps for use on the correspon-
appeared sometime after 1912 since the prices dence of schools, medical, veterinary, and agri-
listed reflect the valuation at that time. cultural stations. Since there was more than one
The Chuchin catalog lists 95 different stamps station of a given kind and they were numbered,
for this zemstvo, while Gan'ko lists 101-not a each station would have stamps with its number
significant difference. The strength of the Gan'ko printed at the bottom. Additionally, some official
catalog lies in listing not only varieties, but also stamps were overprinted to make them valid for
illustrating surcharges, datestamps, registration, regular use. Finally, one more undesirable prac-
and money letter postmarks, which are all actual tice needs to be mentioned: forging covers with
size. A number of errors are listed as "rare" when the appearance of having gone through the mail,
5 or fewer examples are known. when, in fact, the covers never left the place of
A close examination Gan'ko's catalog imme- origin.
diately reveals that as soon as an issue appeared, The illustrations which follow are examples
the same set of stamps would appear surcharged! of some of the stamp manipulations that oc-
The reason given for the surcharged stamps was curred. Reflecting upon what took place at this
the late delivery from the printer of the necessary zemstvo relative to issuing stamps and what
denominations. This justification would be ac- some of the stamp-issuing foreign countries have
ceptable, if it happened rarely. However, the lack been doing, one can truly say there is little new
of properly denominated stamps was chronic, under the sun.
Therefore, one must conclude that philatelic ma- The Poltava zemstvo stands alone in con-
nipulation was taking place. Not only was there ducting these undesirable practices; other
a continuous stream of surcharged stamps, but zemstvos with postal services performed this
also imperforate varieties in small quantities along function in a significantly more responsible way.
with perforated ones. As few as 25 of some

Chuchin No. 23. 3-kop. surcharge on 1 O-kop.
stamp. In addition to a "3" found in the
correct position (left-hand stamp), it is found
in seven (!) other positions. Gan 'ko states that
stamps with double surcharges and variations
also exist. This is clearly an example of inten-
tionally creating errors. A total of2,800 stamps
were surcharged.

80 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996



















Chuchin No. 35. Surcharge normal (at left) and inverted (at right).



MIII .1.






-n m i i i m i m --- -- -- -- ....... .. ..

Chuchin NO. 67. 20-kop. on 6-kop. (at left). Chuchin No. 68, 30-kop. on 5-kop. (at right).
A total of 84 stamps of each denomination were surcharged-42 with tall numerals and 42
with short numerals. Pairs exist containing both varieties.













Chuchin No. 27 (single, perforated) and 27a (pair, imperforate) stamps from the series celebrat-
ing the victory at the battle of Poltava. In 1709, Russian forces led by Peter the Great defeated
Swedish and Turkish forces led by King Charles XII of Sweden.



V Jul WIiU

-ih






Chuchin No. 49, surcharge normal (at left) and 49a imperforate pair (at right). Stamp with surcharge
inverted (middle stamp) is not listed in Chuchin; Gan'ko records 75 stamps with surcharge inverted.




Rossica Journal Number 127 81
October 1996
































ICIoCh LTA 3EXCi tA1LA IOLTA





1I1O.A1TAIA I1T4ITi ITTli
5 .e -









?srcn IEi H.0TA 3ENCKAHI IIfOlTA
3EMCIHAl 1O'ITA 3EMCRAl HOflTA

S S


: ILIICJl HOIlT.L '
S1 NADA 10IIO3EXACTABL 1TA










,3ECL.4IIAH TIO'1TA 3EICAJ IIOUTA

























October 1996
3EN;.KAJ 110 O A
























82 Rossica Jourral Number 127
October 1996









3EICEAR IO'ITA 3EXCKAHB 1IOTA






S 3EXCKAR HOITA 3EMICKAR HOITA




3 no.1TARA 3 *~- iro.nrgv 3



3 3If
3ECIYAH HIO'ITA 3EICRAR UIIO'TA.




3 I O. 1TA 3 3 110.TTABA 3
BEMCIKAH nO'IlTA 3E1mCAa HOI'TA







Partial sheet of the 3-kop. stamp, Chuchin No. 76, from the series "a
Ukrainian cottage." Note the "tall 3" in the lower right-hand stamp. The
total number of stamps issued was 2,700 with 250 being imperforate. Fifty
stamps with the same design were issued on blue paper.






SEMDKAR nOITAIABGKArO t umtKn OTiMA ci(Ar SUtCKAna n'tnOfaTnurGmCAr

Si iAP KA
APKA rAPK A. rA K A

; -^ CnVESON C) 1 K 9M 9 ^ I H **
> KUOPPEU04 M. i I H fl jiKsPfEOnOMAEHlt nOPPECnCnHpEMH.A






Examples of official Medical Station stamps, Chuchin No. 81. Five hundred were issued perforate andfifty imperforate.
One hundred twenty five were surcharged for regular use. These figures are for one of the ten medical stations only.
All stamps were of the same design and color except for the number of the station printed at the bottom of the stamp.
6th Medical Station stamp on the left, 10th in the middle, and a 10th station stamp on the right revalued and marked
for regular use.




