Front Cover
 Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Table of Contents
 The autonomous regions of Russia...
 Notes from the Belkin Books, translated...
 An introduction to the stamps of...
 Field post allure, by Dave...
 Anti-plague disinfection rules,...
 Sitka, Russian America, by Floyd...
 A Polish deportee from Western...
 The rural post in action?, by Ivo...
 Improvization on a postcard, by...
 Postal correspondence between Russia...
 From the Belkin books, translated...
 Money stamps, by Charles Rehwi...
 Aleksandrovsk (De Kastri): A remote...
 Russian tobacco strips, by John...
 Activities of the Near East relief...
 The Vologda-Arkhangel'sk railway,...
 Registered mail in Russia, a follow-up,...
 The mail run to Nikolaevsk-na-Amure,...
 The Corinphila auction of Zemstvos,...
 Free-Frank mail in Imperial Russia,...
 Good seats on the 70, by Dave...
 Anybody care to comment?, by Mel...
 In the back room
 Treasurer's Report
 Membership status
 Member-to-member adlets
 Rossica library subject index-Part...
 Reviews of philatelic publicat...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00066
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1994
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00066

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Officers of the society
        Page i
    Representatives of the society
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The autonomous regions of Russia (1), by George Shaw
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Notes from the Belkin Books, translated by George G. Werbizky
        Page 10
    An introduction to the stamps of the 1913 Romanov issue, by Michael Ercolini
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Field post allure, by Dave Skipton
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Anti-plague disinfection rules, translated by Howard Weinert
        Page 19
    Sitka, Russian America, by Floyd E. Risvold
        Page 20
    A Polish deportee from Western Ukraine, by Peter Michalove
        Page 21
    The rural post in action?, by Ivo Steyn
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Improvization on a postcard, by Dave Skipton
        Page 24
    Postal correspondence between Russia and the Baltic area in 1917-1921, by Alexander Epstein
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    From the Belkin books, translated by George G. Werbizky
        Page 42
    Money stamps, by Charles Rehwinkel
        Page 43
    Aleksandrovsk (De Kastri): A remote Siberian outpost, by Philip Robinson and Howard Weinert
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Russian tobacco strips, by John Barefoot
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Activities of the Near East relief in the Caucasus, by Peter Michalove
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The Vologda-Arkhangel'sk railway, by Howard Weinert
        Page 63
    Registered mail in Russia, a follow-up, by George Miskin
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    The mail run to Nikolaevsk-na-Amure, winter 1919, by Edward Rasmussen
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The Corinphila auction of Zemstvos, by Melvin M. Kessler
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Free-Frank mail in Imperial Russia, by George G. Werbizky
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Good seats on the 70, by Dave Skipton
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Anybody care to comment?, by Mel Kessler and Gary Combs
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    In the back room
        Page 91
    Treasurer's Report
        Page 91
    Membership status
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Member-to-member adlets
        Page 94
    Rossica library subject index-Part one, By David Skipton
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Reviews of philatelic publications
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
Full Text

of the




No. 122 April 1994


SESCAL 1992 WIPA 1965
ORAPEX 1993 SIPEX 1966
STaMpsHOW-APS 1993 PRAGA 1968
CAPEX-78 1978 WIPA 1981
ZEFIB 1937 POLSKA 1993
TEMEX 1958 SOFIA-69 1969


President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL 61821
Secretary pro tem: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal NY13850
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055


Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Mike Renfro
Midwest Chapter: Dr. James Mazepa
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Librarian or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $10 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108

Copyright 1994
The Rossica Society

ISSN 0035-8363


President: Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, 629 Sanbridge Circle E., Worthington OH 43085
Vice President: Dr. Peter A. Michalove, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign IL 61821
Secretary pro tem: George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal NY13850
Treasurer: Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville MD 21108
Librarian: David Skipton, 50 D Ridge Road, Greenbelt MD 20770
Auditor: Leon Finik, P.O. Box 521, Rego Park NY 11374

Board of Directors:

Dr. Gordon Torrey, 5118 Duval Dr., Bethesda MD 20816
Dr. James Mazepa, P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park IL 60304
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara CA 95055


Washington-Baltimore Chapter: Dr. Gordon Torrey
Northern California Chapter: Mike Renfro
Midwest Chapter: Dr. James Mazepa
Great Britain: Dr. Raymond Ceresa

All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means without permission in writing from the journal editor. The views expressed by the authors in
this journal are their own and the editor disclaims all responsibility.

The Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc. is a non-profit, non-political organization incorporated in the state
of Maryland, USA, and affiliated with the American Philatelic Society. The Rossica Journal is the official periodic
publication of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Inc., published twice a year in April and October and mailed
"surface rate" from the Editor's residence. Price for non-members is US $10 per issue. For air mail delivery, please add
US $5. Subscriptions are available for US $30 which includes air mail postage. Available back issues are listed in the
section titled "In The Back Room." Submit articles for consideration directly to the Editor. Periodically other Rossica
publications are listed in the back of the journal. Information is available from the Librarian or Secretary.
Society dues are US $20 per year with a discount for early renewal. Membership applications can be obtained from
the Treasurer or Secretary at the addresses listed under "Officers of the Society."
Dealers wishing to advertise in the Journal are welcomed. Information pertaining to advertising can be found in the
back of the Journal.
Checks and money orders submitted should be made payable to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately and not
to any officer. Checks not drawn on a US bank must include an additional US $10 for processing fees. Sorry, no credit
cards are accepted. Please make all checks payable to:

c/o Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, MD 21108

Copyright 1994
The Rossica Society

ISSN 0035-8363


Journal No. 122 for April 1994

Editor: Gary A. Combs
Editorial Board: George Shaw, David M. Skipton, Howard Weinert

Topic Page


Editorial 2
The Autonomous Regions of Russia (1)-George Shaw 3
Notes from the Belkin Books-translated by George G. Werbizky 10, 42
An Introduction to the Stamps of the 1913 Romanov Issue-Michael Ercolini 11
Field Post Allure-Dave Skipton 15
Anti-Plague Disinfection Rules-translated by Howard Weinert 19
Sitka, Russian America-Floyd E. Risvold 20
A Polish Deportee From Western Ukraine-Peter Michalove 21
The Rural Post in Action?-Ivo Steyn 22
Improvization On A Postcard Dave Skipton 24
Postal Correspondence Between Russia and the Baltic Area 25
In 1917-1921-Alexander Epstein
Money Stamps-Charles Rehwinkel 43
Aleksandrovsk (De Kastri)-A Remote Siberian 44
Outpost-Philip Robinson and Howard Weinert
Russian Tobacco Strips-John Barefoot 47
Activities of the Near East Relief in the Caucasus-Peter Michalove 60
The Vologda-Arkhangel'sk Railway-Howard Weinert 63
Registered Mail In Russia, a Follow-Up-George Miskin 64
The Mail Run to Nikolaevsk-na-Amure, Winter 1919-Edward Rasmussen 69
The Corinphila Auction of Zemstvos-Melvin M. Kessler 73
Free-Frank Mail in Imperial Russia-George G. Werbizky 76
Good Seats on the 70-Dave Skipton 85
Anybody Care to Comment?-Mel Kessler and Gary Combs 88

In the Back Room 91
Treasurer's Report 91
Membership Status 92
Expertization 93
Member-to-Member Adlets 94
Rossica Publications for Sale 94
Reviews of Philatelic Publications 97
Dealer Advertisements and Information 100


I have three topics to cover in this Editorial: the situation and then reapply, which he has not
1) "What is Rossica today?" 2) Volunteers, 3) done to date. Both sides in this debate maintain
Rejection of articles submitted for publication, their innocence while accusing the other side of
1) In the early years, the Society wanted to philatelic atrocities. The Rossica "politburo" did
preserve Russian philately. To counter increas- not say he was guilty nor did they say he was
ing "misinformation" or "non-information," re- innocent. However, given the highly controver-
search articles were published on almost all as- sial nature of this case, we do not want to encour-
pects of the hobby, age our members to deal with him until the
Throughout the years the Society developed situation had been resolved. A difficult task still
a reputation for excellence, even as it relocated not finished. The individual recently acquired
several times during the turbulent 1940s. In the unauthorized copies of the membership lists for
early 1950s the Society again sprang to life and the British Society of Russian Philately and the
the journal picked up where it left off. The efforts Rossica Society which he used to cut and tape
of some of the best known names in Russian names and addresses to an auction catalog.
philately published articles that became standard As the older members move on to the great
references. There was a spirit of cooperation exhibition in the sky, the next generation must
between the British Society and Rossica that pick up the slack and keep things going. The next
remains unequaled in today's world of philately. generation is happening NOW. Unfortunately,
A Rossica expertization certificate was as good there are only a few members who know and
as gold and Rossica members were graciously understand the society's history, its principles,
accepted around the world. The officers were and ethical standards.
highly respected among philatelists. Crooks or 2) Volunteers are always needed to run the
shady characters knew better than to sell or trade Society effectively, and the officers must be
bogus material under their watchful eyes. Al- dedicated to the principles and ethics established
though controversy frequently ran rampant among over the years. Of the 365+ members in the
the officers, they would never knowingly publish Society, less than a handful are active partici-
or authenticate anything that was philatelically pants in the running of the Society. During the
controversial. They would expose it for what it last two years there have been several volunteers
really was and steadfastly refused to compro- who simply did not come through on their prom-
mise. Are we still of the same belief? ises. One even preferred fabricating stories to
Recently, an individual applied for member- justify being nonproductive.
ship who was accused by the philatelic commu- 3) As Editor of this prestigious journal, it is
nity of taking part in a large effort to introduce my responsibility to maintain the high standards
fakes and forgeries into the western philatelic expected and demanded by the Society. Some-
world while still in the Soviet Union. He was times this means editing controversial text or
exposed in the philatelic press in The Post Rider. even outright rejection of an article. Before an
An internationally known and highly respected article is rejected, it will have been read by one or
member of the philatelic community also levied more knowledgeable philatelists whose advice
charges against this individual and some of the on the subject is important. I alone must make the
European auction houses are aware of forged final decision and send the news to the author.
items that he attempted to pass through their Nobody likes rejection, but I will not knowingly
sales. So why did we not expose him in Rossica? publish anything considered less than philateli-
First let me say that this individual was indicted cally correct, nor do I think you would want me
but never convicted. He was instructed to rectify to do so.

2 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

The Autonomous Regions Of Russia (1)

by George Shaw

This is the third article in a series on the recent 1. The Northwestern autonomous areas (this
postal history of the former Soviet Union. The issue),
first article (Rossica 120) focused on the Soviet 2. The Caucasus (this issue),
Postal Index (zip code); the second (Rossica 121) 3. The Middle Volga Republics (next issue),
on overprints, postal stationery reevaluations, 4. The Siberian and Arctic autonomous areas
and usage within the major regions of Russia. (next issue).
This article (and one in the next issue) covers the
autonomous areas of the Russian Federation as As covers from many of these areas are
witnessed in the Voice of America correspon- difficult to locate, I hope that Rossica readers will
dence of March/April 1992. Subsequent articles search their cover boxes to fill in some of the
in Rossica will go on to the other republics, areas where I do not have examples. Table I
Autonomous republics, oblasts, and okrugs summarizes four categories of Soviet stamps
were established beginning in 1920 to provide issued to honor these autonomous areas, culture
(very) limited autonomy for more than 30 ethnic and their native sons:
groups in Russia. Indeed, they are the primary 1 -2 S s C l c o AS
1. 1960-62 Series Capital cities of the ASSRs
reason why the country is called the Russian -
(Scott 2326-44C)
Federation. Nevertheless, ethnic Russians are 2 Anniversaries
either a majority or a plurality in half of the (Scott 3742 3 ,
autonomous republics. These areas deserve fo- 1980-83 Series 60t ASSR Anni
3. 1980-83 Series 60th ASSR Anniversaries
cus for two reasons: first, a number of them have Sie er
(Scott 4843/5141) Series stopped after seven
declared their sovereignty since the demise of the t
Soviet Union; and, second, if the Russian Federa- stamps.
4. Other Stamps 1933-1990.
tion were to fragment, even more of these areas
would be likely to issue their own stamps. 1. The Northwestern Autonomous Areas
The total population of the autonomous areas
is nearly 25 million; Bashkiriya and Tatarstan
There are three autonomous areas in the north-
each are more populous than five of the republics e i
western portion of the Russian Federation.
in the Commonwealth of Independent States. At
the other end of the spectrum, Koryak Autono- Nenets AOk. This Autonomous Okrug (postal
mous Okrug (AOk) has 40 thousand people; index 1647) is on the Arctic Ocean, east of
Evenki AOk has 22 thousand. The autonomous Arkhangel'sk Oblast', and has a population of
republics have their own three-digit postal indi- only 50 thousand. It is different from Yamalo-
ces; the autonomous oblasts and okrugs use sub- Nenets which will be discussed in the next
sets of Russian oblasts and krais. Envelopes from issue. There were no VOA covers.
AutonomousRepublics(AR)generallyreferonly Komi AR. Komi (postal index 167-169) is
to their own existence and do not mention that south of Nenets and north of Kirov and Perm'
they are part of the Russian Federation. Covers Oblasts. There are twice as many Russians as
from the smaller Autonomous Oblasts (AOb) Komi in its population. Figure 1 is a regis-
and okrugs generally do not reference the sepa- tered postal card from Vorkuta, the capital.
rate administrative status; the appropriate Rus- The cover has a rate of 15.50 rubles. This area
sian oblast' or krai is usually given instead. These is distinct from the smaller Komi-Permyak
autonomous areas will be discussed in four sec- AOk, which will be discussed in the next
tions: issue.

Rossica Journal Number 122 3
April 1994

Soviet Stamps Commemorating Autonomous Areas of Russian Federation

Autonomous 1960-62 1970-80 1980-83
Area Series Series Series Other Stamps

Karelia AR 2326 3743 NONE 1940 All-Union Agricultural Fair (808)
1941 Karelian SSR, 1st Anniversary (841-42)
1960 40th Anniversary ASSR (2336)
1989 Jalmari Virtanen, poet (5745)
Komi AR 2341 3818 4977 NONE

Dagestan AR 2331 3814 4900 1933 Soviet Peoples (490)
1969 Suleiman Stalsky, poet (3595)
Kalmyk AR 2343 3744A NONE 1990 Dzhangar, legend (5889)
Kabardino-Balkar AR 2339 3817 4979 NONE
N. Ossetian AR 2333 3823 NONE 1960 Kosta Khetagurov, writer (2351)
1989 Kosta Khetagurov, writer (5815)
Checheno-lngush AR 2329 3820 5008 1933 Soviet Peoples (495)

Middle Volga
Tatarstan AR 2344A 3742 4843 1952 Kysim Nasyvi, educator (1641)
1959 Musi Djali,poet (2221)
1965 Musi Djali, poet (3063)
1970 Lenin's home, Kazan' (3582)
Marii AR 2332 3744C NONE NONE
Udmurt AR 2328 37448 NONE 1960 40th Anniv. ASSR (2337)
Chuvash AR 2330 3744 NONE 1933 Soviet Peoples (509)
Mordovin AR 2344C 4806 NONE NONE
Bashkir AR 2344 3743 NONE 1952 Salavat Julaev, insurrectionist (1630)
1956 All-Union Agricultural Fair (1814)

Siberia & Arctic
Tuvan AR 23448 NONE NONE 1926-43 Tannu Touva
Buryat AR 2340 3821 5141 1933 Soviet Peoples (494)
1963 Buryat Archery (2770)
Yakut AR 2334 3819 5009 1933 Soviet Peoples (499)
1987 "On Yakutian Soil," painting by A.N. Osipov
Yamalo-Nenets AOk NONE NONE NONE 1933 Soviet Peoples (498)
Evreiskii Jewish AOb NONE NONE NONE 1933 Soviet Peoples (492)

Notes: All catalog numbers from Scott Catalog. The Soviet Union did not issue stamps for other autonomous areas.

Table I.

Karel'skaya AR. Despite its Finnish heritage, 2. The Caucasus
Karelia (postal index 185-186) is 71% ethnic
Russian. During World War II, it was occu- The southern mountainous border of the Rus-
pied by Finland, which issued about thirty sian Federation contains five autonomous repub-
different overprints. After the war, it reverted lics and two autonomous oblasts. None of these
to the Soviet Union. Figure 2 is from Karelia's areas are common in the VOA correspondence.
major city, Petrozavodsk. Locally produced Among the autonomous republics, covers from
overprints were released in 1993. the Kalmyk Autonomous Republic are the scarc-

4 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

est, as it contains only about 300 thousand people. Checheno-Ingushskaya AR. This republic
Covers from the two autonomous oblasts are (postal index 364-6) became the first autono-
very scarce. mous area to issue stamps, releasing six stamps
" Dagestanskaya AR. Dagestan (postal index during the summer of 1992. These stamps are
367-8) is the most populous of these seven considered illegal by the Russian Ministry of
areas. It borders the Caspian Sea and is split Communications and invalid from the UPU
ethnically among Avars (25%), Dargins standpoint. Chechens are 53% of the popula-
(15%), Kumyks (12%), Russians (12%) and tion, Russians 29% and Ingush 12%. Figure
Lezgins (11%). Figure 3 is from Khasavyurt 7 is from Groznii, the capital city, and shows
and was registered in Moscow although post- mixed Russian and Soviet stamps.
age was not added beyond the 5-ruble air- Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya AOb. This
mail rate. In addition, the postal index of smaller territory (postal index 3571) is a
500090 at lower left is a combination of the subunit of Stavropol' Oblast', bordering N.
Soviet international index (500) and the last Ossetia. Figure 8 is from the capital city of
three digits of the zip code from Washington, Cherkessk. The surtax on the charity stamp at
DC (20090) which was the address. left was probably included in the calculation
"* Kalmytskaya AR. Like Dagestan, this repub- of the postage.
lic (postal index 358-9) borders on the Adygeiskaya AOb. Adygeiskaya (postal in-
Caspian Sea and is equally divided ethnically dex 3526-7) is surrounded by Krasnodar
between Kalmyk and Russians. Figure 4 is a Krai. Figure 9 is from Maikop, the capital
registered letter from the capital city of Elista. city. Both types of postmarks reference the
In addition to the 1.70 rubles on the front, the autonomous oblast'. Note the attached postal
legend on the back indicates that the cost of index in the lower left corner.
the envelope has been increased from 31
kopecks (30 kopecks postage and 1 kopeck References:
for the envelope) to 2.25 rubles (presumably
2.20 rubles postage and 5 kopecks for the Ministerstvo Svyazi Soyuza SSR, Glavnoe
envelope). This makes a rate of 3.60 rubles, Pochtovoe Upravlenie, Spravochnik Pochtovoi
the correct rate for a surface letter, not 17 Indeksatsyi: Tom I (A-M). Moscow: 1969.
rubles for an airmail registered letter.
"* Kabardino-Balkarskaya AR. This area (postal Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR:
index 360-1) abuts the Caucasus; the Administrativno-Territorial'noe Delenie
Kabardinos are 45% of the population, Rus- Soyuznykh Respublik. Moscow: 1987.
sians 35%. Figure 5 is from Nal'chik, the
capital city. Note the 1-ruble stamp of 1966 Kozlov, Viktor. The Peoples oftheSoviet Union.
was still in use in 1992. Indiana University Press, Bloominton, IN, 1989.
"* Severo-Osetinskaya AR. North Ossetia
(postal index 362-3) borders Georgia and its Symons, Leslie. The Soviet Union:A Systematic
South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast'. The Geography. Hoddes and Stoughton, London,
northern region's population is about one- 1990.
half Ossetian and one-third Russian. Figure
6 is from Vladikavkaz (Ordzhonikidze and
Dzaudzhikau under the Soviets). The post-
mark has reverted to the old name. The 1989
commemorative stamp (Scott 5815) next to
the 45-kopeck indicium honors Kosta
Khetagurov, an Ossetian writer.

Rossica Journal Number 122 5
April 1994

-;. IfU)ie'Ke npeOnpuniunu rCsjnu u adpec

-" t o.b. ? ,,
,. .... .. "

.12 AflPE :.! AEHb OCMOHABT -H"
VP ll o ..I. ,.1TV.i .Hu CCC, 0. P lcua t 3 on.
h11|1N-'KC f jlp0cfllp lllTM CR31 M Ie CT na'aa a3o IU.

Figure 1. Registered fro m PetrozaVorkuta, Komi AR.

6 Rossica Journal Number 122
----- f~~"---April 1994
S- : ." : ; "' "^ I^ ."c /<.
S. ..... .:: ...:j "7. J .: ,.. :i. "

I l"HUJHTt Ke NH IlpenpHTlll 0 1u3 # IMMT* Hi)H llr i HHIl ------- *-----------------------------------

Figure 2. Airmail leter from Petrozavodsk, Kure'suay AR.
04A4 April 1994

April 1994


V61004 Q,,6_____
i ......., .._ I._.,..-_____-

nfuUNTe NKACKC npUnpnwrna CBS$* MeCTS Nvall4aemUX _~_ _
Figure 3. Airmail letter from Khasavyurt, Dagestanskaya AR; registration mark in upper left was added in Moscow.
VM E M:, VY ) HQ r^-

17.e 'Z. '., ._

a/7i "la J A V 7 't Ce).
S" S,..,,,..e 7S .4/te...

