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 Cover
 Officers and representatives of...
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 The autonomous regions of Russia...
 An unreported Azerbaijan printing...
 Every stamp in its place, by Ivo...
 Zemstvo stamp discovery or...?,...
 Richard MacIIrath Major
 One cover's story, by Mark...
 A square peg in round holes, by...
 Japan to Paris via Siberia, July-August...
 Russian postal censorship in the...
 Zemstvo for topical collectors,...
 Ship mail from the Arctic (part...
 Passport fees under Nicholas II,...
 Some thoughts on "G.Eh.O.", by...
 A fantasy, by Michael Ercolini
 From England to Chinese Turkestan...
 Russian refugee history, by George...
 Recent local overprints: A suggested...
 President's corner
 Who are we?, by Gary Combs
 Membership status
 Member-to-member adlets
 In the back room
 Publication Agreement Between Rossixa...
 The Rossica library, by Dave...
 Rossica awards
 Elections
 Expertization
 Reviews
 Advertising


ROSSICA



Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00067
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1994
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00067

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    The autonomous regions of Russia (2), by George Shaw
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    An unreported Azerbaijan printing error, by Peter Bylen
        Page 13
    Every stamp in its place, by Ivo Steyn
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Zemstvo stamp discovery or...?, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 19
    Richard MacIIrath Major
        Page 19
    One cover's story, by Mark Tartakovskiy
        Page 20
        Page 21
    A square peg in round holes, by Dave Skipton
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Japan to Paris via Siberia, July-August 1903, by Ed Rasmussen
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Russian postal censorship in the Baltic during WWI, by A. Epstein
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Zemstvo for topical collectors, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Ship mail from the Arctic (part 2), by John B. Holland and Philip E. Robinson
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Passport fees under Nicholas II, by J. G. Moyes
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Some thoughts on "G.Eh.O.", by Mark Tartakovskiy
        Page 66
    A fantasy, by Michael Ercolini
        Page 67
        Page 68
    From England to Chinese Turkestan via Boston and Russia, by Mel Kessler
        Page 69
    Russian refugee history, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Recent local overprints: A suggested classification, by George Shaw
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    President's corner
        Page 77
    Who are we?, by Gary Combs
        Page 78
    Membership status
        Page 79
    Member-to-member adlets
        Page 80
        Page 81
    In the back room
        Page 82
    Publication Agreement Between Rossixa and
        Page 82
        Page 83
    The Rossica library, by Dave Skipton
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Rossica awards
        Page 86
    Elections
        Page 86
    Expertization
        Page 87
    Reviews
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Advertising
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text


ROSSICA


No. 123 October 1994











THE JOURNAL
of the
ROSSICA SOCIETY
of
RUSSIAN PHILATELY








OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY

President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL 61821
Secretary pro tem: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal NY13850
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park NY 11374
Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SOCIETY

Washington-Baltimore Chapter:
Dr. Gordon Torrey, 392 Russell Avenue, Gaithersburg MD 20877, USA
Northern California Chapter:
Mike Renfro, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055, USA
Midwest Chapter:
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park IL 60304, USA
Great Britain:
Dr. Raymond Ceresa, Fairview Cottage Quarry Lane, Gorsley, Ross-on-Wye, Hereford HA9
7SJ, United Kingdom

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Librarian or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $10 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108
USA

Copyright 1994
The Rossica Society
ISSN 0035-8363







THE JOURNAL OF THE
ROSSICA SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


Journal No. 123 for October 1994

Editor : Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: George Shaw, David M. Skipton, Howard Weinert

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic Page

ARTICLES

Editorial 2
The Autonomous Regions of Russia (2)-George Shaw 3
An Unreported Azerbaijan Printing Error-Peter Bylen 13
Every Stamp In Its Place-Ivo Steyn 14
Zemstvo Stamp Discovery or ...?-George G. Werbizky 19
Obituary-Richard MacIlrath Major 19
One Cover's Story-Mark Tartakovskiy 20
A Square Peg In Round Holes-Dave Skipton 22
Japan to Paris Via Siberia, July-August 1903-Ed Rasmussen 25
Russian Postal Censorship in the Baltic During WWI-A. Epstein 27
Zemstvo for Topical Collectors-George G. Werbizky 42
Ship Mail From The Arctic (Part 2)-John B. Holland and Philip E. Robinson 50
Passport Fees Under Nicholas II-J. G. Moyes 54
Some Thoughts On "G.Eh.O."-Mark Tartakovskiy 66
A Fantasy-Michael Ercolini 67
From England to Chinese Turkestan Via Boston and Russia-Mel Kessler 69
Russian Refugee History-George G. Werbizky 70
Recent Local Overprints: A Suggested Classification-George Shaw 73


OF INTEREST TO MEMBERS
President's Corner 77
Who Are We? 78
Membership Status 79
Member-to-Member Adlets 80
In the Back Room 82
Publication Agreement Between Rossica and HhJIATEJIHI 82
The Rossica Library 84
Rossica Awards 86
Elections 86
Expertization 87
Reviews of Philatelic Publications 87
Dealer Advertisements and Information 92









Editorial

The number of philatelic organizations dedi- Member Barry Keane is adamant in his posi-
cated to the collecting of Russian-related areas tion that standards by which all these issues can
and their membership continues to increase, indi- be commonly judged must be established. The
rating a significant amount of interest in the Ukrainian Society is beginning to address this
subject. While the current amount of available issue, as has the British Society. George Shaw's
information is staggering, relatively little infor- article in this issue also contains a plea for assis-
mation is available regarding the events since the tance. Michael Padwee and Peter Bylen have
breakup of the Soviet Union, an area widely issued similar pleas. To date the Rossica re-
collected by new members. sponse has been minimal while the complaints
Michael Padwee and others are trying to doc- have risen. We need to add our knowledge to the
ument some of these events. New societies are philatelic community, and the Journal is the
forming. Peter Bylen and others are trying to place to do it.
track the events from a historical viewpoint. One It is time for all collectors of these events to
dealer is photocopying all new issues made avail- quit complaining and join forces. The events are
able to him for sale. But who is tracking the taking place now and must be addressed now.
events from a stamp viewpoint? There are no experts in this area of philately,
Over 75 years have passed since WWI. The merely individuals with opinions based on what
ensuing revolution and the struggling Union had they have personally observed or concluded uni-
tremendous postal problems. Much has been laterally. Ask for the proof. Hearsay and innuen-
written about this era, and much remains to be does should not be accepted. I strongly encour-
written. We still are not completely sure about age all collectors to tackle this subject while it is
how to identify the real from the fantasy issues, still new. There is absolutely no reason why
much less the fakes and forgeries. philately must wait 75 years again and not have
Statements from individuals present at the the answers.
time have sometimes been helpful. However, What to collect, how to collect, and how to
there have been many statements that were as display it are completely up to the individual
false as the item they tried to authenticate-often involved. Whether you collect topicals, stamps,
at great expense to the purchaser of such items. postal history, fakes and forgeries, overprints,
Many prominent philatelists are trying to etc., the choice is yours alone. Studies and re-
capitalize on the present-day situation by pur- search are driven individually. However, unwill-
chasing at very low prices and selling at much ingness to share the fruits of your research de-
inflated prices. Because they are prominent in the prives others of information and could lead to
philatelic community and, in some cases, ac- duplicate efforts on the part of other collectors.
knowledge subject area experts, beginners au- Someone once said "knowledge is power,"
tomatically assume they are selling authentic yet even the purists among academicians admit
material. The material may or may not be authen- no one person can know everything. Choose your
tic. One should question whether the sales are subject and peruse the long list of publications by
driven by philatelic or monetary interests. Re- new authors every year. Philately could and
search into these items is the only way to get a should produce the same amount of information.
better understanding. Unfortunately, the number of authors remains
Collecting the new and local issues can make relatively small compared to the number of col-
a rewarding collection, leading to hours of re- lectors. Perhaps it is your turn to write an article
search and fun. However, the collector must go or book and promote yourself into the rank of
one step further and identify what is authentic acknowledged expert on some topic. Give it
and what is not. This is not an easy task. some thought.
2 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









The Autonomous Regions Of Russia (2)


by George Shaw

In issue 122 of the journal we covered the Chuvashskaya AR. Located in the western
Northwestern autonomous areas and the part of the Middle Volga republics and bor-
Caucasus. In this issue we finish the autonomous dered by Mordoviya on its southwest and
regions. Marii on its northeast, Chuvash (postal index
428-9) is honored on Soviet stationery for
3. The Middle Volga Republics the 70th anniversary of its ASSR (fig. 13).
Note that the inner circle of the postmark uses
There are six autonomous republics in the non-Cyrillic diacritical marks. Chuvashes
Middle Volga region. Tatarstan and Bashkir are make up 69% of the population, Russians
large; their capitals (Kazan' and Ufa, respec- 26%.
tively) each have more than a million people. The Mordovskaya AR. The westernmost of the
only one of the Middle Volga republics that was Middle Volga republics, Mordoviya (postal
at all scarce in the VOA correspondence was index 430-1) is bordered on the south by
Mordoviya. Samara Oblast', on the west by Ryazan'
Oblast', and on the north by Nizhnii Novgorod
"* Tatarstan AR. Probably the best known of the (Gor'ki) Oblast'. Russians comprise 60% of
autonomous republics, Tatarstan (postal in- the population, Mordovians 34%. Figure 14
dex 420-3) declared its sovereignty in mid- is from the capital, Saransk, and uses the
1992. Its population is roughly equally Tatar obsolete international airmail rate of 1 rub.
and Russian. This area should not be con- 50 kop.
fused with the Crimean Tatars who were Bashkirskaya AR. The largest of the autono-
depicted on the 3-kopeck stamp of the Peoples mous republics with nearly 4 million people,
of the Soviet Union set of 1933 (Scott 491). Bashkir (postal index 450-3) is bordered on
Figure 10 uses the 1982 commemorative the west by Tatarstan and Orenburg Oblast',
stationery to honor the 25th anniversary of on the east by Chelyabinsk Oblast' and on the
International Geophysical Year and reflects north by Perm' and Ekaterinburg Oblasts.
the 3 rub. 60 kop. rate for a surface letter. 40% of the population is Russian, 25%
Locally produced overprints have been re- Bashkir and 25% Tatar. Figure 15 is from the
ported in 1993. capital city of Ufa, which has a population
"* Mariiskaya AR. The least populated and greater than 1 million.
northwestern most of the Middle Volga Re-
publics, Marii (postal index 424-5) is shown 4. The Siberian and Arctic Autonomous
in Figure 11. This cover is from Solnechn'i Areas
and uses 67 stamps including 20 on the re-
verse, yet still underpays the postage. The The eastern part of the Russian Federation
population is equally Marii and Russian. contains three autonomous republics and twelve
"* Udmurtskaya AR. Udmurt (postal index 426- smaller autonomous areas. These territories are
7) is bordered by Tatarstan on the south, predominantly Eskimo in origin, except for the
Kirov Oblast' to the west and north, and Perm' five entities along the Chinese and Mongolian
Oblast' to the east. Russians make up 58% of borders. Despite their small populations, they are
the population; Udmurt 32%. Figure 12 is enormously large and are rich in natural re-
from Izhevsk, the capital, and reflects the 17- sources.
ruble rate for registered letters.
Rossica Journal Number 123 3
October 1994








"* Tuvinskaya AR. The famed Tannu Touva of Mansi on the south, and Krasnoyarsk on the
stamp collectors of earlier generations, Tuva southeast. It is distinct from Nenets Autono-
(postal index 667-668) was incorporated into mous Okrug, which is to its west and was
the Soviet Union in 1944. Its population is discussed in Rossica 122. There were no
60% Tuvan and 36% Russian. Since it issued VOA covers.
its last stamps in 1943, this autonomous re- *Gorno-Altaiskaya AOb. Southeast of
public has been commemorated only once, Barnaul'anditsAltaiskiiKrai, Gomo-Altaisk
part of the 1962 issue honoring the autono- (postal index 6597) is a mountainous home
mous areas (Scott 2344B). Figure 16 depicts for nearly 200 thousand people. It borders
the 32-kopeck airmail stationery of 1978. Kazakhstan on its west and Chinese Turkistan
Locally produced overprints have been re- on its south. Tuvais on the east and Kemerovo
ported in 1993. Oblast' in on the northeast. Figure 19 is from
"* Buryatskaya AR. Centered on Ulan-Ude on Aktash and uses old 32-kopeck airmail sta-
the Amur River, Buryatia (postal index 670- tionery. Note there is no mention of the
1) has about one million people, nearly three- Russian Federation in the return address.
quarters of whom are Russian. Note that part Khakasskaya AOb. Home to more than 500
of the address in fig. 17 is in Chinese. thousandpeople, this area(postal index6626)
"* Yakutskaya AR. A thousand miles north of is administratively part of Krasnoyarsk
Irkutsk and one-third the size of the conti- Oblast'. It is bordered on the west by
nental United States, Yakutia (postal index Kemerovo and the south by Tuva. Figure 20
677-8) changed its name in 1992 to Sakha. is from the major city, Chernogorsk.
Its population is one-half Russian and more TaymyrAOk. Positioned on theArctic Ocean,
than one-third Yakut. This is noted in the Taymyr (postal index 6632) has a population
cachet to the left of the cover in fig. 18, which of only 50 thousand. Sandwiched between
depicts the movie theater "Yakutsk" in Mirnii Yamalo-Nenets and Yakutia, it is appended
and is where the cover was postmarked. to Krasnoyarsk Oblast' administratively. Fig-
"* Komi-Permyak AOk. South of the Komi ure 21 is from Dudinka and, ironically, the
Autonomous Republic is a small ethnic area indicium shows Antarctica, one of the few
affiliated with Perm' Oblast'. Komi-Permyak parts of the world colder than Taymyr.
(postal index 6172-3) has only 160 thousand Evenki AOk. Only 22 thousand people make
inhabitants. There were no VOA envelopes Evenki (postal index 6633-4) their home,
from this area. This area is distinct from the making it the least populated of the autono-
larger Komi AR discussed in Rossica 122. mous areas. Affiliated with Krasnoyarsk on
"* Khanty-Mansi AOk. Northeast of Tyumen' its southwest, this enormous area also bor-
Oblast' to which it reports, Khanty-Mansi ders Taymyr, Yakutia, and Irkutsk Oblast'.
(postal index 6262-3, 6268) has about 100 Figure 22 is from Noril'sk. In addition to the
thousand people. It is bordered on the west by 4 rub. 57 kop. on the front, there is an increase
Komi, on the southwest by Ekaterinburg of 45 kopecks in the price of the envelope
Oblast', on the southeast by Tomsk Oblast', added on the reverse. Thus, the airmail rate of
on the east by Krasnoyarsk Oblast', and on 5 rubles was reached.
the north by Yamalo-Nenets. There were no Ust-Orda Buryat AOk. Ust-Orda (postal in-
VOA covers from Khanty-Mansi, nor has it dex 6653-4) is separated from the Buryat
ever been honored on a stamp. Autonomous Republic by Lake Baikal. This
"* Yamalo-Nenets AOk. Situated on the Arctic Autonomous Okrug is a subdivision of Irkutsk
Ocean between Nenets and Taymyr Autono- Oblast'. Figure 23 shows cover from Usol'e-
mous Okrugs, Yamalo-Nenets (postal index Sibirskoe postmarked about a hundred miles
6265) has a population of 380 thousand. It is away in Irkutsk.
also bordered by Komi on the west. Khanty-
4 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









"* Aga-Buryat AOk. Another Mongolian eth- the same name. It reports to Magadan Oblast',
nic area, Aga-Buryat (postal index 6744) is which is south of this Autonomous Okrug.
surrounded by Chita Oblast', its administra- Figure 25 is from Pevek, a town on the Arctic
tive affiliate. There were no VOA covers. Ocean.
"* Evreiskii AOb. Better known as Birobidzhan
or the Jewish Autonomous Region, it (postal References:
index 6822) is tucked into a bend of the Amur
River and is administered as part of Ministerstvo svyazi Soyuza SSR, Glavnoe
Khabarovsk Krai. Established in the early pochtovoe upravlenie, Spravochnik
1930s by Stalin as an alternative to Palestine pochtovoi indeksatsyi: Tom I (A-M). Mos-
as a homeland for Jews. Figure 24 shows the cow: 1969.
correct rate of 5 rubles. Various speculative Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR:
issues appeared locally in 1993. Administrativno-Territorial'noe delenie
"* Koryak AOk. With only 40 thousand inhab- Soyuznykh Respublik. Moscow: 1987.
itants, the Koryak AOk (postal index 6847- Kozlov, Viktor. The Peoples of the Soviet Union.
8) is the second smallest area by population. Indiana University Press, Bloominton, IN,
It occupies the northern half of the Kamchatka 1989.
Peninsula, to which it is affiliated administra- Symons, Leslie. The Soviet Union: A Systematic
tively. There were no VOA covers. Geography. Hoddes and Stoughton, London,
"* Chukotka AOk. Positioned in the northeast- 1990.
ern corner of Siberia, Chukotka (postal index
6865-8) is named after the Eskimo tribe of




BK l ,1EW.AYHIAPAHOMY
O l SM3MECKOMY










Iflo TA C2t &' t-C C cI t



i ,, r,' i .





"" L J U t k- htc tC T
HAeIE enpp'ui CB3NH Mecla HalaqmiHIE TC? C- I --s ti j .. / ; c C

Figure 10. Letter from Chistopol', Tatarstan AR.
Rossica Journal Number 123 5
October 1994





























2 JL-LJ'.'..-. ___~ .., ,,.-,,.4.,tjt___ I

...ar f f i i .-- --
AlN- Ti ntzexc npelflpwlr Crt3 NCCT Ei KC-a3N-lqeH

Figure 11. Letter from Sol'nechni, Mariiskaya AR.




PAR AVION , rp ,-






F'igure Ip 6e PGRO. ox ;wct, indAR
-2-







Ko, y 2 ooo. ,
[JY LI o --





Hu AetKC .peji pr.rm lIc HA (( n.u'r st




Figure 12. Registered airmail letter from Izhevsk, Udmurtskaya AR.

6 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994
: i~rn /t~s'oo o.October 1994SZ











,. -r


'LI.I







-----------------2..A -
U,,. -. ,, L I_ __ ,






Figure 13. Letter from Novoe Baibat'revo, Chuvashskaya AR. Note inner circle of cancel with non-Cyrillic diacritical
marks.

v r ^y _jr A Z-J, g :l

PAR AV ON ,!