Rossica Journal Number 127 83
October 1996












T' 5A PA T11 AA P Ky an xIJ.





Chuchin No. 93a. Official stamp for rural school correspondence, surcharged
for regular use. Two types of the number "5" are illustrated-normal (at left)
and tall (at right). The left-hand stamp was issued for school No. 5. A total of
25 stamps were surcharged, 17 with a normal "5." The right-hand stamp was
issued for school No. 9. A total of 100 stamps were surcharged, 32 with the tall







B A 7 P AD ...T .








11 7- a-- I I















On the surface everything seems to be in order with this cover. It is properly canceled, has a correct registration
mark with No. 828, and was sent to the village ofBairak (C. BAIPAKb), which is listed on the Poltava postal route.
The cover is addressed to no other than Pavel Petrovich Gan'ko. the cover is shown enlarged. The stamp is
Chuchin No. 31.




84 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996











































I t .
-+*" ., '. +: Ma, -0


., +"- ...:.- .'-' ''*























Rossica Journal Number 127 85
Two covers very similar to the previous one. All that remains to be done to make them appear legitimate is to enter
registration numbers and the addresses. Now we know that covers, like these, did not go through the post andprobably
were made and sold to zemstvo collectors of the time. They are "canceled to order" items and should not command
the same value enjoyed by postaly-used zemstvo covers.



Rossica Journal Number 127 85
October 1996









Minutes of the Officers Meeting at Jay Smith of The Press for Philately to get a
NAPEX, 1 June 1996 proposal from him for on-demand printing and
binding. Mr. Smith's response of 18 April 1996
Present: was read, and the officers agreed to await a final
Dave Skipton-President bid before making any decisions.
Peter Michalove-Vice President Concerning the Rossica specialist stamp cata-
Gary Combs-Treasurer log project headed by Ged Seiflow, Skipton
Webster Stickney-Auditor relayed a proposal from Gordy Denisenko in
Michael Carson-Membership Committee Egypt to have an Egyptian printer handle the
Chairman catalog, in color. A sample of his work "1866,
The Khedivial Post" was shown around, but no
Absent, voting by proxy: action was taken. Skipton hopes to meet
Denisenko in September to discuss the particu-
George Werbizky-Secretary lars, after which the officers can decide whether
Howard Weinert-Librarian or how to proceed.
Adolph Ackerman-Member, Board of Dir. Skipton reported that his offer to the ANZSRP
George Shaw-Member, Board of Dir. to share a table with Rossica and the Canadian
Society of Russian Philately received no reply.
Absent, excused:
Vice-President's Report
John Barefoot-Member, Board of Dir.
Michalove gave a short presentation on how
The meeting format was an experiment. It the Rossica home page on the World-Wide Web
began at 8 a.m. as Rossica's first "power break- works, and agreed to expand the table of con-
fast," and lasted until the sausages disappeared. tents. In addition to Rossica journals 125 and
(The experiment was at least partly successful, in 126, he will add the tables of contents from some
that it was difficult to get exercised over a point previous issues. The Rossica home page will also
of order or bone of contention while gumming a have a blurb about Rossica's awards, and pic-
mouthful of egg and toast; no rancor marred the tures of its publications.
event. On the other hand, the one taking the notes Four more Rossica awards have been pre-
must scribble and starve while his fellow officers sented since the last annual general meeting, to
oink their way through the meal.) Mike Renfro, George Shalimoff, Al Kugel, and
Vesma Grinfels.
President's Report
Treasurer's Report
Skipton showed some of the photographs
taken by Dick Wrona for the Azerbaijan hand- Combs reported that the Rossica Treasury
book, and discussed other possibilities for the held $11,000 at the end of March, which did not
illustrations. He relayed word from George Shaw include the costs of producing and mailing #126.
that the Voikhansky project requires only a few
straight days of plating, digging, and writing, but Editor's Report
the problem is that George will not get those days
until sometime in September. His company has Combs stated that Rossica #126 was in the
been keeping him running, and he has not had the mail, and that the 1997 Joint Issue with the BSRP
time needed to finish it off. would be his last.
Peter Michalove's "Philatelist's Guide to
Maps..." is now sold out, and a copy was sent to