.... -. ,".......

nluKT HMMKC npeIInpNuTUI* Clom mCcia 8 3lHIEHNININ --
Figure 4. Registered airmail letter from Elista, Kalmytskaya AR.
Rossica Journal Number 122 7
April 1994

___ __ -. wi 6


y. \ i

-Figure fro, X Kaaya A Noub

WlU W j-CUf

HWeKC n[p nllHTII C 3 N rCTla a3atHa H-KOCTA

Figure 6. Airmail letter from Vladikavkaz, Severdsetinskaya AR. Note 5-kop. stamp honoring Kos.a
"'^ i' ^ ^POyUT iNf)E2p0C)OSO

Khetagurov, an Ossetian writeCr
__SA..O -IC ___x,9652C

SRossica Journal Number 122
-- Aril 1994
Mi t L If/y A 20090,
-J. L L


Figure 6. Airmail letter from Vladikavkaz, Severo-Osetinskaya AR. Note 5-kop. stamp honoring Kosta
Khetagurov, an Ossetian writer.
8 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

CkknHKHiE .PbI

^.l .... ---.2( ^Qo7.

': ,. : i '/Ft ^


_..U c N np ,,T ,.p,',:. c.. r. H.. H.. 7 'J:3 ...

Figure 8. Airmail letter from Karchevo-Cherkess AOb.

April 1994
Rossica Journal Numbcr 122 9


I( -

Figure 9. Airmail letter from Maikop, Adygeiskaya AOb,

OC (-j -S l
sa-. -A lrta'i


Figure 9. Airmail letter from Maikop, Adygeiskaya AOh.

From the Belkin Books

translated by George G. Werbizky

Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 19, 9 Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 8, 17
February 1889, the following entries February 1892. Circular No. 6. The fol-
are recorded: lowing entry is recorded:

"The starting of mail transport by the Rzhev- "Regarding correspondence from Russia to Urga,
Vyaz'ma Railway: Kalgan, Peking, and Tyan'-Uzun.
Ostashkovo 83 Vyaz'ma
Vyaz'ma 84 Ostashkovo Although Circular No. 1 of 1879( 16) stated
that this correspondence is the same as domestic
"The starting of mail transport by the Samara-Ufa mail [7-kop/lot for registered correspondence-TR],
Railway: some post-telegraph and post offices are mark-
Kinel' 123 Ufa ing the correspondence for additional payment.
Ufa 124 Kinel'"
Signed Bezak"
[no further text provided-tr.]
[no further text provided-tr.]

10 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

An Introduction to the Stamps
of the 1913 Romanov Issue

by Michael Ercolini

What? Another article on the Romanov mail going abroad required the sender to use
stamps! Haven't we had enough information money to pay the franking costs. After 1 July
printed already? Those questions are frequently 1864 this correspondence had to be franked with
asked by people who have different collecting stamps. Rates changed over the years and many
interests. This article is a brief introduction to a stamps were issued to accommodate these
set of stamps which I consider is probably the changes. Other postal services were introduced,
most successful series of stamps issued by impe- including the introduction of postcards in 1872.
rial Russia, and the first series to change from the A quick glance through this material will reveal
standard coat-of-arms themes of previous is- the absence of any portraits of people. All of the
sues. The information provided in this article is designs were variations of the coat-of-arms
general in nature and will, I hope, help the newer theme, the two-headed eagle.
collectors in this field. During this early period and into the 20th
The Rossica Library Subject Index contains century, it was considered disrespectful to show
78 entries under the heading of "Romanov." people on stamps, especially the Imperial family.
There is a wealth of information available to the Part of the reason had to do with the fact that
member who wants to study the subject. Yet as stamps and other items had to be obliterated to
with any philatelic subject, there is always room prevent their reuse. Things were about to change!
for new information, new discoveries, etc. Years before the actual commemoration of
In the early 1950s and 1960s Greg Salisbury the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty
wrote a series of articles on the Romanov issue of Tsar Nicholas II became a prime mover and
1913 which accounts for nine of the 78 entries, member of the committee set up to design a
Several other authors have written short articles philatelic commemoration of this event. He also
here and there over the years, mostly dealing with was closely involved with all the planning for the
something "unusual" or perceived to be so. Jubilee. It was Nicholas II who commissioned
However, when it comes to dedicated study Faberg6 to design a special bejeweled egg and
of the Romanovs, Leonard Tann wins the Re- ordered a special 1-ruble commemorative coin
serve Grand! Leonard accounts for 24 of the be minted to mark the tercentenary of the
articles in the library-approximately 1/3. One Romanovs. We may be assured that his ideas
of these entries is his outstanding work on the were also represented by the stamps, postal cards,
subject The Imperial Romanovs, A philatelic envelopes, letter cards, and wrappers that were
study of the 1913Jubilee issue published in 1977 issued, most of which bear the portraits of the
which is a must for any serious collector of the Tsars, including Nicholas II who appears on
Romanov issue. more varieties than anyone else.
It was not surprising when the series was
A Brief Moment in History issued on 2 January 1913, that a hue and cry was
raised by some influential circles, citing the old
A system of carrying the mail had been in argument of disrespect for theTsar, evidenced by
place long before the first postage stamp ap- canceling, soiling, and even erasing of the por-
peared in Russia. Although the inland rate of 10 trait (a possible reference to the chalky paper on
kop. for letters was introduced in 1844, it was not which the stamps were printed). Sales were halted
until 1857 that the first postage stamp was intro- from 15 to 28 February 1913. We can only
duced for mailing purposes. Prior to 1 July 1864, imagine that the close involvement of Tsar Nicho-
Rossica Journal Number 122 11
April 1994

las II with the series and his fervent desire to see occurs only on the postal stationery. Postal sta-
it continue in use, at least for the Jubilee year, was tionery is not be covered in this article.
sufficient to lay to rest any anger or displeasure There are many reasons to recommend this
others might voice. This, together with the other- set to collectors. A few of the reasons involve
wise fine reception the stamps and other items further study of the proofs, essays, shading, as
received, and then later the war in August 1914, well as paper varieties. This article does not
led the government to resume printing this series, cover these topics but sticks strictly to the basic
something which had been discontinued in late set as issued for general postal purposes.
1913. As late as 1915 and possibly into 1916 The remainder of this article will briefly
more items were still being printed. The basic set discuss each of the stamps in the set to include
itself was to remain on sale continuously, even which monarch is on the stamp and its basic
after the monarchy ceased to exist. intended use. Members interested in this aspect
Other than the surcharging of this issue with should attempt to read all available material on
Turkish monetary designations for use in the the subject, most of which is in the Rossica
Levant, the various values exist surcharged later library and available to the membership.
to reflect postal rate changes. A series of card-
board tokens to be used like money were printed The 1913 Romanov Issue,
with the lower denomination design on the front. Scott Nos. 88-104
Various privately produced revolutionary and
patriotic overprints also exist. Remainders of One must bear in mind that, although the
postal stationery are known obliterated by the lower denominations were intended for a spe-
Soviet Philatelic Agency (SFA) for postal and cific purpose, any combination can and does
other purposes. appear to make up whatever the required rate was
The stamps were printed on chalky, for the particular service. The higher denomina-
unwatermarked white paper, although a number tions had no single purpose but were used to
are known on rose-colored and yellowish col- cover such mailings as large sums of money and
ored paper. The five-ruble stamp is also known parcel registration.
on cream-colored paper. Rosselevich discusses The 1-kopeck stamp was issued to cover the
ribbed-paper varieties in Rossica Nos. 45 and cost of: printed matter such as
52-53. In Soviet Collector No.1, the subject of newspapers up to 1 lot in
Romanovs printed on bluish paper is discussed. V weight for local in-town use;
The stamps from 1 kop. to 70 kop. in value a postcard for in town use
were printed in sheets of 100, while the ruble saying a few words like
values were printed in sheets of 50. Salisbury ,,,, "Happy New Year," but was
mentions that there were two cliches made for the ---------- limited to fewer than five
35-, 50-, and 70-kop. stamps-one for the frame words, not counting the address. Peter I or Peter
and one for the portrait. Therefore, we know that the Great, 1682-1725, is featured on this stamp.
the printing was a two-step process. Interest- The 2-kopeck stamp paid the printed matter
ingly, no inverts have been reported to date. All rate on a postcard (internal
the stamps in the series are perforated 13 '/ with '' and external correspondence)
imperforate varieties known. It appears that the A as well as newspaper wrap-
clich6s used for the stamps were also used for pers, business papers, goods
postal stationery of the same value. One should ii ;, samples, invitation, and visit-
be careful when examining what appears to be an ing cards, etc. The maximum
imperforate Romanov stamp. The stamp could -- number of words allowed
be a cut-out from a piece of stationery and can be should not have been any different than for the
identified by the presence of a watermark, which local (1-kop.) printed matter mail, although there

12 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

is nothing in the 1909 regulations that specifi- Nicholas II is also featured on this stamp. Having
cally states just that. Exactly how much longer I his portrait on both the 7- and 10-kopeck stamps
am not sure, but handwritten comments were assured him that his picture would receive the
limited or they incurred a postage due mark. The widest dissemination.
word "fnEATHOE-PEChATNOE" (printed mat- The 14-kopeck stamp was issued for use on
ter) normally appears on these items, although single-weight registered let-
Article 108 allowed postcards without ters sent within Russia. Us-
"PEChATNOE" to be sent if they conformed in ing a single 14-kopeck stamp
all other aspects to the regulations. meant that the sender did not
"PEChATNOE" is encountered less frequently have to use two 7-kopeck
than its foreign counterparts. Aleksandr II, 1855- I stamps. Catherine II or
1881, is featured on this stamp. Catherine the Great, 1762-
The 3-kopeck stamp was issued to cover the 1796, is featured on this stamp.
cost for an internal Russian The 15-kopeck stamp paid the rate on postal
postcard or an in-town letter. money orders between 1 kop.
Pre-printed postcardswith this F and 25 rub.-i.e., the stan-
design were also issued. dard for "single-weight"
Aleksander III, 1881-1894, is | money order forms, When af-
featured on this stamp. l | fixed in a pair could equal 30
S. kopeck or what a double-
The 4-kopeck stamp was issued to cover the weight (20 kop.) foreign des-
foreign postcard rate. Peter the tination with registration (10 kop.) letter would
Great is again featured on this cost the sender. Nicholas I, 1825-1855, is fea-
stamp. tured on this stamp.
The 20-kopeck stamp could cover the cost of
a double-weight foreign let-
ter or a single-weight regis-
--- i tered cover sent to a foreign
The 7-kopeck stamp was issued for single r destination. A pair of these
weight letters sent within Rus- stamps with a 1-ruble stamp
sia proper and was also used could be used to send money
to cover any registration fees by telegraph as well.
that might be required. This Alexander I, 1801-1825, is
could be accomplished by af- featured on this stamp.
7 fixing a pair of the 7-kopeck The 25-kopeck stamp paid the postal money
stamps. Nicholas II, 1894- order rate for amounts be-
1917, is featured on this stamp. tween 25 and 100 rubles.
He was the last of the Romanov dynasty to sit on .' Alexei Mikhailovich, 1645-
the throne. 1676, is featured on this stamp.
The 10-kopeck stamp was issued to cover the -
cost of a letter sent to a foreign
S address and was also used to
cover any registration costs.
Like the 7-kopeck stamp for
internal use, this could be ac-
10 1 complished by affixing a pair
of the 10-kopeck stamps.

Rossica Journal Number 122 13
April 1994

The remaining kopeck value stamps, 35-, T --
50-, and 70-kopeck, do not in themselves consti-
tute any special rate considerations. They were
used in conjunction with other stamps of the
series to make up whatever franking was re-
quired to include transfer fees.

2 ruble. The Winter Palace.

35 kop. Paul I, 1796-1801.
3 ruble. The Romanov Castle.

50 kop. Elizabeth Petrovna, 1741-1761. --

5 ruble. Nicholas II finishes out the set.

The Romanov issue of 1913 and the use of the
design after the initial set of stamps offer ample
opportunity for the novice as well as the experi-
0 enced collector to research, exhibit, and publish
new information on the subject. This very brief
and elementary introduction cannot cover all the
70 kop. Mikhail Feodorovich, 1613-1645. possibilities nor could the entire journal. The
Rossica Library contains a wealth of information
m.i------- on the subject and should be read by any collector
interested in this area.
I enjoy discussing the Romanov issue and
would appreciate any correspondence on the
subject. Until then, happy collecting and dis-
cover new items!

1 ruble. The Kremlin.

14 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

SField Post Allure

by Dave Skipton

One aspect of the Imperial field post system Thus, the sender of this cover took some
which hasn't been addressed in the literature is liberties with the regulations when he put three
the official field post dispatch envelopes pro- Xs in the "allyur" (precedence) space. (The term
duced for mail sent between units in the theater of "precedence" is a very free translation of"allyur"
war, presumably by courier and/or regular field the dictionary definition of it is "pace" or
post. Special formular envelopes were printed "gait," i.e., how fast the courier's horses) should
and distributed to the various units, and although be driven to deliver the item.)
they varied considerably in size, their appearance In figs. 3-4 is a somewhat more efficient
was similar. From the very few examples seen by attempt at a field post dispatch envelope, in that
this writer, they were ordered and produced lo- it contains spaces both for time of dispatch (on
cally. At what level the orders were made is a the left) and time of receipt (on the right). Sent
mystery, but military district level is a good "ASAP" on the 26th of ??, 1916 at 1320 hours,
possibility, the envelope bears no indication when it was
Figures 1-2 show a field post dispatch enve- received, only a scrawled signature. Unlike its
lope addressed to a Warrant Officer of the 312th predecessor, it makes no mention of the 1912
Vasil'kov Infantry Regiment, Fedor Akimovich regulations on the reverse, and there are the
Kalenichenko. Posted by the Relay Com- initials "G.Eh.O" on the obverse. I would hazard
mandant's Administration in the small town of a guess that it stands for "Glavnoe Ehtapnoe
?Podvolochisk?, it went through the Main Field Otdelenie" (Main Relay Department) or some
Post Office in Zhmerinka on 2 April 1915 and such, a view shared by Rossica member Mark
reached Kalenichenko on the same day at 1235. Tartakovsky, WWI field post enthusiast.
The printed part of the envelope's front reads: Figures 5-6 would appear to confirm the
suspicion that these envelopes conformed to gen-
"To whom eral regulations only as to content, and that the
Where arrangement was left up to individual (presum-
No. Precedence ably high-level) commands. This particular item

Received was produced by the V. A. Berezovskii firm in St.
Petersburg, and shows that these formular enve-
19.... '....(space for day and month),' '..(hour),' '(mins.)' lopes were in use well before WWI, as attested to
M.D.E.N. by the "190_" entry at middle left obverse. (My
(morning, day, thanks to Mark Tartakovsky for this little gem!)
evening, night)
Signature Such items are not common by any means.
Has anyone further examples?
The envelope will be returned to the sender."

On the reverse:

"Read by:

Appendix to Article 40 of the 1912 Field Service Regula-
Precedence is indicated by:
X At regular speed
XX As soon as possible (ASAP)"
Rossica Journal Number 122 15
April 1994

i- I. --- \- 0 I, ...


II .0 y w c s o:

19 .... .. ac., u,.1
S- Y. B. H.

f7oanucb.- .' ,/7 ( ,'-'/;/ -..;

HoHeepTb 8os3paulaeTCn noAaTejnM .

Figure 1.


IIpuzoz. ra ct. 40 Yces Ilosie. cayas6 1912 r.
Aiawop-i o6oanaiaeTca:
X-nepeMtnahMtL an.ropowL.
j .-
P '. A


Figure 2.

16 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

..... ......... ............. .. .

,-OTnpasAeHo: -. loAy e o:
9 .............. .. .
?U -

S.ac.M. u A B. H. ac .. ......... Y. A. B H.

S.HoHBepTb BosepauaeTca noAarTemo.

Figure 3.

H .' TAAI: v'"'
-. *. ------- ,. ,..:

AJuiopi 06oa3HaqaeTcR:

Figure 4.
;' -I'pdtII X p Mi zi.i;i) l WI.

Rossica Journal Number 122 17

April 1994
:--r *

April 1994


S':. K y a ........._..... ....:......__................. ......... .

; ; A ___ ._ .x)6a_.. .. _...
An oJIy EHO: -
-.-,,1.. >

(y. A. B. H.).

I o nuc ............. ................ .... .... .... ...... ..........................

"KoHeepTi BsoaBpatiaeTrc noAaTejIo.

Figure 5.

"Annop-b o6o3aniaaeTrc:
X-nepeMtHHIM.b ann]opowb.
"XX-KaK'b MO)KHO CKopte.

Figure 6.

18 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Anti-Plague Disinfection Rules

translated by Howard Weinert
(from Pravitel'stvennyi Vestnik, 17 May 1897)

To ensure that plague does not enter the at [the ports of] Odessa, Sevastopol',
Empire, The Ministry of Internal Affairs has Batum, Baku, and Vladivostok;
established the following rules for the disinfec- on the Persian border at Dzhulfa and
tion of mail coming to Russia from plague- Gaudan;
infested locations: on the Chinese border at Troitskosavsk.
1. Letters and wrappers with printed matter
from plague-infested locations will be Correspondence sent from abroad in spe-
subject to disinfection with steam. cial mail sacks to St. Petersburg, Mos-
2. Letters (packets) with declared value from cow, Warsaw, Riga, Mitau, Libau, or
plague-infested locations will not be de- Tiflis will be disinfected at the post of-
livered. If they are received at the border, fices in those towns.
they will be returned to their place of 5. To certify disinfection, eachletterorwrap-
origin, per will be stamped "OBE33APA)KEHO."
3. Parcels and wrappers containing articles
from plague-infested locations whose The postal authorities of British India have
importation is prohibited are also unac- been asked to provide advance notification via
ceptable. telegraph when sending correspondence which
4. Disinfection will be carried out: could be damaged by steam disinfection (for
on the western land borders at example, valuable papers, documents with wax
Verzhbolovo, Aleksandrov, Granitsa, seals, etc.).
Volochisk, and Radzivilov;

""*1 *4, i

Card postmarked at Meshed on 79 September 1904 (new style) and in Gaudan (on the Persian border)
Rossica Journal Number 122 19
April 1994
L1t1 i /6 ff d' /i

on 10 September 1904 (old style). Violet disinfection mark applied at Gaudan.

April 1994

Sitka, Russian America

by Floyd E. Risvold

Originally, Sitka was a village of the Tlingit transaction in history-second only to the Loui-
Indians. In 1804 the Russians, under Aleksander siana Purchase.
Baranov, defeated the Indians and seized the The cover shown here is from my collection
village in retaliation for the massacre of the and bears the earliest known cover from Alaska,
Russians at St. Michael in 1802. Baranov built a 8 November 1867, just three weeks after the
fort at the site, named it New Archangel, and United States took possession. The official List
made it the capital of Russian America. How- of Post Offices in the United States for 1868
ever, the common use of the name Sitka prevails (accurate to 20 October 1867) lists the location of
to this day. Sitka in Russian America. Table I is an extract
Russia sold Alaska to the United States in the from page 289 showing the distance to Washing-
spring of 1867 for the sum of 7,200,000 dollars, ton, DC. Table II is a composite from page 139
The formal transfer took place on 18 October showing the location and the name of the Post-
1867, concluding the second largest real estate master.

K7i c.,, / ie PJ

Distunco from
Sitka...........................---- -..... ....-...... ..........-.... *4,770 miles.
(Statute iles,) via SALT LAKE CITT, Utah Territory, and SAN FRANCIscO, Cnlifornia.