300 C

2L20090. __ __




FT,... c .......... ^ tr 7 O^....
I'^A^*'-' I" I I I I I l t."I__ '
*<"*' Co^^n ..o ____e ,
~~~~~~~Figure 13.4. Airmail letterfrom Saransk, MordovNovoe Baibat'revo, Chuvashskaya AR. Note inner circle of cancel with non-Cyrlic diacritical



October 1994
20Hop090 P__ _C
NC Fonocr AL/LI~~pV jd. 1




tf.61auv-






Figure 14. Airmail letterfrom Saransk, Mordovskaya AR.
October 1994


October 1994









IA' .., ,-^ ,.-: r r -. .- -_ A A= ^
AMEbHAM&?LIj&




-.,j4"-. c S ccnH" I2^ ,-L'



a I I s0e 0





























e ..2 c ..... . .
-- ^/e October 1994
n-iifi 1 CCCP n-iTACCC







(21- -



nHUIHs HHmstM ipenpmiTR ca ecT a naLi TL HautmH i,

Figure 15. Airmail letterfrom Ufa, Bashkirskaya AR.




PAR AVION



fi ss "roloc A. T






.l..ex. ..2cCi ... .. ...
.Alf rmnipalsume.1 R
Pr2'nYFZ ji-: A..... .........
TY3A




Figure 16. Airmail letterfrom Tuvinskaya AR, Tannu Touvafrom 1926-1943.

8 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994












--..vYHAPO AH -

1, t.










A -Aus Acc. r. u,111. x-L. L -C ;EAT .' i K


"- ---- -/... ..
\ ^ -_--,. .... .... .-"- .. .




Tliw urIre KacC npeAnPnwi l crams l lmela N mnm4n

Figure 17. Airmail letter from Ulan-Ude, Buryatskaya AR. Note the address in Chinese.












6, ./ i' ././ .. C '




""S AJI ACC. r MNPLI. XII EATP aK r t ..' d/ ,



= -I i r -i -/I -/ a9 nc (ky





Figure 18. Letter from Mirnii, Yakatskaya (Sakha) AR.

Rossica Journal Number 123 9
October 1994










MM,- W Ii %,-el
PAR AVION1 r. ,




S,....... ..... ....... ... .


w .. r K0 Ay 6.\II.. ..j7t ..
. 3 ..... ... .. .....






Figure 19. Airmail letter from Aktash, Gorno-Altaiskaya AOb.
-7 -'/






























October 1994
"-' P:"A'iB..'',P""VO:-




*'.__-_,._ ..-. _____ _-_ .._________
-. -letter from Aktash, Gor o-Altaiskaya AOb.
.i"' A";"? r a r s'r. ..'r sr r










I I .. .. .. : ....7 /9 y c
_________/ __ c h





Figure 20. Airmail letter from Cheogorsk, Khakass kaya AOb.






10 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994











MEm nYHAPOAHOE i



If-4.I. 1.









co3 t"e ta ,ay ,,





Irmnwr. e naeP. p^UfppEHN cnscan ecIr ,. <, uiia);aqeu'



Figure 21. Letter from Duginka, TaymyrA Ok. Indicia on envelope depicts Antarctica, one of the few places in the world
colder than Taymyr.








SP r'. ..A .,, LCr 'nA .Ce, i,.

fl0TA CCCP 1988
C ULCA ^. f / ^
colder than Taymyr.
flip

an {no ', ^ .g.^', 96526



Hi -:u'x: P tE.'trinpH s < fit .'l i t p >i fipa n --.--' a









Figure 22. Letterfrom Noril'sk, Evenki AOk.

Rossica Journal Number 123 11
October 1994











PAR AVION
"W 4'-


.,/ 0/HTI AEPH




A Ago, 200 .0Y ... .

R)iPe 6650 POin thh1
2OO0



------ PKYTC/KA 1 OSM C' 7





Figure 23. Letter from Usol'e-Sibirskoe, Ust-Orda Buryat AOk. postmarked in Irkutsk.



12 .JAourn al Octber 1 23 4
PAR AVION



'r- :-9 0 f^ L J



F ''p-^'-.'-^, k '' i, E





"ZDD r~ r _.. :_:: .___g ^4^,_____^





River in the 1930s.
12 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994













M















1T"Ite t%"A C n eA1pt llRtln BtMtA sMecTa taslitavtH P

Figure 25. Airmail letter from Pevek, a town on the Arctic Ocean, Chukotka AOk.


An Unreported Azerbaijan Printing Error

by Peter Bylen
"" L. .. J.. ..-


















-: ::: ::::::: AZ R BAYCAN
,-, tA. ;t 1'- A.



























AZaRBAYCAN 25 .

The stamps illustrated above were issued by Azerbaijan in 1993. The stamp on the left is a normal
stamp. The stamp on the right has the black print double. To the best of my knowledge this variety
has not been reported. Has any member noted this or other valid varieties to date? The illustrations
of the stamps are enlarged 200%.
Rossica Journal Number 123 13
October 1994








Every Stamp In Its Place

by Ivo Steyn

If you collect stamps, you must be wondering Soviet stamps, of course. The Romanov Jubilee
why so many people are interested in postal issue of 1913 seems to have been made for
history, just as many collectors of postal history postmark collectors, as a socked-on-the-nose
have a hard time understanding why people pre- strike will just about fit perfectly onto a stamp,
fer to collect stamps. I might as well start this note and, of course, there are a lot of interesting
by saying I collect both, but for different reasons, postmarks to collect.
Russian stamps are, of course, a worthy sub- I have recently become enamored of another
ject of a collection, and you can make this collec- way to collect stamps, mostly inspired by a very
tion as specialized as you want. With around fine series of articles by V. Karlinskii (originally
6000 stamps issued, the USSR left behind a published in Filateliya SSSR, translation in Ros-
philatelic legacy that will keep you occupied for sica #73 pp. 62-74, #74 pp. 35-50, #75 pp. 56-
some time, even if your aim is the relatively 70. The postal rates were summarized in BJRP
modest one of acquiring one example of each #60,pp. 46-52. Severalcorrections to Karlinskii's
stamp. However, there are also many other ways rates were given by Alexander Epstein in Pochta
in which you can enjoy Russian and Soviet stamps. #14, pp. 8-13). Karlinskii made the excellent
Some sets certainly lend themselves as subjects point that most stamps up to about the mid-1930s
of a specialized collection. The most obvious were not just issued to produce pretty pictures
examples are probably the "Small Head" with teeth, they were also intended to serve a
definitive of 1923-1927, where different print- postal function, and they usually had face values
ing methods, perforations, and watermarks have that matched a certain postal rate. For instance,
generated enough collectable varieties to keep the "10th Anniversary of the Revolution" set of
any collector happy. Yet some commemorative 1927 (wonderfully reviewed by George Shalimoff
sets are almost as good. Look at the Pushkin set in Rossica #108/109, pp. 17-28) consisted of
of 1938 or, if you don't want to confine yourself seven stamps, and each stamp just fitted the rate
to just one set, the "repeated printings" of the for a category of mail:
1950s. In short, there is a lot to collect out there. 3 k (
3 kop. (Scott 375) inland postcard
From stamps it is usually just a short step to 5 k ( 3 l
ST A5 kop. (Scott 376) local letter
postmarks. I started out collecting only Civil War kop. (Scott 37) ore otca
"7 kop. (Scott 377) foreign postcard
issues, and many of those stamps are quite com- 8 kop. (Scott 378) inland letter
8 kop. (Scott 378) inland letter
mon mint, but very hard to find used. Ask any o o n
collector about used examples of the issues of the k ier
Mountain Republic, of the Merkulov Anniver-
Mountain Republic, of the Merkulov Anniver- 28 kop. (Scott 381) foreign registered letter
sary set of Vladivostok, or the more obscure
issues of Ukraine: you can spend a LOT of time I have started to collect the stamps of the
looking for them. However, most issues are quite USSR performing the function they were in-
plentiful used. If you have been collecting defini- tended to perform. I do have the 28-kop. stamp
tive issues, such as the "Small Heads" set men- just mentioned, franking aregisteredletter abroad
tioned above, you will know that these can be all on its own. The 7-kop. stamp in the "Mauso-
found used by the zillion. A nicely used example leum of Lenin" set of 1925 served as franking on
of each value is a first step, but it's very easy to an ordinary inland letter, all by its lonesome, and
become interested in the postmarks themselves so on. I find this a very satisfying way to collect
and start collecting postmarks on a given issue as stamps: you actually see the stamp served a
well. This game can be played not only with purpose!

14 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









Of course, covers or cards bearing exactly of the different categories of mail to be able to
one stamp precisely fitting the required rate are judge if the rate is correct. As a rule, you will not
not easy to find, and you need to have a table of be interested in the nature of the postmark, the
postal rates nearby to check if the rate is correct, route followed by the cover, or any additional
But take it from me, it is a challenge you will markings such as indications of censorship (al-
enjoy. Again, while I have used Soviet examples though these can lend some extra glamor to a
in this note, you can also play this game with cover). All you want is that the stamp is the only
Imperial stamp issues. The lowly 1-kop. stamp stamp on the cover and the rate is correct. It does
can occasionally be found on local printed mat- not hurt if the cover also looks pretty!
ter, the 2-kop. stamp on inland printed matter, There are two variations on this theme. The
and so on. Some of the higher values will only first is a form of cheating: how can you make life
appear on items like money letters, parcel ad- a bit easier on yourself? Well, there are some
dress forms, and money orders, and you would obvious ways. For instance, you can also collect
have to search for a long time before finding one postal stationery where a single stamp has been
of those, but they do exist. As a first exercise, if used to raise the card/envelope to, a higher rate.
you collect the Romanov issue, try finding every As an example, finding a single franking of the
value as a "single franking." I predict that you 4-kop. "Large Head" definitive is quite difficult,
will quickly find half a dozen covers fitting the so when you find it raising a 3-kop. postcard to
bill (namely those bearing single frankings of the the 7-kop. foreign postcard rate, you might as
3-, 4-, 7-, 10-, 14-, and 20-kop. stamps), but well go for that as a second-best
that progress will be much slower after that. The solution. Another way to cheat is to allow mul-
1- and 2-kop. stamps do occasionally turn up on tiple frankings as well. For instance, allowing
printed matter or on picture postcards with very four copies of a 7-kop. stamp, which is difficult
short messages, but after that you will need to to find as a single franking, to make up a rate of
resort to very heavy letters, money letters, money 28-kop. on a cover. Again, second-best but quite
orders, and parcels to make progress. So when pretty. Finally, if the stamp slightly overpays an
you do finally find that 5-ruble stamp on a cover otherwise awkward rate (say, an 80-kop. stamp
or money order, you will mount that sucker on an overpaying some silly airmail rate like 74-kop.),
album page and just GLOAT! I also advise clemency. There are also ways to
While the stamp output of the USSR in- make life more difficult for yourself. Many stamps
creased dramatically after 1935, the face values of the 1920s and 1930s were issued to com-
of the issued stamps usually make sense. For memorate some special event that also generated
instance, many sets of the 1950s consisted of a special postmark. For instance, the 1926 Espe-
stamps of 40 kopecks (inland letter rate) and 1 ranto stamps did service during an international
ruble (inland registered mail rate), and finding congress of Esperantists in Leningrad, where a
them used as such is difficult, but not impossible. special postmark was also used. Would it not be
After 1961 there were oodles of 4-kop. stamps nice to get those stamps as single frankings on a
issued to cover the inland letter rate. So you can postcard (7-kop.) or letter (14-kop.) bearing that
play this game with stamps of every period from special postmark? A few remarks about this... It
1857 to 1991. gets much easier after WWII, when special post-
All this may sound as if I am slowly trying to marks were thick as flies. In fact, for some issues
pervert righteous stamp collectors, dragging them you would have to look really hard to find a cover
down to the rat-infested levels that postal history NOT bearing the special postmark (the 1932
collectors inhabit, but that is not the intention Second Polar Year issue comes to mind, as do the
here. Collecting stamps doing their duty on cover 40-kop. and 80-kop. "Graf Zeppelin" stamps).
is something entirely different from collecting You would also have to be alert for nasty covers
postal history. All you need is a basic knowledge which never went through the post, a hazard that

Rossica Journal Number 123 15
October 1994








becomes particularly acute after WWII. Beware had traveled on the "Graf Zeppelin" to Germany.
ofthematiccollectors, who will sometimes resort The 50-kop. rate (10-kop. postcard rate, 40-
to violence to acquire some of these special kop. surcharge) was franked with a single 50-
postmarks! I have the 7-kop. Esperanto stamp on kop. "Large Head" stamp, which is almost im-
a postcard with the congress postmark, but I had possible to find as a single franking. However,
to bleed heavily to acquire it, since it was in an the owner sneered: "That? Just another Zeppelin
auction of items with a thematic interest, card. Hasn't even got the nice big stamps on it,"
The other side of this particular coin is that thus missing the point that this card was a superb
postal historians are often shockingly disinter- example of the 50-kop. stamp doing its duty.
ested in the stamps used for the franking on a As a final point, I have found that an item with
cover. I recently came across a good example of a single franking fills up the lower half of an
this. In 1930, the "Graf Zeppelin" visited the album page very nicely indeed, and the upper
USSR, and forthe return flight two special stamps half of the page can then be used to showcase the
were issued, the well-known-40-kop. and 80- stamp itself, with all its varieties.
kop. stamps with a striking design. These stamps In summary, if you collect stamps, start think-
covered the additional "Graf Zeppelih" surcharge ing about the stamps doing the job they were
for a postcard and a letter abroad, respectively, issued for. If you collect postal history, start
You, therefore, never find them as single frankings paying attention to the stamps franking the cov-
on Zeppelin covers, they are always accompa- ers. I guarantee you will find new ways to enjoy
nied by extra stamps to cover the basic postcard/ your hobby.
letter rate. A few weeks ago I saw a postcard that




CQGPOBOAHTEJ1bHblI AA
C'10 II OCnI IJ'I(
lrt(toti ua Py6.




Ky(a T r


(Mlinr o ItM MuiaicLin H nu.ipoOlin aIpecLT iio.iylaTrai.)
"li l CJITY2KEBHb1H OTM'BTKH.
110 o all'UBaTor.iKll ilTe lnne IIO'ITOBill'O
f- l: /AA MAPO HKb.
RtcoB.... ., I
Ci'phax.... -g
AoiaB.o... P1/ -,/






45-kop. postage and 25-kop. insurance made 70 kop. for this parcel, and it is difficult to find the 70-kop. Arms stamp
as a single franking any other way.
16 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994










3. Studenskil, G. A. Prof. Der landwlrtschaftllche Grossbettrilh
in Deutschland.
"Ia-1io MenI.riapomu.rf Arpapmdt 1alrran-rT.
MBN A-33.801 Sarm 5193. Tapiia I 6
S rtHepanr-ru an.aaR'i (19-n runn. .M.'cne.ujirpa0", nrrh-i ntB:rBrciv0 3-
g-er -3

Sermann fINE, 1

--- r-' o. ,phil. Oberbibl. a.d. Ueniv,-
Bibl.


31MHEHELSG /DeUtitoblan- "

VEROEFFENTLICHUNGEN
S INTERNATIONALEN AGRAR-INSTITUTS.
M ZEITSCHRIFTEN; :und JAHRBUECHER.
Agrr U-rableme, (in russ. Sprache). M. 1927-Erscheint
i6' al j3hbllch. Bezugsprels: 1 7, .
2. Agrar-Probleme o (in deutsch. Sprache). B. 1928. Erscheimt
4lertelAtihrlich. Beztgsprels f. d. j. 1928 $ 7.
3. 'ndex bibllographlque de la question agraire (articrls Jd rvu- ).
Erscheint 6-ntal jihrlich, selt Juli P427. Bezugspr is f. d. -
r:921-t.2; f d. UJ. 1928 $ 5; 1. d. J. 1429-,-$
4. Statistlsiches Jahrbuch der Weltlandwirtschuit. rsg. von
Prof. G. S. Gordeev, M. I. Spectator, S. A. Umanskij. 128.
472 S. 7.50 Rbl. HIbd. 8.50 Rbl.
It. BUECHERV In russ. Sprache.


The 2-kop. "Large Head" definitive as postage on international printed matter-here afolderfrom the International
Agrarian Institute, which is still attached.





i.---------------
V[?. lV o ^

















The 8-kop. stamp from the "10th Anniversary of the Revolution" set, used for the inland letter rate.



Rossica Journal Number 123 17
October 1994










Jagdhaus des ehem. Zaren
Alexander IlI. In Langinkoski



Ax /k f uonwui CLC

.. ...........

X' -'0 IU







Isn't this pretty? Yes, this stamp was actually good for something, namely the international postcard rate,











SHHerr Franz Bendel
OSBerlin-Kopenick
Pritstabelstr. 24a





A post WWII issue: the 1951 "Kirov Machine-Building Factory" stamp of 40 kop., which covered the rate for a letter
to either an inland or a foreign destination; here used to East Germany.




18 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









Zemstvo Stamp Discovery Ricd Mcl
o Richard MacIlrath Major
or ...?
Rossica and the entire philatelic corn-
by George G. Werbizky munity lost one of its stalwarts on 2 Sep-
tember 1994 when Richard Major died from
Hodgkin's disease.
This stamp was found in a group of free- Hodgkin's disease.
An avid Russian and Czechoslovakian
frank seals, however, it is not one. The words h o-
"PAMEHCKA 3EMCK(A) ITA (Ramenskaya collector (also past President of the Czecho-
I T (mekya slovak Society), Dick's knowledge con-
zemskaya pochta) suggest it is a zemstvo stamp. slok Siety, s knowede con
tributed immensely to our understanding of
In the oval is "K. 4 K." which clearly stands for t i t
4 these areas. Perhaps his strongest point in
philately was his expansive knowledge of
The stamp is printed on rose-colored paper; ilatly as his ansiv knolg o
Austro-Hungarian military mail. Dick was
ornaments and words are in black; size as mea- c h
acknowledged as one of the foremost schol-
sured between frames is 17/8 x 13/4 inches; imper- ano e as oe the foremostt schol-
forate; very primitive design and execution. ars on the subject in the world of philately.
forate; very primitive design and execution.
An easy going and amiable person,
There is a town named Ramenskoe which is An easy going and amiable person,
40m (7 m ) SE of M w on Dick always had a warm smile and a firm
located about 40 km (27 miles) SE of Moscow on
thed o y handshake for everybody. It was one of the
the Moscow-Ryazan' railway. However, no
e highlights of any exhibition to stop and chat
known sources indicate any zemstvo stamps were hihihts o a hiitio to sto a hat
., with "Major Major" as he was affection-
ever issued. Can any member help identify this t a a a
stamp? ately called.
? A native of Chester, PA, Dick attended
Albright College and earned his master's
degree from the University of Pennsylva-
S. nia in German studies. Dick mastered 12
Languages, and often proved his linguistic
ability when asked for a translation. He
always had the time to explain something,
but the inquirer had to understand Dick was
not a master of short answers.
SpiaBefore coming to the Washington, DC
area to begin his career as a government
employee, Dick served in the Army in
Europe during WWII, participating in the
Normandy landings and the Battle of the
l's Bulge.
Dick was an avid supporter of the Boy
Scouts and served in various capacities
throughout his life and travels. He was an
New zemstvo stamp ? Eagle Scout and received the Silver Beaver's
Award.
Dick Major is already missed in the
U philatelic community and we sincerely hope
the tragedy will soon pass for his family and
loved ones. flo ciieqyIoolero, Apyr!


Rossica Journal Number 123 19
October 1994









Zemstvo Stamp Discovery Ricd Mcl
o Richard MacIlrath Major
or ...?
Rossica and the entire philatelic corn-
by George G. Werbizky munity lost one of its stalwarts on 2 Sep-
tember 1994 when Richard Major died from
Hodgkin's disease.
This stamp was found in a group of free- Hodgkin's disease.
An avid Russian and Czechoslovakian
frank seals, however, it is not one. The words h o-
"PAMEHCKA 3EMCK(A) ITA (Ramenskaya collector (also past President of the Czecho-
I T (mekya slovak Society), Dick's knowledge con-
zemskaya pochta) suggest it is a zemstvo stamp. slok Siety, s knowede con
tributed immensely to our understanding of
In the oval is "K. 4 K." which clearly stands for t i t
4 these areas. Perhaps his strongest point in
philately was his expansive knowledge of
The stamp is printed on rose-colored paper; ilatly as his ansiv knolg o
Austro-Hungarian military mail. Dick was
ornaments and words are in black; size as mea- c h
acknowledged as one of the foremost schol-
sured between frames is 17/8 x 13/4 inches; imper- ano e as oe the foremostt schol-
forate; very primitive design and execution. ars on the subject in the world of philately.
forate; very primitive design and execution.
An easy going and amiable person,
There is a town named Ramenskoe which is An easy going and amiable person,
40m (7 m ) SE of M w on Dick always had a warm smile and a firm
located about 40 km (27 miles) SE of Moscow on
thed o y handshake for everybody. It was one of the
the Moscow-Ryazan' railway. However, no
e highlights of any exhibition to stop and chat
known sources indicate any zemstvo stamps were hihihts o a hiitio to sto a hat
., with "Major Major" as he was affection-
ever issued. Can any member help identify this t a a a
stamp? ately called.
? A native of Chester, PA, Dick attended
Albright College and earned his master's
degree from the University of Pennsylva-
S. nia in German studies. Dick mastered 12
Languages, and often proved his linguistic
ability when asked for a translation. He
always had the time to explain something,
but the inquirer had to understand Dick was
not a master of short answers.
SpiaBefore coming to the Washington, DC
area to begin his career as a government
employee, Dick served in the Army in
Europe during WWII, participating in the
Normandy landings and the Battle of the
l's Bulge.
Dick was an avid supporter of the Boy
Scouts and served in various capacities
throughout his life and travels. He was an
New zemstvo stamp ? Eagle Scout and received the Silver Beaver's
Award.
Dick Major is already missed in the
U philatelic community and we sincerely hope
the tragedy will soon pass for his family and
loved ones. flo ciieqyIoolero, Apyr!


Rossica Journal Number 123 19
October 1994









One Cover's Story

by Mark Tartakovskiy
(translated by Dave Skipton)

In my collection there is a cover with an Fortunately for the entire planet, the 13-day
interesting genesis. Officially, it began on 23 crisis was resolved without a fight.
October 1962, when at 7 in the evening President The US gave official assurances that it would
John F. Kennedy spoke to the U.S. on television not invade Cuba, and the Soviet Union withdrew
and radio. He confirmed for the public the rumors all of its missiles and IL-28 bombers. Remaining
and speculation that had been appearing in the on Cuba was a group of Soviet forces that num-
newspapers and talked about by radio and TV bered anywhere from 40,000 to 3,000 at various
commentators: the Soviet Union had put ballistic times. (That group was finally withdrawn after
missiles with nuclear warheads on Cuba, mis- the collapse of the USSR, in 1992-1993.) The
siles that were capable of inflicting a strike on Soviet Union never officially admitted the pres-
U.S. territory. That act was in defiance of ence of Soviet troops in Cuba. (The majority of
America's Monroe Doctrine. Later it became the USSR's citizens never knew about it until the
known that the USSR had planned to set up very end.) Soviet soldiers and officers were not
installations for 72 missiles on Cuba, which at allowed to wear the uniform of their Armed
that time would have been more than 50% of the Forces; instead, they wore civilian clothes or the
USSR's entire nuclear-missile potential. Presi- Cuban military uniform.
dent Kennedy's speech was a shock to the Ameri- Postal correspondence was conducted in
cans. As the papers put it at that time, it was "semi-secrecy." The postal address "Moskva-
comparable only to the shock that ensued after 400" revealed nothing about the location of the
the attack on Pearl Harbor. addressee, and in letters from Cuba it was cat-
The President announced what measures the egorically forbidden to mention the whereabouts
USA would take, which included a naval block- of the letter writer or the particulars of his service
ade of the island. The only purpose of that block- there. Military censorship kept strict watch over
ade was to prevent more such weapons from all this, but it didn't catch everything.
reaching Cuba. (All other shipments were al- One soldier from Baku, who enjoyed the
lowed through without any limits.) The Armed privilege of postage-free correspondence, bought
Forces of the United States went from DEFCON a standard Cuban stamped envelope and sent a
5 to DEFCON 3, which allowed them to begin letter home in it. It wasn't held up by censorship,
military operations almost instantly. So began and the Cuban stamp was canceled by a Soviet
the "Cuban Missile Crisis," provoked by the datestamp-Moscow-400. More than likely the
USSR. The armed forces of both sides were datestamp was applied in Moscow, since the
ready to fight, and the world stood on the brink of letter from Cuba to Baku spent all of three days
an unpredictable third, atomic, world war. (?!) en route, which seems hardly believable-
Many at that time, both in the US and the dispatched 11-10-86 and received 11-13-86.
USSR, felt it necessary to demonstrate their The envelope is obviously of Soviet origin,
"nuclear power." But the leaders of those two since its size and format match the Soviet stan-
countries-President Kennedy and Council of dard for postal stationery envelopes. The only
Ministers Chairman Nikita Khrushchev-exer- divergences from that standard are the lack of
cised the utmost restraint and political foresight production information on the back (when and
during those times, directing all their energy to where it was printed) and the location of the
the search for a peaceful political compromise. return address in the upper left corner, as is the