86 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Auditor's Report 4) What do we feel about Ackerman's motion
that Rossica establish a printing center and
Stickney suggested that Rossica introduce continue to update it as technology advances?
another membership level, that of "sustaining All the officers thought this would be a nice
member," which would cost $30 per year rather thing to have, but the Treasury would not be
than the current $18/$20. He also volunteered to able to afford it at present. One problem
look into the possibility of reinstituting "life raised by Skipton was the "personnel issue."
membership," and find out what the actuarial If one (or two) individuals manning the print-
aspects of this are. ing center were to quit or become unable to
perform their duties, the center would have to
Old Business-none be moved somewhere else. What would hap-
New Business pen if the persons) who volunteered to carry
on had no familiarity with that computer
system, or was not computer literate at all?
1) How do we handle the problem of dual
1) How do we handle the pro m dual Their learning curve would be steep, and the
(Rossica and BSRP) members paying dues to
journal-publication schedule would likely
both Societies, yet receiving only one variety ual- fiction she e would likel
suffer. Given the problems the Society has
of the 1997 Joint Issue? Members who be- n t p t Sci
had in filling certain positions, in Skipton's
long to one or the other Society but not both h i f c i
opinion it would be doubtful we could match
would get the same thing, yet pay only half, opinion it would be doubtful we could match
someone who had the willingness, editorial
which does not seem fair. The officers agreed ailit, ogamseii om te sills, an
ability, program-specific computer skills, and
to propose to theBSRP that dual members get i t c ter
time with such a printing center. The motion
one "free" issue of their choice (either the ti wt s t t t
8.5x 11" North American format, or the Euro- was defeated, 7-1. .
8.5xn A4 orthAm eric aortunity to 5) How do we handle Gini Horn's proposal on
pean A4 format), and have the opportunity to
p a t, ay Rossica participation in a world-wide library
purchase the other variety at a substantial network? The officers agreed that this was an
n r l m A network? The officers agreed that this was an
discount over single members. Action:
attractive idea, but wanted to find out how
Skipton to send the proposal in a formal letter aratie idea, but wanted to find ot
our participation would affect the Library. If
to the BSRP.
) Shod we rie t d R is d it meant that by joining we obligated our-
2) Should we raise the dues? Rossica's dues 1
selves to allow anyone to obtain library ma-
have held steady for about a decade while e y, t o i t
trials, whether that individual belonged to
postage rates and printing costs have climbed. ssia r t the cnn was tat one
The. o s e e nRossica or not, the concern was that one of
The officers considered three options: in-
se em leae tem s is decrease the. our membership benefits would disappear. In
crease them, leave them as is, decrease them. addition, the Rossica Librarian could end up
addition, the Rossica Librarian could end up
They decided to leave them as is for now, carrying a significantly greater burden. Ac-
carrying a significantly greater burden. Ac-
hoping that literature sales of the upcoming tion: Stickne and n wil crdnaen
Azerbain h o ad th s tion: Stickney and Carson will coordinate on
Azerbaijan handbook and the RSFSR section
A i an h o ad RSR getting a Rossica representative to attend the
of the specialist catalog (plus any other pub- g ng a Rossa repeetie to attnd
APRL-sponsored meeting at CAPEX, and
locations) will allow the dues to stay at present Carson would contact Gini Horn.
levels. Stickney's proposal on "sustaining C w c i H .
level. S neys prosal on ust g 6) We need to identify speakers for the Rossica
member" was passed unanimously.
membr" ws p e u. AGM at Pacific 97. We will need two speak-
3) John Barefoot proposed to produce one-sub- AM a Pfc e wl nee to speak
ers, one for the AGM and one for a seminar.
ject compendiums of articles from past No decision was reached.
No decision was reached.
Rossicajournals as a combined business ven-
ture. The officers agreed in principle, and
wanted to see a specific outline by 15 Sep- Respectfully submitted, David M. Skipton.
Respectfully submitted, David M. Skipton.
tember 1996. Action: Skipton to contact Bare-
foot, requesting the outline.
Rossica Journal Number 127 87
October 1996









Membership Status

Our membership now stands at 371-18 new 1613 Christopher D. Lafean
tentative members since the April Journal! The 665 Bear Creek Road
new applicants are heartily welcomed and, if you Cabot PA 16023-9508
happen to live near one, personally welcome that USA
person to our favorite hobby. 1614 Hirotaka Araki
Please review the list of names. If for any 1024-5 Imafuku
reason you feel that an individual should not be Kawagoe, Saitama 350-11
granted full membership, please write the Trea- Japan
surer with your reasons. If no negative comments 1615 Daniel W. Michaels
are received on the individuals listed below by 517 14th Street, S.E.
31 January 1997, they will be granted full mem- Washington DC 20003
bership status. USA
1616 Dr. Ortwin Greis
The new applicants are: Beveer Wg
Bevenser Weg 2
1606 Krzysztof Ceremuga D-21079 Hamburg
P.O. Box 1097 Germany
Mount IsaQD 4825 1617 Abraham Siegel
Mount Isa QLD 4825
Australia P.O. Box 6603
1607 Tom Carlisle Long Island NY 11106-9998
608 East 42 St. USA
Austin TX 78751-4304 1618 Brian George Hickling
USA 3 Allee des Bouleaux
1608 Bjirn-Eric Saarinen Villagexpo, 91240
Siltakatu 2 A St. Michel-sur-Orge
France
18100 Heinola France
Finland 1619 Norman R. Banfield
14 Rata Road
1609 Jerry Schneider 14RataRoad
9523 Burdett Road Raumat Beach 6450
Burke VA 22015 New ealand
USA 1620 Staffan Werner
USA
1610 Scott Marusak Lagerlofsgatan 4
110 Dunhagen P. S-11260 Stockholm
Sweden
Cary NC 27511 Sweden
USA 1621 Shih Ta-Shao
1611 D d W. Lk FL. 2, No. 25, Lane 119
1611 David W. Link
Box 1, Site 300, RR3 Roosevelt Road, Section 1
Stony Plain, AB T7Z 1X3 Taipei, Taiwa
Canada Republic of China
1622 Adeeb Khalid
1612 Joan C. Stanley 1622 Adeeb Khalid
1089 Fairmount Avenue
21 Highland Park Avenue St. Paul MN 55105
Roxbury MA 02119-1438
UUSA
1623 Zachary Roi
6 Gates Street
Framingham MA 01701, USA
88 Rossica Journal Number 126
April 1996