Table I.

oafic. County and State. rostnvuter. [This article came to us
Sitoersvillo....... Tyler ........W. Va. Archib'ld Tlhitlol thanks to the sharp eye of
Sitka........... Russian America .... John I. KinkcaJd Jim Mazepa and permission
Binslaw .......... IL no .........Om otn 11,nrv flMn,..n..
from Mr. Risvold-Ed.]
Table II.
20 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

A Polish Deportee From Western Ukraine

by Peter A. Michalove
With the Soviet occupation of Eastern Po- I will accept my fate calmly. After all, there are
land in September 1939 and the subsequent in- thousands of us. I will be able to visit my family in
n of tt aa io t U a two years or sooner. I wait for information from you
corporation of that area into the Ukrainian and
and from Poland. We sit in the kolkhoz without any
Belorussian Republics, thousands of people were work and slowly sell the rest of our belongings. Will
rounded up and deported to Siberia and Central this continue?
Asia. This card tells the story of one of those The prices are very high. We may buy only milk,
deportees, a Pole who, overnight (literally!), eggs and butter. They are more expensive than in
Rudki. I dream about a good dinner and potato pan-
found himself in a strange land in Central Asia. Rudki. I dream about a good dinner and potato pan-
cakes. There is no sugar.
The card is postmarked at Martuk, in How is it going at school? How was the May
Kazakhstan, 8 May 1940. It is addressed to the holiday? Do you miss me?
town of Rudki in the Drogobych district of West- My future is black and impenetrable, but I don't
ern Ukraine, where it arrived on 12 May. The lose hope."
message, dated 7 May, is written in Polish, and a
Polish friend translated it for me. The Polish national holiday is 3 May, but after
the Soviet occupation, it is more likely that the
"Dear Miss Mela! May holiday that was actually celebrated was the
My apprehension has been fulfilled, and I have socialist 1 May.
left to get to know the new life. I'll never forget that The writer's hopes of visiting his family
night, when the loud knocking and shouts of 'Po- within two years were undoubtedly dashed by
lice!'awakened me. I knew why they came. In the
the German invasion of June 1941, and he prob-
same cattle truck were (several names) with me. It
is better to suffer together. ably did not see them again for many years, if
ever. Can any member add to this story?


K. a.... ... .. ...... ....... C. .. ............ v. -- ...... .......
llNMnM n t. T. rAe x.uiTrc noIwa. t oG.mCTH HAi IpaW. I AM.l cr a Ua.
.;..:,.v.. ... .!.....

......................................... .................................... ..

omnpaaume.AR '
Adresse V ', \ ,P" '., ". f-), ,1 '. ~ *
Adpe c u ... .. ................. ...... ..... : ............ .. ... 0 .

ae~y A ............ I .......
de 1expiddieurJ
Rossica Journal Number 122 21
April 1994

The Rural Mobile Post in Action?

by Ivo Steyn

During pre-revolutionary times, the network posted the item while he was there. So, is this
of Imperial post offices was not fine enough to where we give up on the Rural Mobile Post? As
reach every single settlement in Russia. This a collector of Volga German postal history, I was
problem was solved, at least partly, by the zemstvo very pleased to find the cover shown here, a
post: the zemstvos organized mail routes ema- registered letter from Beideck (Verkhnyaya
nating from an Imperial post office, along which Talovka-most places in the Volga German
mailmen traveled to pick up and deliver mail to ASSR had a German and a Russian name) to
tiny rural settlements. Lincoln, Nebraska (to which area many Volga
However, during the first six months of So- Germans had emigrated). There is a splendid
viet rule, the zemstvos were abolished, and only bilingual postmark reading VERKhNYaYa
a few zemstvo organizations in Eastern Siberia TALOVKA P.T.O./BEIDEK P.T.O.R.N.P.
survived until 1920. The Soviet postal adminis- where the last three letters stand for "Republic of
tration found a different solution to the problem the Volga Germans." The rate of 28 kopecks is
of the remote settlements: the Rural Mobile Post. correct. Registration is primitive, with a manu-
Basically, thiswas a mailmanwhotraveled along script "67/V.TALOVKA" in green ink on the
a route emanating from the nearest state post front. The cover was sent on 16-4-1927 and
office, picking up and delivering mail to the arrived on 7-5-1927. However, the sender gives
various rural settlements along the route. Sound his address as "village of Sosnovka, G(olyi)
familiar? I would be willing to bet money that in Karamysh district." Sosnovka (German name
many cases, itwas in fact the same route as before Schilling) is a tiny village on the left bank of the
the Revolution, and probably the same mailman Volga, about 15 miles south of Saratov. Golyi
as well. Karamysh (German name Balzer) was one of the
However, there was an important difference. 14 "cantons" of the Volga German ASSR. Evi-
As far as I know, no local stamps were ever issued dence of a mobile postman? Well, not exactly
for this service, and the activities of the Rural cast-iron proof, but there is a further hint: a ms.
Mobile Post therefore never manifested them- notation in pencil "ST. N.25" on the reverse,
selves in a bewildering variety of stamps, like the written by a Russian. I can only interpret this as
zemstvo stamps so beloved of millions (hun- "station No.25," which sounds suspiciously like
dreds? dozens?) of collectors. The mobile post- something a Mobile Postman would write on an
man simply franked the mail with Soviet stamps item of mail he picked up at the 25th village on his
at the usual rates- there was no extra charge for route. Now, on a LOT of Volga German items
the mobile post's activities as there was for the I've seen, the sender lived in a small village like
zemstvo post's services. Unfortunately, this Schilling, which never had a post office, while
means that the handiwork of the Rural Mobile the postmark was of a more substantial place
Post will be difficult to spot: no special stamps, nearby. And we know there were Rural Mobile
and no special postmarks either, as the mail was Post routes in action in the Volga German ASSR.
postmarked at the nearest Soviet post office. The So, I have two questions for the readers. First, has
only way in which we might spot an item trans- anyone found similar traces of the Rural Mobile
ported by the Mobile Post is when the sender Post on their covers? Second, will you forgive me
gives his address as a small village somewhere, if I continue to believe, for the moment, that this
while the postmark is of a nearby larger village, cover was picked up by the mobile postman in
Even then, there is an excellent chance the sender Schilling, and postmarked when it got to Beideck?
simply traveled to the larger village himself and
22 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

e '

... '"'I,'',
..... ..... ..... .... .'._.... .,

I, .' *,,, '

April 1994.. -
a :. ,,

boo is the ps a' r b

Improvization On A Postcard

by Dave Skipton

Leafing through Harry von Hofmann's ex- Vasil'kov to Kiev on 19 December 1910, it ar-
cellent"Zakaznoe-Recommandirt"jogged a faint rived the same day only to find the addressee
recollection of a strange "extracted from mail- gone. The resident who received it crossed out
box" marking on a card somewhere in my den. A the address and wrote "Lida, Vil'na province" on
two-day search revealed it hiding beneath sev- it, THEN TOSSED THE CARD INTO A MAIL-
eral layers of cobwebs in a seldom-seen corner, BOX. Perhaps flustered by such an unorthodox
and here it is. and unusual procedure, the postman who found it
Readers may remember that registered let- applied a two-line handstamp reading "Extracted
ters dropped in mailboxes were handled as regis- from mailbox No. 2 / P.T. official." Off the card
tered mail, but in the event of loss, the sender was went to Lida the next day, reaching there on the
not entitled to collect the 10-ruble remuneration 22nd.
from the Post. (Article 130 of the 1909 Postal I have been unable to locate any article in the
Regulations.) To note where the item had come 1909 Regulations which addresses such a cir-
from and make certain the Post was not liable for cumstance, so this would appear to be a provi-
any claim against it, postal officials would sional use of a registry-related marking on a
handstamp the offending cover "iz yashchika," non-registered item, applied in an attempt to
"vynuto iz yashchika," or some such. explain how an already-delivered postcard sud-
The postcard illustrated here shows a consid- denly turned up miles away and days later with its
erable departure from the normal way of such address crossed out.
things. An unregistered postcard mailed from


24 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
24 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Postal Correspondence Between
Russia and The Baltic Area In 1917-1921

by Alexander Epstein

Prior to 1918, the present Baltic states- cial notice was released. A few pieces of this
Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia-were a part of early correspondence sent to Russia or still unoc-
the Russian Empire as Kovno, Kurlyand, cupied parts of the Baltic provinces exist.
Liflyand, and Ehstlyand provinces, and parts of A. Leppi illustrates a German postal statio-
Vil'no, Suvalki, and Vitebsk provinces. Thus, nery card franked 71/2 pfg. with a "Postgebiet Ob.
postal correspondence between these provinces Ost" overprint dated 7 January 1918 from Riga to
and the rest of Russia must be considered as Petrograd. The arrival mark of Petrograd is dated
domestic mail before 1918. 25.1.18 which equates to 7 February according to
During WWI, from April to August 1915, the European calendar. Some other postcards
almost all of Lithuania and a part of Latvia have no departure postmarks, but there are ar-
(Kurlyand Province) was occupied by German rival (or transit) marks of Russian FPOs. Possi-
forces. After the capture of Riga by the Germans bly, the cards were handed directly to the Russian
on 3 September (21 August) 1917, and later in side on the front line.
September/October 1917, some parts of North- Another postcard is illustrated in Marcilger's
ern Latvia as well as the islands Oesel, Dago, and book. It was sent from Riga on 9 February 1918
Moon of the Moonsund Archipelago (now (after the official notice date) and arrived at
Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, and Muhu in Estonia) also Vol'mar (Valmiera), which was still in Russian
fell under German occupation. Any official postal hands, on 19 February according to the arrival
correspondence between the occupied territories mark. The day after 31 January 1918 was desig-
and Russia was, of course, impossible. nated 14 February 1918 when the Gregorian
Such was the state of affairs until the end of calendar was introduced into Soviet Russia as
1917 when, on 17 (4) December 1917 during the well. This postcard is franked with a "Postgebiet
Brest-Litovsk peace talks, an armistice was signed Ob. Ost" overprinted 10-pfg. stamp, which was
between the Germans and the Bolshevik govern- the German foreign rate for ordinarypostcards
ment, which had taken power in Russia on 7/8 71/2 pfg. was the domestic rate). A peculiar fea-
November (25/26 October) 1917. ture of all the above-mentioned correspondence
A paragraph of this armistice specified re- is that there are no censormarks, neither German
suming civilian postal correspondence between nor Russian. No correspondence in the reverse
Russia and the "Postgebiet Ob. Ost," the postal direction has been recorded to date.
area that included the Baltic lands occupied by However, this did not last very long. After the
Germans. Information concerning this section of Soviet delegation, having declined the German
postal history has been published by A. Leppil terms of peace and left Brest-Litovsk, the armi-
and V. Marcilger.2 stice ceased. On 18 February, the German forces
Riga newspapers published the official no- started a general offensive along the entire front
tice on the resumption of postal correspondence line. The demoralized Russian armies could not
on 28 January 1918 and the formal regulations provide any serious resistance and, by the begin-
were provided on 31 January 1918. Apparently, ning of March, the German troops held areas
some people knew about this even earlier than the beyond the Narva-Pskov-Ostrov line (including
announcement and began sending mail at the these towns). According to the new terms of the
beginning of January. However, the correspon- Peace Treaty concluded at Brest-Litovsk on 3
dence was held at the post offices until the offi- March 1918 and the Supplementary Agreement
Rossica Journal Number 122 25
April 1994

of 28 August 1918, Russia lost all its former when military censorship had been officially
Baltic territories. abolished and replaced with so-called military
Of course, any postal communications be- control. The functions were similar, but a nar-
tween the occupied Baltic states and Russia dur- rower scope of mail was looked at. The circular
ing the German offensive were cut short again, censormark with the letter "R" was applied by
However, after signing the Peace Treaty of Brest- the Germans at Riga. Additionally, there is a
Litovsk, postal communications resumed only in German inscription written in pencil with the
the summer of 1918. Nevertheless, illegal postal town name "Walk" and the words "Absender
contacts evidently took place in the meantime. angeben" meaning "notify sender," which was
Figure 1 depicts a postcard written at Narva required by German postal regulations. Since it
on 12 March-9 days after the Germans captured was unusual to indicate the name and the address
this town. The card has a TPO No. 40 Riga- of the sender on ordinary mail in Russia, German
Petrograd postmark dated 19 March and an ar- postal officials usually allowed such mail to pass,
rival mark of Arkhangel'sk dated 24 March. The later writing on them the two line message
franking consists of a single 5-kop. Imperial "AngabedesAbsenderserforderlich/Ausnahme-
Arms stamp, although the postal rate for an weise befordert" meaning "Indication of sender
ordinary postcard in Russia effective 28 Febru- is required/delivered as exception" (see fig. 3).
ary 1918 was 20-kop. However, no postage due Mail from Russia to the Baltic states was
was recovered. It would appear that the card was delivered through Moscow or Petrograd, and
smuggled across the demarcation line and posted from there to Riga. An ordinary postcard to
at the TPO. The western terminal of route No. 40 Revel' (Tallinn) correctly franked in accordance
was, at that time, the railway station of Yamburg, with the foreign postal rate of Soviet Russia for
a small town about 25 km east of Narva. this kind of mail (12 kop.) is shown in fig. 3. The
Officially, postal communications between postcard was posted at the Saratov railway sta-
Russia and the "Postgebiet Ob. Ost" were estab- tion on 22 September 1918 and censored at
lished on 8 June 1918 after extending the latter Moscow and Riga. According to German postal
postal system to Estonia and the northern part of regulations, no arrival postmark should be placed
Latvia as of 1 May. Postal correspondence was to on ordinary mail. Therefore, we are unable to
be prepaid in accordance with the foreign postal determine how long the card had been en route.
rates of Russia and Germany, respectively. Note the marking about the exceptional delivery.
Yet, before mail exchange resumed, a sig- Figure 4 shows a registered postcard from
nificant amount of correspondence mailed in Kazan' to Revel' franked 42 kop., which is cor-
Russia to the Baltic states before or during the rect. This postcard was routed via Moscow and
German advance in February had accumulated. It has censormarks of that city and Riga. The post-
is unclear whether this mail was delayed at some card was mailed on 25 June 1918 and arrived at
transit point in Russia or awaited delivery to the Revel' on 20 July-about 4 weeks en route.
addressees at post offices situated in the territory Often mail from Russia to the Baltic states
under German occupation since it arrived just was franked in accordance with the domestic
before the German troops entered. The postcard rates, which were even higher during this period
shown in fig. 2 is one such item. The card franked than the foreign rates. For example, an ordinary
with three 2-kop. Arms stamps (1 kop. postcard franked 20 kop. sent from Kyappeselga,
overfranked) was mailed on 16 February 1918 at Olonets Province, on 22 August to Revel' trav-
Atamanskaya Stanitsa, a suburb of Omsk, to eled through Petrograd. and Riga where
Valk (Valga) and was censored at Petrograd. censormarks of both cities were applied (fig. 5).
These particular boxed censormarks with all the Because the sender is indicated here, there is no
correct wording except the censor's personal corresponding marking, only a handwritten mes-
number were used in the first months of 1918 sage on the left "Deutsch, Russisch schreiben,"

26 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

3b .

..- 0" "

8`? ^cno f r P
^i:* 0 I H
.. .t .... .


W -e.. ". : '
S.. .. .- <" '." ; .*-.; '.i ,

Figure 1. Postcard from Narva on 12 March 7978, 0 days after the Germand captured the town.

-pi 1994l

S ..... ....... .... .....


Figure 2. 16 February 1918 postcard from Russia, Atamanskaya Stanitsa, to Valk.

Rossica Journal Number 122 27
April 1994

BmcFirwaiaIt zio'nionbwfn cof,'ni1:


F r ...3. Pscr fr.om,./ frm Sar.a.ovtoR .el, -22.Setembr' '1918
S_.... ...... ..
:-^ I; .l : .

Figure 3. Postcard from from Saratov to Revel', 22 September 1918.

_.---5- "'-

Figure 4. Registered postcard from Kazan' to Revel', 25 .1une 1918.

28 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
Fiue4 eitrdpscr rm aa't ee' 5Jn 98

28 Rssia Jurnl Nmbe 12
AprI 99

which means "Write German, Russian." The (Zilupe), where a railway post office (officially
"Postgebiet Ob. Ost" postal regulations demanded that of the Sebezh railway station) was function-
that the sender write the message in one of these ing during this period. The latter was probably
languages. This rule was abolished on 1 Novem- the point of mail exchange.
ber 1918 when messages in Estonian, Lettish, Apparently, not all mail from Soviet Russia
and Polish were, allowed. In this case, the mes- to the Baltic states was delivered via Moscow or
sage was written in Estonian, but the card still Petrograd. Figure 7 shows a postcard sent to
was delivered to the addressee. Revel' on 27 August 1918 from Novorossiisk,
Mail from the Baltic states to Russia was which was still in the hands of the Soviets,
delivered along the same routes as mail to the although a few days later the town was captured
Baltic states. The postcard depicted in fig. 6, by "White" forces under General Denikin. The
although sent from a Russian town under Ger- North Caucasus was at that time virtually cut off
man occupation, is nevertheless closely related from the rest of Russia, so the card was routed to
to the Baltic area. The straight-line distance Rostov-Don (then occupied by Germans) where
between Pskov and Nevel' is about 220 km and, a transit postmark of 31 August was applied.
under normal conditions, the postcard would be From Rostov, the postcard seems to have been
delivered on the next day. It took, however, about handled by the German postal system, which
a month to deliver this postcard. The message directed the card to the Baltic states. Addition-
was written on 6 September and the card was ally, a German censormark was applied to the
mailed at Pskov where a branch of the Valk card.
"Postgebiet Ob. Ost" post office was function- After its defeat and in accordance with the
ing. In accordance with established regulations, terms of the Armistice at Compiegne, Germany
a violet mark (not a cancellation) reading was forced to withdraw its troops from the occu-
"Pleskau" (German for Pskov) was applied at pied territories. Actual withdrawal from the Bal-
this postal branch office and the postcard sent to tic area began at the end of November 1918.
Valk, where the stamps making the postal rate for Simultaneously, the armies of Soviet Russia,
an ordinary foreign postcard, 10 pfg., were can- which had annulled the Trdaty of Brest-Litovsk,
celed on 9 September. Afterwards, the card was advanced into the Baltic region on the heels of the
censored at Wenden (Cesis) and routed via Riga retreating Germans.
to Moscow where it arrived on 9 October. At last, The newly proclaimed independent national
after having been censored there once again, the republics of Estonia and Latvia initially had no
card was sent from Moscow on 24 October and forces to resist this invasion. On 28 November
arrived in Nevel' on the same day. 1918, the Bolsheviks captured the town of Narva
Very little is known about how the mail on Estonian territory and, by the end of Decem-
exchange took place between the Russian and ber, held almost two thirds of Estonia. In Decem-
German postal authorities. It is unlikely that ber, the Reds entered Latvia and captured Riga
TPOs were running directly between Moscow or on 3 January 1919. Shortly thereafter, they occu-
Petrograd and Riga. According to incomplete pied almost all of Latvia except a small area
information gleaned from the "Post-and-Tele- around Libava (Liepaja), which is confined by
graph Journal," an official publication of the the river Venta.
Russian Postal Administration3, the most prob- In the areas occupied by the Red Army Soviet
able way of delivering mail during the summer regimes, the so-called "Estlyandian Labour Com-
and autumn of 1918 was from Moscow and mune" (ELC) and Latvian Soviet Republic were
Petrograd to Novosokol'niki and vice versa by established. Although the Bolsheviks were ousted
TPOs Nos. 239-240 and 191-192, respectively, from Estonia on 7 January 1919, in Latvia they
and then by TPO No. 233-234, which ran be- regained and retained power over the major por-
tween Novosokol'niki and Rozenovskaya tion until the end of May, and in Latgalia (the

Rossica Journal Number 122 29
April 1994

^J ^. ^ C: ^ ........* ....... ...... .. r ......
" y y... .
--....... ..... .., ...-..
.. ... .. .... ... ."........ .. .." ' .- .v ,. '-

Z I ...... ........... .

Figure 5. Posicardfrom Kyappeselga, Olonets Province, to Revel', 22 August 1918.

.. ...
^'ft^ *^^'ft^>"T

Figure 6. Postcard from Pskov to Nevel', 6 Sepmember 1918.

30 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

.......... ......... .... .. .
.. .4 4 "

"' .. .. ...r ... .... .* |. .. .. ... ... .
.. .... ..'. / "

Figure 7. Postcard from Novorossiisk to Revel', 27 August 1918.

i a
,, .. ,, ,
4 4. N> .-

[f1, -, **-; '.o'l ..'.: *T \ -j .. '-**^ ,'- "ifi',11.."

Figure 8. Free-frank postcard from Pechery, Pskov Province, to Verro, Estonia, 25 January 1919.