20 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









custom in the U.S. In my opinion, the envelope was printed by one of GOSZNAK's plants in the
USSR.

[If any of our readers has a cover or covers with a similar address-Moscow-400-it might help to establish
whether the 400 was specifically for Cuba, or whether it also applied to other Soviet military ventures in the
Third World.-Ed.]





















FABRICA .iOANIV. DE LA REVOLUCION OE OCTUHBE.-
'












P.ROV. 110 ,GI IN j,/








COD100 USIDAD DE DESTINO




Cover sent from Cuba and postmarked in Moscow. The cover bears a Cuban stamp
and the return address "Moscow 400."





















Rossica Journal Number 123 21
October 1994
4 :.- .

~- ----





CODIOO UNIDAD DE DESTINO




Cover sent from Cuba and postmarked in Moscow. The cover bears a Cuban stamp
and the return address "Moscow 400,"





















Rossica Journal Number 123 21
October 1994








A Square Peg In Round Holes

by Dave Skipton

Pop quiz: awaiting collection, since the address was a bit
1) What major imperial-period Russian city indefinite! ('K.Ya.' -Kontor. Yashchik.). This is
had apostmark that was perfectly square(22 only a guess, but I cannot find any Ivanovsky
x 22 mm? (No straight-line handstamps in Monastery mentioned in Baedeker and maybe
rectangles need apply.) the Post Office couldn't find it either. I should be
2) Who were the only two writers in the West most interested if any Rossica reader could offer
to take a stab at deciphering it, and any other explanation." My apologies to Dr.
3) when? Wortman for the delay, but I believe I can explain
what this oddball marking is.
The answers are Moscow, Sklarevski/ First, note that both Sklarevski's and
Wortman, and a long time ago, in that order. Wortman's covers went to organizations that
Our mystery mark is the so-called "K. 51.- would have been expected to receive significant
K.Ya.," and it is elusive enough to have escaped amounts of mail. Three more examples recorded
further notice for over a quarter of a century, in the U.S. are also business or monastery corre-
Sklarevski's example debuted in "Rossica" spondence.
#67, 1964 as one of 16 items ("Interesting Can- Figure 2 is from a 3-kop. postcard from the
cellations," pp. 75-78). Sent from Nizhnii Revel' P.O. at the Baltic RR Terminal to the firm
Novgorod to the Ivanovskii Monastery in Mos- of Selig and Leier in Moscow, mailed on 28
cow, his cover received the black square marking March 1889 and received at Moscow's 5th Dis-
on 31 October 1880. Working from only one patch Office on 30 March. The blue "K.Ya." is
recorded copy, Rimma was forced to guess at its also dated the 30th.
purpose-and his guess was that it represented a
monastery receiving mark.






Figure 2. 1889 blue "K. Ya." mark. (Skipton collection.)
Figure 1. The Sklarevski marking (earliest recorded).
His tracing of it shows a slant bar between the day and Figure 3 is from a 7-kop. postal stationery
month, envelope from Tarusa, Kaluga Province to the
Volkov & Sons firm in Moscow, posted on 14
Dr. Alfred Wortman leapt into the fray the January 1891 and received at the 5th Dispatch
following year in "Rossica" #68 ("Notes from Office on the 15th. The black "K.Ya." is dated the
Collectors," p.36, 1965), shooting down the 15th.
monastery receiving-mark theory by noting that
HIS cover went to the Schwabe store in Moscow.
A 7-kop.postal envelope from Filonovskaya in -
the Don Host Oblast' to the capital, it received its
"K.Ya." on 4 January 1890. Having debunked
one guess, Wortman could not resist making one
of his own: "Could this 'K.Ya.' possibly mean Figure 3. January 1891 black "K.Ya." mark. (Combs
that the cover was put into some box or other collection.)
22 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Figure 4 is from a 5-kop. postal stationery tor and a Privy Councillor. Under the heading of
envelope with 2-kop. stamp added, posted on 5 "Receipt of Correspondence by Means of Rental
May 1891 from Kushvinskii zavod, Perm' Prov- Boxes," Articles 532-537 outline this service to
ince to Aleksandr Vasil'evich Foss at the the public. The one which commands our atten-
Ivanovskii Monastery. The 5th Dispatch Office tion is Article 533:
marking of 10 May on the back is accompanied
by a black "K.Ya." of the same date. "Individuals or establishments wishing to rent such a
box must submit a written declaration of this to the
r-r*.^*i" postal establishment. [The declaration] must contain
"" ff the exact first name, patronymic, last name, place of
"" *. residence or the name of the firm or society, if the
10 AV1 requestor be such, as well as his current location."

... .... What follows is an example of the form to be
Figure 4. May 1891 black "K. Ya." mark. used.
(Latest recorded example. Skipton collection.) "To the Moscow Postal Director.
from ............
This gives us five recorded covers, all going ..................
to large organizations. The marking is obviously DECLARATION.
postal, because the origins are different and so I respectfully request that Your Excellency give
are the addresses. Now we have an idea WHAT instructions that I or individuals whom I shall
the marking signifies. The only thing left to do is designate be issued that correspondence which is
decipher the "K" and the "Ya." For that, we shall addressed to me [and extracted] from a commer-
have to turn to original documentation for help. cial box [underlining mine DMS] in the Mail
Since this is a Moscow marking, the most Sorting Office of the GPO. For the rental fee of
logical course was to consult a Moscow postal box #.... I enclose herewith ......rub. 189 ,.............
publication. Enter the 1897 "Handbook of Postal <<.....>> day.
Regulations for the Convenience of Moscow Signature:
Correspondents," compiled and published by Residence of the owner or location of the firm:"
K.G. Radchenko, then the Moscow Postal Direc-


II~l I-Mlll1l I'II llflITOlIIrf[ CtIn b.: i'lPoC l. -MA Ill.
UNION Ih'A,'I.E UNI'V.;.A-_$ .


















Rossica Journal Number 123 23
October 1994









































Figure 6. Front of the 1891 postcard bearing the latest recorded "K. Ya." mark (see fig. 4).


There, I think, is the answer to the "K.Ya." St.Petersburg'sorMoscow'sbankof P.O.boxes
mystery. The letters would appear to stand for on p. 142 of the Bazilevich translation.)
"kommercheskii yashchik," or commercial P. O. The current recorded range for this postmark
box, which fits with all of what few examples we is 31 October 1880 to 5 May 1891, and it comes
have seen. (The remaining articles in the 1897 in black or blue. If anyone has information on
Handbook deal with the rates for the various sizes when the first P. O. boxes were introduced in
of box, the procedures to obtain a box key and Russia, or when the "K.Ya." marking first ap-
what to do in the event it should be lost. For the peared, give our Editor a call or write him a letter.
obstinately curious, there is a riveting picture of










24 Rossica Journal Number 123
SOctober 1994
have seen. (The remaining articles in the 1897 in black or blue. If anyone has information on
Handbook deal with the rates for the various sizes when the first P. 0. boxes were introduced in
of box, the procedures to obtain a box key and Russia, or when the "K.Ya." marking first ap-
what to do in the event it should be lost. For the peared, give our Editor a call or write him a letter.
obstinately curious, there is a riveting picture of











24 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Japan to Paris Via Siberia, July-August 1903

by Ed Rasmussen

The Winter 1992 issue of the Japanese phila- ing as far south as the southern tip of Honshu and
telic quarterly, Yushu Kenkyu, displayed a 4-sen as far north as Korsakov on Sakhalin Island, took
UPU postcard mailed in Kyoto on 18 July 1903, these ships forty days, which included midway
addressedtoKrasnoyarsk, Siberia, andforwarded one round trip between Japan and Vladivostok.
from there to Warsaw, and from Warsaw to Paris. To cover the stretch from Tsuruga by way of four
There are several interesting aspects to this ports in Japan and two in Korea en route to
piece of mail. First, it received in transit the rather Vladivostok would quite reasonably take most
uncommon postmark of one of Japan's earliest (if not all) of thirteen days. The ship's postmark
ship post offices, that of the Aikoku Maru, dated dated 26 July could very likely have been applied
26 July 1903. The Japanese author of this article, about the time the Aikoku Maru left Japanese
Izui Toshio, states the card first went from Kyoto waters bound for Pusan.
to the port of Tsuruga on the Sea of Japan. The fact that this international mail cleared
Though there is no Tsuruga transit mark to prove through Vladivostok at this time is also interest-
it, this seems unquestionably to have been the ing. M. Henri Tristant in Rossica #69 (1965)
case, since Tsuruga, with the finest harbor on the quotes from a French official bulletin of October
west coast of central Honshu, was by then acces- 1903 that announced the opening of the Trans-
sible by rail to and from the principal cities in the Siberian Railway effective 1 October for trans-
heart of Japan. A card mailed in Kyoto could be mission of international mail to and from Paris
expected to arrive in Tsuruga the same day. and Vladivostok. Although not originally ad-
On 18 July, the Aikoku Maru would have dressed to Paris, this card made the trip two
been due to arrive at Tsuruga on the southbound months prior. Mr. Izui states that Japan and
leg of its circuit of the Sea of Japan perimeter. A Russia concluded an agreement for exchange of
few days later, its sister ship, the Kotsu Maru, mail in July 1903, to be effective 1 August. He
would be arriving at Tsuruga direct from gives no details of the agreement, but obviously
Vladivostok, but the Kotsu Maru would then considered it relevant.
proceed on the northbound leg of its counter- In any case, it appears that the card was sent
clockwise circuit, so while the Aikoku Maru's on to Krasnoyarsk and from there forwarded to
itinerary required it to put in at four Japanese Warsaw, then part of Russia, where it received a
west coast ports, as well as Pusan and Gensan postmark (Julian) 7 August 1903 (equivalent to
(Wonsan) on Korea's east coast before reaching 20 August, Gregorian.)
Vladivostok, it would be the next steamer to At Warsaw, it was re-addressed to the Hotel
reach Vladivostok from Tsuruga. (For a report on Bristol, Paris on (Julian) 9 August (22 August,
a card brought from Vladivostok to Tsuruga by Gregorian) and forwarded to Paris. It probably
the Kotsu Maru on its voyage immediately pre- arrived there three or four days later, though no
ceding this, see the article by M. R. Renfro in arrival marking was applied. As it is, this little
Rossica #111.) card accumulated a wealth of postmarks, unusual
It is clear that the ship's postmark on this card for ordinary first class, not registered, mail.
was not applied when it was put aboard the It appears that M. Kaykowski lived well. One of
Aikoku Maru, but later. The arrival mark at Europe's most elegant hotels, the Hotel Bristol was
Vladivostok was applied (Julian) 18 July (equiva- named for a wealthy English nobleman, the Earl of
lent to 31 July, Gregorian). This would be thir- Bristol, a legendary epicure who was noted for de-
teen days after mailing in Kyoto. In those days, manding, and being willing to pay for, only the best of
the complete circuit of the Sea of Japan, extend- accommodations and cuisine.

Rossica Journal Number 123 25
October 1994











1 eni- -
.. I.,d 1.













'-14



























Sin




Map showing the Sea of Japan with ports visited by the Aikoku Maru.
26 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994
Map showing the Sea ofJapan with ports visited by the Aikoku Maru.

October 1994









Russian Postal Censorship in the Baltic During WWI

(1914-1917)

by A. Epstein

The main principles of postal censorship in commission, 2) local military censorship
Russia during the First World War were briefly commissions, and 3) military censors."
described in the specialized studies by Speeckaertl
and Skipton and Michalove2. Both books contain "Article 14: At the theater-of-war, military cen-
a description of censormarks used at various sorship affairs shall be directed by head-
censorship offices throughout Russia, and rich quarters of: Commanders-in-Chief,
bibliographies on this topic including journal armies, the fleet, and military districts
articles3-5 and sections in catalogues and hand- according to the instructions given by the
books6,7 that deal with the censorship in the commanders-in-chief or commanders of
Baltic area-i.e., the present republics of Esto- independent armies in the proper quarter.
nia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This article summa- [In the Russian army the commanders of fronts
rizes known information and is supplemented by (army groups) were called commanders-in-
newly discovered archival data (documents found chief.-Author]"
in the archives at St. Petersburg-orders and
decrees from the commanders of the Petrograd "Article 29: In a theater of military operations,
and Dvinsk Military Districts, the Northern Front, the duties of the main and local military
and the 1st, 5th, 6th, and 12th Armies fighting in censorshipcommissions shall be entrusted
this area) as well as information gleaned from to the headquarters of the Commanders-
newly surfaced philatelic materials, in-Chief of the Army and the Navy, and
of the military districts in the theater of
Organization of postal censorship military operations, respectively."
in the Baltic
According to Articles 15 and 18, respec-
The general principles of postal censorship tively, the Main Military Censorship Committee
organization established in the "Provisional Stat- was established at the General Staff Chief Ad-
ute on Military Censorship" which was pub- ministration and local military censorship com-
lished just after the beginning of the war for mittees at the military district headquarters. In
Russia on 1 August 1914 (19 July by the Julian practice, the local censorship committees were
Calendar used in Russia till 1918) can be found in established during the war also at headquarters of
the studies of Speeckaert and Skipton and particular armies or fleets directly participating
Michalove. However, the construction of cen- in military actions.
sorship networks in different regions of the Rus- Before WWI, the territory of the present
sian Empire had its local peculiarities. To better Baltic republics was divided between the St.
understand the principles of postal censorship in Petersburg Military District-Ehstlyand and
the Baltic area, three articles from the "Provi- Liflyand provinces (without the Riga district)
sional Statute..." are provided as follows: and a small part of St. Petersburg Province with
the town of Narva-and the Vil'no Military Dis-
"Article 13: In areas not a part of the theater of trict-Kurlyand province, Riga District, a part of
military operations, military censorship Vitebsk Province, andthe whole ofLithuania(i.e.,
establishments shall consist of the fol- Kovno Province and parts of Vil'no, Grodno, and
lowing: 1) a main military censorship Suvalki provinces). During the war this division
Rossica Journal Number 123 27
October 1994








remained virtually unchanged until 1917, but the portion came under the administration of the
military districts were renamed Petrograd and Riga Military Censorship Committee, formed at
Dvinsk Military Districts, respectively. In 1917, the beginning of 1915. Those in northwestern
Liflyand and Ehstlyand provinces in two sepa- Estonia were subordinated to Peter-the-Great
rate moves were transferred to the Dvinsk Mili- Naval-Fortress Headquarters and later to Baltic
tary District. Sea Fleet Headquarters.
After the beginning of the war, the high With the creation of Northern Front, the Riga
military jurisdiction over the Baltic passed to the Military Censorship Committee was abolished
new military formations created in accordance and some of the corresponding censorship of-
with the "Order of Mobilization" that came into fices came under the control of the 2nd Depart-
force. The whole of Lithuania and Kurlyand ment of the Petrograd Military Censorship Com-
Province of Latvia became parts of the North- mittee. The offices located in the vicinity of the
Western Front area, where the 1st Army, and front line were subordinated to the headquarters
later the 10th and 5th Armies also were fighting. of the 1st, 5th, or 12th Armies. In 1917 all
Vitebsk Province and Riga District remained censorship offices in Estonia and the part of
under the direct control of the Dvinsk Military Latvia still unoccupied by German troops, except
District. Ehstlyand, Liflyand, and Petrograd prov- those offices under the administration of the
inces were placed under the military control of Baltic Sea Fleet staff, were controlled by these
the 6th Army (it had the status of an independent army headquarters.
army) Headquarters headed by a commander Article 50 of the "Provisional Statute" stipu-
with the rights of a Commander-in-Chief. lated that censorship be carried out exclusively
In August 1915, after the retreat of Russian on post office premises. According to available
armies from Lithuania and Kurlyand, the North- information, during the war censorship offices
Western Front was divided into two fronts and were functioning at the town and railway station
the remainder of the Baltic area, with one excep- post offices in the Baltic listed in Table I.
tion, became a part of the newly created Northern Only censorship offices located within the
Front. The 5th, 6th (till December 1916; it now modern borders of the Baltic states are listed
lost its "independent" status), 12th Army and above. Thus, a total of 87 censorship offices are
later the 1st Army were fighting as parts of this known, with 36 operating in Latvia, 31 in
front. The exception was the northwestern part of Lithuania, and 19 in Estonia (the censorship
Estonia with the Moonsund archipelago islands office at Valk, a town now divided between
that earlier were under the military jurisdiction of Estonia and Latvia, is listed here as Estonia). It is
the Baltic Sea Fleet, which became a separate possible, however, that some short-lived censor-
unit. In 1917, it came under the supreme com- ship offices, particularly in Lithuania and the
mand of the Northern Front. Kurlyand part of Latvia, are omitted from this
The military censorship offices in the Baltic list.
were subordinated in accordance with their mili- The choice of post offices for censorship was
tary jurisdiction, although it could be a double determined primarily by their strategic location,
subordination. Thus, the censorship offices in taking into account the routes used to forward
Lithuania and Kurlyand were subordinated to the mail and the distribution of military units quar-
headquarters of the 1st, 10th, or 5th Armies as tered in the particular areas. The number of
well as to the Dvinsk Military District. Offices in censors at a particular office did not depend
Vitebsk Province were directly subordinated to directly on the size of the town or the class of the
the military censorship committee at Dvinsk post office. For example, at Riga, the largest
Military District Headquarters. Baltic city, no more than 30 censors were operat-
The censorship offices in Estonia and the ing, including those at the Riga railway station
Livonian part of Latvia were divided. The major post office and suburban post offices of Riga

28 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994













Empire Era Today
Name Province Name State Period of Use
Al't-Shvanenburg Liflyand Gulbene Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Arensburg Liflyand Kuressaare Estonia August 1914 October 1917
Baltiiskii Port Ehstlyand Paldiski Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Birzhi Kovno Biriai Lithuania August 1914 August 1915
Bolderaa Liflyand Bolderaja Latvia ? June 1915
Druskeniki Grodno Druskenikiai Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Dvinsk Vitebsk Daugavpils Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Dubbel'n Liflyand Dubulti Latvia ? August 1917
Fellin Liflyand Viljandi Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Gainash Liflyand AinaZi Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Gapsal' Ehstlyand Haapsalu Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Gol'dingen Kurlyand Kuldiga Latvia August 1914 June 1915
Gorzhdy Kovno Gargzdai Lithuania February 1915 May 1915
lewe Ehstlyand J6hvi Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Kal'varia Suvalki Kalvarija Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Keidany Kovno Keidainiai Lithuania August 1914 July 1915
Kel'my Kovno Kelme Lithuania August 1914 June 1915
Korsovka Vitebsk Karsava Latvia June 1916 December 1917
Koshedary Kovno Kaisiadoris Lithuania ? August 1915
Kovno Town Kovno Kaunas Lithuania August 1914 August 1915
Kovno Fortress Kovno Kaunas Lithuania ? August 1915
Kreitsburg Town Vitebsk Kruzpils Latvia June 1916 December 1917
Kreitsburg Station Vitebsk Kruzpils Latvia April 1916 December 1917
Kreslava Vitebsk Kraslava Latvia February 1916 December 1917
Laisgol'm Liflyand J6geva Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Leal' Ehstlyand Lihula Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Lemzal' Liflyand Limbazi Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Libava Kurlyand Liepaja Latvia August 1914 April 1915
Lyutsin Vitebsk Ludsa Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Mariampol' Suvalki Mariampole Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Marienburg Liflyand Aluksne Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Mitava Kurlyand Jelgava Latvia August 1914 July 1915
Modon Vitebsk Madona Latvia December 1915 December 1917
Moisekyul' Liflyand M6isakula Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Murav'yevo Kovno Mazeikiai Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Myul'graben Liflyand Milgravis Latvia June 1915 August 1917
Narva Petrograd Narva Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Nei-Shvanenburg Liflyand Jaungulbene Latvia ? December 1917
Novo-Aleksandrovsk Kovno Zarasai Lithuania August 1914 September 1915
Novo-Sventsyany Vil'no ven 6ioneliai Lithuania August 1914 September 1915
Olita Vil'no Alitus Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Orany Vil'no Varena Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Pernov Liflyand Parnu Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Plungyany Kovno Plunge Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Ponevezh Kovno Paneve is Lithuania August 1914 July 1915
Preli Vitebsk Preili Latvia February 1916 November 1917
Revel' Town Ehstlyand Tallinn Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Revel' Station Ehstlyand Tallinn Estonia ? December 1917
Rezhitsa Town Vitebsk Rezekne Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Rezhitsa Station Vitebsk Rezekne Latvia ? December 1917

Table I. Censorship offices functioning in the Baltic during the First World War.




Rossica Journal Number 123 29
October 1994









Empire Era Today
Name Province Name State Period of Use
Riga Town Liflyand Riga Latvia August 1914 August 1917
Riga Station Liflyand Riga Latvia ? August 1917
Rokishki Kovno Roki kis Lithuania March 1915 September 1915
Rossieny Kovno Raseiniai Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Ruen Liflyand Ruiena Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Shadov Kovno eduva Lithuania August 1914 June 1915
Shavli Kovno Sauliai Lithuania August 1914 June 1915
Shkudy Kovno Skuodas Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Shtokmansgof Liflyand Pliavinas Latvia August 1914 August 1917
Sissegal' Liflyand Madliena Latvia ? December 1917
Stakeln Liflyand Stren i Latvia ? December 1917
Sventsyany Vil'no Sven ionis Lithuania August 1914 September 1915
Tal'sen Kurlyand Talsi Latvia August 1914 July 1915
Taps Ehstlyand Tapa Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Taurogen Kovno Taurage Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Tel'shi Kovno Telsiai Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Troki Vil'no Trakai Lithuania August 1914 August 1915
Tukkum Kurlyand Tukums Latvia August 1914 July 1915
Udeny Kovno Utena Lithuania August 1914 May 1915
Ust-Dvinsk Liflyand Daugavgriva Latvia June 1915 August 1917
Valk Liflyand Valga/Valka Estonia/ August 1914 December 1917
Latvia
Veisenshtein Ehstlyand Paide Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Veliony Vitebsk Viljani Latvia ? 1916 December 1917
Venden Liflyand Cesis Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Verro Liflyand V6ru Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Vezenberg Ehstlyand Rakvere Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Vil'komir Kovno Ukmerge Lithuania August 1914 June 1915
Vil'kovishki Suvalki Vilkovi kis Lithuania August 1914 April 1915
Vil'no Town Vil'no Vilnius Lithuania August 1914 September 1915
Vil'no Station Vil'no Vilnius Lithuania December 1914 September 1915
Vindava Kurlyand Ventspils Latvia August 1914 July 1915
Vol'mar Liflyand Valmiera Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Yakobshtadt Kurlyand Jekabpils Latvia August 1914 July 1915
Yur'ev Liflyand Tartu Estonia August 1914 December 1917
Zegevol'd Liflyand Sigulda Latvia August 1914 December 1917
Zhagory Kovno Zagare Lithuania August 1914 June 1915

Table I. Censorship offices functioning in the Baltic during the First World War (cont.).


(Bolderaa, Myul'graben, Ust'-Dvinsk). This is naval ships, military hospitals, etc.
approximately the same number as at Pernov and Military censorship in the Northern Front