Members on the Internet George Welch-gwelch@delphi.com

If your name is not listed here and you have
The Rossica Homepage is located at:
heclesgeolog icedu t an account, please let me know. Twenty six may
http://hercules.geology.uiuc.edu/-peterm/ not seem like a lot, but I suspect it is the tip of the
rossica.html#Jump 5. iceberg. Thanks. Gary
The following members have e-mail accounts
and can be reached via the internet:

Adolph Ackerman
gackerma@magnus.acs.ohio_state.edu
Scott Allen-scallen@ns.oon.or.jp Member-to-Member Adlets
Michael Black-belkom@aol.com
Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans-
Paul Burega-burega@nortel.ca actions resulting from member responses to adlets
Vitaly Charny nor get involved with mediating disputes. Mem-
Vcharny@aol.com//work=vchamy@cscmail.csc.com bers are cautioned to be fair in offering and in
responding. Any material considered to be of
Gary Combs-gcombs @ mail.erols.com value by the sender sent through the mails should
Michael Ercolini-misha@ logx.com be insured or registered for your own protection.
The regulations and prices are as follows:
Brian George Hickling-hickling@eurocontrol.fr Member adlets are free with the follow-
John-Paul Himka-jhimka@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca ing limitations: they must not exceed 480
characters. A character is defined as a
Friedrich Lehner-lehner@idirect.com letter, number, space, or punctuation
Paula Lemke-FelisJag@aol.com mark. The member's name and address
are NOT included in this 480-character
David Link-dwlink@freenet.edmonton.ab.ca limitation.

L.D. (Dann) Mayo-dannmayo@indy.net For adlets that exceed the 480-character
limitation, the price is 10 cents per word,
Peter Michalove-peterm@hercules.geology.uiuc.edu no matter how long the word may be.
Russell Ott-reott@iglobal.net Each adlet must include the name and
address of the member placing the ad.
Ray Pietruszka-rpietr@redstone.army.mil No dealer ads will be accepted as adlets.
Stephen Roberts-sroberts@erols.com The journal makes other provisions for
strictly commercial advertisements.
Norman Roule-nr01_k@servis2.net.tr available to Rossica
SAdlet service is available to Rossica
Jerry Schneider--JerryS001 @aol.com members only.
All adlets exceeding the 480-character
voSteyn-isteynecon.vu.nl limitation must be accompanied by a
lan Stone-i.r.stone@ ukc.ac.uk check for the correct amount made out to
the Rossica Society.
Michael Padwee-mwpadwee@inch.com Rsi .
l Adlets for the April journal must reach
Jean Walton-JWalton971 @aol.com the Editor by 15 February.**
Adlets for the Octoberjournal must reach
Stephen Warren-stephenw@uvic.ca the Editor by 15 August.**
the Editor by 15 August.**
Howard Weinert-howard@jhunix.hcg.jhu.edu

Rossica Journal Number 126 89
April 1996








"**For the 1997 joint issue, adlets are due by Expertization
1 July 1997.
One of the privileges of membership in Ros-
Mail all adlets and checks to:
sica is one free expertization per membership
Rossica year. Policy on these free expertizations is as
Rossica
follows:
c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Court
8 Only one free expertization per mem-
Millersville MD 21108 bership year.
bership year.
The privilege must be used during the
membership year. It cannot be accu-
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to mulated. The service was begun in the
1918 for research article. On cover, loose stamps 1978 membership year, and prior mem-
orCSQ. Send xerox or photo. Gary Combs, 8241 bership in the Society has no bearing.
Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108, USA. The item must be submitted on an offi-
cial expertization form available from
Wanted: OSTARBEITER MAIL. Dur- Gary Combs or Leon Finik.
ing WWII, the Nazis used workers from the Return postage must be included.
SovietUnion and called them OSTARBEITERS- Only one item per expertization form.
Eastern Workers. I will gladly buy covers, post-
cards, Ostarbeiter cloth patches, or related mate- Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this
rial. Send offer (with photocopy or preferably a service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs,
photo) to: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, or the Chairman of the Expertization Committee,
Vestal NY 13850-3246, USA. Leon Finik (address below), enclosing a legal
size (4 1/4 x 9 1/2") SASE for an expertization
Wanted: SOVIET GEORGIAN covers form.When submitting material forexpertization,
from 1924-c. 1945. Please contact Peter the owner must provide return postage to include
Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL insurance costs, if desired, for the material. Items
61821, USA. will be evaluated by Rossica members specializ-
ing in the various aspects of Russian philately.
Wanted: Used Russian Postal Statio- Members with items to expertise
nery properly used in Finland (1883- should forward the completed form to
1917). Send photocopy wuth the asking price to: Leon Finik at the following address:
L.W. Ferber, 132 Paradise Drive, Voorhees NJ
08043-4950, USA. Box 521
Rego Park NY 11374
ZEMSTVO collection being broken up. USA
Received large Vermeil in Poland and Beijing.
Material includes covers, substantial specialized Snce we oc ionally have to send items to
more than one member for an opinion, please
study from Baughman collection, and original
ite upby Baughman. For details contact allow at least six weeks before inquiring about
write up by Baughman. For details contact Andy the status of an item submitted. Items are looked
the status of an item submitted. Items are looked
Kovaleff, P.O. Box 10319 Gouger Street,
at on a first come, first serve basis.
Adelaide South Australia 5000.