Rossica Journal Number 122 31
April 1994

eastern part of Latvia) until January 1920. be liberated, an occasion that never took place.
Any official postal communications between There is not a single piece of correspondence,
Soviet Russia and the parts of Baltic states under however, that can be identified with certainty as
national governments were, of course, simply having been mailed from the ELC territory to
out of the question, although some mail ex- Russia. The postcard shown in fig. 11 may be
change by smuggling was possible. The Soviet such an item, but not necessarily. This card,
areas were actually incorporated into the Russian written in Estonian, is franked with a 15-kop.
postal system again while maintaining some de- Arms stamp of Russia (such stamps were used by
gree of independence, the ELC post offices, but there is an overfranking
Covers and postcards from the ELC period of 5 kop. against the postal rate) and canceled on
are extremely scarce mainly due to its short life 31 January 1918 with an oval postmark of TPO
(barely two months) and other circumstances. A No. 40, Riga-Petrograd. During the period under
few examples of correspondence sent to the So- consideration, this TPO actually ran between
viet parts of Estonia from Russia during that Narva and Petrograd. A railway post office was
period exist. The postcard shown in fig. 8 was functioning at the station of Narva, but without
mailed on 25 January free-frank (in accordance its own cancellers.
with the postal regulations valid in Soviet Russia Postal material from and to Soviet Latvia is
as of 1 January 1919) from Pechery, Pskov Prov- not so scarce, but neither is it common. The same
ince-then officially on the Russian side-to postal rates were in effect for mail in both direc-
Verro (Voru) in Estonia, arriving the next day. tions-i.e., ordinary mail was free-frank.
Another postcard (fig. 9) was sent on 10 An ordinary postcard sent free-frank from
January 1919 from Smolensk to Antsen (Antsla), Riga on 22 April 1919 to Ryazan' (arrived on 26
also in southern Estonia. The franking with a April) is shown in fig. 12. Figure 13 illustrates a
postage stamp is in this case excessive. The registered cover sent from Moscow on 29 March
arrival mark is missing (the post office at Antsen 1919 to Riga and franked (in conformity) at the
had no cancellers at all during the ELC period), 50-kop. rate with a 35-kop. "Chainbreaker"
but with a very high degree of probability this stamp and a 15-kop. Arms stamp (Timo Bergholm
card was delivered to the addressee during the coll.). The letter was censored at Moscow.
ELC period, which ended in Antsen on 1 Febru- Let's consider now the postal routes along
ary. The postcard was censored, but the place of which mail was carried between Russia and the
censorship is uncertain. Baltic states. Some information on this subject
Some mail to Estonia from this period ap- can be found in the above-mentioned "Post-
pears to have been delivered to the addressees and-Telegraph Journal" and its legal continua-
long after the Baltic territories had been cleared tion "Collection of Decrees and Instructions of
of the Reds, especially those addressed to places the People's Commissariat of Posts and Tele-
that remained throughout under the control of the graphs of the RSFSR"4 as well as other sources.
national governments. A cover franked with 30 During the ELC period in Estonia, TPO No.
kop. (in accordance with the Soviet foreign postal 39-40 ran between Petrograd and Narva with a
rate of that time for ordinary letters) was sent on shuttle service between Narva and Vesenberg
9 December 1918 from Adovka, Simbirsk Prov- (Rakvere). In the southern part of Estonia, an
ince, to the Pernov (Parnu) district in Estonia (fig. unnumbered TPO ran between Pskov and Valk,
10). In 1918-1919, the Estonian post usually did about a half of the former TPO route No. 125-
not apply arrival marks to incoming ordinary 126, Pskov-Pernov. It is unclear if a shuttle
mail, so it is impossible to ascertain the actual service existed between Valk and Yur'ev (Tartu).
date of delivery. Evidently, the letter had been Besides, TPO No. 353-354 from Pskov to Narva
waiting at some transit point (probably Valk or delivered part of the mail.
Riga) for the time when the Parnu district would In the days of the Soviet Latvian Republic,

32 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

^ TndlToBAN 1KAPTo44KA.

Figure 9. Postcardfrom Smolensk to Antsen in southern Estonia, 10 January 1919.

"., ", .. I .

,/ ...I..,.- ,. ; ,, ,.,

S' ," .. .

74 1
F--.re.10.. ...
/ *: -', i .* '- '

Figure Coverfrom AdovkSimirsk Provi ce, to the Pernov district i Esonia, 9 December 1918.

Rossica Journal Number 122 33
April 1994
"Ari "1994. .: I 1 I,&,II-. A ' -- .'.,".'

Figure 11. Possible postcard mailed from the ELC territory.

t .. : ,. .. .. ...
I-.: .,.. ., ,. ,, I I '*y :. -

v "" t ; ;/ .'. ". ^' 'i 4-' -,
4i. .. ,I - .

C r F ig yre e-.Psil postcard m from athe R n 2rArilory .
i ,- .... .: ._ _ __.
z ;.. *, : .* ,tjSf, ..* -.

.i '.. -, _" ",. ,
; \.. '" : "" '

Figure 12. Ordinary free-frank postcard from Riga to Ryazan', 22 April 1919.

34 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

mail was delivered by TPO No. 233-234 be- cancelled at Dobruchi, Petrograd Province, on 17
tween Novosokol'niki and Rezhitsa (Rezekne) September 1919. There is an arrival postmark of
with a shuttle service between Rezhitsa and Tallinn dated 21 September.
Vindava (Ventspils). Later, after the Red Latvian The item in fig. 15 illustrates postal commu-
and Russian forces abandoned Vindava, TPO nications between North Russia and Estonia.
No. 233-234 ran between Novosokol'niki and This postcard to Parnu, franked with a 10- and a
Kreizburg (Kruspils). From 16 January 1919, 20-kop. Imperial Arms stamp and cancelled at
TPO No. 7-8 ran between Orel and Riga again. Arkhangel'sk on 15 April 1919, was transferred
However, from the beginning of March until 18 to British Army Post Office (no.) 2 stationed at
April, a Latvian postal wagon was functioning on Arkhangel'sk where its postmark was applied on
the section from Dvinsk (Daugavpils) to Riga. 16 April. The card was censored by Allied Mili-
Additionally, TPO No. 3-4 carried mail between tary Censorship. Evidently, this postcard was
Petrograd and Dvinsk. On Soviet Latvian terri- routed to Estonia via England, although there are
tory railway post offices were operating at the no other transit and arrival marks.
stations Riga, Rezhitsa, Vindava (later at A postcard in the reverse direction (from
Kreizburg), and Dvinsk (two RPOs). Appar- Estonia to North Russia) is depicted in fig. 16.
ently, TPO routes Nos. 233-234 (to Rezhitsa) Two locally perforated Estonian stamps frank
and 7-8 (to Dvinsk) were functioning until Janu- the item with the correct Estonian postal rate for
ary 1920 when the remaining part of Latvia was an ordinary postcard (20 penni). The postcard
freed from the Reds. There is no information on was cancelled at Baltiiskii (port) on 31 October
the postal routes connecting Russia with the 1919. In addition to an Arkhangel'sk arrival mark
Soviet part of Lithuania. of 2 January 1920 and a Russian censormark of
There is a considerable amount of postal Arkhangel'sk, there is another censormark-a
evidence which indicates that during the war blank red triangle which is believed to have been
with Soviet Russia, mail exchange took place applied aboard a ship of the Tallinn-Helsinki
between the Baltic states under national govern- line. Thus, the card appears to be delivered via
ments and those areas of Russia that were ruled Finland and was in transit slightly over two
by various anti-bolshevik "White" governments, months.
The most obvious evidence was in northwestern A registered cover from Vladivostok dated
Russia-i.e., parts of Petrograd and Pskov prov- 15 November 1919 sent to Rakvere, Estonia is
inces liberated from the Reds by the combined shown in fig. 17. The cover is franked with 4
forces of the Russian Northwestern Army under rubles, conforming to the postal rates of Siberia
General Yudenich and Estonian troops. Mail under the government of Admiral Kolchak. There
from this part of Russia was franked with Impe- is a transit registration mark of Liverpool and a
rial Arms stamps overprinted "CeB.3an.ApMHnI," Rakvere arrival mark dated 13 January 1920. In
Scott Nos. 151-164, or stamps of original design this case too, it took about two months for the
listed by Scott separately under "Army of the letter to be delivered via Japan and Great Britain
North." (its route between these countries remains a sub-
Most of these items are purely philatelic in ject for speculation).
origin and addressed to well-known stamp deal- Postal service between the Baltic states and
ers in Revel' and Libava. Genuine commercial or Soviet Russia could have resumed after the sign-
private letters and postcards are extremely scarce. ing of peace treaties between Russia and three
Figure 14 shows the reverse of a registered cover Baltic states, but resumed somewhat later. The
partially franked with 5-kop. Northwest Army treaty with Estonia was concluded at Tartu on 2
stamps and partially with unoverprinted 25-kop. February 1920.
Arms stamps making the corresponding 1-ruble In the beginning, some private mail from the
rate (N.Mandrovskii coll.). The stamps are pen- Estonian Immigration Offices opened in Mos-

Rossica Journal Number 122 35
April 1994

Fiur. -1 3. e.it.. ered ,. \tM s to, Riga,. a.-.' ..

r '/ ."' :,

Fi r 4 o c e ,er ed c or .fr M sc. .t o R ,. M c .,1l.
'i '
S k ^ ,

I /. I. O I

36 Rossica Journal Number 122
S.- 9 : ,- .-' -. "


1 1 /-

Figure 14. Reverse of cover cover franked with Northwest Army and A rms stamps. (N. Mandrovskii coil.)

|^ ^ oTHAPbbTO E l'MC6M b|^

*, ..; ,. .. .- .... .

.. .
..0 '''

j-Kd XI d e 'h 23II

Figure 15. Postcard from Arkhangei sk to Parnu, 15 April 1919 .
u. to. v N -^ 7^ / 3.

Figure 16. Postcard f rom Baltiiskii (port) to Arkhangelk, 31 October 1919.

Rossica Journal Numbcr 122 37
April 1994
April 1994

i J ),

ii, -,' K-' ...- N ..

A. j, -.t ; j *! { j

38 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

cow and Petrograd was transferred to Tallinn in the oval three-triangle postmark) to Torva, Esto-
diplomatic pouches and then handled by the nia, arriving on 11 April, is illustrated in fig. 19.
Estonian post.s Mail handled this way took about The franking consists of a single 10-kop. Arms-
a week. In May or June 1920 normal mail re- type stamp revalued to 10 rubles, which con-
sumed, with correspondence using the postal forms with the current foreign postal rate.
systems of Russia and Estonia. All mail from and Beginning in October 1920, ordinary mail
to Russia went via Petrograd for exchange at the from Russia going abroad again was to be pre-
frontier between Narva and Yamburg. paid. However, most people were apparently
The free-frank privilege that was applied to unaware of this and the post itself did not press it
ordinary mail in Russia during 1919-1921 (up to too much. The rates themselves were virtually
15 August) also was applied to mail sent abroad unknown not only to the people, but even to the
until the end of September 1920. However, Esto- postal clerks. Therefore, various frankings are
nia and other foreign countries did not recognize noted on letters from Russia sent abroad in 1921
free-franking. Usually free-frank mail was until 15 August.
treated as unpaid in accordance with existing During this period, ordinary letters and post-
regulations. However, in Estonia the addressee cards from Russia are noted either with some
of free-frank mail from Russia was charged with franking (postcards most often at 5 rubles) or
a sum equal to the rate of a similar item sent in free-frank as before. However, the use of the
Estonia, instead of a double rate as in most other "From Russia" cachets declined and some other
countries. At the Tallinn GPO a special rectangu- methods of treating mail can be found. Figure 20
lar handstamp in black, violet, or red with the is an example of a postcard sent free-frank from
wording "Venemaalt" (From Russia) was ap- Petrograd on 29 January 1921 to VAike-Maaja,
plied indicating the amount of postage due. Three where it arrived on 13 March. There is no "From
types of these handstamps are known, the latest Russia" handstamp; however, a circled T-mark-
of them being without indication of charge. After ing was applied. It is unknown whether this mark
the "postage due" mark had been applied at the was applied in Petrograd or Estonia, and there is
Tallinn GPO, the postcard was then delivered to no handwritten indication of the charge to be
the addressee. raised-probably, the postal clerks did not know
Figure 18 depicts a postcard with the "From what it was either.
Russia" handstamp in violet. The amount of Postal communications with Lithuania and
postage due was 200 p., which corresponds to the Latvia were resumed at a later date. The peace
rate for an ordinary letter, but was corrected by treaty between Russia and Latvia was signed on
red pencil to "100." There was no special 11 August, although an armistice was in effect
handstamp manufactured for postcards. This 20- already on 2 February. In principle, a resumption
kop. Kerenski postcard (officially used only as a of postal services could take place before the
blank) was posted at Luga on 16 May 1920, final act concluding the peace. The registered
transited Petrograd on 29 June, and did not arrive postcard shown in fig. 21 was franked at the 10-
at Tallinn until 7 August. Such a lengthy transit ruble rate (correct rate) and handled by the post
time was the norm for mail handled by the Rus- office at Rzhev on 21 June 1920. The card was
sian postal system in the summer and autumn of censored in Moscow in June also, but there is no
1920. In Imperial times it would take only a arrival mark, thus making it impossible to ascer-
couple ofdays at most.In 1921, the postal service tain when the card actually was delivered.
began to return to normal. After August 1921, when free-franking had
Registered mail was not sent free-frank, but been abolished and new inland and foreign postal
was handled in the usual way. A registered letter rates introduced in Soviet Russia, mail to the
sent from Novocherkassk on 29 March 1921 via Baltic states became fully indistinguishable from
Moscow (where it was censored on 5 April, note mail sent to other foreign countries.

Rossica Journal Number 122 39
April 1994

l .. ; f % 41

YA0 .--."AA--

... ,
... ......... ........... .

i. 1 .: .. .. .- |
t, U .--

K .. .......S .. .- ^ .... ... ...... -
L ... ........' "' ". .............. .................. .... .... .. ..

Figure 18. Postcard with the "From Russia" handstamp in violet.

OTfATopi n99C4M

^\ ^^AA --^~ -- 7^ -- '-----
; ^B V f -' "'

0- M f <

5" ""- + 13 3

Figure 20. Postcard sent free-frank from Petrograd to Vaike-Mauja, 29 January 1921.

40 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
April 1994

.: '';" e. .A r" i --,.
.'" : .. .. ."- ..."r ,r ?* ',L .S "
-' -- -
,- -, ; '-, ,

4 .4

= ,- -
.4.4 "94 '"9t'S. "-.o i.''-

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t -o
;. f'. '"
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4 rt

.' 79 l f 4,oh r s : 'I 'n 4

R c J c424
Api 19.94',::,.
"A ',' : ";'k4, /Ci 1*
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,4 .TI... .:-:,. : ,{ '."

.4,4* '' -'-., '- t --*' ,
S. ^ ', '"**. '. -. .
.' ". ,

April 1994
":' "" ""i-? '.", .
,- .,1 . -. ,.-;,'. .;'.
"" '..I ... P t,7"- "\,.L ..
.'.." ." ..;,. ,., Q.--:. ..L b... ;...: .'
,:.:--~. .* .:I,-,'/ ' i\ ,. .. '..
,,, ... ....,. ... .. ( -: '.) ,. ':
"'"" ":' ['"" '"h:,i; i '::". ..
:.: -: I'
';~~I .... --,"" tf_. ( 1.
..;i .- .. :. /!" . .-v, .~.
it. ~rr'
Fiuel.-4 Reitee _Lete rmNvohras oT'vElna 2 ac
Rossica ; ourna Numbe 122 4
April r~ 1994~


1. A. Leppi. The Beginning of Mail Exchange between Russia and Germany in 1918. Rossica
No.106, pp. 55-56, 1985.
2. V. Marcilger. Riga: die Postgeschjchte bis 1919. 1987.
3. Pochtovo-telegrafnyi zhurnal, 1918-1919.
4. Sborik postanovlenii i rasporyazhenii Narodnago komissariata pocht i telegrafov RSFSR,
5. Hurt, V. and E. Ojaste. ESTONIA: Philately & Postal History Handbook Catalogue.


Figure 21. Registered cover handled by the post office at Rzhev, 21 June 1920.

From the Belkin Books

translated by George G. Werbizky

Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 7, 14 Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 82,12
February 1889, the following entry is December 1889. Page 147. The follow-

"Regarding acceptance of mail by the Volunteer "Used stamps as well as stamps not valid for
Fleet: postage like foreign, tax, zemstvo, etc. are not
at Odessa: 10, 15, 20, and 30 March; 5 April; counted as part of the fee, and are therefore
20 and 25 August; designated with the numeral "0" next to the
at Vladivostok: 29 April; 8, 21, and 26 May; stamp. If a letter with a used stamp is retrieved
14 June; 10 and 19 October." from the mailbox, it is forwarded as "not paid." If
[no further text provided-tr.] the [stamp] is forged, an investigation will be
conducted." E
42 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
April 1994

Money Stamps

by Charles Rehwinkel

In the article "Odds and Ends or Bits and Urals Cossack Region-Ural'sk Branch
Pieces" published in Rossica No. 121, Mr. George State Bank.
Werbizky shows an Odessa money stamp (fig. Scott-no listing. Pick Nos. S956-S958.
11, pg. 62). This item is listed under Odessa as Amur Region Zemstvo.
No. S332 in the Standard Catalogue of World Scott-no listing. PickNos. S1221-S1223
Paper Money (Sixth Edition), often known as described as "stamp-type notes."
Pick's. It is the second of a set of three, which also
includes a 15-kop. (No. S331) and a 50-kop. One example of items appearing in Scott but
(No. S333). The illustrations below show the 50- not in Pick is Armenia Nos. 193-195. These are
kop. money stamp from this series. The catalog Russian stamp coins (Nos. 105-107) that have
states these items were circulating from 1917- been overprinted and revalued by Armenia. They
1920 in the southwest part of Ukraine. were probably not intended for currency use.
The Pick catalog is worth reading. If quantity
of examples means anything, then paper money
was of greater concern than stamps. Bureaucratic
vanity? Perhaps. But then a stamp issue must
Shave been used to be regarded as eligible for
bl catalog inclusion. Notes that have not been is-
sued or used are included in Pick's. They are
f--....... :-: ..... .. accompanied by high values for uncirculated
i condition; none for used. Obviously a different
_: j criteria is applied.
I- r: 3 Illustrated below is a similar money stamp
from Baku (No. S728). It is the 50-kop., the high
.1,- f value of a set of three. The set is not listed in Scott.

A perusal of Pick's Russian States section
reveals the following:
Northern Army (Gen. Rodzianko).
Scott-no listing. Pick Nos. S216-S218. .
Ukrainian People's Republic. -
Scott Nos. 62-66. Pick Nos. S257-S261. .
Don Cossack Govt. Rostov Issues. j HL
Scott S. Russia No. 10. Pick No. S40G. *lw
Odessa. ( Of
Scott-no listing. Pick Nos. S331-S333. -
Crimea Territorial Govt. (Gen. Sulkevich). A"U MAI Wnwr
Scott-no listing. Pick No. S369. H ='r
Terek Republic.
STerek Republic. Is there a society of Russian numismatists out
Scott-no listing. Pick Nos. S536-S538.
t there who can enlighten us on these matters?
Scott-no listing. Pick Nos. S726-S728. 0
Rossica Journal Number 122 43
April 1994

Aleksandrovsk (De Kastri)-A Remote Siberian Outpost

by Philip Robinson and Howard Weinert

De Kastri, also called Aleksandrovsk or Post cast anchor two versts from the shore. Cargo was
Aleksandrovsk, is the name of a small settlement unloaded on small barges which could reach the
on the east coast of Siberia opposite Sakhalin shore only at high tide.6 Hawes was here in 1901.
(approx. 51 40' N, 141* E). The settlement was He described it as a lonely spot, especially in
established in 1853 during Muravyev's occupa- winter. He actually visited the post office, noting
tion of Chinese territory in the future Amur and that letters trickled in at intervals sometimes of
Maritime regions. De Kastri sits at the head of a weeks.7
small bay discovered in 1787 by the French In light of the above, it is clear that De Kastri
explorer La Perouse, and named in honor of De was a backwater with very little commercial
Castries, the French Minister of Marine.1, 2 activity. It is not surprising that covers are rare.
The official Post-and-Telegraph Journal The authors know of five covers, most of which
indicates that a post-and-telegraph office were mailed by travelers or sailors who happened
(n0OqTOBO-TEJIEFPA0HA5I KOHTOPA) opened to disembark while their ships were picking up
in Aleksandrovsk in August 1887. Postal statis- pilots for the run to Nikolaevsk.
tics for 1887 show that five mails were dis- The earliest recorded postmarks from De
patched and eight were received. No intema- Kastri appear on a December 1888 registered
tional mail was reported. As for mail to or from cover sent to St. Petersburg and shown in fig. 1.
other towns in Russia, 12 paid and 180 unpaid Both serial numbers of this first postmark type
ordinary letters, 21 registered letters, and 44 are present. This cover was carried by dog sled
money letters were received and 17 were dis- over the winter route to Mariinsk. Total transit
patched.3 Between May and October mail was time was 67 days. The July 1895 cover in fig. 2
exchanged by ship, in early yearswith Nikolaevsk has a 3-kop. pair from the 1883 issue and a 4-
and later with Vladivostok. During the rest of the kop. from the 1889 issue cancelled with serial
year, mail traveled 67 versts to Mariinsk (on the number "2" of the first postmark type. It was
Amur River) by dog sled.4,5 Sometime between mailed to England via Nagasaki and Yokohama.
1898 and 1909 the office was downgraded to a Total transit time was 59 days. The cover was
post-and-telegraph section. sent by a crew member of the HMS Edgar. The
AfewcontemporarydescriptionsofDeKastri Edgar was built in 1890 and participated in the
survive. Richard Bush, a member of the Russian- Dardanelles campaign in WWI. The ship's name
American Telegraph Expedition, visited De Kastri is imprinted on the back. Kurt Adler, the previous
in 1865 and wrote that the settlement was a small owner, described this cover in Rossica Journal
military post without fortifications and with one #46/47.
or two stores. He said that vessels bound for the A third item was seen in a 1991 auction: a
Amur always stopped at De Kastri to procure letter card mailed in August 1897 by a crew
pilots to navigate the ships through the upper end member of a German navy ship. The card had
of the Tartar Straits and Amur mouth. Bush also both serial numbers of the first postmark type. It
traveled the post road to Mariinsk.1 traveled to Germany via Nikolaevsk and Nagasaki
In 1890 Anton Chekhov visited De Kastri on with a total transit time of 57 days.
his way to Sakhalin. He said that the bay was the Figure 3 shows an August 1913 card with a
only place where ships sailing the Tartar Straits double-circle postmark apparently reading DE
could gain shelter during a storm. Apparently, KASTRI (P. ALEKSANDR.) PRIM., serial let-
the phrase "to scamper into De Kastri" was well- ter "b." Transit time to Irkutsk was 14 days (by
known. The bay was so shallow that ships had to ship to Vladivostok, then by train to Irkutsk).
44 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

This card was sent by a crew member of the 2. Harmon Tupper, To the Great Ocean, 1965.
Russian cruiser Askol'd. 3. A BriefSurvey oftheActivities ofthePost and
A double-circle postmark with serial letter Telegraph Administration with Post and
"a" should also exist. There may also be post- Telegraph Statistics for 1887, 1889.
marks with a cross-date year and POCHT. TEL. 4. Post Road Guide, 1888, 1897, 1915.
OTD. at the base, depending on when the change 5. List ofLocal Establishments of the Post and
to a section occurred. Does anyone else have Telegraph Department, 1916.
postmarks from this distant corner of Siberia? 6. Anton Chekhov, The Island: A Journey to
Sakhalin, 1967.
REFERENCES: 7. C. H. Hawes, In the Uttermost East, 1904.
1. Richard Bush, Reindeer, Dogs, and Snow-
Shoes, 1871.

r r

co -0

Figure 1. December 1888 cover to St. Petersburg. At top front of cover, at bottom postmarks from the reverse side.
(Weinert collection)
Rossica Journal Number 122 45
April 1994

R p /.../J. ... M %,"", "M.