less than at Yur'yev or Valk, towns of consider- was abolished and the offices closed in Decem-
ably smaller size than Riga. In general, the num- ber 1917.
ber of censors could vary from a single person to
about 150 (e.g., at Revel' or Vil'no). Censormarks of the
In addition to the sedentary post offices of the Baltic censorship offices
state post, postal censorship also was carried out
at numerous field post offices functioning at Article 51 of the "Provisional Statute" re-
different periods in the Baltic. They will be quired covers or letters be marked with the word-
discussed in a forthcoming article on the Russian ing "BCKPbITO BOEHHOR LIEH3YPOH" (Opened
Field Post in the Baltic as well as censors per- by Military Censorship) and a military censor's
forming their duties at various military units, personal stamp. Thus, there should be two cen-
30 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








sorship markings on a cover. In actuality, how- at sedentary state post offices should not be
ever, this order was seldom implemented at the postmarked at all or should be postmarked with
Baltic censorship offices even during the early date stamps containing no indication of the post
period. Much more frequently met are covers on office designation. To confirm the free-frank
which either a general marking or a censor's privilege, such mail usually had a military mark-
personal stamp is struck. In a number of cases ing which corresponded to a military unit, estab-
both cachets seem to be combined into a single lishment, etc. In elaboration of this order, a new
one. Somewhat later these combined cachets decree of the Supreme Commander-in-Chiefs
became the rule. Usually they were manufac- Chief of Staff No. 110 dated 13 October 1916
tured as such. In some cases, however, the gen- demanded replacement of censors' cachets indi-
eral and the personal cachets were tied together. eating the place of censorship with ones having a
Provisions of Article 51 concerning the text designation of the military district to which the
of general markings also were not observed, particular censorship office belonged. Addition-
Beside the word "BCKPblTO," also ally, lists of censors of the particular military
"nPOCMOTPEHO" (Examined), "nPOBEPEHO" district were to be created using a common num-
(Checked), "L03BOJIH HO" (Authorized), being system.
"nPOHYUIEHO" (Passed), "HPE2Lb1IBJlEHO" (Pre- Thus, the military censors in the Baltic, in-
sented), etc. are found, sometimes in abbreviated eluding those at the FPOs, began using during the
forms, i.e., ".rU." (I03BOJIEHO ILEH3YPOH). first months of 1917, cachets with the abbrevia-
Many censorship offices simultaneously used tions n.B.O. (HETPOFPA'aCKII BOEHHbIH
various types of censormarks. The most fre- OKPYF'b-Petrograd Military District) or a.B.O.
quently encountered marks are those with the (iBHHCKIH BOEHHbl OKPYF'b-Dvinsk Mili-
words "Opened" and "Looked through." tary District).
It is possible that such differences in the By the second half of 1917, only cachets of
terminology initially had some functional rea- the Dvinsk Military District remained in use. An
son, for instance "Opened" was used for letters exception was the area in northwestern Estonia
and "Examined" for postcards. However, such a under the military control of the Baltic Sea Fleet,
difference was later obliterated and any kind of which was not a part of any military district. The
marking can be seen on covers or postcards. former censormarks indicating the place of cen-
Personal handstamps initially contained the sorship remained in use. Although the introduc-
censor's name or initials. Very soon, however, tion of the new type of censormarks was con-
personal numbers used by the censors within a nected with the free-frank mail of military per-
particular office appeared instead of names in sonnel, those cachets were used for marking
many offices. Although Article 51 did not stipu- censored civilian mail as well.
late that an indication of the place of censorship The problem of correlating either censormark
must be included, they appeared in the with a particular censorship office when there is
censormarks too. Much later, all of this was no indication of the place of censorship on the
legalized by a Decree of the Supreme Com- marking is a rather difficult one, since the
mander-in-Chief's Chief of Staff No. 47 dated censormark could be applied at the points of
29 May 1916. According to this decree, it was forwarding or destination as well as at a transit
permitted to alter the corresponding order pre- point. The listing of censorship offices provided
scribed by Article 51 of the "Provisional Statute" in Table I together with a knowledge of the routes
by using censors' personal numbers and indicat- used for mail delivery makes this task somewhat
ing the place of censorship in censormarks. easier, particularly the military district-type
In order to control more tightly military se- censormarks. To date the following censors'
crets, it was decreed in the summer of 1916 that personal numbers can be correlated to a censor-
correspondence from military personnel posted ship office in the Baltic:

Rossica Journal Number 123 31
October 1994








2) Form:
Petrograd Military District: ApeHcbYprcKIN -O
8054-Vol'mar BoeHHblf IeH30p-b N 1.
8301 to 8304-Veisenshtein
8404-Moisekyul L = linear (fig. 4),
8452 to 8454-Taps
8505-Fellin BOeHOiiH UH3yp OH
8554 to 8567-Pernov "- c-3
8615-Valk 4 28. EBP. 1917

Dvinsk Military District: S I18 e8CHil BoeHbmH et130Ps
91-Lyutsin
226 to 233-Riga R = rectangular (fig. 5),
322-Myul'graben
502 to 504-Taps H OBC B C
521-Vesenberg Co
699-Narva 0 N II
1067-Yur'yev e"
1239- FPO No. 126 6, f1

O = oval (fig. 6),
Censormarks used in Russia during WWI are
noted as having a great variety of types and forms fPOCITlO WBOHHOM iH3POm
that make it very difficult, if not impossible, to TITEHCii BOEHHbIl II3OPb 1 2.
classify them comprehensively. The diversity of
censormarks in the Baltic was not so great, and
the following simplified coding system is used to Rb = rectangular border (boxed, fig. 7),
classify them.
A censormark is characterized by five code $O1Et1-
letters, each related to a particular characteristic:
r BOEMnblMV
o LE-H30Pb m
1) Kind of censormark: No 24. 1

BcKpbrro BOeHHoH
qeH3ypol Cb = circular with borders (fig. 8),

G = general (fig. 1), VAp 1a C i

Betecetu metiMt2 4KII3I i
Boemiuua nen3op, is 2 2(W ^
P = personal (fig, 2), Ob-oval with border (fig. 9).

BCKPbTO BOEHHOi UEtHS1POM In brackets after the code letters) number of lines
rAaHAUIKKIH BOEHHbl l EH30Pt J& 4. of the text (incl. curve lines) is indicated.

C = combined (fig. 3).
32 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994







3) Inscription (for general and combined BcKpbITO
censormarks): Be e N 8302
BoeHHblt UeHsopb Ne 8302
BcICpumo 6oennott (eH3poit n o.
M = military district, fig. 17
TancambCKi2 6oellmiHt F = field post office, headquarters, etc. (outside
'4etl30pa X? 1 the scope of this article)

O = opened (BCKPbITO), fig. 10 In brackets after these letters designation of town,
military district (P or D) or FPO is put, respec-
n po CMOTpt HO tively. For general stamps "0" is put in this place.
BOOHHOIO uteHaypo 5) Censor:
"H 5) Censor:
L = examined (HPOCMOTPtHO), fig. 11 CpBcnpumo 6oeHOtn .iHewypo

103BOJIEHO llemo way".
LB iEn.CIR Nm= censor's name, fig. 18
BOEHH AIEmo301P t. 1t9.
HpocMorpHo
A = authorized (103BOlJEHO), fig. 12 ..oa t
o AOCMOTP. BOEH. EH3YPOIf No = censor's number, fig. 19

E = examined (IOCMOTPbHO), fig. 13 Peee.A Cf ii
Boennu HH eneaofs Kp.
IlponyueHo BoeHHoig UeasypoB
RoHBes4clcKI Bo0HHl nleH3Opb ,I e I = censor's initials, fig. 20
P = passed (HPOHYIIEHO), fig. 14 In brackets after these letters the name, number,
or initials are put. For general stamps "0" is put
in this place.
This simplified coding system does not take
into account the existence of various minor forms
of censormarks differing in the design of letters
and figures, abbreviations used, order of words in
the text, etc. If there are several forms known, a
sub index is attached to the proper coding letter or
I = abbreviations (e.g., A.I..), fig. 15 figure pointing to the number of forms known.
For example,
For personal stamps, "0" is put in this place. G-L(1)-02-0-0 means:
general-type censormark in a single line with
4) Belonging: the text "Opened by Military Censorship,"
two forms known;
Fa.As mfi7cco-noprmCtid P-Ob(2)-0-T(...)-Nm(...) means:
6eO1HHbtlut '4 30uopa 2 personal censormark in bordered oval with
the text in two lines indicating the censor's
T = town, fig. 16 name and the town of censorship;
Rossica Journal Number 123 33
October 1994









C-Rb(4)-L-M(D)-No3(...) means: A listing of censormarks found to date are
combined censormark in bordered rectangu- listed below using this coding system. For a more
lar form with a 4-line text, including "Looked detailed description of censormarks the reader is
through by Military Censorship, Military referred to the works by Speeckaert and Skipton
Censor of Dvinsk Military District No ..." in and Michalove. The color of ink normally en-
3 forms. countered in the particular censorship offices
also is indicated.

Location Color(s) Classification(s)

ALT SHVANENBURG V, L-R G-L(2)-O-0-0, C-L(2)-L-N-No(2,-)
AlnbTb IIBAHEHBYP-Fb

ARENSBURG V, BL G-L(2)-O-I-0, C-L(2)-O-0-No(II), P-L(2)-0-T-No(1)
APEHCBYP-b C-L(2)-L-T-No2(2, 4)

BALTIISKII PORT R G-Cb(1)-l-0-0, P-L(2)-O-T-l(I.T.), P-L(2)-0-T-No(2)
BAJITIlfCKIl HOPTb

BIRZHI R C-L(2)-0-T-No(14)
BHPXKH

DVINSK G-L(1)-O0-0, C-L(3)-O-T-No(9)
AIBHHCKb

FELLIN V, R, B P-L(2)-0-T-0, P-L(1)-0-T-No(2), P-L(2)-0-T-No(1, 2, 32),
4EIJIHHb C-L(2)-L-T-No(4, 6, 7), C-L(2)-O-T-No3(1, 3, 4, 5, 7),
C-Rb(3)-L-T-No(4, 5), C-L(2)-O-M(P)-No(8505)
(a handwritten general-type marking also is known)

GAINASH R C-Rb(2)-L-T-0, C-L(2)-O-T-No(1, 2,4)
FAHIHAIJb

GAPSAL' V C-L(3)-L-T-No(2), C-L(3)-O-T-No(1), C-L(2)-O-T-No(3, 4)
rAHCAjlb

GOL'DINGEN V P-L(2)-0-T-No(2), C-Ob(3)-O-T-No(3)
FOJIbAHHFEH-b

IEWE V C-L(2)-L-T-No(1, 2), C-R(3)-O-T-No(2),
IEBBE P-L(1)-0-0-Nm(cp. MEUKIOJIb)

KEIDANY V P-L(2)-O-T-No(17), C-L(2)-O-T-No(17)
KEHflAHbI

KORSOVKA V C-Rb(2)-O-T-No(1)
KOPCOBKA

KOVNO V, R G-L(1)-O-0-0, P-Rb(1)-0-0-0, C-L(2)-O-T-No(4)
KOBHO

KOVNO-FORTRESS R P-L(3)-L-0-Nm(Zlo6poBonbcKif)
KOBHO-KPEnOCTb

LAISGOLM R, V G-L(2)-L-0-0, P-L(2)-0-T-0, C-L(2)-L-T-No(2),
JIAiHCro1bMb C-L(2)-O-T-No(1, 2, 3, 5)

LEAL' L, V C-L(2)-O-T-No(2), G-L(2)-A-0-0
JIEAJIb

LEMZAL' V P-L(3)-O-T-No(1), C-L(2)-O-T-No(1, 2),
IIEM3AJIb C-Ob(3)-O-T-Nm(CT. BoeH. LeH30pb)

Table II. Censormarks noted to date used in the Baltic.

34 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994















Location Color(s) Classification(s)

LIBAVA V G-L(2)-L-0-0, G-L(1)-O-0-0, P-L(2)-O-T-No(2)
JIHBABA

LIVA V C-L(2)-L-T-No(2)
JIHBA

LYuTSIN V P-L(1)-0-T-No(1, 2), C-L(3)-O-M(D)-No(91)
JIOLIHHb

MARIAMPOL' V P-Rb(3)-0-T-No(3)
MAPIAMHOJIb

MARIENBURG V C-Cb(4)-L-T-No(1)
MAPIEHBYPFb

MITAVA 'B, V, BL G-Ob(2)-O-0-0, P-L(1)-0-0-0, P-Ob(1)-O-0-0,
MHTABA P-L(2)-0-T-No(1, 3, 4)

MODON V P-Ob(1) + L(1)-0-0-Nm(a. X. rHH4lEPb), C-Rb(3)-L-T-No(2)
MOlIOHb

MOIZEKYuL' V P-Rb(2)-0-T-No(1, 3), C-L(2)-L-T-0, C-L(2)-O-T-No(2, 4),
MOf3EKIOJIb C-L(3)-O-M(P)-No(8404)

MURAV'EVO R P-L(2)-0-T-No(18), C-L(1)-L-0-No(19)
MYPABbEBO

MYuL'GRABEN V C-L(2)-L-0-No(4), C-L(3)-L-T-No(1), C-L(2)-O-M(D)-No(322)
MIOJIbrPABEHb

NARVA V C-L(3)-O-T-No2(4, 6, 7, 8, 9,14, 18), P-L(2)-0-T-No(9),
HAPBA C-L(4)-O-M(D)-No(322)

PERNOV V G-Rb(1)-O-0-0, R-Ob(3)-0-T-Nm(rIEPECBETb),
FEPHOBb P-L(1)-O-T-No(4, 9), P-Ob(3)-0-T-No3(4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15),
P-O(3)-0-T-No(11), P-L(2)-0-T-No(2),
C-L(2)-O-T-No(3, 12, 17, 20, 21),
C-L(3)-O-M(P)-No(8554, 8556, 8567)

PLUNGYANY R P-L(1)-0-T-No(28), C-L(2)-O-T-No(20)
njn1YHFRHbl

PONEVEZH V, B, BL G-L(1)-P-0-0, C-L(2)-O-T-Nm(0. e. 303YnRl),
nOHEBB)Kb C-L(2)-O-T-No(6), C-L(2)-P-T-No2(1, 2), C-L(3)-P-T-No(6),
P-Cb(2)--N-N-No(6)

REVEL' R, V, L, BL G-L(2)-O-0-0, G2-Cb(1)-I-0-0, G-L(1)-i-0-0,
PEBEJ]b G-Ob(2)-0--0, P-L(2)-0-T-12(F, Fp, Kp, JM, nr),
C-Ob(3)-O-0-l(A.E., A.K., A.M.B., F.B., F.L., F.K., F.O., F.n.K.,
C-Ob(3)-0-0-No2(4, 14, 15,17, 18, 20, 21, 34, 39, 40, 41),
C-Cb(3)-O-0-No2(11, 14, 21, 25, 27, 29, 35, 36, 43, 45, 49, 50,
55, 68, 75, 79, 86, 90, 94, 123, 134, 141, 144, 146, 149)




Table II. Censormarks noted to date used in the Baltic (cont).


Rossica Journal Number 123 35
October 1994











Location Color(s) Classification(s)

REVEL'STATION V P-Rb(1)-l-0-0, P-L(1)-0-0--No(>K2, *3)
PEBEJIb BOK3AJIb

REZhlTSA V, BL C-L(3)-O-T-No4(2, 3, 8, 10), C-Rb(4)-L/O-T-No(14)
P'B>KHUA

RIGA V G-L(1)-O-0-0, G-L(2)-L-0-0, P-L(2)-0-T-No(5),
PHFA C-L(3)-O-T-No(1, 3, 7), C-L(3)-L-T-No(4, 11, 14),
C-L(3)--O-M(D)-No(226, 233)

RIGA/STATION V C-L(3)-L-T-No(2)
PHIA BOK3AnJb

ROSSIENY V C-L(2)-O-T-No(1), C-L(3)-O-T-No(?)
POCCIEHbl

RUEN R C-Rb(3)-L-T-No(2), C-Ob(3)-O-T-No(3)
PYEH'b

ShADOV R C-L(2)-O-T-No(23), C-L(2)-P-O-No(-)
LIA2OBb

ShAVLI V P-L(2)-0-T-No(4)
UIABJIH

ShKUDY V C-L(3)-O-T-No(1)
IKYAlbl

ShTOKMANSGOF BL C-L(3)-O-T-No(2)
WTOKMAHCFOQb

TAL'SEN V G-L(1)-E-0-0, C-Rb(2)-L-T-No(1, 2), P-L(2)-0-T-No(3)
TAJIbCEH

TAPS BL, R G2-L(2)-0-0-0, P-L(1)-0-T-0, P-L(1)-O-T-No(2),
TArnCb C-L(2)-L-T-No(1, 3), C-L(2)-O-T-No(2, 3, 4),
C-L(2)-O-D(P)-No(8452, 8454), C-L(2)-O-M(D)-No(509, 510)

TAUROGEN R G-L(1)-0-0-0
TAYPOFEHb

TEL'Shl R P-L(2)-0-T-No(7)
TEJIbIH

TUKKUM V, BL G3-L(2)-O-0-0, P-Rb(1)-0-0-KOHTpoJIb, P-L(2)-0-T-No(1)
TYKKYMb

VALK V, R G-L(2)-L-0-0, P-L(2)-0-0-Nm(A. BHnbreIbMa),
BA.IKb C-Cb(4)-L-T-No(3, 4, 5, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21,24, 31, 38, 43),
P-Cb(2)-0-T-No(1, 2), C-Rb(2)-O-T-No(3, 20)
C-L(2)-O-M(P)-No(8615)

VEISENShTEIN V, BL, L, R-L G-L(2)-L-0-0, P-L(2)-0-T-No(1, 2, 3), C-L(3)-O-T-No(1, 2, 3, 4),
BEiCEHUITEtIHb C-L(3)-O-M(D)-No(502, 504), C-L(3)-O-M(P)-No(8302, 8303, 8304)



Table II. Censormarks noted to date used in the Baltic (cont).









36 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994







Location Color(s) Classification(s)

VELIONY V, L C-L(2)-O-T-No(1)
BEnIOHbI

VERRO V C-L(2)-L-T-No(1, 2), P-L(2)-0-T-No(4)
BEPPO

VEZENBERG V, R, BL C-L(2)-L-T-No(1, 3), C-L(3)-L-T-No(4, 5, 7)
BE3EHBEPrb C-L(2)-O-T-No(3, 5, 6, 7), C-L(4)-O-M(D)-No(521)

VIL'NA V, BL G-L(1 )-O-0-0, G-L(1)-P-0-0, P-L(1)-0-T-No(1, 2, 3, 13, 39),
BHJIbHA C-L(3)-A-T-No(19), C-L(3)-O-T-No(24),
C-L(2)-O-T-No(43, 53, 55, 89, 93, 121),
C-L(2)-O-T-No4(21, 23, 30, 37, 51, 122, 126),
C-Rb(2)-O-T-No(37)

VINDAVA V G-L(1)-O-0-0, P-L(2)-0-T-No(2, 3)
BHHIABA

VOL'MAR V G-L(2)-L-0-0, P-L(2)-0-T-No(1, 2, 3), C-Cb(4)-O-T-No(4),
BOJlbMAPb C-L(2)-L-T-No(5), C-L(3)-O-M(P)-No(8054)

VENDEN V, L G-Rb(2)-L-T-0, P-L(2)-0-T-No(1, 2)
BEHIEH-b

YAKOBSHTADT V G-L(1)--0-01 P-L(2)-0-T-No(3), POb(3)-0-T-No(1, 2)
IKOBITAJITb

YUR'EV V, L G-L(2)-O-0-0, P-L(2)-0-0-Nm(,. MOPPb),
IOPbEB'b G-Rb(1)-l-0-0, C-L(4)-L-T-No(1, 2),
C2-L(2)-O-T-No(4, 6, 10, 19, 29, 30, 35),
C-L(3)-O-M(D)-No(1067)

ZEGEVOL'D V G-L(2)-O-T-0
3EFEBOflbAb

Table II. Censormarks noted to date used in the Baltic (cont).


















............. .
-* "-.












Figure 21. General-type censormark of Baltiiskii Port. This mark is similar to the Revel' mark in fig. 15-slightly
different shape of letters and color difference.
Rossica Journal Number 123 37
October 1994

















r^. ,. r .' i -. to n .....


|- t-J t .. ,^ :. -.,

S..







Figure 22. General-type censormark of Taurogen. A similar mark, but violet instead of red, is listed by Speeckaert
under Ponevezh (Type 1).






"" Ngff* >'
















Figure 23. General-type censormark of Leal'.



38 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994















T/ -
/ -i .r- .








... ,. ...
-- .-- 61 -
.j.i.,., i..:









r Generalrpe censormark o
Pc ". .










































Rossica Journal Number 123 39
October 1994
October 1994














i- .^ ", ...................
?:OTK" h OL i hliOb .o




Ail 4L






Figure 26. Personal censormarkfrom Pernov.




CAnRTE PO^! 0T L---=







7'..
_ iy^ '^ ,<,









Figure 27. Censormark of Tal'sen applied at Laisgol'm.




40 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994












.a /^ L A. r. w .;, ( '



|;. Z_..: C! ltlLs \ .i./ -a -C........ ..












In the, some of the Russian Wax and paper seals appear to have been

post offices in Kurlyand and the Riga area were used only at the censorship office in Revel (see

personnel were censors who continued to per-
form their duties in the new places initially using REFERENCES:
their former cachets. Thus, the use of a Mitava I Speeckaert, A. Russische Postzensur/Rus-
censormark has been recorded at Yur'yev, a sianPostal Censorship 1914-1918. 2nd Ed.,
Tal'sen censormark at Laisgol'm, etc. Figures 27 1991.
and 28 show this usage. 2. Skipton, DnP.P Michalove. Postal Censor-

to Bausk, Beisagola, and Oberpalen where no 3. Zensurstempel von Jakobstadt und Riga.
censorship offices had actually been functioning "Philatelia Baltica" No. 48, 1967.

are placed in Table 11 under Shadov, Mitava, and 4. Kahrs, C., V. Hurt and E. Ojaste. Russian
Tpaisgol'm, correspondingly. Censorship in Estonia in WWI. "Eesti
The total number of different censormarks Filatelist" No. 24-25, 1979.
that ever existed should be very high. Assuming 5. Jakimows, N. Krievijas Imperijas Cenzuru
a conservative number of eight censors per office Zimogi Latvijas Teritorija. "Het Baltische
times, this number can be estimated to be ap- Supplement. 1988.










Figureproximately 2,000-2,50028. Only a small fraction Supplement II. "Eesti Filatelist" No. 32,1988.
post offices in Kurlyand and the Riga area were used only at the censorship office in Revel (see
evacuated to Liflyand. Among the evacuated references).
personnel were censors who continued to per-
form their duties in the new places initially using REFERENCES:
their former cachets. Thus, the use of a Mitava 7. Speeckaert, A. Russische PostzensurpRus-
censormark has been recorded at Yur'yev, a sian Postal Censorship 1914-1918. 2nd Ed.,
Tal'sen censormark at Laisgol'm, etc. Figures 27 1991.
and 28 show this usage. 2. Skipton, D. andP. Michalove. PostalCensor-
Censormarks attributed in Speeckaert' s work ship in Imperial Russia. 1990.
to Bausk, Beisagola, and Oberpalen where no 3. Zensurstempel von Jakobstadt und Riga.
censorship offices had actually been functioning "Philatelia Baltica" No. 48, 1967.
are placed in Table II under Shadov, Mitava, and 4. Kahrs, C., V. Hurt and E. Ojaste. Russian
{aisgo1'm, correspondingly. Censorship in Estonia in WWI. "Eesti
The total number of different censormarks Filatelist" No. 24-25, 1979.
that ever existed should be very high. Assuming 5. Jakimows, N. Krievijas Imperijas Cenzuru
a conservative number of eight censors per office Zimogi Latvijas Teritorija. "Het Baltische
and taking into account the total number of cen- Gebied," 1983.
sorship offices in the Baltic-about 100 not in- 6. Hurt, V. and E. Ojaste. Eesti-Philately and
eluding the FPOs-as well as replacement of the Postal History Handbook and Catalogue,
censors' cachets which took place at least three 1986.
times, this number can be estimated to be ap- Supplement. 1988.
proximately 2,000-2,500. Only a small fraction SupplementII. "Eesti Filatelist" No. 32, 1988.
of these has been recorded to date, although new, Supplement III. "Eesti Filatelist" Nos. 33-
still unknown markings are continually surfac- 34, 1990.
ing. Nevertheless, it should be understood that a 7. Fugalewitschus, W. Past Antspaudai
large number of these censormarks have been Lietuvoj. 2nd Ed., 1990.
lost forever. *
Rossica Journal Number 123 41
October 1994









Zemstvo for Topical Collectors

by George G. Werbizky

Collecting zemstvo stamps is not exactly the zemstvo stamps were locally printed by primi-
"pastime of the philatelic masses." Zemstvo tivemeans-the technology of the Imperial Print-
stamps are not plentiful, few dealers handle them, ing Office was obviously absent-and many
and the most popular catalog was published in designs began to look alike. When examining
1925-the so-called Chuchin catalog. Fortu- these designs, one can easily confuse a sheep for
nately, this catalog was reprinted by J. Barefoot a bear, a fox for a marten, etc.
of England with a significantly better arrange- Of great help in preparing the tabulation "by
ment of text vs. illustrations. The illustrations subject" presented in this article was the excel-
were vastly improved. However, if one is a topi- lent work by N. N. Speransov, "Coats-of-Arms
cal collector, that catalog is not sufficient. Here of Russian Lands, XII-XIX Centuries," pub-
one needs to know exactly what is being depicted lished in Moscow in 1974. The work is in Russian
on a given stamp. and contains 484 illustrations, in color, of differ-
Most of the zemstvo stamp designs are based ent coats-of-arms with full descriptions of what
on the coat-of-arms of a provincial government is depicted. Symbolic representations, animals,
(ry6epHHm-Guberniya) and town that was the etc., are fully explained.
seat of government. The upper portion of the The list provided here describes the designs
design contains the province's coat-of-arms of, by topic. Frequently, one stamp incorporates
while the lower portion contains that of the town more than one topic; also various issues of the
in which the seat of government was located, same zemstvo fit into several topical categories.
Sometimes only the coat-of-arms is used, like Therefore, fellow topical collectors, now you do
Borovichi zemstvo, Novgorod Province. Ani- not have any more excuses to ignore zemstvo
mals, work implements, sheaves of grain, and stamps. This article is foryou-BAM TEMATHKH!
symbols of state are represented. Further, many

Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Akhtyrka Khar'kov Cross (Religious)

Alatyr' Simbirsk Letters & Ornaments

Aleksandriya Kherson Two-Headed Eagle
Cross

Anan'ev Kherson Cross

Ardatov Nizhnii Novgorod Stag
Two Crossed Hammers

Arzamas Nizhnii Novgorod Stag

Atkarsk Saratov Fish & Birds

Balashov Saratov Fish & Watermelon

Belebei Ufa Marten

Berdyansk Tavricheskaya Beehive & Anchor

Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps.

42 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994











Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Byelozersk Novgorod Fish

Bogorodsk Moscow St. George
Weaving Implement

Bobrov Voronezh Letters & Ornaments

Boguchar Voronezh Letters & Numerals Framed

Borovichi Novgorod Sun & Rudder

Borisoglyebsk Tambov Bees & Beehive
Sacks of Wheat

Bugul'ma Samara Stag

Buguruslan Samara Brown Fox & Sheep

Buzuluk Samara Stag

Bezhetsk Tver' Crown on a Stool
Raspberry Bush

Chembar Penza Sheaves of Wheat

Cherdyn' Perm' Sheep with Bible on Back
Elk

Cherepovets Novgorod Throne and Two Bears

Cherkassy Don Cossack Territory Crown

Chern' Tula River & Clumps of Grass

Chistopol' Kazan' Dragon & Bucket
(Unit of Measure)

Dankov Ryazan' Two Crossed Swords
Horse

Dem'yansk Novgorod Two Bears, Throne, and
Sheaf of Wheat

Dukhovshchina Smolensk Letters & Numerals Framed

Dmitrov Moscow Crown & St. George

Dmitriev Kursk Two-Headed Eagle

Dneprovsk Tavricheskaya Crown, Two-Headed Eagle
and Man in River

Donets Don Cossack Territory Crown

Gadyach Poltava Eagle, St. George

Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).


Rossica Journal Number 123 43
October 1994











Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Gdov St. Petersburg Cross, Ornaments, Letters

Glazov Vyatka Hand Holding Bow & Arrow
An Eye

Gryazovets Vologda This zemstvo is very rewarding for topical collectors
because many subjects are depicted.
Large Numeral "4"
Wooden Well
Postman
Letter
Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb
Seated Victory
Standing Victory

Irbit Perm' Omaments, Roman Numerals
St. Andrew's Cross
Sword, Staff of Mercury, Serpents

Kadnikov Vologda Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb
Wooden Bucket Full of Tar

Kamyshlov Perm' Sickle & Sheaf of Wheat

Kashira Tula Cross & Dragon

Kasimov Ryazan' Letters, Lines & Numerals, some stamps are rhomboid.

Kazan' Kazan' Dragon

Khar'kov Khar'kov Horse's head

Kherson Kherson Horse Rider
Double-Headed Eagle

Khvalynsk Saratov Fish

Kholm Pskov Hand Pointing to a Panther
Hill at River's Edge

Kirilov Novgorod Two Bears & Throne
Wooden Tripod Lifting Stone, Mallet

Kobelyaki Poltava Laurel
Sword & Musket

Kologriv Kostroma Horse's Head
Sailing Ship

Kolomna Moscow Tower

Konstantinograd Poltava Warrior

Kotel'nich Vyatka Arm, Bow & Arrow

Korcheva Tver' Cross, Omaments, and Numerals
Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).


44 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994











Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Krapivna Tula Leaf Ornament

Krasnoufimsk Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Falcon

Krasny Smolensk Cannon with Mythical Bird on Top
Towers
Battle Scenes, Napoleon Invasion

Kungur Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Horn of Plenty

Kuznetsk Saratov Fish
Smithy's Implements

Lebedyan' Tambov Swan

Lebedin Khar'kov Swan

Laishev Kazan' Mantel Around Numeral

L'gov Kursk Partridge
Bustard

Livny Orel Eagle
Quails

Lokhvitsa Poltava Castle Tower

Lubny Poltava Hand Holding Mace

Luga St. Petersburg Hand Pointing to a Panther
Wooden Tub

Malmyzh Vyatka Ornaments, Letters, Numerals

Maloarkhangel'sk Orel Archangel
Eagle

Mariupol' Ekaterinoslav Cross & Half Moon

Melitopol' Tavricheskaya Rider on a Horse

Morshansk Tambov Beehive & Bees
Crossed Anchors

Nikol'sk Vologda Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb

Nolinsk Vyatka Flying Swan

Novgorod Novgorod Two Standing Bears & Throne

Novomoskovsk Ekaterinoslav Rising Star
Broken Sword

Novorzhev Pskov Six-Pointed Star
Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).