1
90 Rossica Journal Number 126
April 1996







Reviews of Philatelic Publications
Yamshchik-The Post Rider, #38, June 1996. The British Journal of Russian Philately, #78,
A publication of the Canadian Society of Russian June 1995. A publication of the British Society of
Philately. Editor: Andrew Cronin, P.O. Box 5722, Russian Philately. Editor Ivo Steyn, Postbus
Station "A," Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2, 16636, 1001 RC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Canada. e-mail: isteyn@econ.vu.nl.

Another interesting edition from our friends The philatelic community has been blessed
to the north. In this issue, the following titles are beyond belief with the publication of three, re-
presented: peat three, BJRPs in less than a year! Ivo has
traveled to the altar and given up the sacrificial
Pre-UPU Imperial Russian Postal Rates lamb.
-John V. Woollam; Ivo starts this issue out with a brilliant edito-
Soviet Stampless Mail rial aimed at increasing the output of the phila-
-I Steyn & R. Taylor; telic press. His request for authors should not fall
Report on "CAPEX '96" on deaf ears!
-Andrew Cronin; A.T. Blunt in Przedb6rz revisited does an
Glider Sky Trains in the Soviet Union excellent job of presenting the stamps issued by
-Simine Short; this small town's postmaster in 1917-1918. He
Imperial Mail sent to Unusual Destinations covers the stamps and known varieties.
-Allan Steinhart; Alexander Epstein provides an interesting
Russian Mail from Roumania (1916-1918): article on the postal use of the Postal Savings
Addenda & Corrigenda II Bank & Control stamps. He divides the topic into
-Alexander Epstein; three periods of time and follows up with a
An Unusual Soviet Postwar Cover section on extraordinary use of these stamps.
-David Link; There are 22 references listed.
Post-WWH Surveillance of International Mail P.E. Robinson explores the Amur Railway
in the Stalin Era-Andrew Cronin; and presents some new postmark discoveries.
Looking at some Interesting Circular Railway Philip continues to add to our knowledge on the
Postmarks-Rabbi L.L. Tann; subject of postmarks.
Final Ovals II-Rabbi L.L. Tann; Ivo's adventures into the philatelic events of
Romanov Usages after the October Revolution the new republics reveals some very nice items.
-Rabbi L.L. Tann & A. Cronin; The issue ends with reviews of philatelic
The Late Arms Type Issues: Varieties, Oddities publications. The section is apparently incom-
and Freaks-George G. Werbizky; plete since Rossica is not included.
Postcards for the Correspondence of POWs in This is a typical BJRP-outstanding.
the USSR-Dan Grecu; -G. Combs
WWII Mail from POWs in Soviet Captivity
-Andrew Cronin;
Soviet Airmail Cachets 1922-1940
-Robert Taylor;
Selected Items of Armenian Postal History
-Prof. Henri Siranyan;
the usual back of the journal items.

Yet another quality issue. Thanks, Andy!

-G. Combs

Rossica Journal Number 127 91
October 1996









The British Journal of Russian Philately, #79, This issue starts with a primer on translitera-
October 1995. A publication of the British Soci- tion-a most useful addition.
ety of Russian Philately. Editor Ivo Steyn, Postbus Andrew Gilliam presents a delightful article
16636, 1001 RC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. about a cover that publicly seduced him.
e-mail: isteyn@econ.vu.nl. Noel Warr does an exceptional job in pre-
senting the name change from St. Petersburg to
Ivo is on a "roll" producing yet another fine Petrograd on marks of the Nikolaevsk Railway.
edition. But so close in time? Makes me wonder P.T. Ashford's article about aBritish armored
if he actually had a "full" journal and split it in car division in Russia in 1916-1918 is an excel-
half? lent example of philatelic research.
Andrew Gilliam shares with us two fine pre- Terry Page shares with us a Yarensk zemstvo
adhesive Estonian covers. Nice. discovery. Nice.
Boris Pritt presents an interesting challenge Ivo takes us for a trip (through a time ma-
regarding a 1918 envelope bearing instructions chine) into the golden age of Soviet postmarks,
for the use of baking powder. 1924-1938. Excellent examples and very nice
George Miskin discusses a few errors in pictures.
Russian registered mail labels. Trevor Pateman continues to enlighten the
Alexander Epstein presents an exciting ar- philatelic community about post-Soviet phila-
ticle about TPOs on railways of the Caucasian telic events with an article on Azerbaijan
Front. imperforates and surcharges. A must for the
Ivo presents a near exhaustive study of the collector of the new republics.
first six formular cards. Postal stationery still Ivo presents part two of an ongoing effort to
lags behind in the research department. illustrate the tridents of Kiev, L'vov, and
Rabbi Tann takes on a trip along the Crimean Chernigov.
Railways and introduces some very nice post- A very informative article by Matthew Kahane
marks from his journeys, lists the postal rates in Belarus for the period
P.E. Robinson presents a list of newly-re- 1992-1995. Good stuff.
corded publishers of picture postcards for Sibe- Notes from collectors and a review section
rian scenes, round out this issue. Rossica got a spot in this one.
P.T. Ashford continues to add to our knowl- Thanks, Ivo.
edge about all things Transcaucasian with an
addenda on railway marks. Good stuff here. -G. Combs
Trevor Pateman provides a glimpse into the
postal use of Armenia's post-Soviet definitive.
Very nice stamp article. InOTA The Journal of the Australia & New
Another fine issue. Zealand Society of Russian Philately, Issue 20,
-G. Combs July 1996, Editor Dr. Ross Marshall, P.O. Box 7,
Otorohanga, New Zealand.