,a .1 '

S OTKpToe i M. Carte Postale. 23
BAIMPnHiUA uowreuid coli3 1.P
co Bn M kppe roHA BHI. "pec. -
j ...'.-......
,. ...... ..... .. ..'. .!.

.... -------23 .. -. .......

4 .. ...2

Figure 3. August 1913 card reading DE KASTRI (P. ALEKSANDR.) PRIM. (Robinson collection)

46 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Russian Tobacco Strips

by John Barefoot

Our latest Russia & Baltic Mail Auction chives. They appear to represent a complete run
included an archive of tobacco strips dating from of the issues available at the time the archive was
the 1890s. Search of the literature revealed very produced (we sold the Specimens of the 1895
little published information on these issues: com- squarer-format Tobacco stamps and 1892 wine
pletely missing in Forbin, a few isolated ex- & spirits stamps in a previous sale). Although
amples mentioned in the American Revenuer other values may exist, and perhaps some of the
("The Russian Front" by John R. Gentile, Janu- items are overprinted, these "specimen" strips
ary 1976), and about 40 items listed in Dr. George may not have been regularly issued. I have re-
Lysloff's Alnis Guide to Russian Revenues and corded the items here in the same order that they
Cinderellas. appear in the archive, as the original compiler
Generally these stamps are scarce; they were had already sorted them into group types.
designed to be destroyed in use, and in any case I am currently compiling some listings of
their long and unwieldy format made them un- Russian revenue stamps. If readers have addi-
popular with early collectors, so few were saved. tional tobacco items to add to this listing, or if
As available listings seem so patchy, I thought they would simply like a copy of the auction
it useful to record the current archive before it is catalog (stamps, errors, proofs, revenues, postal
dispersed to other collections. All these items are history), they are welcome to write to me: John
overprinted "SPECIMEN" in blue, and were Barefoot, P.O. Box 8, YORK Y03 7GL, Eng-
presumably originally in the State printing ar- land.

Item Tax in Illus. on Item Tax in Illus. on
Quantity kopecks Color page No. Quantity kopecks Color page No.
Cigars Smoking Tobacco
1st Quality 49 2nd Quality 51
2 cigars 2 brown 1/8 pound 41/2 blue
5 cigars 4 brown 1/4 pound 9 blue
10 cigars 8 brown 1/2 pound 18 blue
25 cigars 20 brown 3rd Quality 51
100 cigars 80 brown 1/8 pound 11/2 green
2nd Quality 49 1/4 pound 3 green
2 cigars 3/5 blue Pressed Leaf
5 cigars 11/2 blue Tobacco
10 cigars 3 blue 2 pounds 8 black 52
25 cigars 71/2 blue 5 pounds 20 black 53
Cigarettes 10 pounds 40 black 53
1st Quality 50 Makhorka (low grade)
5 cigarettes 3/4 brown Tobacco 54
10 cigarettes 11/2 brown 1/8 pound 1/2 black
25 cigarettes 33/4 brown 1/4 pound 1 black
100 cigarettes 15 brown 1/2 pound 2 black
2nd Quality 50 1 pound 4 black
3 cigarettes 1/4 blue Snuff Tobacco 55
5 cigarettes 3/8 blue 1/8 pound 41/2 blue
10 cigarettes 3/4 blue 1/4 pound 9 blue
20 cigarettes 11/2 blue 1/2 pound 18 blue
Smoking Tobacco 1 pound 36 blue
1st Quality 51 Others
1/8 pound 71/2 brown Imported Cigars blue 55
1/4 pound 15 brown Imported Tobacco blue 56
1/2 pound 30 brown Persian Tobacco orange 57
1 pound 60 brown

Rossica Journal Number 122 47
April 1994

To assist the reader, the following information provides details of the components (from left to
right) of the various strips as well as providing translations for the words encountered.

Strip Components
*spruNuR mnsm.
In this portion, the factory would place their official stamp indicating authenticity.
The abbreviation used is QABP. llTEMI., which expands to QABPHMHblf
UlTEMnETIb -Fabrichnyi Shtempel'-Factory stamp.

The State Seal.

How much the excise tax was for the item. AKLUH3HblI-
Aktsiznyi translates to "excise."

S:_,r..n_,- ...NUx. A, Quantity the tax was applied to. In this example, it is for five First Quality
S 5: IT Cigars or Cigarettes. The letters "UIT." stand for WTYKb--shtuk, pieces;
.... I .-. ._ the letter "0" stands for cYHTb-funt, pound (equal to 500 grams). The
quality of the item is indicated by the number located inside the "C."

Iyru,% va6&%u, ,,iz% S .eG* *Gait.o.p.,, C% puPte.suUw e What type of tobacco (TABAKb-TABAK):
I Ii i i CHIFAPbI-SIGARY, cigars; nAIHPOCbl-
|I ...W. I PAPIROSY, cigarettes; KYPHTEJIbHblI-
S...pr.,rU @..o,.,, ,p Isa.,- X.SIU, ,aIE.v KURITEL'NYI, smoking tobacco;
pressed (compacted) in leaf form; HIOXATEJlbHAMI-NYuKhATEL'NAYa, (tobacco) for inhaling,
like snuff; CHFAPbI FPHBO3HbI5IR-SIGARY PRIVOZNIYa, imported cigars; HPHBO3HblI-
tobacco made from the plant stems (low grade).

Around the top and bottom of the components which describe what the item is, the phrase
OnPEATJIEHHbIM'b Bb 3AKOH15 HAKA3AHIIMb." which translates to "Those guilty of selling or
purchasing tobacco and other tobacco products without these [tax] strips, or with cut or damaged
strips, are liable for the relevant penalties under the law."

[The strips are all too large to fit on a page of paper with margins. Therefore, some are split into two or three
parts. The reader must mentally glue them back together to get the full picture. At the beginning of each new
item, a full size (within limits of the page) strip is illustrated. The remaining items in the series have been cropped
to show only the changing component-Ed.]

48 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

- u M l____ r

- - -

Second Quality Cigars
S1 .. PI

__. ^ pp x r pyr a6i 5a6llrA u. UltAgL 60*I 610pol, NaU ep upS uiEt .l

*,^i [ 3 g.

Bt' II8nRa 3 u**.'nKN Ta~or U j.)yratb Yli4MuXu' *MAtAi
i il paapmn. X paa SptSArnu Ii 6EA nM U ii a npItuToh" n l 3RMNiM OS Mx

IlKA N llt, IqGdlW" .Va<.$ <-

First Quality Cigarettes

"|"U u llupo.ay tI nOifRna TBry U Apymx IrtI llt ll IHii 32i II, IIt flR6yf-rl3 'IItK'iy N ApyiNxb T.MitM' EAtjil

-.-3 pu I noiinnN San epoatlu. noAnep wrsh mnlomiz, 38 pls3op nlnMlln n l &,lepoBnN sloAleprlsovu nHosiutz

-%M S

Second Quality Cigarettes

"" UN
iO f M

fillI__ _

First Quality Smoking Tobacco

. ... .9 .on

Second Quality Smoking Tobacco

Third Quality Smoking Tobacco

V3 E3..
A-PK-H* BmTEmn. R ',.

Pressed Leaf Tobacco-left half

*II I, I. F -*

> m

Pressed Leaf Tobacco-right half

. ..a

U' Pressed Leaf Tobacco-5 and 10 pound left halves

*A&P. MiTeMU. M -

nX pauopn su] X danepoasirm noDepralts nEoAeuzg onpflefiBxeasa as saRoat nassnsanintb.

#ASP. TeD. ;

Uponaza u DO5ynk* mumy m Apyrh 1mra rMl'S arltall eal. SamzepooeI. KD CS paaptafoauul sa pSapZOsurAM SNMPpoIEu. UoZUeprrl.ET 3UOuUaxs opeAtIsOnun W Vsmont IlSu9dums.

I*A3. .i TE!. .ir

W-, p JMMMMwr

Z 0sZNIF ri rJ ejdrJ rJf rJr riJ rJr j Jrr Md ^ drJrr jtr 1!

0 r I

Makhorka (low grade) tobacco--top 2, 1/8 pound left and right halves; next two 1/4 pound left and right halves; next two 1/2 pound left and
right halves; last one 1 pound left half.

4 +rAK I, 36 KOII,
-S 0

A s I,181.:I 0 1,

c t"

,o -. IM MMt .

*Alp. T ]MU. B I I M M.i I I rI' ==

A!AI[. 41/2 K.... M

_r_ r________ ALrL -0 Mr gi-Mr at

Snuff Tobacco

Imported Cigars-left and right half


...... ... ---' -- _--i----- ----- _---- -

I tO
-0 0

o Imported tobacco-left, middle, and right portions of strip.




S. '- ." "" I ;.

,. .
v I RIT M. W.- d

S.. A i Q. rW- N p

Ta e

PesinToacoletmdde ad ihtpoton o trp


[George Werbizky adds this card which relates to the tobacco industry-Ed.]

The card illustrated here offers a little more insight into the Russian tobacco industry at the turn
of the century. The text, indicium, and 4-kop. stamp were pre-printed. The tobacco firm applied a
St. Petersburg machine mark which is illustrated below [not a St. Petersburg postal cancel-Ed.]. Note
the date depicts a period of time rather than a single day, 15-28, the month is 7-8, and the year is
1901-2. Does this method of dating mean that this card was "valid" only between the days 15-28
of July and August in 1901-2?

1 ? .

2.^' .#t ..
AjjPjirCCe'KIIrll'lliiAnloc^ MR SISCIIE cARET

; I "i 'i

58 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
Enlarged St. Petersburg mark applied by the tobao firm'>.

58 Rossica Journal Number 122

Reverse of card with text in Dutch.

TIet is ten feit, dat hot rooken van Cigar odcrland in
den laatetn' tijil aanmerkelijk hooft toegenpmrn h is hot nan vAle
Wm IT. Ir.fobbkors nict gogund, don anngel -smaak. coner cchto
S. rus.ischpiCigaret to genietcn, want mec. w 'orden Cigarotten verkocht,
Se welkc alleen daarom Russiich gn'n X w'rdon, omdat zij mot russisch
v v opschrift on ndelaar prijkepu. iwi.4 erkelijkheid namaak zijn.
= Als UEd. de zeker it ihebben echte geTmporteerde russlsche
= Cigaretten te bekom h)ba dan s. v. p. die der grootste en
S. beroemdste fabriek Rusland, ... ...
Ma|a Bogdanoff. Petersburg,
te St.'Petersburg,,
| ..... w Laferme
w garetton in vele soorten met on zonder mondatuk verkrijgbaar
"zijnn den prijs van at f 0.60 tot f 10.00 per 100 stuks. ,,
"o Ook Cigaretten-Tabak van at / 1.00 tot f 14.00 per russ. pondUr:-
F, t is van genoemde fabricken in den handel.
p -- Allc merkn- zijn in Nederland wettig gcdcponeerd,. o4 *nainaak
"d to voorkomcen.
C : Met do meeste acting, rE, Dw.Dienkor,
S Amsterdam. Z. SCHONFELD, :inporteur. -.,

The card was mailed in the Netherlands and Cigarette tobacco [for 'roll your own'] from the
has a portion of a Scott No. 34 still attached. above named manufacturers is also available at Fl.
1,00 to Fl. 14,00 per Russian pound.
Translation of the text is provided by Ivo Steyn as
follows: All brands have been registered in the Netherlands, to
prevent imitation.
It is a recognized fact that the smoking of cigarettes With the highest esteem,
in the Netherlands is on the rise. However, many of Your Honor's Humble Servant,
the smoking gentlemen have not been able to taste Z. Sch6nfcld, importer"
the pleasure of smoking a real Russian cigarette, for
most of the cigarettes which are called 'Russian' are (vertically at left) "Please also inquire about
only called thus, because they sport a Russian text
and the Russian eagle; in effect, they are bogus. imported Russian cigarette shells (real paper 'Le
dernier cartouche' and with hygienic cotton-
If your honor wants to be certain of acquiring genu- wool.)"
ine imported Russian cigarettes, then let it be the (diagonally in boldface) "Test these products at
productsof the largest and most famous manufactur- y .
your supplier.
ers in Russia, Bogdanoff Company and Laferme
Company, in St. Petersburg, the cigarettes of which
are available in many varieties, with and without
mouthpiece, at a price of Fl. 0,50 to Fl. 10,00 per 100.

Rossica Journal Number 122 59
April 1994

Activities of the Near East Relief in the Caucasus

by Peter A. Michalove

The efforts of the Near East Relief (NER) are When the United States entered the war in
not a well-known story nowadays, but during the April 1917, diplomatic relations with Turkey
First World War and the following years, this were cut, but no state of war existed between the
organization provided food, housing and medi- two countries, and relief activities continued
cal assistance to hundreds of thousands of Arme- uninterrupted. However, the American relief
nian refugees fleeing the Turkish massacres. workers in Turkey were made attaches of the
After the war, the NER continued its operations Swedish Legation, which assumed the care of
in the Caucasus and the Middle East, providing American interests in Turkey.
education and technical assistance, running the Eventually hospitals and relief stations were
orphanages it had established, and placing the established in all the parts of the Turkish Empire
orphans in homes and jobs. to which the Armenians had fled, as well as in
During 1915 reports began to appear in the neighboring Persia. In addition, many Arme-
West of Turkish deportations and massacres of nians fled to the Russian Caucasus. An early
ethnic Armenians in the Turkish Empire. Be- Russian advance into northeastern Turkey as far
cause of Turkish military censorship, many of as Van attracted Turkish Armenians, who sought
the early reports were cryptic references in letters the Russian's protection. When the Russians
from Western teachers and missionaries at the retreated in August 1915, most of the Armenian
scene. But in September 1915, Henry and other non-Moslem population of northeast-
Morganthau, the American Ambassador to Tur- ern Turkey tried to escape behind the retreating
key, cabled an explicit description of the depor- Russians. By 12 August 1915 there were an
stations to the State Department, concluding, "The estimated 80,000 refugees at Echmiadzin in Rus-
destruction of the Armenian race in Turkey is sian Armenia, with more coming daily.2 The
rapidly progressing."' American consul in Tiflis, F. Willoughby Smith,
This cable led to an emergency meeting on 16 soon asked the Relief Committee for funds and
September at which a committee of philanthro- workers to feed and shelter over 300,000 Arme-
pistsandreligiousleadersfamiliarwith the Middle nian refugees in the Russian Caucasus. A further
East was formed. Originally called simply the Russian advance into Turkey, again followed by
Armenian Relief Committee, and latertheAmeri- a retreat, brought still more refugees by 1917.
can Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, The local resources and meager relief efforts
the group was able to raise and forward $100,000 available were overwhelmed.
to Ambassador Morgenthau by October 1915, With the end of the war, it became possible to
only a month after his original cable. These funds ship supplies across the Black Sea to the Caucasus
were distributed to diplomatic, educational and from Constantinople. Figure 1 shows a 1921
missionary groups in various parts of the Turkish cover from the Caucasian Branch of the NER in
Empire to provide food and medical assistance to Constantinople, where it was mailed through a
the Armenianrefugees.Theworkofthesegroups British post office. This cover is addressed to
was a source of further, verifiable information on James L. Barton, the Chairman of the original
the deportations and made it obvious that the Relief Committee and subsequently Chairman of
relief effortwould have to be a continuing project the NER's Board of Trustees. Relief workers
as the needs of the refugees continued, and more arrived in the Caucasus to find a half a million
people were becoming refugees every day. It was Armenian refugees starving there.3 The Near
important to send not only money, but doctors, East Relief (which was incorporated under that
nurses, and relief workers. name by an Act of Congress in 1919), along with
60 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

,:, ., -,' ".' :- * ':.:,,:.. .:- .
.-'W''*e AN K t nS5 RE-LIC-F-

............si "
,...P1 RESW

"- ... .. SBOSTON -..
.. MASS. "


Figure 1.

the American Relief Administration and the Red telegraph, telephone, post, and courier ser-
Cross, provided almost $29 million in aid to vice, and will secure for the Near East Relief
refugees in the Caucasus between January 1919 the same priority in the expeditious transmis-
and July 1920, and a third of a million people sion of messages as may be enjoyed by the
were fed daily.4 Government...
The Turkish invasion of November 1920 and
then the Soviet invasion interrupted work until 21. For the receipt and forwarding of mail of
early 1921, although some relief workers re- the Near East Relief the following regula-
mained in Armenia throughout the period. But tions are mutually accepted:
the imposition of Soviet control in the Caucasus Outgoing mail-Mail bags containing
brought the advantage that the railway from outgoing mail of the Near East Relief may be
Batum was again open, and supplies could easily inspected and sealed with the Soviet diplo-
be transported to Leninakan (formerly matic seals by the representative of the Gov-
Aleksandropol'), where the NER had established ernment with the Near East Relief referred to
its headquarters in the Caucasus. The NER worked in Paragraph 19, or by a person authorized by
out good relations with the new Soviet govern- him. The bags thus sealed are inviolate and
ment, and branches of the NER (mostly orphan- are not subject to further inspection, and may
ages) were set up at Erivan, Dilijan, Stepanavan, be forwarded promptly without delay to their
and Karakalis. An experimental farm at Karakala destination.
was also organized by the NER, but the operation Incoming Mail-Incoming mail bags ar-
was not successful and was discontinued.5 riving from abroad are to be sealed at the
In 1922 a formal contract was signed be- point of entry by the representative of the
tween the Armenian SSR and the NER, in which Near East Relief and the representative of the
the Soviet government agreed to provide without Government without being opened or in-
cost railway services and other facilities for relief spected. The mail thus sealed is inviolate and
work. Two of the provisions of the contract are of will be immediately forwarded to the Near
philatelic significance. East Relief seals to remain unbroken until
arrival at destination."6
"15. The Government will grant to the Near
East Relief without cost the use of existing

Rossica Journal Number 122 61
April 1994

A further provision granted the NER the right relief work after the huge earthquakes in Arme-
of free access to steamers arriving at Batum or nia of 1926.
other ports of entry, and it is likely that mail to
and from the NER workers traveled via Batum. It is after the earthquake damage that statio-
These provisions of the contract suggest that nery of the NER appears, as in fig. 2, from
there had been disputes in the past about the December 1927. The NER had no establishments
censorship of NER mail. However, sealed mail in Georgia, where this cover originated, and the
bags (as with diplomatic pouches) are notori- sender must have been visiting Tbilisi when the
ously subject to clandestine censorship in the cover was mailed and routed through Moscow.
host country, and it is not clear how effective a Figure 3, an example of the same stationery
provision like this might have been. The contract used at Leninakan itself, was mailed in Novem-
also suggests that NER mail from the period ber 1930. This cover and others of the period pay
would not bear postage stamps. the normal Soviet rates of the time, and this one,
As the flow of new refugees came to an end, like fig. 2, is endorsed "lEPE3 MOCKBY" (via
the NER remained in Soviet Armenia through the Moscow), so the mailing provisions of the 1922
remainder of the decade. Its major projects were contract were evidently no longer in effect. Steve
the construction and maintenance of orphanages. Karadian has several examples of this stationery
The NER not only cared for the huge number of used in Armenia in the late 1920s, but fig. 3 is the
homeless children, but provided education and latest example of it I have seen.
training for the children, and followed up to It was in 1930 that the NER's original charter
monitor the progress of orphans placed in jobs ran out, and it was reorganized as the Near East
and families. Foundation. Since then the Foundation has con-
Later, in the 1920s, the main focus of the centrated its work not in Armenia, but in other
NER was not in the Caucasus, but in the Balkans areas of the Near East, the Balkans and, more
and the Middle East. But work in the Caucasus recently, in Africa.
continued, and the NER was involved in the


Mrs.Cora L.Ellis j
Camellus, New York, '

U.S.A'. Pp. I{ope 3.nic

,' .-";

l epe3 IOCKBy

Figure 2.
62 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994






Figure 3.
Thanks to Steve Karadian for information on 2. Ibid, p. 81.
the NER and for the use of covers from his 3. Ibid, p. 120.
collection. Covers shown in figs. 1 and 3 of this 4. Ibid, pp. 124-126.
article are from his remarkable holdings of NER 5. Ross, Frank A., C. Luther Fry, and Elbridge
material. Sibley, The Near East and American Philan-
thropy, New York, 1929, p. 77.
1. James L. Barton, Story of Near East Relief. 6. Barton, pp. 132-135.
(1915-1930), New York, 1930, p. 4.