Rossica Journal Number 123 45
October 1994











Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Novaya Ladoga St. Petersburg Crossed Anchors
Hom of Plenty

Novouzensk Samara Stag
Plow

Odessa Kherson Eagle
Anchor

Okhansk Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Fishing Nets

Opochka Pskov Hand Pointing to a Panther
Stone Pyramid

Orgyeev Bessarabia Tree

Osa Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Beehive & Bees

Ostashkov Tver' Double-Headed Eagle
Fish

Ostrogozhsk Voronezh Letters, Numerals, an Arch

Ostrov Pskov Hand Pointing to a Panther

Oster Chemigov Castle & Gate

Pavlograd Ekaterinoslav Horse
River

Penza Penza Three Sheaves: Barley, Wheat & Millet

Pereyaslav Poltava Tower

Pereslavl' Vladimir Letters & Denomination in a Circle

Perm' Perm' Bear with Bible on Back (Imperial Issue)
Anvil, Hammer, Rake, and Scythe (Soviet Issue)

Petrozavodsk Olonets Arm with Shield and Four Cannon Balls on Chain

Piryatin Poltava Letters & Denomination in Two Concentric Circles

Podol'sk Moscow Stone-Shaping Hammers

Poltava Poltava Stone Pyramid
Crossed Swords
Peter the Great
Ukrainian Village

Porkhov Pskov Hand Pointing to a Panther

Priluki Poltava Ox's Head & Sword
Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).


46 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994










Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Pskov Pskov Hand Pointing to a Panther in Many Forms
and on Many Stamps

Pudozh Olonets Arm with Shield and Four Cannon Balls on Chain

Rostov na Donu Don Cossack Territory Chain Mail (worn by Knights)

Ryazan' Ryazan' Rhomboid Stamps with Letters & Denomination

Ryazhsk Ryazan' Sword & Scabbards

Rzhev Tver' Crown on Pillow on Bench
Standing Lion

Samara Samara Nanny Goat

Saransk Penza Geometric Design, Letters & Numerals

Sarapul' Vyatka Hand holding Bow & Arrow
Fortress on Top of Mountain

Saratov Saratov Fish
Sheaf of Wheat

Shadrinsk Perm' Marten

Shatsk Tambov Beehive & Bees

Shchigry Kursk Birds, Musket, and Sickle

Shlissel'burg St. Petersburg Key

Skopin Ryazan' Sword & Scabbard, above these a Count's Hat

Zmeinogorsk Tomsk Ornaments, Letters, and Denomination
(sometimes transliterated as Smeinogorsk)

Smolensk Smolensk Ornaments, Letters, and Denomination

Solikamsk Perm' Water Well
Bear with Bible on Back

Soroki Bessarabia Fortress
River

Spassk Ryazan' Sword and Scabbard

Staraya Russa Novgorod Geometric Design, Letters, and Denomination

Starobel'sk Kharkov Horse

Stavropol' Samara Column
Triangular Fortress with Cross in the Middle

Sudzha Kursk Birds
Wild Goose
Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).


Rossica Journal Number 123 47
October 1994












Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Sumy Kharkov Purse
Three Sheaves of Wheat

Syzran' Simbirsk Letters and Denomination in a Frame

Tambov Tambov Beehive & Bees

Tetyushi Kazan' Dragon
Two Shields and Two Lances

Tikhvin Novgorod Sun with Rays
Crown
Open Book

Tiraspol' Kherson Two-Headed Eagle
Fortress wall

Tot'ma Vologda Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb
Fox

Tula Tula Hammers, Saber Blades, and Gun Muzzle

Tver' Tver' King's Crown on a Bench

Urzhum Vyatka Hand Holding Bow and Arrow
Wild Goose

Ustyuzhna Novgorod Omaments, Letters, and Denomination

Ust'sysol'sk Vologda Bear
Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb
Sleeping Bear

Valdai Novgorod Crown
Mountain

Valki Kharkov Omaments, Letters, and Denomination

Vasil' Nizhnii Novgorod Aft Ribs of a Ship (embossed)

Velikii Ustyug Vologda Men Pouring Water into a River
(The allegory escapes me at the moment.)

Vel'sk Vologda Hand Holding Symbols of State: Sword & Orb

Verkhnedneprovsk Ekaterinoslav Geometric Designs, Letters, and Numerals

Verkhotur'e Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Sable Holding Arrow

Ves'egonsk Tver' Crown on Pillow on Bench
Crayfish

Vetluga Kostroma Cross, Stars, and Moon
Willow Trees

Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).


48 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994










Zemstvo Provincial Government Stamp Design

Vyatka Vyatka Hand Holding Bow and Arrow, Cross

Volchansk Khar'kov Wolf

Vol'sk Saratov Fish
Bear

Yarensk Vologda Hand Holding Symbol of State
Two Foxes

Yassy Bessarabia Horse's Head

Egor'evsk Ryazan' Rhomboid Stamp, Letters, and Denomination

Ekaterinburg Perm' Bear with Bible on Back
Entrance into a Mine and a Smelting Oven

Ekaterinoslav Ekaterinoslav Emblem of Catherine the Great

Elets Orel Stag Next to a Fir Tree

Elisavetgrad Kherson Two Castle Towers
Cross
Two-Headed Eagle

Zadonsk Voronezh Two-Headed Eagle
On a Mountain Top Pouring Water from a Vessel
Guard Tower on River Don

Zemlyansk Voronezh Two-Headed Eagle
Water Pouring Out of a Vessel
Flock of Birds

Zen'kov Poltava Geometric Designs, Letters, and Denominations

Zolotonosha Poltava Four-Sided Cross
Designs seen on Zemstvo stamps (cont.).






Credit: The idea for this article came from Webster Stickney when he asked me "How can one
identify zemstvo stamps for topical collectors?" I agreed to take a look and the result is this article.
Thanks Web for a great idea.


[Can any member add to this topic?-Ed.]










Rossica Journal Number 123 49
October 1994








Ship Mail From The Arctic (Part 2)

by John B. Holland and Philip E. Robinson

This article is a follow-up to one that ap- North Pole. It was here that the rendezvous was
peared in Rossica #121 and features a cover and made with the Russian icebreaker on the surface
a card from the 1931 polar Zeppelin flight, as of the Arctic Ocean, and mail was exchanged on
well as five items from the present-day Murmansk 27 July. After polar exploration, the airship re-
fleet of nuclear icebreaker vessels. turned to Friedrichshafen, Germany, via
Figure 1 shows a card which traveled on the Leningrad on 31 July 1931. The cover has mark-
"Graf Zeppelin" polar flight in 1931. On 8 July ings indicating it was flown on the airship Graf
the icebreaker "Malygin" left the harbor of Zeppelin's 1931 Polar flight, as well as markings
Leningrad for its destination of Franz Joseph indicating it traveled by ship aboard the ice-
Land in the North Pole region. This was the breaker "Malygin."
arranged meeting place with the other partici-
pant, the "Graf Zeppelin", carrying Russian sci- [The study of ship mail in and around the Arctic and
entists. The "Graf Zeppelin" left its base on 24 Antarctica is a fascinating subject. It offers an out-
July 1931 and flew to Berlin. She then flew on to standing challenge for original research. Perhaps a
S. member has conducted such an investigation and would
Leningrad on 25 July 1931. The next day she like to share it with the membership?-Ed.]
headed northwards for the barren regions of the





SATA
-- /< *i i ii,---.^

SpOLARFAHRT 193
Mit EisbrechPr ,.Malygin "
t.nd Lufts,-hift .GC Ze- olin"

S ..............

R 8ri se-gl IacIe ..........................................

e .LUFTS CHaIFFBA
Frifedrichsh afen.'.
OAYIHA : .......................... ddnse ........."'.

fPar i:. 4A I DEUTSCHLAN
von-,.. 31.MIL3t. 4-.... SD
rnoroau, tpa .fI A-33y *-IS O su -
"8O& Iauu .rO3HAKI. Mcm .

Figure 1. Postcard which traveled on the 1931 Graf Zeppelin polar flight.


50 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994










wzn. r. S .., :.

fF\ \ f, e '-








r, iILENINORAD ri, -
I Bureau de Poste / -~ <> ,
GU I
,C,












PRr avoib
"""" ... _.. .... ... . . -. .1 ..... .- '

Figure 2. This cover was first carried by airship and then transferred to the icebreaker "Malygin." The stamps are
canceled by the Zeppelin handstamp. (slightly reduced)
P, -... :..




f I' LtOCTABITE HO

















II
~Fe~-: ,;'.,iBEPT 0J1ETQhK
S 2no Mi 'alr













iHunure NKjeKC fpeAnpupuiN CUg MII Ba3RKI aHuE

Figure 3. This cover is from the atomic icebreaker "Sibir'" (Siberia), one of the nuclear-powered vessels based at the
port of Murmansk. The ship's mark was applied on 20-11-88 and the cover was delivered to Murmansk by helicopter
while the ship was away from port. The rectangular cachet at top left denotes that the cover was taken off the ship by
helicopter. (slightly reduced)
Rossica Journal Number 123 51
October 1994
October 1994









r. Nc Cime o










-o-
MlYlPHCKi61 -- :i mA








nsitre nUec npapnpnrrn c lc I mecri f nsalee

Figure 4. This cover is from the atomic icebreaker "Lenin," the earliest of the nuclear ships, launched in 1959. The
"Lenin" played a major part in developing the northern sea route between European Russia and Eastern Siberia. There
are two circular ship's marks, which are commonly observed on mailfrom the "Lenin." (slightly reduced)

f'M Q



A0E rB r







0 00^ 74 .,4Q416
r a






1 22-<89M1 H)tatn m a n





5Sf ^^ y RqnumaHewoogpAa .JIE.UHH.H



Figure 5. This cover from the "Lenin" is an inter-service item addressed to the captain of the atomic icebreaker
"Arktika "from the captain of the "Lenin." The cover was held at Murmansk for seven days awaiting the arrival of the
"Arktika" after the "Lenin" departed.
52 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








777- 78. ^gAnlov



--.- I-t\., -.
Aifl itBl II1
.10 r











adv atcv aischet, denotita tMlicopt
ATmNm Am.ok UA CMM 00WATV











Figure 6. This cover is from the atomic icebreaker "Soviet Union" (surely renamed by now). This has a ship's mark
and a very attractive airpost cachet, denoting that the letter was taken to Murmansk by helicopter.










My o Mole MpolOC. ATOIHMi OM TlMup ATOM








October 1994








Passport Fees Under Nicholas II

by J. G. Moyes

If any Russian citizen wished to leave his Figure 2 shows a reduced illustration of a
home town or village, he had to inform the passport issued to a man at Krokhinski Posad,
authorities of his intention and, if nothing stood Novgorod on 12 April 1889, by the Petty Bour-
in the way of his departure, a passport would be geois Elder Bogdanov. Details of the holder's
issued to him, enabling him to travel to his age and appearance are given at the left.
destination. On arrival, he would have to report to If a traveler wanted to use his passport for
the police immediately and get a visa added to the longer than its allowed time, he would have to
passport. The same procedure applied when he apply for an extension. The fee for this originally
departed, was paid via the Gerbovaya Tax (General Pur-
For the regular traveler, passport books were pose Duty Tax) at the 60-kopeck rate, but in St.
used. The earliest I have is one issued from 1884, Petersburg, after the introduction of the Resi-
but possibly these were used much earlier than dence Permit Fees, the extension was given on a
that date. For the traveler making an isolated special form with spaces for the Residence Fee
journey, passport sheets were used. These date and, if applicable, the Hospital Tax. Figure 3
from at least 1851, which is my earliest date. shows a six-month extension given to a man
During the reigns of Alexander II and from Verkhne-Konetsgorodskaya obshchina,
Alexander III, the cost of passports was stable at Shenkursk Uyezd, Arkhangel'sk Province, on his
85 kopecks for six months and 1 ruble 45 kopecks passport issued by his Volost' for one year on 29
for one year. Figure 1 shows the arms and February 1892, to 29 August 1893. It is dated 1
inscriptions of each value full size. These are March 1893, signed by the police chief of the
sometimes seen as cut-outs and should not be third precinct of the Rozhdestvenski Quarter, and
confused with other stamped paper, bears a 5th category Residence Permit for 43
kopeck and the 1-ruble Hospital tax-manda-
tory for people in categories 4 and 5, which
mostly comprised those in daily paid manual
work. It appears to be an insurance for low wage
workers against the cost of medical care.
With the accession of Nicholas II, the system
was revised, although not immediately. From
S1895, passports were available for three, six, or
6 twelve months, at fees of 15 kopecks, 50 ko-
pecks, and 1 ruble respectively. The format of the
passport sheets was revised, and a section was
added at the bottom for extensions. A series of
adhesives was issued to cover these extensions;
see fig. 4.
The stamps were on horizontally-laid paper,
combination perforation 12.5.
1) 15-kopeck Yellow-brown
2) 20-kopeck Dark brown
p^J_ 3) 35-kopeck Green
4) 90-kopeck Dark blue
Figure 1. Six-month(top) and one-year indicia. 5) 1-ruble Carmine red.
54 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994













S110 YTKOA3Y EFO BIEJIIIECTBA, FOCYAAPaI IWIIPATOPA


AJAEKCiAHIPA AMERCAHAPOBHIA,

SAMOcnEP3EIA BcEPOcciEArO,

H npomaa, z nporqa, H npoiaa.








Po-eaa:ma ocetcomi ( gct i~fA4$.erh /4 t
oc 06a e nomuenm- c mo co L/ O no a o. .





XI A 6X. C7 C .a f/Or. 11 A eHs
PocmS i bL u o t-a u H to-. yaeomns .a phase .w-

Biocu poda u ceemriA Pocciscioa ILunepiu d.4n co6cnseuHHnz Hadoioemeuomi ov t( l Atm/esctfti e

BEoeu -n

.- o .na & v'./
po/) moo-eem1: omucua o LomL. wc. ;a3 ce 'eW mm e/T /
Aaagure 2. A rud iust a no nopoueem a t cpoia asumc 1 oAppamo;
Hocz A npomueo.ma wee mycaab nocmymneuo ea %t "W 6ydema no 3xOmaMm. gam MO
d NemMy sanucammy en KuwM noda .X '" J/If ar W 14 M~
Pom" tC-CC- yn/jft-,B K^ f ^
-.Z X a npu.oPWce6men neWamU oMao f f ^(oLf I ,a
fModpodob i t ,m^ mucqua GocetCWomS & emeLe Ctf Iru^^T-

Juww / / today.

OcoBSUI IIPnUh: ,




^-^- 1w l e e.X ^ci *.,



Lfx Figure 2. A reduced illustration of a passport issued on 12 April 1889.











?4-p-- OTCPo-S A.




IIpeffamBHrer cero etd6e-"



/ NY4 6.___J _





Ha alro 0- nacuopr? sa E BLIAHa OTepovMa cpoBoM%
nw b Hca Imct a TuMcH'a a emIcoJhi e8
4 ropa, a T7Mh', 'ITO ecrnx oH 27- --, upoon-
SeHiN cero cpoia He HOJyqHTaHnoaro nacIIOpT, TO o6asau ; cxgosBaTy
c% HacTOwJimeo OTcpoIROIO B% MaCTO IIpxnHCRH,. 6y e eHO iHoyH Ha-
CnIop, TO AOJ)[Zo L OTCpoIRy rTy BOsBpaTHTh. IIpHMtTL upeabHBZ-
Spoc -Bojo, oC Ha rojOB-s N 6po-
Ix ---T ^ /r / raa
| ^^ ^189 ro a. Z ^


c p 3 acmZ 'iac


-<,
Go 5/-^ ^ / ^ ^ )^ 5



BOLEH r Ro O. mTI8H- O no





IeI. 3a T,,. rI .- 1a5.MA T.1 8 ,-


Figure 3. Six-month extension issued on 29 February 1892.



56 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994


















Figure 4. Stamps issued to cover extension costs.


The 1 ruble is known with single letters of a c) Those under eighteen years.
"Specimen" overprint, and other values should d) Wives of Lower Ranks on Active Ser-
also exist thus. The 1 rub. is known imperforate, vice.
unused only and is probably a proof, e) Peasants of Mezen', Pedhora, and Kern'
Three of the above values were used on Uyezds, Arkhangel'sk Province, for ab-
passport sheets for extensions. Figure 5 shows a sence at the limits of their province.
1-ruble-12-month passport with an extension of f) Ordinary citizens of Mezen' for absence
three months granted via the 15-kopek adhesive, at sea.
Figure 6 shows a six-month passport with an g) Lower Ranks in receipt of a State pension
extension of six months via the 50-kopeck adhe- owing to incapacity for work.
sive. Figure 7 shows a three-month passport with h) Wives and widows of these Lower Ranks.
an extension of three months via the 35-kopeck
adhesive. The item in fig. 9 was issued to a 74 year-old
The three-month passports were alone in widow on 19 March 1897. All the free passports
having two spaces for extensions at the base. A were for one year.
second extension could be granted for a further The use of four of the five Passport Extension
six months, if the holder wished to extend his stay adhesives has been shown. The use of the 20-
for up to one year. As with the six-month pass- kopeck is unknown to me. The stamp is undoubt-
port, the extra six months cost 50 kopecks. edly the scarcest of the five, the others being
For holders of passport books, a new version reasonably common in revenue terms.
was introduced in 1895 which had spaces printed Sometime in 1897, the system changed again.
in it for the 1-ruble stamps to be added year by All passports became free. From dated docu-
year. As it happened, the stamps were only used ments, the change came about between 28 April
for three years. Figure 8 shows such a book with 1897 and 9 July 1897.
the 1-ruble adhesives added for three years as Originally a handstamp was applied locally
extensions. to the sheet to indicate it was free. Figure 10
Not everyone had to pay for passports. A shows a much reduced illustration of a 1-ruble
special category of "Free" passports existed. passport, on which the value is partially obliter-
Figure 9 shows one of these, much reduced. The ated, and an inscription added reading "Free-
reverse gives an extract from official regulations for a period not to exceed one year." The space
"About free tickets of absence." Some of these fortheextension stamp at bottom right has "Free"
categories are given below: struck over the top.
a) Victims of crop failure, fire, or flood- This type was followed by an official over-
with the permission of the Town Gover- print struck over the value and the extension
nor. space with bars added over the central inscription
b) Those moving to State Property. where the number of months was printed, and at

Rossica Journal Number 123 57
October 1994








the bottom where the number of months for the The new-format passport sheets for the free
extension was found. The latter has "Three period were issued sometime in 1898. The earli-
months" added, this being the only extension est date I have is 21 April 1899, but the water-
period allowable on twelve-month passports. mark gives the year of printing as 1898. See fig.
See fig. 11 for a much reduced illustration of one 12 for a much reduced illustration. These free
of these. passports in this style continued in use through-
out Nicholas' reign.












Hpe. / I t'*c_YA... < ,6" f f ,f', ?,. 1-


iocen A-. BLT paansme ropoA H eaeail PocciCezoft Hanepia orb HHemnaBcaiaro 'aej
a oOuu o006, T. e. no ,/4-- -Kr .4 /,^6i -roAa.
IYC, cR npaosKemieir& neaTuT, rff^' Lc/ c f-- r itu
V^P l( 2 roDAa 4V/1^^^'^^^f/^ 49t t AM



.:... .. .1. ..-.










.2 7 I .f-

,..- ^ -'^ ,/ V -^y,-





Figure 5. A 1-ruble-12-month passport with an extension of three months.


58 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994


























iOil







i-ut iuec)n' CU4CG&, -'. e. 10/ 7 , ...i 6,I'Or .y". .. .
""I




















nIe/ lem. .-Teniti( In. e. )o !-r/ '..* 'o .

407 "..



".. .. .. .






Figure 6. A six-month passport with an extension of six months.







Rossica Journal Number 123 59
October 1994
October 199





















IIpe aBUTnIe cero "- t 3 ry(.,





yBoaecH Da paamie ropopa a ceaenia PoccificEofi Hunepin or Hn enmcaHHaro 'mcaa

Ha mp ,up T caa, T. e. no ) c / ra.

aMb, Cb upuloa3eMiesb nqaTH "-"-t eh^e'^-u^oi-^ Z4-4, L -tl

SroAa cX2U/M&14 /^L^^146I' -Ha.















m (3.. 80 a W189 t.. c'



izvees, in. e. 0o 189 zola. R I

I e i




Figure 7. A three-month passport with an extension of three months.







60 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994












j" --- 1- ---
" 12 18 -
"* 1 HaiNBA0eeile H3b noomieHia o BMABXb Ha mINMTOebCTBo. -
S3 l60. THpH BmIait naonopTHnLIx KHtOumeB', 0c .THA7, noayqa-

z HU: ce no.iyqsamonaro 6esopoqHnyo BHaiK-naTy-na eCaTca, a
C oUYly n aionlrParo oposanyo xarsKy ABapg aTa naruTL Konien,.
07. CBopx% eARROpefennaro sanooa (or. e0), naonopusa T
SHmEmm o6aeraIB TCa CeopOMPL BS Ao010X', ER3BLI n pa3BM'pl>
o1noro pyyna. COopS ceOl BSHMBOTCe, noopeoTRoM'b aRjeRIEH
Hi 9Ha RHnaa ooodoot 1aCenpTRHOi xapa, nOe oBlie oanoro pasa
W a ros,, npH npoasanonJia x HRxaE BsRaaAIbIe enr, Ear,
;aZ yAoo0TOBpeala amIIocrOTH, TBMS PUBHO aH a ygAoc0onpe-
Bla npaaa s OTawayqn. ---- -
70. OsUanarene ma cTaTLaxs 67 H 69 odopu BLasmouHaiCoTa
aeaaBcsaROo OT' yo0T8OB.aeRIbx aa HRE0TTOpu'xs M)IOTaO-
oTei cOopOB'n as npon0aoy nArOB' Ha HTea.ICTBO.


MOcTO AAIR HRaAeSnH nacnopTHsIxI Maposb.
Mapma noAoemars orameHio ycraHOBaeHHHLa nopXaKOMi.



























SFigure 8. Portion of a passport book with three 1-ruble adhesives added for three 1-year extensions.












1. Btpomcnot.auie dIcA -

2/BE 8 II I ATH 0 Ao ooaoro roAa. -
2. Bpei:j owni, u: :Iw a osp;
CP mLLl.r ti, 4. EP n1lpeala.srei ," ,/j cero KocTpoxcBso ry6epain, raiucaro yt3Ax, RxRo60JCEOR HUOJOCt,


/t I Iq i J4 C-

4. Comor n mai coeas an ni past _
./ / .eoem pasI ue ropoita ceaeniR PocciicKol H-nepig on Hau enacuanaro ucjia Ha

5. Haxoaret up. sm, j ,oi/ / /,/" ,7m
I. o sr 4s.- Ii. 7T. e. no

~ rox. ;
6. Oruomenia aK (rrduial .ocfuo usOabInaorB a, poee ,



7. noxesi rn .asuo ^ r^ /'^ ;ToM J.,





-p- h
8. N^^J^ vnep rrcnopn Ol opn





8. gpa 9erpoo rpeaeea osam erp ps AOrit O isI oI ALA UM


Oco6Fu 9papni Am 'f r" p i n r





Figure 9. A "free" passport issued on 19 March 1897.
'Qj Ot~6E np0













=: 3. BBpoacuoa i-. I




4. CoconLS A ocTo.rsL .s Ba 6parit:


5. HaxoaaTn npn ueMl: 'C




6. OTHomenle Rm oT6iBaEHo 1mBoIHH-
COflt IIOBHEHOCTH




ro7 ra.


7. HIIobn Bsan.La nacnopTa: e il










OFp 0a: amuhreduc eie ce llutr u of a-porubo e papu on w i te. v Oa 189 ad .
fOTCPOIKa: ificmeie cm ewra onwpoeno ua mpu xbcaiay, in. e. do 189 nota. eTe Ie






Fg r ehn
Figure 10. A much reduced illustration of a 1-ruble passport, on which the value is partially obliterated, and an inscription added reading "Free-
for a period not to exceed one year."














1. ]Mponcnon&anie:

2. Bpeni poaeniHn uIn Boapacn: r 'V Z
:3
3. Po,'L ianarifi: -,
4. CocTonrI .uI ILIU COCTOIIIAb ;:L11 1 II1 t : i, :


0. IaonenSIT n!pn noen -: -2 rvS.
11pen-.rmmnrte cero .' /'"



6. OTnomenie us OT6iBaHiIo noun- 7.7. /7i./.l ^- -'C 2 1-4 /'/) 1^-3--
Cuoit HOIIIIIHOCTII:
Kno.en-'2 Bu paamne ropoka 1n cao.LNi Poceiiie'Cfoii lliepi onr, u;ll;elucanIaro 'IC.aa

_, ,o_-_-,.<.. <0 .--C J -<. '.-.< -u- . "'. ,,on.
jam., eb npnmoenicu% nem,,Tn, ^^^^^^^Zt. tf ^ } ^ ^




7. IIoAnUcIIc alaboa Imu a nacnOpTia: I




nPo.c mr f .. /-L-
,.

IghrT 1Oocia: oep-hZp l1
Oco6ia npniirTU: /i^ ./




IT--
;>1 tnpu XWrey,
OTCpOSHa: ,Tbfincmeie cez ouda omepoweou, w B in. e. ao 18 Toi0a.




n p A. )0t. A


I) Drclin eomuawr icro xa IBWUI ful, BEIUuWuO ucloprv


Figure 11. Official overprint "Free passport with a three month extension added-the only period allowed on this 12-month passport.













o 0 IIACIOPTT .
, -'---" ....
3 1. BtponoBltasnie..:.. .- j'-7'-.....- 1 ..)
AA
Z 2. Bpem poatseni a Boapa: : ...

S3. Po R aTil:

.4. CocTOnBT an na.u cocTOnT. aU Ba. dpad:;

5. HaxowaTca upn neim:

IIperansnBrea. f/-//r ceroA/'' 4pa re6.,


6. OTHomeide I% OT6i-Banilo BOIIH- / / 'i;" ..
CKOR IIOBIIHHOCTI: AS -2 'ij
Syo.-en Bra paane ropo;a n ceaeaia Poccilleoii [Iinepin oT numiuneancmaro 'inc-a
./ no 11 7 --- ----- roa.
.ae,, cA npHa o .me mi, Ile.naTU,. ..'. ..... /-<.


7. Ilonunci. (lada'In.l ia c naoplma):



Ilpn erp&MOrOOTa npeB2 ralU o60os3raa TOA ero zipmKT /
PoemT: ko p".
U14Ti, BO.IOC%.: i
Ocod6t upntITUru:

OT CP O'EA. BE3f.T ATHO.
R iaa a ......................................... .......1) B..n \
,nfiScmeie ceo nacoiwpna iwmpowwo a n.-e. Oo woa. '"
.. ..... .............. ....... .................. ....... ....
l nDrmaie ceno nactopma o xnpoueo now m.-e. io foOa. x f,.






Figure 12. New-format passport sheet issued sometime in 1898.
Figure 12. New-format passport sheet issued sometime in 1898.









Some Thoughts On "G.Eh.O."

by Mark Tartakovskiy
(translated by Dave Skipton)

In "Field Post Allure" (Rossica #122) by Further he states,
Dave Skipton, one of the FPO envelopes bore the "Moving down the chain of command, control of
"Moving down the chain of command, control of
initials "G.Eh.O.," and the guess in that article postal and telegraph communications was distributed
was they might have stood for "Glavnoe Ehtapnoe again among Military Communications Directorates,
Otdyelenie" (Main Relay Department). Based on but these were a part of the fronts. That was where the
all the material I have on the WWI field post, special post-and-telegraph departments were orga-
starting with M.M. Sokolov's article in "Zhizn' i nized."
tekhnika svyazi" #5, 1924 and ending with the I am inclined to think that there could have
recent articles by Alexander Epstein in BJRP been a Main Mail Dispatch Office (Glavnaya
#71, I do not believe it could have been that. ehkspeditsiya po otpravleniyam-G.Eh.O.) at-
During WWI there was no "Main Relay De- tached to the Main Military Communications
partment"-it was called a "Relay Post-and- Directorate. (In Russia before and during the
Telegraph Office" (Ehtapnoe pochtovo- USSR period they were very fond of naming
telegrafnoe otdyelenie). According to Sokolov's everything "Main.")
information, there were 40 of these. Of course, it I would like to emphasize that these enve-
is possible to assume otherwise, but it would be lopes are a variety of registered letter with notice
without any guarantee of accuracy. I quote M.M. of delivery. This is very important, in my opin-
Sokolov: ion. On all the envelopes the inscription "The
envelope is to be returned to the sender," plus the
"Control of postal and telegraph communications in presence of addressee signatures, attested to the
the active Army was concentrated in the Relay-Trans-
portation Office of the Main Military Communica- fact that the senders of these letters would always
tions Directorate, which was attached to the Supreme learn whether or not the recipients were alive, for
Commander's HQ." the question here is about letters to the front, to
the Army in the field.












V H .- 87 -
-- .- f030pai IOAa .





.Envelope bearing the initials .. Eh. .'(same illustration that appeared in the article in Rossica #122).
66 Rossica JourOrnpaeonal Number 123



SJ:.W..... '. "A.B.H. .. October 1994;...

-.:l.'. '. KOHBepTb Bo3Bpau~a6Tca noAaTze)a. .,^,.,


Envelope bearing the initials "G. Eh. 0. (same illustration that appeared in the article in Rossica #122).