The British Journal of Russian Philately, #80, Thejournal starts out on a sad note by inform-
August 1996. A publication of the British Soci- ing us Terry Archer's health is not good. I hope
ety of Russian Philately. EditorIvo Steyn, Postbus his health improves!
16636, 1001 RC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In this issue the following articles are pre-
e-mail: isteyn@econ.vu.nl. sented:
Censorship Organisation in Kazan' Military Dis-
Ivo took a little sabbatical between the last trict-Norman Banfield;
issue and this one. He appears to be rested and has Russian Arctic Activities-Sergey A. Chudakov;
produced another excellent edition. Baikonur Cancellations-Charles Bromser;
92 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Shadrinsk Zemstvo Postal Cards ings, later reprints, and the faked and
-George G. Werbizky; fraudulent types. Useditems arediscussed
An Interesting Cover-Philip Robinson; and there are extensive illustrations.
Special Rate for Chess-by-Mail 2. The first issue of post-tsarist Russia, the
-Terrence Hines; Zarrinsch-designed Sword & Chain
More Railway Ovals in the "Free Mail Period" stamps. Essays and proofs are reexam-
-Leonard Tann; ined-the issued stamps with major and
More Oval Postmarks from the Free Mail Per- minor varieties, plate flaws, and exten-
iod-Alexander Epstein; sive uses including post office documents.
About Late Postmarks of Older Types Fakes are examined as well.
-Alexander Epstein; 3. Various fiscal and savings stamps brought
The Russian Report-Sergey A. Chudakov; into postal use in this period, including
Literature; fake and fraudulent postmarks.
Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923. These three chapters represent to this reviewer
one of the most extensive studies of these issues
-Gary Combs I have seen.
The final chapter has a slightly misleading
title, The 1918 Ruble Arms Type Issues, but in
The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923, fact deals with all the Arms stamps issued 1917-
Vol. 5, RSFSR Section A, parts 1-5. Issues to 1919. Illustrations of major and minor varieties,
1920. By Dr. R. Ceresa. Price: 30 includes often bizarre folds and misprints, are included.
surface postage. Available from the author at: There are certainly details that other experts
Fairview Cottage, Quarry Lane, Gorseley, Ross- and specialists would contest. The inclusion of
on-Wye, Hereford HR9 7SJ, United Kingdom. valuation ratings presented in the Addendum for
all the issues and the plethora of varieties is a
Ray Ceresa continues his amazing output on contentious subject. But having done it, I feel
the stamps of Russia in that tumultuous period bound to say it seems excessively complex. The
1917-1923. This volume, 263 pages with exten- inclusion in these valuations of the 1917 Crossed
sive illustrations, deals with the very beginning Swords and Proclamation overprints, which at
of the period. best are speculative private issues and at worst
Ray takes as his starting point January 1917, philatelic productions cashing in on the confu-
the last weeks in which Tsar Nicholas II still sat sion of the times, is to my mind unnecessary.
on the throne. He illustrates the various issues I must also comment on the brevity with
then in use as forerunners to the revolutionary which two valid forerunner issues were treated:
period about to explode. He demonstrates their (a) the 1917 currency token issues and the sur-
usages in that period and into March 1917, and charges as both these issues were used through-
subsequently through 1917, 1918, and beyond out 1917 and well into 1918, and (b) the Arms
when increasing inflation caused higher postage surcharged types used into 1922. Perhaps they
rates and multiple uses. will be dealt with in a future volume of the series.
There are three.very important sections here: Overall, it is an excellent volume and makes
1. The revolutionary overprints of Crossed fascinating reading for collectors of Russia of
Swords & Cap, Abdication Proclama- any era or period. It certainly deserves a place in
tion. and the Proclamation of Grand Duke our philatelic libraries. If it helps us to distinguish
Michael. These were mainly Romanoff between the genuine and the fake, between the
issues, but also on Arms issues and avail- valuable and the dross, between the important
able postal stationery. These are ana- and the common, Ray will have helped us all.
lyzed in detail showing original print-
-Leonard Tann
Rossica Journal Number 127 93
October 1996