The Vologda-Arkhangel'sk Railway Line

translated by Howard Weinert

In the British Journal of Russian Philately following locations via Nos. 193-194: Sukhona,
No. 75, L. Tann and A. Epstein cover this section Morzhenga, Semigorodnyi monastyr, Kubino,
of the Moscow-Arkhangel'sk Railway and they Punduga, Vozhega, Lukhtonga, Konosha,
question if anybody knows of valid dates. Vandysh, Nyandoma, Shozhma, Lepsha,
The 10 December 1897 issue of Plessetskaya, Yemtsa, Obozerskaya, Devashka,
Pravitel'stvennyi Vestnik covers the establish- Tundra, Isakogorka, and Arkhangel'skayaPristan.
ment of mail transport on the Vologda- [TR Note: From other issues of Pravitel'stvennyi
Arkhangel'sk section of the Moscow-Yaroslavl' Vestnik, we know that provisional traffic started 17
Railway via postal wagons No. 193 (Vologda- November 1897 and that regular traffic commenced
Arkhangel'sk) and No. 194 (Arkhangel'sk- on 22 October 1898. Also, a Railway Postal Section
(>flnO-ZhDPO) opened at the Isakogorka station in
Vologda). Post-and-Telegraph establishments-ZhDPO) opened at the Isakogorka station in
Ss o l a April 1898 which handled all types ofcorrespondence.]
could send ordinary letters and wrappers to the
Rossica Journal Number 122 63
April 1994

Registered Mail in Russia, a Follow-Up

by George S. Miskin

Registered covers from Russia have fasci- On close examination of the styles, it would
nated me for years and I was glad to see the article appear that the printing of the labels was carried
by Noel Warr in Rossica issue #121. It is in out in the major city in each province. For ex-
response to Noel's penultimate paragraph and ample, those towns in Vitebsk Province (Dvinsk,
the insistence of the Editor that this article is Kreslavl', Lovzha, etc.) are quite delicately printed
written with the hope that other articles will come with a thin frame line.
forward on the subject. This topic has only been Different labels were used for chief post
researched and published minimally, offices, post branch offices, telegraph offices,
Having studied some 150 of these primitive and railway post offices where these existed in
labels, and recording details of a further 70 odd, the same town. St. Petersburg heads the list with
I have drawn conclusions that will either nine differently worded labels (not counting the
strengthen or demolish the knowledge of the variations in parentheses in the enclosed list),
subject. I would greatly appreciate receiving any overprints, or manuscript additions. A scarce
information on the subject from our readers. SPB label and a more common one are illustrated
It appears that the introduction of these labels here to show but two of the different labels that
nationwide was one of the most successful, if not were in use. In the future I plan to cover this area
the most successful, operations of the Russian or more fully in another article.
later Soviet Postal Administration. I have yet to ..-. ".--
see an item of registered mail from 1899 not Cl OT..
bearing a label or handstamp-even remote tiny -
villages had their own label.
The 1st of January 1899 was a Friday in I
Russia. The earliest recorded use of a label is :
from 3 January 1899, a Sunday, as noted by Noel. Scarce label from 23.12.1899, 6th branch office.
Ihave a Rezhitsa label on cover dated 19.5.1899. C
The label nearly covers the original manuscript i
registration! The latest use I have seen is Tien
Tsin in Harry von Hofmann's book ZAKAZNOE- :
RECOMMANDIRT dated 24.08.1903. Of those I '
have recorded: 195 are in 1899; 14 in 1900; 2 in Common labelfrom 9.4.1899, 2nd branch office.
1901; and one in 1903. Apart from the types
issued for use in St. Petersburg and Moscow, they Initially, only a few towns did not use labels,
are all in Cyrillic and intended for internal mail. but had handstamps. The ones I know about are:
With the exceptions of Fellin, St. Petersburg, and Kasimov-violet handstamp on numbered pieces
Moscow, none of these labels were printed with of perforate paper,
a "Z" or an "R," although at least one label, a Riga Libava-two types of colored handstamps on
Zh.D., is known with a handstamped "Z." pieces of imperforate paper numbered by
The majority of these labels was printed hand,
using black ink on white imperforate paper. How- Lugansk-violet handstamp on pieces of imper-
ever, as can be seen from the list provided in this forate paper numbered by hand,
article of known usage, some labels are on col- Mitava-red handstamp,
ored paper, and some are perforate. Vladivostok-red and blue handstamps.

64 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

The list provided on the next page consists of Lyublin to Berlin. The second, illustrated below,
those places that I have recorded using labels. is just two days later on 9 April 1883 on a cover
Unless otherwise stated, all are printed in black from Moscow to Leipzig.
ink on white imperforate paper. Entries marked On the subject of "R" labels; Moscow used
as "color?" are for items that I have seen in the second style "R" label from 1900 to 1929.
auction catalogs, etc., but for which the color was Odessa also issued an "R on the right" label in
not given. 1900 as did the Russian Post Offices in the
In my collection are two covers with the Levant. Constantinople used an "R" handstamp
dotted "R" in circle marking pre-dating the 3 from 1899 to about 1902.1 have a single Kudinovo
January 1884 mentioned in Noel's article. The dated 20.3.22 with a red "R on the right" and no
first, dated 7 April 1883, is on a cover from frame lines.

{- .. .. .... .".... .. ; .. :.. '... ... *' ., ,; .. -,.. \ 1'. '' 4in

.. ... .. .. .-

Second earliest known use of the dotted "R" in a circle. Cover isfrom Moscow to Leipzig dated 9 April 1883.

I .I I. 9 "
r[ !

Moscow Foreign Dispatch Office mark which cancels the stamps
and appears on the reverse of the cover as well-enlarged 150%.

Rossica Journal Number 122 65
April 1994

O On label Notes On label Notes On label Notes
EKTBURG. Zh.D. perf. PINSK perf.
KAZAN' Zh.D. POCh. OTD. pale yellow, perf. RIGA TsENTR. POChT. KONT. green, perf. ditto. altered in manuscript
KREMENCh. Zh. P.O. perf. ST. PETERS- red
KUSINSKAYa UFIMSK. GUB. perf. GOR. POChT. OTD. (may be red
KUL'DZhA color? optd. 'SPB' or 'SPBurg')
KUYaL'NITs color? GOR. TEL. KONT. (may be red
LIBAVA P.T.K. green optd. 'SPBurg')
> LIBAVA Zh. P.O. perf. S.-PETERBURG GOR. TEL. buff Note: It has been my experience that
- LODZ' P.T.K. PETROK. G. perf. and imperf. No. KONT.
S LODZ' 1 GOR. P.O. PETROK. G. SPBurg NIK. Zh.D. the abes often have the name
S LOVZhA SEBEZh of the location incorrectly spelled.
S LYaNDSKORONY SERGIEVSK Many of you will obviously notice
S MEDVEDSKOE P.T.O. ShLISSEL'BURG this when reading the list of locations.
S MORShANSK SIMFEROPOL' The locations are listed as they are
S MOSCOU 'R' perf. SMOLENSK on the labels
MOSKVA GOR. OTD. pale yellow, perf. STARORUSSKAYa P.T.K.
3 MOSKVA POChTAMT pale yellow, perf. TERVAS purple, perf.
S ditto, optd. 'Mazilovo' pale yellow, perf. TIFLIS perf.

Places known that used labels.

Cover from Moscow to England, dated 21.1.7929, bearing the latest recorded use of the first type of registration
I -I
:' .,lj^ ' ",' "r

April 1994
'-- "i

:".. ". ,

'i '. ..

/ .. .. .

Cover from Moscow to England, dated 21.1.1929, bearing the latest recorded use of the first type of registration

April 19-

April 1994

S o
I' I ... "1 I '.

Earliest recorded use ofa handstamped "R" label in Constantinople is illustrated on this cover sent to Khar'kiv
.^ .r .. --

: i c. ,.

April 1994

.- ,; i, '

The Mail Run to Nikolaevsk-na-Amure, Winter 1919

by Edward Rasmussen

This article has to do with military mail, not served by Fieldpost Office (FPO) #4 at
civilian mail, but the physical problems to be Khabarovsk. Even after FPO #29 was opened at
overcome by either were certainly the same. Nikolaevsk, Khabarovsk remained its doorway
Therefore, the following account of a trip by a to the outside world. From the time ice broke up
Japanese officer involved in the Allied Interven- in the spring until the river froze in the fall,
tion in Siberia, 1918-22, who traveled from generally early May to late October, the Amur
Khabarovsk to Nikolaevsk in the dead of winter, River was the main highway between Khabarovsk
should be of interest to the general reader as and Nikolaevsk. It was navigable even for ocean-
much as to military mail specialists, going vessels at least as far as Khabarovsk.
Most of the military activity during the Inter- According to Japanese fieldpost records, the over-
vention took place along the Trans-Siberian land distance was 230 miles, while the water
Railway, the main artery for all life in the region, route through the twists, turns and meanders of
but Nikolaevsk, strategically located at the mouth the river was 569 miles, but the trip by riverboat
of the Amur River and a center of fishing indus- took about the same time and was much pleasanter
try, was considered important despite its remote- than jolting over wagon tracks, so the mail along
ness, and was occupied by the Japanese in Sep- with passengers and other cargo traveled by river
tember 1918, less than a month after the first as long as weather permitted.
Allied landings at Vladivostok. After the river froze, there was no choice but
The Japanese fieldpost system did not estab- travel overland using horse-drawn wagons, when
lish a post office at Nikolaevsk until the follow- possible, or sledges when the wheel tracks disap-
ing spring. Meanwhile, the troops there were peared under ice and snow.

Nikoaivsk. Okkd

-T ., Lt s'FLQM.

Hand-drawn map of the Intervention area.
Rossica Journal Nu mbr 122 69
April 1994
April 1994

'si ,";, .. .--: , "
4 ...i'. .

f3l^ .,.:, : :. ..'.v

aC^^^o :,* ',';'';.:3'^ '^: '
Sin, A ,*T

""-e ,

Less than two weeks after Japanese Twelfth Division. ',".. ".' "';''.'-."''-- -' ..
troops first landed at Vladivostok, 11 August 1918, its .' .....
14th Infantry Regiment was in action at Kraevskii, north ; :" .:
of Spasskaya, in the first, and last, pitched battle of the g" 5 "" '" ;':-.;- "
Intervention, 23-25 August. This fukan hagaki (letter *r . ,......
card) with 3-sen imprint, overprinted Gunji Yubin (Mili-
tary Mail), wassentby a soldier ofthe 2nd Company ofthe Sent from Fieldpost Office No. 4 at Khabarovsk about the
14th Infantry from the newly opened Fieldpost No. 2 at time Lt. Shibata left for Nikolaevsk It was sent by a
Nikol'sk on the 29th. Another Gunji Yubin marking was colleague ofhis on the Twelth Division staff, 26 December
added to the handstamp to the right of the imprint. 1918.

The following account of such a trip by "I heard that thebattalion commander(atNikolaevsk)
sledge is translated from an interview by and hischiefsubordinateweretoberelieved, andthat
Takahashi Osamu included in Vol. IV of his I was to go there. Travel was by sledge. It was awful.
You could think of it as the Siberian edition of the 53
history of the Siberian InterventionentitledHahei stations of the Tokaido, but 53 stations of snow and
(published by Asahi Shimbunsha, Tokyo, 1977.) ice beyond the power of words to express! The
The man being interviewed is Shibata Uichi, stations were for the horses pulling the sledges. The
later a Lt. General, but in 1918 a young officer horses were changed there, and as soon as the horses
with the 24th Infantry Regiment of the Twelfth werechanged, immediately off again!We hadbrought
food to eat on the run, so the only break was while
Division from Kyushu, the southernmost of horses were being changed. Ah, at least we could
Japan's main islands. Two companies of the 2nd drink some hot tea!
Battalion of that regiment had been sent to garri-
son Nikolaevsk in September 1918, but Shibata "Of course, there was no such thing as sleeping in a
had remained at Division H in Khabarovsk. hotel in town. We slept down amongst the baggage.
had remained at Division HQ in Khabarovsk.
However, there was one place en route where there
Toward the end of the year, he says, was a chance for a fairly good rest. I met a young
woman there. I think it was called NizhneTambusk?
We had left on December 30 and this was on the third
70 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

day, so it was New Year's Day, January 1, 1919. In the middle of that year, the Twelfth Divi-
"This person came up and spoke to me. She asked, sion was relieved by the Fourteenth Division and
'Why would the Japanese Army come to such a place returned to Japan. Other troops were in garrison
as this?' So I gave her the official answer that we had at Nikolaevsk that fall when Triapitsyn's parti-
come to the aid of the Russian people because Ger- san force, which included his Chief of Staff, Nina
man and Austrian POWs were making trouble for the M L, c t t w a
Russian authorities. 'But,' she asked, 'isn't it true
that none of them are in this area?' Here I was rassed the sledges after the river froze, making
stumped, because certainly there were none such in a overland travel dangerous. It is not surprising
place like this. Well, what could I say? When duty that covers from FPO #29 (see illustration on
calls, you go. But what she said was true... whatever next page) are not only scarce but rare; in fact,
the reason Japan exerts imperial rule in this way, for
the sakeof the Japanese people, the government must one has been to date the lteratur
change! in Japan. A few months after the office opened at
the end of May, Nikolaevsk began to be increas-
"Until we departed, she stuck with me talking in this t end of ay, Niklaevsk began to be icreas-
way. Just as we were parting, I asked her name, and ingly isolated. After the last verboat left for
she replied 'Nina.' At the time I didn't know, but this Khabarovsk on 15 October, little if any mail
was the Nina who was later to become notorious. She would have been able to get in or out.
caused a stir in the world as the mistress ofTriapitsyn, At the end of January 1920, Triapitsyn began
the head man in the Nikolaevsk Incident, and said to encircling the city, and following his assault in
be his chief of staff. At that time she was not armed e ,
especially, but seemed like any ordinary traveler, a a w
was lost.
"That trip, we arrived at Nikolaevsk on January 3rd." When a Japanese rescue force finally reached
the city in the spring, they found it in ruins and
S/ 'full of corpses. At their approach, Triapitsyn
t l instituted a massacre not only of his unarmed
Prisoners, the remains of the garrison, and all
S;.1 Japanese, women and children included, but hun-
"dreds of other residents of the town as well. As
'r many as 3,000 are said to have died. This was the
,' -1 Nikolaevsk Incident, as a consequence of which
SJapan occupied all of Sakhalin Island to force
S: reparations and indemnity, until a treaty was
t', .* '. concluded with the Soviet government in 1925.
S- ,, Triapitsyn's own followers were so revolted
S : ; : by the magnitude of his crimes that they were
determined to remove him from command. Within
o a matter of weeks, he was arrested with several of
S' his closest supporters, including his lover, Nina.
"- : They were executed by firing squad on 8 July
T .1920.
This was not the end of the story for the
Japanese fieldpost at Nikolaevsk; however, the
o -Y9q13OI,. d.c.or:, ,uI I1, - center of administration for the area now shifted
........ .r..... n,... '"...... to Aleksandrov on Sakhalin Island where the

'., "- headquarters of the newly formed Sakhalin Ex-
peditionary EF fieldpost offices began with #50.
Adaptedfrom a POW card, this was mailed at Fieldpost FPO #50 officially opened at Alksandrov as of27
Relay Station No. 6 at Bochkarevo the same day that May 1920. The ill-fated FPO #29 at Nikolaevsk,
Shibata spoke with Nina Lebedeva, 1 January 1919.
Rossica Journal Number 122 71
April 1994

stationed in the Chita area, was authorized
.. .to negotiate an armistice with the nascent

conclusion of the Gongotta Agreement on
L (':^ 17 July 1920, which among other provi-
," sions required Japan to withdraw from the
Siberian mainland except for Vladivostok
and the adjoining area north to Nikol'sk.
S.' In the course of this withdrawal, FPO #51
"at Nikolaevsk was closed on 23 August,
S reopening 2 September at Ruikov on
SSakhalin Island.
S- Relations with the Far Eastern Republic
S- deteriorated in the months that followed as
i Communists in the FER worked to gain the
support of the peasant majority and ulti-
Smately succeeded in gaining control. As
tensions increased, Sakhalin Expedition-
S, ary Force troops returned to the mainland,
I .and FPO #53 opened at DeKastri on 3 July
-t-. L and FPO #54 at Nikolaevsk on 4 July 1921.
The Washington Conference which be-
l gan in November 1921 and continued for
Ir several months was to discuss limitations
on armaments. While involved in negotia-
/ tions regarding such matters as numbers
S/ and armament of battleships, Japan found it
.. ........ ... .. politic to announce on 22 June 1922 that
they would completely withdraw from the Sibe-
Only example reported to date of a card postmarked
FieldpostOfficeNo. 29, the sender waspart ofthe doomed rian mainland by the end of October. Conse-
garrison at Nikolaevsk, 8 September 1919. (Photocopy quently, the troops at Nikolaevsk and DeKastri
courtesy of Mr. Y. Aoki.) were pulled back to Sakhalin Island, and the
closing of FPOs # 53 and # 54 on 26 September
which obviously ceased operations no later than 1922 marked the end of the Japanese fieldpost in
23 January 1920, was kept open on the official the Nikolaevsk area.
records until 14 June. It was then abolished, and Beginning in 1921, mail destined for the
the next day, 15 June, FPO #51 opened at Army field posts during the winter was sent to the
Nikolaevsk. southern ports of Maoka (Kholmsk) or Odomari
Meanwhile, a major change was occurring in (Korsakov). From there the civilian postal au-
the region east of Lake Baikal. In April 1920, the thorities, under contract with the army, carried it
Far Eastern Republic proclaimed its indepen- to the 50th parallel which marked the boundary
dence with its capital at Chita, and was quickly between Russian and Japanese territory. Army
recognized by Moscow. Japan saw it must move fieldpost personnel took it from there. As with
in order not to lose the opportunity to realize its the earlier mail run to Nikolaevsk, shelters were
dream ofan independent, non-Communistbuffer provided for changing horses, but in North
state on the neighboring mainland. The general Sakhalin, reindeer and dog sleds were also used.
commanding the Japanese Fifth Division, then

72 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

The Corinphila Auction of Zemstvos

by Melvin M. Kessler

One of the recent grand auctions of zemstvo unfamiliar with zemstvo philately a good insight
stamps and covers was held on 28 October 1993 into collecting the fascinating rural post and its
by Corinphila Auktionen, a distinctive and famed postal history.
auction house in Zurich, Switzerland. The I selected eight lots (seven with illustrations)
zemstvo lots offered totaled 478 (Nos. 6404- to present. The illustrations are from the catalog.
6882) with three additional lots of Wenden, two The zemstvo names used in the catalog have been
miscellaneous lots, and three of different zemstvos slightly altered in a few cases to conform to
issued during the Civil War. The last lot, No. Chuchin's spellings. Provinces are given in pa-
6890A, was C. Schmidt's Die Postwetzeichen rentheses. Some of the lot descriptions have been
der russischen Landschaftsdmter (erroneously shortened due to space limitations. Catalog num-
called the large Schmidt) with seven magazines bers used are Schmidt's. The prices are given in
bound in two volumes listing zemstvos from US dollars (calculated using one franc = US
Ardatov to Ustsysol'sk, including supplements. $.62); estimated preceded by an "E" and prices
Only 10 copies were assembled. The estimated realized by an "R." I might add that there were
price was SFr 5,000 (US $3100). The work many lots where the item originated in a zemstvo
realized SFr 6,000 (US $3720). and went to a foreign destination or vice versa
Some of the lots that did not sell were avail- (foreign combinations) in the sale, but the photo-
able after the auction. There were 281 photo- graphs were too small and, thus, are not included.
graphs of zemstvo stamps and covers. Over 300 Recently, there appears to be more interest in
lots were sold, many above the estimates. The collecting the zemstvo post. The number of
collection had been in the United States since zemstvo stamps and covers available on the mar-
1923, when its owner emigrated to this country, ket has increased over the last few years.
and contained many rarities purchased from the Although there is ample literature on the
Faberg6 and Baughman sales held, respectively zemstvo post already available, more research
in 1940 and 1971. needs to be conducted regarding the operations
What further enhanced or singled out the of the individual zemstvos. This is not an easy
Corinphila zemstvo offerings was a page and a task since most of the literature is in Russian or
half of text describing the Russian zemstvo post. German. Yet, I think it is something that needs to
Such an addition is seldom provided in auction be accomplished. I would appreciate hearing
catalogs. Corinphila is to be commended that the your viewpoints on this subject. My address is
introduction gave such an excellent historical 526 Cheshire Avenue, NW, Fort Walton Beach
overview of the zemstvo post. It provided those Florida 32547, USA.