Arrow points to the letters "F. 3. O.-G.Eh.O."
66 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








A Fantasy

by Michael Ercolini

Scott Catalogue lists five stamps issued by Forgeries of Common Stamps" by VarroE. Tyler,
the Army of the North. These stamps are crude published by Linn's.)
looking, imperforate, and have been extensively The crux of Rosselevitch's article is the post-
forged. They bear the initials OKCA, which are mark. Mr. Rosselevitch notes that collectors
the Cyrillic letters standing for "Special Corps, should be on the look out for a "fantastic" oval
Army of the North." These stamps were in use for postmark of a so-called "railroad mail car of the
about three months, from the end of September Northwest Army." This mark is a double oval,
1919 until the end of December 1919. black or dark blue in color, with inscription
Recently, auction houses in the United States above and below "n.n.T. KOH. C.3. APM." which
and Europe offered covers bearing the complete means "Postal Telegraph Field Office of the
set of stamps (in one case the stamps were in Northwest Army." Such a railway mail car hous-
pairs). The covers are all addressed to Revel' and ing the above-mentioned office never existed,
have Tallinn backstamps-both cities are in Es- and the postmark was made by the producers of
tonia. The two covers shown in US auctions are other forged overprints (on the Army of the
addressed to "G. F. Sturm. Revel, B. Mikhailov Northwest issue) in Estonia. The fake marking
and Co." and also contain the Russian word for was primarily used to cancel the stamp forgeries
"registered," underlined. All text is in Russian. in order to facilitate their sale abroad. Other types
The stamps are canceled with an oval "Railroad of this oval postmark soon appeared and four
Mail Car of the North West Army." types are known to exist. Rosselevitch goes on to
An article by A. Rosselevitch appearing in say that these markings are known applied to
Russian Philatelist No. 3, as part of a continuing stamps with genuine overprints of the Army of
series entitled "BEWARE OF COUNTER- the Northwest, as well as genuine stamps of the
FEITS!" warns collectors about this marking. Special Corps (Army of the North).
Rosselevitch gave the following information: Long time collectors and specialists in Rus-
sia and the Russian Area indicate these fake
"These stamps were part of the Army of the Northwest covers are plentiful and have been around for
issue. This Army was under General Yudenich and
wasfightingtheBolsheviks.Thestampsweremeant years. Considering that the two in the US auc-
for paying postage in places occupied by units of the tions (May 1993 and June 1993) are addressed
Army, basically a zone between Pskov, the eastern identically in the same hand, bear cancels in a
boundary of Estonia, and Luga. The Army of the similar manner, and also a penciled "N" followed
North was part of the Army of the Northwest, com- by numerals which are underlined (a supposed
manded by General Rodzianko. This special corps
(The Army of the North) had its own stamps." "registry number") we can only guess how many
similar "covers" have been manufactured. I wrote
Mr. Rosselevitch points out how to distin- to both auction houses in the United States and
guish the many forgeries of this issue. Basically, have not yet had a reply. The European auction
genuine stamps are clear and easily discernible house advised that most of the known covers
even though composed of miniature letters, while have favor or philatelic cancels-OK, but not
the forgeries are difficult to read and often con- complete fantasies.
tain indistinguishable lines instead of readable Any area of stamp collecting has its pitfalls.
letters. All the double lines of the genuine design If one is going to venture into areas where catalog
appear as one thick line in the forgeries. (For a makers warn about fakes, forgeries, or phantoms,
complete description and photo of each of the whether stamps or cancels, it pays to do a little
five stamps see "Focus on Forgeries: A Guide to research first. Since the Rosselevitch article was

Rossica Journal Number 123 67
October 1994








printed over 30 years ago and sent to me by a 3774, note that lot 3772 appears to bear the same
long-time collector I thought I would share this cancellation which makes valuable stamp worth-
information with others. I will be happy to send less).
a copy of the four pages to anyone sending a US The illustration below is from the Superior
$1 bill. This will cover the cost of photocopying Galleries Catalog, for which permission has been
and postage. If you have an address label, that granted to reproduce. Alan Lipkin of Superior
would be a help, too. also provided the following "The mis-descrip-
Photos of the covers appear in these auction tions were announced on the floor. Lot #3774
catalogs: ELA Auction, the official WESTPEX was withdrawn and Lot #3772 realized $32 plus
auction (April 29-30, 1994) as lot 1380, and, the ten percent buyers commission."
Superior Spring 1994 (June 13-15) on p. 327 (lot





S,.... ...- .. .. .
C. C I = *- : '.i. ,*'i'i- '_ ,. ',' ,



!ilk iv














68 Rossica Journal Number 123
,October 1994 ..: ,









.. ,.,. : ; .. ,l ." ,'_ :. : .:'r ,, ,^


~ .I '4. '


.,- .




Cover illustrated in the Superior Spring 1994 sale as lot 3774. Copy
is enlarged and computer enhanced to facilitate identification.







68 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








From England To Chinese Turkestan
Via Boston And Russia

by Mel Kessler
I have always had a strong interest in Chinese astray. The cover, however, did not go astray.
Turkestan (Sinkiang) from my studies of the (One of the trade routes connected Fergana Oblast'
history and exploration of this extremely remote with Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan.) Here is an
desert part of Western China. Russian history ordinary cover posted aboard a ship on the Atlan-
also had-and still has-a commanding place in tic Ocean that traveled to China without entering
my academic pursuits. the Chinese postal system.
At NAPEX '94, I purchased the cover illus- The cover raises a few questions. Why was a
treated below. The cover bears two King Edward British Political Agent assigned to remote Chi-
VII 212-pence stamps (double rate?) and was nese Turkestan in 1905? Who was the addressee,
posted at sea aboard an ocean liner bound for and why was he in Western China? Any ideas
Boston. Upon arrival at Boston in September from the readership?
1905, a bold magenta "PAQUEBOT" was ap-
plied to the cover, and the British stamps were [According to Hosking, this paquebot mark was ap-
canceled. plied in Boston and is rare. The addressee was Ellsworth
The cover was addressed to Mr. Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947), an American geographer
Huntington in care of Geo. Macartney, Esq., whose specialty was the influence of climate on civili-
British Political Agent, KASHGAR, CHINESE nation. Huntington was in Tibet at the time the letter
TURKESTAN. was written. He later wrote a book about his experi-
ences, entitled The Pulse ofAsia (1907). The cover was
In Russian and English manuscript the cover carried by courier from Osh to the Russian consulate
was to be routed through Baku. The small round in Kashgar, and then presumably turned over to
Russian cancellation on the back (not illustrated) Macartney. Kashgar was a British listening post for
is from Osh, Fergana Oblast', on 22 September possible Russian designs against India, and Macartney
was "chief of station" from 1890 to 1916. For an
1905 (old style), Serial No. 2. Also on the reverse enagig treat o An-Rsian rivlr in Cn-
engaging treatment of Anglo-Russian rivalry in Cen-
in manuscript is written "If astray, please send to tral Asia, see Peter Hopkirk's The Great Game
Milton, Mass., U.S.A." There is no indication to (1990).-Ed.]
whom the cover should be delivered if it went







r ?l. n'::: 7 ::T ^

-z,
Q 7_, ,,








Cover from Massachusetts, USA to Chinese Turkestan, 1905.
Rossica Journal Number 123 69
October 1994









Russian Refugee History

by George G. Werbizky

Russian refugees in Europe after WWI were egate to the League of Nations. For his extraordi-
not exactly welcome in most countries. Citizen- nary services on behalf of P.O.W.s and refugees,
ship was rarely granted and their children did not he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922.
automatically become citizens by birth. Two pages of the Nansen passport are shown:
In documents on the "nationality" line one one with the 1938 5-franc tax stamp with a
would write "stateless." Stateless people could profile of Nansen (fig. 2) and the other with visas
not be issued a passport with a visa to stay or for 1938 and 1939 (fig. 3). Note the visa stamp,
travel to other countries. In order to legalize the on the top right, canceled in 1939. The words
status of Russian refugees and solve visa and "R6fugi6s Russes" appear on the stamp and trans-
travel problems, the Nansen passport was cre- late as "Russian Refugees." This particular pass-
ated, with the assistance of the League of Na- port was issued by Belgium. The outer cover has
tions. the following heading: CERTIFICAT
The passport is named after Fridtjof Nansen D'IDENTITEdes rifugies Russes, Identity Card
(1861-1930), polar explorer, statesman, and hu- of Russian Refugees (fig. 1).
manitarian who served as the Norwegian del-


Ai- i I'. -3,YA'utM DE BELGQui e
",, ".^/ .G; KONIVKRUjK'BELGIE ^|.|- ...



mi ter ces. Affa.. .e an f^^ .. ^ ;













.. .. .. .. -,* .
'. ~:.'
4;






iCERTIFICA-T DD 1TE






""., n Rdssische. vIuchtelineen...


Figure 1. Outer cover of the Nansen passport.

70 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994























2 Q
Nom et prenoms du pare
Familenaam en voornamen
van den der .v Signature du titulaire :
Hanndteekeng van dei tuh

Nom et prenonis de la mere I t
farnilienaam en voornamen
van de moeder .

Residence actuelle en Bel-
gique .
Huidige verblijfplaats in
Belgi ..

Profession. . .
Beroep Le soussign6 certified quela photo et ia signature apposies
ci-dessus sont bien celles du porter du present document.
SIGNALEMENT PERSOONSBESCHRIJVING De ondergeteekende verklaart dat bovenstaande photowra-
Cheveux phie en handteekening stellig deze zijn van den houder van
Haar .dit document.
Yeux Pour la dur&e de valaditR du present certificate, voir le
Oogen dernier visa beige appos6 ci-apres:
Ne. usI }' 7:!t V Voor den getd(gfieldsduur van dit getaigschrift, zie het
/'4 i laatste Belgische visa hieronder aangebracht:
Visage. t 8
Oelaat. En tout 6tat de-cause, le present certificate cesse d'etre
valuablee deux ans aprts la date de sa delivrance.

Signes particuliers In ieder geval houdt dit getaigschrift op geldig te zijn
Bifzondere kenteekens twee jaar na den datum zijner aflevering.

TallMe D. ivri l
Oestalte .... Afeleverd i a Aen /G3

Dit getaisckrift wordt af getverd -r d Au nom du Ministre des Affalres Etrangres;
SgConferenti fte b rdenr eevrd v -rVr n7knms fg e besluiten der Namens den Minister van Buitentandsche Zakce :
Conferentie bu erpen dOor D NANSEN Hoog Cominisxaris o.or
de is ch u hteln, ve ju 2 O.-"7-22 Le Fonctlonnaire dWlngu6,
-et zal opoaade vtan kTracCt te zj"n indien tie houder onP eenigerlei -'. .'. De Afaardld Ambtenuar,
oogenblik het grondgebeid van Rusland beutreedl. ir. ard Amtaar,
Ht.e w all eenllj/ levele on t de RuOste vlu ttlingen

seefters een invned oP et is bden dit ge schri e ,nan den "-cr- -
enOc sto tber oor op geoa71 n et zij icldlehsid te doen ven-
Zen. -Na et verstrijken vanln z geldngheide!sda h ede d 4e g tetligscrerf
eonIlet Mtnisterie van Baiteniandshe Zakeen te bra s"nt te "'arden tirag
gezanaen. ..-...g


Figure 2. Inside pages with picture of Nansen on the 1938 5-franc stamp.












Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994 71























S4 *) 4 '
SVISAS VISA'S
VAS VISA'S








Sour permetlNe u 1
S"- -. _._ ,...';.- _.m w. .r r ." \f.r-,
"'d -------- hur n r"r itulalrc ,.a,. .* -L cerut cal d,. "odU a
S. ,-Icaz d, e s rena dr A. t i ... ; ,_ ,.e I a li 1
.. e ue '. -: '-nl: e- muitO BSelgt ue
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -^-r, B&*N ftmo to .arr r
,- --^ ^-^ yvv- --4v ow Is *OW*M pr r*- t:- A e '^

Ft A


..-.. ...... ..... .


.--- .- 71 I e'/cst.K .'-' C' *' W

















: .- Z l -s .i.:f.uenee .soa 11
Au Mlaroc.




Figure 3. Inside pages with visasfor 1938 and 1939.











72 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Recent Local Overprints:
A Suggested Classification

by George Shaw

The stamps emanating from various parts of reason for issuing the stamps. This is especially
the former Soviet Union are bewildering, espe- true of the Jewish Autonomous Republic. Please
cially given the suspect origins of nearly all of refer to Table I which lists all of the autonomous
them. This article will focus on two things: a areas and which ones have issued stamps to my
suggested way of classifying the stamps; and a knowledge. Figure 1 shows a 1-kop. Soviet
call to other collectors to start a dialogue in definitive of 1976 overprinted for the town of
Rossica on this fascinating but controversial area. Bugul'ma, Tatarstan. Please help me fill in the list
As I look at the mass of recent issues from all from the material you have.
sorts of exotic places, it occurs to me there are
four basic purposes for their issuance. III: Geographical Publicity

I: Postal Necessity Some of the most remote areas of Russia have
issued stamps. The first of this obscure group
Clearly, the eight stamps from St. Petersburg covers the Arctic Ocean. The first series from
issued in 1992 fall in this category. They have Dikson appears to have been printed in Noriilsk.
been found on much commercial mail. In addi- Subsequently, lengthy series covered nineteen
tion, a number of localities have been revaluing Arctic Islands and four Arctic port cities. This
stamps with a pen. Several of these have been year, overprints have been seen from a number of
illustrated in my articles on the Voice of America areas near or on the Russian Pacific coast. These
correspondence. include Wrangel Island, Kurile Islands, South
Kurile Island, Komandorskii Islands (specifi-
II: Political Propaganda cally Nikolaevskoe), as well as Sakhalin. A num-
ber of them illustrate maps of the area, as well as
This is the most interesting class to me. local fauna. There is even a set inscribed Russian
Starting in the middle of 1993, autonomous re- Alaska. Again, greed is undoubtedly a major
publics, oblasts, and okrugs began overprinting motivation with all of these issues.
Soviet (and then Russian) stamps. These issues
represent a significant portion of the issues from IV: Local Greed
last year. The autonomous areas are generally
named after a dominant or large ethnic grouping Greed may or may not be the only motivation
and comprise about 15% of the population of the for classes 2 and 3 described above. It is, how-
Russian Federation. They had nominal rights ever, the only cause I can identify for the rest of
under the Soviet Union; since December 1991 the material. Some of them are from oblasts and
they have either declared sovereignty or tried to krais (such as Altai); others are from cities (such
increase their autonomy from Moscow. There- as Novgorod and Smolensk). The most interest-
fore, it is no coincidence that Tatarstan, Touva, ing ones that I have seen are: Vladivostok-2x10
and Karelia were among the first to issue over- blocks depicting ships; Ekaterinburg-portraits
prints. Comparable autonomous areas in of Czar Nicholas for the 75th anniversary of his
Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan have also murder, and Moscow-anti-Yeltsin propaganda
issued stamps. In addition to possible political and an Antarctic Expedition. Figure 2 shows a
motivation, it is clear that profit was a major 1-kop. Soviet stamp of 1988 overprinted at

Rossica Journal Number 123 73
October 1994
















NAME POSTAL CODE REPUBLIC OBLAST OKRUG

RUSSIA
Adygey 3526-3527 Yes
Aga-Buryat 6744 No
Bashkir 450-453 No
Buryat 670-671 Yes
Chechen 364-366 Yes
Chukot 6865-6868 No
Chuvash 428-429 Yes
Dagestan 367-368 Yes
Evenki 6633-6634 Yes
Gorno-Altay 6597 No
Kabardino-Balkar 360-361 Yes
Kalmyk 358-359 No
Karacheyevo-Balkar 3571 No
Kareliya 165-186 Yes
Khakass 6624-6627 Yes
Khanty-Mansiy 6262/6268 Yes
Komi 167-169 Yes
Komi-Permyak 6172-6173 No
Koryak 6847-6848 No
Mariy 424-425 No
Mordoviya 430-431 Yes
Nenets 1647 No
N. Ossetia 362-363 Yes
Tatarstan 420-423 Yes
Taymyr 6632 No
Touva 667-668 Yes
Udmurt 426-427 Yes
Ust-Orda Buryat 6653-6654 No
Yakutia = Sakha 677-678 Yes
Yamalo-Nenets 6265 No
Yevreysk 6822 Yes

AZERBAIJAN
Nagorno-Karabakh 3735, 3743-3744 Yes
Nakhichevan 3736 Yes

GEORGIA
Abkhazia 3848-3849 Yes
Adzhar 3844-3845 Yes
S. Ossetia 3835 No

TADZHIKISTAN
Gorno-Badakhstan 736 No

UZBEKISTAN
Kara-Kalpak 742-743 Yes

TOTAL# 20 8 10
NUMBER ISSUING 17 4 2
STAMPS

Table I. Autonomous Republics and Stamp Issues.






74 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Barnaul for 1 rub. 43 kop. to make a rate of 1 rub. WHAT EXISTS?
50 kop. Figure 3 (from the same source), is an
overprint for the surrounding district, Altaiskii There is no way to know how much of this
Krai. Although I do not believe they are true material exists. Therefore, since I know a sizable
postage stamps, they are still fun to collect. I have portion of the Rossica membership has either
used two rules concerning purchasing them: seen or collects this material, why don't we form
a study group within the society to document
1. Pay no more than 20% of retail for the what exists, when it was issued, known usages,
unused material. I have obtained most of my etc. This would be somewhat different than the
material through foreign sources. effort by Michael Padwee and Peter Bylen which
2. Try to obtain them on cover, even if phila- has focused to date on the postal history aspects
telic in origin. As commercial usage is often of the former Soviet Union and ex-Yugoslavia.
a moot point, philatelic usage is the only If you are interested, please write me at 7596-J
practical means of illustrating them. I try to Lakeside Village Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042.
obtain registered covers with backstamps.
Yes, they probably went through the mail, [This endeavor is essential to Russian philately. I look
but they are no better than favor cancels, forward to publishing the results.-Ed.]





















II' 1w-k IAp rra Ewwq HLl ai
--.-__----- --.,- -------








Figure 1. Local overprint for Bugul'ma Tatarstan.











Rossica Journal Number 123 75
October 1994* .rm npeanp i c MELTa ,\%.a rHN


Figure 1. Local overprint for Bugul'ma, Tatarstan.




Rossica Journal Number 123 75
October 1994














































Figure 2. City of Barnaul surcharge for Ir 43k.
SIAnPTA EI-

























OYMNOCALYCSIUM SAGLUONE
rlHMAOHYM 1O HMEHH CAr.lHO .
-- KOCMOHABTMKM






























fnlume uKexe "PnpeAnpwrITn CBna Mea M Iyts3atema


FigureFigure 3. District ofAltaiski Krai surcharge. Note tsurchat "Altaiskii" is split fro "Krai/6 rub43k.
.^ 2 ^ g laz.. ....... J^ ^ ..- l








GCYMNOCALYCSIUIM SAQUONE
rHMHoWHW4YM no HIAEHH CAMHO









nHuHnTe HajIcK npemnpHTHR CBH3M MCC-Ta H83H84eH---


Figure 3. District ofAltaiskii Krai surcharge. Note that "Altaiskii" is splitfrom "Krai/6 rub. "

76 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994







President's Corner

We have received a significant number of the new emerging countries. Ships, planes and the
completed questionnaires from ourRossica mem- development of transportation. All illustrated
bers concerning their collecting interests. Those with stamps. Our members who have lived and
of you who have not completed this form, please studied in the former Soviet Union should be able
do so. If you have misplaced it during the interim, to add considerably to our understanding and
please contact the Treasurer. The information interpretation of Russian philately. We should
obtained from the respondents is already helping get some of these things into print and expand the
some of our members in their contacts and we are breadth and diversity of our journal. Further, we
in the process of constructing a profile of our should begin to include articles that stimulate
members which should help in channeling the members and lead to discussions. To those of you
direction of the Society and our Journal in the who have considered writing, but feel inadequate
years ahead. I view this information and the in your knowledge, do not be deterred. Expertise
continued improvement in our journal as the may not run as deep as you may think. We all
most significant accomplishments of our Society need to grow and expand our horizons. Writing
during the past 3 years, about your collecting interests and exhibiting
I would be remiss if I did not comment on the will be rewarded in unsuspecting ways. I firmly
efforts of our members who have been exhibiting believe that more generalist and "story-telling"
their material at our national meetings during this articles will enhance the interest to most of our
period. The concentration of Russian material at members here and abroad.
these events has served to strengthen the prestige In this final message of my Presidency, I
of our Society in the philatelic community and would like to stress that more of you should try to
has served to broaden the philatelic horizons of participate in the Society's activities. I would
the viewers and philatelic judges alike. I hope strongly suggest that each of you look over our
many of you will participate in exhibiting in the membership list. Try to develop a regional Ros-
years ahead. Our new Rossica award for the best sica network and a camaraderie; perhaps you
Russian exhibit at a national APS exhibition could help form a local or regional Rossica chap-
represents a new endeavor for the Society to ter in your locale. Further, I encourage each of
further Russian philately and its recognition. you to attend one of the Rossica national meet-
A significant number of our members are ings held in conjunction with the APS sponsored
generalists and interested in stamps rather than exhibitions. The site of the national Rossica
covers and postal history. Therefore, I urge some meeting and chapter meeting are announced in
of.you to consider writing some non-technical the philatelic press and in our Rossica newsletter.
articles for the Rossica journal. Stories about In recent years, the meetings included philatelic
stamps and the commemorative events surround- talks complimented by a number of Russian/
ing some of these issues can prove intriguing for Russian-related exhibits. The sites now being
our readers. We need more articles that would chosen for our meetings have been selected for
interest the generalist and point him along new their central locations, quality of the APS exhibi-
and unexplored channels of collecting and study. tion and concentrations of our membership. The
Such articles need not require great philatelic APS exhibition committees have been requested
expertise, but expound on the fun in philately. to seek stamp/cover dealers of Russian/Russian-
Topical articles could include regional perspec- related material to stimulate the Russian philat-
tives of the country from the Far North to the elists' attendance.
southern deserts, the peoples and places in differ- It is with confidence that I turn over the
ent geographic locales, scientific discoveries, the stewardship of our Society in the years ahead to
wildlife, and even social and economic develop- our new President-Elect, Dave Skipton.
ments in the former Soviet Union and now the
Rossica Journal Number 123 77
October 1994










Who Are We?


by Gary Combs

To the 98 people who have thus far responded The membership profile yields some very
to the Rossica questionnaire, thank you! Already interesting information which I shall briefly try
the information has been put to good use and to capture here. All information is based solely
many members have made contact with people on the questionnaires returned and previously
they did not know collected the same material, known information about those members. No
The list aided me in the preparation of this jour- information is included relative to members who
nal, as well as answering many letters requesting have not sent in the questionnaire.
information. To those who have not yet returned The average age of a Rossica member is 54.5
the questionnaire, please do. It can only benefit years. The average occupation is "retired." The
you. average collector collects primarily stamps, lists
Rossica is a Society which is almost 70 years himself/herself as both a beginner and specialist,
old, and one in which some of the. greatest Rus- and has been collecting for over 20 years. Here a
sian philatelists of this century have been and still question must be asked. How can you collect
are contributing members. Our Library is practi- something for over 20 years and be a beginner?
cally unequaled in the Western world. Our jour- The following chart summarizes information
nal is highly respected in the international phila- gleaned from the questionnaire. The wealth and
telic community with sufficient awards to attest depth of information is excellent and very benefi-
to that fact. But WHO ARE WE? cial to those who have responded. Have you?

Generic details from the Rossica questionnaire.
Collecting Interests # Indicated Interest in #
General 20 Aerophilately 12
Specialist 38 Censorship 24
Both 40 Offices Abroad 26
Inflation Period 27
Collect Stamps Zemstvos 23
Primary 49 Arctic/Antarctic 13
Secondary 15 Military 23
Indicated an interest 22 Labels/Cinderellas 22