KRIEGSGEFANGEN-Osterreicher und Further chapters discuss the Czech Legion in
Ungarn als Gefangene der Entente 1914 bis Russia, and then the various other foreign troops
1921. Band 2: Sibirien (Prisoners of War- that were involved in the intervention at the end
Austrians and Hungarians as Prisoners of the of the war: the Japanese, English and Canadian,
Entente 1914-1921. Volume 2: Siberia). Horst Italian, and American contingents. Taitl shows
Taitl. Published by the author: Dornbirn. 1995. various types of mail and illustrates a sampling of
Available from the author at City-Reisebtiro, A- postal and censor markings used by these forces,
6850 Dorbirn, Stiglingen 1-3, Austria. No price although there is plenty of specialist literature
given. covering each of these expeditions in much more
detail.
This book covers the entire range of POW The longest chapter in the book consists of
mail and related material of Austro-Hungarian the reminiscences of Colonel Gustav von der
POWs in Siberia during the First World War. The Hellen, who was captured by the Russians in the
first chapter presents introductory material on first month of the war. As a POW, first in the
Siberia, the POW camps, the Trans-Siberian Krasnoyarsk camp, and later in Troitskosavsk
Railway, which transported hundreds of thou- and Simbirsk, von der Hellen worked to improve
sands of POWs to camps in Siberia, and the the conditions of the inmates. Released in 1918,
postal services for POWs. The following three he became head of the Austrian Red Cross del-
chapters survey the various complexes of POW egation that negotiated and organized the release
camps in Siberia, illustrating examples of POW of the surviving POWs in 1920 and 1921.
cards and the various collecting areas they offer. A final chapter covers the hospital ship, the
Each of the illustrations is keyed to a table of Nankai Maru, which along with the Hudson
valuations, expressed in a point system based on Maru, brought many of the POWs home at last.
the Austrian Schilling. Some collectors of POW material do not
The chapters also include useful maps and always stop to think of the terrible human condi-
extensive lists of POW camps in Siberia. There tions that the philatelic material represents. This
was a great variety of postal stationery cards, book focuses on the plight of the prisoners; it is
related postal markings, and camp money from dedicated to the hundreds of thousands who did
these camps. In addition, I can report firsthand not return, and extensive quotes from POW mail
that the hundreds of censor marks on this type of give a graphic picture of daily life in the camps.
mail are enough to render any innocent collector Especially for this reason, the book is an impor-
suicidal. tant addition to the already extensive philatelic
But in addition to the philatelic content, these literature on POW mail from Siberia.
chapters present a detailed and graphic picture of
the human side of the material. The conditions in Peter Michalove
the camps ranged from the unusually benign
level at Semipalatinsk, where the well-built bar-
racks provided sufficient protection from the
cold, and the POWs were able to attend religious
services and sing in a choir, to the more common
cases where often the majority of prisoners died
from hunger, disease, and exposure. In
Novonikolaevsk, one of the worst camps, Taitl
reports that 80% of the inmates died of typhus in
the winter of 1915-16. In all, 500,000-600,000
POWs died in Siberia.


94 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996








Baltic Postal Locations 1632-1917/8 by Harry Ostarbeiter Mail in World War II by George
v. Hofmann. Second Edition in Russian, Ger- G. Werbizky. Printed in Russian and English.
man, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Polish. 232 pages. 1996. Available from the author for
1996. Available from the author for DM 48 at: $US 25 at: 409 Jones Road, Vestal NY 13850-
Postfach 56 01 56, 22551 Hamburg, Germany. 3246, USA. Add US$ 3 for surface posting.
Airmail overseas, add US$ 11.
An absolute must for the collector of Baltic
philatelic material, especially postmarks! The invasion of the Soviet Union, which
When trying to locate information about an began in June 1941, resulted in many civilians
illusive location in the former Russian Empire, falling into the hands of the Germans. What
philatelists routinely turn to many publications, happened to these people, who were mainly from
Some use maps as an additional source of infor- Belorussia, Russia, and Ukraine, has been told by
mation. But how do you spell the name? The many different people in as many different ways
names of locations in the Baltic region encoun- ever since. However, a special fate awaited many
tered in philatelic literature are often influenced of them-forced labor camps in Germany. The
by many factors. One of these factors is what longer the war continued, the more people the
language are you using to spell. Mr. Hofmann Germans needed to work filling the gaps in
removes most of the ambiguity by providing the agriculture and industry vacated by the war-
spelling in as many languages as possible, machine's demands on the local populace.
The book starts with an introduction to the Mr. Werbizky has shown an interest in this
numbering system used, which consists of 9 area of philately for some time. He has exhibited
provinces/governments. The book is compiled in and written on the subject. Material for his col-
reference number order. The provinces covered election has not been the easiest to find. However,
are: Estonia, Grodno, Kovno, Courland, Livonia, it has grown substantially since he started.
St. Petersburg, Pskow, Suvalki, Vilna, VItebsk. This book is a heart warming effort by George
Information is presented in a tabular format to document as much of this period in time as
providing the following information for all loca- philatelically possible. His research into the sub-
tions: the name in German, Estonian, Latvian, ject is excellent and the outcome of these endeav-
Lithuanian, or Polish, as appropriate; the type of ors is nicely presented in Russian and English.
place it was, i.e., town, village, railway station, Part One introduces the reader to the subject
etc.; what type of postal establishment; years and briefly presents pertinent historical informa-
mentioned in official directories, tion. Simply reading about the subject makes one
The exhaustive list ofplacenames which fol- sad. Yet, it adds another perspective to events
lows and the wealth of information contained is during the Second World War, which might
almost overwhelming at first. otherwise have gone overlooked.
The back of the book contains a composite Part Two covers ostarbeiter documentation
list of all the placenames covered along with their and correspondence compiled from numerous
reference number. sources. Much of this material has remained in
This book is highly recommended for all boxes, trunks, etc. of family members of former
serious philatelists interested in this area of the ostarbeiters as well as a few from individuals
world. who had the misfortune of being a part of the
events.
-Gary Combs This book addresses a highly-specialized
philatelic subject, but is a marvelous historical
reference. The price is right and the book is well
worth reading.
-Gary Combs