Lot No. 6414. Kozelets (Chernigov), 1867, reddish bronze with small yellow spot on back and at bottom. Only 25 copies
recorded, Schmidt No. 1. One of the earliest zemstvo stamps issued. E-124.00, R-136.40.

Rossica Journal Number 122 73
April 1994

i-, I.. /. ?9.

Lot No. 6556. Novgorod (Novgorod), 1868. Cover posted at St. Petersburg/Nikolaevsk Railway station on 14 December
1868. Returned to St. Petersburg because it was posted on the wrong train. Resent. On the reverse "letter found in
mailbox without stamps." Double-ovalDOPLA TIT'(to pay) 10 on front. Franked in Novgorod with 3-kop. zemstvo.
Schmidt No. 3. E-1550, R-2232.

/^ E /t LotNo. 6578. Yelets (Orel), 1875/ Lot No. 6671. (not illustrated) Stamps of Poltava Prov-
S1 80. 5-kop. violet (rouletted ince, 1903/19. Balance of510 stamps used and unused
C c 10-12). Few copies known, with 20 cover, shades, pairs, blocks, proofs, varieties,
SchmidtNo. 6. E-124.00, R- plate reconstruction, sheets, cancellations. Schmidt
"166.78 Nos. 1-151. E-4960, R-4650.

1 ..4

Lot No. 6697. Dankov (Ryazan) and Bogorodsk (Moscow). Dankov 3-kop. black and green canceled by light violet
strike, and Bogorodsk, canceled 16 September 1894, with 7-kop. Imperial stamp in blue at Dankov. Cover is dated
2-9-1894. Use of two different rural issues on one cover is rare. Schmidt Nos. 8, 86. E-2790, R-2790
74 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

01. ,

Lot No. 6672. Priluky (Poltava), 1887/93. Letter sheet to Priluky with 5-kop. black on brownish paper. Stamp with
manuscript cancellation, 17 November 1891. Schmidt No. 8. E-465, R-620

Lot No. 6847. Kadnikov
(Vologda), 1903.
Zemstvo stationery

PI from Kadnikov with
7-kop. Imperial to
K Narva. Possibly
i ,P. )k I unique. (No Schmidt
.: numberforthis item.)

lll. m.
is 0?,^ ^/6

Lot No. 6889. Zmeinogorsk (Tomsk), 1918/19. 35-kop. black and brown on yellowish
1r0ip F i paper. Two copies Type I. (No Schmidt number.) E-24.00, R-347.20.

Rossica Journal Number 122 75
April 1994

Free-Frank Mail in Imperial Russia

by George G. Werbizky

Occasionally one finds a cover that went letter was to be delivered directly to him (s-
through the postal system without having any co6cTBeHHbl pywK v sobstvennyya ruki-
stamps affixed or postage due marks. This does into his own hands). On the reverse is a rectangu-
not include military or P.O.W. mail, which all lar St. Petersburg arrival mark which was in use
countries send postage free-is there a country between 1844 and 1854 when the Town Post
that does not follow this custom? switched to delivering mail six times a day. The
Free-frank mail (JIbroTHoe noI-TOBoe St. Petersburg mark reads "Town Post, 30 De-
OTnpaB.neHHe L'gotnoe Pochtovoe Otprav- cember 1848, 12 o'clock (noon)." The number
lenie) as discussed in this short article are those 124 in the upper left-hand corner probably refers
covers that are clearly non-military, yet went to the incoming mail count making this the 124th
through the mail system with no associated costs. item. This letter is straight-forward and is self-
The intent of this article is to open the subject for explanatory. Dave Skipton covers this subject in
further investigation and only briefly present detail in his article "The Emperor's Mail," Ros-
information on the subject found in official docu- sica No. 113/114, 1990.
ments to date. More research is definitely re- Other covers do not readily offer an explana-
quired. tion stating why or how they went through the
It should not surprise anyone to discover that mails free of charge and leave the average collec-
a cover addressed to "His Imperial Majesty" tor guessing at the reason. Figure 2 is such a
went through the mail for free. Imperial mail- cover, and it leaves me wondering why the "Edi-
handling articles are in the postal regulations of trial Board of 'The Industry and Trade Finance
1869 and 1909. The cover shown in fig. 1 is a Herald'of the Finance Ministry" would have this
letter addressed to "His Imperial Majesty," who, privilege since I was not aware it was govern-
at the time, was Nicholas I, 1825-1855. The ment mail.


Figure 1. Cover addressed to the Tsar. Front to the left and reverse portion showing seal and receipt mark to the
right (both reduced to fit).

76 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Figure 2. The cover is addressed to Mr. V. Ya. Mol'don in Valk, Lifland Province (front at top). It was mailedfrom St.
Petersburg on 12January 1907, and arrived at its destination a day later. The sender is the above-mentionedjournal.
The green paper seal attests to that (at bottom). Valk arrival mark of 13 January 1907.

Rossica Journal Number 122 77
April 1994
--7 -

*4j.l^ < ^ ;

^ ^ ^ ^_________________

Fiue2 hecvri adesdt M.V a Mldni akLfadPrinefotatop.twsmildrmS.

April 1994

Rather than continue guessing, the prudent 11. Employment Office for Veterans of the
approach is to find out what literature is avail- Russian-Japanese War under the aus-
able. The recently completed partial listing of the pices of Her Imperial Highness,
Rossica library by Dave Skipton, besides being Aleksxandra Fedorovna.
an outstanding work, yields four titles on the The 1906 "Calendar" (reads more like an
topic, with one shedding some light on the sub- almanac) mentions free-frank mail, but in less
ject. Scarcity of the material suggests that little detail than the "Rules" mentioned above.
research has been accomplished on this subject The Belkin notes yielded a wealth of very
and subsequently published. The Rossica library, specific information as follows:
Gary Combs, and the postal notes composed by 1. Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 15,22
Valentin Belkin turned out to be very helpful in July 1888 (Official Edition).
understanding the nature of free-frank mail. Some "Concerning mailing of correspondence by public
of the information gleaned is contained in the officials and offices which carry out the responsi-
followin paragraphsbilities of a volost (BO.OCTb a district including
villages), such as: village and 'aul' (ay.n vil-
lage in the Caucasus) elders, colonization admin-
Documents Describing Free- istrators, stanitsa (cTaHua a Cossack village),
Frank Mail can use, just as volost' administrators, the privi-
lege of free-frank mailing of ordinary letters as
long as these letters have an appropriate seal.-
In "Rules Dealing with the Postal Service" signed: Lt. Gen. Bezak."
(flocTaHOBneHis no fIOn TOBOI laacTH -
Postanovleniya po Pochtovoi chasti), St. Peters- The statement about an appropriate seal
burg, 1909, the heading of chapter IX is "Free- is important because examples encoun-
Frank Postal Sendings, mailed inside the em- tered and those shown in this article have
pire." In this chapter a list is provided of Govern- these seals applied to the back flap. They
ment and private institutions that had the free- are either paper seals (fig. 2) or are in the
frank privilege when sending postcards and let- form of rubber stamps (fig. 4 and others).
ters. The list is not complete, but does provide an 2. Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 8, 17
excellent idea of the various categories as well as April 1889. This notice states that post
a starting point for further research. Included in offices must keep track of how many
this list are: free-frank letters were sent by the vari-
1. Government offices and officers at all ous government officials and offices.
levels; Those listed as eligible are: courts, court
2. Official court correspondence; officials, police offices and officials,
3. Military HQ mail, including mobiliza- zemstvo offices, military regiments and
tion schedules, topographicalmaps, etc.; brigades. A total of 21 official titles and
4. Parcels with postage and revenue offices are listed.
stamps; 3. Post-and-Telegraph Journal No. 23, 30
5. All levels of civilian governing bodies November 1890. This is a short notice
and individuals; that letters sent to the Meteorological
6. Welfare and agricultural offices which Observatory of the Novorossiisk Univer-
are a part of a zemstvo organization; sity (Odessa) containing meteorological
7. Scientists, scientific, welfare, religious, observations are to be accepted by the
and other institutions which receive post offices and forwarded post free.
Government funds; In the British Journal of Russian Philately
8. Private railroads; No. 60, October 1983, pp. 32-34, R.L. Joseph's
9. Imperial Russian Geographic Society; article "A New Type of'Bez Plat'?" illustrates an
10. Imperial Academy of Science; interesting example of free-frank mail. The illus-
78 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

treated cover is from the "Baltic Society for the in Imperial Russia. This search for postal docu-
Encouragement of the Melioration of Moors/ ments cannot be considered complete; undoubt-
Marshes." Printed on the bottom of the cover is edly there are more documents to be found.
the phrase "Based upon 4, 16 June 1905 law, Examples of free-frank mail that follow are an
this letter is to be forwarded without cost." attempt to show the breadth of this field with
The quoted regulations show that many insti- many avenues for further study.
tutions and individuals had free-frank privileges

Court Matters


.-.-. .m ,.

.. .. .. .. ... ..*

Figure 3 illustrates an official notification folded in the form of a letter from the Kingdom of Prussia, a county court
(Landgericht) to the Chairman of the Justice Assembly of District II, Petrokov Province for delivery to a Russian
Citizen. [This is not a piece of official Russian-initiated correspondence because it is coming from a foreign
power. However, it did apparently go through the Russian mail system with no franking. Perhaps free-franking
crossed international borders as well?-Ed.]
Rossica Journal Number 122 79
April 1994

Police Matters

I 26 8
B, -., P:

'611s Dap. aecxazo Oeps.1e'.
S....... .....O.y Hcnp.B..Ky.


Figure 4 illustrates a cover from the Chief of Police in Warsaw to the Captain of the police in the district of Kalyazin,

Warsaw dispatch mark, and a arrival mark from Kalyazin.

80 Rossica Journal Number 122
S"April 1994
80 Rs o
"Ari 19s94

April 1994

Zemstvo Business

roenoHnHy f'iacaHMy C.-IleTepGyprcKaro

ry epHeKaro 3eMearo Co6paHif.


N ....gd

OnT C.-IIeTepyprcrobl I'yepHcKOn 3emcRofl YLupaBR.

Rossica Journal Numbcr 122 81
April 1994
April 1994

Religious Organizations

/ ii46C / _\ '

;- 1.w

Figure 7 illustrates a folded letter sent to Roman Catholic Priest (KC&Ha3-Ksyendz) Yarmilskii, the Dean of the

S ...v ," .'

"82 Rossica Journal Number 122

Figure 7 illustrates a folded letter sent to Roman Catholic Priest (Kceni-w-Ksyendz) Yarmitskii, the Dean of the
Religious School in Seradz'. The letter is sealed with the school's handslamp and has dispatch and arrival postmarks.

Written messages have been sealed in some for using paper seals instead of wax. His premise
way for a long time, with the most common is that paper seals are easier to use,while allowing
method being the wax seal. Wax melts easy, the senders to add their special identification,
cools rapidly, and allows the sender to place or packet contents, or both.
impress a sign or some other form of identifica- The requirement that a seal must be affixed
tion into the wax before it solidifies. As early as (3aKpenuneHbi neUaTrblo-zakrepleni pechat'yu)
200 years ago when envelopes came into use, is noted in the Post-and-Telegraph Journal. Al-
people thought that adhesive alone to seal letters though the seal design is not specified, it is
did not prevent unauthorized opening and subse- reasonable to expect the sender to use a seal with
quent reading of their private thoughts. Thus, the proper identification. Further, the seal could
wax seals were quite commonly used on all sorts be executed in several ways: a rubber stamp, a
of correspondence from private to official, wax seal, a paper seal resembling a postage
In the excellent article "Russian Paper Seals," stamp. This explains why letters thatwent through
Rossica No. 75, 1968, the father of Russian the mail free-frank often have these seals on the
erinnophilia, Emile Marcovitch, makes the case back of the cover, usually sealing the flap.

82 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Seals served not only as "closure items," but Item 4 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
were a postal requirement if the mail was sent office of Bessarabia.
free-frank. This gives us two basic uses of seals: Item 5 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
for free-frank mail (postal requirement); for ad- office of Kazan'.
ditional cover closure (optional) which is easier Item 6 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
than sealing it with wax. office of Nizhnii Novgorod.
Perhaps this is a new area of collecting and Item 7 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
one that can support original research by the office of Kursk.
collector as well as lead to articles and exhibits. Item 8 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
One could classify these seals as follows: office of Smolensk.
a. by type-i.e., rubber, wax, paper Item 9 is a paper seal from the Provincial zemstvo
b. category of sender-i.e., Government of- office of Kherson.
fice, zemstvo office, court, religious, etc. Item 10 is a paper seal from the Provincial
If enough material were collected, perhaps a zemstvo office of Ufa.
catalog could be produced. Military correspon- Item 11 is a paper seal from the Provincial
dence is excluded from this discussion since it is zemstvo office of Yaroslavl'.
normally handled as free-frank during war time. Items 12 and 13 are paper seals from the district
The collection could consist of: zemstvo office at Myshkin.
a. covers, wrappers only, regardless of the Item 14 is a paper seal from the district zemstvo
type of seal office at Karsun.
b. seal cutouts only Item 15 is a paper seal from the volost' office at
c. paper seals only Moshevo, Cherdyn' District, Perm Govern-
d. seals by category of sender ment.
e. or mixtures/combinations of the above Item 16 is a paper seal from the volost' office at
Yum, Cherdyn' District, Perm Government.
To embellish the topic, let us take a look at Item 17 is a paper seal from the volost' office at
some of the paper seals used by various agencies Pokcha, Cherdyn' District, Perm Govern-
that had the free-frank privilege. Official docu- ment.
ments refer to these seals as nea-TH, but neqaTKM Item 18 is a court office paper seal from the
could also be used. Perhaps a new name may be Novgorod Council Chamberwhich dealtwith
appropriate for these paper seals. The rationale is zemstvo and town matters.
simple, many seals already have the word near b
(pechat) as part of their identification. This article should be considered an intro-
The examples on the next page illustrate only duction into the field of free-frank mail. The
a few of the paper seals resembling postage subject of free-frank mail does not appear to
stamps from what surely must be in the thou- have been thoroughly explored. Clearly, this
sands. Marcovitch estimated that, in Imperial field is worth collecting, researching, exhibiting
Russia, Government institutions alone accounted and publishing the information.
for "over 4,000 varieties." Use the number sup- In conclusion, I will echo the words of Emile
plied in the brief description to identify the illus- Marcovitch in his 1968 article because I think
tration. they are apprproiate. Emile concluded his article
Item 1 is a Treasury paper seal from Birsk, Ufa by stating "With this article, I would like to call
Government. the attention of collectors of Russian stamps to
Item 2 is a Treasury paper seal from Kasimov, this intriguing category and try to awaken their
Ryazan' Government. interest so that they might be stimulated into
Item 3 is a Treasury paper seal from Cherdyn', collecting and studying the paper seals of Russia
Perm Government. which are so closely related to Russian philately
and erinnophilia."
Rossica Journal Number 122 83
April 1994

ao l ............. .._ ~-----
e4 g

0 m0


[The illustrations have been slightly reduced to fit onto the page--Ed.]

Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994
~P.3 w
of M IVA

t LaA It E T -b.
t .pt


BApril 199

Good Seats on the 70

by Dave Skipton

It is 1913. You're a leftist radical (probably allow the prisoner to send and receive mail. This
an RSDRP or SR member), and one of your isn't Stalinist Russia yet, you see, and allowing
friends has been caught and imprisoned. You'd inmates to correspond is an almost sacrosanct
like to communicate with him, but all you're right not to be denied lightly.
allowed to send is postcards, and you know they You, the correspondents, have just one great
will be read by a warden, a prosecutor, or a advantage, assuming that the opposition doesn't
gendarme, perhaps by all three. What to do? exercise its advantage #2: you know the ad-
Your opponents also have concerns. They dressee well, you share common experiences and
don't have a terribly high opinion of you or your you, being the conspiratorial sort that you are,
brand of politics, and they'd dearly love to catch have probably worked out a prearranged code or
you out in some hidden message or identify some a boatload of euphemisms that you will use
of your clandestine contacts. Developing the before the incarceration.
case against your friend and tacking on other The playing field measures 140 x 90mm,
five-to-ten at hard labor is incentive enough for give or take a few mm in either direction. Rules
them to read your postcards with a gimlet eye. of the game are simple: the corresponding team
Thus, the game is set. is always on the offense, the authorities are
The authorities have two great advantages: always on the defense. Within the boundaries of
everything must pass before their eyes, and they the playing field, you are limited only by the
can stop the game at any time simply by revoking extent of your imagination (or the depth of your
the prisoner's correspondence privileges. Their suspicion) and standard postal regulations con-
major disadvantage is that absent some grievous cerning proper placement of address, text and
provocation on the part of the prisoner, they must stamp. Ready? Begin play.

o Mtcro

-CA k P ----- -

Figure 1. 13.1une 1973 postcard.

Rossica Journal Number 122 85
April 1994

Round 1. On 13 June 1913, "Sister Elena" (The orange "X" is what that chemical looks like
(obviously a pseudonym) sends the postcard in after all these years.) Again, nothing. Frustration
fig. 1 to Vladimir Vladimirovich Prussak, a po- builds, so the Deputy Prosecutor puts his
litical prisoner being held at Shpalernaya 25, the handstamp on it (violet oval "Examined by Deputy
St. Petersburg Pre-Trial Confinement Center. Prosecutor"), but the postcard doesn't go imme-
The message is cryptic, to say the least. diately to Prussak; the Deputy writes "SPb
"Prov(incial) Gend(arme) Adm(inistration)" at the
"No. 89, 19 13/VI 13. Dear Lod'ka: We just received top and passes the problem to them, because the
3 letters from you. Indeed, it's true that you have
discovered an acoustic talent, which is not at all bad. Gendarmes are responsible for political prison-
(Name) hasn't written us for some time now, nor have ers. If Prussak eventually received this card, odds
we written her, as we don't know her address. Old are it was stale news by the time it reached his
Vas'ka is alive and well. Now hejust lies around in the cell. (The blue pencil initials are probably those
sun all the time and bakes. I kiss you. Sister Elena." of the Gendarme official who censored it.)

The picture side of the postcard shows the rail- Round 2: "Sister Elena" is back at it again,
road station and sand dunes at Sestroryetsk. with postcard #140 (!) in the correspondence
Over on the other team, reaction is swift and (fig. 2). (Apparently the old "shotgun" approach
certain, for something is rotten about this mes- -fire off enough letters, and something is bound
sage. "Acoustic talent?" Tapping on cell walls to to get through.) Posted on 13 August 1913, it
communicate, perhaps? "(Name's)" location reads:
unk ? P y a r ry w s "Dear Lodya! Letor refused to fly to S.P.b. because
unknown? Probably another revolutionary whose he's behind Brindezhon (Brin de Jean?) by 50 kilo-
dropped out of sight and into a jail cell some- meters, and has no hope of overtaking him. Gilbert is
where, and her comrades can't locate her. And flyingto usfrom Paris. And yesterdaythey pulledone
who's "Old Vas'ka?" Hmmm. Step 1: Remove ofmyteeth.Todaythey'reletting(onewordillegible)
the stamp, looking for a hidden message under- into our rooms. I [can] imagine what will happen to
neath. Drat the luck, nothing there. Okay, Step 2: us. I traveled this Sunday to Peterhofwith Vera, Zoya,
neath. Drat the luck, nothing there. Okay, Step 2:
Muza, and Serge. I didn't write about the walk to
Slop on a reagent in hopes of raising a secret-ink Olgina, because there was nothing interesting. I kiss
message between the lines of the visible text. you. Sister Elena."