Revenue 17
Collect Covers
Primary 33 Collect Empire 83
Secondary 20 Collect Civil War 69
Indicated an interest 22 Collect Inflation Era 52
Collect Soviet Era 68
Collect Postal History
Primary 34 Collect Post Soviet 41
Secondary 16 Collect New States 15
Indicated an interest 19 Collect Other Countries 39

Collect Postcards Exhibited
Primary 11 Have Exhibited 41
Secondary 19 Exhibited Locally 34
Indicated an interest 13 Exhibited Nationally 27
Exhibited Internationally 16
Collect Cancels
Primary 17 APS Judge 2
Secondary 20 FIP Judge 1
Indicated an interest 10
Native language is English 81
Written philatelic articles 26 Read Russian 13
Written other articles 28 Willing to translate 8

78 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Membership Status

Our membership now stands at 368-23 new 1534 Francis T. Hartnett, Jr.
tentative members since the April Journal! The 10 Tempo Road
new applicants are heartily welcomed and, if you Levittown PA 19056-1502, USA
happen to live near one, personally welcome that 1535 William J. LaQuey V
person to our favorite hobby. P.O. Box 1673
Please review the list of names. If for any Groves TX 77619, USA
reason you feel that an individual should not be 1536 Eric Balkan
granted full membership, please write the Trea- 14704 Seneca Castle Ct.
surer with your reasons. If no negative comments Gaithersburg MD 20878, USA
are received on the individuals listed below by 1537 Paula G. Lemke
31 January 1995, they will be granted full mem- 1684 Walnut Road
bership status. Las Vegas NV 89115, USA
1538 Ernestine M. McMillan
The new applicants are: Rosecff Drve
8965 Rosecliff Drive
Dallas TX 75217, USA
1525 Frank C. Stoddard Dallas TX 75217 USA
45 Epping Street 1539 Keith Moore
8101 E. Dartmouth #28
E. Weymouth MA 02189, USA101 E rtm th #28
1526 Robert G. Beeson Denver CO 80231, USA
1540 Don Powell
7414 Abington Way, The Heather 1540 Donowe
1374 Ida Avenue
Brooksville FL 34613-5123, USA 1374 Ida Avenue
1527 BradGougeon Columbus OH 43212-2908, USA
1541 Paolo Bianchi
2546 Reynoldsburg-New Albany Road 1541 PaoloBianchi
Blacklick OH 43004, USA via Lorenzo Mascheroni, 11
Blacklick OH 43004, USA
1528 Floyd J. Dressel 20145 Milano Italy
652 Devonshire 1542 Michael E. Lynch
Belleville IL 62223, USA Rua Marques da Silva, 3d
1529 Albert E. Graham 1200 Lisbon Portugal
4069 Wellspring Road 1543 Robert S. Kirich
4069 Wellspring Road
La Plata MD 20646, USA 151 Valley Park Drive
1530 William M. Brooks Turtle Creek PA 15145-1663, USA
M&W Brooks 1544 Alex Brodsky
P.O. Box 630218 Q-Stamps
83-44 Lefferts Blvd., 6E
Spuyten Duyvil Sta. (Kappock St.) 83J 4 LeffeNtsBlvd, 6E
Riverdale NY 10463, USA Jamaica NY 11415-2566, USA
Riverdale NY 10463, USA
1531 Douglas L. Keahl 1545 Virginia Eisenstein
9 Westbury Court 1607 Elizabeth Road
Ann Arbor MI 48105, USA State College PA 16801, USA
Ann Arbor MI 48105, USAIV
1532 Rev. John R. Tollan 1546 James A. Hill IV
Holy Cross College 158 Westgate Drive
P.O. Box 49 Rochester NY 14617-4113, USA
Mosgiel, New Zealand 1547 John Wasyl Bodnar
1533 Dan R. Toomey 81 Euston Terrace
P.O. Box 157 West Croydon S.A. 5008 Australia
West Fork AR 72774 All applicants listed in the April Journal have
been granted full membership.
Rossica Journal Number 123 79
October 1994









Member-to-Member Adlets Wanted: To buy/trade/sell material from
Ukraine, Carpatho-Ukraine, and West-
Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans- e Ukraine; stamps, covers, postcards,
actions resulting from member responses to adlets docum o r sta hsor, ci ls,
documents, other postal history, cinderellas,
nor get involved with mediating disputes. Mem- r ,
banknotes, etc.-all periods. Collections espe-
bers are cautioned to be fair in offering and in cal wnted. lar ai of du licte
cially wanted. A large quantity of duplicate
responding. Any material considered to be of y g q y
Material available from my collection. Please
value by the sender sent through the mails should a on.
contact: Ron Zelonka, 1274 Monks Passage,
be insured or registered for your own protection. aklle Ontao, Canaa LM
Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6M 1R4.
The regulations and prices are as follows:
Member adlets are free with the follow-
"ig limitatis: they must. t exee 0 I wish to contact any members interested in
ing limitations: they must not exceed 480 P i e
characters. A character is defined as a Local Post issues of ex-USSR emerging
letter, number, space, or punctuation countries. My emphasis is on establishing reli-
mark. The member's name and address able documentation and verification of these
are NOT included in this 480-character issues, and unbiased reporting in stamp publica-
limitation. tions. If you wish to exchange ideas or have
"* For adlets that exceed the 480-character suggestions, please contact: Barry Keane, 13255
limitation, the price is 10 cents per word, Reliance St., Arletta CA 91331, USA.
no matter how long the word may be.
"* Each adlet must include the name and FOR SALE:
address of the member placing the ad. 1. Yamshchik (The Post Rider), #1-30 com-
"* No dealer ads will be accepted as adlets. plete, $150.
The journal makes other provisions for 2. Rossica Journal, #62-91 complete, $150.
strictly commercial advertisements. 3. E.S. Voikhanskii, Postage Stamps of
"* Adlet service is available to Rossica Azerbaijan, Baku, 1971 (in Russian), $50.
members only. 4. S. Blekhman, History of the Post and Post-
"* All adlets exceeding the 480-character age Stamps of Tuva, Moscow, 1976 (in
limitation must be accompanied by a Russian), $50.
check for the correct amount made out to 5. Official Guide to Railway, Water, and Other
the Rossica Society. Passenger Transport, Moscow, 1947 (in Rus-
"* Adlets for the April journal must reach sian, with timetables and folding map showing
the Editor by 15 February. routes), $100.
"* Adlets for the Octoberjournal must reach 6. Atlas of Finland, Helsinki, 1923 (with 54
the Editor by 15 August. colored maps and index), $75
"* Mail all adlets and checks to: 7. The Postage Stamps oflmperialRussia, Paris,
1964 (Cercle Philatelique catalog, in French),
Rossica $20.
c/o Gary A. Combs 8. The Postage Stamps of the USSR: 1917-
8241 Chalet Court 1941, Paris, 1969 (Cercle Philatelique catalog,
Millersville MD 21108 in French), $20.
USA 9. The Postal History of the AEF: 1917-1923,
1980, $10.
W : MW c ions prior to 10. K. Tranmer, Austro-Hungarian APOs:
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to
1914-1918, 1973, $35.
1918 for research article. On cover, loose stamps R. Hosking, Paquebot Cancellations of the
orCSQ. Sendxerox orphoto. Gary Combs, 8241 World, 1977, $45. Howard Weinert, 7104
Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108, USA. Oxord d, Balore M USA.
Oxford Rd., Baltimore MD 21212, USA.
80 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








Wanted: SOVIET GEORGIAN covers Wanted: Romanov stamps and stationery used
from 1924-c. 1945. Please contact Peter in 1913, also covers with cancels that include
Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL posthorns, except Moscow. Please contact M.
61821, USA. Ercolini, Box 778, Daly City CA 94017, USA.

Wanted: Donation of books relating to the INFORMATION SOUGHT about current
history of Europe, Russia, and/or USSR, to be whereabouts of strip of 3 essays for an unissued
used for research purposes by the Veterans Li- 7-kop. stamp in the Vladivostok set. Last seen in
brary and Research Institute, a nonprofit Chenakalo collection and Robson Lowe auction
organization. All donors will receive appropriate in London. Please contact I.J. Steyn, Postbus
acknowledgments for their generosity. Dona- 16636, 1001 RC Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
tions to a nonprofit organization are normally
tax-deductible. Senddonations c/o AlbertaCurtis, Wanted: Soviet Postal Stationery catalogs;
P.O. Box 476, Wallace SC 29596, USA. Markirovannye Konverty SSSR 1926-1982
(Moscow 1986, 94 p.), and/or Markirovannye
Wanted: Pochtovye Kartochki SSSR 1923-1979 (Mos-
1) Bugulma Zemstvo 1-38 numeral over- cow 1982, 109 p.). Please contact Paul Eckman,
prints. Any issue. Mint or used. Single or 620North HooverStreet, Los Angeles CA 90004,
multiples. Doubles, triples, and other over- USA.
print varieties of particular interest. Would
also like to correspond with other collectors Many members will remember the useful Rus-
of these issues. sian railway atlas "The Railways of Russia" of
2) Bugulma Zemstvo Chuchin #8, 11, 15 & 1917 which I reprinted three years ago. The
16 in full sheets or blocks of any size. reprint was based on an incomplete copy of the
3) Wish to correspond with anyone having or atlas, in that Maps IV and IVa were missing. I can
knowing the whereabouts of a complete or now supply copies of the missing maps, free of
partial copy of the Schmidt & Faberge charge, to purchasers of the reprint. Members
within the United Kingdom may send a stamped
Zemstvo catalog of 1907-1916. It ap- addressed envelope; others need only send an
peared in 20 sections comprising two volumes envelope; an international reply coupon or US $1
of more than 800 pages and covered the bill would be appreciated, though not essential.
districts Akhtyrka to Luga. Please send to Philip E. Robinson, 2 Rydalhurst
Avenue, Sheffield S6 4BG, United Kingdom.
Please write: Pat Eppel, 108 Pinewood Circle, Avenue, Sheffield S6 4BG, United Kingdom.
Apple Valley MN 55124, USA.

Wanted: OSTARBEITER MAIL. Dur-
ing WWII, the Nazis used workers from the
Soviet Union and called them OSTARBEITERS-
Eastern Workers. I will gladly buy covers, post-
cards, Ostarbeiter cloth patches, or related mate-
rial. Send offer (with photocopy or preferably a
photo) to: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road,
Vestal NY 13850-3246, USA.




Rossica Journal Number 123 81
October 1994









In the Back Room Publication Agreement
Between Rossica and
We have a limited number of back issues of IHJIaTeJIH5I
thejournal for sale, both in English and Russian-
language editions. Russian editions available are
For over a decade Rossica had an agreement
numbers 44-69; English editions available are
with qbHfATEflHI CCCP, in which both parties
numbers 69-119. Unfortunately, there are many wh A C which oth re
holes, and some issues have less than 3 in stock. were peitte to publish ree each other's
articles with appropriate references given.
Prices listed for back issues are in US dollars and ith appop e eeenes gien.
With the breakup of the Soviet Union we felt
include "Surface Postage." it necessary to conclude a new agreement with
S e i : the successor organization MHJlATEJIHMI-
Single issue:
Filateliya. However, how exactly to accomplish
Member-7.50 Non-Member-10.00 this eluded us for several years.
Our Secretary, George Werbizky, was plan-
e i s c y a e a: ning a business trip to Russia and agreed to stop
Single issues currently available are:
44-45,48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, in Moscow to consummate an agreement. George
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85,
88-89, 92 1 115-122 was given the necessary permission and papers
88-89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-122
with which to accomplish this task.
Double issue: Preliminary contact was made with Mr.
Arkadii Yakovlevich Pevzner, Research Editor
Member-15.00 Non-Member-2000 of Filateliya, without whose help this would not
Member-15.00 Non-Member-20.00
have been possible. Mr. Pevzner arranged a meet-
availae a: ing between George and Mr. Vladimir
Double issues currently available are:
46-47,76-77,86-87,94-9596-97,98-99, Aleksandrovich Talanov, Deputy Editor in Chief
100-101,102-103, 104-105, 106-107, of Filateliya. An agreement was quickly reached
108-10, 113- 114. and a translation of the document appears below.
108-109, 113-114.
Moscow 4 July 1994
Back issues may be obtained from: AGREEMENT

Gary A. Combs The Editorial boards of Filateliya (Russia) and the
8241 Chalet Court Rossica Society of Russian Philately (USA) have
Millersville MD 21108 concluded this agreement, which enables either board
to publish freely the works of the other with proper
USA reference to source. This agreement is in force from
the moment of its signing until one of the parties
decides to terminate the agreement.

(signed)

for/ Yu. Bekhterev, Editor in Chief "Filateliya,"
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Talanov.

Rossica Society of Russian Philately, George G.
Werbizky, Secretary.

We owe a great deal to George and especially
Mr. Pevzner.

82 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









In the Back Room Publication Agreement
Between Rossica and
We have a limited number of back issues of IHJIaTeJIH5I
thejournal for sale, both in English and Russian-
language editions. Russian editions available are
For over a decade Rossica had an agreement
numbers 44-69; English editions available are
with qbHfATEflHI CCCP, in which both parties
numbers 69-119. Unfortunately, there are many wh A C which oth re
holes, and some issues have less than 3 in stock. were peitte to publish ree each other's
articles with appropriate references given.
Prices listed for back issues are in US dollars and ith appop e eeenes gien.
With the breakup of the Soviet Union we felt
include "Surface Postage." it necessary to conclude a new agreement with
S e i : the successor organization MHJlATEJIHMI-
Single issue:
Filateliya. However, how exactly to accomplish
Member-7.50 Non-Member-10.00 this eluded us for several years.
Our Secretary, George Werbizky, was plan-
e i s c y a e a: ning a business trip to Russia and agreed to stop
Single issues currently available are:
44-45,48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, in Moscow to consummate an agreement. George
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85,
88-89, 92 1 115-122 was given the necessary permission and papers
88-89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-122
with which to accomplish this task.
Double issue: Preliminary contact was made with Mr.
Arkadii Yakovlevich Pevzner, Research Editor
Member-15.00 Non-Member-2000 of Filateliya, without whose help this would not
Member-15.00 Non-Member-20.00
have been possible. Mr. Pevzner arranged a meet-
availae a: ing between George and Mr. Vladimir
Double issues currently available are:
46-47,76-77,86-87,94-9596-97,98-99, Aleksandrovich Talanov, Deputy Editor in Chief
100-101,102-103, 104-105, 106-107, of Filateliya. An agreement was quickly reached
108-10, 113- 114. and a translation of the document appears below.
108-109, 113-114.
Moscow 4 July 1994
Back issues may be obtained from: AGREEMENT

Gary A. Combs The Editorial boards of Filateliya (Russia) and the
8241 Chalet Court Rossica Society of Russian Philately (USA) have
Millersville MD 21108 concluded this agreement, which enables either board
to publish freely the works of the other with proper
USA reference to source. This agreement is in force from
the moment of its signing until one of the parties
decides to terminate the agreement.

(signed)

for/ Yu. Bekhterev, Editor in Chief "Filateliya,"
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Talanov.

Rossica Society of Russian Philately, George G.
Werbizky, Secretary.

We owe a great deal to George and especially
Mr. Pevzner.

82 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994










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Rossica Journal Number 123 83
October 1994









The Rossica Library

by Dave Skipton

This is my last article and last year as Rossica policy. Practically from the start, $300 a year was
Librarian. After almost a decade and a half, it is set aside to purchase books and copies, and when
time to let someone else mind the store. It has something truly outstanding came along, permis-
been an honor to serve the Society, and I look sion was often given to exceed the budget.
forward to working with the new Librarian as the "Job 2" consists of recording the results of
stacks continue to grow. "Job 1." No research other than empirical can be
Since 1980, "Job 1" has been the expansion conducted if sources are lacking, but just having
of the Society's holdings. The intent was to form those sources isn't enough. For that, a library
a library capable of sustaining university-level subject index is necessary. The more successful
research on matters postal in at least the Imperial "Job 1" is, the harder "Job 2" becomes. The first
and Soviet periods. To that end, an aggressive RossicaLibrary SubjectIndex, published in 1994,
acquisition program was pursued. Wheneverthere contained approximately 10,600 titles, and re-
was a chance to obtain a copy of an original item quired five years (and one false start) to com-
(i.e., an actual Russian/Soviet postal publica- plete. The first supplement to that index, (let's
tion), funds willing, it was done. Microfilms, call it "Mark II"), is already over 2,000 entries
photocopies, and copyflo came in from around and growing rapidly. When it reaches the size of
the world, ranging from the 1777 Ruban postal the first index, it too will be made available to the
guide to the latest "Novosti filatelii" put out by membership.
the Russian Ministry of Communications. What The explosion in the number of Russian phila-
we have now is one of the two greatest concentra- telic journals since the breakup of the Soviet
tions of Russian philatelic literature in the West; Union almost guarantees that no complete, com-
only the British Society of Russian Philately's prehensive subject index of the Rossica library
library rivals it. (In terms of sheer numbers of will ever exist. It is a flood of new titles. Add to
titles, the library of Congress and several other that
major Western libraries probably have more, but
their holdings are scattered over many different the new books and monographs (a steady
shelves, rooms and buildings.) It is that concen- stream),
tration which makes the Rossica library such a a variety of stamp catalogs, most of which
precious resource, are published on a yearly basis, and
There were (and are) three aspects to this all the titles published years ago, but
program, with each one paying off handsomely, which we've been unable to find or pur-
First was outright purchase, or library loan fol- chase (a veritable ocean!)
lowed by photocopying or microfilming. Second
was exchange programs with a fair and growing and you will begin to understand the daunting
number of other societies; this allowed us to task facing any future Rossica Librarian.
obtain journals and magazines from foreign or- "Job 3" is making this library available to the
ganizations with the same or similar pursuits. membership: mailing out library loans, running
Third was donations from members and friends off photocopies of items that can't be mailed out,
of the Society. responding to member requests, and arranging
This program was made possible by Gordon the physical storage so that items can be found
Torrey and Norman Epstein, who committed upon request. Our next Librarian, Andy Medwid,
themselves to funding it, and by Adolph has been performing this task since 1993, and has
Ackerman and Gary Combs, who continued the done an outstanding job. Andy will continue to

84 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









take over more and more of the Library's mate- But, if despite all that the library is to be
rials as I continue to update the Subject Index. expected to contribute monetarily to the Trea-
And now a few words about what the library sury, consider this: the Bazilevich translation
is, and is not. was produced from a Rossica-Library photo-
copy of the original Russian. To date, the
1) It IS the tangible repository of the Society's co o the original ussian o ate t
knowledge. (Collectively, the members Bazilevich translation has brought in several
knowledge. (Collectively, the members
themselves know much of the information thousand dollars to the Society's Treasury. And
themselves know much of the information
there's the Reverse Sort, compiled from postal
the library holds, but certainly not all of it. a g .
lists and guides in the Library. That has ac-
Members, though, will not always be mem-
Soncounted for several hundred dollars. Peter
bers, but barring fire, flood, or theft, the
br, ain. the Michalove's outstanding "Philatelist's Guide to
library will remain.) I have likened the
library to the "ciets memory." With- Maps, Atlases and Gazetteers" incorporated some
library to the "Society's memory." With- .
i, iSo y items from the Library. All of these publications
out it, we as a Society will not only lose a continue to earn money for Rossica.
continue to earn money for Rossica.
massive amount of philatelic data, we run
the risk of forgetting what we are, where we 3 i -
have been and what we have done. We 3)It IS designed to support both the member-
have been and what we have dn. We ship and the Journal. Rossica exists to dis-
started life in 1929 as a Russian 6migr seminate information about Russian and
seminate information about Russian and
collectors' society, run by White officers. related-areas philately. It does that through
related-areas philately. It does that through
The Society got chased from pillar to post e B i
the Journal, the Bulletin, its other publica-
by Bolsheviks, Nazis, and Japanese; some
S s a tions, and through its Library. From Ros-
members lost their lives, and many more
mem s lt tr ad my me sica Journal #115 (Oct. 1990) to #120 (Apr.
lost collections and philatelic libraries. Due 9 ,
1993), the library contributed in part or in
in large part to the upheavals of the 1930s ws' w W
whole to over 90 pages' worth. Who knows
and 1940s, the Society gradually lost its m,
what future articles, monographs, and books
Russian composition, until today only one w b g f
will be generated from library material?
currently-serving officer was born there.
The majority of the membership neither It has been pointed out that barely 10% of the
speaks nor reads Russian, and today's of- membership use the library each year, so why
ficers are all Americans. That is a tremen- keep a library? Well, the answer is Point 2 above.
dous evolution from 1929 to 1994, and You do not need 50% or 75% of the Society to
much of its record is here, in the archives of produce a good, solid piece of research that 50%
the library. Rossica has traditions and a or 75% of the membership will use. So what if
proud (albeit turbulent) history. Those are 90% of the Society DOES NOT use the library?
things worth saving. Discard that library, and the figure of non-users
will climb to 100%. It is there for all to use,
2) It is NOT designed to be a money maker. whether they choose to or not. (This past year, 23
It never has earned much, and it never will. members and 2 non-members used the library,
It contributes some money to the Society's and they accounted for approximately 151 titles
coffers, but there is no library in the world loaned out or copied. That is very close to the
that is fiscally self-sufficient. Without do- level of previous years.)
nations, grants, subsidies, and (especially) Another bone of contention has been that
volunteers, they would collapse. A money- well over 50% of the titles on the shelves are in

making library is a contradiction in terms,- Russian, yet much less than half of the member-
because no one can put a price on knowl- ship can read it, so why collect Russian sources
edge. The more you charge for that infor- so aggressively? The answers are in these ques-
mation, the fewer people are able or willing tions: Shall we then condemn ourselves to hand-
to avail themselves of it. me-downs from the research of others, and limit
Rossica Journal Number 123 85
October 1994









ourselves to the occasional translation? Are we a Elections
society that deals with RUSSIAN philately, or The votes have been cast and the results are
not? Many of the seminal articles written by in! The number of members who took the time to
Russian-reading authors were produced from cast their ballot totaled 146. This is the highest
RUSSIAN sources, not English. If all benefit number to vote in any Rossica election.
from the research of the few, it would be counter- The following list officially represents the
productive to keep the few from researching results of the election. The number of votes cast
Russian sources, for each candidate is not listed per request from
I would like to express my appreciation and Adolph. Anybody wishing to know the actual
thanks to a lot of people for their support of the count mustrequestthisinformation fromAdolph.
library over the past year. In alphabetical order Effective 1 January 1995 the following officers
they are: Paul Blake, Gary Combs, Leon Finik, will lead the Society for the next three years:
Raimundas Lapas, Peter Michalove, Mike Renfro,
Ged Seiflow, Ivo Steyn, Gordon Torrey, Denys President Dave Skipton
Voaden, Howard Weinert, George Werbizky, Vice President Peter Michalove
Dave White, and Greg Whitt. Special thanks and Secretary George Werbizky
best of luck to Andy Medwid-if he receives the Treasurer Gary Combs
same generous support as I did, he will be well Librarian Andy Medwid
served indeed. Chairman, Audit Webster Stickney
Committee
Board of Directors: Adolph Ackerman
Rossica Awards John Barefoot
Gordon Torrey
Do you have a Russian collection you've
been keeping under wraps for years? Why not To all the participants in this election a thank
exhibit it for others to enjoy too? you is in order. Without the active support of the
Ifyou'vebeentomanynational-levelshows, membership in all aspects of the election, it
you know that Russian exhibits are generally would not be possible to select democratically
under-represented (to put it mildly). Exhibiting individuals to lead the Society. THANKS.
is a fun way to get involved and help spread the Special thanks go to Steve Alushin, who