Rossica Journal Number 127 95
October 1996








Ukrainian Postage Stamps: A Catalog of Issues The Railway Parcel Stamps of Finland, by Kaj
from 1991-1995 by Ingert Kuzych. Available from Hellman and Bjorn Eric Saarinen, Espoo, Finland,
Peter Bylen c/o Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, 1993. Published by and available from oy Kaj
P.O. Box7193,WestchesterIL 60154-7193,USA. Hellman Ltd. P.O. Box 1, SF-02611 Espoo, Fin-
$US 6 postpaid, land. Price: $30.

Ingert Kuzych is one of the world's foremost Try as I might, I could find no reference in the
authorities on Ukrainian philatelic matters. In addi- Rossica Library on Finnish railway parcel stamps,
tion to editing the excellent Ukrainian Philatelist, which seems odd considering that they first ap-
he has written some 70 articles on the subject. This peared in 1871 and kept on going long past the
book is just another of his great works and belongs October Revolution, so that technically, at least,
in the philatelic library of any serious collector of these were initially Russian Empire revenue stamps!
Ukrainian philately. So, this update to the 1955 E.A. Hellman handbook
In this publication, collectors now have at is the latest word on the subject, and what a word it
hand, for the first time ever, all the available infor- is. The book is softbound, printed on good-quality
mation on Ukraine's postage stamps from the first paper, and crammed with hundreds of clear black-
five years of independence. Included in this listing and-white photos of the stamps and railway sta-
are not only all of the regular stamp releases, but tions that used them. Listings are arranged chrono-
alsothe 1992tridentoverprintsonSoviet-erastamps logically by railroad: Helsinki-St. Petersburg RR
prepared by order of Ukraine for Kyiv (Kiev), Lviv (owned and operated by the Finnish State Rail-
(L'vov), and Cherihiv (Chernigov). ways, even on the Russian side!); Hango-Hyvinge
Every stamp or souvenir sheet description con- RR; Loviisa RR; Borga-Kervo RR; Jokioinen RR:
tains information on: the stamp subject; its value, Brahestad RR; Mantta RR.
colors used, and the designer; the paper type and The text is in Finnish and English, with the
printer; perforation type; number of stamps per pricing in American dollars. Of especial interest to
pane; total printing quantity; and first day cancel Russian collectors are the stamps issued for use by
information. Every postal issue is illustrated at full the Finland Station in St. Petersburg and the hand-
size. Additionally, all known varieties are described ful of Helsinki-St. Petersburg RR stations situated
along with information on inscription blocks and on Russian soil. Some of the stamps bear Cyrillic
printer's specimens where applicable, text only, others bear bilingual Swedish-Russian.
There are four detailed appendices describing This work is more than just a listing of railway
the fluorescence characteristics of Ukrainian parcel stamps. It comes with an excellent foldout
stamps, all official first day commemorative can- color map of Finland showing the railroad lines
eels, the postal rates 1991-1995, and a synopticon there (1912-1937), a good black-and-white map
comparing the BK numbering system used to other of the St. Petersburg environs and north, a list of
more confusing numberings. station numbers on the Helsinki-St. Petersburg
Ingert and the UPR have produced another RR by period (there were three of them), a list of all
high quality publication. Although Ingert would the versions of railway names found on the issues,
not have allowed the picture quality to slip as much a bibliography, and numerous incidentals, like pic-
in the Ukrainian Philatelist, this is NOT a show tures of railway share certificates, trains and loco-
stopper. All serious collectors of Ukraine should motives, and so on. Both outside and inside covers
immediately add this book to their shelf. have pictures in color.
Those interested in Finnish stamps, Russian
-Gary Combs revenues and Imperial-period railroads will find
this an indispensable book. Highly recommended,
and our congratulations to Messrs. Hellman and
Saarinen for an outstanding work.

Dave Skipton


96 Rossica Journal Number 127
October 1996