._.. MA 1A

.... ........

OFigure 2. 13 August 113 postcard.

86 Rossica Journal Number 1225

April 14ti
86v fG v Rossic Jun Number 122

April 199)4

Yes, another innocent, ordinary letter that For the authorities, this was too much, and off
any sister could have written. And the violet oval come the stamps again. There's no way to tell
"Examined in the Chambers of the St. Petersburg who put the pencilled "8" or the penned "30"
Appelate Court Prosecutor" and blue pencil "For there, so the only other visible signs of attention
the SPb District Court Prosecutor" shows that are the violet oval "Examined in the Chambers of
some underling of the Prosecutor allowed this to the SPb Appellate Court Prosecutor" and the
reach Prussak. Even the stamp was untouched, blue-pencilled "For the SPb District Court Pros-
and no application of reagent was made. The ecutor." What was the "unoriginal" gift? (And
reference to letting (?) into the rooms may have wouldn't it be nice if "V.I." were Vladimir Il'ich
been a cryptic reference to a police search of their Lenin himself?) One could puzzle over these
quarters. messages forever, and nothing would result but
Round 3. No. 162 in the correspondence, speculation. One thing, however, is certain-the
dated 22 August 1913 (fig. 3). The picture is a communications were coded, and Prussak the
scene from the Swiss Alps, home to many Rus- Prisoner was kept well informed of what tran-
sian exiles, including Lenin himself for awhile, spired beyond his cell.
"Dear Lodya! We received 4 letters from you. In all three instances at least two pairs of eyes
Federgans saw Shtrimer and told him that Suk asked went over these cards before they got to Prussak.
[him] to pass on to us that he thanks us very, very Why only one of the three should go to the
much for our gift, [and] that he's very moved by our
attentions. Federgans said that Suk would certainly be Gendarmes and the other two apparently not is
[there] next year, too, because he can't leave there, unknown. Perhaps the reference to Old Vas'ka or
where they love him so. Our gift served (despite its the "acoustic talent" were red flags for the cen-
'unoriginality', as you put it, and its poorness of sors.It does appear that all three cards got through
inscription) V.l.'s intentions very well. Nothing spe- ,r
cial in aviation. Tomorrow we leave for 3 days in
Helsingfors. We have the tickets. I kiss you. Sister 1) There are no annotations like "Keep this with
Elena." his file," or "Archive this."

%P010 15 -Pzyt e4 acv N

.--- ....... ..

Figure 3. 22 August 1913 postcard.

Rossica Journal Number 122 87
April 1994
April 1994

2) There is mention of seven covers from Prussak until now believed that these particular court
getting to Sister Elena, so the correspondence censormarks were rare!): Sister Elena wrote a
was most likely two-way. minimum of 162 postcards, most probably more.
3) Prussak's name is crossed out on all three Prussak wrote a minimum of seven. So it's not
cards, similar to the treatment other covers have inconceivable that there are upwards of 200 cov-
received when a family gives up a correspon- ers running around loose out there from this
dence but doesn't wish to have its name popping correspondence alone, bearing one of the two
up in strange places. There must have been quite censormark types shown in this article. Has any
a few of these, because the cross-out job was other collector heard from "Sister Elena" or V.V.
indifferently done, hiding nothing. Prussak?
Which leads us inexorably to a very sobering
thought (sobering especially for the author, who

Anybody Care to Comment?

by Mel Kessler and Gary Combs


a Mc o--

-- -
[ oii

88 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994


S' r ,

Rossica Journal Numb' r 122 89
ril 1994
<' :

I .-


April 1994

Double Oval Marks

i, m i ,m: ii

0e:, +.: s ,. p ,o st

Ii 1 :.Ko w: 1^i
IoI 7i OC opocC4uren
:Nom et 01Wt
,j ^:1 du destinataire:..
1 Q__:"O 1'_. :o 11 "If U CKON

""Leu destiny ---L (/hio ,--i,. Ip tfa).
I *p !^ ^ r|S?

I -H leu
"- Moc B. | l H bL r,
S ', #----

"Z- -.Pour : les prisonniers.de 'gue
-, '" .' .

SAparte p ale.
''.: '- .. :-* -.. ....
..... .. .............. ..... ,

01 [ ......... x. .

90 Rossica Journal Number 122
:i.' + ":' :.: O r ,,,.,
:++, 'I a G IL ', "'' .,'
90 Rosc oralNme 2
Api 199

In the Back Room Treasurer's Report

We have a limited number of back issues of The following is a breakdown of the society's
the journal for sale, both in English- and Rus- financial status as of 1 March 1994.
sian-language editions. Russian editions avail- Starting Balance 3/1/93 $11,349.78
able are numbers 44-69; English editions avail- Income
able are numbers 69-119. Unfortunately, there Dues 6,788.00
are many holes, and some issues have less than 3 Sales
in stock. Prices listed for back issues are in US Library Subject Index 1,259.00
dollars. Michalove Book 1,055.00
Journals 809.76
Single issue: Prigara 868.54
Bazilevich 374.00
Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00 Reverse Sort 197.00
Ads 1,002.60
Single issues currently available are: Library Income 104.12
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, Misc. 142.10
88-89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-121 Bank Interest 243.30
TOTAL INCOME $12,843.42
Double issue:
Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00 Legal & Professional Fees 557.70
Repairs/Upgrades 1,121.55
Double issues currently available are: Supplies & Postage
46-47, 76-77, 86-87, 94-95, 96-97, 98-99, General (includes mailings 1,757.53
100-101, 102-103, 104-105, 106-107, other than Journal & Bulletin)
108-109, 113-114. Bulletin 472.29
Journal 6,153.38
Back issues may be obtained from: Publication Costs ( all others) 2,407.38
Library 146.35
Gary A. Combs Misc. 120.00
8241 Chalet Court TOTAL EXPENSES $12,736.18
Millersville, MD 21108
USA Balance as of 1 March 1994 $11,793.95

1994 General Budget

Legal & Professional $500.00
Repairs/Upgrades 1,300.00
General 1,700.00
Bulletin 500.00
Journal 6,500.00
Secretary 100.00
Library 500.00
President's Reserve 300.00
Estimated Budget Total $11,400.00

Rossica Journal Number 122 91
April 1994

In the Back Room Treasurer's Report

We have a limited number of back issues of The following is a breakdown of the society's
the journal for sale, both in English- and Rus- financial status as of 1 March 1994.
sian-language editions. Russian editions avail- Starting Balance 3/1/93 $11,349.78
able are numbers 44-69; English editions avail- Income
able are numbers 69-119. Unfortunately, there Dues 6,788.00
are many holes, and some issues have less than 3 Sales
in stock. Prices listed for back issues are in US Library Subject Index 1,259.00
dollars. Michalove Book 1,055.00
Journals 809.76
Single issue: Prigara 868.54
Bazilevich 374.00
Member 7.50 Non-Member 10.00 Reverse Sort 197.00
Ads 1,002.60
Single issues currently available are: Library Income 104.12
44-45, 48, 54-55,58, 62-75, 78-82, 84-85, Misc. 142.10
88-89, 92-93, 110-112, 115-121 Bank Interest 243.30
TOTAL INCOME $12,843.42
Double issue:
Member 15.00 Non-Member 20.00 Legal & Professional Fees 557.70
Repairs/Upgrades 1,121.55
Double issues currently available are: Supplies & Postage
46-47, 76-77, 86-87, 94-95, 96-97, 98-99, General (includes mailings 1,757.53
100-101, 102-103, 104-105, 106-107, other than Journal & Bulletin)
108-109, 113-114. Bulletin 472.29
Journal 6,153.38
Back issues may be obtained from: Publication Costs ( all others) 2,407.38
Library 146.35
Gary A. Combs Misc. 120.00
8241 Chalet Court TOTAL EXPENSES $12,736.18
Millersville, MD 21108
USA Balance as of 1 March 1994 $11,793.95

1994 General Budget

Legal & Professional $500.00
Repairs/Upgrades 1,300.00
General 1,700.00
Bulletin 500.00
Journal 6,500.00
Secretary 100.00
Library 500.00
President's Reserve 300.00
Estimated Budget Total $11,400.00

Rossica Journal Number 122 91
April 1994

Membership Status

We continue to experience a modest rise in the Our membership now stands at 363-11 new
number of membership applications submitted. tentative members since the October journal!
Unfortunately, we also continue to experience a The new applicants are heartily welcomed and, if
number of non-renewals. you happen to live near one, personally welcome
that person to our favorite hobby.
Membership in October 1993 360 Please review the list of names. If for any
Resignations Received: 7 reason you feel that an individual should not be
Albert M. Ash granted full membership, please write the Trea-
Nathan Druet surer with your reasons. If no negative comments
John Grabowski are received on theindividuals listed belowby the
Steven Greenup 31 July 1994, they will be granted full member-
Henry Gutenstein ship status.
Fred Lawrence
C. Stetson Thomas The new applicants are:
Jakob von Uexkull
Lee Williams 1514 Ray Wells
Deceased: 2631 West Colorado Avenue
Rev. Robert E. Williams Colorado Springs CO 80904, USA
1515 Chris Clayton
The following members had not renewed their EIMCO PEC
membership as of the time the journal went to the 669 West 200 South
printer. Actual removal of names from the mem- Salt Lake City UT 84101, USA
bership list does not take place until 1 April. 1516 Albert H. Duncan
Box 669
Rachel Ammann, Robert Bain, Bobby Bishop, Bodega Bay CA 94923, USA
Melvin Budzol, George Burney, Peter Bylen, 1517 Barry Keane
Marvin Entner, Paul Gulak, Roger Henebry, Mar- 13255 Reliance Street
tin Holmsten, Eli Homza, Louis Hornberger, Arletta CA 91331, USA
Peter Krynine, Thomas Lifka, Robert McFarlane, 1518 H. David Cooper
Joseph Morris, Russell Morse, Tris Nerima, 15072 Capetown Ln.
Douglas Penrod, Lawrence Silverman, Gregory Hungtinton Beach CA 92647, USA
Tarala, Dragon Udovicic, Arthur Zabenko 1519 Steve Alushin
13103 Wellford Drive
Changes/corrections to address: Beltsville MD 20705, USA
Many members have changed their addresses 1520 Floyd E. Grisdvold
since April 1993. Please refer to the current 4801 Upper Terrace
membership list included with this journal. Edina MN 55435, USA
1521 Ray Miller
The following numbers have not been accepted 4325 NE 65th Street
as regular members (numbers as listed in journal Seattle WA 98115, USA
#121): 1504, 1506, 1508. 1522 Diana L. Syvertsen
5029 12th NE
Please welcome the new members. Seattle WA 98105, USA

92 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

1523 Kevin John Cabbage Expertization
P.O. Box 68
Alta Loma CA 91701-0068, USA One of the privileges of membership in Ros-
1524 Paul Wilson sica is one free expertization per membership
2502 Coppertree Road year. Policy on these free expertizations is as
Champaign IL 61821, USA follows:

MemberCollecting Interestsnly one expertization per mem-
Member Collecting Interests bership year.
The privilege must be used during the
I continue to receive many letters from mem- membership year. It cannot be accu-
bers and non-members asking if I know anybody mulated. The service was begun in the
who collects such and such or would be inter- 1978 membership year, and prior mem-
ested in purchasing material. I must rely solely on bership in the Society has no bearing.
my memory, which is only as good as what I The item must be submitted on an offi-
know! There have been many occasions where I cial expertization form available from
simply could not answer the question. Gary Combs or Gordon Torrey.
One of the most important parts of our hobby Return postage must be included.
is the sharing of information through network- Only one item per expertization form.
ing. People who are active in the hobby receive
many requests for assistance or simply that great Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this
ego stroker advice, which everybody likes, service should write the Treasurer, Gary Combs,
Our President set a goal for the Society to be or the Chairman of the Expertization Committee,
able to identify by member who collected what so Gordon Torrey, enclosing a legal size (4 1/4 x 9
information could be shared among members. 1/2") SASE for an expertization form. When
Although many members responded to an earlier submitting material for expertization, the owner
questionnaire, the previous Secretary failed to must provide return postage to include insurance
produce the information and has not passed on costs, if desired, for the material. Items will be
the questionnaires. We are again attempting to evaluated by Rossica members specializing in
compile this information and would greatly ap- the various aspects of Russian philately.
preciate your assistance by filling in the new Members with items to expertize
questionnaire included with the journal. should forward the completed form to

Elections Gordon Torrey whose address is listed
Every three years Rossica holds elections to on the officer's page.
determine who will serve the membership in Since we occasionally have to send items to
leadership positions. It is that time again when more than one member for an opinion, please
we must elect the officers who will guide the allow at least six weeks before inquiring about
Society for the next three years. This is very the status of an item submitted. Items are looked
important and each member should take it seri- at on a first come, first serve basis.
ously. Enclosed with the journal is a nomination
form. If you think that someone would make a
good officer, please nominate them for the posi-
tion. If they accept the nomination, their name
will be presented to the membership for voting.
Please see the Constitution for formal proce-
dures. Vote!
Rossica Journal Number 122 93
April 1994

Member-to-Member Adlets Rossica Library Subject Index-Part
One, by David Skipton. Cost $55 postpaid
Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans-
for members only. Sent postpaid surface mail.
actions resulting from member responses to adlets
nor get involved with mediating disputes. Mem-
bers are cautioned to be fair in offering and in Dave has spent over a decade creating one of
responding. Any material considered to be of the finest Russian philatelic libraries in the world.
value by the sender sent through the mails should However, all the knowledge of what is available
be insured or registered for your own protection. has rested solely with Dave until now. Dave, with
The regulations and prices are as follows: the help of J.D. Myke, Scott Allen, and Ged
"* Rossica adlets will have no limit per Seiflow has spent an incredible amount of energy
se, however, members are requested in compiling a partial library index for general
to use good judgment. dissemination.
"* The price will be US $2 for adlets up The Index is approximately 800 pages long
to 25 words, and US 10 cents per and contains 10,600 entries, which are divided
word thereafter. into 92 cross-referenced categories-and it is
"* Each adlet must include the name and only a partial listing. A larger Part One would be
address of the member placing the ad. too bulky and extremely demanding on the repro-
"* No general buy or sell ads will be ac- duction process. Part Two should be completed
cepted as adlets. The journal makes by late 1994.
other provisions for strictly commer- The Index is mostly arranged first by subject,
cial advertisements. then by period of Russian history, and in some
"* Adlet service is available to Rossica cases further by type. Each category is presented
members only. by title, author, journal, volume, date, page
"* All adlets must be accompanied by a numberss, publisher, translator, and abstract.
check for the correct amount made A transliteration guide and a comprehensive
out to the Rossica Society. philatelic or communications journal abbrevia-
"* Mail all adlets and checks to: tion list also is provided.
If you are serious about using your library for
Gary A. Combs philatelic research, but do not know what if
8241 Chalet Court anything is available, then this Index is a must for
Millersville, MD 21108 your bookshelf. However, be sure that the shelf is
USA sturdy since the Index weighs in at approxi-
mately four pounds!
The Index can be shipped using a faster class
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to of mail if you wish. The actual costs for shipping
1918 for research article. On cover, loose stamps would be determined when the item is mailed-
orCSQ. Send xerox or photo. Gary Combs,8241 rates vary by type of postal service and loca-
Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108, USA. tion- and you would be notified of the addi-
tional charges.
For Sale: YAMShChIK (Canadian Soci- Orders may be sent to our Librarian, Dave
ety of Russian Philately Journals) Nos. 5, 7, 8, Skipton, or the Treasurer, Gary Combs. Please
9. For sale as one lot, USD $16, postpaid. Excel- make checks payable to "The Rossica Society"
lent Condition. Jim Goodwin, 734 Brentwood and NOT to Dave or Gary.
Ct., Los Altos CA 94024, USA.

94 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

Member-to-Member Adlets Rossica Library Subject Index-Part
One, by David Skipton. Cost $55 postpaid
Rossica cannot assume any liability for trans-
for members only. Sent postpaid surface mail.
actions resulting from member responses to adlets
nor get involved with mediating disputes. Mem-
bers are cautioned to be fair in offering and in Dave has spent over a decade creating one of
responding. Any material considered to be of the finest Russian philatelic libraries in the world.
value by the sender sent through the mails should However, all the knowledge of what is available
be insured or registered for your own protection. has rested solely with Dave until now. Dave, with
The regulations and prices are as follows: the help of J.D. Myke, Scott Allen, and Ged
"* Rossica adlets will have no limit per Seiflow has spent an incredible amount of energy
se, however, members are requested in compiling a partial library index for general
to use good judgment. dissemination.
"* The price will be US $2 for adlets up The Index is approximately 800 pages long
to 25 words, and US 10 cents per and contains 10,600 entries, which are divided
word thereafter. into 92 cross-referenced categories-and it is
"* Each adlet must include the name and only a partial listing. A larger Part One would be
address of the member placing the ad. too bulky and extremely demanding on the repro-
"* No general buy or sell ads will be ac- duction process. Part Two should be completed
cepted as adlets. The journal makes by late 1994.
other provisions for strictly commer- The Index is mostly arranged first by subject,
cial advertisements. then by period of Russian history, and in some
"* Adlet service is available to Rossica cases further by type. Each category is presented
members only. by title, author, journal, volume, date, page
"* All adlets must be accompanied by a numberss, publisher, translator, and abstract.
check for the correct amount made A transliteration guide and a comprehensive
out to the Rossica Society. philatelic or communications journal abbrevia-
"* Mail all adlets and checks to: tion list also is provided.
If you are serious about using your library for
Gary A. Combs philatelic research, but do not know what if
8241 Chalet Court anything is available, then this Index is a must for
Millersville, MD 21108 your bookshelf. However, be sure that the shelf is
USA sturdy since the Index weighs in at approxi-
mately four pounds!
The Index can be shipped using a faster class
Wanted: MOSCOW cancellations prior to of mail if you wish. The actual costs for shipping
1918 for research article. On cover, loose stamps would be determined when the item is mailed-
orCSQ. Send xerox or photo. Gary Combs,8241 rates vary by type of postal service and loca-
Chalet Ct., Millersville, MD 21108, USA. tion- and you would be notified of the addi-
tional charges.
For Sale: YAMShChIK (Canadian Soci- Orders may be sent to our Librarian, Dave
ety of Russian Philately Journals) Nos. 5, 7, 8, Skipton, or the Treasurer, Gary Combs. Please
9. For sale as one lot, USD $16, postpaid. Excel- make checks payable to "The Rossica Society"
lent Condition. Jim Goodwin, 734 Brentwood and NOT to Dave or Gary.
Ct., Los Altos CA 94024, USA.

94 Rossica Journal Number 122
April 1994

The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China The Russian Posts in the XIX Century
and the Post in The Kingdom of Poland by by K.V. Bazilevich, trans. by Dave Skipton
S.V. Prigara. trans. by Dave Skipton

r If ft N rhA & by K.V azilllch
IIwPsut CJmKm

The original work, published in 1927 in Mos-
This is the standard upon which many studies cow, is today almost impossible to find. It is one
and conclusions have been established. Written of the most detailed overviews of the imperial
in 1941, the book is considered by many to be the Russian postal system to be found under one
authoritative guide for Russian postal history, cover, and contains a wealth of information and
Any serious collector of Russian postal history illustrations. Dave has provided many illustra-
must have this book on his shelf. The translation tions not in the original. If you want to learn
can be purchased from the Treasurer or Librarian about the whys and wherefores of old Russia's
at the following rates sent surface mail: communications system, this book will oblige.
Non-Rossica member $40 postpaid Intended as a companion to the Prigara transla-
Rossica members $35 postpaid tion, the Bazilevich book will be a handsome
Dealer rate $24 per copy for single orders of addition to your shelf: 165 pages on semi-gloss
5 or more-NOT cumulative, paper, casebound, with a purple-and-white dust
jacket. Members may order directly from the
Compendium of the Table of Contents for Treasurer or Librarian. Prices are as follows sent
issues 44 through 121 surface mail:
A list of all articles that have appeared in the
Rossica Journal since the 1950s. All proceeds Non-Rossica member $50 postpaid
beyond the cost of reproduction and postage go to Rossica members $45 postpaid
the society. This listing contains approximately Dealer rate $30 per copy for single orders of
65 pages and covers all articles that have ap- 5 or more-NOT cumulative.
peared in the journal. An excellent index to your
library. The cost is US $5, which is very reason-
able. This list will enable you to decide what
back issues to purchase, if your set is not com-
plete. (Many of the issues can be ordered from the
Editor.) Send check or money order to:
Gary A. Combs
8241 Chalet Ct.
Millersville, MD 21108 USA

Rossica Journal Number 122 95
April 1994