word about Russian philately. volunteered to be the counter of the ballots.
Our Society now sponsors two awards to Steve, being an exceptionally organized person,
encourage Russian-area exhibits. One, the Ros- kept meticulous records which will be placed in
sica Award, is given at all nationally-accredited the archives. Thanks, Steve for a job exception-
shows for the best exhibit of Russian-area philat- ally well done!
ely. Exhibits must receive a vermeil or better to The next election will be held in 1997 and the
qualify for the Rossica Award. officers elected will officially take charge of the
The Rossica President's Award is given at Society on 1 January 1998.
national-level shows that host Rossica national
or chapter meetings. The award is given on the U
basis of imagination, innovation, and eye-ap-
peal. Exhibits receiving gold awards do not qualify
for the President's Award. This award is to stimu-
late new and innovative Russian-area exhibitors
to prepare exhibits that open new roads in exhib-
iting or attract the viewer's attention and com-
ments.

86 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









ourselves to the occasional translation? Are we a Elections
society that deals with RUSSIAN philately, or The votes have been cast and the results are
not? Many of the seminal articles written by in! The number of members who took the time to
Russian-reading authors were produced from cast their ballot totaled 146. This is the highest
RUSSIAN sources, not English. If all benefit number to vote in any Rossica election.
from the research of the few, it would be counter- The following list officially represents the
productive to keep the few from researching results of the election. The number of votes cast
Russian sources, for each candidate is not listed per request from
I would like to express my appreciation and Adolph. Anybody wishing to know the actual
thanks to a lot of people for their support of the count mustrequestthisinformation fromAdolph.
library over the past year. In alphabetical order Effective 1 January 1995 the following officers
they are: Paul Blake, Gary Combs, Leon Finik, will lead the Society for the next three years:
Raimundas Lapas, Peter Michalove, Mike Renfro,
Ged Seiflow, Ivo Steyn, Gordon Torrey, Denys President Dave Skipton
Voaden, Howard Weinert, George Werbizky, Vice President Peter Michalove
Dave White, and Greg Whitt. Special thanks and Secretary George Werbizky
best of luck to Andy Medwid-if he receives the Treasurer Gary Combs
same generous support as I did, he will be well Librarian Andy Medwid
served indeed. Chairman, Audit Webster Stickney
Committee
Board of Directors: Adolph Ackerman
Rossica Awards John Barefoot
Gordon Torrey
Do you have a Russian collection you've
been keeping under wraps for years? Why not To all the participants in this election a thank
exhibit it for others to enjoy too? you is in order. Without the active support of the
Ifyou'vebeentomanynational-levelshows, membership in all aspects of the election, it
you know that Russian exhibits are generally would not be possible to select democratically
under-represented (to put it mildly). Exhibiting individuals to lead the Society. THANKS.
is a fun way to get involved and help spread the Special thanks go to Steve Alushin, who
word about Russian philately. volunteered to be the counter of the ballots.
Our Society now sponsors two awards to Steve, being an exceptionally organized person,
encourage Russian-area exhibits. One, the Ros- kept meticulous records which will be placed in
sica Award, is given at all nationally-accredited the archives. Thanks, Steve for a job exception-
shows for the best exhibit of Russian-area philat- ally well done!
ely. Exhibits must receive a vermeil or better to The next election will be held in 1997 and the
qualify for the Rossica Award. officers elected will officially take charge of the
The Rossica President's Award is given at Society on 1 January 1998.
national-level shows that host Rossica national
or chapter meetings. The award is given on the U
basis of imagination, innovation, and eye-ap-
peal. Exhibits receiving gold awards do not qualify
for the President's Award. This award is to stimu-
late new and innovative Russian-area exhibitors
to prepare exhibits that open new roads in exhib-
iting or attract the viewer's attention and com-
ments.

86 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994









Expertization Reviews

One of the privileges of membership in Ros- 5IMIMHK The Post Rider, No. 34, June
sica is one free expertization per membership 1994. The Canadian Society of Russian Philat-
year. Policy on these free expertizations is as ely, Box 5722 Station 'A,' Toronto, Ontario,
follows: Canada M5W 1P2, Editor A. Cronin.

"* Only one free expertization per mem- This issue contains:
bership year. An outstanding Editorial by Andy Cronin;
"* The privilege must be used during the The Life &Times of Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov,
membership year. It cannot be accu- by Ya. Afangulskii;
mulated. The service was begun in the This most monstrous atrocity, by Andy Cronin;
1978 membership year, andprior mem- Gor'kii and the Red Ants, by P.J. Campbell;
bership in the Society has no bearing. Philatelic Irredentism in our Sphere, by Andy
"* The item must be submitted on an offi- Cronin;
cial expertization form available from The Fiscal Stamps of the Russian Zone on Crete,
Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey. by Andreas Mitakis;
"* Return postage must be included. Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos, by Alex
"* Only one item per expertization form. Artuchov;
Russian Postal Mail from Roumania (1916-
Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this 1918), by Alexander Epstein;
service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs, Observations on the Postal Rates in the Ukraine
or the Chairman of the Expertization Committee, 1918-1920 (Corrigenda), by Alexander
Gordon Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 Epstein;
1/2") SASE for an expertization form. When Oval Railway Postmarks-VI, By Rabbi L.L.
submitting material for expertization, the owner Tann;
must provide return postage to include insurance Mail to"Der Staats-Anzeiger" in Bismarck, North
costs, if desired, for the material. Items will be Dakota, by Matt Hedley and Andy Cronin;
evaluated by Rossica members specializing in
the various aspects of Russian philately. and the usual interesting material at the back of
Members with items to expertize the issue.
should forward the completed form to
Gordon Torrey whose a eted f Another fine issue from our friends to the
Sw North. I am beginning to think it is not what does
on the officer's page. Andy know, rather what does he not know!
Since we occasionally have to send items to
more than one member for an opinion, please
allow at least six weeks before inquiring about
the status of an item submitted. Items are looked
at on a first come, first serve basis.









Rossica Journal Number 123 87
October 1994









Expertization Reviews

One of the privileges of membership in Ros- 5IMIMHK The Post Rider, No. 34, June
sica is one free expertization per membership 1994. The Canadian Society of Russian Philat-
year. Policy on these free expertizations is as ely, Box 5722 Station 'A,' Toronto, Ontario,
follows: Canada M5W 1P2, Editor A. Cronin.

"* Only one free expertization per mem- This issue contains:
bership year. An outstanding Editorial by Andy Cronin;
"* The privilege must be used during the The Life &Times of Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov,
membership year. It cannot be accu- by Ya. Afangulskii;
mulated. The service was begun in the This most monstrous atrocity, by Andy Cronin;
1978 membership year, andprior mem- Gor'kii and the Red Ants, by P.J. Campbell;
bership in the Society has no bearing. Philatelic Irredentism in our Sphere, by Andy
"* The item must be submitted on an offi- Cronin;
cial expertization form available from The Fiscal Stamps of the Russian Zone on Crete,
Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey. by Andreas Mitakis;
"* Return postage must be included. Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos, by Alex
"* Only one item per expertization form. Artuchov;
Russian Postal Mail from Roumania (1916-
Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this 1918), by Alexander Epstein;
service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs, Observations on the Postal Rates in the Ukraine
or the Chairman of the Expertization Committee, 1918-1920 (Corrigenda), by Alexander
Gordon Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9 Epstein;
1/2") SASE for an expertization form. When Oval Railway Postmarks-VI, By Rabbi L.L.
submitting material for expertization, the owner Tann;
must provide return postage to include insurance Mail to"Der Staats-Anzeiger" in Bismarck, North
costs, if desired, for the material. Items will be Dakota, by Matt Hedley and Andy Cronin;
evaluated by Rossica members specializing in
the various aspects of Russian philately. and the usual interesting material at the back of
Members with items to expertize the issue.
should forward the completed form to
Gordon Torrey whose a eted f Another fine issue from our friends to the
Sw North. I am beginning to think it is not what does
on the officer's page. Andy know, rather what does he not know!
Since we occasionally have to send items to
more than one member for an opinion, please
allow at least six weeks before inquiring about
the status of an item submitted. Items are looked
at on a first come, first serve basis.









Rossica Journal Number 123 87
October 1994









The British Journal of Russian Philately, "WAR DATES 1911-1950" by Theo. Van
No. 76, publication of the British Society of Dam. A geographical and chronological listing
Russian Philately, June 1994, Editor I. Steyn. of wars, majorcampaigns, occupations, andnewly
established nations before and after World Wars
Anotherexcellent issue from across the pond! I and II up to the Korean War. 138 country
How do you do it Ivo, what with a thesis and listings, over 1250 dates, 11 Maps, Index, two
several philatelic events all at the same time? Appendices. Soft cover, 80pages-Price: $13.00
P.E. Robinson continues his extraordinary postpaid in the USA and Canada. Overseas $2.00
efforts to have at least one of every postmark ever extra. Available from: Postal Covers, P.O. Box
created in Siberia. He adds some excellent ones 8809P, Anaheim CA 92812-0809
in this issue.
George Miskin revisits the 1899 registration When researching covers that pertain to a
labels (see Rossica #121, not referenced here) specific conflict or war, it is very important to be
with a superb showing of labels from St. Peters- aware of the exact dates of the beginning and the
burg. It was good to see another article on the end of the hostilities, the day an area was occu-
subject. pied by opposing forces and when new nations
Jack Moyes finally started to write up his emerged from the fray.
extensive collection of revenues. This is a topic For example: a letter from France to Ger-
that has been missing for years. Thanks Jack. many, postmarked September 3rd 1914, may not
A translation of an article originally appear- be too important at first glance, but the marking
ing in Kirovskaya Pravda by Ya. Khranilov "Service Suspended" indicates the outbreak of
captures the imagination of a collector interested World War I. Similarly, a cover dated December
in how the censors worked in Vyatka Province 7th 1941 "the Day of Infamy," when the Japanese
during WWI. bombed Pearl Harbor becomes a significant sign
Alexander Epstein (the indefatigable) pro- of the times.
vides a most welcome article on the Chainbreaker But, there are less obvious examples, such as
issue. Nice research work here! covers from the Balkan and Baltic countries,
Ivo provides a reworked translation of an during both wars, when borders were shifting
article by D. Kuznetsov which originally ap- constantly; the Free French takeover of the French
peared in Sovetskii Kollektsioner No. 19, 1981, Colonies ruled by the Vichy Government; the
on "Rates for parcels and money orders, 1917- struggle for independence of Indonesia, just to
1923." He includes some nice examples from his mention a few. Also, when did countries like
private collection. Carpatho Ukraine, Hatay, the South Moluccan
Ivo continues his outstanding series "Current Republic become independent and how long did
events in the F.S.U.," which deals with the situ- their independence last?
ation regarding philately. He illustrates several To fill this need "War Dates" gives a compre-
stamps and covers. He finishes the article dis- hensive coverage of a forty year period, starting
cussing the currency reforms in the newly estab- with the Italian-Turkish War of 1911 and the
lished countries. Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, through World War
As usual, an excellent issue of the journal I and its aftermath (such as theTreaty of Versailles
with a little bit for everybody. The only "air" and the Plebiscites, Mandates, etc.). Then it lists
noticed was a mild breeze near the front of the the events of the "interim" period between the
journal. wars, such as the German occupation of Austria,
the "Sudeten Crisis," the conflicts in the Far East
leading up to World War II, starting with
Germany's invasion of Poland and its repercus-
sions up to the Korean War.

88 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








In each chapter the countries are listed alpha- Postage Stamps of the Former Republics
betically, the events are mentioned chronologi- of the USSR, a Catalog. Compiled and Edited
cally. The major Allied and Axis campaigns by V.A. Yakobs. "FilaRoss," Moscow, 1994.
follow their respective country listings. 160 pages. Price not included.
Appendix I gives an overview of the United
States interventions in Mexico, Cuba, the Do-
minican Republic, Nicaragua, and other Central -
American countries from 1912 until 1934. Ap- MAPKH
PECIIVGAHK
pendix II treats the major events and particulars E'hinimro ccCP
of the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ..,,
For the postal historian and the collector
seeking knowledge, this is highly recommended 199 4 -- .
addition to your bookshelf. Nice work, Theo! '' .



New Issue Photocopies
A very useful and timely catalog has just been
Bill Brooks methodically photocopies every published in Moscow by "FilaRoss." It is the first
stamp coming from any of the former Soviet systematic listing of officially issued stamps ot
Republics. His accumulation of pages containing the newly-formed republics, including the Baltic
these new issues is impressive. States. The catalog covers the years 1990-1993
Although some of the photocopies are hard to and is arranged according to the Cyrillic alpha-
see, the effort is a boon to collectors of the new bet. At the end of a section devoted to a republic,
republics. Mr. Brooks does not claim any of the a list of what the compiler considers to be fanta-
stamps are official or unofficial or fantasies, etc. sies is provided. For example, after Georgia there
He simply has amassed a set of photocopies of is a statement that various issues of Abkhasia do
everything made available to him as a dealer. The not meet the requirements for a valid issue. There
issue of "what is and what is not" is covered by is a similar statement after the Russian Republic
other sources. He includes official documents regarding the Chechen Republic.
received regarding any particular issue. At the beginning of the catalog, Soviet stamps
If you collect the new republics, or are study- are listed on which various republics placed
ing them, this is an indispensable work to assist surcharges. The last chapter is dedicated to com-
you in your efforts. It is not the final word, simply mon stamps issued in 1991 by the USSR Ministry
a piece of the puzzle and the price is right, of Communication and used in 1992-1993 by the
Individuals interested may order a copy of new republics.
the rather large accumulation by sending any All in all, a timely and useful publication. It
form of exchange which the bank will accept as also should be pointed out that PHJIA TEJIMHY
equivalent to US $25 to: (Philately), a Russian monthly publication de-
voted to philately, continues to list the new issues
William M. Brooks by republic, pointing out those that are consid-
M&W Brooks ered legitimate and those that are not. Certainly,
P.O. Box 630218 this series serves as a valuable and responsible
Spuyten Duyvil Sta. (Kappock St.) activity by a well-known publication.
Riverdale NY 10463
USA -George G. Werbizky


Rossica Journal Number 123 89
October 1994









Russian Railway Postmarks by A.V. "Nicholas I and the Russian Intervention in
Kiryushkin and P.E. Robinson. 180 pages, Hungary," by Ian W. Roberts. St. Martin's Press,
softbound. Price 20. Available from P.E. New York, 1991. Available at $45 from St.
Robinson, 2 Rydalhurst Avenue, Sheffield S6 Martin's Press, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New
4BG England. York, NY.

This eagerly awaited book is an absolute It is not often that non-philatelic works are
must for any collector of Imperial Russia, espe- reviewed in the Rossica Journal, especially sev-
RUSSIAN cially if they collect eral years after their publication. This one, how-
postmarks. The ever, deserves it. Rossica member Ian Roberts,
RAILWAY work is long over- an Honorary Visiting Fellow at the School of
POSTMA R KS due in the philatelic Slavonic and East European Studies, University
press and represents of London, has done an incredible amount of
a major work that digging in British, Austrian, and Finnish ar-
lwill last for years. chives to produce this handsome book.
This latest en- A lot of ground is covered in 10 chapters:
deavor by the au 1. Russian Reaction to the Revolutions of 1848;
thors lists over 2,600
theorists .over2,60 2. The Russian Intervention in the Danubian
postmarks with over Principalities;
2,000 illustrations.
BY 3. The October Revolution in Vienna and its
A.V. RYUSHKIN AND RE.ROBINSON All illustrations are
Aftermath;
based on actual ob- Atrah
d on a l o- 4. The Russian Intervention in Transylvania
servances of postmarks. Kiryushkin has done a and its Consequences;
and its Consequences;
marvelous job illustrating the examples!
marvelous job illustrating the examples 5. The Russian Decision to Intervene in Hun-
As a postal historian, I especially like the way
the subject is treated. Information presented is gary;
6. Russian Preparations for War;
factual and offers insight into official documents 7. T
7. The First Half of the Campaign;
not hitherto seen in the West.
t h o sn i t 8. The Second Half of the Campaign;
A superb job has been done listing the travel- 9 A
9. After the Surrender;
ing post offices. The compilation of much infor- 1. ,
10. The Aftermath of the Intervention, plus co-
mation is rendered in a very easy to read manner. te
pious notes and a select bibliography.
The "to pay" marks listed are enough to make
even the beginner drool uncontrollably. The list The first six chapters are devoted to the swirl
of railways is the first I have seen consolidated in of politics, intrigue, and military maneuvers lead-
one work. The maps are simply outstanding as is ing up to the Russian intervention of 1849. The
the section on the "non-railway 'VOKZAL'" mass of information gleaned from the correspon-
postmarks. dences of various players is impressive. Chapters
The only thing I might say that could be 7 and 8 illustrate well the actual intervention and
remotely construed as negative regards the valu- the constant bickering between the Russians and
ation guide. But that is a moot point when one Austrians as they fought the Hungarian rebels.
considers the fact some people like it and some A word of caution: readers who do not bring
people do not. You cannot win on this subject. a ready familiarity with the leading politicians
As an avid Moscow collector, I was a bit and leaders of the time will find it heavy going in
disappointed to see that St. Petersburg got a places. Like the intrigue itself, the international
better spot on the marquee, but I am rather cast of characters can be a bit bewildering.
prejudiced along those lines. This book is a must Impeccable research on a difficult topic, lu-
and I urge all collectors to buy one quickly cid writing, and a wealth of information make

90 Rossica Journal Number 123
October 1994








this an excellent companion book for anyone Ukrainian Philatelist, 1994, Vol. 42 No. 2(68).
who collects the postal history of this period, Published by the Ukrainian Philatelic and Nu-
especially mail between Russia and Western mismatic Society (UPNS). Available from Dr. I.
Europe. An interesting collection could be put Kuzych, P.O. Box 3, Springfield VA 22150,
together using this book as a foundation, al- USA.
though covers from the Russian side of the inter-
vention do not exactly grow on trees. This issue contains the following articles:
Our congratulations to Ian Roberts on his Trident Surcharge-Markings on Postal Statio-
scholarly work-recommended reading! nery in Ukraine, 1992-1994 by Lubomyr S.
-Dave Skipton Onyshkevych; Ukraine: Local Provisionals for
1992-1993 (Part II) by Hryhoriy Lobko; The
Aleksandria Zemstvo Stamp of 1870: A Partial
Solution by Mssrs. Spiwak, de Shramchenko,
Shishkin; A Review of Ukraine's 1993 Postage
IIOqTA The Journal of the Australia & New Stamp Issues by Ingert Kuzych; Ytriy Lohvyn-
Zealand Society of Russian Philately, Issue 16, Ukrainian Stamp Designer by Mssrs. Fessak,
July 1994, Editor Dr. Ross Marshall, P.O. Box 7, Kuzych, Zakharchenko; The Russian Occupa-
Otorohanga, New Zealand. tion of Lviv, 1914-1915 by Leonard Tann.
The UPNS continues to address the postal
In this issue the following articles are pre- situation in Ukraine. The research is excellent.
sented: The Moscow-San Francisco Flight via
the North Pole 1935 by Asdrubal Prado; Almost
Airmail (again) by George G. Werbizky; Russian
Advertising/Propaganda Labels by Robert Tay-
lor; Postmaster Provisionals-Chernigov by Ross Trident Visnyk, September-October 1994,
Marshall; An Uncommon Usage of 1st Statio- Vol. XXIII, No.64 (W/N 104). Newsletter of the
nery Postcard of USSR by A. Epstein; Expedi- Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society
tion Arktikos 1992 by Ross Marshall; Tupolev's (UPNS). Available from Bohdan O. Pauk, P.O.
Giant Aircraft by A.R. Marshall; TPO: Box 11184, Chicago IL 60611-0184, USA.
Chardzhui-205-Tashkent 'g' by Norman
Banfield; Automatic Registration Machines by Normally, I would not review a Society's
Harry von Hofmann; New Siberian Postmark by Newsletter. However, this is an exceptional issue
Terry Archer; Leaf Letter 1933 by Ross Marshall; covering a subject of interest to all collectors of
New issues; Literature; Book Reviews; and An post-Soviet Union philatelic material.
Unusual Letter. Barry Keane challenged the philatelic com-
munity to begin the process of determining what
Another issue with quality articles, is "good" and "not good" regarding the local
issues emanating from the new republics. He
encountered everything from stiff resistance to
complete cooperation. The Newsletter includes
Barry's article and responses from 11 collectors
of this material, primarily Ukrainian collectors.
The issue has been addressed but not com-
pletely answered. It is my hope this subject will
generate original research in all areas of Russia
and Russian-related philately that will soon ap-
pear in the journals.

Rossica Journal Number 123 91
October 1994








Dealer-Member Ads
The Editorial Board of the Rossica Journal For one-time ads: $52.50, $97.50 and $150,
invites advertisements from our dealer-mem- respectively.
bers as well as non-members who conduct the
occasional auction or mail-sale with a strong For outside back cover ads (full page only) -
offering of Russian and related-areas material. $150, first come first serve (based on postmark
The Journal appears twice a year, and reaches date).
over 400 members and affiliates worldwide in
April and October. Deadlines for submission of If you should desire to place an ad in the
ads are February 15 for the April issue, and Rossica Journal, please notify the editor as soon
August 15 for the October issue. We strongly as possible, together with the text of your ad, the
prefer commitments for ads in three consecutive rate and number of issues, and a check in $US
issues to aid us in planning. However, one-time made payable to the "Rossica Society" drawn on
ads for upcoming auctions or mail-sales can be an American bank.
accommodated. Thank You For Your Support!

Rates: V4 page $35 per issue Gary A. Combs
(for 3 issues) 8241 Chalet Ct.
1/2 page $65 per issue (for 3 issues) Millersville, MD 21108
1 page $100 per issue (for 3 issues) USA






Comprehensive Stock of Russian Material:
stamps
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Fax (718)271-3070

"Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994









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RUSSIAN POSTAL HISTORY

What Do You Collect?


I stock Russian Postal History items from the Imperial and
Soviet periods
including:
Airmails, Republics, Space, Zemstvos
Semi-Postals, Inflation, Stations, TPOs,
Interventions and Offices Abroad.

I also stock the Baltic Countries.
Let me know what you are searching for.
Material sent on approval.
I am always searching for material to buy and
offer top dollar.
Please include references or Rossica number.

Member: Rossica Society, Canadian Society of Russian Philately,
British Society of Russian Philately, Australian & New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately, APS, ASDA, PTS
and others.
Webster F Stickney
7590 Windlawn Way
Parker, CO. 80134